Science.gov

Sample records for genome science ethics

  1. Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Mary Ann G.; Drexler, Edward; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Rossiter, Belinda; Zola, John

    The human genome project started in 1989 with the collaboration of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document aims to develop an understanding among students of the human genome project and relevant issues. Topics include the science and technology of the human genome project, and the ethical and…

  2. Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, J.D.

    1993-03-31

    Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

  3. Assessing Ethics in Secondary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of science courses now include consideration of the ethical implications of science. However, there is little agreement about how ethical reasoning in science should be assessed. This article highlights the conclusions of a seminar on the assessment of ethics in science that was organized by the Nuffield Foundation Curriculum…

  4. Ethics in Science.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om P

    2015-09-01

    Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics

  5. Genomics and equal opportunity ethics.

    PubMed

    Cappelen, A W; Norheim, O F; Tungodden, B

    2008-05-01

    Genomics provides information on genetic susceptibility to diseases and new possibilities for interventions which can fundamentally alter the design of fair health policies. The aim of this paper is to explore implications of genomics from the perspective of equal opportunity ethics. The ideal of equal opportunity requires that individuals are held responsible for some, but not all, factors that affect their health. Informational problems, however, often make it difficult to implement the ideal of equal opportunity in the context of healthcare. In this paper, examples are considered of how new genetic information may affect the way individual responsibility for choice is assigned. It is also argued that genomics may result in relocation of the responsibility cut by providing both new information and new technology. Finally, how genomics may affect healthcare policies and the market for health insurance is discussed. PMID:18448717

  6. Teaching Ethical Issues in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    This paper presents a study that investigates the teaching and learning aspects of controversial issues in science education. Teaching ethical issues is mandatory for science teachers in England; however, teachers may experience difficulties in exploring contemporary issues in science due to rapid and unpredictable changes. The study carries an…

  7. (The Ethics of) Teaching Science and Ethics: A Collaborative Proposal.

    PubMed

    Kabasenche, William P

    2014-12-01

    I offer a normative argument for a collaborative approach to teaching ethical issues in the sciences. Teaching science ethics requires expertise in at least two knowledge domains-the relevant science(s) and philosophical ethics. Accomplishing the aims of ethics education, while ensuring that science ethics discussions remain grounded in the best empirical science, can generally best be done through collaboration between a scientist and an ethicist. Ethics as a discipline is in danger of being misrepresented or distorted if presented by someone who lacks appropriate disciplinary training and experience. While there are exceptions, I take philosophy to be the most appropriate disciplinary domain in which to gain training in ethics teaching. Science students, who must be prepared to engage with many science ethics issues, are poorly served if their education includes a misrepresentation of ethics or specific issues. Students are less well prepared to engage specific issues in science ethics if they lack an appreciation of the resources the discipline of ethics provides. My collaborative proposal looks at a variety of ways scientists and ethicists might collaborate in the classroom to foster good science ethics education. PMID:25574263

  8. Levinas and an Ethics for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite claims that STS(E) science education promotes ethical responsibility, this approach is not supported by a clear philosophy of ethics. This paper argues that the work of Emmanuel Levinas provides an ethics suitable for an STS(E) science education. His concept of the face of the Other redefines education as learning from the other, rather…

  9. Evolving Approaches to the Ethical Management of Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Joy T.; Sun, Kathie Y.

    2013-01-01

    The ethical landscape in the field of genomics is rapidly shifting. Plummeting sequencing costs, along with ongoing advances in bioinformatics, now make it possible to generate an enormous volume of genomic data about vast numbers of people. The informational richness, complexity, and frequently uncertain meaning of these data, coupled with evolving norms surrounding the sharing of data and samples and persistent privacy concerns, have generated a range of approaches to the ethical management of genomic information. As calls increase for the expanded use of broad or even open consent, and as controversy grows about how best to handle incidental genomic findings, these approaches, informed by normative analysis and empirical data, will continue to evolve alongside the science. PMID:23453621

  10. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  11. Reverence and ethics in science.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Codes of ethics abound in science, but the question of why such codes should be obeyed is rarely asked. Various reasons for obeying a professional code have been proposed, but all are unsatisfactory in that they do not really motivate behavior. This article suggests that the long forgotten virtue of reverence provides both a reason to obey a professional code and motivation to do so. In addition, it discusses the importance of reverence as a cardinal virtue for scientists drawing on the ideas of Paul Woodruff on the role of virtue in community. PMID:23065537

  12. Ethics in exercise science research.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2002-01-01

    Ethical evaluation is a vital but sometimes neglected component of research policy in the exercise sciences. This article reviews some issues in human research, with particular reference to studies undertaken by the exercise scientist. The typical composition and functions of the research review committee are examined in the context of individual and institutional ethical norms. In multicentre trials, there are often problems in coordinating ethical approval between institutions. On-going monitoring of research may have value in the detection of fraud. A reduction in the secrecy of committee proceedings would allow a closer auditing of the research review process. Authors need to give more thought to developing appropriate research questions. Scarce resources may be wasted because of inappropriate study design or an inadequate statistical analysis of the results. The costs of any proposed investigation must be weighed carefully against possible benefits. Confidentiality is particularly important when collecting data at the worksite or over the internet. Informed consent should be based on a full disclosure of risks; the participant should be competent to understand the nature and magnitude of these risks, and undue pressure to participate in an experiment must be avoided. The opposition to placebo trials expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki requires careful consideration of the use of control groups, since regular exercise is known to benefit health. If research is conducted in under-developed societies, the standards of treatment of the participants should match those expected in developed societies. The publication of findings must be fair and well balanced; examples of fraud and misconduct continue to be reported. Some journals apparently still publish papers, even if they have not received an initial institutional review. Editors should restore meaning to the word 'author', avoid the bias to a publication of 'positive' results, limit the impact of

  13. An Ethically Ambitious Higher Education Data Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    The new data sciences of education bring substantial legal, political, and ethical questions about the management of information about learners. This piece provides a synoptic view of recent scholarly discussion in this domain and calls for a proactive approach to the ethics of learning research.

  14. Ethical Considerations Regarding Classroom Use of Personal Genomic Information

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lisa S.; Grubs, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly decreasing costs of genetic technologies—especially next-generation sequencing—and intensifying need for a clinical workforce trained in genomic medicine have increased interest in having students use personal genomic information to motivate and enhance genomics education. Numerous ethical issues attend classroom/pedagogical use of students’ personal genomic information, including their informed decision to participate, pressures to participate, privacy concerns, and psychosocial sequelae of learning genomic information. This paper addresses these issues, advocates explicit discussion of these issues to cultivate students’ ethical reasoning skills, suggests ways to mitigate potential harms, and recommends collection of ethically relevant data regarding pedagogical use of personal genomic information. PMID:25574277

  15. Ethical and regulatory aspects of genome editing.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Donald B; Porteus, Matthew H; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2016-05-26

    Gene editing is a rapidly developing area of biotechnology in which the nucleotide sequence of the genome of living cells is precisely changed. The use of genome-editing technologies to modify various types of blood cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, has emerged as an important field of therapeutic development for hematopoietic disease. Although these technologies offer the potential for generation of transformative therapies for patients suffering from myriad disorders of hematopoiesis, their application for therapeutic modification of primary human cells is still in its infancy. Consequently, development of ethical and regulatory frameworks that ensure their safe and effective use is an increasingly important consideration. Here, we review a number of issues that have the potential to impact the clinical implementation of genome-editing technologies, and suggest paths forward for resolving them such that new therapies can be safely and rapidly translated to the clinic. PMID:27053531

  16. Beyond the genome: The ethics of DNA testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fackelmann, K.A.

    1994-11-05

    This article looks at the implications of identification of specific genes in the human genome. Ethical questions concerning inherited conditions include privacy, paternity, judgement, society versus individual.

  17. Science and ethics: Some issues for education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-11-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

  18. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  19. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliott, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one’s social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  20. Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S; Joly, Yann; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Burton, Paul; Chisholm, Rex; Fortier, Isabel; Goodwin, Pat; Harris, Jennifer; Hveem, Kristian; Kaye, Jane; Kent, Alistair; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Lindpaintner, Klaus; Little, Julian; Riegman, Peter; Ripatti, Samuli; Stolk, Ronald; Bobrow, Martin; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dressler, Lynn; Joly, Yann; Kato, Kazuto; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; McPherson, Treasa; Nicolás, Pilar; Ouellette, Francis; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos; Sarin, Rajiv; Wallace, Susan; Wiesner, Georgia; Wilson, Julia; Zeps, Nikolajs; Simkevitz, Howard; De Rienzo, Assunta; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-01-01

    The biggest challenge in twenty-first century data-intensive genomic science, is developing vast computer infrastructure and advanced software tools to perform comprehensive analyses of genomic data sets for biomedical research and clinical practice. Researchers are increasingly turning to cloud computing both as a solution to integrate data from genomics, systems biology and biomedical data mining and as an approach to analyze data to solve biomedical problems. Although cloud computing provides several benefits such as lower costs and greater efficiency, it also raises legal and ethical issues. In this article, we discuss three key ‘points to consider' (data control; data security, confidentiality and transfer; and accountability) based on a preliminary review of several publicly available cloud service providers' Terms of Service. These ‘points to consider' should be borne in mind by genomic research organizations when negotiating legal arrangements to store genomic data on a large commercial cloud service provider's servers. Diligent genomic cloud computing means leveraging security standards and evaluation processes as a means to protect data and entails many of the same good practices that researchers should always consider in securing their local infrastructure. PMID:25248396

  1. Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider.

    PubMed

    Dove, Edward S; Joly, Yann; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-10-01

    The biggest challenge in twenty-first century data-intensive genomic science, is developing vast computer infrastructure and advanced software tools to perform comprehensive analyses of genomic data sets for biomedical research and clinical practice. Researchers are increasingly turning to cloud computing both as a solution to integrate data from genomics, systems biology and biomedical data mining and as an approach to analyze data to solve biomedical problems. Although cloud computing provides several benefits such as lower costs and greater efficiency, it also raises legal and ethical issues. In this article, we discuss three key 'points to consider' (data control; data security, confidentiality and transfer; and accountability) based on a preliminary review of several publicly available cloud service providers' Terms of Service. These 'points to consider' should be borne in mind by genomic research organizations when negotiating legal arrangements to store genomic data on a large commercial cloud service provider's servers. Diligent genomic cloud computing means leveraging security standards and evaluation processes as a means to protect data and entails many of the same good practices that researchers should always consider in securing their local infrastructure. PMID:25248396

  2. Genomic futures of prenatal screening: ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, W J; Page-Christiaens, G C M L; de Wert, G M W R

    2016-05-01

    The practice of prenatal screening is undergoing important changes as a result of the introduction of genomic testing technologies at different stages of the screening trajectory. It is expected that eventually it will become possible to routinely obtain a comprehensive 'genome scan' of all fetuses. Although this will still take several years, there are clear continuities between present developments and this future scenario. As this review shows, behind the still limited scope of screening for common aneuploidies, a rapid widening of the range of conditions tested for is already taking shape at the invasive testing stage. But the continuities are not just technical; they are also ethical. If screening for Down's syndrome is a matter of providing autonomous reproductive choice, then why would providing the choice to have a full fetal genome scan be something entirely different? There is a clear need for a sustainable normative framework that will have to answer three challenges: the indeterminateness of the autonomy paradigm, the need to acknowledge the future child as an interested stakeholder, and the prospect of broad-scope genomic prenatal screening with a double purpose: autonomy and prevention. PMID:26178686

  3. The Study of Ethics in the Applied Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Dian A.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of ethical scenarios in a college-level nutrition course and other science courses. Defines how to choose ethical scenarios. Integrates a writing assignment into the course according to the Manoa Writing Program. Makes suggestions for the integration of ethics into the science curriculum. (Contains 32 references.) (YDS)

  4. Ethical, legal, social, and policy issues in the use of genomic technology by the U.S. Military

    PubMed Central

    Mehlman, Maxwell J.; Li, Tracy Yeheng

    2014-01-01

    Advances in genomic science are attracting the interest of the U.S. military for their potential to improve medical care for members of the military and to aid in military recruitment, training, specialization, and mission accomplishment. While researchers have explored the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the use of genomic science in a wide variety of contexts, there has been virtually no examination of these issues in connection with the use of genomics by the military. This article identifies potential uses of genomic science by the military, proposes an applicable ethical and legal framework, and applies the framework to provide ethical and legal guidance for military decision-makers. PMID:25937933

  5. Ethical Issues of Scientific Inquiry in Health Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This monograph contains 13 papers on the ethics of planning, conducting, and reporting research in health sciences education. It includes four background papers and nine perspective papers. The titles are: (1) "The Imperative for Ethical Conduct in Scientific Inquiry" (Steve M. Dorman); (2) "Fundamental Principles of Ethical Research in Health…

  6. Ethics and science: educating the public.

    PubMed

    Brownhill, R; Merricks, L

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at the public debate which took place in the first half of the twentieth century and has repercussions to the present day. It was about the ethical stance of scientists, and how science should be organized. In particular, it examines the positions taken by Professor F. Soddy, F.R.S. and Nobel Laureate, who stressed the responsibility of scientists for the uses made of their research, Professor Michael Polanyi, F.R.S., who emphasised the obligation of scientists to the truth and the essential role of morality in the organization of science, and Professor J.D. Bernal, F.R.S., who insisted that science was practiced for utilitarian reasons and should be consciously developed for the good of society. PMID:11840956

  7. Socioscience and ethics in science classrooms: Teacher perspectives and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa; Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    2006-04-01

    This study explored teacher perspectives on the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) and on dealing with ethics in the context of science instruction. Twenty-two middle and high school science teachers from three US states participated in semi-structured interviews, and researchers employed inductive analyses to explore emergent patterns relative to the following two questions. (1) How do science teachers conceptualize the place of ethics in science and science education? (2) How do science teachers handle topics with ethical implications and expression of their own values in their classrooms? Profiles were developed to capture the views and reported practices, relative to the place of ethics in science and science classrooms, of participants. Profile A comprising teachers who embraced the notion of infusing science curricula with SSI and cited examples of using controversial topics in their classes. Profile B participants supported SSI curricula in theory but reported significant constraints which prohibited them from actualizing these goals. Profile C described teachers who were non-committal with respect to focusing instruction on SSI and ethics. Profile D was based on the position that science and science education should be value-free. Profile E transcended the question of ethics in science education; these teachers felt very strongly that all education should contribute to their students' ethical development. Participants also expressed a wide range of perspectives regarding the expression of their own values in the classroom. Implications of this research for science education are discussed.

  8. Genomics for Weed Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous genomic-based studies have provided insight to the physiological and evolutionary processes involved in developmental and environmental processes of model plants such as arabidopsis and rice. However, far fewer efforts have been attempted to use genomic resources to study physiological and ...

  9. Cautionary tales: ethics and case studies in science.

    PubMed

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2014-12-01

    Ethical concerns are normally avoided in science classrooms in spite of the fact that many of our discoveries impinge directly on personal and societal values. We should not leave the ethical problems for another day, but deal with them using realistic case studies that challenge students at their ethical core. In this article we illustrate how case studies can be used to teach STEM students principles of ethics. PMID:25574280

  10. Cautionary Tales: Ethics and Case Studies in Science

    PubMed Central

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2014-01-01

    Ethical concerns are normally avoided in science classrooms in spite of the fact that many of our discoveries impinge directly on personal and societal values. We should not leave the ethical problems for another day, but deal with them using realistic case studies that challenge students at their ethical core. In this article we illustrate how case studies can be used to teach STEM students principles of ethics. PMID:25574280

  11. Genomic research in Zambia: confronting the ethics, policy and regulatory frontiers in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Moraes, Albertina Ngomah; Chongwe, Gershom; Munthali, James

    2015-01-01

    Genomic research has the potential to increase knowledge in health sciences, but the process has to ensure the safety, integrity and well-being of research participants. A legal framework for the conduct of health research in Zambia is available. However, the ethical, policy and regulatory framework to operationalise genomic research requires a paradigm shift. This paper outlines the current legal and policy framework as well as the ethics environment, and suggests recommendations for Zambia to fully benefit from the opportunity that genomic research presents. This will entail creating national research interest, improving knowledge levels, and building community trust among researchers, policymakers, donors, regulators and, most importantly, patients and research participants. A real balancing act of the risk and benefits will need to be objectively undertaken. PMID:26510898

  12. Genomics for Weed Science

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, David

    2010-01-01

    Numerous genomic-based studies have provided insight to the physiological and evolutionary processes involved in developmental and environmental processes of model plants such as arabidopsis and rice. However, far fewer efforts have been attempted to use genomic resources to study physiological and evolutionary processes of weedy plants. Genomics-based tools such as extensive EST databases and microarrays have been developed for a limited number of weedy species, although application of information and resources developed for model plants and crops are possible and have been exploited. These tools have just begun to provide insights into the response of these weeds to herbivore and pathogen attack, survival of extreme environmental conditions, and interaction with crops. The potential of these tools to illuminate mechanisms controlling the traits that allow weeds to invade novel habitats, survive extreme environments, and that make weeds difficult to eradicate have potential for both improving crops and developing novel methods to control weeds. PMID:20808523

  13. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve

    2003-11-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  14. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2003-01-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  15. Ethical issues in genomic research on the African continent: experiences and challenges to ethics review committees

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This is a report on a workshop titled ‘Ethics for genomic research across five African countries: Guidelines, experiences and challenges’, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 10 and 11 December 2012. The workshop was hosted by the Wits-INDEPTH partnership, AWI-Gen, as part of the H3Africa Consortium. PMID:25145346

  16. Downsizing genomic medicine: approaching the ethical complexity of whole-genome sequencing by starting small.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R

    2011-03-01

    As we look to a time when whole-genome sequencing is integrated into patient care, it is possible to anticipate a number of ethical challenges that will need to be addressed. The most intractable of these concern informed consent and the responsible management of very large amounts of genetic information. Given the range of possible findings, it remains unclear to what extent it will be possible to obtain meaningful patient consent to genomic testing. Equally unclear is how clinicians will disseminate the enormous volume of genetic information produced by whole-genome sequencing. Toward developing practical strategies for managing these ethical challenges, we propose a research agenda that approaches multiplexed forms of clinical genetic testing as natural laboratories in which to develop best practices for managing the ethical complexities of genomic medicine. PMID:21311340

  17. The ‘thousand-dollar genome': an ethical exploration

    PubMed Central

    Dondorp, Wybo J; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing an individual's complete genome is expected to be possible for a relatively low sum ‘one thousand dollars' within a few years. Sequencing refers to determining the order of base pairs that make up the genome. The result is a library of three billion letter combinations. Cheap whole-genome sequencing is of greatest importance to medical scientific research. Comparing individual complete genomes will lead to a better understanding of the contribution genetic variation makes to health and disease. As knowledge increases, the ‘thousand-dollar genome' will also become increasingly important to healthcare. The applications that come within reach raise a number of ethical questions. This monitoring report addresses the issue. PMID:23677179

  18. The 'thousand-dollar genome': an ethical exploration.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo J; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2013-06-01

    Sequencing an individual's complete genome is expected to be possible for a relatively low sum 'one thousand dollars' within a few years. Sequencing refers to determining the order of base pairs that make up the genome. The result is a library of three billion letter combinations. Cheap whole-genome sequencing is of greatest importance to medical scientific research. Comparing individual complete genomes will lead to a better understanding of the contribution genetic variation makes to health and disease. As knowledge increases, the 'thousand-dollar genome' will also become increasingly important to healthcare. The applications that come within reach raise a number of ethical questions. This monitoring report addresses the issue. PMID:23677179

  19. Research Ethics in the Era of Personalized Medicine: Updating Science's Contract with Society

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Eric M.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2010-01-01

    With the completed sequence of the human genome has come the prospect of substantially improving the quality of life for millions through personalized medicine approaches. Still, any advances in this direction require research involving human subjects. For decades science and ethics have enjoyed an allegiance reflected in a common set of ethical principles and procedures guiding the conduct of research with human subjects. Some of these principles emphasize avoiding harm over maximizing benefit. In this paper we revisit the priority given to these ethical principles – particularly the principles that support a cautious approach to science – and propose a reframing of the ‘social contract’ between science and society that emphasizes reciprocity and meeting public needs. PMID:20805701

  20. Science and Ethics: Some Issues for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration in killing pest or feral species in Australia, but ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration and appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. Suggests that a greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics may…

  1. Ethics Instruction in Library and Information Science: The Role of "Ethics across the Curriculum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bernie Todd

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is an important element of most graduate professional training programs. In the field of Library and Information Science (LIS) the inclusion of ethics in the curriculum is supported by a position paper by library educators and is monitored in the accreditation of graduate programs. Despite the many LIS programs which claim to integrate…

  2. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics. PMID:22711449

  3. Teaching the Ethical Aspects of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental and societal issues are often inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine environments, and science and social values must often be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. A new seminar course has been developed for the Marine Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) graduate program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland, to examine these issues. This 1-credit course, offered for the first time in Spring 2015, takes a complex systems perspective on major environmental and societal challenges to examine these linked issues in a variety of contexts. After a brief introduction to the emerging field of "geoethics," students develop a list of issues to examine throughout the seminar. Example topics could include fracking, offshore wind technology, dam removal, and iron fertilization, among others. A case-study approach is taken, with each class meeting focusing on one issue. For each case study, students are asked to 1) identify relevant scientific principles and major knowledge gaps, 2) predict potential outcomes, 3) identify stakeholders and likely viewpoints, and 4) construct communication plans to disseminate findings to these stakeholders. At the end of the semester, students give a brief presentation of the ethical aspects of their own research topics.

