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1

A genomic BAC library and a new BAC-GFP vector to study the holocentric pest Spodoptera frugiperda.  

PubMed

Two genomic tools for the study of Lepidoptera and the holocentric structure of their chromosomes are presented in this paper. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA partially digested with HindIII from eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda. The library contains a total of 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 125 kb, which corresponds to approximately 11.5 genome equivalents. Hybridization screening of the library was performed with eight single-copy genes, giving an average hit of 10 clones per marker gene. Colinearity between the genome and BACs was demonstrated at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) locus. Probing of the library with a PCR fragment internal to the 18S ribosomal gene allowed an estimation of the rDNA locus size close to 115 repeats per haploid genome. A new vector (pBAC3.6eGFP) for transient transfection into S. frugiperda cell lines has been constructed. It is based on the BAC vector, pBAC3.6e, in which a gene encoding GFP was inserted under the control of the densovirus P9 promoter. This vector has the advantage to accommodate large genomic inserts and to be transfected in a large lepidopteran host range. It was used to construct a second BAC library from Sf9 cell nuclear DNA in order to allow a comparison between somatic and cell line genome organization. PMID:15041017

d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Piffanelli, Pietro; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Sabau, Xavier; Gimenez, Sylvie; Rocher, Janick; Cérutti, Pierre; Fournier, Philippe

2004-04-01

2

Toward an Integrated BAC Library Resource for Genome Sequencing and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

We developed a great deal of expertise in building large BAC libraries from a variety of DNA sources including humans, mice, corn, microorganisms, worms, and Arabidopsis. We greatly improved the technology for screening these libraries rapidly and for selecting appropriate BACs and mapping BACs to develop large overlapping contigs. We became involved in supplying BACs and BAC contigs to a variety of sequencing and mapping projects and we began to collaborate with Drs. Adams and Venter at TIGR and with Dr. Leroy Hood and his group at University of Washington to provide BACs for end sequencing and for mapping and sequencing of large fragments of chromosome 16. Together with Dr. Ian Dunham and his co-workers at the Sanger Center we completed the mapping and they completed the sequencing of the first human chromosome, chromosome 22. This was published in Nature in 1999 and our BAC contigs made a major contribution to this sequencing effort. Drs. Shizuya and Ding invented an automated highly accurate BAC mapping technique. We also developed long-term collaborations with Dr. Uli Weier at UCSF in the design of BAC probes for characterization of human tumors and specific chromosome deletions and breakpoints. Finally the contribution of our work to the human genome project has been recognized in the publication both by the international consortium and the NIH of a draft sequence of the human genome in Nature last year. Dr. Shizuya was acknowledged in the authorship of that landmark paper. Dr. Simon was also an author on the Venter/Adams Celera project sequencing the human genome that was published in Science last year.

Simon, M. I.; Kim, U.-J.

2002-02-26

3

Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and a preliminary genome survey  

PubMed Central

Background Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. Aims In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Results The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 × 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6–28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50–90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible. Conclusion We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome. PMID:16672057

Luo, Meizhong; Kim, HyeRan; Kudrna, Dave; Sisneros, Nicholas B; Lee, So-Jeong; Mueller, Christopher; Collura, Kristi; Zuccolo, Andrea; Buckingham, E Bryan; Grim, Suzanne M; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Flajnik, Martin F; Wing, Rod A; Ohta, Yuko

2006-01-01

4

Development of genomic resources for Citrus clementina: Characterization of three deep-coverage BAC libraries and analysis of 46,000 BAC end sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus species constitute one of the major tree fruit crops of the subtropical regions with great economic importance. However, their peculiar reproductive characteristics, low genetic diversity and the long-term nature of tree breeding mostly impair citrus variety improvement. In woody plants, genomic science holds promise of improvements and in the Citrus genera the development of genomic tools may be crucial for further crop improvements. In this work we report the characterization of three BAC libraries from Clementine (Citrus clementina), one of the most relevant citrus fresh fruit market cultivars, and the analyses of 46.000 BAC end sequences. Clementine is a diploid plant with an estimated haploid genome size of 367 Mb and 2n = 18 chromosomes, which makes feasible the use of genomics tools to boost genetic improvement. Results Three genomic BAC libraries of Citrus clementina were constructed through EcoRI, MboI and HindIII digestions and 56,000 clones, representing an estimated genomic coverage of 19.5 haploid genome-equivalents, were picked. BAC end sequencing (BES) of 28,000 clones produced 28.1 Mb of genomic sequence that allowed the identification of the repetitive fraction (12.5% of the genome) and estimation of gene content (31,000 genes) of this species. BES analyses identified 3,800 SSRs and 6,617 putative SNPs. Comparative genomic studies showed that citrus gene homology and microsyntheny with Populus trichocarpa was rather higher than with Arabidopsis thaliana, a species phylogenetically closer to citrus. Conclusion In this work, we report the characterization of three BAC libraries from C. clementina, and a new set of genomic resources that may be useful for isolation of genes underlying economically important traits, physical mapping and eventually crop improvement in Citrus species. In addition, BAC end sequencing has provided a first insight on the basic structure and organization of the citrus genome and has yielded valuable molecular markers for genetic mapping and cloning of genes of agricultural interest. Paired end sequences also may be very helpful for whole-genome sequencing programs. PMID:18801166

Terol, Javier; Naranjo, M Angel; Ollitrault, Patrick; Talon, Manuel

2008-01-01

5

Construction of a BAC library of Korean ginseng and initial analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated the genome size of Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), a medicinal herb, constructed a Hin dIII BAC library, and analyzed BAC-end sequences to provide an initial characterization of the library. The 1C nuclear DNA content of Korean ginseng was estimated to be 3.33 pg (3.12×103 Mb). The BAC library consists of 106,368 clones with an average size of

C. P. Hong; S. J. Lee; J. Y. Park; P. Plaha; Y. S. Park; Y. K. Lee; J. E. Choi; K. Y. Kim; J. H. Lee; H. Jin; S. R. Choi; Y. P. Lim

2004-01-01

6

Construction of genome-wide physical BAC contigs using mapped cDNA as probes: Toward an integrated BAC library resource for genome sequencing and analysis. Annual report, July 1995--January 1997  

SciTech Connect

The goal of human genome project is to characterize and sequence entire genomes of human and several model organisms, thus providing complete sets of information on the entire structure of transcribed, regulatory and other functional regions for these organisms. In the past years, a number of useful genetic and physical markers on human and mouse genomes have been made available along with the advent of BAC library resources for these organisms. The advances in technology and resource development made it feasible to efficiently construct genome-wide physical BAC contigs for human and other genomes. Currently, over 30,000 mapped STSs and 27,000 mapped Unigenes are available for human genome mapping. ESTs and cDNAs are excellent resources for building contig maps for two reasons. Firstly, they exist in two alternative forms--as both sequence information for PCR primer pairs, and cDoreen genomic libraries efficiently for large number of DNA probes by combining over 100 cDNA probes in each hybridization. Second, the linkage and order of genes are rather conserved among human, mouse and other model organisms. Therefore, gene markers have advantages over random anonymous STSs in building maps for comparative genomic studies.

Mitchell, S.C.; Bocskai, D.; Cao, Y. [and others

1997-12-31

7

Construction and characterization of a BAC library for the molecular dissection of a single wild beet centromere and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) genome analysis.  

PubMed

We have constructed a sugar beet bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of the chromosome mutant PRO1. This Beta vulgaris mutant carries a single chromosome fragment of 6-9 Mbp that is derived from the wild beet Beta procumbens and is transmitted efficiently in meiosis and mitosis. The library consists of 50,304 clones, with an average insert size of 125 kb. Filter hybridizations revealed that approximately 3.1% of the clones contain mitochondrial or chloroplast DNA. Based on a haploid genome size of 758 Mbp, the library represents eight genome equivalents. Thus, there is a greater than 99.96% probability that any sequence of the PROI genome can be found in the library. Approximately 0.2% of the clones hybridized with centromeric sequences of the PRO1 minichromosome. Using the identified BAC clones in fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments with PRO1 and B. procumbens chromosome spreads, their wild-beet origin and centromeric localization were demonstrated. Comparative Southern hybridization of pulsed-field separated PROI DNA and BAC inserts indicate that the centromeric region of the minichromosome is represented by overlapping clones in the library. Therefore, the PRO1 BAC library provides a useful tool for the characterization of a single plant centromere and is a valuable resource for sugar beet genome analysis. PMID:11681609

Gindullis, F; Dechyeva, D; Schmidt, T

2001-10-01

8

Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Findings Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. Conclusions This indicated that both BAC libraries are valuable tools for molecular studies in chicory, one goal being the positional cloning of the S-locus in this Asteraceae species. PMID:20701751

2010-01-01

9

Isolation of BAC clones containing conserved genes from libraries of three distantly related moths: a useful resource for comparative genomics of Lepidoptera.  

PubMed

Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, n = 31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (n = 28), the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108-184 clones representing 101-182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences. PMID:21127704

Yasukochi, Yuji; Tanaka-Okuyama, Makiko; Kamimura, Manabu; Nakano, Ryo; Naito, Yota; Ishikawa, Yukio; Sahara, Ken

2011-01-01

10

Library Resources for Bac End Sequencing. Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Studies directed towards the specific aims outlined for this research award are summarized. The RPCI II Human Bac Library has been expanded by the addition of 6.9-fold genomic coverage. This segment has been generated from a MBOI partial digest of the same anonymous donor DNA used for the rest of the library. A new cloning vector, pTARBAC1, has been constructed and used in the construction of RPCI-II segment 5. This new cloning vector provides a new strategy in identifying targeted genomic regions and will greatly facilitate a large-scale analysis for positional cloning. A new maleCS7BC/6J mouse BAC library has been constructed. RPCI-23 contain 576 plates (approx 210,000 clones) and represents approximately 11-fold coverage of the mouse genome.

Pieter J. de Jong

2000-10-01

11

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE BAC library construction, screening and clone sequencing of  

E-print Network

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE BAC library construction, screening and clone sequencing of the genomic bases of adap- tive divergence and reproductive isolation. Here, we describe the construction full-length assembly of candidate genes. The lake whitefish BAC library consists of 181 050 clones

Bernatchez, Louis

12

End Sequencing and Finger Printing of Human & Mouse BAC Libraries  

SciTech Connect

This project provided for continued end sequencing of existing and new BAC libraries constructed to support human sequencing as well as to initiate BAC end sequencing from the mouse BAC libraries constructed to support mouse sequencing. The clones, the sequences, and the fingerprints are now an available resource for the community at large. Research and development of new metaodologies for BAC end sequencing have reduced costs and increase throughput.

Fraser, C.

2005-09-27

13

BAC library resources for map-based cloning and physical map construction in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Although second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI) of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also generated. The new BAC libraries were fully characterized in depth by scrutinizing the major quality parameters such as average insert size, degree of contamination (plate wide, neighboring, and chloroplast), empty wells and off-scale clones (clones with <30 or >250 fragments). Additionally a set of gene-based probes were hybridized to high density BAC filters and showed that genome coverage of each library is between 2.4 and 6.6 X. Conclusion BAC libraries representing >20 haploid genomes are available as a new resource to the barley research community. Systematic utilization of these libraries in high-throughput BAC fingerprinting should allow developing a genome-wide physical map for the barley genome, which will be instrumental for map-based gene isolation and genome sequencing. PMID:21595870

2011-01-01

14

ORIGINAL PAPER Development of a BAC library for yellow-poplar  

E-print Network

Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7229, USA J. Leebens-Mack :C. W. dePamphilis Department Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7271, USA #12;genomic resources for these early branching artificial chromo- some (BAC) library from L. tulipifera. Flow cytometry estimates that this nuclear genome

dePamphilis, Claude

15

Construction and characterization of human and mouse BAC libraries from sheared DNA  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new way to construct BAC libraries with small inserts using sheared DNA sources. Because of our use of the randomly sheared DNA as DNA sources, some regions of genome may be represented better in our libraries compared to the currently available and more conventional libraries constructed by enzymatic partial digestion. B263 We have developed a new fingerprinting method useful for physical mapping by large insert clones, in particular by BACs. It is based on four-color fluorescent labeling of fragments generated by combination of a type II and a type IIS restriction enzyme.

Shizuya, Hiroaki

2002-08-23

16

Characterizing the walnut genome through analyses of BAC end sequences.  

PubMed

Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is an economically important tree for its nut crop and timber. To gain insight into the structure and evolution of the walnut genome, we constructed two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, containing a total of 129,024 clones, from in vitro-grown shoots of J. regia cv. Chandler using the HindIII and MboI cloning sites. A total of 48,218 high-quality BAC end sequences (BESs) were generated, with an accumulated sequence length of 31.2 Mb, representing approximately 5.1% of the walnut genome. Analysis of repeat DNA content in BESs revealed that approximately 15.42% of the genome consists of known repetitive DNA, while walnut-unique repetitive DNA identified in this study constitutes 13.5% of the genome. Among the walnut-unique repetitive DNA, Julia SINE and JrTRIM elements represent the first identified walnut short interspersed element (SINE) and terminal-repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) element, respectively; both types of elements are abundant in the genome. As in other species, these SINEs and TRIM elements could be exploited for developing repeat DNA-based molecular markers in walnut. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) from BESs were analyzed and found to be more abundant in BESs than in expressed sequence tags. The density of SSR in the walnut genome analyzed was also slightly higher than that in poplar and papaya. Sequence analysis of BESs indicated that approximately 11.5% of the walnut genome represents a coding sequence. This study is an initial characterization of the walnut genome and provides the largest genomic resource currently available; as such, it will be a valuable tool in studies aimed at genetically improving walnut. PMID:22101470

Wu, Jiajie; Gu, Yong Q; Hu, Yuqin; You, Frank M; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Leslie, Charles A; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Dvorak, Jan; Luo, Ming-Cheng

2012-01-01

17

Distribution of genes and repetitive elements in the Diabrotica virgifera virgifera genome estimated using BAC sequencing.  

PubMed

Feeding damage caused by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is destructive to corn plants in North America and Europe where control remains challenging due to evolution of resistance to chemical and transgenic toxins. A BAC library, DvvBAC1, containing 109,486 clones with 104 ± 34.5?kb inserts was created, which has an ~4.56X genome coverage based upon a 2.58?Gb (2.80?pg) flow cytometry-estimated haploid genome size. Paired end sequencing of 1037 BAC inserts produced 1.17?Mb of data (~0.05% genome coverage) and indicated ~9.4 and 16.0% of reads encode, respectively, endogenous genes and transposable elements (TEs). Sequencing genes within BAC full inserts demonstrated that TE densities are high within intergenic and intron regions and contribute to the increased gene size. Comparison of homologous genome regions cloned within different BAC clones indicated that TE movement may cause haplotype variation within the inbred strain. The data presented here indicate that the D. virgifera virgifera genome is large in size and contains a high proportion of repetitive sequence. These BAC sequencing methods that are applicable for characterization of genomes prior to sequencing may likely be valuable resources for genome annotation as well as scaffolding. PMID:22919272

Coates, Brad S; Alves, Analiza P; Wang, Haichuan; Walden, Kimberly K O; French, B Wade; Miller, Nicholas J; Abel, Craig A; Robertson, Hugh M; Sappington, Thomas W; Siegfried, Blair D

2012-01-01

18

A Whole-Genome Mouse BAC Microarray With 1-Mb Resolution for Analysis of DNA Copy Number Changes by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Microarray-basedcomparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has become a powerful methodfor the genome-wide detection of chromosomal imbalances. Although BAC microarrays have been usedfor mouse CGH studies, the resolving power of these analyses was limitedbecause high-density whole-genome mouse BAC microarrays were not available. We therefore developed a mouse BAC microarray containing 2803 unique BAC clones from mouse genomic libraries at 1-Mb intervals. For the general amplification of BAC clone DNA prior to spotting, we designed a set of three novel degenerate oligonucleotide-primed (DOP) PCR primers that preferentially amplify mouse genomic sequences while minimizing unwantedamplification of contaminating Escherichia coli DNA. The resulting 3K mouse BAC microarrays reproducibly identified DNA copy number alterations in cell lines andprimary tumors, such as single-copy deletions, regional amplifications, and aneuploidy. PMID:14707179

Chung, Yeun-Jun; Jonkers, Jos; Kitson, Hannah; Fiegler, Heike; Humphray, Sean; Scott, Carol; Hunt, Sarah; Yu, Yuejin; Nishijima, Ichiko; Velds, Arno; Holstege, Henne; Carter, Nigel; Bradley, Allan

2004-01-01

19

BACS: evolution of an integrated library system toward information management.  

PubMed Central

The evolution of the Washington University School of Medicine BACS integrated library system toward information management functions is outlined. The creation of a machine-readable database and its extension through telecommunications have consequences that reach beyond the functions of the library as we have perceived them. It is argued that libraries are flexible institutions that, with automation, are likely to enlarge rather than to diminish. PMID:3978300

Kelly, E A; Halbrook, B; Igielnik, S; Rueby, C

1985-01-01

20

Versatile P(acman) BAC Libraries for Transgenesis Studies in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

We constructed Drosophila melanogaster BAC libraries with 21-kb and 83-kb inserts in the P(acman) system. Clones representing 12-fold coverage and encompassing more than 95percent of annotated genes were mapped onto the reference genome. These clones can be integrated into predetermined attP sites in the genome using Phi C31 integrase to rescue mutations. They can be modified through recombineering, for example to incorporate protein tags and assess expression patterns.

Venken, Koen J.T.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Schulze, Karen L.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Spokony, Rebecca; Wan, Kenneth H.; Koriabine, Maxim; de Jong, Pieter J.; White, Kevin P.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Hoskins, Roger A.

2009-04-21

21

A BAC-based physical map of the Drosophila buzzatii genome  

SciTech Connect

Large-insert genomic libraries facilitate cloning of large genomic regions, allow the construction of clone-based physical maps and provide useful resources for sequencing entire genomes. Drosophilabuzzatii is a representative species of the repleta group in the Drosophila subgenus, which is being widely used as a model in studies of genome evolution, ecological adaptation and speciation. We constructed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic library of D. buzzatii using the shuttle vector pTARBAC2.1. The library comprises 18,353 clones with an average insert size of 152 kb and a {approx}18X expected representation of the D. buzzatii euchromatic genome. We screened the entire library with six euchromatic gene probes and estimated the actual genome representation to be {approx}23X. In addition, we fingerprinted by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis a sample of 9,555 clones, and assembled them using Finger Printed Contigs (FPC) software and manual editing into 345 contigs (mean of 26 clones per contig) and 670singletons. Finally, we anchored 181 large contigs (containing 7,788clones) to the D. buzzatii salivary gland polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization of 427 representative clones. The BAC library and a database with all the information regarding the high coverage BAC-based physical map described in this paper are available to the research community.