  4. Ecotoxicity testing: science, politics and ethics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Colin H

    2008-02-01

    Animal welfare organisations have long been concerned about the use of animals for ecotoxicity testing. Ecotoxicity testing is a necessary part of the statutory risk assessment of chemicals that may be released into the environment. It is sometimes also carried out during the development of new chemicals and in the investigation of pollution in the field. This review considers the existing requirements for ecotoxicity testing, with particular reference to practices in the European Union, including the recent REACH system proposals, before discussing criticisms that have been made of existing practices for environmental risk assessment. These criticisms have been made on scientific and ethical grounds, as well as on questions of cost. A case is made for greater investment in the development of alternative testing methods, which could improve the science, as well as serving the cause of animal welfare. It has frequently been suggested that the statutory requirements for environmental risk assessment are too rigid and bureaucratic. A case is made for flexibility and the greater involvement of scientists in the risk assessment procedure, in the interests of both improved science and improved animal welfare. PMID:18333718

  5. How to Have a Successful Science and Ethics Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting

    2005-01-01

    Some teachers are uncomfortable with teaching ethics, a subject that science teachers often have very little experience with. Ethics as a discipline is full of unfamiliar terms and its own jargon. Other teachers fear classroom discussions getting out of control, degenerating into a battle of opinions, or having parents and administrators confuse…

  6. Brain Science of Ethics: Present Status and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Ryuta; Funane, Tsukasa; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in technologies for neuroscientific research enable us to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the human ethical sense. This article introduces several findings in "the brain science of ethics" obtained through "brain-observation" and "brain-manipulation" approaches. Studies over the past decade have revealed that several…

  7. Impact of an Ethics Programme in a Life Sciences Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkeburn, Henriikka; Downie, J. Roger; Matthew, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Choices in science--allocation of research funds, selection of research topics, interaction with research subjects (animals, environment, other humans), etc.--often, if not always, include some ethical considerations. Future scientists need skills to deal with and discuss ethical problems, and for that reason we have developed and evaluated one…

  8. The ethics of functional genomics: same, same, but different?

    PubMed

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Koch, Lene

    2006-09-01

    Respect for human life--a notion of worth uniting all members of the human race--constitutes a sense of anthropocentrism that has long been the justification for the enrollment of animals in experimentation executed to develop therapies to alleviate human suffering. Currently, however, advances in functional genomics are causing a qualitative transformation of the rationale for medical research performed on animals. The notion of human distinctness is being fundamentally challenged when gene sequences similar to those found in humans are identified in different species. In this Opinion article, we would like to highlight an inherent tension brought about by the current developments in functional genomics: a tension between the scientific and the ethical status of gene sequences. Is it reasonable to argue that they are the same for all practical purposes but different in ethical status? PMID:16843557

  9. Development and Implementation of Science and Technology Ethics Education Program for Prospective Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Hyang-yon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2014-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a science and technology (ST) ethics education program for prospective science teachers, (2) to examine the effect of the program on the perceptions of the participants, in terms of their ethics and education concerns, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the program design. The program utilized problem-based learning (PBL) which was performed as an iterative process during two cycles. A total of 23 and 29 prospective teachers in each cycle performed team activities. A PBL-based ST ethics education program for the science classroom setting was effective in enhancing participants' perceptions of ethics and education in ST. These perceptions motivated prospective science teachers to develop and implement ST ethics education in their future classrooms. The change in the prospective teachers' perceptions of ethical issues and the need for ethics education was greater when the topic was controversial.

  10. Human genome and open source: balancing ethics and business.

    PubMed

    Marturano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has been completed thanks to a massive use of computer techniques, as well as the adoption of the open-source business and research model by the scientists involved. This model won over the proprietary model and allowed a quick propagation and feedback of research results among peers. In this paper, the author will analyse some ethical and legal issues emerging by the use of such computer model in the Human Genome property rights. The author will argue that the Open Source is the best business model, as it is able to balance business and human rights perspectives. PMID:22984755

  11. ETHICS AND JUSTICE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Science and engineering are built on trust. C.P. Snow's famous quote, "the only ethical principle which has made science possible is that the truth shall be told all the time" underscores the importance of honesty in science. Environmental scientists must do work that is useful...

  12. What research ethics should learn from genomics and society research: lessons from the ELSI Congress of 2011.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Gail E; Juengst, Eric T; King, Nancy M P; Kuczynski, Kristine; Michie, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    Research on the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of human genomics has devoted significant attention to the research ethics issues that arise from genomic science as it moves through the translational process. Given the prominence of these issues in today's debates over the state of research ethics overall, these studies are well positioned to contribute important data, contextual considerations, and policy arguments to the wider research ethics community's deliberations, and ultimately to develop a research ethics that can help guide biomedicine's future. In this essay, we illustrate this thesis through an analytic summary of the research presented at the 2011 ELSI Congress, an international meeting of genomics and society researchers. We identify three pivotal factors currently shaping genomic research, its clinical translation, and its societal implications: (1) the increasingly blurred boundary between research and treatment; (2) uncertainty--that is, the indefinite, indeterminate, and incomplete nature of much genomic information and the challenges that arise from making meaning and use of it; and (3) the role of negotiations between multiple scientific and non-scientific stakeholders in setting the priorities for and direction of biomedical research, as it is increasingly conducted "in the public square." PMID:23289702

  13. Can ethics survive the onslaught of science?

    PubMed

    Lupton, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The issue on which I will attempt to cast some light is certainly not novel. It has been ongoing for many years but the pace of scientific progress is gathering and the retreat of ethical barriers is relentless. I will illustrate my thesis by using examples of legal decisions from the realm of assisted human procreation and the posthumous conception of children from the sperm of deceased fathers e.g., the cases of Diane Blood, Parpalaix and Nikolas Coltan Evans. I will also highlight the recent case of Ashley X, a nine year old girl whose parents authorised radical medical treatment to arrest her development. I will argue that the law is being driven to roll back the ethical standards derived from our legacy of Natural Law by the imperatives of human rights e.g., the right to found a family, and the quest for patient autonomy. These are both admirable goals but fulfilling these goals comes at a cost to cherished ethical values e.g., that children are conceived by living fathers and that indulging the personal desires of every individual cannot forever be encompassed. As our legislators and courts chip away at our core network of ethical values, are they replacing them with equivalent values or do their decisions amount to a hollowing out of the core ethical values e.g., Thou shalt not kill and that human life is sacrosanct? Yet abortion is legal in many countries as is euthanasia. Paradoxically there is legislative protection for embryos by limiting experimentation on these clusters of cells. How do you construct a rational ethical framework with such blatant legal inconsistencies in the protection of human life? The sanctity of human life constitutes one of the fundamental pillars of ethical values which, in turn, support much more of the structure of ethics. Is a society that permits freezing the development of a nine year old child not a society whose ethics are so compromised that it is doomed to defend an ever diminishing mass of ethical values? Is there a

  14. [Ethical issues of personal genome: a legal perspective--ethical and legal ramifications of personal genome research].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Eiji

    2009-06-01

    Whole-genome research projects, especially those involving whole-genome sequencing, tend to raise intractable ethical and legal challenges. In this kind of research, genetic and genomic data obtained by typing or sequencing are usually put in open or limited access scientific databases on the Internet to promote studies by many researchers. Once data become available on the Internet, it will be virtually meaningless to withdraw the information, effectively nullifying participants' right to revoke consent. Although the author favors the governance system that will assure research subjects of the right to withdraw their participation, considering these characteristics of whole-genome research, he finds those recommendations offered in Caulfield T, et al: Research ethics recommendations for whole-genome research: Consensus statement. PLoS Biol 6(3): e73(2008), especially to the effect that the consent process should include information about data security and the governance structure and, in particular, the mechanism for considering future research protocols, well reasoned and acceptable. PMID:19507516

  15. SciEthics Interactive: Science and Ethics Learning in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…

  16. Professional Ethics in the College and University Science Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    Scientific ethics is a subset of professional ethics, the special rules of conduct adopted by those engaged in one of the pursuits regarded as professions, such as law, medicine, engineering and science. Professional ethics derive from a moral ideal based on service. This ideal leads to a pair of bargains: an internal bargain that defines the internal code of practice within the profession, and an external bargain that defines the relationship between the profession and society. This article develops the internal and external bargains that are the basis of scientific ethics from both an historical and a philosophical perspective and makes suggestions as to how the teaching of scientific ethics can be integrated into the undergraduate curriculum.

  17. Development and Implementation of Science and Technology Ethics Education Program for Prospective Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Hyang-yon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a science and technology (ST) ethics education program for prospective science teachers, (2) to examine the effect of the program on the perceptions of the participants, in terms of their ethics and education concerns, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the program design. The program utilized…

  18. How a Deweyan science education further enables ethics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Scott

    2008-09-01

    This paper questions the perceived divide between ‘science’ subject matter and ‘moral’ or ‘ethical’ subject matter. A difficulty that this assumed divide produces is that science teachers often feel that there needs to be ‘special treatment’ given to certain issues which are of an ethical or moral nature and which are ‘brought into’ the science class. The case is made in this article that dealing with ethical issues in the science class should not call for a sensitivity that is beyond the expertise of the science teacher. Indeed it is argued here that science teachers in particular have a great deal to offer in enabling ethics education. To overcome this perceived divide between science and values it needs to be recognised that the educative development of learners is both scientific and moral. I shall be using a Deweyan perspective to make the case that we as science teachers can overcome this apparent divide and significantly contribute to an ethics education of our students.

  19. From 'implications' to 'dimensions': science, medicine and ethics in society.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn D

    2013-03-01

    Much bioethical scholarship is concerned with the social, legal and philosophical implications of new and emerging science and medicine, as well as with the processes of research that under-gird these innovations. Science and technology studies (STS), and the related and interpenetrating disciplines of anthropology and sociology, have also explored what novel technoscience might imply for society, and how the social is constitutive of scientific knowledge and technological artefacts. More recently, social scientists have interrogated the emergence of ethical issues: they have documented how particular matters come to be regarded as in some way to do with 'ethics', and how this in turn enjoins particular types of social action. In this paper, I will discuss some of this and other STS (and STS-inflected) literature and reflect on how it might complement more 'traditional' modes of bioethical enquiry. I argue that STS might (1) cast new light on current bioethical issues, (2) direct the gaze of bioethicists towards matters that may previously have escaped their attention, and (3) indicate the import not only of the ethical implications of biomedical innovation, but also how these innovative and other processes feature ethics as a dimension of everyday laboratory and clinical work. In sum, engagements between STS and bioethics are increasingly important in order to understand and manage the complex dynamics between science, medicine and ethics in society. PMID:22948440

  20. A decision tool to guide the ethics review of a challenging breed of emerging genomic projects.

    PubMed

    Joly, Yann; So, Derek; Osien, Gladys; Crimi, Laura; Bobrow, Martin; Chalmers, Don; Wallace, Susan E; Zeps, Nikolajs; Knoppers, Bartha

    2016-08-01

    Recent projects conducted by the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) have raised the important issue of distinguishing quality assurance (QA) activities from research in the context of genomics. Research was historically defined as a systematic effort to expand a shared body of knowledge, whereas QA was defined as an effort to ascertain whether a specific project met desired standards. However, the two categories increasingly overlap due to advances in bioinformatics and the shift toward open science. As few ethics review policies take these changes into account, it is often difficult to determine the appropriate level of review. Mislabeling can result in unnecessary burdens for the investigators or, conversely, in underestimation of the risks to participants. Therefore, it is important to develop a consistent method of selecting the review process for genomics and bioinformatics projects. This paper begins by discussing two case studies from the ICGC, followed by a literature review on the distinction between QA and research and a comparative analysis of ethics review policies from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. These results are synthesized into a novel two-step decision tool for researchers and policymakers, which uses traditional criteria to sort clearly defined activities while requiring the use of actual risk levels to decide more complex cases. PMID:26785834

  1. [Training of managers and politicians in ethics of science and ethics of public health].

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    First of all, I will identify the various possible objectives of training in ethics of science and health. I will then examine the institutional context in which managers and politicians act in the light of what is done in Quebec. This analysis will lead me to defend the thesis that in Quebec at least such training is necessary. PMID:23991550

  2. A quantitative perspective on ethics in large team science.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alexander M; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2014-12-01

    The gradual crowding out of singleton and small team science by large team endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future of scientific practice to reflect upon the individual scientist's ethical responsibilities within teams. To facilitate this reflection we show labor force trends in the US revealing a skewed growth in academic ranks and increased levels of competition for promotion within the system; we analyze teaming trends across disciplines and national borders demonstrating why it is becoming difficult to distribute credit and to avoid conflicts of interest; and we use more than a century of Nobel prize data to show how science is outgrowing its old institutions of singleton awards. Of particular concern within the large team environment is the weakening of the mentor-mentee relation, which undermines the cultivation of virtue ethics across scientific generations. These trends and emerging organizational complexities call for a universal set of behavioral norms that transcend team heterogeneity and hierarchy. To this end, our expository analysis provides a survey of ethical issues in team settings to inform science ethics education and science policy. PMID:24919946

  3. The impact of institutional ethics on academic health sciences library leadership: a survey of academic health sciences library directors.

    PubMed

    Tooey, Mary Joan M J; Arnold, Gretchen N

    2014-10-01

    Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to the director members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. The objective was to determine the impact of institutional ethics on these leaders, whether through personal conviction or institutional imperative. PMID:25349542

  4. The impact of institutional ethics on academic health sciences library leadership: a survey of academic health sciences library directors

    PubMed Central

    Tooey, Mary Joan (M.J.); Arnold, Gretchen N.

    2014-01-01

    Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to the director members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. The objective was to determine the impact of institutional ethics on these leaders, whether through personal conviction or institutional imperative. PMID:25349542

  5. Emphasizing Morals, Values, Ethics, and Character Education in Science Education and Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the rationale and arguments for the presence of morals, values, ethics and character education in science curriculum and science teaching. The author examines how rapid science and technological advancements and globalization are contributing to the complexities of social life and underpinning the importance of morals, values…

  6. Student projects in medicine: a lesson in science and ethics.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah J L

    2009-11-01

    Regulation of biomedical research is the subject of considerable debate in the bioethics and health policy worlds. The ethics and governance of medical student projects is becoming an increasingly important topic in its own right, especially in the U.K., where there are periodic calls to change it. My main claim is that there seems to be no good reason for treating student projects differently from projects led by qualified and more experienced scientists and hence no good grounds for changing the current system of ethics review. I first suggest that the educational objectives cannot be met without laying down standards of good science, whatever they may be. Weak science is unnecessary for educational purposes, and it is, in any case, unlikely to produce good researchers in the future. Furthermore, it is curious to want to change the system of ethics review specifically for students when it is the science that is at stake, and when the science now falls largely outside the ethics remit. I further show that ethics review is nevertheless important since students carry a new potential conflict of interests that warrants independent oversight which supervisory support does not offer. This potential conflict may become more morally troublesome the greater the risks to the subjects of the research, and students may impose greater risks on their subjects (relative to professional researchers) by virtue of being inexperienced, whatever the nature of the project. Pragmatic concerns may finally be allayed by organizing the current system more efficiently at critical times of the university calendar. PMID:19866379

  7. Does science need bioethicists? Ethics and science collaboration in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Kerasidou, Angeliki; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research is an increasingly multidisciplinary activity bringing together a range of different academic fields and forms of expertise to investigate diseases that are increasingly understood to be complex and multifactorial. Recently the discipline of ethics has been starting to find a place in large-scale biomedical collaborations. In this article we draw from our experience of working with the Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network (MalariaGEN) and other research projects to reflect upon the integration of ethics into biomedical research. We examine the way in which ethics input may be valuable to research, the forms it tends to take, and also the problems and limitations of such collaborations. PMID:26430467

  8. Rethinking the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge: A Case Study of Teaching the Environment in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we argue that scientific literacy ought to be rethought in that it involves ethics as its core element. Considering the fact that science education has addressed ethical dilemmas of Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE) issues, it is worthwhile to question what the ethics of scientific knowledge mean in terms of their…

  9. Spheres of influence: Ethical, legal, and social issues of the Human Genome Project: What to do with what we know

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, C. )

    1994-01-01

    Since fiscal year 1991, the U.S. Human Genome Project has spent $170.6 million in federal funds to help isolate genes associated with Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, myotonic dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome and to localize genes that predispose people to breast cancer, colon cancer, hypertension, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Now come the hard part. Biology's 21st century megaproject starts to look relatively manageable compared to another challenge facing the enterprise: sorting out ethical, legal, and social issues associated with using this information. [open quotes]The Human Genome Project,[close quotes] wrote Senior Editor Barbara Jasny in the October 1 Science editorial, stretches [open quotes]the limits of the technology and the limits of our ability to ethically and rationally apply genetic information to our lives.[close quotes

  10. Ethics in Science: The Unique Consequences of Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the ethical issues unique to the science and practice of chemistry. These issues arise from chemistry’s position in the middle between the theoretical and the practical, a science concerned with molecules that are of the right size to directly affect human life. Many of the issues are raised by the central activity of chemistry––synthesis. Chemists make thousands of new substances each year. Many are beneficial, but others are threats. Since the development of the chemical industry in the nineteenth century, chemistry has contributed to the deterioration of the environment but has also helped to reduce pollution. Finally, we discuss the role of codes of ethics and whether the current codes of conduct for chemists are adequate for the challenges of today’s world. PMID:26155729

  11. Climate Engineering: A Nexus of Ethics, Science and Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Climate engineering (or geoengineering) has emerged as a possible component of a strategy to mitigate global warming. This emergence has produced a novel intersection of atmospheric science, environmental ethics and global governance. The scientific questions of climate engineering, while difficult to answer in their own right, are compounded by ethical considerations regarding whether these questions should be addressed and governance questions of how research and deployment could be managed. In an effort to address this intersection of ideas and provide our students with a rich interdisciplinary experience, we (T. Ackerman and S. Gardiner, both senior professors at the University of Washington) taught a cross-listed course in the Atmospheric Sciences and Philosophy departments. The course attracted 12 students (mostly graduate students but with two upper level undergraduates), with roughly equal representation from environmental sciences, ethics, and public policy disciplines, as well as two post-docs. Our primary goal for the course was to develop a functioning research community to address the core issues at the intersection of science and ethics. In this presentation, we discuss the course structure, identify strategies that were successful (or less so), and describe outcomes. We consider this course to be primarily pedagogical in nature, but we also recognize that many of the students in the class, perhaps even a majority, are intending to pursue careers outside academia in areas of public policy, environmental consulting, etc., which added an extra dimension to our class. Here, we also discuss the possibility of developing and teaching such courses in an academic environment that is stressed financially and increasingly dependent on metrics related to class size and student credit hours.

  12. Ethics and the science of animal minds.

    PubMed

    Allen, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Ethicists have commonly appealed to science to bolster their arguments for elevating the moral status of nonhuman animals. I describe a framework within which I take many ethicists to be making such appeals. I focus on an apparent gap in this framework between those properties of animals that are part of the scientific consensus, and those to which ethicists typically appeal in their arguments. I will describe two different ways of diminishing the appearance of the gap, and argue that both of them present challenges to ethicists seeking a firm scientific basis for their claims about the moral status of animals. I argue that more clarity about the role of appeals to science by applied ethicists leads to questions about the effectiveness of such appeals, and that these questions might best be pursued empirically. PMID:16906348

  13. New ethical challenges in science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-31

    The published research features some of the nation's leading scientists and engineers, as well as science policy experts, and discusses a wide range of issues and topics. These include the economic and social pressure impacting biomedical research, the impossibility of predicting all the behaviors of increasingly complex, engineered systems, a look at the new federal guidelines for misconduct and new wrinkles on faculty conflicts of interest.

  14. The Perfect Storm—Genetic Engineering, Science, and Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Bernard E.

    2012-07-01

    Uncertainty about ethics has been a major factor in societal rejection of biotechnology. Six factors help create a societal "perfect storm" regarding ethics and biotechnology: Social demand for ethical discussion; societal scientific illiteracy; poor social understanding of ethics; a "Gresham's Law for Ethics;" Scientific Ideology; vested interests dominating ethical discussion. How this can be remedied is discussed.

  15. Genomic Sciences for Developmentalists: A Merge of Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    The etiological forces of development have been a central question for the developmental sciences (however defined) since their crystallization as a distinct branch of scientific inquiry. Although the history of these sciences contains examples of extreme positions capitalizing on either the predominance of the genome (i.e., the accumulation of…

  16. Mapping the Ethics of Translational Genomics: Situating Return of Results and Navigating the Research-Clinical Divide.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susan M; Burke, Wylie; Koenig, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Both bioethics and law have governed human genomics by distinguishing research from clinical practice. Yet the rise of translational genomics now makes this traditional dichotomy inadequate. This paper pioneers a new approach to the ethics of translational genomics. It maps the full range of ethical approaches needed, proposes a "layered" approach to determining the ethics framework for projects combining research and clinical care, and clarifies the key role that return of results can play in advancing translation. PMID:26479558

  17. Ethical and intellectual property in the biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Maher, E A

    1997-05-01

    Ethical concerns on patents in the biological sciences are increased by the prospect of patents for higher life forms. A Canadian patent grants the owner the right to exclude others in Canada from making, using, or selling or offering for sale his or her invention for the term of the patent; however, it does not give the patent owner any positive rights to do likewise. As with other forms of property, the right to make, use, or sell a patented invention may be regulated by other laws or guidelines. In Canada, higher life forms, medical and surgical methods are not patentable subject matter. Unicellular life forms and subcellular material are considered patentable. Decisions on ethical issues are not considered by patent officers. The Patent Office is guided only by legislation. Other regulations by the legislatures can direct public policy and minimize risks. PMID:9193780

  18. Integrating ethical topics in a traditional computer science course

    SciTech Connect

    Winrich, L.B.

    1994-12-31

    It is never hard to find additional, often unconventional, topics which seem to beg inclusion in standard courses. A dynamic discipline like computer science usually provides a steady stream of new technical ideas to vie for time and attention with more traditional material. As difficult as it may be to keep standard CS courses up-to-date with technical innovations, it often seems even more difficult to include non-technical topics even when there is universal agreement on their importance, Inevitably the question of whether or not such inclusion will compromise the technical content of the course arises. This paper describes an attempt to include two such topics in a traditional course in data structures. The two topics are writing and ethics and, although the effort concentrates on the inclusion of ethical questions in a standard CS course, writing is the vehicle for accomplishing this goal. Furthermore, the inclusion writing in the CS curriculum is certainly recognized as a desirable outcome.

  19. Ethical Issues and the Life Sciences. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on Ethical Issues and the Life Sciences includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) The Search for an Ethic; (3) Biomedical Issues including…

  20. Genomics in the land of regulatory science.

    PubMed

    Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Blais, Burton; Silva, Primal; Dubuc, Martine; Healy, Marion; Slikker, William

    2015-06-01

    Genomics science has played a major role in the generation of new knowledge in the basic research arena, and currently question arises as to its potential to support regulatory processes. However, the integration of genomics in the regulatory decision-making process requires rigorous assessment and would benefit from consensus amongst international partners and research communities. To that end, the Global Coalition for Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) hosted the fourth Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2014) to discuss the role of genomics in regulatory decision making, with a specific emphasis on applications in food safety and medical product development. Challenges and issues were discussed in the context of developing an international consensus for objective criteria in the analysis, interpretation and reporting of genomics data with an emphasis on transparency, traceability and "fitness for purpose" for the intended application. It was recognized that there is a need for a global path in the establishment of a regulatory bioinformatics framework for the development of transparent, reliable, reproducible and auditable processes in the management of food and medical product safety risks. It was also recognized that training is an important mechanism in achieving internationally consistent outcomes. GSRS2014 provided an effective venue for regulators andresearchers to meet, discuss common issues, and develop collaborations to address the challenges posed by the application of genomics to regulatory science, with the ultimate goal of wisely integrating novel technical innovations into regulatory decision-making. PMID:25796433

  1. Publication ethics from the perspective of PhD students of health sciences: a limited experience.

    PubMed

    Arda, Berna

    2012-06-01

    Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based on reliable and ethically obtained data, it will be possible to maintain its role in shaping the society. This article is devoted to the presentation of opinions of PhD candidate students in health sciences in Ankara concerning publication ethics. The data obtained from 143 PhD students from the fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary reveal limited but unique experiences. It also shows that plagiarism is one of the worst issues in the publication ethics from the perspective of these young academics. PMID:21318323

  2. Field and Experience Influences on Ethical Decision-Making in the Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Murphy, Stephen T.; Devenport, Lynn D.; Antes, Alison L.; Brown, Ryan P.; Hill, Jason H.; Waples, Ethan P.

    2009-01-01

    Differences across fields and experience levels are frequently considered in discussions of ethical decision-making and ethical behavior. In the present study, doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences completed measures of ethical decision-making. The effects of field and level of experience with respect to ethical decision-making, metacognitive reasoning strategies, social-behavioral responses, and exposure to unethical events were examined. Social and biological scientists performed better than health scientists with respect to ethical decision-making. Furthermore, the ethical decision-making of health science students decreased as experience increased. Moreover, these effects appeared to be linked to the specific strategies underlying participants' ethical decision-making. The implications of these findings for ethical decision-making are discussed. PMID:19750129

  3. The Perfect Storm--Genetic Engineering, Science, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollin, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty about ethics has been a major factor in societal rejection of biotechnology. Six factors help create a societal "perfect storm" regarding ethics and biotechnology: Social demand for ethical discussion; societal scientific illiteracy; poor social understanding of ethics; a "Gresham's Law for Ethics;" Scientific…

  4. The Translational Potential of Research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications of Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Wylie; Appelbaum, Paul; Dame, Lauren; Marshall, Patricia; Press, Nancy; Pyeritz, Reed; Sharp, Richard; Juengst, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Federally funded research on the ethical, legal and social implications of genomics (“ELSI” research) includes a programmatic charge to consider policy-relevant questions and to communicate findings in venues that help inform the policy-making process. In addressing this goal, investigators must consider the range of policies that are relevant to human genetics, how foundational research in bioethics, law, and the social sciences might inform those policies, and the potential professional issues that this translational imperative raises for ELSI investigators. We review these questions in the light of experiences from a consortium of federally funded Centers of Excellence in ELSI Research, and offer a set of policy recommendations for program design and evaluation of ELSI research. We conclude that it would be a mistake to require that ELSI research programs demonstrate a direct impact on science or health policy; however, ELSI researchers can take steps to increase the relevance of their work to policy makers. Similarly, funders of ELSI research concerned to facilitate policy development can help by building cross-disciplinary translational research capacities, and universities can take steps to make policy-relevant research more rewarding for scholars in the humanities, social sciences, and law. PMID:24946153

  5. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-07

    August 4, 2009 Berkeley Lab lecture: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  6. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  7. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment

    ScienceCinema

    Gray, Joe

    2010-01-08

    August 4, 2009 Berkeley Lab lecture: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks ? particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  8. A code of ethics for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nancy L

    2007-03-01

    The activities of the life sciences are essential to provide solutions for the future, for both individuals and society. Society has demanded growing accountability from the scientific community as implications of life science research rise in influence and there are concerns about the credibility, integrity and motives of science. While the scientific community has responded to concerns about its integrity in part by initiating training in research integrity and the responsible conduct of research, this approach is minimal. The scientific community justifies itself by appealing to the ethos of science, claiming academic freedom, self-direction, and self-regulation, but no comprehensive codification of this foundational ethos has been forthcoming. A review of the professional norms of science and a prototype code of ethics for the life sciences provide a framework to spur discussions within the scientific community to define scientific professionalism. A formalization of implicit principles can provide guidance for recognizing divergence from the norms, place these norms within a context that would enhance education of trainees, and provide a framework for discussing externally and internally applied pressures that are influencing the practice of science. The prototype code articulates the goal for life sciences research and the responsibilities associated with the freedom of exploration, the principles for the practice of science, and the virtues of the scientists themselves. The time is ripe for scientific communities to reinvigorate professionalism and define the basis of their social contract. Codifying the basis of the social contract between science and society will sustain public trust in the scientific enterprise. PMID:17703607

  9. Ethical sensitivity intervention in science teacher education: Using computer simulations and professional codes of ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Shawn Yvette

    A simulation was created to emulate two Racial Ethical Sensitivity Test (REST) videos (Brabeck et al., 2000). The REST is a reliable assessment for ethical sensitivity to racial and gender intolerant behaviors in educational settings. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the REST was performed using the Quick-REST survey and an interview protocol. The purpose of this study was to affect science educator ability to recognize instances of racial and gender intolerant behaviors by levering immersive qualities of simulations. The fictitious Hazelton High School virtual environment was created by the researcher and compared with the traditional REST. The study investigated whether computer simulations can influence the ethical sensitivity of preservice and inservice science teachers to racial and gender intolerant behaviors in school settings. The post-test only research design involved 32 third-year science education students enrolled in science education classes at several southeastern universities and 31 science teachers from the same locale, some of which were part of an NSF project. Participant samples were assigned to the video control group or the simulation experimental group. This resulted in four comparison group; preservice video, preservice simulation, inservice video and inservice simulation. Participants experienced two REST scenarios in the appropriate format then responded to Quick-REST survey questions for both scenarios. Additionally, the simulation groups answered in-simulation and post-simulation questions. Nonparametric analysis of the Quick-REST ascertained differences between comparison groups. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for internal consistency. The REST interview protocol was used to analyze recognition of intolerant behaviors in the in-simulation prompts. Post-simulation prompts were analyzed for emergent themes concerning effect of the simulation on responses. The preservice video group had a significantly higher mean rank score than

  10. Water Buffalo Genome Science Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N.; Dodson, Michael V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J.; McLean, Derek J.; Womack, James E.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species. PMID:20582226

  11. Ethical, legal and social issues in the context of the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jantina; Slabbert, Melodie; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    As the focus on the origin of modern man appears to be moving from eastern to southern Africa, it is recognised that indigenous populations in southern Africa may be the most genetically diverse on the planet and hence a valuable resource for human genetic diversity studies. In order to build regional capacity for the generation, analysis and application of genomic data, the Southern African Human Genome Programme was recently launched with the aid of seed funding from the national Department of Science and Technology in South Africa. The purpose of the article is to investigate pertinent ethical, legal and social issues that have emerged during the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme. A careful consideration of key issues such as public perception of genomic research, issues relating to genetic and genomic discrimination and stigmatisation, informed consent, privacy and data protection, and the concept of genomic sovereignty, is of paramount importance in the early stages of the Programme. This article will also consider the present legal framework governing genomic research in South Africa and will conclude with proposals regarding such a framework for the future. PMID:22908741

  12. Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-03-01

    This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program. PMID:23338794

  13. Situation analysis of local ethical committees in medical sciences in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakour, Yousef; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Haghighi, Zohre; Mehr, Najmeh Khosravan; Hejazi, Farzaneh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local ethical committees in medical sciences in Iran were established in 1999 in order to assess and evaluate the observance of ethical standards throughout the universities and research centers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation of local ethical committees in order to develop research ethics guideline. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study which has been conducted with the support of WHO, 40 local ethical committees in all universities of medical sciences were evaluated by use of determined questionnaires. RESULTS: In this study, 40 universities of medical sciences participated; all of them have established local ethical committees. Each committee has 5 to 11 members and in more than 80% cases, written guidelines for selecting the committee's members are available. The minimum number of members for official session is at least 3 and replacement of absent members, did not take place in more than 85% of the committees. Informed consent in 95% of these local ethical committees is available. In all committees, researches regarding the use of human subjects are under ethical consideration. In half of the local ethical committees, penalties for non-compliance with the regulations are considered. The average number of research project evaluated in last session of these committees was 15.2 and the committees in 50% of cases have provided ethics training specifically for their members. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers should develop a standard guideline for local ethical committees in medical science universities in Iran. PMID:22091250

  14. Human genome education model project. Ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project: Education of interdisciplinary professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.O.; Lapham, E.V.

    1996-12-31

    This meeting was held June 10, 1996 at Georgetown University. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the human genome education model. Topics of discussion include the following: psychosocial issues; ethical issues for professionals; legislative issues and update; and education issues.

  15. The routinisation of genomics and genetics: implications for ethical practices.

    PubMed

    Foster, M W; Royal, C D M; Sharp, R R

    2006-11-01

    Among bioethicists and members of the public, genetics is often regarded as unique in its ethical challenges. As medical researchers and clinicians increasingly combine genetic information with a range of non-genetic information in the study and clinical management of patients with common diseases, the unique ethical challenges attributed to genetics must be re-examined. A process of genetic routinisation that will have implications for research and clinical ethics, as well as for public conceptions of genetic information, is constituted by the emergence of new forms of genetic medicine, in which genetic information is interpreted in a multifactorial frame of reference. Although the integration of genetics in medical research and treatment may be a helpful corrective to the mistaken assumptions of genetic essentialism or determinism, the routinisation of genetics may have unintended consequences for the protection of genetic information, perceptions of non-genetic information and the loss of genetic research as a laboratory for exploring issues in research and clinical ethics. Consequently, new ethical challenges are presented by the increasing routinisation of genetic information in both biomedical and public spheres. PMID:17074820

  16. In search of the soul in science: medical ethics' appropriation of philosophy of science in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Aronova, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the deployment of science studies within the field of medical ethics. For a short time, the discourse of medical ethics became a fertile ground for a dialogue between philosophically minded bioethicists and the philosophers of science who responded to Thomas Kuhn's challenge. In their discussion of the validity of Kuhn's work, these bioethicists suggested a distinct interpretation of Kuhn, emphasizing the elements in his account that had been independently developed by Michael Polanyi, and propelling a view of science that retreated from idealizations of scientific method without sacrificing philosophical realism. Appropriating Polanyi, they extended his account of science to biology and medicine. The contribution of Karl Popper to the debate on the applicability of philosophy of science to the issues of medical ethics provides the opportunity to discuss the ways in which political agendas of different epistemologies of science intertwined with questions of concern to medical ethics. PMID:19835265

  17. Science, technology and ethics: from critical perspective to dialectical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Sylvain

    2005-06-01

    It has been agreed upon, according to critical perspective, to distinguish the problems raised by scientific issues on the one hand and the problems raised by moral issues on the other. This distinction, at the genesis of theoretical ideology, postulates that experimental science is mere knowledge which, since it has nothing to do with action, cannot raise a moral problem. Yet the use of experimental techniques turns out to be a necessary means, although an insufficient one, to put to the test and to confirm the theoretical hypothesis of science. Thus, those techniques produce perceptible effects which can be assimilated to genuine transformation and are consequently capable of raising moral problems. It follows that the technical imperative of science can be conditioned by a moral imperative of technique, which leads to modification of the object of the research and dubs it, a dialectical object. It is, however, advisable to effect a demarcation between that which, within the frame work of research in experimental science, can pose a moral problem and which cannot. The criterion of refusability of practical projects, by analogy with Popper's criterion of refutability of theoretical conjectures, allows for this demarcation to be implemented. It postulates that only the technical projects of science, apart from scientific theories, can pose a moral problem or can be recognized as moral, providing that the conditions of a possible ethical refusal can be expressed. From the analysis and the synthesis of heterogeneous possibilities, dialectical perspective thus outlined represents an endeavour to go beyond critical perspective, while trying to seek an intermediary channel between the "progressist dogmatism" of science and the obscurantist scepticism" of morals. PMID:16619430

  18. Alternative sources of pluripotency: science, ethics, and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kastenberg, Zachary J; Odorico, Jon S

    2008-07-01

    Despite many advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) technology the ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is one factor that has limited the development of hESC based clinical therapies. Two recent reports describing the production of pluripotent stem cells following the in vitro reprogramming of human somatic cells with certain defined factors illustrate one potential method of bypassing the ethical debate surrounding hESCs (Yu J, Vodyanik MA, Smuga-Otto K, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. Science. 2007 Dec;318(5858):1917-1920; Takahashi K, Tanabe K, Ohnuki M, et al. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell. 2007 Nov;131(5): 861-872.). Other alternative methods include nuclear transfer, altered nuclear transfer, and parthenogenesis; each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. This review discusses recent advances in these technologies with specific focus on the issues of embryo destruction, oocyte recovery, and the potential of each technology to produce large scale, patient specific cell transplantation therapies that would require little or no immunosuppression. PMID:18631882

  19. On the compatibility of a conservation ethic with biological science.

    PubMed

    Sagoff, Mark

    2007-04-01

    If value entails or implies purpose, it follows that natural objects (e.g., endangered species) lack value and thus cannot be worth protecting except for a purpose they may serve-either the end for which God created the world (according to natural theology) or some use to which human beings may put them (according to a consequentialist or utilitarian ethic). If value requires purpose, the refutation of natural theology after Darwin implies that humanity has no obligation to respect or preserve the natural world except insofar as it is economically efficient to do so. Drawing on the distinction between explanation and communication found in Calvinist theology, I argue that value does not entail purpose. The expressive, aesthetic, or communicative aspects of nature may be valuable or endow natural objects with value apart from any use or purpose these objects may serve. The crucial distinction between explanation and communication-one scientific, the other aesthetic-offers a rationale for an obligation to protect the natural world that may appeal to members of faith communities and to biologists and other scientists. This approach also helps resolve the "lurking inconsistency" some scholars see in the relationship between a deterministic biological science and a conservationist ethic. PMID:17391184

  20. Hyped biomedical science or uncritical reporting? Press coverage of genomics (1992-2001) in Québec.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Gareau, Isabelle; Doucet, Hubert; Laudy, Danielle; Jobin, Guy; Schraedley-Desmond, Pamela

    2006-03-01

    Genomics integrates the promises and perils of modern biomedical science. Canada and the province of Québec embarked late but aggressively in genomics research based on the 'discourse of promise' in which genomics is embedded. This did not prevent the emergence of a 'discourse of concerns', and debates on the wider meaning of genomics and on the risks related to genomics applications such as gene therapy and gene testing. Given this context, this study aims to understand the evolution of genomics press coverage from the early days up to the publication of the draft sequence of the human genome. Accordingly, we performed a press content analysis on 749 articles reporting genomics research in Québec from 1992 to 2001. We focused on coverage of benefits and ethical issues, tone, and differences in reporting practices between press agencies and journalists. Results show an increasing number of articles, a general decline in the proportion of articles featuring ethical issues, an increased focus on the economy, and greater optimism from 1992 to 2001. In comparison to articles written by journalists, articles signed by press agencies are more optimistic and less often feature ethical issues. Results are discussed following two non-exclusive interpretations: (1) the successes of genomics and its institutionalization in Québec and Canada brought hype and greater social acceptance, and (2) uncritical reporting practices have emerged under pressures for expedient and consumable writing. We are left with two concerns: given worldwide media concentration movements, what are the challenges for the dissemination of diversified and critical information in print media? And, given limited coverage of ethical issues, and concerns about bioethics being too narrowly focused, should public debates on frontier biomedical science be promoted to broaden the scope of biomedical ethics? PMID:16174544

  1. Teaching heroics: Identity and ethical imagery in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robeck, Edward C.

    themes of separation and boundary imagery, perpetuates relations of divisive bias. To forestall this, I suggest that science education can be approached in ways that incorporate what is referred to as an ethic of plenishment, which strives to promote expansive identities through a proliferation of interpersonal associations.