Gonzalez, Josefa; Nefedov, Michael; Bosdet, Ian; Casals, Ferran; Calvete, Oriol; Delprat, Alejandra; Shin, Heesun; Chiu, Readman; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Hoskins, Roger A.; Schein, JacquelineE.; de Jong, Pieter; Ruiz, Alfredo

2005-03-18

22

Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms.\\u000a Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in\\u000a genomics projects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male\\u000a American mink (Neovison vison). The library

Razvan Anistoroaei; Boudewijn ten Hallers; Michael Nefedov; Knud Christensen; Pieter de Jong

2011-01-01

23

Versatile P[acman] BAC libraries for transgenesis  

E-print Network

chromo- some (BAC)4, the ability to use recombineering in E. coli for retrieval and manipulation of DNA recombineering, for example, to incorporate protein tags and assess expression patterns. Genetic model systems, that allows modification of cloned fragments by recombineering and germline transformation of genomic DNA

Cai, Long

24

Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average) were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs) were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 454 sequencing of selected BAC clones in mammals and re-assures the suitability of this technique for obtaining the sequence information of genes of interest in small genomics projects. The BAC end sequences described in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank data library [HN339419-HN341884, HN604664-HN604702]. The 454 produced contigs derived from selected clones are deposited with reference numbers [GenBank: JF288166-JF288183 &JF310744]. PMID:21740547

2011-01-01

25

BAC library construction, screening and clone sequencing of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis, Salmonidae) towards the elucidation of adaptive species divergence.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA sequences and other genomic resources are essential towards the elucidation of the genomic bases of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation. Here, we describe the construction, characterization and screening of a nonarrayed BAC library for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). We then show how the combined use of BAC library screening and next-generation sequencing can lead to efficient full-length assembly of candidate genes. The lake whitefish BAC library consists of 181,050 clones derived from a single heterozygous fish. The mean insert size is 92 Kb, representing 5.2 haploid genome equivalents. Ten BAC clones were isolated following a quantitative real-time PCR screening approach that targeted five previously identified candidate genes. Sequencing of these clones on a 454 GS FLX system yielded 178,000 reads with a mean length of 358 bp, for a total of 63.8 Mb. De novo assembly and annotation then allowed retrieval of contigs corresponding to each candidate gene, which also contained up- and/or downstream noncoding sequences. These results suggest that the lake whitefish BAC library combined with next-generation sequencing technologies will be key resources to achieve a better understanding of both adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation in lake whitefish species pairs as well as salmonid evolution in general. PMID:21481212

Jeukens, J; Boyle, B; Kukavica-Ibrulj, I; St-Cyr, J; Lévesque, R C; Bernatchez, L

2011-05-01

26

Giant panda BAC library construction and assembly of a 650-kb contig spanning major histocompatibility complex class II region  

PubMed Central

Background Giant panda is rare and endangered species endemic to China. The low rates of reproductive success and infectious disease resistance have severely hampered the development of captive and wild populations of the giant panda. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays important roles in immune response and reproductive system such as mate choice and mother-fetus bio-compatibility. It is thus essential to understand genetic details of the giant panda MHC. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library will provide a new tool for panda genome physical mapping and thus facilitate understanding of panda MHC genes. Results A giant panda BAC library consisting of 205,800 clones has been constructed. The average insert size was calculated to be 97 kb based on the examination of 174 randomly selected clones, indicating that the giant panda library contained 6.8-fold genome equivalents. Screening of the library with 16 giant panda PCR primer pairs revealed 6.4 positive clones per locus, in good agreement with an expected 6.8-fold genomic coverage of the library. Based on this BAC library, we constructed a contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX spanning about 650 kb by a three-step method: (1) PCR-based screening of the BAC library with primers from homologous MHC class II gene loci, end sequences and BAC clone shotgun sequences, (2) DNA sequencing validation of positive clones, and (3) restriction digest fingerprinting verification of inter-clone overlapping. Conclusion The identifications of genes and genomic regions of interest are greatly favored by the availability of this giant panda BAC library. The giant panda BAC library thus provides a useful platform for physical mapping, genome sequencing or complex analysis of targeted genomic regions. The 650 kb sequence-ready BAC contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX, verified by the three-step method, offers a powerful tool for further studies on the giant panda MHC class II genes. PMID:17825108

Zeng, Chang-Jun; Pan, Hui-Juan; Gong, Shao-Bin; Yu, Jian-Qiu; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Fang, Sheng-Guo

2007-01-01

27

Genomic tools development for Aquilegia: construction of a BAC-based physical map  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Aquilegia, consisting of approximately 70 taxa, is a member of the basal eudicot lineage, Ranuculales, which is evolutionarily intermediate between monocots and core eudicots, and represents a relatively unstudied clade in the angiosperm phylogenetic tree that bridges the gap between these two major plant groups. Aquilegia species are closely related and their distribution covers highly diverse habitats. These provide rich resources to better understand the genetic basis of adaptation to different pollinators and habitats that in turn leads to rapid speciation. To gain insights into the genome structure and facilitate gene identification, comparative genomics and whole-genome shotgun sequencing assembly, BAC-based genomics resources are of crucial importance. Results BAC-based genomic resources, including two BAC libraries, a physical map with anchored markers and BAC end sequences, were established from A. formosa. The physical map was composed of a total of 50,155 BAC clones in 832 contigs and 3939 singletons, covering 21X genome equivalents. These contigs spanned a physical length of 689.8 Mb (~2.3X of the genome) suggesting the complex heterozygosity of the genome. A set of 197 markers was developed from ESTs induced by drought-stress, or involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis or floral development, and was integrated into the physical map. Among these were 87 genetically mapped markers that anchored 54 contigs, spanning 76.4 Mb (25.5%) across the genome. Analysis of a selection of 12,086 BAC end sequences (BESs) from the minimal tiling path (MTP) allowed a preview of the Aquilegia genome organization, including identification of transposable elements, simple sequence repeats and gene content. Common repetitive elements previously reported in both monocots and core eudicots were identified in Aquilegia suggesting the value of this genome in connecting the two major plant clades. Comparison with sequenced plant genomes indicated a higher similarity to grapevine (Vitis vinifera) than to rice and Arabidopsis in the transcriptomes. Conclusions The A. formosa BAC-based genomic resources provide valuable tools to study Aquilegia genome. Further integration of other existing genomics resources, such as ESTs, into the physical map should enable better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive radiation and elaboration of floral morphology. PMID:21059242

2010-01-01

28

Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s) encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health. PMID:19615078

Loit, Evelin; Melnyk, Charles W; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Scott, Fraser W; Altosaar, Illimar

2009-01-01

29

Analysis of BAC end sequences in oak, a keystone forest tree species, providing insight into the composition of its genome  

PubMed Central

Background One of the key goals of oak genomics research is to identify genes of adaptive significance. This information may help to improve the conservation of adaptive genetic variation and the management of forests to increase their health and productivity. Deep-coverage large-insert genomic libraries are a crucial tool for attaining this objective. We report herein the construction of a BAC library for Quercus robur, its characterization and an analysis of BAC end sequences. Results The EcoRI library generated consisted of 92,160 clones, 7% of which had no insert. Levels of chloroplast and mitochondrial contamination were below 3% and 1%, respectively. Mean clone insert size was estimated at 135 kb. The library represents 12 haploid genome equivalents and, the likelihood of finding a particular oak sequence of interest is greater than 99%. Genome coverage was confirmed by PCR screening of the library with 60 unique genetic loci sampled from the genetic linkage map. In total, about 20,000 high-quality BAC end sequences (BESs) were generated by sequencing 15,000 clones. Roughly 5.88% of the combined BAC end sequence length corresponded to known retroelements while ab initio repeat detection methods identified 41 additional repeats. Collectively, characterized and novel repeats account for roughly 8.94% of the genome. Further analysis of the BESs revealed 1,823 putative genes suggesting at least 29,340 genes in the oak genome. BESs were aligned with the genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Populus trichocarpa. One putative collinear microsyntenic region encoding an alcohol acyl transferase protein was observed between oak and chromosome 2 of V. vinifera. Conclusions This BAC library provides a new resource for genomic studies, including SSR marker development, physical mapping, comparative genomics and genome sequencing. BES analysis provided insight into the structure of the oak genome. These sequences will be used in the assembly of a future genome sequence for oak. PMID:21645357

2011-01-01

30

Construction and characterization of two Citrus BAC libraries and identification of clones containing the phytoene synthase gene.  

PubMed

Two deep-coverage Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck 'Cara Cara' navel orange and Citrus reticulata (L.) Blanco 'Egan No. 1' Ponkan mandarin, which belong to the two most important species of the Citrus genus, have been constructed and characterized to facilitate gene cloning and to analyze variety-specific genome composition. The C. sinensis BAC library consists of 36 000 clones with negligible false-positive clones and an estimated average insert size of 126 kb covering ~4.5 x 109 bp and thus providing an 11.8-fold coverage of haploid genome equivalents, whereas the C. reticulata library consists of 21 000 clones also with negligible false-positive clones and an estimated average of 120 kb covering ~2.5 x 109 bp representing a 6.6-fold coverage of haploid genome equivalents. Both libraries were evaluated for contamination with high-copy vector, empty pIndigoBAC536 vector, and organellar DNA sequences. Screening has been performed by Southern hybridization of BAC filters, which results in <0.5% chloroplast DNA contamination and no mitochondrial DNA contamination in both libraries. Eight and five positive clones harboring the gene encoding Phytoene synthase (Psy (EC 2.5.1.32)) were identified from the C. sinensis and C. reticulata libraries, respectively, using the filter hybridization procedure. These results suggest that the two BAC libraries are useful tools for the isolation of functional genes and advanced genomics research in the two important species C. sinensis and C. reticulata. Resources, high-density filters, individual clones, and whole libraries are available for public distribution and are accessible at the National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University. PMID:19448728

Baig, M N R; Yu, An; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

2009-05-01

31

A new implementation of high-throughput five-dimensional clone pooling strategy for BAC library screening  

PubMed Central

Background A five-dimensional (5-D) clone pooling strategy for screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones with molecular markers utilizing highly-parallel Illumina GoldenGate assays and PCR facilitates high-throughput BAC clone and BAC contig anchoring on a genetic map. However, this strategy occasionally needs manual PCR to deconvolute pools and identify truly positive clones. Results A new implementation is reported here for our previously reported clone pooling strategy. Row and column pools of BAC clones are divided into sub-pools with 1~2× genome coverage. All BAC pools are screened with Illumina's GoldenGate assay and the BAC pools are deconvoluted to identify individual positive clones. Putative positive BAC clones are then further analyzed to find positive clones on the basis of them being neighbours in a contig. An exhaustive search or brute force algorithm was designed for this deconvolution and integrated into a newly developed software tool, FPCBrowser, for analyzing clone pooling data. This algorithm was used with empirical data for 55 Illumina GoldenGate SNP assays detecting SNP markers mapped on Aegilops tauschii chromosome 2D and Ae. tauschii contig maps. Clones in single contigs were successfully assigned to 48 (87%) specific SNP markers on the map with 91% precision. Conclusion A new implementation of 5-D BAC clone pooling strategy employing both GoldenGate assay screening and assembled BAC contigs is shown here to be a high-throughput, low cost, rapid, and feasible approach to screening BAC libraries and anchoring BAC clones and contigs on genetic maps. The software FPCBrowser with the integrated clone deconvolution algorithm has been developed and is downloadable at http://avena.pw.usda.gov/wheatD/fpcbrowser.shtml. PMID:21129228

2010-01-01

32

Construction of a 7-fold BAC library and cytogenetic mapping of 10 genes in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)  

PubMed Central

Background The giant panda, one of the most primitive carnivores, is an endangered animal. Although it has been the subject of many interesting studies during recent years, little is known about its genome. In order to promote research on this genome, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of the giant panda was constructed in this study. Results This BAC library contains 198,844 clones with an average insert size of 108 kb, which represents approximately seven equivalents of the giant panda haploid genome. Screening the library with 15 genes and 8 microsatellite markers demonstrates that it is representative and has good genome coverage. Furthermore, ten BAC clones harbouring AGXT, GHR, FSHR, IRBP, SOX14, TTR, BDNF, NT-4, LH and ZFX1 were mapped to 8 pairs of giant panda chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Conclusion This is the first large-insert genomic DNA library for the giant panda, and will contribute to understanding this endangered species in the areas of genome sequencing, physical mapping, gene cloning and comparative genomic studies. We also identified the physical locations of ten genes on their relative chromosomes by FISH, providing a preliminary framework for further development of a high resolution cytogenetic map of the giant panda. PMID:17109760

Liu, Wei; Zhao, Yonghui; Liu, Zhaoliang; Zhang, Ying; Lian, Zhengxing; Li, Ning

2006-01-01

33

Piggy-BACing the Human Genome I: Constructing a Porcine BAC Physical Map Through Comparative Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of the human genome sequence and high similarity between humans and pigs at the molecular level provides an opportunity to use a comparative mapping approach to piggy-BAC the human genome. In order to advance the pig genome sequencing initiative, sequence similarity between large-scale porcine BAC-end sequences (BESs) and human genome sequence was used to construct a comparatively-anchored porcine physical

Margarita B. Rogatcheva; Kefei Chen; Denis M. Larkin; Stacey N. Meyers; Brandy M. Marron; Weisong He; Lawrence B. Schook; Jonathan E. Beever

2008-01-01

34

Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa  

PubMed Central

Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola). Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS) were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH). Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs), 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus. Conclusion The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species. PMID:20969760

2010-01-01

35

High-resolution genomic profiles of breast cancer cell lines assessed by tiling BAC array comparative genomic hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BAC-array platform for comparative genomic hybridization was constructed from a library of 32,433 clones providing com- plete genome coverage, and evaluated by screening for DNA copy number changes in 10 breast cancer cell lines (BT474, MCF7, HCC1937, SK-BR-3, L56Br-C1, ZR-75-1, JIMT1, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, and HCC2218) and one cell line derived from fibrocystic disease of the breast (MCF10A). These were

Göran Jönsson; Johan Staaf; Eleonor Olsson; Markus Heidenblad; Johan Vallon-Christersson; Kazutoyo Osoegawa; Pieter de Jong; Stina Oredsson; Markus Ringnér; Mattias Höglund; Åke Borg

2007-01-01

36

Human BAC Ends  

PubMed Central

The Human BAC Ends database includes all non-redundant human BAC end sequences (BESs) generated by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), the University of Washington (UW) and California Institute of Technology (CalTech). It incorporates the available BAC mapping data from different genome centers and the annotation results of each end sequence for the contents of repeats, ESTs and STS markers. For each BAC end the database integrates the sequence, the phred quality scores, the map and the annotation, and provides links to sites of the library information, the reports of GenBank, dbGSS and GDB, and other relevant data. The database is freely accessible via the web and supports sequence or clone searches and anonymous FTP. The relevant sites and resources are described at http://www. tigr.org/tdb/humgen/bac_end_search/bac_end_intro.html PMID:10592201

Zhao, Shaying

2000-01-01

37

Bac clones generated from sheared dna  

SciTech Connect

BAC libraries generated from restriction-digested genomic DNA display representational bias and lack some sequences. To facilitate completion of genome projects, procedures have been developed to create BACs from DNA physically sheared to create fragments extending up to 200kb. The DNA fragments were repaired to create blunt ends and ligated to a new BAC vector. This approach has been tested by generating BAC libraries from Drosophila DNA, with insert lengths of 50 kb to 150 kb. The libraries lack chimeric clone problems as determined by mapping paired BAC-end sequences of one library to the D. melanogaster genome sequence. The utility of ''sheared'' libraries was demonstrated by closure of a previous clone gap and by isolation of clones from telomeric regions, which were notably absent from previous Drosophila BAC libraries.

Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Vessere, Gery M.; Shu, Chung Li; Hoskins,Roger A.; Abad, Jose P.; de Pablos, Beatriz; Villasante, Alfredo; deJong, Pieter J.

2006-08-09

38

Generating libraries of iTol2-end insertions at BAC ends using loxP and lox511 Tn10 transposons  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) have been widely used as transgenes in vertebrate model systems such as mice and zebrafish, for a variety of studies. BAC transgenesis has been a powerful tool to study the function of the genome, and gene regulation by distal cis-regulatory elements. Recently, BAC transgenesis in both mice and zebrafish was further facilitated by development of the transposon-mediated method using the Tol2 element. Tol2 ends, in the inverted orientation and flanking a 1 kb spacer DNA (iTol2), were introduced into the BAC DNA within the bacterial host using recombination of homologous sequences. Here we describe experiments designed to determine if a simpler and more flexible system could modify BACs so that they would be suitable for transgenesis into zebrafish or mouse embryos using the Tol2 transposase. Results A new technique was developed to introduce recognition sequences for the Tol2 transposase into BACs in E. coli using the Tn10 transposon vector system. We constructed pTnloxP-iTol2kan and pTnlox511-iTol2kan to introduce the loxP or lox511 site and iTol2 cassette, containing the Tol2 cis-sequences in the inverted orientation, into BACs that have loxP and lox511 sites flanking genomic DNA inserts by Tn10-mediated transposition. The procedure enables rapid generation of a large collection of BACs ready for transgenesis with the iTol2 cassette at the new end of a progressively truncated genomic insert via lox-Cre recombination. The iTol2 ends are efficiently recognized by the Tol2 transposase, and the BACs readily integrate into zebrafish chromosomes. Conclusion The new technology described here can rapidly introduce iTol2 ends at a BAC end of choice, and simultaneously generate a large collection of BACs with progressive deletions of the genomic DNA from that end in a single experiment. This procedure should be applicable to a wider variety of BACs containing lox sites flanking the genomic DNA insert, including those with sequence repeats. The libraries of iTol2 inserted BACs with truncations from an end should facilitate studies on the impact of distal cis-regulatory sequences on gene function, as well as standard BAC transgenesis with precisely trimmed genes in zebrafish or mouse embryos using Tol2 transposition. PMID:21736732

2011-01-01

39

Human Genome Anatomy: BACs Integrating the Genetic and Cytogenetic Maps for Bridging Genome and Biomedicine  

PubMed Central

Human genome sequencing is accelerating rapidly. Multiple genome maps link this sequence to problems in biology and clinical medicine. Because each map represents a different aspect of the structure, content, and behavior of human chromosomes, these fundamental properties must be integrated with the genome to understand disease genes, cancer instability, and human evolution. Cytogenetic maps use 400–850 visible band landmarks and are the primary means for defining prenatal defects and novel cancer breakpoints, thereby providing simultaneous examination of the entire genome. Recent genetic, physical, and transcript maps use PCR-based landmarks called sequence-tagged sites (STSs). We have integrated these genome maps by anchoring the human cytogenetic to the STS-based genetic and physical maps with 1021 STS–BAC pairs at an average spacing of ?1 per 3 Mb. These integration points are represented by 872 unique STSs, including 642 polymorphic markers and 957 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), each of which was localized on high resolution fluorescent banded chromosomes. These BACs constitute a resource that bridges map levels and provides the tools to seamlessly translate questions raised by genomic change seen at the chromosomal level into answers based at the molecular level. We show how the BACs provide molecular links for understanding human genomic duplications, meiosis, and evolution, as well as reagents for conducting genome-wide prenatal diagnosis at the molecular level and for detecting gene candidates associated with novel cancer breakpoints. PMID:10523528

Korenberg, Julie R.; Chen, Xiao-Ning; Sun, Zhiguang; Shi, Zheng-Yang; Ma, Shaowu; Vataru, Eddy; Yimlamai, Dean; Weissenbach, Jean S.; Shizuya, Hiroaki; Simon, Melvin I.; Gerety, Sebastian S.; Nguyen, Huy; Zemsteva, Irina S.; Hui, Lester; Silva, James; Wu, Xiaoyun; Birren, Bruce W.; Hudson, Thomas J.

1999-01-01

40

Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes  

PubMed Central

Background BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or a selected sub-genomic region of biological interest. Such a region can be approached with next-generation whole-genome sequencing and assembly as if it were an independent small genome. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library. Results This pooled BAC approach was taken to sequence and assemble a QTL-rich region, of ~3 Mbp and represented by twenty-seven BACs, on linkage group 5 of the Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 genome. Using various mixtures of read coverages from paired-end and linear 454 libraries, multiple assemblies of varied quality were generated. Quality was assessed by comparing the assembly of 454 reads with a subset of ten BACs individually sequenced and assembled using Sanger reads. A mixture of reads optimal for assembly was identified. We found, furthermore, that a quality assembly suitable for serving as a reference genome template could be obtained even with a reduced depth of sequencing coverage. Annotation of the resulting assembly revealed several genes potentially responsible for three T. cacao traits: black pod disease resistance, bean shape index, and pod weight. Conclusions Our results, as with other pooled BAC sequencing reports, suggest that pooling portions of a minimum tiling path derived from a BAC-based physical map is an effective method to target sub-genomic regions for sequencing. While we focused on a single QTL region, other QTL regions of importance could be similarly sequenced allowing for biological discovery to take place before a high quality whole-genome assembly is completed. PMID:21794110

2011-01-01

41

A FISH approach for mapping the human genome using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs)  

SciTech Connect

As the Human Genome Project progresses, large insert cloning vectors such as BACs, P1, and P1 Artificial Chromosomes (PACs) will be required to complement the YAC mapping efforts. The value of the BAC vector for physical mapping lies in the stability of the inserts, the lack of chimerism, the length of inserts (up to 300 kb), the ability to obtain large amounts of pure clone DNA and the ease of BAC manipulation. These features helped us design two approaches for generating physical mapping reagents for human genetic studies. The first approach is a whole genome strategy in which randomly selected BACs are mapped, using FISH, to specific chromosomal bands. To date, 700 BACs have been mapped to single chromosome bands at a resolution of 2-5 Mb in addition to BACs mapped to 14 different centromeres. These BACs represent more than 90 Mb of the genome and include >70% of all human chromosome bands at the 350-band level. These data revealed that >97% of the BACs were non-chimeric and have a genomic distribution covering most gaps in the existing YAC map with excellent coverage of gene-rich regions. In the second approach, we used YACs to identify BACs on chromosome 21. A 1.5 Mb contig between D21S339 and D21S220 nears completion within the Down syndrome congenital heart disease (DS-CHD) region. Seventeen BACs ranging in size from 80 kb to 240 kb were ordered using 14 STSs with FISH confirmation. We have also used 40 YACs spanning 21q to identify, on average, >1 BAC/Mb to provide molecular cytogenetic reagents and anchor points for further mapping. The contig generated on chromosome 21 will be helpful in isolating the genes for DS-CHD. The physical mapping reagents generated using the whole genome approach will provide cytogenetic markers and mapped genomic fragments that will facilitate positional cloning efforts and the identification of genes within most chromosomal bands.