  2. Genomics and Ethics: The Case of Cloned and/or Transgenic Animals

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The point of the present study is to illustrate and, if possible, promote the existing link between genomics and ethics, taking the example of cloned and transgenic animals. These ‘new animals’ raise theoretical and practical problems that concern applied ethics. We will explore more particularly an original strategy showing that it is possible, starting from philosophical questioning about the nature of identity, to use a genomic approach, based on amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) detection, to provide useful tools to define more rigorously what cloned animals are, by testing their genetic and epigenetic identity. We expect from the future results of this combined approach to stimulate the creativity of the philosophical and ethical reflection about the impact of biotechnology on animals, and to increase scientific involvement in such issues. PMID:18629111

  3. A need for a code of ethics in science communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.

    2009-09-01

    The modern western civilization and high standard of living are to a large extent the 'fruits' of scientific endeavor over generations. Some examples include the longer life expectancy due to progress in medical sciences, and changes in infrastructure associated with the utilization of electromagnetism. Modern meteorology is not possible without the state-of-the-art digital computers, satellites, remote sensing, and communications. Science also is of relevance for policy making, e.g. the present hot topic of climate change. Climate scientists have recently become much exposed to media focus and mass communications, a task for which many are not trained. Furthermore, science, communication, and politics have different objectives, and do not necessarily mix. Scientists have an obligation to provide unbiased information, and a code of ethics is needed to give a guidance for acceptable and unacceptable conduct. Some examples of questionable conduct in Norway include using the title 'Ph.D' to imply scientific authority when the person never had obtained such an academic degree, or writing biased and one-sided articles in Norwegian encyclopedia that do not reflect the scientific consensus. It is proposed here that a set of guide lines (for the scientists and journalists) and a code of conduct could provide recommendation for regarding how to act in media - similar to a code of conduct with respect to carrying out research - to which everyone could agree, even when disagreeing on specific scientific questions.

  4. Computer Ethics: New Study Area for Engineering Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1978-01-01

    Computer professionals are beginning to look toward codes of ethics and legislation to control the use of software. A project has been established at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute to develop teaching materials on computer ethics. (BB)

  5. The Tower Builders: A Consideration of STEM, STSE and Ethics in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Astrid; Brew, Christine R.; Beatty, Brenda R.

    2012-01-01

    The call for the integration of ethical considerations in the teaching of science is now firmly on the agenda. Taking as illustrative a science lesson in a pre-service teacher class, the authors consider the roles of STSE (science, technology, society and environment) and the increasingly influential heavily funded STEM (science, technology,…

  6. Ethical, legal, and social implications of incorporating genomic information into electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Ribhi; Brothers, Kyle B.; Malin, Bradley A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Sanderson, Saskia C.; Rothstein, Mark A.; Williams, Marc S.; Clayton, Ellen W.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of genomic data in the electronic health record raises important ethical, legal, and social issues. In this article, we highlight these challenges and discuss potential solutions. We provide a brief background on the current state of electronic health records in the context of genomic medicine, discuss the importance of equitable access to genome-enabled electronic health records, and consider the potential use of electronic health records for improving genomic literacy in patients and providers. We highlight the importance of privacy, access, and security, and of determining which genomic information is included in the electronic health record. Finally, we discuss the challenges of reporting incidental findings, storing and reinterpreting genomic data, and nondocumentation and duty to warn family members at potential genetic risk. PMID:24030434

  7. Science Ethics in the High School Classroom: A Pilot Study Using Social Judgment Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uliasz, C. T.; Swartz, D.; Lacy, M.

    2007-12-01

    Using a quantitative Social Judgment Analysis with content informed by traditional western ethical theory, we analyzed students' response patterns before and after our educational intervention. Working with an advanced placement environmental science class at Rocky Mountain High School, the goal of our analysis was not simply to understand whether students changed their ethical decisions, but rather to understand how and whether they changed the structure of *how* they think about ethical questions in an environmental context.

  8. ELSI Bibliography: Ethical, legal and social implications of the Human Genome Project. 1994 Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Yesley, M.S.; Ossorio, P.N.

    1994-09-01

    This report updates and expands the second edition of the ELSI Bibliography, published in 1993. The Bibliography and Supplement provides a comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. The Bibliography and Supplement are extracted from a database compiled at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the support of the Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography was dated May 1993 but included publications added to the database until fall 1993. This Supplement reflects approximately 1,000 entries added to the database during the past year, bringing the total to approximately 7,000 entries. More than half of the new entries were published in the last year, and the remainder are earlier publications not previously included in the database. Most of the new entries were published in the academic and professional literature. The remainder are press reports from newspapers of record and scientific journals. The topical listing of the second edition has been followed in the Supplement, with a few changes. The topics of Cystic Fibrosis, Huntington`s Disease, and Sickle Cell Anemia have been combined in a single topic, Disorders. Also, all the entries published in the past year are included in a new topic, Publications: September 1993--September 1994, which provides a comprehensive view of recent reporting and commentary on the science and ELSI of genetics.

  9. Becoming a science teacher: moving toward creolized science and an ethic of cosmopolitanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Gale

    2011-03-01

    Although communities and schools in North America are increasingly diverse and positioned in a global web, schools continue to adhere to Western norms and the teacher workforce remains largely White, continuing an ideology of collective sameness and conformity. Hybridization of teacher identity and of science teaching are suggested as ways to advance an ethic of solidarity through difference (cosmopolitanism) with science teaching as its vehicle. In this paper, I explore identity hybridization among non-dominant science teachers as they merge identity narratives, or who they are around science and science teaching, with who they are out-of-school. Our attention is focused on their experiences of dis-identification with science in terms of diaspora, or the sense of being taken away from what one knows and values. By generating a creolized approach to science teaching, teachers create possibilities for greater student identification with science in school, which in turn has potential for changing the face of who does science and of science itself.

  10. Bioethics methods in the ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project literature.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair

    2014-11-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  11. BIOETHICS METHODS IN THE ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair

    2013-01-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003-2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  12. Ethical Practices in Journal Publishing: A Study of Library and Information Science Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serebnick, Judith; Harter, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that examined generally accepted ethical norms in library and information science journals regarding practices such as the multiple publication of the same article, plagiarism, and cronyism. The responses of editors to action scenarios focused on ethical behavior are discussed and conclusions are drawn about the ethical…

  13. Toward an Essential Ethic for Teaching Science in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Irene de la Bretonne

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were…

  14. Knowing who to trust: exploring the role of ‘ethical metadata’ in mediating risk of harm in collaborative genomics research in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The practice of making datasets publicly available for use by the wider scientific community has become firmly integrated in genomic science. One significant gap in literature around data sharing concerns how it impacts on scientists’ ability to preserve values and ethical standards that form an essential component of scientific collaborations. We conducted a qualitative sociological study examining the potential for harm to ethnic groups, and implications of such ethical concerns for data sharing. We focused our empirical work on the MalariaGEN Consortium, one of the first international collaborative genomics research projects in Africa. Methods We conducted a study in three MalariaGEN project sites in Kenya, the Gambia, and the United Kingdom. The study entailed analysis of project documents and 49 semi-structured interviews with fieldworkers, researchers and ethics committee members. Results Concerns about how best to address the potential for harm to ethnic groups in MalariaGEN crystallised in discussions about the development of a data sharing policy. Particularly concerning for researchers was how best to manage the sharing of genomic data outside of the original collaboration. Within MalariaGEN, genomic data is accompanied by information about the locations of sample collection, the limitations of consent and ethics approval, and the values and relations that accompanied sample collection. For interviewees, this information and context were of important ethical value in safeguarding against harmful uses of data, but is not customarily shared with secondary data users. This challenged the ability of primary researchers to protect against harmful uses of ‘their’ data. Conclusion We identified three protective mechanisms – trust, the existence of a shared morality, and detailed contextual understanding – which together might play an important role in preventing the use of genomic data in ways that could harm the ethnic groups included in

  15. The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Hub

    2010-09-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one(s) to receive it, as (according to current procedures) no more than three individuals can be selected. In this article, the HGP is taken as a case study to consider the ethical question to what extent it is still possible, in an era of big science, of large-scale consortia and global team work, to acknowledge and reward individual contributions to important breakthroughs in biomedical fields. Is it still viable to single out individuals for their decisive contributions in order to reward them in a fair and convincing way? Whereas the concept of the Nobel prize as such seems to reflect an archetypical view of scientists as solitary researchers who, at a certain point in their careers, make their one decisive discovery, this vision has proven to be problematic from the very outset. Already during the first decade of the Nobel era, Ivan Pavlov was denied the Prize several times before finally receiving it, on the basis of the argument that he had been active as a research manager (a designer and supervisor of research projects) rather than as a researcher himself. The question then is whether, in the case of the HGP, a research effort that involved the contributions of hundreds or even thousands of researchers worldwide, it is still possible to "individualise" the Prize? The "HGP Nobel Prize problem" is regarded as an exemplary issue in current research ethics, highlighting a number of quandaries and trends involved in contemporary life science research practices more broadly. PMID:20730106

  16. Holistic science: An understanding of science education encompassing ethical and social issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekpour, Susan

    Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of

  17. Animals, science, and ethics -- Section I. Ethical theory and the moral status of animals.

    PubMed

    Russow, Lilly-Marlene

    1990-01-01

    Section I discusses the moral status of animals as conceived from several theoretical and ethical perspectives. Though any one perspective might not be finally adequate, the juxtaposition of several ethical positions widens and deepens our understanding of the moral status of animals and of the responsibilities this complex status engenders. PMID:11650365

  18. Neurogenethics: An emerging discipline at the intersection of ethics, neuroscience, and genomics

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Turhan

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) associated with genetics (“genethics”) has focused on traditional concerns in bioethics, such as privacy and informed consent. The analysis of ELSI associated with neuroscience (“neuroethics”) has focused on concerns related to personhood, such as free will or cognitive enhancement. With neurogenomics coming of age, this is an appropriate time to attend to the set of novel concerns that arises when we consider the confluence of these two lines of research. I call this area of ethics inquiry “neurogenethics”, map out the problem space, and highlight future areas of inquiry related to genome editing and gene therapy, optogenetics and memory manipulation, and genomic identity and online communities. PMID:26937354

  19. Neurogenethics: An emerging discipline at the intersection of ethics, neuroscience, and genomics.

    PubMed

    Canli, Turhan

    2015-06-01

    The analysis of ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) associated with genetics ("genethics") has focused on traditional concerns in bioethics, such as privacy and informed consent. The analysis of ELSI associated with neuroscience ("neuroethics") has focused on concerns related to personhood, such as free will or cognitive enhancement. With neurogenomics coming of age, this is an appropriate time to attend to the set of novel concerns that arises when we consider the confluence of these two lines of research. I call this area of ethics inquiry "neurogenethics", map out the problem space, and highlight future areas of inquiry related to genome editing and gene therapy, optogenetics and memory manipulation, and genomic identity and online communities. PMID:26937354

  20. Animal minds and neuroimaging--bridging the gap between science and ethics?

    PubMed

    Buller, Tom

    2014-04-01

    As Colin Allen has argued, discussions between science and ethics about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals often stall on account of the fact that the properties that ethics presents as evidence of animal mentality and moral status, namely consciousness and sentience, are not observable "scientifically respectable" properties. In order to further discussion between science and ethics, it seems, therefore, that we need to identify properties that would satisfy both domains. In this article I examine the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals from the perspective of neuroethics. By adopting this perspective, we can see how advances in neuroimaging regarding (1) research into the neurobiology of pain, (2) "brain reading," and (3) the minimally conscious state may enable us to identify properties that help bridge the gap between science and ethics, and hence help further the debate about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals. PMID:24495745

  1. The ethical implications of health sciences library economics.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, G D

    1991-01-01

    The intersection of ethics and economics is rarely discussed in the library literature or at conferences. This may be due, in part, to what economists describe as a romantic value system, that is, the belief that resources are or should be unlimited and available for exploitation by every individual with a need. But recent changes in the national economy for libraries are forcing a realization that individualistic codes of ethics and value systems do not always result in socially desirable consequences. The problems of information management and access cannot be solved by ethical individuals acting alone. Instead, a new consensus is needed on collective ethical behaviors to ensure that health information resources are managed for the common good. PMID:1958911

  2. Profile: Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    Describes an institute founded to examine moral, ethical, and legal issues raised by possibilities of euthanasia, genetic engineering, behavior control, population control, and improved disease control. Indicates scope of present research. (Editor/AL)

  3. The Use of Ethical Frameworks for Implementing Science as a Human Endeavour in Year 10 Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Siew Fong; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the use of ethical frameworks as a pedagogical model for socio-scientific education in implementing the "Science as a Human Endeavour" (SHE) strand of the Australian Curriculum: Science in a Year 10 biology class in a Christian college in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Using a case study approach, a mixed…

  4. Increasing Interest, Confidence and Understanding of Ethical Issues in Science through Case-Based Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeberg, Mary A.; Bergland, Mark; Klyczek, Karen; Mogen, Kim; Johnson, Doug; Harmes, Nina

    Software designed to promote the use of open-ended investigations in science education was evaluated in a study of whether using case-based simulation enhances students' understanding of ethical issues and data interpretation in science. The software was a DNA gel electrophoresis simulation that enabled students to conduct simulated genetic tests.…

  5. Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2010-04-01

    In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists. PMID:19854996

  6. Integrating ethics and science in the International HapMap Project

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Genomics resources that use samples from identified populations raise scientific, social and ethical issues that are, in many ways, inextricably linked. Scientific decisions about which populations to sample to produce the HapMap, an international genetic variation resource, have raised questions about the relationships between the social identities used to recruit participants and the biological findings of studies that will use the HapMap. The sometimes problematic implications of those complex relationships have led to questions about how to conduct genetic variation research that uses identified populations in an ethical way, including how to involve members of a population in evaluating the risks and benefits posed for everyone who shares that identity. The ways in which these issues are linked is increasingly drawing the scientific and ethical spheres of genomics research closer together. PMID:15153999

  7. Social and Ethical Implications of Genomics, Race, Ethnicity and Health Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Knerr, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To review ethical, ethnic/ancestral, and societal issues of genetic and genomic information and technologies in the context of racial and ethnic health disparities. Data sources Research and journal articles, government reports, web sites. Conclusion As knowledge of human genetic variation and its link to diseases continues to grow, some see race and ethnicity well poised to serve as genetic surrogates in predicting disease etiology and treatment response. However, stereotyping and bias, in clinical interactions can be barriers to effective treatment for racial and ethnic minority patients. Implications for nursing practice The nursing profession has a key role in assuring that genomic healthcare does not enhance racial and ethnic health inequities. This will require utilization of new genomic knowledge and caring for each patient as an individual in a culturally and clinically appropriate manner. PMID:19000599

  8. Integrating Genomics into Clinical Oncology: Ethical and Social Challenges from Proponents of Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Settersten, Richard A.; Juengst, Eric T.; Fishman, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The use of molecular tools to individualize health care, predict appropriate therapies and prevent adverse health outcomes has gained significant traction in the field of oncology, under the banner of “personalized medicine.” Enthusiasm for personalized medicine in oncology has been fueled by success stories of targeted treatments for a variety of cancers based on their molecular profiles. Though these are clear indications of optimism for personalized medicine, little is known about the ethical and social implications of personalized approaches in clinical oncology. The objective of this study is to assess how a range of stakeholders engaged in promoting, monitoring, and providing personalized medicine understand the challenges of integrating genomic testing and targeted therapies into clinical oncology. The study involved the analysis of in-depth interviews with 117 basic scientists, clinician-researchers, clinicians in private practice, health professional educators, representatives of funding agencies, medical journal editors, entrepreneurs, and insurers whose experiences and perspectives on personalized medicine span a wide variety of institutional and professional settings. Despite considerable enthusiasm for this shift, promoters, monitors and providers of personalized medicine identified four domains which will still provoke heightened ethical and social concerns: (1) informed consent for cancer genomic testing, (2) privacy, confidentiality, and disclosure of genomic test results, (3) access to genomic testing and targeted therapies in oncology, and (4) the costs of scaling up pharmacogenomic testing and targeted cancer therapies. These specific concerns are not unique to oncology, or even genomics. However, those most invested in the success of personalized medicine view oncologists’ responses to these challenges as precedent-setting because oncology is farther along the path of clinical integration of genomic technologies than other fields

  9. Genomic medicine: health care issues and the unresolved ethical and social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Idemyor, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Our perception of the mechanism by which single genes can cause disease is evolving. This has led to the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of common diseases. Genomic Medicine continues to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Medicine has strived to achieve the goal of tailoring interventions to individual variations in risk and treatment response and advances in medical genomics will facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. By investigating the genetic profile of individuals, medical professionals are able to select patients and use the information obtained to plan out a course of treatment that is much more in step with the way their body works. However, society is concerned about the effect genetic knowledge will have on ethnic or racial groups. Currently, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act prohibits discrimination based on genetics. There is a need to increase the understanding of the social and ethical challenges that genomics information may pose to clinicians and scientists. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, clinically relevant examples are used to illustrate how genomic medicine can facilitate the provision of molecular diagnostic methods that improve drug therapy. Finally, the rapid pace of change in genomics may likely make my conclusions today obsolete tomorrow. PMID:22713532

  10. ELSI Bibliography: Ethical legal and social implications of the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yesley, M.S.

    1993-11-01

    This second edition of the ELSI Bibliography provides a current and comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Since the first edition of the ELSI Bibliography was printed last year, new publications and earlier ones identified by additional searching have doubled our computer database of ELSI publications to over 5600 entries. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography reflects this growth of the underlying computer database. Researchers should note that an extensive collection of publications in the database is available for public use at the General Law Library of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  11. The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one(s) to receive it, as (according to current procedures) no more than three individuals can be selected. In this article, the HGP is taken as a case study to consider the ethical question to what extent it is still possible, in an era of big science, of large-scale consortia and global team work, to acknowledge and reward individual contributions to important breakthroughs in biomedical fields. Is it still viable to single out individuals for their decisive contributions in order to reward them in a fair and convincing way? Whereas the concept of the Nobel prize as such seems to reflect an archetypical view of scientists as solitary researchers who, at a certain point in their careers, make their one decisive discovery, this vision has proven to be problematic from the very outset. Already during the first decade of the Nobel era, Ivan Pavlov was denied the Prize several times before finally receiving it, on the basis of the argument that he had been active as a research manager (a designer and supervisor of research projects) rather than as a researcher himself. The question then is whether, in the case of the HGP, a research effort that involved the contributions of hundreds or even thousands of researchers worldwide, it is still possible to “individualise” the Prize? The “HGP Nobel Prize problem” is regarded as an exemplary issue in current research ethics, highlighting a number of quandaries and trends involved in contemporary life science research practices more broadly. PMID:20730106

  12. Application of a Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training in the Physical Sciences and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T.; Waples, Ethan P.; Sevier, Sydney T.; Godfrey, Elaine S.; Mumford, Michael D.; Hougen, Dean F.

    2008-06-01

    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers' integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers' integrity has focused on the development of ethical decision-making skills. The current effort proposes a novel curriculum that focuses on broad metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day social and professional practices that have ethical implications for the physical sciences and engineering. This sensemaking training has been implemented in a professional sample of scientists conducting research in electrical engineering, atmospheric and computer sciences at a large multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, and multi-university research center. A pre-post design was used to assess training effectiveness using scenario-based ethical decision-making measures. The training resulted in enhanced ethical decision-making of researchers in relation to four ethical conduct areas, namely data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. In addition, sensemaking training led to researchers' preference for decisions involving the application of the broad metacognitive reasoning strategies. Individual trainee and training characteristics were used to explain the study findings. Broad implications of the findings for ethics training development, implementation, and evaluation in the sciences are discussed.

  13. Science and Ethics: Bridge to the Future for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Patricio, Ventura-Juncá

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to reflect on the relationship between regenerative medicine and ethics, using as references the Aristotelian concept of what is ethical and that of Raessler Van Potter about bioethics. To do this, I will briefly describe the advances in regenerative medicine with stem cells, the strategies for producing pluripotential cells without destroying human embryos, and the great potential of stem cells to improve life for Humanity, noting that for this to be possible, it is necessary to locate the role of regenerative medicine in the context of human values and well being. In this way, this article has a real perspective of the role that regenerative medicine can play in benefitting human beings and engendering respect for human and natural environments. PMID:24298338

  14. Science and ethics: bridge to the future for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Patricio, Ventura-Juncá

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this article is to reflect on the relationship between regenerative medicine and ethics, using as references the Aristotelian concept of what is ethical and that of Raessler Van Potter about bioethics. To do this, I will briefly describe the advances in regenerative medicine with stem cells, the strategies for producing pluripotential cells without destroying human embryos, and the great potential of stem cells to improve life for Humanity, noting that for this to be possible, it is necessary to locate the role of regenerative medicine in the context of human values and well being. In this way, this article has a real perspective of the role that regenerative medicine can play in benefitting human beings and engendering respect for human and natural environments. PMID:24298338

  15. Ethics.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E D

    1989-05-19

    This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

  16. Poplar Genomics: State of the Science

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2009-01-01

    Populus has become a model for genomics research in woody perennial plants due to the release of its genome sequence and the important roles it has been playing in research areas related to alternative energy and climate change. Over the past five years, enormous advances have been made in both experimental and computational genomics in Populus. In the area of Populus experimental genomics, traditional genetic approaches have been advanced to the genome scale with resolution to the gene and/or single nucleotide level on the one hand, and on the other hand, the modern omics approaches have been successfully applied to analyses of gene functions, including transcriptome profiling using microarrays as well as the next-generation DNA sequencing technology, proteome analysis using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization timeof-flight mass spectrometry, and metabolome characterization using gas chromatography/timeof-flight mass spectrometry. In the area of Populus computational genomics, significant progress has been made in sequence-based discovery of predicted gene function, comparative analysis of gene families, development of online genomic databases, and studies of the evolutionary dynamics at both the gene and genome level. While exciting achievements have been obtained in Populus genomics, several challenges need to be addressed in the future: 1) better annotation of the Populus genome; 2) robust technology for large-scale gene expression analysis; 3) an efficient system for genome-wide mutagenesis; and 4) high performance computational pipelines to keep up with the pace of the rapid accumulation of data and to integrate omics data into functional systems biology platforms.

  17. Ethical Considerations for the Return of Incidental Findings in Ophthalmic Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Otlowski, Margaret; Craig, Jamie E.

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome and whole exome sequencing technologies are being increasingly used in research. However, they have the potential to identify incidental findings (IF), findings not related to the indication of the test, raising questions regarding researchers' responsibilities toward the return of this information to participants. In this study we discuss the ethical considerations related to the return of IF to research participants, emphasizing that the type of the study matters and describing the current practice standards. There are currently no legal obligations for researchers to return IF to participants, but some viewpoints consider that researchers might have an ethical one to return IF of clinical validity and clinical utility and that are actionable. The reality is that most IF are complex to interpret, especially since they were not the indication of the test. The clinical utility often depends on the participants' preferences, which can be challenging to conciliate and relies on participants' understanding. In summary, in the context of a lack of clear guidance, researchers need to have a clear plan for the disclosure or nondisclosure of IF from genomic research, balancing their research goals and resources with the participants' rights and their duty not to harm. PMID:26929883

  18. Developing Communities of Enquiry: Dealing with Social and Ethical Issues in Science at Key Stage 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Lynda; Humes, Gill; Clarke, Linda; Martin, Valerie McKelvey

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive technologies, drug discovery and exploration of the universe are areas of contemporary research that raise issues for individuals and society. Forward Thinking, Northern Ireland uses the development of communities of enquiry to promote discussion of these and other social and ethical issues in science with students aged 11-14 years.…

  19. Collision of Epistemological Frameworks: Religion and Social Science's Unshared Understanding of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Religious scholars and social science experts frequently differ and sometimes clash when writing and discussing issues of ethics. Sometimes unshared understandings on fundamental world-view issues is the etiology for these differences. Differences in defining truth, whether philosophically or empirically, often is at the root etiology in these…

  20. Teaching and Assessing Ethics and Social Responsibility in Undergraduate Science: A Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Institutional graduate capabilities and discipline threshold learning outcomes require science students to demonstrate ethical conduct and social responsibility. However, the teaching and assessment of these concepts are not straightforward. Australian chemistry academics participated in a workshop in 2013 to discuss and develop teaching and…

  1. Ethics and the Unintended Consequences of Social Research: A Perspective from the Sociology of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Kenneth E.; Chubin, Daryl E.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that "successful" social science requires development of a social ethic or sense of research responsibility, and suggests that an individualistic orientation is ineffective in coping with the unintended consequences of social research. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies…

  2. Introduction to Bioethics Special Supplement V: Ethical Issues in Genomic Testing of Children.

    PubMed

    Lantos, John D

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation genome sequencing of children is one of the most promising and most challenging new technologies in pediatrics. On the one hand, it offers the hope that we will be able to diagnose rare conditions that were previously impossible to diagnose, which, in turn, might lead to new treatments. On the other hand, the technology for sequencing presents daunting problems of interpretation. It is problematic to conduct the research necessary to characterize the pathogenicity of those variants at the same time that we are using them to guide the clinical care of children who have complex medical problems. It is difficult to know how parents will deal with predictive genomic information about their children. It is also difficult to know whether genome sequencing will complement or replace more traditional methods of newborn screening. This special supplement to Pediatrics presents some early reports from researchers who are exploring both the technical issues as well as the ethical, legal, and social issues that arise when we perform genomic sequencing on newborns. PMID:26729697

  3. Developing an ethical guideline for clinical teaching in Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Akram; Yeketaz, Habibeh; Asghari, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Clinical education is an essential part of medical trainees’ education process, and curriculum planners agree that it should be based on ethical standards and principles in the medical field. Nevertheless, no explained and codified criteria have been developed for ethics in clinical teaching. This study was aimed to develop an ethical guideline for medical students and teachers as the first and most important step in respecting patients' rights in educational centers. The initial draft included the codes of ethics in clinical education and was developed based on library studies. Subsequently, it was improved through a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and focus group sessions with medical students, patients, and medical teachers in educational hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The improved draft was reviewed and validated by a medical expert panel to prepare the final draft. The codes derived from this study included patients’ choices and rights in purely educational procedures, and special considerations for a) obtaining informed consent for educational procedures; b) performing procedures on deceased persons, patients under anesthesia and those lacking decision making capacity; c) educational visual recordings of the patients; and d) safety monitoring in clinical education. The guideline developed in this study incorporates codes of ethics into clinical training. Therefore, in addition to providing efficient education, the interests of patients and their rights are respected, and the ethical sensitivity of learners in primacy of patients’ best interests will be preserved and enhanced. PMID:26839679

  4. On using ethical principles of community-engaged research in translational science.

    PubMed

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of health care systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a reconsideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted 2 online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed 9 ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be "grounded in trust." Although the academic panel endorsed "culturally appropriate" and "forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits," the mixed academic-community panel endorsed "scientifically valid" and "ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination" as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large. PMID:26773561

  5. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    The new science of genomics endeavors to chart the genomes of individuals around the world, with the dual goals of understanding the role genetic factors play in human health and solving problems of disease and disability. From the perspective of indigenous peoples and developing countries, the promises and perils of genomic science appear against a backdrop of global health disparity and political vulnerability. These conditions pose a dilemma for many communities when attempting to decide about participating in genomic research or any other biomedical research. Genomic research offers the possibility of improved technologies for managing the acute and chronic diseases that plague their members. Yet, the history of particularly biomedical research among people in indigenous and developing nations offers salient examples of unethical practice, misuse of data, and failed promises. This dilemma creates risks for communities who decide either to participate or not to participate in genomic science research. Some argue that the history of poor scientific practice justifies refusal to join genomic research projects. Others argue that disease poses such great threats to the well-being of people in indigenous communities and developing nations that not participating in genomic research risks irrevocable harm. Thus, some communities particularly among indigenous peoples have declined to participate as subjects in genomic research. At the same time, some communities have begun developing new guidelines, procedures, and practices for engaging with the scientific community that offer opportunities to bridge the gap between genomic science and indigenous and/or developing communities. Four new approaches warrant special attention and further support: consulting with local communities; negotiating the complexities of consent; training members of local communities in science and health care; and training scientists to work with indigenous communities. Implicit is a new

  6. Moving Life Science Ethics Debates Beyond National Borders: Some Empirical Observations

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidenhout, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The life sciences are increasingly being called on to produce “socially robust” knowledge that honors the social contract between science and society. This has resulted in the emergence of a number of “broad social issues” that reflect the ethical tensions in these social contracts. These issues are framed in a variety of ways around the world, evidenced by differences in regulations addressing them. It is important to question whether these variations are simply regulatory variations or in fact reflect a contextual approach to ethics that brings into question the existence of a system of “global scientific ethics”. Nonetheless, within ethics education for scientists these broad social issues are often presented using this scheme of global ethics due to legacies of science ethics pedagogy. This paper suggests this may present barriers to fostering international discourse between communities of scientists, and may cause difficulties in harmonizing (and transporting) national regulations for the governance of these issues. Reinterpreting these variations according to how the content of ethical principles is attributed by communities is proposed as crucial for developing a robust international discourse. To illustrate this, the paper offers some empirical fieldwork data that considers how the concept of dual-use (as a broad social issue) was discussed within African and UK laboratories. Demonstrating that African scientists reshaped the concept of dual-use according to their own research environmental pressures and ascribed alternative content to the principles that underpin it, suggests that the limitations of a “global scientific ethics” system for these issues cannot be ignored. PMID:24046220

  7. Science, Ethics and the Climate Responsibilities of Industrial Carbon Producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumhoff, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The question of responsibility for climate change lies at the heart of societal debate over actions to curb greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for now unavoidable climate impacts. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change established the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" among nations, signaling the recognition that industrialized nations who had produced the lion's share of historic emissions bore particular responsibility for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. But climate responsibilities can be distributed in other ways as well. This talk focuses on the scientific, historical and ethical basis for considering the climate responsibilities of the major fossil energy companies that have produced and marketed the coal, oil and natural gas whose use largely drives global warming, often while investing in efforts to discredit the scientific evidence and prevent policies that would encourage a transition to low-carbon energy. Earth scientists and scientific societies who rely on financial support from these companies have an opportunity to consider what ethical stance they might take to align their research, scientific understanding and values.

  8. A burgeoning science of embryological genetics demands a modern ethics.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R G

    2007-09-01

    This brief article discusses the nature of recent scientific advances in reproductive biomedicine and genetics, their moral implications and their effects on society. The pace of research has amplified exponentially, leading society into situations incomprehended by our ancestors. Early studies on reproductive biology in animals, and clinical methods such as artificial insemination by donor spermatozoa, were introduced several centuries ago and led to prolonged ethical disagreements. The 20th century witnessed the introduction of controlled ovulation in laboratory animals, the fertilization of the oocyte and preimplantation embryology in mammalian species. The second half of this century produced an avalanche of knowledge on genetics, developmental biology, the fertilization of the human oocyte in vitro, test-tube babies, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, designer babies, stem cells and a deeper understanding of molecular differentiation in the human embryo. The ethical and legal aspects of these items have led to intense debates on their rights and wrongs. The future may have even more bizarre possibilities such as producing medicines in cow's milk or trees and delaying death for many years. PMID:17822615

  9. Dilemmas with Dilemmas...Exploring the Suitability of Dilemma Stories as a Way of Addressing Ethical Issues in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settelmaier, Elisabeth

    Traditionally, many science educators have taught science without addressing ethical questions. However, the inclusion of moral discourse in science teaching may help educators to bring to the fore problematic issues in relation to science, and it may offer an opportunity for students to practice their future engagement in the public discourse…

  10. Connecting Past with Present: A Mixed-Methods Science Ethics Course and its Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Semendeferi, Ioanna; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Dcosta, Malcolm; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    We present a graduate science ethics course that connects cases from the historical record to present realities and practices in the areas of social responsibility, authorship, and human/animal experimentation. This content is delivered with mixed methods, including films, debates, blogging, and practicum; even the instructional team is mixed, including a historian of science and a research scientist. What really unites all of the course's components is the experiential aspect: from acting in historical debates to participating in the current scientific enterprise. The course aims to change the students' culture into one deeply devoted to the science ethics cause. To measure the sought after cultural change, we developed and validated a relevant questionnaire. Results of this questionnaire from students who took the course, demonstrate that the course had the intended effect on them. Furthermore, results of this questionnaire from controls indicate the need for cultural change in that cohort. All these quantitative results are reinforced by qualitative outcomes. PMID:25688028

  11. Spatially Explicit Data: Stewardship and Ethical Challenges in Science

    PubMed Central

    Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J.; MacKenzie, Catrina A.; Parker, John N.; Strasser, Carly A.

    2013-01-01

    Scholarly communication is at an unprecedented turning point created in part by the increasing saliency of data stewardship and data sharing. Formal data management plans represent a new emphasis in research, enabling access to data at higher volumes and more quickly, and the potential for replication and augmentation of existing research. Data sharing has recently transformed the practice, scope, content, and applicability of research in several disciplines, in particular in relation to spatially specific data. This lends exciting potentiality, but the most effective ways in which to implement such changes, particularly for disciplines involving human subjects and other sensitive information, demand consideration. Data management plans, stewardship, and sharing, impart distinctive technical, sociological, and ethical challenges that remain to be adequately identified and remedied. Here, we consider these and propose potential solutions for their amelioration. PMID:24058292

  12. Recent Studies of Research Ethics at the National Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council has been asked to revisit some of the core ethical issues for science that had not been properly explored since the 1990s. Some of the interest in this area related to the impact of technology changes in the sciences (e.g., management of massive data bases) and some to institutional changes (e.g., globalization of research teams, emergence of new scientific powers abroad, and new models in the publishing industry). As a result, a series of authoritative reports from the Academies’ Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy have been developed by expert committees and published - the third edition of On Being A Scientist (2009), a report on Ensuring the Integrity, Accessibility, and Stewardship of Research Data in the Digital Age (2009), and underway there is a new edition of Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process (first published in 1992, forthcoming in 2012). It is relevant in this age of global science that the latest edition of OBAS has been translated into multiple foreign languages, and the InterAcademy Council has launched its own project on research ethics with a report due from this multi-science academy body in the 2012-2013 period. Some of the principal findings and issues raised in these reports will be presented by Richard E. Bissell, Executive Director for Policy and Global Affairs at the National Academy of Sciences.

  13. After the revolution? Ethical and social challenges in ‘personalized genomic medicine’

    PubMed Central

    Juengst, Eric T; Settersten, Richard A; Fishman, Jennifer R; McGowan, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Personalized genomic medicine (PGM) is a goal that currently unites a wide array of biomedical initiatives, and is promoted as a ‘new paradigm for healthcare’ by its champions. Its promissory virtues include individualized diagnosis and risk prediction, more effective prevention and health promotion, and patient empowerment. Beyond overcoming scientific and technological hurdles to realizing PGM, proponents may interpret and rank these promises differently, which carries ethical and social implications for the realization of PGM as an approach to healthcare. We examine competing visions of PGM’s virtues and the directions in which they could take the field, in order to anticipate policy choices that may lie ahead for researchers, healthcare providers and the public. PMID:23662108

  14. The MICHR Genomic DNA BioLibrary: An Empirical Study of the Ethics of Biorepository Development

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Blake J.; Steneck, Nicholas H.; Powell, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on an effort to study the development and usefulness of a large, broad-use, opt-in biorepository for genomic research, focusing on three ethical issues: providing appropriate understanding, recruiting in ways that do not comprise autonomous decisions, and assessing costs vs. benefits. We conclude: 1) Understanding can be improved by separating the task of informing subjects from documenting informed consent (Common Rule) and permission to use personal health information and samples for research (HIPAA); however, regulations might have to be changed to accommodate this approach. 2) Changing recruiting methods increases efficiency but can interfere with subject autonomy. 3) Finally, we propose a framework for the objective evaluation of the utility of biorepositories and suggest that more attention needs to be paid to use and sustainability. PMID:25742665

  15. Managing the Ethical Issues of Genomic Research using Pathology Specimens1

    PubMed Central

    Zeps, Nikolajs; Bledsoe, Marianna J

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks of human biospecimens involving tissue taken from surgery require close relationships with diagnostic pathology practices. As most of the tissue will be analysed using genetic or genomic technologies there is the possibility that new information is created that could be of relevance to the donors. Although attention has been recently focused on the responsibilities that may arise from researchers and biobanks in terms of giving back individual genetic research results (IGRRs) to research participants, little has been said in relation to the role of pathology services. In this Commentary, we summarise the issues with respect to pathology services and what guidelines and professional practice documents say about their responsibilities. We also provide points to consider in the development of an ethically defensible plan for giving back individual research results. PMID:25944969

  16. The MICHR Genomic DNA BioLibrary: An Empirical Study of the Ethics of Biorepository Development.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Blake J; Steneck, Nicholas H; Connally, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we report on an effort to study the development and usefulness of a large, broad-use, opt-in biorepository for genomic research, focusing on three ethical issues: providing appropriate understanding, recruiting in ways that do not comprise autonomous decisions, and assessing costs versus benefits. We conclude the following: (a) Understanding can be improved by separating the task of informing subjects from documenting informed consent (Common Rule) and permission to use personal health information and samples for research (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA]); however, regulations might have to be changed to accommodate this approach. (b) Changing recruiting methods increases efficiency but can interfere with subject autonomy. (c) Finally, we propose a framework for the objective evaluation of the utility of biorepositories and suggest that more attention needs to be paid to use and sustainability. PMID:25742665

  17. Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal

  18. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  19. Social science and a post-genomic future: alternative readings of genomic agency.

    PubMed

    Webster, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores competing discourses that envision different socio-technical landscapes opened up by the completion of the map of the human genome in 2003. It examines the ways in which the map, and it organising principle and very rationale--the gene as the sole or prime agent through which to understand the body and its disordering (as disease)--has been interpreted in quite distinct ways. It suggests how the sequences of a genomic map have post-genomic con-sequences that depend on a social rather than simply biological reading of genomic agency. Various accounts of the map and genetic agency or [sic] described, within science, science policy and social science, especially across science and technology studies (STS). The paper concludes with a comparative summary of these positions and asks whether a deconstructive reading of genomic agency by STS analysts might be the basis for a critical re-constructive engagement with post-genomic policy discourse that avoids the over-determination of agency one often finds in the latter. PMID:16552935

  20. Aspects of Ethics As They Affect Social Science Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildea, Ray Y.

    This paper discusses the current interest in values and moral education and briefly comments on how they affect college level social science curricula. Many contemporary educators and scholars hope that a renewed emphasis on moral education will achieve the following goals: (1) introduce normative inquiry into higher learning, in order to…

  1. Tracing "Ethical Subjectivities" in Science Education: How Biology Textbooks Can Frame Ethico-Political Choices for Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-02-01

    This article describes how biology textbooks can work to discursively constitute a particular kind of "ethical subjectivity." Not only do textbooks constrain the possibilities for thought and action regarding ethical issues, they also require a certain kind of "subject" to partake in ethical exercises and questions. This study looks at how ethical questions/exercises found in four Ontario textbooks require students and teachers to think and act along specific lines. These include making ethical decisions within a legal-juridical frame; deciding what kinds of research should be publically funded; optimizing personal and population health; and regulation through policy and legislation. While engaging ethical issues in these ways is useful, educators should also question the kinds of (ethical) subjectivities that are partially constituted by discourses of science education. If science education is going to address twenty-first century problems such as climate change and social inequality, educators need to address how the possibilities for ethical engagement afforded to students work to constitute specific kinds of "ethical actors."

  2. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Gray, Joe

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks ? particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  3. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  4. Los Alamos Science: The Human Genome Project. Number 20, 1992

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, N. G.; Shea, N. eds.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a broad overview of the Human Genome Project, with particular emphasis on work being done at Los Alamos. It tries to emphasize the scientific aspects of the project, compared to the more speculative information presented in the popular press. There is a brief introduction to modern genetics, including a review of classic work. There is a broad overview of the Genome Project, describing what the project is, what are some of its major five-year goals, what are major technological challenges ahead of the project, and what can the field of biology, as well as society expect to see as benefits from this project. Specific results on the efforts directed at mapping chromosomes 16 and 5 are discussed. A brief introduction to DNA libraries is presented, bearing in mind that Los Alamos has housed such libraries for many years prior to the Genome Project. Information on efforts to do applied computational work related to the project are discussed, as well as experimental efforts to do rapid DNA sequencing by means of single-molecule detection using applied spectroscopic methods. The article introduces the Los Alamos staff which are working on the Genome Project, and concludes with brief discussions on ethical, legal, and social implications of this work; a brief glimpse of genetics as it may be practiced in the next century; and a glossary of relevant terms.