Hubert, R.S.; Chen, X.N.; Mitchell, S. [Univ. of Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

42

Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage  

PubMed Central

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12), consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger. PMID:24608928

Liu, Changqing; Bai, Chunyu; Guo, Yu; Liu, Dan; Lu, Taofeng; Li, Xiangchen; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

2014-01-01

43

Cotton genome mapping with new microsatellites from Acala ‘Maxxa’ BAC-ends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine mapping and positional cloning will eventually improve with the anchoring of additional markers derived from genomic\\u000a clones such as BACs. From 2,603 new BAC-end genomic sequences from Gossypium hirsutum Acala ‘Maxxa’, 1,316 PCR primer pairs (designated as MUSB) were designed to flank microsatellite or simple sequence repeat\\u000a motif sequences. Most (1164 or 88%) MUSB primer pairs successfully amplified DNA

James E. Frelichowski; Michael B. Palmer; Dorrie Main; Jeffrey P. Tomkins; Roy G. Cantrell; David M. Stelly; John Yu; Russell J. Kohel; Mauricio Ulloa

2006-01-01

44

A hybrid BAC physical map of potato: a framework for sequencing a heterozygous genome  

PubMed Central

Background Potato is the world's third most important food crop, yet cultivar improvement and genomic research in general remain difficult because of the heterozygous and tetraploid nature of its genome. The development of physical map resources that can facilitate genomic analyses in potato has so far been very limited. Here we present the methods of construction and the general statistics of the first two genome-wide BAC physical maps of potato, which were made from the heterozygous diploid clone RH89-039-16 (RH). Results First, a gel electrophoresis-based physical map was made by AFLP fingerprinting of 64478 BAC clones, which were aligned into 4150 contigs with an estimated total length of 1361 Mb. Screening of BAC pools, followed by the KeyMaps in silico anchoring procedure, identified 1725 AFLP markers in the physical map, and 1252 BAC contigs were anchored the ultradense potato genetic map. A second, sequence-tag-based physical map was constructed from 65919 whole genome profiling (WGP) BAC fingerprints and these were aligned into 3601 BAC contigs spanning 1396 Mb. The 39733 BAC clones that overlap between both physical maps provided anchors to 1127 contigs in the WGP physical map, and reduced the number of contigs to around 2800 in each map separately. Both physical maps were 1.64 times longer than the 850 Mb potato genome. Genome heterozygosity and incomplete merging of BAC contigs are two factors that can explain this map inflation. The contig information of both physical maps was united in a single table that describes hybrid potato physical map. Conclusions The AFLP physical map has already been used by the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium for sequencing 10% of the heterozygous genome of clone RH on a BAC-by-BAC basis. By layering a new WGP physical map on top of the AFLP physical map, a genetically anchored genome-wide framework of 322434 sequence tags has been created. This reference framework can be used for anchoring and ordering of genomic sequences of clone RH (and other potato genotypes), and opens the possibility to finish sequencing of the RH genome in a more efficient way via high throughput next generation approaches. PMID:22142254

2011-01-01

45

Genomic insight into the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae\\u000a species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively\\u000a underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development,\\u000a linkage map and physical map integration,

Peng Xu; Jiongtang Li; Yan Li; Runzi Cui; Jintu Wang; Jian Wang; Yan Zhang; Zixia Zhao; Xiaowen Sun

2011-01-01

46

Hemi-nested touchdown PCR combined with primer-template mismatch PCR for rapid isolation and sequencing of low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene family from a hexaploid wheat BAC library  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses a large genome that contains 1.6 × 1010 bp of DNA. Isolation of a large number of gene sequences from complex gene families with a high level of gene sequence identity from genomic DNA is therefore difficult and time-consuming. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries can be useful for such work. Here we report

Xiu-Qiang Huang; Sylvie Cloutier

2007-01-01

47

Insights into the Loblolly Pine Genome: Characterization of BAC and Fosmid Sequences  

PubMed Central

Despite their prevalence and importance, the genome sequences of loblolly pine, Norway spruce, and white spruce, three ecologically and economically important conifer species, are just becoming available to the research community. Following the completion of these large assemblies, annotation efforts will be undertaken to characterize the reference sequences. Accurate annotation of these ancient genomes would be aided by a comprehensive repeat library; however, few studies have generated enough sequence to fully evaluate and catalog their non-genic content. In this paper, two sets of loblolly pine genomic sequence, 103 previously assembled BACs and 90,954 newly sequenced and assembled fosmid scaffolds, were analyzed. Together, this sequence represents 280 Mbp (roughly 1% of the loblolly pine genome) and one of the most comprehensive studies of repetitive elements and genes in a gymnosperm species. A combination of homology and de novo methodologies were applied to identify both conserved and novel repeats. Similarity analysis estimated a repetitive content of 27% that included both full and partial elements. When combined with the de novo investigation, the estimate increased to almost 86%. Over 60% of the repetitive sequence consists of full or partial LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons. Through de novo approaches, 6,270 novel, full-length transposable element families and 9,415 sub-families were identified. Among those 6,270 families, 82% were annotated as single-copy. Several of the novel, high-copy families are described here, with the largest, PtPiedmont, comprising 133 full-length copies. In addition to repeats, analysis of the coding region reported 23 full-length eukaryotic orthologous proteins (KOGS) and another 29 novel or orthologous genes. These discoveries, along with other genomic resources, will be used to annotate conifer genomes and address long-standing questions about gymnosperm evolution. PMID:24023741

Dougherty, William M.; Martinez-Garcia, Pedro J.; Koriabine, Maxim; Holtz-Morris, Ann; deJong, Pieter; Crepeau, Marc; Langley, Charles H.; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L.; Neale, David B.; Stevens, Kristian A.

2013-01-01

48

Isolation of high molecular weight DNA suitable for BAC library construction from woody perennial soft-fruit species.  

PubMed

We have developed a novel nuclei extraction method that allows for the extraction of high molecular weight DNA from leaves of woody perennial soft-fruit species that contain high levels of carbohydrates and polyphenolics. The method utilizes a modified buffer system including 4% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-10 and a combination of nylon filters and Percoll gradients to purify nuclei extracts prior to embedding in agarose plugs. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on leaves of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), two soft-fruit species that have shown to be recalcitrant to standard genomic DNA extraction methods. Extracted DNA was readily digested by restriction enzymes and, as shown for raspberry, suitable for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library construction. PMID:15679088

Hein, Ingo; Williamson, Sandie; Russell, Joanne; Powell, Wayne

2005-01-01

49

piggyBac-based insertional mutagenesis and enhancer detection as a tool for functional insect genomics.  

PubMed Central

Transposon mutagenesis provides a fundamental tool for functional genomics. Here we present a non-species-specific, combined enhancer detection and binary expression system based on the transposable element piggyBac: For the different components of this insertional mutagenesis system, we used widely applicable transposons and distinguishable broad-range transformation markers, which should enable this system to be operational in nonmodel arthropods. In a pilot screen in Drosophila melanogaster, piggyBac mutator elements on the X chromosome were mobilized in males by a Hermes-based jumpstarter element providing piggyBac transposase activity under control of the alpha1-tubulin promoter. As primary reporters in the piggyBac mutator elements, we employed the heterologous transactivators GAL4delta or tTA. To identify larval and adult enhancer detectors, strains carrying UASp-EYFP or TRE-EYFP as secondary reporter elements were used. Tissue-specific enhancer activities were readily observed in the GAL4delta/UASp-based systems, but only rarely in the tTA/TRE system. Novel autosomal insertions were recovered with an average jumping rate of 80%. Of these novel insertions, 3.8% showed homozygous lethality, which was reversible by piggyBac excision. Insertions were found in both coding and noncoding regions of characterized genes and also in noncharacterized and non-P-targeted CG-number genes. This indicates that piggyBac will greatly facilitate the intended saturation mutagenesis in Drosophila. PMID:12618403

Horn, Carsten; Offen, Nils; Nystedt, Sverker; Häcker, Udo; Wimmer, Ernst A

2003-01-01

50

High-resolution genomic profiles of breast cancer cell lines assessed by tiling BAC array comparative genomic hybridization.  

PubMed

A BAC-array platform for comparative genomic hybridization was constructed from a library of 32,433 clones providing complete genome coverage, and evaluated by screening for DNA copy number changes in 10 breast cancer cell lines (BT474, MCF7, HCC1937, SK-BR-3, L56Br-C1, ZR-75-1, JIMT1, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, and HCC2218) and one cell line derived from fibrocystic disease of the breast (MCF10A). These were also characterized by gene expression analysis and found to represent all five recently described breast cancer subtypes using the "intrinsic gene set" and centroid correlation. Three cell lines, HCC1937 and L56BrC1 derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers and MDA-MB-231, were of basal-like subtype and characterized by a high frequency of low-level gains and losses of typical pattern, including limited deletions on 5q. Four estrogen receptor positive cell lines were of luminal A subtype and characterized by a different pattern of aberrations and high-level amplifications, including ERBB2 and other 17q amplicons in BT474 and MDA-MB-361. SK-BR-3 cells, characterized by a complex genome including ERBB2 amplification, massive high-level amplifications on 8q and a homozygous deletion of CDH1 at 16q22, had an expression signature closest to luminal B subtype. The effects of gene amplifications were verified by gene expression analysis to distinguish targeted genes from silent amplicon passengers. JIMT1, derived from an ERBB2 amplified trastuzumab resistant tumor, was of the ERBB2 subtype. Homozygous deletions included other known targets such as PTEN (HCC1937) and CDKN2A (MDA-MB-231, MCF10A), but also new candidate suppressor genes such as FUSSEL18 (HCC1937) and WDR11 (L56Br-C1) as well as regions without known genes. The tiling BAC-arrays constitute a powerful tool for high-resolution genomic profiling suitable for cancer research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:17334996

Jönsson, Göran; Staaf, Johan; Olsson, Eleonor; Heidenblad, Markus; Vallon-Christersson, Johan; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Oredsson, Stina; Ringnér, Markus; Höglund, Mattias; Borg, Ake

2007-06-01

51

Chromosome arm-specific BAC end sequences permit comparative analysis of homoeologous chromosomes and genomes of polyploid wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Bread wheat, one of the world’s staple food crops, has the largest, highly repetitive and polyploid genome among the cereal crops. The wheat genome holds the key to crop genetic improvement against challenges such as climate change, environmental degradation, and water scarcity. To unravel the complex wheat genome, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) is pursuing a chromosome- and chromosome arm-based approach to physical mapping and sequencing. Here we report on the use of a BAC library made from flow-sorted telosomic chromosome 3A short arm (t3AS) for marker development and analysis of sequence composition and comparative evolution of homoeologous genomes of hexaploid wheat. Results The end-sequencing of 9,984 random BACs from a chromosome arm 3AS-specific library (TaaCsp3AShA) generated 11,014,359?bp of high quality sequence from 17,591 BAC-ends with an average length of 626?bp. The sequence represents 3.2% of t3AS with an average DNA sequence read every 19?kb. Overall, 79% of the sequence consisted of repetitive elements, 1.38% as coding regions (estimated 2,850 genes) and another 19% of unknown origin. Comparative sequence analysis suggested that 70-77% of the genes present in both 3A and 3B were syntenic with model species. Among the transposable elements, gypsy/sabrina (12.4%) was the most abundant repeat and was significantly more frequent in 3A compared to homoeologous chromosome 3B. Twenty novel repetitive sequences were also identified using de novo repeat identification. BESs were screened to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR) and transposable element junctions. A total of 1,057 SSRs were identified with a density of one per 10.4?kb, and 7,928 junctions between transposable elements (TE) and other sequences were identified with a density of one per 1.39?kb. With the objective of enhancing the marker density of chromosome 3AS, oligonucleotide primers were successfully designed from 758 SSRs and 695 Insertion Site Based Polymorphisms (ISBPs). Of the 96 ISBP primer pairs tested, 28 (29%) were 3A-specific and compared to 17 (18%) for 96 SSRs. Conclusion This work reports on the use of wheat chromosome arm 3AS-specific BAC library for the targeted generation of sequence data from a particular region of the huge genome of wheat. A large quantity of sequences were generated from the A genome of hexaploid wheat for comparative genome analysis with homoeologous B and D genomes and other model grass genomes. Hundreds of molecular markers were developed from the 3AS arm-specific sequences; these and other sequences will be useful in gene discovery and physical mapping. PMID:22559868

2012-01-01

52

Construction and Characterization of a Human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed an arrayed human genomic BAC library with approximately 4× coverage that is represented by 96,000 BAC clones with average insert size of nearly 140 kb. A new BAC vector that allows color-based positive screening to identify transformants with inserts has increased BAC cloning efficiency. The library was gridded onto hybridization filters at high density for efficient identification

Ung-Jin Kim; Bruce W. Birren; Tatiana Slepak; Valeria Mancino; Cecilie Boysen; Hyung-Lyun Kang; Melvin I. Simon; Hiroaki Shizuya

1996-01-01

53

Generation of the first BAC-based physical map of the common carp genome  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a member of Cyprinidae, is the third most important aquaculture species in the world with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the all freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Apparently genomic resources are needed for this species in order to study its performance and production traits. In spite of much progress, no physical maps have been available for common carp. The objective of this project was to generate a BAC-based physical map using fluorescent restriction fingerprinting. Result The first generation of common carp physical map was constructed using four- color High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF). A total of 72,158 BAC clones were analyzed that generated 67,493 valid fingerprints (5.5 × genome coverage). These BAC clones were assembled into 3,696 contigs with the average length of 476 kb and a N50 length of 688 kb, representing approximately 1.76 Gb of the common carp genome. The largest contig contained 171 BAC clones with the physical length of 3.12 Mb. There are 761 contigs longer than the N50, and these contigs should be the most useful resource for future integrations with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The common carp physical map is available at http://genomics.cafs.ac.cn/fpc/WebAGCoL/Carp/WebFPC/. Conclusion The reported common carp physical map is the first physical map of the common carp genome. It should be a valuable genome resource facilitating whole genome sequence assembly and characterization of position-based genes important for aquaculture traits. PMID:22044723

2011-01-01

54

Construction and characterization of a soybean bacterial artificial chromosome library and use of multiple complementary libraries for genome physical mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two plant-transformation-competent large-insert binary clone bacterial artificial chromosome (hereafter BIBAC) libraries were previously constructed for soybean cv. Forrest, using BamHI or HindIII. However, they are not well suited for clone-based genomic sequencing due to their larger ratio of vector to insert size (27.6 kbp:125 kbp). Therefore, we developed a larger-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the genotype in a smaller vector

C.-C. Wu; P. Nimmakayala; F. A. Santos; R. Springman; C. Scheuring; K. Meksem; D. A. Lightfoot; H.-B. Zhang

2004-01-01

55

A BAC-based physical map of the Nile tilapia genome  

PubMed Central

Background Cichlid fishes, particularly tilapias, are an important source of animal protein in tropical countries around the world. To support selective breeding of these species we are constructing genetic and physical maps of the tilapia genome. Physical maps linking collections of BAC clones are a critical resource for both positional cloning and assembly of whole genome sequences. Results We constructed a genome-wide physical map of the tilapia genome by restriction fingerprinting 35,245 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones using high-resolution capillary polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The map consists of 3,621 contigs and is estimated to span 1.752 Gb in physical length. An independent analysis of the marker content of four contigs demonstrates the reliability of the assembly. Conclusion This physical map is a powerful tool for accelerating genomic studies in cichlid fishes, including comparative mapping among fish species, long-range assembly of genomic shotgun sequences, and the positional cloning of genes underlying important phenotypic traits. The tilapia BAC fingerprint database is freely available at . PMID:15946383

Katagiri, Takayuki; Kidd, Celeste; Tomasino, Elizabeth; Davis, Jesse T; Wishon, Cassandra; Stern, Justin E; Carleton, Karen L; Howe, Aimee E; Kocher, Thomas D

2005-01-01

56

Mapping of Micro-Tom BAC-End Sequences to the Reference Tomato Genome Reveals Possible Genome Rearrangements and Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

A total of 93,682 BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from a dwarf model tomato, cv. Micro-Tom. After removing repetitive sequences, the BESs were similarity searched against the reference tomato genome of a standard cultivar, “Heinz 1706.” By referring to the “Heinz 1706” physical map and by eliminating redundant or nonsignificant hits, 28,804 “unique pair ends” and 8,263 “unique ends” were selected to construct hypothetical BAC contigs. The total physical length of the BAC contigs was 495, 833, 423?bp, covering 65.3% of the entire genome. The average coverage of euchromatin and heterochromatin was 58.9% and 67.3%, respectively. From this analysis, two possible genome rearrangements were identified: one in chromosome 2 (inversion) and the other in chromosome 3 (inversion and translocation). Polymorphisms (SNPs and Indels) between the two cultivars were identified from the BLAST alignments. As a result, 171,792 polymorphisms were mapped on 12 chromosomes. Among these, 30,930 polymorphisms were found in euchromatin (1 per 3,565?bp) and 140,862 were found in heterochromatin (1 per 2,737?bp). The average polymorphism density in the genome was 1 polymorphism per 2,886?bp. To facilitate the use of these data in Micro-Tom research, the BAC contig and polymorphism information are available in the TOMATOMICS database. PMID:23227037

Asamizu, Erika; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Yano, Kentaro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shibata, Daisuke; Ezura, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

57

Mapping of Micro-Tom BAC-End Sequences to the Reference Tomato Genome Reveals Possible Genome Rearrangements and Polymorphisms.  

PubMed

A total of 93,682 BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from a dwarf model tomato, cv. Micro-Tom. After removing repetitive sequences, the BESs were similarity searched against the reference tomato genome of a standard cultivar, "Heinz 1706." By referring to the "Heinz 1706" physical map and by eliminating redundant or nonsignificant hits, 28,804 "unique pair ends" and 8,263 "unique ends" were selected to construct hypothetical BAC contigs. The total physical length of the BAC contigs was 495, 833, 423?bp, covering 65.3% of the entire genome. The average coverage of euchromatin and heterochromatin was 58.9% and 67.3%, respectively. From this analysis, two possible genome rearrangements were identified: one in chromosome 2 (inversion) and the other in chromosome 3 (inversion and translocation). Polymorphisms (SNPs and Indels) between the two cultivars were identified from the BLAST alignments. As a result, 171,792 polymorphisms were mapped on 12 chromosomes. Among these, 30,930 polymorphisms were found in euchromatin (1 per 3,565?bp) and 140,862 were found in heterochromatin (1 per 2,737?bp). The average polymorphism density in the genome was 1 polymorphism per 2,886?bp. To facilitate the use of these data in Micro-Tom research, the BAC contig and polymorphism information are available in the TOMATOMICS database. PMID:23227037

Asamizu, Erika; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Yano, Kentaro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shibata, Daisuke; Ezura, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

58

Genome evolution in Reptilia: in silico chicken mapping of 12,000 BAC-end sequences from two reptiles and a basal bird  

PubMed Central

Background With the publication of the draft chicken genome and the recent production of several BAC clone libraries from non-avian reptiles and birds, it is now possible to undertake more detailed comparative genomic studies in Reptilia. Of interest in particular are the genomic events that transformed the large, repeat-rich genomes of mammals and non-avian reptiles into the minimalist chicken genome. We have used paired BAC end sequences (BESs) from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) and emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) to investigate patterns of sequence divergence, gene and retroelement content, and microsynteny between these species and chicken. Results From a total of 11,967 curated BESs, we successfully mapped 725, 773 and 2597 sequences in alligator, turtle, and emu, respectively, to sites in the draft chicken genome using a stringent BLAST protocol. Most commonly, sequences mapped to a single site in the chicken genome. Of 1675, 1828 and 2936 paired BESs obtained for alligator, turtle, and emu, respectively, a total of 34 (alligator, 2%), 24 (turtle, 1.3%) and 479 (emu, 16.3%) pairs were found to map with high confidence and in the correct orientation and with BAC-sized intermarker distances to single chicken chromosomes, including 25 such paired hits in emu mapping to the chicken Z chromosome. By determining the insert sizes of a subset of BAC clones from these three species, we also found a significant correlation between the intermarker distance in alligator and turtle and in chicken, with slopes as expected on the basis of the ratio of the genome sizes. Conclusion Our results suggest that a large number of small-scale chromosomal rearrangements and deletions in the lineage leading to chicken have drastically reduced the number of detected syntenies observed between the chicken and alligator, turtle, and emu genomes and imply that small deletions occurring widely throughout the genomes of reptilian and avian ancestors led to the ~50% reduction in genome size observed in birds compared to reptiles. We have also mapped and identified likely gene regions in hundreds of new BAC clones from these species. PMID:19607659

2009-01-01

59

BacMap: an up-to-date electronic atlas of annotated bacterial genomes.  