  5. Los Alamos Science: The Human Genome Project. Number 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N G; Shea, N

    1992-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the Human Genome Project, with particular emphasis on work being done at Los Alamos. It tries to emphasize the scientific aspects of the project, compared to the more speculative information presented in the popular press. There is a brief introduction to modern genetics, including a review of classic work. There is a broad overview of the Genome Project, describing what the project is, what are some of its major five-year goals, what are major technological challenges ahead of the project, and what can the field of biology, as well as society expect to see as benefits from this project. Specific results on the efforts directed at mapping chromosomes 16 and 5 are discussed. A brief introduction to DNA libraries is presented, bearing in mind that Los Alamos has housed such libraries for many years prior to the Genome Project. Information on efforts to do applied computational work related to the project are discussed, as well as experimental efforts to do rapid DNA sequencing by means of single-molecule detection using applied spectroscopic methods. The article introduces the Los Alamos staff which are working on the Genome Project, and concludes with brief discussions on ethical, legal, and social implications of this work; a brief glimpse of genetics as it may be practiced in the next century; and a glossary of relevant terms.

  6. Exploring the post-genomic world: differing explanatory and manipulatory functions of post-genomic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Christina; Carlson, Siobhan M.; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Richard Lewontin proposed that the ability of a scientific field to create a narrative for public understanding garners it social relevance. This article applies Lewontin's conceptual framework of the functions of science (manipulatory and explanatory) to compare and explain the current differences in perceived societal relevance of genetics/genomics and proteomics. We provide three examples to illustrate the social relevance and strong cultural narrative of genetics/genomics for which no counterpart exists for proteomics. We argue that the major difference between genetics/genomics and proteomics is that genomics has a strong explanatory function, due to the strong cultural narrative of heredity. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of proteomics conferences, we suggest that the nature of proteins, lack of public understanding, and theoretical complexity exacerbates this difference for proteomics. Lewontin's framework suggests that social scientists may find that omics sciences affect social relations in different ways than past analyses of genetics. PMID:27134568

  7. Diabetes and Driving Safety: Science, Ethics, Legality & Practice

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Daniel J.; Singh, Harsimran; Lorber, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes affects over 25 million people in the United States, most of whom are over the age of 16 and many of whom are licensed to drive a motor vehicle. Safe operation of a motor vehicle requires complex interactions of cognitive and motor functions and medical conditions that affect these functions often will increase the risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVA). In the case of diabetes, hypoglycemia is the most common factor that has been shown to increase MVA rates. When people with diabetes are compared with non-diabetic controls, systematic analyses show that the relative risk of MVA is increased by between 12 and 19% (RRR 1.12-1.19). In comparison, the RRR for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is 4.4 and for Sleep Apnea is 2.4. Epidemiologic research suggests that patients at risk for hypoglycemia-related MVAs may have some characteristics in common, including a history of severe hypoglycemia or of hypoglycemia-related driving mishaps. Experimental studies also have shown that people with a history of hypoglycemia-related driving mishaps have abnormal counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia and greater cognitive impairments during moderate hypoglycemia. There are medical, ethical and legal issues for health care professionals who care for people with diabetes regarding their patients’ risk of hypoglycemia-related driving mishaps. This includes identifying those at increased risk and counseling them on preventive measures, including more frequent blood glucose testing, delaying driving with low or low normal blood glucose, and carrying readily available emergency supplies in the vehicle for the treatment of hypoglycemia. PMID:23531955

  8. Biological data sciences in genome research

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The last 20 years have been a remarkable era for biology and medicine. One of the most significant achievements has been the sequencing of the first human genomes, which has laid the foundation for profound insights into human genetics, the intricacies of regulation and development, and the forces of evolution. Incredibly, as we look into the future over the next 20 years, we see the very real potential for sequencing more than 1 billion genomes, bringing even deeper insight into human genetics as well as the genetics of millions of other species on the planet. Realizing this great potential for medicine and biology, though, will only be achieved through the integration and development of highly scalable computational and quantitative approaches that can keep pace with the rapid improvements to biotechnology. In this perspective, I aim to chart out these future technologies, anticipate the major themes of research, and call out the challenges ahead. One of the largest shifts will be in the training used to prepare the class of 2035 for their highly interdisciplinary world. PMID:26430150

  9. Biological data sciences in genome research.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Michael C

    2015-10-01

    The last 20 years have been a remarkable era for biology and medicine. One of the most significant achievements has been the sequencing of the first human genomes, which has laid the foundation for profound insights into human genetics, the intricacies of regulation and development, and the forces of evolution. Incredibly, as we look into the future over the next 20 years, we see the very real potential for sequencing more than 1 billion genomes, bringing even deeper insight into human genetics as well as the genetics of millions of other species on the planet. Realizing this great potential for medicine and biology, though, will only be achieved through the integration and development of highly scalable computational and quantitative approaches that can keep pace with the rapid improvements to biotechnology. In this perspective, I aim to chart out these future technologies, anticipate the major themes of research, and call out the challenges ahead. One of the largest shifts will be in the training used to prepare the class of 2035 for their highly interdisciplinary world. PMID:26430150

  10. A passion for the science of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Dunston, Georgia M.

    2012-01-01

    The complete sequencing of the human genome introduced a new knowledge base for decoding information structured in DNA sequence variation. My research is predicated on the supposition that the genome is the most sophisticated knowledge system known, as evidenced by the exquisite information it encodes on biochemical pathways and molecular processes underlying the biology of health and disease. Also, as a living legacy of human origins, migrations, adaptations, and identity, the genome communicates through the complexity of sequence variation expressed in population diversity. As a biomedical research scientist and academician, a question I am often asked is: “How is it that a black woman like you went to the University of Michigan for a PhD in Human Genetics?” As the ASCB 2012 E. E. Just Lecturer, I am honored and privileged to respond to this question in this essay on the science of the human genome and my career perspectives. PMID:23112225

  11. Ethical and legal implications of whole genome and whole exome sequencing in African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid advances in high throughput genomic technologies and next generation sequencing are making medical genomic research more readily accessible and affordable, including the sequencing of patient and control whole genomes and exomes in order to elucidate genetic factors underlying disease. Over the next five years, the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Initiative, funded by the Wellcome Trust (United Kingdom) and the National Institutes of Health (United States of America), will contribute greatly towards sequencing of numerous African samples for biomedical research. Discussion Funding agencies and journals often require submission of genomic data from research participants to databases that allow open or controlled data access for all investigators. Access to such genotype-phenotype and pedigree data, however, needs careful control in order to prevent identification of individuals or families. This is particularly the case in Africa, where many researchers and their patients are inexperienced in the ethical issues accompanying whole genome and exome research; and where an historical unidirectional flow of samples and data out of Africa has created a sense of exploitation and distrust. In the current study, we analysed the implications of the anticipated surge of next generation sequencing data in Africa and the subsequent data sharing concepts on the protection of privacy of research subjects. We performed a retrospective analysis of the informed consent process for the continent and the rest-of-the-world and examined relevant legislation, both current and proposed. We investigated the following issues: (i) informed consent, including guidelines for performing culturally-sensitive next generation sequencing research in Africa and availability of suitable informed consent documents; (ii) data security and subject privacy whilst practicing data sharing; (iii) conveying the implications of such concepts to research participants in resource

  12. Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, P.R.

    1996-09-25

    This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

  13. Genomics: The Science and Technology Behind the Human Genome Project (by Charles R. Cantor and Cassandra L. Smith)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Reviewed By Martin J.

    2000-01-01

    several examples of genetic and genome analysis, additional problem/homework sets would need to be developed to ensure student comprehension. The text steers clear of the ethical implications of the Human Genome Initiative and remains true to its subtitle The Science and Technology .

  14. Practical Strategy on the Subject of “Science and Ethics” for Overcoming Hybrid Engineering Ethics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Yoshiaki

    The issue of economic globalization and JABEE (Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education) mean that education on engineering ethics has now become increasingly important for science-engineering students who will become the next generation of engineers. This is clearly indicated when engineers are made professionally responsible for various unfortunate accidents that happen during daily life in society. Learning hybrid engineering ethics is an essential part of the education of the humanities and sciences. This paper treats the contents for the subject of “Science and Ethics” drawing on several years of practice and the fruits of studying science and engineering ethics at the faculty of science-engineering in university. This paper can be considered to be a practical strategy to the formation of morality.

  15. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Background Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways

  16. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment. PMID:26200702

  17. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  18. Ethical decision making in the conduct of research: role of individual, contextual and organizational factors. Commentary on "Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education".

    PubMed

    Langlais, Philip J

    2012-09-01

    Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have identified many important factors that affect ethical behavior, including individual, contextual, and organizational factors. Surprisingly little research has been conducted to examine the role of these factors in either the development of ethical decision-making skills, or their applicability to ethical issues commonly encountered in research and other scholarly and professional activities. Interdisciplinary approaches combined with research and discipline relevant paradigms should greatly enhance understanding of the individual contextual and organizational factors involved in ethical and unethical research conduct. Such studies will inform and facilitate the development of more effective ethics education programs in the sciences and engineering professions. PMID:22660988

  19. The Dürrenmatt's ``Physicists'' as a Tool in Understanding the Ethics of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapor, Darko

    2007-04-01

    Part of the course of the History of Physics taught by the author is dedicated to the ethics of science, in particular to moral responsibility of the scientist towards society. In order to make the subject more interesting to the students, the first step is reading the play ``Physicists'' by Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1962). The students are then asked to relate some of the events connected to the nuclear studies before and during the World War II and armaments race with some situations in the play or the author's theses related to it.

  20. Health sciences librarians' awareness and assessment of the Medical Library Association Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship: the results of a membership survey

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Gary D.; Devine, Patricia J.; Corcoran, Kate E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Medical Library Association (MLA) Board of Directors and president charged an Ethical Awareness Task Force and recommended a survey to determine MLA members' awareness of and opinions about the current Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship. Methods: The task force and MLA staff crafted a survey to determine: (1) awareness of the MLA code and its provisions, (2) use of the MLA code to resolve professional ethical issues, (3) consultation of other ethical codes or guides, (4) views regarding the relative importance of the eleven MLA code statements, (5) challenges experienced in following any MLA code provisions, and (6) ethical problems not clearly addressed by the code. Results: Over 500 members responded (similar to previous MLA surveys), and while most were aware of the code, over 30% could not remember when they had last read or thought about it, and nearly half had also referred to other codes or guidelines. The large majority thought that: (1) all code statements were equally important, (2) none were particularly difficult or challenging to follow, and (3) the code covered every ethical challenge encountered in their professional work. Implications: Comments provided by respondents who disagreed with the majority views suggest that the MLA code could usefully include a supplementary guide with practical advice on how to reason through a number of ethically challenging situations that are typically encountered by health sciences librarians. PMID:25349544

  1. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters." PMID:24290007

  2. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 2: Resources for Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    This ERIC Digest identifies how the human genome project fits into the "National Science Education Standards" and lists Human Genome Project Web sites found on the World Wide Web. It is a resource companion to "Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators" (Haury 2001). The Web resources and instructional materials can…

  3. When the science fails and the ethics works: 'Fail-safe' ethics in the FEM-PrEP study.

    PubMed

    Kingori, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    This paper will explore the concept of 'fail safe' ethics in the FEM PrEP trial, and the practice of research and ethics on the ground. FEM-PrEP examined the efficacy of PrEP in African women after promising outcomes in research conducted with MSM. This was a hugely optimistic time and FEM-PrEP was mobilised using rights-based ethical arguments that women should have access to PrEP. This paper will present data collected during an ethnographic study of frontline research workers involved in FEM-PrEP. During our discussions, 'fail-safe' ethics emerged as concept that encapsulated their confidence that their ethics could not fail. However, in 2011, FEM-PrEP was halted and deemed a failure. The women involved in the study were held responsible because contrary to researcher's expectations they were not taking the oral PrEP being researched. This examination of FEM-PrEP will show that ethical arguments are increasingly deployed to mobilise, maintain and in some cases stop trials in ways which, at times, are superseded or co-opted by other interests. While promoting the interests of women, rights-based approaches are argued to indirectly justify the continuation of individualised, biomedical interventions which have been problematic in other women-centred trials. In this examination of FEM-PrEP, the rights-based approach obscured: ethical concerns beyond access to PrEP; the complexities of power relationships between donor and host countries; the operations of the HIV industry in research-saturated areas and the cumulative effect of unfilled expectations in HIV research and how this has shaped ideas of research and ethics. PMID:26484946

  4. Toward an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Irene De La Bretonne

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were changing philosophies and theories from early indigenous cultures to the present on the nature of nature, the value of nature, and the human relationship with nature. These philosophies and theories were found to influence values that today underlie the work scientists do and the ways young people are educated in science. In the study, two groups of participants--Nature Writers and scientists--revealed the essence and meaning of their relationship with nature. A two-stage, modified Delphi method was used for collecting data. Stage One comprised the first "round" of the Delphi and involved content analysis of writings by a select group of U.S. Nature Writers from the early 1800s to the present. In Stage Two, comprising three rounds of the modified Delphi, perspectives of Nature Writers were imbedded in questionnaires and presented for response to a select group of scientists connected with research and education at National Laboratories across the country. Finally, results from each participant group were brought together in a recursive process, one with the other, to determine findings. Strong Earth-care values, including receptivity, responsibility, interdependence, respect, cooperation, love, and care, were found to be held in common by the Nature Writers and scientists in this study and could form the foundation for an essential ethic for teaching science. The strongest dissonance between Nature Writers and scientists was evident in emotional and spiritual domains--despite that many scientists revealed emotional and spiritual elements in stories told of their experiences with nature. Contrary to what might have been

  5. Transnational Organizational Considerations for Sociocultural Differences in Ethics and Virtual Team Functioning in Laboratory Animal Science

    PubMed Central

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development. PMID:20587155

  6. Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-05-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development. PMID:20587155

  7. Whitehead Policy Symposium. The Human Genome Project: Science, law, and social change in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, E.K.

    2000-02-17

    Advances in the biomedical sciences, especially in human genomics, will dramatically influence law, medicine, public health, and many other sectors of our society in the decades ahead. The public already senses the revolutionary nature of genomic knowledge. In the US and Europe, we have seen widespread discussions about genetic discrimination in health insurance; privacy issues raised by the proliferation of DNA data banks; the challenge of interpreting new DNA diagnostic tests; changing definitions of what it means to be healthy; and the science and ethics of cloning animals and human beings. The primary goal of the Whitehead/ASLME Policy Symposium was to provide a bridge between the research community and professionals, who were just beginning to grasp the potential impact of new genetic technologies on their fields. The ''Human Genome Project: Science, Law, and Social Change in the 21st Century'' initially was designed as a forum for 300-500 physicians, lawyers, consumers, ethicists, and scientists to explore the impact of new genetic technologies and prepare for the challenges ahead.

  8. The use of ethical frameworks by students following a new science course for 16 18 year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael

    2008-09-01

    There has been a move in recent years towards the greater inclusion of social and ethical issues within science courses. This paper examines a new context-based course for 16 18 year-olds (Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology) who are studying biology in England and Wales. The course is taught through contexts and has an emphasis on social issues and the development of ethical reasoning. Examination of a sample of reports written by students in 2005 as part of the course’s summative assessment shows that utilitarian ethical reasoning is used widely and that the other ethical frameworks to which students are introduced in the course—rights and duties, autonomy and virtue ethics—are used substantially less often. In addition, students mostly argue anthropocentrically though many of them argue ecocentrically and/or biocentrically too.

  9. Incorporating Genomics and Bioinformatics across the Life Sciences Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Ditty, Jayna L.; Kvaal, Christopher A.; Goodner, Brad; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Bailey, Cheryl; Britton, Robert A.; Gordon, Stuart G.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Reed, Kelynne; Xu, Zhaohui; Sanders-Lorenz, Erin R.; Axen, Seth; Kim, Edwin; Johns, Mitrick; Scott, Kathleen; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2011-08-01

    Undergraduate life sciences education needs an overhaul, as clearly described in the National Research Council of the National Academies publication BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. Among BIO 2010's top recommendations is the need to involve students in working with real data and tools that reflect the nature of life sciences research in the 21st century. Education research studies support the importance of utilizing primary literature, designing and implementing experiments, and analyzing results in the context of a bona fide scientific question in cultivating the analytical skills necessary to become a scientist. Incorporating these basic scientific methodologies in undergraduate education leads to increased undergraduate and post-graduate retention in the sciences. Toward this end, many undergraduate teaching organizations offer training and suggestions for faculty to update and improve their teaching approaches to help students learn as scientists, through design and discovery (e.g., Council of Undergraduate Research [www.cur.org] and Project Kaleidoscope [www.pkal.org]). With the advent of genome sequencing and bioinformatics, many scientists now formulate biological questions and interpret research results in the context of genomic information. Just as the use of bioinformatic tools and databases changed the way scientists investigate problems, it must change how scientists teach to create new opportunities for students to gain experiences reflecting the influence of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics on modern life sciences research. Educators have responded by incorporating bioinformatics into diverse life science curricula. While these published exercises in, and guidelines for, bioinformatics curricula are helpful and inspirational, faculty new to the area of bioinformatics inevitably need training in the theoretical underpinnings of the algorithms. Moreover, effectively integrating bioinformatics into

  10. Life Sciences Division and Center for Human Genome Studies 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cram, L.S.; Stafford, C.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Life Sciences Division and the biological aspects of the Center for Human Genome Studies for the calendar year 1994. The technical portion of the report is divided into two parts, (1) selected research highlights and (2) research projects and accomplishments. The research highlights provide a more detailed description of a select set of projects. A technical description of all projects is presented in sufficient detail so that the informed reader will be able to assess the scope and significance of each project. Summaries useful to the casual reader desiring general information have been prepared by the group leaders and appear in each group overview. Investigators on the staff of the Life Sciences Division will be pleased to provide further information.

  11. Human genome and philosophy: what ethical challenge will human genome studies bring to the medical practices in the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Renzong, Q

    2001-12-01

    A human being or person cannot be reduced to a set of human genes, or human genome. Genetic essentialism is wrong, because as a person the entity should have self-conscious and social interaction capacity which is grown in an interpersonal relationship. Genetic determinism is wrong too, the relationship between a gene and a trait is not a linear model of causation, but rather a non-linear one. Human genome is a complexity system and functions in a complexity system of human body and a complexity of systems of natural/social environment. Genetic determinism also caused the issue of how much responsibility an agent should take for her/his action, and how much degrees of freedom will a human being have. Human genome research caused several conceptual issues. Can we call a gene 'good' or 'bad', 'superior' of 'inferior'? Is a boy who is detected to have the gene of Huntington's chorea or Alzheimer disease a patient? What should the term 'eugenics' mean? What do the terms such as 'gene therapy', 'treatment' and 'enhancement' and 'human cloning' mean etc.? The research of human genome and its application caused and will cause ethical issues. Can human genome research and its application be used for eugenics, or only for the treatment and prevention of diseases? Must the principle of informed consent/choice be insisted in human genome research and its application? How to protecting gene privacy and combating the discrimination on the basis of genes? How to promote the quality between persons, harmony between ethnic groups and peace between countries? How to establish a fair, just, equal and equitable relationship between developing and developed countries in regarding to human genome research and its application? PMID:11803809

  12. Genomic research with human samples. Points of view from scientists and research subjects about disclosure of results and risks of genomic research. Ethical and empirical approach.

    PubMed

    Valle Mansilla, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often now ask subjects to donate samples to be deposited in biobanks. This is not only of interest to researchers, patients and society as a whole can benefit from the improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention that the advent of genomic medicine portends. However, there is a growing debate regarding the social and ethical implications of creating biobanks and using stored human tissue samples for genomic research. Our aim was to identify factors related to both scientists and patients' preferences regarding the sort of information to convey to subjects about the results of the study and the risks related to genomic research. The method used was a survey addressed to 204 scientists and 279 donors from the U.S. and Spain. In this sample, researchers had already published genomic epidemiology studies; and research subjects had actually volunteered to donate a human sample for genomic research. Concerning the results, patients supported more frequently than scientists their right to know individual results from future genomic research. These differences were statistically significant after adjusting by the opportunity to receive genetic research results from the research they had previously participated and their perception of risks regarding genetic information compared to other clinical data. A slight majority of researchers supported informing participants about individual genomic results only if the reliability and clinical validity of the information had been established. Men were more likely than women to believe that patients should be informed of research results even if these conditions were not met. Also among patients, almost half of them would always prefer to be informed about individual results from future genomic research. The three main factors associated to a higher support of a non-limited access to individual results were: being from the US, having previously been offered individual information and considering

  13. A historical, clinical, and ethical overview of the emerging science of facial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Linda A

    2011-01-01

    In the past 5 years, a total of 16 facial transplantation surgeries have been performed in France, China, Spain, and the United States. Facial transplantation has become a surgical option in clinical situations in which soft tissue and bone loss is accompanied by severe cosmetic, sensory, and functional deficiencies due to disease, trauma, or congenital malformations. With the introduction of facial tissue transplantation surgery came complex clinical, technological, and ethical patient care issues. These complex issues included determining patient selection criteria, refining donor tissue procurement techniques, predicting expected functional outcomes, appreciating the limitations of obtaining a fully informed consent for an innovative procedure, and deliberating the immunological response and postoperative immunosuppressant requirements of the recipient. In addition, psychological implications for the patient, societal consequences, and ethical concerns have been discussed. The short-term results have been positive. Results to date indicate that the clinical, technical, and immunological patient care issues in this emerging science appear to mirror those of other reconstructive and organ transplantation procedures. The long-term physical, emotional, and psychological effects on the recipient patient, as well as long-term consequences to the donor's family, are yet to be validated. PMID:22157604

  14. Ethics and genomic medicine, how to navigate decisions in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Devon, Karen M; Lerner-Ellis, Jordan P; Ganai, Sabha; Angelos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic information to make medical decisions and tailor treatments to individuals will likely provide major benefits and become an important part of health care. Surgical oncologists must ethically apply scientific genetic information in a complex and evolving environment to the benefit of their patients. In this review we address ethical issues associated with: indications for genetic testing, informed consent for testing and therapy, confidentiality, targeted therapy, prophylactic surgery, and genetic testing in children. PMID:25183289

  15. The Use of Ethical Frameworks by Students Following a New Science Course for 16-18 Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There has been a move in recent years towards the greater inclusion of social and ethical issues within science courses. This paper examines a new context-based course for 16-18 year-olds (Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology) who are studying biology in England and Wales. The course is taught through contexts and has an emphasis on social issues and…

  16. Investigation of Environmental Topics in the Science and Technology Curriculum and Textbooks in Terms of Environmental Ethics and Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacin Simsek, Canan

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve environmental problems, it is thought that education should be connected with values. For this reason, it is emphasized that environmental issues should be integrated with ethical and aesthetic values. In this study, 6th, 7th and 8th grade science and technology curriculum and textbooks were investigated to find out how much…

  17. A perpetual source of DNA or something really different: ethical issues in the creation of cell lines for African genomics research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rise of genomic studies in Africa – not least due to projects funded under H3Africa – is associated with the development of a small number of biorepositories across Africa. For the ultimate success of these biorepositories, the creation of cell lines including those from selected H3Africa samples would be beneficial. In this paper, we map ethical challenges in the creation of cell lines. Discussion The first challenge we identified relates to the moral status of cells living in culture. There is no doubt that cells in culture are alive, and the question is how this characteristic is relevant to ethical decision-making. The second challenge relates to the fact that cells in culture are a source of cell products and mitochondrial DNA. In combination with other technologies, cells in culture could also be used to grow human tissue. Whilst on the one hand, this feature increases the potential utility of the sample and promotes science, on the other it also enables further scientific work that may not have been specifically consented to or approved. The third challenge relates to ownership over samples, particularly in cases where cell lines are created by a biobank, and in a different country than where samples were collected. Relevant questions here concern the export of samples, approval of secondary use and the acceptability of commercialisation. A fourth challenge relates to perceptions of blood and bodily integrity, which may be particularly relevant for African research participants from certain cultures or backgrounds. Finally, we discuss challenges around informed consent and ethical review. Summary In this paper, we sought to map the myriad of ethical challenges that need to be considered prior to making cell line creation a reality in the H3Africa project. Considering the relative novelty of this practice in Africa, such challenges will need to be considered, discussed and potentially be resolved before cell line creation in Africa becomes

  18. Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Michal; Matz, Sandra C; Gosling, Samuel D; Popov, Vesselin; Stillwell, David

    2015-09-01

    Facebook is rapidly gaining recognition as a powerful research tool for the social sciences. It constitutes a large and diverse pool of participants, who can be selectively recruited for both online and offline studies. Additionally, it facilitates data collection by storing detailed records of its users' demographic profiles, social interactions, and behaviors. With participants' consent, these data can be recorded retrospectively in a convenient, accurate, and inexpensive way. Based on our experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining multiple Facebook-based psychological studies that attracted over 10 million participants, we demonstrate how to recruit participants using Facebook, incentivize them effectively, and maximize their engagement. We also outline the most important opportunities and challenges associated with using Facebook for research, provide several practical guidelines on how to successfully implement studies on Facebook, and finally, discuss ethical considerations. PMID:26348336

  19. The ethics of translating high-throughput science into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Pilar N

    2014-09-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly data intensive and computational, and "big data science" is migrating into the clinical arena. Unfortunately, ethicists, regulators, and policy-makers have barely begun to explore the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the variety of analytical and computational approaches in use and under development in biology and medicine. Most scholarship concerning big data bioscience has focused on privacy, a vitally important consideration but not the only one. Among the issues raised by new computational technologies are questions about safety and safety assessment, justice, and how to obtain proper informed consent. These technologies also raise a myriad of regulatory issues that could influence the probability of translating new assays or computational tools to the clinical or public health spheres. PMID:25231655

  20. Publishing Ethics and Predatory Practices: A Dilemma for All Stakeholders of Science Communication

    PubMed Central

    Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N.; Kitas, George D.

    2015-01-01

    Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles. PMID:26240476

  1. Publishing Ethics and Predatory Practices: A Dilemma for All Stakeholders of Science Communication.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N; Kitas, George D

    2015-08-01

    Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles. PMID:26240476

  2. Large-Scale Sequencing: The Future of Genomic Sciences Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret Riley; Merry Buckley

    2009-01-01

    by other experimental data, particularly transcriptomics and metabolomics data, all of which should be gathered and curated continuously. Systematic genomics efforts like the ones outlined in this document would significantly broaden our view of biological diversity and have major effects on science. This has to be backed up with examples. Considering these potential impacts and the need for acquiescence from both the public and scientists to get such projects funded and functioning, education and training will be crucial. New collaborations within the scientific community will also be necessary.

  3. Becoming a Science Teacher: Moving toward Creolized Science and an Ethic of Cosmopolitanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Gale

    2011-01-01

    Although communities and schools in North America are increasingly diverse and positioned in a global web, schools continue to adhere to Western norms and the teacher workforce remains largely White, continuing an ideology of collective sameness and conformity. Hybridization of teacher identity and of science teaching are suggested as ways to…

  4. The role of genomics in conservation and reproductive sciences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Warren E; Koepfli, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Genomics, the study of an organism's genome through DNA analyses, is a central part of the biological sciences and is rapidly changing approaches to animal conservation. The genomes of thousands of organisms, including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants have been sequenced and the results annotated, augmented and refined through the application of new approaches in transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics that enhance the characterization of messenger RNA, proteins, and metabolites. The same computational advances that are catalyzing "-omic" technologies and novel approaches to address fundamental research questions are facilitating bioinformatic analysis and enabling access of primary and derivative data and results in public and private databases (Zhao and Grant. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 12:293-305, 2011). These tools will be used to provide fundamental advances in our understanding of reproductive biology across vertebrate species and promise to revolutionize our approach to conservation biology.The vulnerability of animal populations and their genetic diversity is well documented, as are the myriad of causes and threats to their persistence, including habitat degradation and loss, overexploitation, pollution, invasive alien species, and climate change. Of the 64,283 vertebrates assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in their 2012 Red List of Threatened Species, 7,250 or ~11 % are threatened with extinction, a percentage that has been increasing steadily for at least the last decade ( www.iucnredlist.org ). Among many of these species, important genetic diversity has been lost, thereby increasing their vulnerability as genetically diverse populations have higher fitness, generally are more resilient to environmental challenges, and have more adaptive potential (Reed and Frankham Conserv Biol 17:230-237, 2003; Luikart et al. Nat Rev Genet 4:981-994, 2003). In turn, genetic variation within and among populations may be essential to

  5. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public. PMID:26474731

  6. The Ethical Implications of Cultural Intervention by Space-faring Civilizations -- What Science Fiction Has to Say

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupa, M.

    Science fiction (Scifi) plays out the concerns of our possible scientistic futures; it is a source for exploring the deep rooted psychological concerns of mankind with science and the humanities. In this paper it is proposed Scifi is a valid source of hypotheses to examine, not as "evidence", but as candidate ­ often cautionary ­ notions, i.e., scenarios to be studied. Scifi represents a kind of Jungian mythological based story-telling, putting forward tales that express our conscious/unconscious concerns. Thus, when looking into ethical questions like, "where will techno-progressive futures take us?", we import into them these archetypes, hopes and fears, as a result they frequently reappear as familiar tropes. In this respect it is appropriate not to ignore them, but to openly challenge/appreciate them: to see what scenarios are indeed likely and how they may impact us reciprocally. This paper examines some of these aspects, and provides examples of how they are represented in the Scifi genre, in particular with consideration of the ethical implications of cultural intervention by space-faring civilizations. Given the specific analysis/examples provided, it concludes with an ethical scenario analysis (a dialectic argument), within the limiting conditions of the Drake Equation, Fermi Paradox and Cultural History. It comments on the potential existential risk of the Active SETI programmes recently initiated, indeed the need for an ethical exosociological review of all proposed Interstellar projects that express an "Intervention-Propensity".

  7. [Ethical and legal principles for the activities of bioprospection in relation to human beings and the human genome].

    PubMed

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, bioprospecting has become an important field of research, which looks for development alternatives, entry into global (environmental) markets, and the subsequent obtention of benefits under sustainable development principles. However, there is still so much to discuss regarding the social and environmental impacts produced by this activity, as well as its main limitations. To this end, the Forum/round-table discussion, entitled "Bioprospección, Etica y Sociedad" was organised to take place on 28 March 2012 at the National University of Colombia. Its main objective was to enrich our knowledge on bioprospecting considering the ethical considerations that involve society. The presentation given by Professor ROMEO CASABONA, regarding the connection between bioprospecting and the human genome deserves special attention and is presented below. PMID:23115822

  8. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the

  9. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. PMID:25530189

  10. Genome Science: A Video Tour of the Washington University Genome Sequencing Center for High School and Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Sequencing of the human genome has ushered in a new era of biology. The technologies developed to facilitate the sequencing of the human genome are now being applied to the sequencing of other genomes. In 2004, a partnership was formed between Washington University School of Medicine Genome Sequencing Center's Outreach Program and Washington University Department of Biology Science Outreach to create a video tour depicting the processes involved in large-scale sequencing. “Sequencing a Genome: Inside the Washington University Genome Sequencing Center” is a tour of the laboratory that follows the steps in the sequencing pipeline, interspersed with animated explanations of the scientific procedures used at the facility. Accompanying interviews with the staff illustrate different entry levels for a career in genome science. This video project serves as an example of how research and academic institutions can provide teachers and students with access and exposure to innovative technologies at the forefront of biomedical research. Initial feedback on the video from undergraduate students, high school teachers, and high school students provides suggestions for use of this video in a classroom setting to supplement present curricula. PMID:16341256

  11. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify. PMID:16670010

  12. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  13. The importance of formative assessment in science and engineering ethics education: some evidence and practical advice.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew W; Wilson, Sara E; Dankowicz, Harry; Loui, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    Recent research in ethics education shows a potentially problematic variation in content, curricular materials, and instruction. While ethics instruction is now widespread, studies have identified significant variation in both the goals and methods of ethics education, leaving researchers to conclude that many approaches may be inappropriately paired with goals that are unachievable. This paper speaks to these concerns by demonstrating the importance of aligning classroom-based assessments to clear ethical learning objectives in order to help students and instructors track their progress toward meeting those objectives. Two studies at two different universities demonstrate the usefulness of classroom-based, formative assessments for improving the quality of students' case responses in computational modeling and research ethics. PMID:23338793

  14. Human Genome Teacher Networking Project, Final Report, April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Debra

    1999-10-01

    Project to provide education regarding ethical legal and social implications of Human Genome Project to high school science teachers through two consecutive summer workshops, in class activities, and peer teaching workshops.

  15. Ethical Implications of Seismic Risk Communication in Istanbul - Insights from a Transdisciplinary, Film-based Science Communication Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ickert, Johanna; Stewart, Iain S.

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade, social science studies indicate that there is little or no correlation between the provision of scientific information about geohazards and risks and the adaptive changes in individual or community behaviour that would reduce risk. Bridging that gap to effectively convey hazard science 'the last mile' to those communities at risk raises a number of ethical issues about the role and responsibilities of geoscientists as communicators. Those issues emerge from a methodological shift away from the dominant interpretation of seismic risk communication as a transfer of scientific facts to "the public", towards more inclusive transdisciplinary communication strategies that incorporate peer-role models, adopt social network-based strategies and directly engage with communities in motivating preparedness actions. With this methodological shift comes ethical dilemmas. What are the target-groups that should be prioritised? What are the professional expectations and levels of personal engagement required of geo-communicators? How able and willing are geoscientists to include other forms of knowledge (e.g. from local communities or other disciplines)? What media formats can reconcile argumentative, informational "matters of fact" with sociocultural and psychological "matters of concern"? How should scientists react to political controversies related to risk mitigation and its communication? In the context of these ethical concerns, many geoscientist struggle to switch from conventional communication modes in which they are the technical 'experts' to more community-centered, participatory modes of public engagement. We examine this research question through a case study on seismic risk communication challenges in Istanbul, a megacity with one of the highest seismic vulnerabilities in the world. Currently, there are few formal mechanisms to facilitate interchange between academic geoscientists and the general public in Istanbul. In order to reduce the city

  16. Is there a need for a code of ethics in science communication and Communicating Uncertainties on Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegnar, T.; Benestad, R.; Billard, C.

    2010-09-01

    The EMS Media team recognises that: Scientific knowledge is valuable for society, but it also becomes fragile in a media-dominated society where the distortion of facts clouds the validity of the information. The use of scientific titles in communication normally brings expectations of high standards regarding the information content. Freedom of speech is fragile in the sense that it can be diluted by a high proportion of false information. The value of scientific and scholastic titles is degraded when they are used to give the impression of false validity. Science communication is powerful, and implies a certain responsibility and ethical standard. The scientific community operates with a more or less tacit ethics code in all areas touching the scientists' activities. Even though many scientific questions cannot be completely resolved, there is a set of established and unequivocal scientific practices, methods, and tests, on which our scientific knowledge rests. Scientists are assumed to master the scientific practices, methods, and tests. High standard in science-related communication and media exposure, openness, and honesty will increase the relevance of science, academies, and scientists in the society, in addition to benefiting the society itself. Science communication is important to maintain and enhance the general appreciation of science. The value of the role of science is likely to increase with a reduced distance between scientists and the society and a lower knowledge barrier. An awareness about the ethical aspects of science and science communication may aid scientists in making decisions about how and what to say. Scientists are often not trained in communication or ethics. A set of guide lines may lower the barrier for scientists concerned about tacit codes to come forward and talk to the media. Recommendations: The mass media should seek more insight into scientific knowledge, history, principles, and societies. Journalists and artists should be

  17. Ethics in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, H. O.

    The definition and role of ethics in higher education in agriculture are discussed. The ethical dimensions of recent events in agricultural education and agricultural science are discussed, including the ethics implicit in federal regulations and court decisions, changes in the backgrounds, experiences and values of students choosing agriculture,…

  18. Practical Guidance on Science and Engineering Ethics Education for Instructors and Administrators: Papers and Summary from a Workshop, December 12, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benya, Frazier F., Ed.; Fletcher, Cameron H.,Ed.; Hollander, Rachelle D.,Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, colleges and universities in the United States have significantly increased the formal ethics instruction they provide in science and engineering. Today, science and engineering programs socialize students into the values of scientists and engineers as well as their obligations in the conduct of scientific research and…

  19. "I Don't Even Have Time to Be Their Friend!" Ethical Dilemmas in Ph.D. Supervision in the Hard Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on exploring students' and supervisors' perceptions of ethical problems in doctoral supervision in the natural sciences. Fifteen supervisors and doctoral students in one research community in the natural sciences were interviewed about their practices and experiences in the doctoral process and supervision. We explored to what…

  20. Genome Island: A Virtual Science Environment in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    Mary Anne CLark describes the organization and uses of Genome Island, a virtual laboratory complex constructed in Second Life. Genome Island was created for teaching genetics to university undergraduates but also provides a public space where anyone interested in genetics can spend a few minutes, or a few hours, interacting with genetic…

  1. A Study of the Relationship Between Nurses’ Professional Self-Concept and Professional Ethics in Hospitals Affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses’ better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses’ professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. Results: The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). Conclusion: In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses’ self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration. PMID:26573035

  2. Science at the Ethical Frontier: Best Sci-Tech Books of 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of the 39 best science and technology books from 1993 in the areas of animal life, astronomy, biography, chemistry, earth science, environmental sciences, evolution, mathematics, medical sciences, natural history, paleontology, philosophy of science, physics, psychology, general science, and technology. Ethical…

  3. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    This digest explains how to inform high school students and their parents about the human genome project (HGP) and how the information from this milestone finding will affect future biological and medical research and challenge science educators. The sections include: (1) "The Emerging Legacy of the HGP"; (2) "Transforming How Science Is Done";…

  4. Research ethics in the dynamic of scientific field: challenges in the building of guidelines for social sciences and humanities.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2015-09-01

    The development of guidelines on research ethics for social science and humanities (SSH) takes place in the scientific field, marked by disputes aimed at the establishment of hegemonic scientific standard. In Brazil, the National Health Council is responsible for approving these guidelines, which involve certain specificities. Based on the authors' experience in the SSH Working Group of the National Commission on Research Ethics (GT CHS / CONEP), this article presents the process of development of guidelines for SSH, and some its challenges: the distance between the statutory guarantee and the effective execution of guidelines; the biomedical hegemony and the marginal position of the SSH in the CEP / CONEP system; the inadequacy of the current resolution facing the research features in CHS; the use of the concept of risk in guidelines aimed at SSH in the health area. Some interfaces and tensions in the debate between scientific merit and ethical evaluation are also discussed. The analysis highlights important impasses and difficulties regarding inter-paradigmatic dialogue in health research, considered the characteristics of the different traditions, the CONEP's heavily relying on the positivist perspective and the defense of that paradigm hegemony. PMID:26331493

  5. Ethical issues in consumer genome sequencing: Use of consumers' samples and data.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Emilia; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2016-03-01

    High throughput approaches such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) create an unprecedented amount of data providing powerful resources for clinical care and research. Recently, WGS and WES services have been made available by commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies. The DTC offer of genetic testing (GT) has already brought attention to potentially problematic issues such as the adequacy of consumers' informed consent and transparency of companies' research activities. In this study, we analysed the websites of four DTC GT companies offering WGS and/or WES with regard to their policies governing storage and future use of consumers' data and samples. The results are discussed in relation to recommendations and guiding principles such as the "Statement of the European Society of Human Genetics on DTC GT for health-related purposes" (2010) and the "Framework for responsible sharing of genomic and health-related data" (Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, 2014). The analysis reveals that some companies may store and use consumers' samples or sequencing data for unspecified research and share the data with third parties. Moreover, the companies do not provide sufficient or clear information to consumers about this, which can undermine the validity of the consent process. Furthermore, while all companies state that they provide privacy safeguards for data and mention the limitations of these, information about the possibility of re-identification is lacking. Finally, although the companies that may conduct research do include information regarding proprietary claims and commercialisation of the results, it is not clear whether consumers are aware of the consequences of these policies. These results indicate that DTC GT companies still need to improve the transparency regarding handling of consumers' samples and data, including having an explicit and clear consent process for research activities. PMID:27047756

  6. Ethical issues in consumer genome sequencing: Use of consumers' samples and data

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Emilia; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2016-01-01

    High throughput approaches such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) create an unprecedented amount of data providing powerful resources for clinical care and research. Recently, WGS and WES services have been made available by commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies. The DTC offer of genetic testing (GT) has already brought attention to potentially problematic issues such as the adequacy of consumers' informed consent and transparency of companies' research activities. In this study, we analysed the websites of four DTC GT companies offering WGS and/or WES with regard to their policies governing storage and future use of consumers' data and samples. The results are discussed in relation to recommendations and guiding principles such as the “Statement of the European Society of Human Genetics on DTC GT for health-related purposes” (2010) and the “Framework for responsible sharing of genomic and health-related data” (Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, 2014). The analysis reveals that some companies may store and use consumers' samples or sequencing data for unspecified research and share the data with third parties. Moreover, the companies do not provide sufficient or clear information to consumers about this, which can undermine the validity of the consent process. Furthermore, while all companies state that they provide privacy safeguards for data and mention the limitations of these, information about the possibility of re-identification is lacking. Finally, although the companies that may conduct research do include information regarding proprietary claims and commercialisation of the results, it is not clear whether consumers are aware of the consequences of these policies. These results indicate that DTC GT companies still need to improve the transparency regarding handling of consumers' samples and data, including having an explicit and clear consent process for research activities. PMID:27047756

  7. `I Don't Even Have Time to be Their Friend!' Ethical Dilemmas in Ph.D. Supervision in the Hard Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-11-01

    This study focused on exploring students' and supervisors' perceptions of ethical problems in doctoral supervision in the natural sciences. Fifteen supervisors and doctoral students in one research community in the natural sciences were interviewed about their practices and experiences in the doctoral process and supervision. We explored to what extent doctoral students and supervisors experienced similar or different ethical challenges in the supervisory relationship and analyzed how the experiences of ethical dilemmas in supervision could be understood in light of the structure and practices of natural science research groups. The data were analyzed by theory-driven content analysis. Five ethical principles, namely non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, fidelity and justice, were used as a framework for identifying ethical issues. The results show that one major question that appears to underpin many of the emerging ethical issues is that the supervisors and students have different expectations of the supervisory role. The second important observation is that doctoral students primarily described their own experiences, whereas the supervisors described their activities as embedded in a system and elaborated on the causes and consequences at a system level.