PubMed

Originally released in 2005, BacMap is an electronic, interactive atlas of fully sequenced bacterial genomes. It contains fully labeled, zoomable and searchable chromosome maps for essentially all sequenced prokaryotic (archaebacterial and eubacterial) species. Each map can be zoomed to the level of individual genes and each gene is hyperlinked to a richly annotated gene card. The latest release of BacMap (http://bacmap.wishartlab.com/) now contains data for more than 1700 bacterial species (~10× more than the 2005 release), corresponding to more than 2800 chromosome and plasmid maps. All bacterial genome maps are now supplemented with separate prophage genome maps as well as separate tRNA and rRNA maps. Each bacterial chromosome entry in BacMap also contains graphs and tables on a variety of gene and protein statistics. Likewise, every bacterial species entry contains a bacterial 'biography' card, with taxonomic details, phenotypic details, textual descriptions and images (when available). Improved data browsing and searching tools have also been added to allow more facile filtering, sorting and display of the chromosome maps and their contents. PMID:22135301

Cruz, Joseph; Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Zhou, You; Wilson, Michael; Dennis, Jonathan J; Stothard, Paul; Van Domselaar, Gary; Wishart, David S

2012-01-01

60

A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Sequencing the Complete Human Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 30-fold redundant human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library with a large average insert size (178 kb) has been constructed to provide the intermediate substrate for the international genome sequencing effort. The DNA was obtained from a single anonymous volunteer, whose identity was protected through a double-blind donor selection protocol. DNA fragments were generated by partial digestion with EcoRI (library

Kazutoyo Osoegawa; Aaron G. Mammoser; Chenyan Wu; Eirik Frengen; Changjiang Zeng; Joseph J. Catanese; Pieter J. de Jong

2007-01-01

61

PiggyBac-ing on a primate genome: novel elements, recent activity and horizontal transfer.  

PubMed

To better understand the extent of Class II transposable element activity in mammals, we investigated the mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, whole genome shotgun (2X) draft assembly. Analysis of this strepsirrhine primate extended previous research that targeted anthropoid primates and found no activity within the last 37 Myr. We tested the hypothesis that members of the piggyBac Class II superfamily have been inactive in the strepsirrhine lineage of primates during the same period. Evidence against this hypothesis was discovered in the form of three nonautonomous piggyBac elements with activity periods within the past 40 Myr and possibly into the very recent past. In addition, a novel family of piggyBac transposons was identified, suggesting introduction via horizontal transfer. A second autonomous element was also found with high similarity to an element recently described from the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, further implicating horizontal transfer in the evolution of this genome. These findings indicate a more complex history of transposon activity in mammals rather than a uniform shutdown of Class II transposition, which had been suggested by analyses of more common model organisms. PMID:20624734

Pagan, Heidi J T; Smith, Jeremy D; Hubley, Robert M; Ray, David A

2010-01-01

62

PiggyBac-ing on a Primate Genome: Novel Elements, Recent Activity and Horizontal Transfer  

PubMed Central

To better understand the extent of Class II transposable element activity in mammals, we investigated the mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, whole genome shotgun (2X) draft assembly. Analysis of this strepsirrhine primate extended previous research that targeted anthropoid primates and found no activity within the last 37 Myr. We tested the hypothesis that members of the piggyBac Class II superfamily have been inactive in the strepsirrhine lineage of primates during the same period. Evidence against this hypothesis was discovered in the form of three nonautonomous piggyBac elements with activity periods within the past 40 Myr and possibly into the very recent past. In addition, a novel family of piggyBac transposons was identified, suggesting introduction via horizontal transfer. A second autonomous element was also found with high similarity to an element recently described from the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, further implicating horizontal transfer in the evolution of this genome. These findings indicate a more complex history of transposon activity in mammals rather than a uniform shutdown of Class II transposition, which had been suggested by analyses of more common model organisms. PMID:20624734

Pagan, Heidi J. T.; Smith, Jeremy D.; Hubley, Robert M.; Ray, David A.

2010-01-01

63

Using comparative genomics to reorder the human genome sequence into a virtual sheep genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Is it possible to construct an accurate and detailed subgene-level map of a genome using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, a sparse marker map, and the sequences of other genomes? RESULTS: A sheep BAC library, CHORI-243, was constructed and the BAC end sequences were determined and mapped with high sensitivity and low specificity onto the frameworks of the

Brian P Dalrymple; Ewen F Kirkness; Mikhail Nefedov; Sean McWilliam; Abhirami Ratnakumar; Wes Barris; Shaying Zhao; Jyoti Shetty; Jillian F Maddox; Margaret O'Grady; Frank Nicholas; Allan M Crawford; Tim Smith; Pieter J de Jong; John McEwan; V Hutton Oddy; Noelle E Cockett

2007-01-01

64

A first survey of the rye (Secale cereale) genome composition through BAC end sequencing of the short arm of chromosome 1R  

PubMed Central

Background Rye (Secale cereale L.) belongs to tribe Triticeae and is an important temperate cereal. It is one of the parents of man-made species Triticale and has been used as a source of agronomically important genes for wheat improvement. The short arm of rye chromosome 1 (1RS), in particular is rich in useful genes, and as it may increase yield, protein content and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, it has been introgressed into wheat as the 1BL.1RS translocation. A better knowledge of the rye genome could facilitate rye improvement and increase the efficiency of utilizing rye genes in wheat breeding. Results Here, we report on BAC end sequencing of 1,536 clones from two 1RS-specific BAC libraries. We obtained 2,778 (90.4%) useful sequences with a cumulative length of 2,032,538 bp and an average read length of 732 bp. These sequences represent 0.5% of 1RS arm. The GC content of the sequenced fraction of 1RS is 45.9%, and at least 84% of the 1RS arm consists of repetitive DNA. We identified transposable element junctions in BESs and developed insertion site based polymorphism markers (ISBP). Out of the 64 primer pairs tested, 17 (26.6%) were specific for 1RS. We also identified BESs carrying microsatellites suitable for development of 1RS-specific SSR markers. Conclusion This work demonstrates the utility of chromosome arm-specific BAC libraries for targeted analysis of large Triticeae genomes and provides new sequence data from the rye genome and molecular markers for the short arm of rye chromosome 1. PMID:18803819

Bartos, Jan; Paux, Etienne; Kofler, Robert; Havrankova, Miroslava; Kopecky, David; Suchankova, Pavla; Safar, Jan; Simkova, Hana; Town, Christopher D; Lelley, Tamas; Feuillet, Catherine; Dolezel, Jaroslav

2008-01-01

65

[Integration sites and their characteristic analysis of piggyBac transposon in cattle genome].  

PubMed

As a useful tool for genetic engineering, piggyBac (PB) transposons have been widely used in more than one species of transgenosis or generating mutation studies. At present, the studies about PB transposons in cattle were few. In order to get the PB transposon integration sites and summarize its characteristics in bovine genome, donor plasmid of PB[CMV-EGFP] and helper-dependent plasmid of pcDNA-PBase were constructed and transferred into bovine fibroblasts by Amaxa basic nucleofector kit for primary mammalian fibroblasts. Cell clones stably transfected were obtained after screening by G-418. Genomic DNA of transgenic cells was extracted and the integration sites of PB transposon were detected by genome walking technology. Eight integration sites were obtained in bovine genome, although only 5 sites were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2, 11, and X chromosome. We found that PB transposon was inserted into the "TTAA" location and integrated into the intergenic non-regulatory sites between two genes. Analysis of the composition of the five bases, which was close to the side of the PB integration sites "TTAA", showed that PB 5' tended to be inserted into region rich in GC (62.5%). From the study, we got that transposition occurred in cattle genome by PB transposons and the integration site information acquired from the research will provide theoretical references for bovine study by PB transposon. PMID:23774022

Du, Xin-Hua; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Lu-Pei; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Li, Jun-Ya; Xu, Shang-Zhong

2013-06-01

66

A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Sequencing the Complete Human Genome  

PubMed Central

A 30-fold redundant human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library with a large average insert size (178 kb) has been constructed to provide the intermediate substrate for the international genome sequencing effort. The DNA was obtained from a single anonymous volunteer, whose identity was protected through a double-blind donor selection protocol. DNA fragments were generated by partial digestion with EcoRI (library segments 1–4: 24-fold) and MboI (segment 5: sixfold) and cloned into the pBACe3.6 and pTARBAC1 vectors, respectively. The quality of the library was assessed by extensive analysis of 169 clones for rearrangements and artifacts. Eighteen BACs (11%) revealed minor insert rearrangements, and none was chimeric. This BAC library, designated as “RPCI-11,” has been used widely as the central resource for insert-end sequencing, clone fingerprinting, high-throughput sequence analysis and as a source of mapped clones for diagnostic and functional studies. The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession nos. AQ936150–AQ936491.] PMID:11230172

Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Mammoser, Aaron G.; Wu, Chenyan; Frengen, Eirik; Zeng, Changjiang; Catanese, Joseph J.; de Jong, Pieter J.

2001-01-01

67

Human Genome Anatomy: BACs Integrating the Genetic and Cytogenetic Maps for Bridging Genome and Biomedicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human genome sequencing is accelerating rapidly. Multiple genome maps link this sequence to problems in biology and clinical medicine. Because each map represents a different aspect of the structure, content, and behavior of human chromosomes, these fundamental properties must be integrated with the genome to understand disease genes, cancer instability, and human evolution. Cytogenetic maps use 400-850 visible band landmarks

Julie R. Korenberg; Xiao-Ning Chen; Zhiguang Sun; Zheng-Yang Shi; Shaowu Ma; Eddy Vataru; Dean Yimlamai; Jean S. Weissenbach; Hiroaki Shizuya; Melvin I. Simon; Sebastian S. Gerety; Huy Nguyen; Irina S. Zemsteva; Lester Hui; James Silva; Xiaoyun Wu; Bruce W. Birren; Thomas J. Hudson

2006-01-01

68

Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) with YAC/BAC-based probes and region-specific microdissection DNA libraries  

SciTech Connect

Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with a resolution of a few mega base pairs, i.e., slightly below the size of most visible chromosome bands. Based on the hybridization of over lapping region-specific probe libraries, chromosomal subregions are hybridized with probes that fluoresce in distinct wave length intervals, so they can be assigned predefined pseudo-colors during the digital imaging and visualization process. The present study demonstrates how MCB patterns can be produced by region-specific micro dissection derived (mcd) libraries as well as collections of yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs, respectively). We compared the efficiency of an mcd library based approach with the hybridization of collections of locus-specific probes (LSP) for fluorescent banding of three rather differently sized human chromosomes, i.e., chromosomes 2, 13, and 22. The LSP sets were comprised of 107 probes specific for chromosome 2, 82 probes for chromosome 13, and 31 probes for chromosome 22. The results demonstrated a more homogeneous coverage of chromosomes and thus, more desirable banding patterns using the microdissection library-based MCB. This may be related to the observation that chromosomes are difficult to cover completely with YAC and/or BAC clones as single-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed. Mcd libraries, on the other hand, provide high complexity probes that work well as region specific paints, but do not readily allow positioning of break points on genetic or physical maps as required for the positional cloning of genes. Thus, combinations of mcd libraries and locus-specific large insert DNA probes appear to be the most efficient tools for high-resolution cytogenetic analyses.

Liehr, T.; Weise, A.; Heller, A.; Starke, H.; Mrasek, K.; Kuechler, A.; Weier, H.-U.G.; Claussen, U.

2003-06-23

69

New resources for marine genomics: bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for the Eastern and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea virginica and C. gigas).  

PubMed

Large-insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of two culturally and economically important oyster species, Crassostrea virginica and C. gigas, have been developed as part of an international effort to develop tools and reagents that will advance our ability to conduct genetic and genomic research. A total of 73,728 C. gigas clones with an average insert size of 152 kb were picked and arrayed representing an 11.8-fold genome coverage. A total of 55,296 clones with an average insert size of 150 kb were picked and arrayed for C. virginica, also representing an 11.8-fold genome coverage. The C. gigas and C. virginica libraries were screened with probes derived from selected oyster genes using high-density BAC colony filter arrays. The probes identified 4 to 25 clones per gene for C. virginica and 5 to 50 clones per gene for C. gigas. We conducted a preliminary analysis of genetic polymorphism represented in the C. gigas library. The results suggest that the degree of divergence among similar sequences is highly variable and concentrated in intronic regions. Evidence supporting allelic polymorphism is reported for two genes and allelic and/or locus specific polymorphism for several others. Classical inheritance studies are needed to confirm the nature of these polymorphisms. The oyster BAC libraries are publicly available to the research community on a cost-recovery basis at (www.genome.clemson.edu). PMID:16896533

Cunningham, Charles; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jenny, Matthew J; Chapman, Robert W; Fang, Guang-Chen; Saski, Chris; Lundqvist, Mats L; Wing, Rod A; Cupit, Pauline M; Gross, Paul S; Warr, Greg W; Tomkins, Jeff P

2006-01-01

70

A new approach to genome mapping and sequencing: slalom libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here an efficient strategy for simultaneous genome mapping and sequencing. The approach is based on physically oriented, overlapping restriction fragment libraries called slalom libraries. Slalom libraries combine features of general genomic, jumping and linking libraries. Slalom libraries can be adapted to different applications and two main types of slalom libraries are described in detail. This approach was used

Veronika I. Zabarovska; Rinat Z. Gizatullin; Ali N. Al-Amin; Raf Podowski; Alexei I. Protopopov; Sven Löfdahl; Claes Wahlestedt; Gösta Winberg; Vladimir I. Kashuba; Ingemar Ernberg; Eugene R. Zabarovsky

2002-01-01

71

Chimeric piggyBac transposases for genomic targeting in human cells  

PubMed Central

Integrating vectors such as viruses and transposons insert transgenes semi-randomly and can potentially disrupt or deregulate genes. For these techniques to be of therapeutic value, a method for controlling the precise location of insertion is required. The piggyBac (PB) transposase is an efficient gene transfer vector active in a variety of cell types and proven to be amenable to modification. Here we present the design and validation of chimeric PB proteins fused to the Gal4 DNA binding domain with the ability to target transgenes to pre-determined sites. Upstream activating sequence (UAS) Gal4 recognition sites harbored on recipient plasmids were preferentially targeted by the chimeric Gal4–PB transposase in human cells. To analyze the ability of these PB fusion proteins to target chromosomal locations, UAS sites were randomly integrated throughout the genome using the Sleeping Beauty transposon. Both N- and C-terminal Gal4-PB fusion proteins but not native PB were capable of targeting transposition nearby these introduced sites. A genome-wide integration analysis revealed the ability of our fusion constructs to bias 24% of integrations near endogenous Gal4 recognition sequences. This work provides a powerful approach to enhance the properties of the PB system for applications such as genetic engineering and gene therapy. PMID:22492708

Owens, Jesse B.; Urschitz, Johann; Stoytchev, Ilko; Dang, Nong C.; Stoytcheva, Zoia; Belcaid, Mahdi; Maragathavally, Kommineni J.; Coates, Craig J.; Segal, David J.; Moisyadi, Stefan

2012-01-01

72

A hyperactive piggyBac transposase for mammalian applications.  

PubMed

DNA transposons have been widely used for transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in various organisms. Among the transposons active in mammalian cells, the moth-derived transposon piggyBac is most promising with its highly efficient transposition, large cargo capacity, and precise repair of the donor site. Here we report the generation of a hyperactive piggyBac transposase. The active transposition of piggyBac in multiple organisms allowed us to screen a transposase mutant library in yeast for hyperactive mutants and then to test candidates in mouse ES cells. We isolated 18 hyperactive mutants in yeast, among which five were also hyperactive in mammalian cells. By combining all mutations, a total of 7 aa substitutions, into a single reading frame, we generated a unique hyperactive piggyBac transposase with 17-fold and ninefold increases in excision and integration, respectively. We showed its applicability by demonstrating an increased efficiency of generation of transgene-free mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. We also analyzed whether this hyperactive piggyBac transposase affects the genomic integrity of the host cells. The frequency of footprints left by the hyperactive piggyBac transposase was as low as WT transposase (~1%) and we found no evidence that the expression of the transposase affects genomic integrity. This hyperactive piggyBac transposase expands the utility of the piggyBac transposon for applications in mammalian genetics and gene therapy. PMID:21205896

Yusa, Kosuke; Zhou, Liqin; Li, Meng Amy; Bradley, Allan; Craig, Nancy L

2011-01-25

73

A first generation BAC-based physical map of the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) genome  

PubMed Central

Background Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther) has been exploited as a commercially important cultured marine flatfish, and female grows 2–3 times faster than male. Genetic studies, especially on the chromosomal sex-determining system of this species, have been carried out in the last decade. Although the genome of half-smooth tongue sole was relatively small (626.9 Mb), there are still some difficulties in the high-quality assembly of the next generation genome sequencing reads without the assistance of a physical map, especially for the W chromosome of this fish due to abundance of repetitive sequences. The objective of this study is to construct a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map for half-smooth tongue sole with the method of high information content fingerprinting (HICF). Results A physical map of half-smooth tongue sole was constructed with 30, 294 valid fingerprints (7.5?×?genome coverage) with a tolerance of 4 and an initial cutoff of 1e-60. A total of 29,709 clones were assembled into 1,485 contigs with an average length of 539 kb and a N50 length of 664 kb. There were 394 contigs longer than the N50 length, and these contigs will be a useful resource for future integration with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The estimated physical length of the assembled contigs was 797 Mb, representing approximately 1.27 coverage of the half-smooth tongue sole genome. The largest contig contained 410 BAC clones with a physical length of 3.48 Mb. Almost all of the 676 BAC clones (99.9%) in the 21 randomly selected contigs were positively validated by PCR assays, thereby confirming the reliability of the assembly. Conclusions A first generation BAC-based physical map of half-smooth tongue sole was constructed with high reliability. The map will promote genetic improvement programs of this fish, especially integration of physical and genetic maps, fine-mappings of important gene and/or QTL, comparative and evolutionary genomics studies, as well as whole genome sequence assembly. PMID:24650389

2014-01-01

74

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Malus floribunda 821 and contig construction for positional cloning of the apple scab resistance gene Vf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple scab resistance gene Vf, originating from the wild species Malus floribunda 821, has been incorporated into a wide variety of apple cultivars through a classical breeding program. With the aim of isolating the Vf gene, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of 31 584 clones has been constructed from M. floribunda 821. From the analysis of 88

Mingliang Xu; Junqi Song; Zhukuan Cheng; Jiming Jiang; Schuyler S. Korban

2001-01-01

75

BAC-derived diagnostic markers for sex determination in asparagus.  

PubMed

A HindIII BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) library of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) was established from a single male plant homozygous for the male flowering gene ( MM). The library represents approximately 5.5 haploid genome equivalents with an average insert size of 82 kb. A subset of the library (2.6 haploid genome equivalents) was arranged into DNA pools. Using nine sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and two sequence-tagged site (STS) markers, 13 different BAC clones were identified from this part of the library. The BACs were arranged into a first-generation physical map around the sex locus. Four PCR-derived markers were developed from the BAC ends, one of which could be scored in a co-dominant way. Using a mapping population of 802 plants we mapped the BAC-derived markers to the same position close to the M gene as the corresponding AFLP and STS markers. The markers are useful for further chromosome walking studies and as diagnostic markers for selecting male plants homozygous for the M gene. PMID:15067401

Jamsari, A; Nitz, I; Reamon-Büttner, S M; Jung, C

2004-04-01

76

A new implementation of high-throughput five-dimensional clone pooling strategy for BAC library screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A five-dimensional (5-D) clone pooling strategy for screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones with molecular markers utilizing highly-parallel Illumina GoldenGate assays and PCR facilitates high-throughput BAC clone and BAC contig anchoring on a genetic map. However, this strategy occasionally needs manual PCR to deconvolute pools and identify truly positive clones. RESULTS: A new implementation is reported here for

Frank M You; Ming-Cheng Luo; Kenong Xu; Karin R Deal; Olin D Anderson; Jan Dvorak

2010-01-01

77

The first report of a Pelecaniformes defensin cluster: Characterization of ?-defensin genes in the crested ibis based on BAC libraries.  