  8. Multimedia Presentations on the Human Genome: Implementation and Assessment of a Teaching Program for the Introduction to Genome Science Using a Poster and Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kano, Kei; Yahata, Saiko; Muroi, Kaori; Kawakami, Masahiro; Tomoda, Mari; Miyaki, Koichi; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Kato, Kazuto

    2008-01-01

    Genome science, including topics such as gene recombination, cloning, genetic tests, and gene therapy, is now an established part of our daily lives; thus we need to learn genome science to better equip ourselves for the present day. Learning from topics directly related to the human has been suggested to be more effective than learning from…

  9. Science, humanism, judgement, ethics: person-centered medicine as an emergent model of modern clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Miles, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Medical University of Plovdiv (MUP) has as its motto 'Committed to humanity". But what does humanity in modern medicine mean? Is it possible to practise a form of medicine that is without humanity? In the current article, it is argued that modern medicine is increasingly being practised in a de-personalised fashion, where the patient is understood not as a unique human individual, a person, but rather as a subject or an object and more in the manner of a complex biological machine. Medicine has, it is contended, become distracted from its duty to care, comfort and console as well as to ameliorate, attenuate and cure and that the rapid development of medicine's scientific knowledge is, paradoxically, principally causative. Signal occurrences in the 'patient as a person' movement are reviewed, together with the emergence of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) and patient-centered care (PCC) movements. The characteristics of a model of medicine evolving in response to medicine's current deficiencies--person-centered healthcare (PCH)--are noted and described. In seeking to apply science with humanism, via clinical judgement, within an ethical framework, it is contended that PCH will prove to be far more responsive to the needs of the individual patient and his/her personal circumstances than current models of practice, so that neither a reductive anatomico-pathological, disease-centric model of illness (EBM), nor an aggressive patient-directed, consumerist form of care (PCC) is allowed continued dominance within modern healthcare systems. In conclusion, it is argued that PCH will enable affordable advances in biomedicine and technology to be delivered to patients within a humanistic framework of clinical practice that recognises the patient as a person and which takes full account of his/her stories, values, preferences, goals, aspirations, fears, worries, hopes, cultural context and which responds to his/her psychological, emotional, spiritual and social necessities

  10. Single-cell genome sequencing: current state of the science.

    PubMed

    Gawad, Charles; Koh, Winston; Quake, Stephen R

    2016-03-01

    The field of single-cell genomics is advancing rapidly and is generating many new insights into complex biological systems, ranging from the diversity of microbial ecosystems to the genomics of human cancer. In this Review, we provide an overview of the current state of the field of single-cell genome sequencing. First, we focus on the technical challenges of making measurements that start from a single molecule of DNA, and then explore how some of these recent methodological advancements have enabled the discovery of unexpected new biology. Areas highlighted include the application of single-cell genomics to interrogate microbial dark matter and to evaluate the pathogenic roles of genetic mosaicism in multicellular organisms, with a focus on cancer. We then attempt to predict advances we expect to see in the next few years. PMID:26806412

  11. Thermophiles in the genomic era: Biodiversity, science, and applications.

    PubMed

    Urbieta, M Sofía; Donati, Edgardo R; Chan, Kok-Gan; Shahar, Saleha; Sin, Lee Li; Goh, Kian Mau

    2015-11-01

    Thermophiles and hyperthermophiles are present in various regions of the Earth, including volcanic environments, hot springs, mud pots, fumaroles, geysers, coastal thermal springs, and even deep-sea hydrothermal vents. They are also found in man-made environments, such as heated compost facilities, reactors, and spray dryers. Thermophiles, hyperthermophiles, and their bioproducts facilitate various industrial, agricultural, and medicinal applications and offer potential solutions to environmental damages and the demand for biofuels. Intensified efforts to sequence the entire genome of hyperthermophiles and thermophiles are increasing rapidly, as evidenced by the fact that over 120 complete genome sequences of the hyperthermophiles Aquificae, Thermotogae, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota are now available. In this review, we summarise the major current applications of thermophiles and thermozymes. In addition, emphasis is placed on recent progress in understanding the biodiversity, genomes, transcriptomes, metagenomes, and single-cell sequencing of thermophiles in the genomic era. PMID:25911946

  12. Animals, science, and ethics -- Preface; introduction: the troubled middle in medias res; future directions.

    PubMed

    Donnelley, Strachan; Nolan, Kathleen

    1990-01-01

    This is a report from The Hastings Center project, "The Ethics of Animal Experimentation and Research." As project members, we wanted to take a fresh look at the complex ethical issues that arise in the scientific use of animals in a non-adversarial and non-ideological forum. We were convinced that these issues required a genuinely interdisciplinary approach. This meant including laboratory and field scientific researchers; veterinarians; philosophers, lawyers, and scientists particularly interested in animal welfare issues; and physicians and philosophers with long-standing bioethical interests but who previously had not confronted the ethics of the human use of animals. This Special Supplement to the Hastings Center Report is the outcome of two years of deliberation. PMID:11650361

  13. A Qualitative Evaluation of Ethics Educational Program in Health Science1

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif; Oral, Murat; Yurdakul, Eray Serdar

    2015-01-01

    This paper originates from a panel discussion on the evaluation of “Ethics Educational Program in Health Sciences” held during the IAEE Conference 2014 Ankara, Turkey. The participants of the panel had consultations to solidify the concepts about the topic. The qualitative data out of these antecedent discussions became mature with the contributions in the panel. The outcome of this qualitative study mainly focuses on the examples of two current curricula; one from PhD on History of Medicine and Medical Ethics, the other one from an elective course on medical ethics as a part of a PhD program on Pharmacy Management and History, followed by the major challenges the trainees face during their education, their expectations and whether the program was satisfactory, the aspects of the programs which are prone to improvement and their overall evaluations of the programs. PMID:26664129

  14. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Disability in the NICU: Exploring Practical and Ethical Challenges.

    PubMed

    Deem, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Clinical whole-genome sequencing (WGS) promises to deliver faster diagnoses and lead to better management of care in the NICU. However,several disability rights advocates have expressed concern that clinical use of genetic technologies may reinforce and perpetuate stigmatization of and discrimination against disabled persons in medical and social contexts. There is growing need, then, for clinicians and bioethicists to consider how the clinical use of WGS in the newborn period might exacerbate such harms to persons with disabilities. This article explores ways to extend these concerns to clinical WGS in neonatal care. By considering these perspectives during the early phases of expanded use of WGS in the NICU, this article encourages clinicians and bioethicists to continue to reflect on ways to attend to the concerns of disability rights advocates, foster trust and cooperation between the medical and disability communities, and forestall some of the social harms clinical WGS might cause to persons with disabilities and their families. PMID:26729703

  15. Genomic knowledge sharing: A review of the ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Francis, Leslie P

    2014-12-01

    The importance of genomic information for care of individual patients and for the development of knowledge about treatment efficacy is becoming increasingly apparent. This information is probabilistic and involves the use of large data sets to increase the likelihood of detecting low frequency events. Duties and rights of patients with respect to this information have been much discussed, including informed consent to the use of individual information, privacy and confidentiality, rights to know or not to know, and individual ownership of information about themselves. But this is only one side of the information equation. On the other side of the equation are duties of information holders: malpractice and duties to warn, responsibilities of data stewardship, intellectual property and ownership, reciprocity, and justice. This article argues that if we take duties of patients to share information seriously, we must also consider duties on the part of information holders about how they protect and use information. PMID:27294025

  16. The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics: promoting education and collaboration in genetics and ethics applied to health sciences across the continent.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme; Vairo, Filippo; Lujan Lopez, Monica; Matte, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The Latin American Network of Human Genetics (RELAGH) created the Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) to prepare young researchers and professionals of Latin America to deal with the growing challenge of the genomic medicine. ELAG promotes an annually course since 2005, which received 838 students from 17 Latin American countries over these 10 years. ELAG plays an important role to provide education in genetics applied to health sciences to fellows who live in countries with a less favorable economic situation. Influenced, among others, by the humanitarian perspective of José Maria Cantú, one of its founders, ELAG has always favored the discussion of ethical and social issues related to genetics in Latin America. Few initiatives in Latin America lasted 10 consecutive years. One of the factors responsible for the ELAG's success has been its group of faculty members, who contribute to a friendly environment prone to facilitating the exchange of their own experiences with young researchers. PMID:26007289

  17. From Utopia to Science: Challenges of Personalised Genomics Information for Health Management and Health Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Hub

    2009-06-01

    From 1900 onwards, scientists and novelists have explored the contours of a future society based on the use of "anthropotechnologies" (techniques applicable to human beings for the purpose of performance enhancement ranging from training and education to genome-based biotechnologies). Gradually but steadily, the technologies involved migrated from (science) fiction into scholarly publications, and from "utopia" (or "dystopia") into science. Building on seminal ideas borrowed from Nietzsche, Peter Sloterdijk has outlined the challenges inherent in this development. Since time immemorial, and at least since the days of Plato's Academy, human beings have been interested in possibilities for (physical or mental) performance enhancement. We are constantly trying to improve ourselves, both collectively and individually, for better or for worse. At present, however, new genomics-based technologies are opening up new avenues for self-amelioration. Developments in research facilities using animal models may to a certain extent be seen as expeditions into our own future. Are we able to address the bioethical and biopolitical issues awaiting us? After analyzing and assessing Sloterdijk's views, attention will shift to a concrete domain of application, namely sport genomics. For various reasons, top athletes are likely to play the role of genomics pioneers by using personalized genomics information to adjust diet, life-style, training schedules and doping intake to the strengths and weaknesses of their personalized genome information. Thus, sport genomics may be regarded as a test bed where the contours of genomics-based self-management are tried out. PMID:20234832

  18. Teaching Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology to Engineering Students through Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Rosalyn W.; Schummer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods of…

  19. Caring Science: Transforming the Ethic of Caring-Healing Practice, Environment, and Culture within an Integrated Care Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Foss Durant, Anne; McDermott, Shawna; Kinney, Gwendolyn; Triner, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    In early 2010, leaders within Kaiser Permanente (KP) Northern California's Patient Care Services division embarked on a journey to embrace and embed core tenets of Caring Science into the practice, environment, and culture of the organization. Caring Science is based on the philosophy of Human Caring, a theory articulated by Jean Watson, PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FAAN, as a foundational covenant to guide nursing as a discipline and a profession. Since 2010, Caring Science has enabled KP Northern California to demonstrate its commitment to being an authentic person- and family-centric organization that promotes and advocates for total health. This commitment empowers KP caregivers to balance the art and science of clinical judgment by considering the needs of the whole person, honoring the unique perception of health and healing that each member or patient holds, and engaging with them to make decisions that nurture their well-being. The intent of this article is two-fold: 1) to provide context and background on how a professional practice framework was used to transform the ethic of caring-healing practice, environment, and culture across multiple hospitals within an integrated delivery system; and 2) to provide evidence on how integration of Caring Science across administrative, operational, and clinical areas appears to contribute to meaningful patient quality and health outcomes. PMID:26828076

  20. Meeting Report: Genomics in the Undergraduate Curriculum--Rocket Science or Basic Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2002-01-01

    At the 102nd annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) in Salt Lake City, Utah, members of the Genome Consortium for Active Teaching and faculty from around the world gathered to discuss educational genomics. The focus of the gathering was a series of presentations by faculty who have successfully incorporated genomics and…

  1. Opportunities and challenges of big data for the social sciences: The case of genomic data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hexuan; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we draw attention to one unique and valuable source of big data, genomic data, by demonstrating the opportunities they provide to social scientists. We discuss different types of large-scale genomic data and recent advances in statistical methods and computational infrastructure used to address challenges in managing and analyzing such data. We highlight how these data and methods can be used to benefit social science research. PMID:27480368

  2. Anatomy in the Third Reich: an outline, part 3. The science and ethics of anatomy in National Socialist Germany and postwar consequences.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2009-11-01

    Anatomists in National Socialist (NS) Germany did research on materials from animals and humans, including tissues from the bodies of NS victims. The research was competent but rarely innovative. This may be due to the isolation of the German research community from international developments, as well as to the dismissal of a great number of successful anatomists for racial or political reasons. Other research was unproductive because of its foundation in the pseudoscience of racial hygiene. Anatomists in the Third Reich acted according to a new set of medical ethics favored by the NS regime. Not the individual human being but the "body of the people" as a whole was the object of this ethics. Every action was ethical that ensured the health of the German people, including sterilization, so-called euthanasia, and finally mass murder. Anatomists made use of the opportunities given to them by the NS regime, which led to the postmortem utilization of the bodies of NS victims. After the war, most anatomists retained their positions and NS history was not discussed until the later 20th century. Since then, historical research and public discussions have led to an increased awareness of questions of ethics in anatomy. The history of anatomy in the Third Reich illustrates that the theory and practice of a science is dependent on the political system it exists in, and that the scientists' competence not only in their science but also in politics and ethics is a prerequisite for the freedom of science. PMID:19852049

  3. Doctoral students in the life sciences: Perceptions related to the impact of changing expectations and modes of support on research ethics and norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajen, Ava Lee

    Scholars predict that the current institutional, state, and federal push for the commercialization of research, as well as increases in industry funding, will challenge, and perhaps even alter, the culture and ethical standards of academe. A focal point for these trends at many institutions is the current emphasis on life sciences research. This study builds on what is known about doctoral students and their ethical training in the life sciences by examining the individual experiences of doctoral students within the context of changing research expectations and funding patterns at one research university. The project was conducted using a case study approach within the naturalistic tradition. Twenty-four advanced doctoral student in the life sciences were interviewed. They were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to three broad topics: the normative and ethical aspects of academic research behavior; the impact of changing funding sources and changing expectations for research outcomes; and the aspects of their graduate education and training related to research norms and ethics. A systematic qualitative data analysis process allowed the richness and complexity of the students' views and concerns to be revealed. The results of this study highlight their individual and shared understandings and experiences, provide a conceptual framework for understanding their perceptions, and offer related recommendations for improving doctoral education within the current, ethically complex research context.

  4. How Can Psychological Science Inform Research About Genetic Counseling for Clinical Genomic Sequencing?

    PubMed Central

    Rini, Christine; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Christensen, Kurt D.; Evans, James P.; Brothers, Kyle B.; Roche, Myra I.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Henderson, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation genomic sequencing technologies (including whole genome or whole exome sequencing) are being increasingly applied to clinical care. Yet, the breadth and complexity of sequencing information raise questions about how best to communicate and return sequencing information to patients and families in ways that facilitate comprehension and optimal health decisions. Obtaining answers to such questions will require multidisciplinary research. In this paper, we focus on how psychological science research can address questions related to clinical genomic sequencing by explaining emotional, cognitive, and behavioral processes in response to different types of genomic sequencing information (e.g., diagnostic results and incidental findings). We highlight examples of psychological science that can be applied to genetic counseling research to inform the following questions: (1) What factors influence patients' and providers' informational needs for developing an accurate understanding of what genomic sequencing results do and do not mean?; (2) How and by whom should genomic sequencing results be communicated to patients and their family members?; and (3) How do patients and their families respond to uncertainties related to genomic information? PMID:25488723

  5. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  6. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  7. Should the century-old practice of psychotherapy defer to science and ignore its foundations in two millennia of ethical thought?

    PubMed

    Allen, Jon G

    2016-01-01

    While agreeing with the mainstream view that psychotherapeutic practice must be grounded in science, including research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy, the author advocates giving more weight to the venerable philosophical literature on ethics that bears directly on what patients bring to therapists: problems in living. These problems have been the domain of ethics since Socrates, who--like psychotherapists--promoted reflective dialogue. This article reviews some contemporary thought regarding the importance of reflection and the limits that patients and therapists face in promoting it. Relying on attachment theory and the process of mentalizing, the author identifies a convergence of science and ethics in the therapeutic aspiration to cultivate epistemic trust and illustrates this convergence with a case example. PMID:27028336

  8. Facilitating ethical reflection among scientists using the ethical matrix.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Gamborg, Christian; Millar, Kate; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on ethical issues without the presence of external stakeholders. It reports on the use of a reflection process with scientists working in the area of animal disease genomics (mainly drawn from the EADGENE EC Network of Excellence). This reflection process was facilitated by using an ethical engagement framework, a modified version of the Ethical Matrix. As judged by two criteria, a qualitative assessment of the outcomes and the participants' own assessment of the process, this independent reflective exercise was deemed to be successful. The discussions demonstrated a high level of complexity and depth, with participants demonstrating a clear perception of uncertainties and the context in which their research operates. Reflection on stakeholder views and values appeared to be embedded within the discussions. The finding from this exercise seems to indicate that even without the involvement of the wider stakeholder community, valuable reflection and worthwhile discourse can be generated from ethical reflection processes involving only scienitific project partners. Hence, the previous assumption that direct stakeholder engagement is necessary for ethical reflection does not appear to hold true in all cases; however, other reasons for involving a broad group of stakeholders relating to governance and social accountability of science remain. PMID:20589537

  9. Embryonic stem cell research: the relevance of ethics in the progress of science.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel

    2002-05-01

    Experimentation with embryonic stem (ES) cells has become an important breakthrough in medical research. However, it is also a source of controversy, because it requires the destruction of the human embryos used to derive ES cells. This paper deals with some of the ethical issues concerning ES cell research. To begin with, the terms used in the debate on the ethical status of the human embryo need to be defined. Apart from the presumed benefits of ES cell research, we should also consider such issues as the strong opposition to this research by a large part of society, who argue in favour of protecting and respecting human embryos; the fragility and defenseless of human embryos; and the contradiction in terms inherent in the statement that human embryos must be treated with respect. Secondly, we should focus on possible conflicts between the financial, scientific, and ethical aspects of this debate. Thirdly, the significance of social and political debate requires clear and complete information that takes all consequences into account. Finally, the paper suggests how multipotent adult stem cell research may be an optimal and realistic alternative to ES cell research. PMID:12011787

  10. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit. PMID:26345196