PubMed

Defensins play a key role in the innate immunity of various organisms. Detailed genomic studies of the defensin cluster have only been reported in a limited number of birds. Herein, we present the first characterization of defensins in a Pelecaniformes species, the crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), which is one of the most endangered birds in the world. We constructed bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, including a 4D-PCR library and a reverse-4D library, which provide at least 40 equivalents of this rare bird's genome. A cluster including 14 ?-defensin loci within 129?kb was assigned to chromosome 3 by FISH, and one gene duplication of AvBD1 was found. The ibis defensin genes are characterized by multiform gene organization ranging from two to four exons through extensive exon fusion. Splicing signal variations and alternative splice variants were also found. Comparative analysis of four bird species identified one common and multiple species-specific duplications, which might be associated with high GC content. Evolutionary analysis revealed birth-and-death mode and purifying selection for avian defensin evolution, resulting in different defensin gene numbers among bird species and functional conservation within orthologous genes, respectively. Additionally, we propose various directions for further research on genetic conservation in the crested ibis. PMID:25372018

Lan, Hong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Li-Cheng; Wang, Bei-Bing; Sun, Li; Ma, Mei-Ying; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Wan, Qiu-Hong

2014-01-01

78

piggyBac  

PubMed Central

In addition to their natural role in eukaryotic genome evolution, transposons can be powerful tools for functional genomics in diverse taxa. The piggyBac transposon has been applied as such in eukaryotic parasites, both protozoa and helminths, and in several important vector mosquitoes. piggyBac is advantageous for functional genomics because of its ability to transduce a wide range of taxa, its capacity to integrate large DNA ‘cargoes’ relative to other mobile genetic elements, its propensity to target transcriptional units and its ability to re-mobilize without leaving a pattern of non-excised sequences or ‘footprint’ in the genome. We recently demonstrated that piggyBac can integrate transgenes into the genome of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti, an important model for parasitic nematode biology and a close relative of the significant human pathogen S. stercoralis. Unlike transgenes encoded in conventional plasmid vectors, which we assume are assembled into multi-copy episomal arrays as they are in Caenorhabditis elegans, transgenes integrated via piggyBac are not only stably inherited in S. ratti, they are also continuously expressed. This has allowed derivation of the first stable transgene expressing lines in any parasitic nematode, a significant advance in the development of functional genomic tools for these important pathogens. PMID:23914309

Lok, James

2013-01-01

79

Relational genome analysis using reference libraries and hybridisation fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomes of eukaryotic organisms are studied by an integrated approach based on hybridisation techniques. For this purpose, a reference library system has been set up, with a wide range of clone libraries made accessible to probe hybridisation as high density filter grids. Many different library types made from a variety of organisms can thus be analysed in a highly

J HOHEISEL; Mark T. Ross; G ZEHETNER; H LEHRACH

1994-01-01

80

A new approach to genome mapping and sequencing: slalom libraries  

PubMed Central

We describe here an efficient strategy for simultaneous genome mapping and sequencing. The approach is based on physically oriented, overlapping restriction fragment libraries called slalom libraries. Slalom libraries combine features of general genomic, jumping and linking libraries. Slalom libraries can be adapted to different applications and two main types of slalom libraries are described in detail. This approach was used to map and sequence (with ?46% coverage) two human P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones, each of ?100 kb. This model experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and shows that the efficiency (cost-effectiveness and speed) of existing mapping/sequencing methods could be improved at least 5–10-fold. Furthermore, since the efficiency of contig assembly in the slalom approach is virtually independent of length of sequence reads, even short sequences produced by rapid, high throughput sequencing techniques would suffice to complete a physical map and a sequence scan of a small genome. PMID:11788732

Zabarovska, Veronika I.; Gizatullin, Rinat Z.; Al-Amin, Ali N.; Podowski, Raf; Protopopov, Alexei I.; Lofdahl, Sven; Wahlestedt, Claes; Winberg, Gosta; Kashuba, Vladimir I.; Ernberg, Ingemar; Zabarovsky, Eugene R.

2002-01-01

81

A new approach to genome mapping and sequencing: slalom libraries.  

PubMed

We describe here an efficient strategy for simultaneous genome mapping and sequencing. The approach is based on physically oriented, overlapping restriction fragment libraries called slalom libraries. Slalom libraries combine features of general genomic, jumping and linking libraries. Slalom libraries can be adapted to different applications and two main types of slalom libraries are described in detail. This approach was used to map and sequence (with approximately 46% coverage) two human P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones, each of approximately 100 kb. This model experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and shows that the efficiency (cost-effectiveness and speed) of existing mapping/sequencing methods could be improved at least 5-10-fold. Furthermore, since the efficiency of contig assembly in the slalom approach is virtually independent of length of sequence reads, even short sequences produced by rapid, high throughput sequencing techniques would suffice to complete a physical map and a sequence scan of a small genome. PMID:11788732

Zabarovska, Veronika I; Gizatullin, Rinat Z; Al-Amin, Ali N; Podowski, Raf; Protopopov, Alexei I; Löfdahl, Sven; Wahlestedt, Claes; Winberg, Gösta; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Ernberg, Ingemar; Zabarovsky, Eugene R

2002-01-15

82

Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

Kao, F.T.

1994-04-01

83

A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and the

Sylvie M-A Quiniou; Geoffrey C Waldbieser; Mary V Duke

2007-01-01

84

A first generation BAC-based physical map of the rainbow trout genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production efficiency traits justifies the continued development of genomics research resources. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been

Yniv Palti; Ming-Cheng Luo; Yuqin Hu; Carine Genet; Frank M You; Roger L Vallejo; Gary H Thorgaard; Paul A Wheeler; Caird E Rexroad

2009-01-01

85

Isolation and sequence analysis of the wheat B genome subtelomeric DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Telomeric and subtelomeric regions are essential for genome stability and regular chromosome replication. In this work, we have characterized the wheat BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones containing Spelt1 and Spelt52 sequences, which belong to the subtelomeric repeats of the B\\/G genomes of wheats and Aegilops species from the section Sitopsis. RESULTS: The BAC library from Triticum aestivum cv. Renan

Elena A Salina; Ekaterina M Sergeeva; Irina G Adonina; Andrey B Shcherban; Dmitry A Afonnikov; Harry Belcram; Cecile Huneau; Boulos Chalhoub

2009-01-01

86

Gridded Genomic Libraries of Different Chordate Species: A Reference Library System for Basic and Comparative Genetic Studies of Chordate Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genomic libraries maintained in arrayed format is becoming a more and more popular tool for the analysis of molecular evolution and comparative molecular development. Being able to use already existing reference libraries considerably reduces the work load, and if results are made publicly available, it will facilitatein silicaexperiments in the future. Here we describe the construction and

Carola Burgtorf; Katrin Welzel; Renate Hasenbank; Günther Zehetner; Silke Weis; Hans Lehrach

1998-01-01

87

Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) genomic library and EST resources.  

PubMed

Genomic resources in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) enable us to examine the genome duplication process in salmonids and test hypotheses relating to the fate of duplicated genes. They further enable us to pursue physiological and ecological studies in smelt. A bacterial artificial chromosome library containing 52,410 clones with an average insert size of 146 kb was constructed. This library represents an 11-fold average coverage of the rainbow smelt (O. mordax) genome. In addition, several complementary deoxyribonucleic acid libraries were constructed, and 36,758 sequences were obtained and combined into 12,159 transcripts. Over half of these transcripts have been identified, several of which have been associated with cold adaptation. These basic resources show high levels of similarity (86%) to salmonid genes and provide initial support for genome duplication in the salmonid ancestor. They also facilitate identification of genes important to fish and direct us toward new technologies for other studies in fish biology. PMID:18386095

von Schalburg, K R; Leong, J; Cooper, G A; Robb, A; Beetz-Sargent, M R; Lieph, R; Holt, R A; Moore, R; Ewart, K V; Driedzic, W R; ten Hallers, B F H; Zhu, B; de Jong, P J; Davidson, W S; Koop, B F

2008-01-01

88

The Populus Genome and Comparative Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Populus was the first tree genome, and one of the first plant genomes, to be sequenced. The sequencing project and subsequent annotation\\u000a was a collaborative, international effort, with the bulk of the sequencing carried out by the US Department of Energy Joint\\u000a Genome Institute. Due to the high degree of sequence coverage, the hybrid BAC library-whole genome shotgun approach employed,

Carl J. Douglas; Stephen P. DiFazio

89

Novel Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Vector pUvBBAC for Use in Studies of the Functional Genomics of Listeria spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors are important tools for microbial genome research. We con- structed a novel BAC vector, pUvBBAC, for replication in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial hosts. The pUvBBAC vector was used to generate a BAC library for the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. The library had insert sizes ranging from 68 to 178 kb. We identified

Torsten Hain; Sonja Otten; U. von Both; S. S. Chatterjee; U. Technow; A. Billion; R. Ghai; W. Mohamed; E. Domann; T. Chakraborty

2008-01-01

90

BAC-End Microsatellites from Intra and Inter-Genic Regions of the Common Bean Genome and Their Correlation with Cytogenetic Features  

PubMed Central

Highly polymorphic markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are very useful for genetic mapping. In this study novel SSRs were identified in BAC-end sequences (BES) from non-contigged, non-overlapping bacterial artificial clones (BACs) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). These so called “singleton” BACs were from the G19833 Andean gene pool physical map and the new BES-SSR markers were used for the saturation of the inter-gene pool, DOR364×G19833 genetic map. A total of 899 SSR loci were found among the singleton BES, but only 346 loci corresponded to the single di- or tri-nucleotide motifs that were likely to be polymorphic (ATT or AG motifs, principally) and useful for primer design and individual marker mapping. When these novel SSR markers were evaluated in the DOR364×G19833 population parents, 136 markers revealed polymorphism and 106 were mapped. Genetic mapping resulted in a map length of 2291 cM with an average distance between markers of 5.2 cM. The new genetic map was compared to the most recent cytogenetic analysis of common bean chromosomes. We found that the new singleton BES-SSR were helpful in filling peri-centromeric spaces on the cytogenetic map. Short genetic distances between some new singleton-derived BES-SSR markers was common showing suppressed recombination in these regions compared to other parts of the genome. The correlation of singleton-derived SSR marker distribution with other cytogenetic features of the bean genome is discussed. PMID:25254501

Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cordoba, Juana Marcela; Munoz, Claritza; Yuyo, Deissy K.

2014-01-01

91

Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Sorghum bicolor.  

PubMed Central

The construction of representative large insert DNA libraries is critical for the analysis of complex genomes. The predominant vector system for such work is the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) system. Despite the success of YACs, many problems have been described including: chimerism, tedious steps in library construction and low yields of YAC insert DNA. Recently a new E.coli based system has been developed, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system, which offers many potential advantages over YACs. We tested the BAC system in plants by constructing an ordered 13,440 clone sorghum BAC library. The library has a combined average insert size, from single and double size selections, of 157 kb. Sorghum inserts of up to 315 kb were isolated and shown to be stable when grown for over 100 generations in liquid media. No chimeric clones were detected as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization of ten BAC clones to metaphase and interphase S.bicolor nuclei. The library was screened with six sorghum probes and three maize probes and all but one sorghum probe hybridized to at least one BAC clone in the library. To facilitate chromosome walking with the BAC system, methods were developed to isolate the proximal ends of restriction fragments inserted into the BAC vector and used to isolate both the left and right ends of six randomly selected BAC clones. These results demonstrate that the S. bicolor BAC library will be useful for several physical mapping and map-based cloning applications not only in sorghum but other related cereal genomes, such as maize. Furthermore, we conclude that the BAC system is suitable for most large genome applications, is more 'user friendly' than the YAC system, and will likely lead to rapid progress in cloning biologically significant genes from plants. Images PMID:7800481

Woo, S S; Jiang, J; Gill, B S; Paterson, A H; Wing, R A

1994-01-01

92

Multiplexed direct genomic selection (MDiGS): a pooled BAC capture approach for highly accurate CNV and SNP/INDEL detection  

PubMed Central

Despite declining sequencing costs, few methods are available for cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), insertion/deletion (INDEL) and copy number variation (CNV) discovery in a single assay. Commercially available methods require a high investment to a specific region and are only cost-effective for large samples. Here, we introduce a novel, flexible approach for multiplexed targeted sequencing and CNV analysis of large genomic regions called multiplexed direct genomic selection (MDiGS). MDiGS combines biotinylated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) capture and multiplexed pooled capture for SNP/INDEL and CNV detection of 96 multiplexed samples on a single MiSeq run. MDiGS is advantageous over other methods for CNV detection because pooled sample capture and hybridization to large contiguous BAC baits reduces sample and probe hybridization variability inherent in other methods. We performed MDiGS capture for three chromosomal regions consisting of ?550 kb of coding and non-coding sequence with DNA from 253 patients with congenital lower limb disorders. PITX1 nonsense and HOXC11 S191F missense mutations were identified that segregate in clubfoot families. Using a novel pooled-capture reference strategy, we identified recurrent chromosome chr17q23.1q23.2 duplications and small HOXC 5? cluster deletions (51 kb and 12 kb). Given the current interest in coding and non-coding variants in human disease, MDiGS fulfills a niche for comprehensive and low-cost evaluation of CNVs, coding, and non-coding variants across candidate regions of interest. PMID:24682816

Alvarado, David M.; Yang, Ping; Druley, Todd E.; Lovett, Michael; Gurnett, Christina A.

2014-01-01

93

MagnaportheDB: a federated solution for integrating physical and genetic map data with BAC end derived sequences for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea.  

PubMed

We have created a federated database for genome studies of Magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of rice blast disease, by integrating end sequence data from BAC clones, genetic marker data and BAC contig assembly data. A library of 9216 BAC clones providing >25-fold coverage of the entire genome was end sequenced and fingerprinted by HindIII digestion. The Image/FPC software package was then used to generate an assembly of 188 contigs covering >95% of the genome. The database contains the results of this assembly integrated with hybridization data of genetic markers to the BAC library. AceDB was used for the core database engine and a MySQL relational database, populated with numerical representations of BAC clones within FPC contigs, was used to create appropriately scaled images. The database is being used to facilitate sequencing efforts. The database also allows researchers mapping known genes or other sequences of interest, rapid and easy access to the fundamental organization of the M.grisea genome. This database, MagnaportheDB, can be accessed on the web at http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/fungal_genomics/mgdatabase/int.htm. PMID:11752272

Martin, Stanton L; Blackmon, Barbara P; Rajagopalan, Ravi; Houfek, Thomas D; Sceeles, Robert G; Denn, Sheila O; Mitchell, Thomas K; Brown, Douglas E; Wing, Rod A; Dean, Ralph A

2002-01-01

94

Using Partial Genomic Fosmid Libraries for Sequencing CompleteOrganellar Genomes  

SciTech Connect

Organellar genome sequences provide numerous phylogenetic markers and yield insight into organellar function and molecular evolution. These genomes are much smaller in size than their nuclear counterparts; thus, their complete sequencing is much less expensive than total nuclear genome sequencing, making broader phylogenetic sampling feasible. However, for some organisms it is challenging to isolate plastid DNA for sequencing using standard methods. To overcome these difficulties, we constructed partial genomic libraries from total DNA preparations of two heterotrophic and two autotrophic angiosperm species using fosmid vectors. We then used macroarray screening to isolate clones containing large fragments of plastid DNA. A minimum tiling path of clones comprising the entire genome sequence of each plastid was selected, and these clones were shotgun-sequenced and assembled into complete genomes. Although this method worked well for both heterotrophic and autotrophic plants, nuclear genome size had a dramatic effect on the proportion of screened clones containing plastid DNA and, consequently, the overall number of clones that must be screened to ensure full plastid genome coverage. This technique makes it possible to determine complete plastid genome sequences for organisms that defy other available organellar genome sequencing methods, especially those for which limited amounts of tissue are available.

McNeal, Joel R.; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Arumuganathan, K.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

2005-08-26

95

Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have made important progress since the beginning of the current grant year. We have further developed the microdissection and PCR- assisted microcloning techniques using the linker-adaptor method. We have critically evaluated the microdissection libraries constructed by this microtechnology and proved that they are of high quality. We further demonstrated that these microdissection clones are useful in identifying corresponding YAC clones for a thousand-fold expansion of the genomic coverage and for contig construction. We are also improving the technique of cloning the dissected fragments in test tube by the TDT method. We are applying both of these PCR cloning technique to human chromosomes 2 and 5 to construct region-specific libraries for physical mapping purposes of LLNL and LANL. Finally, we are exploring efficient procedures to use unique sequence microclones to isolate cDNA clones from defined chromosomal regions as valuable resources for identifying expressed gene sequences in the human genome. We believe that we are making important progress under the auspices of this DOE human genome program grant and we will continue to make significant contributions in the coming year. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Kao, Fa-Ten.

1991-01-01

96

MultiBac turns sweet  

PubMed Central

The baculovirus/insect cell system has proven to be a powerful tool for the expression of eukaryotic proteins. Therapeutics, especially in the field of vaccinology, are often composed of several different protein subunits. Conventional baculoviral expression schemes largely lack efficient strategies for simultaneous multi-gene expression. The MultiBac technology which is based on an engineered genome of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in combination with specially designed transfer vectors is an elegant way for flexible generation of multi-subunit proteins in insect cells. Yet, the glycosylation pattern of insect cell-derived products is not favorable for many applications. Therefore, a modified version of MultiBac, SweetBac, was generated allowing for a flexible glycosylation of target proteins in insect cells. Beyond the SweetBac technology MultiBac can further be designed for bridging the gap between cell engineering and transient modulation of host genes for improved and product tailored expression of recombinant proteins. PMID:23018636

Palmberger, Dieter; Klausberger, Miriam; Berger, Imre; Grabherr, Reingard

2013-01-01

97

Extensive Conserved Synteny of Genes between the Karyotypes of Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori Revealed by BAC-FISH Mapping  

PubMed Central

Background Genome sequencing projects have been completed for several species representing four highly diverged holometabolous insect orders, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera. The striking evolutionary diversity of insects argues a need for efficient methods to apply genome information from such models to genetically uncharacterized species. Constructing conserved synteny maps plays a crucial role in this task. Here, we demonstrate the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes as a powerful tool for physical mapping of genes and comparative genome analysis in Lepidoptera, which have numerous and morphologically uniform holokinetic chromosomes. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated 214 clones containing 159 orthologs of well conserved single-copy genes of a sequenced lepidopteran model, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, from a BAC library of a sphingid with an unexplored genome, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We then constructed a BAC-FISH karyotype identifying all 28 chromosomes of M. sexta by mapping 124 loci using the corresponding BAC clones. BAC probes from three M. sexta chromosomes also generated clear signals on the corresponding chromosomes of the convolvulus hawk moth, Agrius convolvuli, which belongs to the same subfamily, Sphinginae, as M. sexta. Conclusions/Significance Comparison of the M. sexta BAC physical map with the linkage map and genome sequence of B. mori pointed to extensive conserved synteny including conserved gene order in most chromosomes. Only a few rearrangements, including three inversions, three translocations, and two fission/fusion events were estimated to have occurred after the divergence of Bombycidae and Sphingidae. These results add to accumulating evidence for the stability of lepidopteran genomes. Generating signals on A. convolvuli chromosomes using heterologous M. sexta probes demonstrated that BAC-FISH with orthologous sequences can be used for karyotyping a wide range of related and genetically uncharacterized species, significantly extending the ability to develop synteny maps for comparative and functional genomics. PMID:19829706

Tanaka-Okuyama, Makiko; Shibata, Fukashi; Yoshido, Atsuo; Marec, Frantisek; Wu, Chengcang; Zhang, Hongbin; Goldsmith, Marian R.

2009-01-01

98

Oligonucleotide Arrays vs. Metaphase-Comparative Genomic Hybridisation and BAC Arrays for Single-Cell Analysis: First Applications to Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Robertsonian Translocation Carriers  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive chromosome analysis techniques such as metaphase-Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (CGH) and array-CGH are available for single-cell analysis. However, while metaphase-CGH and BAC array-CGH have been widely used for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, oligonucleotide array-CGH has not been used in an extensive way. A comparison between oligonucleotide array-CGH and metaphase-CGH has been performed analysing 15 single fibroblasts from aneuploid cell-lines and 18 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. Afterwards, oligonucleotide array-CGH and BAC array-CGH were also compared analysing 16 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. All three comprehensive analysis techniques provided broadly similar cytogenetic profiles; however, non-identical profiles appeared when extensive aneuploidies were present in a cell. Both array techniques provided an optimised analysis procedure and a higher resolution than metaphase-CGH. Moreover, oligonucleotide array-CGH was able to define extra segmental imbalances in 14.7% of the blastomeres and it better determined the specific unbalanced chromosome regions due to a higher resolution of the technique (?20 kb). Applicability of oligonucleotide array-CGH for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis has been demonstrated in two cases of Robertsonian translocation carriers 45,XY,der(13;14)(q10;q10). Transfer of euploid embryos was performed in both cases and pregnancy was achieved by one of the couples. This is the first time that an oligonucleotide array-CGH approach has been successfully applied to Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for balanced chromosome rearrangement carriers. PMID:25415307

Ramos, Laia; del Rey, Javier; Daina, Gemma; García-Aragonés, Manel; Armengol, Lluís; Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; Parriego, Mònica; Boada, Montserrat; Martinez-Passarell, Olga; Martorell, Maria Rosa; Casagran, Oriol; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

2014-01-01

99

GenomeTools: a comprehensive software library for efficient processing of structured genome annotations.  

PubMed

Genome annotations are often published as plain text files describing genomic features and their subcomponents by an implicit annotation graph. In this paper, we present the GenomeTools, a convenient and efficient software library and associated software tools for developing bioinformatics software intended to create, process or convert annotation graphs. The GenomeTools strictly follow the annotation graph approach, offering a unified graph-based representation. This gives the developer intuitive and immediate access to genomic features and tools for their manipulation. To process large annotation sets with low memory overhead, we have designed and implemented an efficient pull-based approach for sequential processing of annotations. This allows to handle even the largest annotation sets, such as a complete catalogue of human variations. Our object-oriented C-based software library enables a developer to conveniently implement their own functionality on annotation graphs and to integrate it into larger workflows, simultaneously accessing compressed sequence data if required. The careful C implementation of the GenomeTools does not only ensure a light-weight memory footprint while allowing full sequential as well as random access to the annotation graph, but also facilitates the creation of bindings to a variety of script programming languages (like Python and Ruby) sharing the same interface. PMID:24091398

Gremme, Gordon; Steinbiss, Sascha; Kurtz, Stefan

2013-01-01

100

The construction and characterization of three genomic libraries of trichoderma virens strain Tv29-8  

E-print Network

Three genomic libraries (lambda, cosmid, and bacterial artificial chromosome) were constructed from Trichoderma virens strain Tv29-8. These libraries have been characterized and used to isolate a full-length copy of a large peptide synthetase, tex1...

Grzegorski, Darlene

2012-06-07

101

Gene Transfer Efficiency and Genome-Wide Integration Profiling of Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, and PiggyBac Transposons in Human Primary T Cells  

PubMed Central

In this study, we compared the genomic integration efficiencies and transposition site preferences of Sleeping Beauty (SB or SB11), Tol2, and piggyBac (PB) transposon systems in primary T cells derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and umbilical cord blood (UCB). We found that PB demonstrated the highest efficiency of stable gene transfer in PBL-derived T cells, whereas SB11 and Tol2 mediated intermediate and lowest efficiencies, respectively. Southern hybridization analysis demonstrated that PB generated the highest number of integrants when compared to SB and Tol2 in both PBL and UCB T cells. Tol2 and PB appeared more likely to promote clonal expansion than SB, which may be in part due to the dysregulated expression of cancer-related genes near the insertion sites. Genome-wide integration analysis demonstrated that SB, Tol2, and PB integrations occurred in all the chromosomes without preference. Additionally, Tol2 and PB integration sites were mainly localized near transcriptional start sites (TSSs), CpG islands and DNaseI hypersensitive sites, whereas SB integrations were randomly distributed. These results suggest that SB may be a preferential choice of the delivery vector in T cells due to its random integration site preference and relatively high efficiency, and support continuing development of SB-mediated T-cell phase I trials. PMID:20606646

Huang, Xin; Guo, Hongfeng; Tammana, Syam; Jung, Yong-Chul; Mellgren, Emil; Bassi, Preetinder; Cao, Qing; Tu, Zheng Jin; Kim, Yeong C; Ekker, Stephen C; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, San Ming; Zhou, Xianzheng

2010-01-01

102

Construction and phenotypic screening of mid-size insert marine microbial environmental genomic libraries  

E-print Network

Functional screening of environmental genomic libraries permits the identification of clones expressing activities of interest without requiring prior knowledge of the genes responsible. In this study, protocols were ...

Braff, Jennifer C

2008-01-01

103

Optimizing restriction fragment fingerprinting methods for ordering large genomic libraries  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a statistical analysis of the problem of ordering large genomic cloned libraries through overlap detection based on restriction fingerprinting. Such ordering projects involve a large investment of effort involving many repetitious experiments. Their primary purpose here is to provide methods of maximizing the efficiency of such efforts. To this end, they adopt a statistical approach that uses the likelihood ratio as a statistic to detect overlap. The main advantages of this approach are that (1) it allows the relatively straightforward incorporation of the observed statistical properties of the data; (2) it permits the efficiency of a particular experimental method for detecting overlap to be quantitatively defined so that alternative experimental designs may be compared and optimized; and (3) it yields a direct estimate of the probability that any two library members overlap. This estimate is a critical tool for the accurate, automatic assembly of overlapping sets of fragments into islands called contigs.' These contigs must subsequently be connected by other methods to provide an ordered set of overlapping fragments covering the entire genome.

Branscomb, E.; Slezak, T.; Pae, R.; Carrano, A.V. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Galas, D.; Waterman, M. (Univ. of South California, Los Angeles (United States))

1990-01-01

104

Comparative BAC-based mapping in the white-throated sparrow, a novel behavioral genomics model, using interspecies overgo hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that\\u000a do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new \\

Michael N Romanov; Jerry B Dodgson; Rusty A Gonser; Elaina M Tuttle

2011-01-01

105

A library of TAL effector nucleases spanning the human genome.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) can be readily engineered to bind specific genomic loci, enabling the introduction of precise genetic modifications such as gene knockouts and additions. Here we present a genome-scale collection of TALENs for efficient and scalable gene targeting in human cells. We chose target sites that did not have highly similar sequences elsewhere in the genome to avoid off-target mutations and assembled TALEN plasmids for 18,740 protein-coding genes using a high-throughput Golden-Gate cloning system. A pilot test involving 124 genes showed that all TALENs were active and disrupted their target genes at high frequencies, although two of these TALENs became active only after their target sites were partially demethylated using an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase. We used our TALEN library to generate single- and double-gene-knockout cells in which NF-?B signaling pathways were disrupted. Compared with cells treated with short interfering RNAs, these cells showed unambiguous suppression of signal transduction. PMID:23417094

Kim, Yongsub; Kweon, Jiyeon; Kim, Annie; Chon, Jae Kyung; Yoo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hye Joo; Kim, Sojung; Lee, Choongil; Jeong, Euihwan; Chung, Eugene; Kim, Doyoung; Lee, Mi Seon; Go, Eun Mi; Song, Hye Jung; Kim, Hwangbeom; Cho, Namjin; Bang, Duhee; Kim, Seokjoong; Kim, Jin-Soo

2013-03-01

106

The development and characterisation of a bacterial artificial chromosome library for Fragaria vesca  

PubMed Central

Background The cultivated strawberry Fragaria ×ananassa is one of the most economically-important soft-fruit species. Few structural genomic resources have been reported for Fragaria and there exists an urgent need for the development of physical mapping resources for the genus. The first stage in the development of a physical map for Fragaria is the construction and characterisation of a high molecular weight bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Methods A BAC library, consisting of 18,432 clones was constructed from Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens accession 'Ali Baba'. BAC DNA from individual library clones was pooled to create a PCR-based screening assay for the library, whereby individual clones could be identified with just 34 PCR reactions. These pools were used to screen the BAC library and anchor individual clones to the diploid Fragaria reference map (FV×FN). Findings Clones from the BAC library developed contained an average insert size of 85 kb, representing over seven genome equivalents. The pools and superpools developed were used to identify a set of BAC clones containing 70 molecular markers previously mapped to the diploid Fragaria FV×FN reference map. The number of positive colonies identified for each marker suggests the library represents between 4× and 10× coverage of the diploid Fragaria genome, which is in accordance with the estimate of library coverage based on average insert size. Conclusion This BAC library will be used for the construction of a physical map for F. vesca and the superpools will permit physical anchoring of molecular markers using PCR. PMID:19772672

Bonet, Julio; Girona, Elena Lopez; Sargent, Daniel J; Munoz-Torres, Monica C; Monfort, Amparo; Abbott, Albert G; Arus, Pere; Simpson, David W; Davik, Jahn

2009-01-01

107

Integration of physical and genetic maps of common bean through BAC-derived microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume for direct human consumption and the goal of this study was to integrate a recently constructed physical map for the species with a microsatellite based genetic map using a BAC library from the genotype G19833 and the recombinant inbred line population DOR364 × G19833. Results We searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the 89,017 BAC-end sequences (BES) from the physical map and genetically mapped any polymorphic BES-SSRs onto the genetic map. Among the BES it was possible to identify 623 contig-linked SSRs, most of which were highly AT-rich. A subgroup of 230 di-nucleotide and tri-nucleotide based SSR primer pairs from these BACs was tested on the mapping parents with 176 single copy loci and 114 found to be polymorphic markers. Of these, 99 were successfully integrated into the genetic map. The 99 linkages between the genetic and physical maps corresponded to an equal number of contigs containing a total of 5,055 BAC clones. Conclusions Class II microsatellites were more common in the BES than longer class I microsatellites. Both types of markers proved to be valuable for linking BAC clones to the genetic map and were successfully placed across all 11 linkage groups. The integration of common bean physical and genetic maps is an important part of comparative genome analysis and a prelude to positional cloning of agronomically important genes for this crop. PMID:20637113

2010-01-01

108

Uprobe: A genome-wide universal probe resource for comparative physical mapping in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecies comparisons are important for deciphering the functional content and evolution of genomes. The expansive array of >70 public vertebrate genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries can provide a means of comparative mapping, sequencing, and functional analysis of targeted chromosomal segments that is independent and complementary to whole-genome sequencing. However, at the present time, no complementary resource exists for the

Wendy A. Kellner; Robert T. Sullivan; Brian H. Carlson; James W. Thomas

2005-01-01

109

Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas  

PubMed Central

Molecular genetic analysis of cancer is rapidly evolving as a result of improvement in genomic technologies and the growing applicability of such analyses to clinical oncology. Array based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA), particularly in solid tumors, and has been applied to the study of malignant gliomas. In the clinical setting, however, gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies and thus formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks are often the only tissue available for genetic analysis, especially for rare types of gliomas. Moreover, the biological basis for the marked intratumoral heterogeneity in gliomas is most readily addressed in FFPE material. Therefore, for gliomas, the ability to use DNA from FFPE tissue is essential for both clinical and research applications. In this study, we have constructed a custom bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array and show excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting CNAs in a panel of paired frozen and FFPE glioma samples. Our study demonstrates a high concordance rate between CNAs detected in FFPE compared to frozen DNA. We have also developed a method of labeling DNA from FFPE tissue that allows efficient hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. This labeling technique was applied to a panel of biphasic anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA) to identify genetic changes unique to each component. Together, results from these studies suggest that BAC and oligonucleotide aCGH are sensitive tools for detecting CNAs in FFPE DNA, and can enable genome-wide analysis of rare, small and/or histologically heterogeneous gliomas. PMID:21080181

Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A.; Starbuck, Kristen D.; Kim, James C.; Bernay, Derek C.; Scangas, George A.; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Louis, David N.

2010-01-01

110

Bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for mouse sequencing and functional analysis.  

PubMed

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) libraries providing a combined 33-fold representation of the murine genome have been constructed using two different restriction enzymes for genomic digestion. A large-insert PAC library was prepared from the 129S6/SvEvTac strain in a bacterial/mammalian shuttle vector to facilitate functional gene studies. For genome mapping and sequencing, we prepared BAC libraries from the 129S6/SvEvTac and the C57BL/6J strains. The average insert sizes for the three libraries range between 130 kb and 200 kb. Based on the numbers of clones and the observed average insert sizes, we estimate each library to have slightly in excess of 10-fold genome representation. The average number of clones found after hybridization screening with 28 probes was in the range of 9-14 clones per marker. To explore the fidelity of the genomic representation in the three libraries, we analyzed three contigs, each established after screening with a single unique marker. New markers were established from the end sequences and screened against all the contig members to determine if any of the BACs and PACs are chimeric or rearranged. Only one chimeric clone and six potential deletions have been observed after extensive analysis of 113 PAC and BAC clones. Seventy-one of the 113 clones were conclusively nonchimeric because both end markers or sequences were mapped to the other confirmed contig members. We could not exclude chimerism for the remaining 41 clones because one or both of the insert termini did not contain unique sequence to design markers. The low rate of chimerism, approximately 1%, and the low level of detected rearrangements support the anticipated usefulness of the BAC libraries for genome research. PMID:10645956

Osoegawa, K; Tateno, M; Woon, P Y; Frengen, E; Mammoser, A G; Catanese, J J; Hayashizaki, Y; de Jong, P J

2000-01-01

111

A first generation physical map of the medaka genome in BACs essential for positional cloning and clone-by-clone based genomic sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize the full potential of the medaka as a model system for developmental biology and genetics, characterized genomic resources need to be established, culminating in the sequence of the medaka genome. To facilitate the map-based cloning of genes underlying induced mutations and to provide templates for clone-based genomic sequencing, we have created a first-generation physical map of

Maryam Zadeh Khorasani; Steffen Hennig; Gabriele Imre; Shuichi Asakawa; Stefanie Palczewski; Anja Berger; Hiroshi Hori; Kiyoshi Naruse; Hiroshi Mitani; Akihiro Shima; Hans Lehrach; Jochen Wittbrodt; Hisato Kondoh; Nobuyoshi Shimizu; Heinz Himmelbauer

2004-01-01

112

Epstein-Barr virus genetics: talking about the BAC generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic mutant organisms pervade all areas of Biology. Early on, herpesviruses (HV) were found to be amenable to genetic analysis using homologous recombination techniques in eukaryotic cells. More recently, HV genomes cloned onto a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) have become available. HV BACs can be easily modified in E.coli and reintroduced in eukaryotic cells to produce infectious viruses. Mutants derived

Regina Feederle; Emmalene J Bartlett; Henri-Jacques Delecluse

2010-01-01

113

Rice Genome Organization: the Centromere and Genome Interactions  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, many varied resources have become available for genome studies in rice. These resources include over 4000 DNA markers, several bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, P?1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC) libraries and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries (genomic DNA clones, filters and end?sequences), retrotransposon tagged lines, and many chemical and irradiated mutant lines. Based on these, high?density genetic maps, cereal comparative maps, YAC and BAC physical maps, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) maps have been constructed, and 93 % of the genome has also been sequenced. These data have revealed key features of the genetic and physical structure of the rice genome and of the evolution of cereal chromosomes. This Botanical Briefing examines aspects of how the rice genome is organized structurally, functionally and evolutionarily. Emphasis is placed on the rice centromere, which is composed of long arrays of centromere?specific repetitive sequences. Differences and similarities amongst various cereal centromeres are detailed. These indicate essential features of centromere function. Another view of various kinds of interactive relationships within and between genomes, which could play crucial roles in genome organization and evolution, is also introduced. Constructed genetic and physical maps indicate duplication of chromosomal segments and spatial association between specific chromosome regions. A genome?wide survey of interactive genetic loci has identified various reproductive barriers that may drive speciation of the rice genome. The significance of these findings in genome organization and evolution is discussed. PMID:12324265

KURATA, NORI; NONOMURA, KEN?ICHI; HARUSHIMA, YOSHIAKI

2002-01-01

114

Human genome libraries. Final progress report, February 1, 1994--August 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to use a novel technology of chromosome microdissection and microcloning to construct chromosome region-specific libraries as resources for various human genome program studies. Region specific libraries have been constructed for the entire human chromosomes 2 and 18.

Kao, Fa-Ten

1998-01-01

115

Characterization of the genome of bald cypress  

PubMed Central

Background Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) is a coniferous tree of tremendous ecological and economic importance. It is a member of the family Cupressaceae which also includes cypresses, redwoods, sequoias, thujas, and junipers. While the bald cypress genome is more than three times the size of the human genome, its 1C DNA content is amongst the smallest of any conifer. To learn more about the genome of bald cypress and gain insight into the evolution of Cupressaceae genomes, we performed a Cot analysis and used Cot filtration to study Taxodium DNA. Additionally, we constructed a 6.7 genome-equivalent BAC library that we screened with known Taxodium genes and select repeats. Results The bald cypress genome is composed of 90% repetitive DNA with most sequences being found in low to mid copy numbers. The most abundant repeats are found in fewer than 25,000 copies per genome. Approximately 7.4% of the genome is single/low-copy DNA (i.e., sequences found in 1 to 5 copies). Sequencing of highly repetitive Cot clones indicates that most Taxodium repeats are highly diverged from previously characterized plant repeat sequences. The bald cypress BAC library consists of 606,336 clones (average insert size of 113 kb) and collectively provides 6.7-fold genome equivalent coverage of the bald cypress genome. Macroarray screening with known genes produced, on average, about 1.5 positive clones per probe per genome-equivalent. Library screening with Cot-1 DNA revealed that approximately 83% of BAC clones contain repetitive sequences iterated 103 to 104 times per genome. Conclusions The BAC library for bald cypress is the first to be generated for a conifer species outside of the family Pinaceae. The Taxodium BAC library was shown to be useful in gene isolation and genome characterization and should be an important tool in gymnosperm comparative genomics, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and gene/polymorphism discovery. The single/low-copy (SL) component of bald cypress is 4.6 times the size of the Arabidopsis genome. As suggested for other gymnosperms, the large amount of SL DNA in Taxodium is likely the result of divergence among ancient repeat copies and gene/pseudogene duplication. PMID:22077969

2011-01-01

116

Employing BAC-reporter constructs in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.  

PubMed

Changes in the expression and function of genes drive evolutionary change. Comparing how genes are regulated in different species is therefore becoming an important part of evo-devo studies. A key tool for investigating the regulation of genes is represented by bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC)-reporter constructs. BACs are large insert libraries, often >100 kb, which thus capture the genomic sequences surrounding a gene of interest, including all, or nearly all, of the elements underpinning regulation. Recombinant BACs, containing a reporter gene in place of the endogenous coding sequence of genes, can be utilized to drive the expression of reporter genes under the regulatory control of the gene of interest while still embedded within its genomic context. Systematic deletions within the BAC-reporter construct can be used to identify the minimal reporter in an unbiased way, avoiding the risk of overlooking regulatory elements that may be many kilobases away from the transcription start-site. Nematostella vectensis (Edwardsiidae, Anthozoa, Cnidaria) has become an important model in regenerative biology, ecology, and especially in studies of evo-devo and gene-regulatory networks due to its interesting phylogenetic position and amenability to molecular techniques. The increasing interest in this rising model system also led to a demand for methods that can be used to study the regulation of genes in Nematostella. Here, we present our progress in employing BAC-reporter constructs to visualize gene-expression in Nematostella. Using a new Nematostella-specific recombination cassette, we made nine different BAC-reporter constructs. Although five BAC recombinants gave variable effects, three constructs, namely Nv-bra:eGFP::L10 BAC, Nv-dpp:eGFP::L10 BAC, and Nv-grm:eGFP::L10 BAC delivered promising results. We show that these three constructs express the reporter gene eGFP in 10.4-17.2% of all analyzed larvae, out of which 26.2-41.9% express GFP in a mosaic fashion within the expected domain. In addition to the expression within the known domains, we also observed cases of misexpression of eGFP and examples that could represent actual expression outside the described domain. Furthermore, we deep-sequenced and assembled five different BACs containing Nv-chordin, Nv-foxa, Nv-dpp, Nv-wnta, and Nv-wnt1, to improve assembly around these genes. The use of BAC-reporter constructs will foster cis-regulatory analyses in Nematostella and thus help to improve our understanding of the regulatory network in this cnidarian system. Ultimately, this will advance the comparison of gene-regulation across species and lead to a much better understanding of evolutionary changes and novelties. PMID:23956207

Fischer, Antje H L; Tulin, Sarah; Fredman, David; Smith, Joel

2013-11-01

117

Pybedtools: a flexible Python library for manipulating genomic datasets and annotations  

PubMed Central

Summary: pybedtools is a flexible Python software library for manipulating and exploring genomic datasets in many common formats. It provides an intuitive Python interface that extends upon the popular BEDTools genome arithmetic tools. The library is well documented and efficient, and allows researchers to quickly develop simple, yet powerful scripts that enable complex genomic analyses. Availability: pybedtools is maintained under the GPL license. Stable versions of pybedtools as well as documentation are available on the Python Package Index at http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pybedtools. Contact: dalerr@niddk.nih.gov; arq5x@virginia.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21949271

Dale, Ryan K.; Pedersen, Brent S.; Quinlan, Aaron R.

2011-01-01

118

A preliminary genetic map in Solea senegalensis (Pleuronectiformes, Soleidae) using BAC-FISH and next-generation sequencing.  

PubMed

This article presents the first physical mapping carried out in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), an important marine fish species of Southern Europe. Eight probes were designated to pick up genes of interest in aquaculture (candidate genes) from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using a method of rapid screening based on a 4-dimension PCR. Seven known and 3 unknown clones were isolated and labeled. The 10 BAC clones were used as probes to map the karyotype of the species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Nine out of the 10 clones were localized in only 1 chromosome pair, whereas the remaining one hybridized on 2 chromosome pairs. The 2-color FISH experiments showed colocation of 4 probes in 2 chromosome pairs. In addition, 2-color FISH was carried out both with 5S rDNA and the BAC containing the lysozyme gene published previously. This first genetic map of the Senegalese sole represents a starting point for future studies of the sole genome. In addition, 7 out of the 10 BAC clones were sequenced using next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatic characterization of the sequences was carried out. Hence the anchoring of the sequences to specific chromosomes or chromosome arms is now possible, leading to an initial scaffold of the Senegalese sole genome. PMID:24107490

García-Cegarra, A; Merlo, M A; Ponce, M; Portela-Bens, S; Cross, I; Manchado, M; Rebordinos, L

2013-01-01

119

Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis  

SciTech Connect

During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

Kao, Fa-Ten.

1992-08-01

120

Construction and characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome library containing seven haploid human genome equivalents  

SciTech Connect

Prior to constructing a library of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing very large human DNA fragments, the authors performed a series of preliminary experiments aimed at developing a suitable protocol. They found an inverse relationship between YAC insert size and transformation efficiency. Evidence of occasional rearrangement within YAC inserts was found resulting in clonally stable internal deletions or clonally unstable size variations. A protocol was developed for preparative electrophoretic enrichment of high molecular mass human DNA fragments from partial restriction digests and ligation with the YAC vector in agarose. A YAC library has been constructed from large fragments of DNA from an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell line. The library presently contains 50,000 clones, 95% of which are greater than 250 kilobase pairs in size. The mean YAC size of the library, calculated from 132 randomly isolated clones, is 430 kilobase pairs. The library thus contains the equivalent of approximately seven haploid human genomes.

Albertsen, H.M.; Abderrahim, H.; Cann, H.M.; Dausset, J.; Le Paslier, D.; Cohen, D. (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain, Paris (France))

1990-06-01

121

Construction and Characterization of a 10Genome Equivalent Yeast Artificial Chromosome Library for the Laboratory Rat, Rattus norvegicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries. Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing

Li Cai; Leonard C. Schalkwyk; Andreina Schoeberlein-Stehli; Robert Y. L. Zee; Avrial Smith; Thomas Haaf; Michel Georges; Hans Lehrach; Klaus Lindpaintner

1997-01-01

122

A Genome-Wide Survey of Switchgrass Genome Structure and Organization  

PubMed Central

The perennial grass, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), is a promising bioenergy crop and the target of whole genome sequencing. We constructed two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from the AP13 clone of switchgrass to gain insight into the genome structure and organization, initiate functional and comparative genomic studies, and assist with genome assembly. Together representing 16 haploid genome equivalents of switchgrass, each library comprises 101,376 clones with average insert sizes of 144 (HindIII-generated) and 110 kb (BstYI-generated). A total of 330,297 high quality BAC-end sequences (BES) were generated, accounting for 263.2 Mbp (16.4%) of the switchgrass genome. Analysis of the BES identified 279,099 known repetitive elements, >50,000 SSRs, and 2,528 novel repeat elements, named switchgrass repetitive elements (SREs). Comparative mapping of 47 full-length BAC sequences and 330K BES revealed high levels of synteny with the grass genomes sorghum, rice, maize, and Brachypodium. Our data indicate that the sorghum genome has retained larger microsyntenous regions with switchgrass besides high gene order conservation with rice. The resources generated in this effort will be useful for a broad range of applications. PMID:22511929

Sharma, Manoj K.; Sharma, Rita; Cao, Peijian; Jenkins, Jerry; Bartley, Laura E.; Qualls, Morgan; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel; Ronald, Pamela C.

2012-01-01

123

Development of a BAC library for yellow-poplar ( Liriodendron tulipifera ) and the identification of genes associated with flower development and lignin biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liriodendron tulipifera L., a member of the Magnoliaceae, occupies an important phylogenetic position as a basal angiosperm that has retained numerous\\u000a putatively ancestral morphological characters, and thus has often been used in studies of the evolution of flowering plants\\u000a and of specific gene families. However, genomic resources for these early branching angiosperm lineages are very limited.\\u000a In this study, we

Haiying Liang; Eric G. Fang; Jeffrey P. Tomkins; Meizhong Luo; David Kudrna; Hye Ran Kim; K. Arumuganathan; Shaying Zhao; James Leebens-Mack; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Jo Ann Banks; Claude W. dePamphilis; Dina F. Mandoli; Rod A. Wing; John E. Carlson

2007-01-01

124

Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics  

PubMed Central

Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W.

2008-01-01

125

Genome-wide Screen for miRNA Targets Using the MISSION Target ID Library  

PubMed Central

The Target ID Library is designed to assist in discovery and identification of microRNA (miRNA) targets. The Target ID Library is a plasmid-based, genome-wide cDNA library cloned into the 3'UTR downstream from the dual-selection fusion protein, thymidine kinase-zeocin (TKzeo). The first round of selection is for stable transformants, followed with introduction of a miRNA of interest, and finally, selecting for cDNAs containing the miRNA's target. Selected cDNAs are identified by sequencing (see Figure 1-3 for Target ID Library Workflow and details). To ensure broad coverage of the human transcriptome, Target ID Library cDNAs were generated via oligo-dT priming using a pool of total RNA prepared from multiple human tissues and cell lines. Resulting cDNA range from 0.5 to 4 kb, with an average size of 1.2 kb, and were cloned into the p3?TKzeo dual-selection plasmid (see Figure 4 for plasmid map). The gene targets represented in the library can be found on the Sigma-Aldrich webpage. Results from Illumina sequencing (Table 3), show that the library includes 16,922 of the 21,518 unique genes in UCSC RefGene (79%), or 14,000 genes with 10 or more reads (66%). PMID:22508434

Sago, Jack; Cupp, Carrie; Swarthout, John

2012-01-01

126

Preparation and screening of an arrayed human genomic library generated with the P1 cloning system  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe here the construction and initial characterization of a 3-fold coverage genomic library of the human haploid genome that was prepared using the bacteriophase P1 cloning system. The cloned DNA inserts were produced by size fractionation of a Sau3AI partial digest of high molecular weight genomic DNA isolated from primary cells of human foreskin fibroblasts. The inserts were cloned into the pAd10sacBII vector and packaged in vitro into P1 phage. These were used to generate recombinant bacterial clones, each of which was picked robotically from an agar plate into a well of a 96-well microtiter dish, grown overnight, and stored at -70{degrees}C. The resulting library, designated DMPC-HFF No. 1 series A, consists of {approximately}130,000-140,000 recombinant clones that were stored in 1500 microtiter dishes. To screen the library, clones were combined in a pooling strategy and specific loci were identified by PCR analysis. On average, the library contains two or three different clones for each locus screened. To date the authors have identified a total of 17 clones containing the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, human serum albumin-human {alpha}-fetoprotein, p53, cyclooxygenase I, human apurinic endonuclease, {beta}-polymerase, and DNA ligase I genes. The cloned inserts average 80 kb in size and range from 70 to 95 kb, with one 49-kb insert and one 62-kb insert. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Shepherd, N.S.; Perogner, B.D.; Coulby, J.N.; Ackerman, S.L.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Sauer, R.H.; Balkenhol, T.C.; Sternberg, N. [Dupont Merck Pharmaceutical Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)]|[Central Research and Development Engineering Department and Service Division, Wilmington, DE (United States)

1994-03-29

127

Construction and characterization of a 10-genome equivalent yeast artificial chromosome library for the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus  

SciTech Connect

Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries. Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing approximately 40,000 clones in the AB1380 host using the pCGS966 vector. An average size of 736 kb was estimated from 166 randomly chosen clones; thus the library provides 10-fold coverage of the genome, with a 99.99% probability of containing a unique sequence. Eight of 39 YACs analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization were found to be chimeric, indicating a proportion of about 20-30% of chimeric clones. The library was spotted on high-density filters to allow the identification of YAC clones by hybridization and was pooled using a 3-dimensional scheme for screening by PCR. Among 48 probes used to screen the library, an average of 9.3 positive clones were found, consistent with the calculated 10-fold genomic coverage of the library. This YAC library represents the first large-insert genomic library for the rat. It will be made available to the research community at large as an important new resource for complex genome analysis in this species. 35 refs., 4 figs.

Cai, L.; Zee, R.Y.L. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schalkwyk, L.C. [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin (Germany)] [and others] [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin (Germany); and others

1997-02-01

128

Molecular analysis of DNA and construction of genomic libraries of Mycobacterium leprae.  

PubMed Central

Molecular analysis of DNA from Mycobacterium leprae, "Mycobacterium lufu," and Mycobacterium vaccae has demonstrated that the G + C (guanine plus cytosine) contents of the DNAs are 56, 61, and 65%, respectively, and that the genome sizes are 2.2 X 10(9), 3.1 X 10(9), and 3.1 X 10(9) daltons, respectively. Because of the significant differences in both G + C content and genome size among M. leprae, "M. lufu," and M. vaccae DNAs, these species are not related, although hybridization experiments under nonstringent conditions, with two separate cloned M. leprae DNA inserts as probes, indicate that there are some conserved sequences among the DNAs. The G + C content of Dasypus novemcinctus (armadillo, the animal of choice for cultivating M. leprae) DNA was determined to be 36%. Genomic libraries potentially representing more than 99.99% of each genome were prepared by cloning into the cosmid vector, pHC79, in Escherichia coli K-12. A genomic library representing approximately 95% of the genome of M. vaccae was prepared in pBR322. M. leprae DNA was subcloned from the pHC79::M. leprae library into an expression vector, pYA626. This vector is a 3.8-kilobase derivative of pBR322 in which the promoter region of the asd (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene from Streptococcus mutans has been inserted in place of the EcoRI-to-PstI fragment of pBR322. Several (44% of those tested) pYA626::M. leprae recombinants and one pBR322::M. vaccae recombinant synthesized new polypeptides in minicells of E. coli, indicating that mycobacterial DNA can be expressed in E. coli K-12, although expression is probably dependent upon use of nonmycobacterial promoters recognized by the E. coli transcription-translation apparatus. Images PMID:3882664

Clark-Curtiss, J E; Jacobs, W R; Docherty, M A; Ritchie, L R; Curtiss, R

1985-01-01

129

Mapping of intra-locus duplications and introgressed DNA: aids to map-based cloning of genes from complex genomes illustrated by physical analysis of the Rx locus in tetraploid potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here novel approaches to high-resolution mapping of repeated and introgressed DNA which may prove generally useful\\u000a in map-based cloning from complex genomes. These approaches were developed in order to clone the Rx locus in potato. First, we prepared a BAC library from a tetraploid plant carrying Rx in the duplex condition (Rx, Rx, rx, rx). BAC clones were

K. Kanyuka; A. Bendahmane; J. N. A. M. Rouppe van der Voort; E. A. G. van der Vossen; D. C. Baulcombe

1999-01-01

130

The in vivo Down syndrome genomic library in mouse.  

PubMed

Mouse models are key elements to better understand the genotype-phenotype relationship and the physiopathology of Down syndrome (DS). Even though the mouse will never recapitulate the whole spectrum of intellectual disabilities observed in the DS, mouse models have been developed over the recent decades and have been used extensively to identify homologous genes or entire regions homologous to the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) that are necessary or sufficient to induce DS cognitive features. In this chapter, we review the principal mouse DS models which have been selected and engineered over the years either for large genomic regions or for a few or a single gene of interest. Their analyses highlight the complexity of the genetic interactions that are involved in DS cognitive phenotypes and also strengthen the hypothesis on the multigenic nature of DS. This review also addresses future research challenges relative to the making of new models and their combination to go further in the characterization of candidates and modifier of the DS features. PMID:22541293

Herault, Yann; Duchon, Arnaud; Velot, Emilie; Maréchal, Damien; Brault, Véronique

2012-01-01

131

Use of in vitro OmniPlex libraries for high-throughput comparative genomics and molecular haplotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

OmniPlex Technology is a new approach to genome amplification and targeted analysis. Initially the entire genome is reformatted into small, amplifiable molecules called Plexisomes, which represent the entire genome as an OmniPlex Library. The whole genome can be amplified en masse using universal primers; using locus-specific primers, regions as large as 50 kb can be amplified. Amplified Plexisomes can be

Emmanuel Kamberov; Irina Sleptsova; Stephen Suchyta; Eric D. Bruening; William Ziehler; Julie Seward Nagel; John P. Langmore; Vladimir Makarov

2002-01-01

132

Transpositional transgenesis with piggyBac  

PubMed Central

Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are capable of self-directed excision and subsequent reintegration within the host genome. Transposase such as piggyBac, Sleeping Beauty and Tol2 catalyze these reactions and have shown potential as tools for the stable integration of transgenes when used in the binary plasmid mode. Recent modifications to the transposase and/or the terminal repeats of the transposon have increased their integration efficiency and/or specificity. We recently described the development of a piggyBac transposase system, the helper independent, single construct self-inactivating plasmid called GENIE. Here we describe the structure, safety and function of these transpositional vectors and their use in animal transgenesis and cell transfection. PMID:23956948

Urschitz, Johann; Moisyadi, Stefan

2013-01-01

133

Design and evaluation of genome-wide libraries for RNA interference screens  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) screens have enabled the systematic analysis of many biological processes in cultured cells and whole organisms. The success of such screens and the interpretation of the data depend on the stringent design of RNAi libraries. We describe and validate NEXT-RNAi, a software for the automated design and evaluation of RNAi sequences on a genome-wide scale. NEXT-RNAi is implemented as open-source software and is accessible at http://www.nextrnai.org/. PMID:20550664

2010-01-01

134

Isolation and Chromosomal Localization of Unique DNA Sequences from a Human Genomic Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant bacteriophage lambda from a human genomic library were screened to identify human DNA inserts having only unique sequences. Unique human inserts were found in about 1% of the phage screened. One recombinant phage, P3-2, was studied in detail. It contains a human insert of 14.7 kilobases with four internal EcoRI cleavage sites. A restriction map was constructed for EcoRI

Fa-Ten Kao; Judith A. Hartz; Martha Liao Law; Jeffrey N. Davidson

1982-01-01

135

The first insight into the Taxus genome via fosmid library construction and end sequencing.  

PubMed

Taxus mairei is a critically endangered and commercially important cultured medicinal gymnosperm in China and forms an important medicinal resource, but the research of its genome is absent. In this study, we constructed a T. mairei fosmid library and analyzed the fosmid end sequences to provide a preliminary assessment of the genome. The library consists of one million clones with an average insert size of about 39 kb, amounting to 3.9 genome equivalents. Fosmid stability assays indicate that T. mairei DNA was stable during propagation in the fosmid system. End sequencing of both 5' and 3' ends of 968 individual clones generated 1,923 sequences after trimming, with an average sequence length of 839 bp. BLASTN searches of the nr and EST databases of GenBank and BLASTX searches of the nr database resulted in 560 (29.1%) significant hits (E < e(-5)). Repetitive sequences analysis revealed that 20.8% of end sequences are repetitive elements, which were composed of retroelements, DNA transposons, satellites, simple repeats, and low complexity sequences. The distribution pattern of various repeat types was found to be more similar to the gymnosperm Pinus and Picea than to the monocot and dicot. The satellites of T. mairei were significantly longer than those of P. taeda and P. glauca. The tetra-nucleotide repeats of T. mairei were much longer than those of P. glauca and P. taeda. The fosmid library and the fosmid end sequences, for the first time, will serve as a useful resource for large-scale genome sequencing, physical mapping, SSR marker development and positional cloning, and provide a better understanding of the Taxus genome. PMID:21207064

Hao, DaCheng; Yang, Ling; Xiao, PeiGen

2011-03-01

136

Comparative Sequence of Human and Mouse BAC Clones from the mnd2 Region of Chromosome 2p13  

PubMed Central

The mnd2 mutation on mouse chromosome 6 produces a progressive neuromuscular disorder. To determine the gene content of the 400-kb mnd2 nonrecombinant region, we sequenced 108 kb of mouse genomic DNA and 92 kb of human genomic sequence from the corresponding region of chromosome 2p13.3. Three genes with the indicated sizes and intergenic distances were identified: D6Mm5e (?81 kb)–787 bp–DOK (2 kb)–845 bp–LOR2 (?6 kb). D6Mm5e is expressed in many tissues at very low abundance and the predicted 526-residue protein contains no known functional domains. DOK encodes the p62dok rasGAP binding protein involved in signal transduction. LOR2 encodes a novel lysyl oxidase-related protein of 757 amino acid residues. We describe a simple search protocol for identification of conserved internal exons in genomic sequence. Evolutionary conservation proved to be a useful criterion for distinguishing between authentic exons and artifactual products obtained by exon amplification, RT–PCR, and 5? RACE. Conserved noncoding sequence elements longer than 80 bp with ?75% nucleotide sequence identity comprise ?1% of the genomic sequence in this region. Comparative analysis of this human and mouse genomic DNA sequence was an efficient method for gene identification and is independent of developmental stage or quantitative level of gene expression. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under the following accession numbers: AC003061, mouse BAC clone 245c12; AC003065, human BAC clone h173(E10); AF053368, mouse Lor2 cDNA; AF084363, 108-kb contig from mouse BAC 245c12; AF084364, mouse D6Mm5e cDNA.] PMID:9927484

Jang, Wonhee; Hua, Axin; Spilson, Sandra V.; Miller, Webb; Roe, Bruce A.; Meisler, Miriam H.

1999-01-01

137

Construction of a high-coverage bacterial artificial chromosome library and comprehensive genetic linkage map of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata  

PubMed Central

Background Japanese amberjack/yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) is a commonly cultured marine fish in Japan. For cost effective fish production, a breeding program that increases commercially important traits is one of the major solutions. In selective breeding, information of genetic markers is useful and sufficient to identify individuals carrying advantageous traits but if the aim is to determine the genetic basis of the trait, large insert genomic DNA libraries are essential. In this study, toward prospective understanding of genetic basis of several economically important traits, we constructed a high-coverage bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, obtained sequences from the BAC-end, and constructed comprehensive female and male linkage maps of yellowtail using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers developed from the BAC-end sequences and a yellowtail genomic library. Results The total insert length of the BAC library we constructed here was estimated to be approximately 11 Gb and hence 16-times larger than the yellowtail genome. Sequencing of the BAC-ends showed a low fraction of repetitive sequences comparable to that in Tetraodon and fugu. A total of 837 SSR markers developed here were distributed among 24 linkage groups spanning 1,026.70 and 1,057.83 cM with an average interval of 4.96 and 4.32 cM in female and male map respectively without any segregation distortion. Oxford grids suggested conserved synteny between yellowtail and stickleback. Conclusions In addition to characteristics of yellowtail genome such as low repetitive sequences and conserved synteny with stickleback, our genomic and genetic resources constructed and revealed here will be powerful tools for the yellowtail breeding program and also for studies regarding the genetic basis of traits. PMID:24684753

2014-01-01

138

Physical mapping and microsynteny of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis genome corresponding to a 222 kbp gene-rich region of Arabidopsis chromosome 4 and partially duplicated on chromosome 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, designated as KBrH, from high molecular weight genomic DNA\\u000a of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage). This library, which was constructed using HindIII-cleaved genomic DNA, consists of 56,592 clones with average insert size of 115 kbp. Using a partially duplicated DNA\\u000a sequence of Arabidopsis, represented by 19 and 9 predicted genes on chromosome

J. Y. Park; D. H. Koo; C. P. Hong; S. J. Lee; J. W. Jeon; S. H. Lee; P. Y. Yun; B. S. Park; H. R. Kim; J. W. Bang; P. Plaha; I. Bancroft; Y. P. Lim

2005-01-01

139

Analysis of BAC-end sequences in rainbow trout: Content characterization and assessment of synteny between trout and other fish genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are cultivated worldwide for aquaculture production and are widely used as a model species to gain knowledge of many aspects\\u000a of fish biology. The common ancestor of the salmonids experienced a whole genome duplication event, making extant salmonids\\u000a such as the rainbow trout an excellent model for studying the evolution of tetraploidization and re-diploidization in vertebrates.

Carine Genet; Patrice Dehais; Yniv Palti; Guangtu Gao; Frederick Gavory; Patrick Wincker; Edwige Quillet; Mekki Boussaha

2011-01-01

140

Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton, one of the world’s leading crops, is important to the world’s textile and energy industries, and is a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction of a plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library and comparative genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with one of its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii Ulbr. Results We constructed the cotton BIBAC library in a vector competent for high-molecular-weight DNA transformation in different plant species through either Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. The library contains 76,800 clones with an average insert size of 135 kb, providing an approximate 99% probability of obtaining at least one positive clone from the library using a single-copy probe. The quality and utility of the library were verified by identifying BIBACs containing genes important for fiber development, fiber cellulose biosynthesis, seed fatty acid metabolism, cotton-nematode interaction, and bacterial blight resistance. In order to gain an insight into the Upland cotton genome and its relationship with G. raimondii, we sequenced nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs) randomly selected from the library, generating approximately one BES for every 250 kb along the Upland cotton genome. The retroelement Gypsy/DIRS1 family predominates in the Upland cotton genome, accounting for over 77% of all transposable elements. From the BESs, we identified 1,269 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), of which 1,006 were new, thus providing additional markers for cotton genome research. Surprisingly, comparative sequence analysis showed that Upland cotton is much more diverged from G. raimondii at the genomic sequence level than expected. There seems to be no significant difference between the relationships of the Upland cotton D- and A-subgenomes with the G. raimondii genome, even though G. raimondii contains a D genome (D5). Conclusions The library represents the first BIBAC library in cotton and related species, thus providing tools useful for integrative physical mapping, large-scale genome sequencing and large-scale functional analysis of the Upland cotton genome. Comparative sequence analysis provides insights into the Upland cotton genome, and a possible mechanism underlying the divergence and evolution of polyploid Upland cotton from its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii. PMID:23537070

2013-01-01

141

Position independent and copy-number-related expression of the bovine neonatal Fc receptor ? -chain in transgenic mice carrying a 102 kb BAC genomic fragment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generated and characterized transgenic mice carrying a 102 kb bovine genomic fragment, encoding the neonatal Fc receptor\\u000a ?-chain (bFcRn). FcRn plays a crucial role in the maternal IgG transport and it also regulates the IgG and albumin homeostasis.\\u000a Some of its functions and transcriptional regulation show species specific differences. The FcRn heterodimer is composed of\\u000a the ?-chain and beta-2-microglobulin (?2 m).

Balázs Bender; Lilla Bodrogi; Balázs Mayer; Zita Schneider; Yaofeng Zhao; Lennart Hammarström; André Eggen; Imre Kacskovics; Zsuzsanna B?sze

2007-01-01

142

Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted\\u000a construct resulted in identification of insect genomic sequences, not plasmid sequences, thus providing evidence that the\\u000a piggyBac EGFP cassette had integrated into the codling moth genome.

Holly J. FergusonLisa; Lisa G. Neven; Stephen T. Thibault; Ahmed Mohammed; Malcolm Fraser

2011-01-01

143

Pulling out the 1%: Whole-Genome Capture for the Targeted Enrichment of Ancient DNA Sequencing Libraries  

PubMed Central

Most ancient specimens contain very low levels of endogenous DNA, precluding the shotgun sequencing of many interesting samples because of cost. Ancient DNA (aDNA) libraries often contain <1% endogenous DNA, with the majority of sequencing capacity taken up by environmental DNA. Here we present a capture-based method for enriching the endogenous component of aDNA sequencing libraries. By using biotinylated RNA baits transcribed from genomic DNA libraries, we are able to capture DNA fragments from across the human genome. We demonstrate this method on libraries created from four Iron Age and Bronze Age human teeth from Bulgaria, as well as bone samples from seven Peruvian mummies and a Bronze Age hair sample from Denmark. Prior to capture, shotgun sequencing of these libraries yielded an average of 1.2% of reads mapping to the human genome (including duplicates). After capture, this fraction increased substantially, with up to 59% of reads mapped to human and enrichment ranging from 6- to 159-fold. Furthermore, we maintained coverage of the majority of regions sequenced in the precapture library. Intersection with the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel yielded an average of 50,723 SNPs (range 3,062–147,243) for the postcapture libraries sequenced with 1 million reads, compared with 13,280 SNPs (range 217–73,266) for the precapture libraries, increasing resolution in population genetic analyses. Our whole-genome capture approach makes it less costly to sequence aDNA from specimens containing very low levels of endogenous DNA, enabling the analysis of larger numbers of samples. PMID:24568772

Carpenter, Meredith L.; Buenrostro, Jason D.; Valdiosera, Cristina; Schroeder, Hannes; Allentoft, Morten E.; Sikora, Martin; Rasmussen, Morten; Gravel, Simon; Guillen, Sonia; Nekhrizov, Georgi; Leshtakov, Krasimir; Dimitrova, Diana; Theodossiev, Nikola; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Sandoval, Karla; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Greenleaf, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

2013-01-01

144

Pulling out the 1%: whole-genome capture for the targeted enrichment of ancient DNA sequencing libraries.  

PubMed

Most ancient specimens contain very low levels of endogenous DNA, precluding the shotgun sequencing of many interesting samples because of cost. Ancient DNA (aDNA) libraries often contain <1% endogenous DNA, with the majority of sequencing capacity taken up by environmental DNA. Here we present a capture-based method for enriching the endogenous component of aDNA sequencing libraries. By using biotinylated RNA baits transcribed from genomic DNA libraries, we are able to capture DNA fragments from across the human genome. We demonstrate this method on libraries created from four Iron Age and Bronze Age human teeth from Bulgaria, as well as bone samples from seven Peruvian mummies and a Bronze Age hair sample from Denmark. Prior to capture, shotgun sequencing of these libraries yielded an average of 1.2% of reads mapping to the human genome (including duplicates). After capture, this fraction increased substantially, with up to 59% of reads mapped to human and enrichment ranging from 6- to 159-fold. Furthermore, we maintained coverage of the majority of regions sequenced in the precapture library. Intersection with the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel yielded an average of 50,723 SNPs (range 3,062-147,243) for the postcapture libraries sequenced with 1 million reads, compared with 13,280 SNPs (range 217-73,266) for the precapture libraries, increasing resolution in population genetic analyses. Our whole-genome capture approach makes it less costly to sequence aDNA from specimens containing very low levels of endogenous DNA, enabling the analysis of larger numbers of samples. PMID:24568772

Carpenter, Meredith L; Buenrostro, Jason D; Valdiosera, Cristina; Schroeder, Hannes; Allentoft, Morten E; Sikora, Martin; Rasmussen, Morten; Gravel, Simon; Guillén, Sonia; Nekhrizov, Georgi; Leshtakov, Krasimir; Dimitrova, Diana; Theodossiev, Nikola; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Sandoval, Karla; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Greenleaf, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D

2013-11-01

145

Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes: Genomic Resources and Strategies for Analyzing an Adaptive Radiation  

PubMed Central

The perciform suborder Notothenoidei provides a compelling opportunity to study the adaptive radiation of a marine species-flock in the cold Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica. To facilitate genome-level studies of the diversification of these fishes, we present estimates of the genome sizes of 11 Antarctic species and describe the production of high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for two, the red-blooded notothen Notothenia coriiceps and the white-blooded icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Our results indicate that evolution of phylogenetically derived notothenioid families (e.g., the crown group Channichthyidae [icefishes]), was accompanied by genome expansion. Six species from the basal family Nototheniidae had C-values between 0.98 and 1.20?pg, a range that is consistent with the genome sizes of proposed outgroups (e.g., percids) of the notothenioid suborder. In contrast, four icefishes had C-values in the range 1.66–1.83?pg. The BAC libraries VMRC-19 (N. coriiceps) and VMRC-21 (C. aceratus) comprise 12× and 10× coverage of the respective genomes and have average insert sizes of 138 and 168?kb. Paired BAC-end reads representing ?0.1% of each genome showed that the repetitive element landscapes of the two genomes (13.4% of the N. coriiceps genome and 14.5% for C. aceratus) were similar. The availability of these high-quality and well-characterized BAC libraries sets the stage for targeted genomic analyses of the unusual anatomical and physiological adaptations of the notothenioids, some of which mimic human diseases. Here we consider the evolution of secondary pelagicism by various taxa of the group and illustrate the utility of Antarctic icefishes as an evolutionary-mutant model of human osteopenia (low-mineral density of bones). PMID:21082069

Detrich, H. W.; Amemiya, Chris T.

2010-01-01

146

Human genomic library screened with 17-base oligonucleotide probes yields a novel interferon gene.  

PubMed Central

A method is presented that has permitted a human genomic library to be screened for low-copy genes using 17-base synthetic oligonucleotides as probes. Parallel screening with two different 17-base probes permitted the unambiguous identification of clones containing interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) genes. The isolated human IFN-alpha genes were sequenced, and one appears to be IFN-alpha L; the other is one not previously described, which we have designated IFN-alpha WA. The IFN-alpha WA sequence differs from those of IFN-alpha genes A-L at approximately equal to 10% of the positions and is most similar to IFN-alpha C, -alpha F, and -alpha H. IFN-alpha WA has been found to encode amino acids that differ from those conserved at each of five positions in all previously reported IFN-alpha species. The IFN-alpha WA gene codes for an active interferon, which has been expressed in Escherichia coli using an M13-lacZ fusion as an expression vector. About 5 X 10(6) units of IFN-alpha WA were obtained per liter of bacterial culture. The described screening procedure using short probes should permit the isolation of genes for which sequence information is available from animal or plant genomic libraries. Images PMID:6387705

Torczynski, R M; Fuke, M; Bollon, A P

1984-01-01

147

High-Throughput Screening of a Corynebacterium glutamicum Mutant Library on Genomic and Metabolic Level  

PubMed Central

Due to impressive achievements in genomic research, the number of genome sequences has risen quickly, followed by an increasing number of genes with unknown or hypothetical function. This strongly calls for development of high-throughput methods in the fields of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Of these platforms, metabolic profiling has the strongest correlation with the phenotype. We previously published a high-throughput metabolic profiling method for C. glutamicum as well as the automatic GC/MS processing software MetaboliteDetector. Here, we added a high-throughput transposon insertion determination for our C. glutamicum mutant library. The combination of these methods allows the parallel analysis of genotype/phenotype correlations for a large number of mutants. In a pilot project we analyzed the insertion points of 722 transposon mutants and found that 36% of the affected genes have unknown functions. This underlines the need for further information gathered by high-throughput techniques. We therefore measured the metabolic profiles of 258 randomly chosen mutants. The MetaboliteDetector software processed this large amount of GC/MS data within a few hours with a low relative error of 11.5% for technical replicates. Pairwise correlation analysis of metabolites over all genotypes showed dependencies of known and unknown metabolites. For a first insight into this large data set, a screening for interesting mutants was done by a pattern search, focusing on mutants with changes in specific pathways. We show that our transposon mutant library is not biased with respect to insertion points. A comparison of the results for specific mutants with previously published metabolic results on a deletion mutant of the same gene confirmed the concept of high-throughput metabolic profiling. Altogether the described method could be applied to whole mutant libraries and thereby help to gain comprehensive information about genes with unknown, hypothetical and known functions. PMID:24504095

Reimer, Lorenz C.; Spura, Jana; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Schomburg, Dietmar

2014-01-01

148

Ligation Bias in Illumina Next-Generation DNA Libraries: Implications for Sequencing Ancient Genomes  

PubMed Central

Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of endogenous molecules and contaminant DNA templates, often originating from environmental microbes. These two populations of templates exhibit different chemical characteristics, with the former showing depurination and cytosine deamination by-products, resulting from post-mortem DNA damage. Such chemical modifications can interfere with the molecular tools used for building second-generation DNA libraries, and limit our ability to fully characterize the true complexity of ancient DNA extracts. In this study, we first use fresh DNA extracts to demonstrate that library preparation based on adapter ligation at AT-overhangs are biased against DNA templates starting with thymine residues, contrarily to blunt-end adapter ligation. We observe the same bias on fresh DNA extracts sheared on Bioruptor, Covaris and nebulizers. This contradicts previous reports suggesting that this bias could originate from the methods used for shearing DNA. This also suggests that AT-overhang adapter ligation efficiency is affected in a sequence-dependent manner and results in an uneven representation of different genomic contexts. We then show how this bias could affect the base composition of ancient DNA libraries prepared following AT-overhang ligation, mainly by limiting the ability to ligate DNA templates starting with thymines and therefore deaminated cytosines. This results in particular nucleotide misincorporation damage patterns, deviating from the signature generally expected for authenticating ancient sequence data. Consequently, we show that models adequate for estimating post-mortem DNA damage levels must be robust to the molecular tools used for building ancient DNA libraries. PMID:24205269

Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel; Clary, Joel; Stagegaard, Julia; Alberdi, Maria T.; Prado, Jose Luis; Prieto, Alfredo; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

2013-01-01

149

Functional Screening of Metagenome and Genome Libraries for Detection of Novel Flavonoid-Modifying Enzymes  

PubMed Central

The functional detection of novel enzymes other than hydrolases from metagenomes is limited since only a very few reliable screening procedures are available that allow the rapid screening of large clone libraries. For the discovery of flavonoid-modifying enzymes in genome and metagenome clone libraries, we have developed a new screening system based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). This metagenome extract thin-layer chromatography analysis (META) allows the rapid detection of glycosyltransferase (GT) and also other flavonoid-modifying activities. The developed screening method is highly sensitive, and an amount of 4 ng of modified flavonoid molecules can be detected. This novel technology was validated against a control library of 1,920 fosmid clones generated from a single Bacillus cereus isolate and then used to analyze more than 38,000 clones derived from two different metagenomic preparations. Thereby we identified two novel UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes. The metagenome-derived gtfC gene encoded a 52-kDa protein, and the deduced amino acid sequence was weakly similar to sequences of putative UGTs from Fibrisoma and Dyadobacter. GtfC mediated the transfer of different hexose moieties and exhibited high activities on flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and stilbenes and also accepted isoflavones and chalcones. From the control library we identified a novel macroside glycosyltransferase (MGT) with a calculated molecular mass of 46 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly similar to sequences of MGTs from Bacillus thuringiensis. Recombinant MgtB transferred the sugar residue from UDP-glucose effectively to flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and flavanones. Moreover, MgtB exhibited high activity on larger flavonoid molecules such as tiliroside. PMID:23686272

Rabausch, U.; Juergensen, J.; Ilmberger, N.; Bohnke, S.; Fischer, S.; Schubach, B.; Schulte, M.

2013-01-01

150

Analysis of BAC-end sequences (BESs) and development of BES-SSR markers for genetic mapping and hybrid purity assessment in pigeonpea (Cajanus spp.)  

PubMed Central

Background Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is an important legume crop of rainfed agriculture. Despite of concerted research efforts directed to pigeonpea improvement, stagnated productivity of pigeonpea during last several decades may be accounted to prevalence of various biotic and abiotic constraints and the situation is exacerbated by availability of inadequate genomic resources to undertake any molecular breeding programme for accelerated crop improvement. With the objective of enhancing genomic resources for pigeonpea, this study reports for the first time, large scale development of SSR markers from BAC-end sequences and their subsequent use for genetic mapping and hybridity testing in pigeonpea. Results A set of 88,860 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome)-end sequences (BESs) were generated after constructing two BAC libraries by using HindIII (34,560 clones) and BamHI (34,560 clones) restriction enzymes. Clustering based on sequence identity of BESs yielded a set of >52K non-redundant sequences, comprising 35 Mbp or >4% of the pigeonpea genome. These sequences were analyzed to develop annotation lists and subdivide the BESs into genome fractions (e.g., genes, retroelements, transpons and non-annotated sequences). Parallel analysis of BESs for microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 18,149 SSRs, from which a set of 6,212 SSRs were selected for further analysis. A total of 3,072 novel SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested for length polymorphism on a set of 22 parental genotypes of 13 mapping populations segregating for traits of interest. In total, we identified 842 polymorphic SSR markers that will have utility in pigeonpea improvement. Based on these markers, the first SSR-based genetic map comprising of 239 loci was developed for this previously uncharacterized genome. Utility of developed SSR markers was also demonstrated by identifying a set of 42 markers each for two hybrids (ICPH 2671 and ICPH 2438) for genetic purity assessment in commercial hybrid breeding programme. Conclusion In summary, while BAC libraries and BESs should be useful for genomics studies, BES-SSR markers, and the genetic map should be very useful for linking the genetic map with a future physical map as well as for molecular breeding in pigeonpea. PMID:21447154

2011-01-01

151

Large-scale screening of intracellular protein localization in living fission yeast cells by the use of a GFP-fusion genomic DNA library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intracellular localization is an important part of the characterization of a gene product. In an attempt to search for genes based on the intracel- lular localization of their products, we constructed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion genomic DNA library of S. pombe. Results: We constructed the S. pombe GFP-fusion genomic DNA library by fusing, in all three reading frames,

Da-Qiao Ding; Yuki Tomita; Ayumu Yamamoto; Yuji Chikashige; Tokuko Haraguchi; Yasushi Hiraoka

2000-01-01

152

Identification of a new gene encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase using genomic library construction strategy.  

PubMed

Applying the genomic library construction strategy and colony screening, a new aroA gene encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase has been identified, cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzyme was purified to homogeneity. Kinetic analysis of the AroA( P.fluorescens ) indicated that the full-length enzyme exhibits 10-fold increased IC50 and an approximately 38-fold increased K ( i ) for glyphosate compared to those of the AroA( E.coli ), while retaining high affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate. Furthermore, we have transformed the new aroA ( P.fluorescens ) gene into Arabidopsis thaliana via a floral dip method, and demonstrated that transgenic A. thaliana plants exhibit significant glyphosate resistance when compared with the wild type. PMID:23090479

Zhou, Chang-Yan; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Chen; Bao, Wen-Hua; Bian, Lin; Cai, Run; Wu, Ai-Zhong

2012-12-01

153

Effects of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit What's this? Submit Button Effects of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Share Compartir Information in this table shows the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level at which the effect usually ...

154

Advances in plant chromosome genomics.  

PubMed

Next generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing genomics and is providing novel insights into genome organization, evolution and function. The number of plant genomes targeted for sequencing is rising. For the moment, however, the acquisition of full genome sequences in large genome species remains difficult, largely because the short reads produced by NGS platforms are inadequate to cope with repeat-rich DNA, which forms a large part of these genomes. The problem of sequence redundancy is compounded in polyploids, which dominate the plant kingdom. An approach to overcoming some of these difficulties is to reduce the full nuclear genome to its individual chromosomes using flow-sorting. The DNA acquired in this way has proven to be suitable for many applications, including PCR-based physical mapping, in situ hybridization, forming DNA arrays, the development of DNA markers, the construction of BAC libraries and positional cloning. Coupling chromosome sorting with NGS offers opportunities for the study of genome organization at the single chromosomal level, for comparative analyses between related species and for the validation of whole genome assemblies. Apart from the primary aim of reducing the complexity of the template, taking a chromosome-based approach enables independent teams to work in parallel, each tasked with the analysis of a different chromosome(s). Given that the number of plant species tractable for chromosome sorting is increasing, the likelihood is that chromosome genomics - the marriage of cytology and genomics - will make a significant contribution to the field of plant genetics. PMID:24406816

Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Kubaláková, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Simková, Hana

2014-01-01

155

Pre-Nursing Post-Bac Info  

E-print Network

Pre-Nursing Post-Bac Info Session Rachel Small Co-Director, SFSU Pre- Nursing Post-Bac Program January 31, 2013 #12;SFSU Pre-Nursing Post-Bac Program ! Highly structured program intended for students with a bachelor's degree ! Provides prerequisite and elective coursework for pre-nursing students ! Strong

156

The Jackson Laboratory: The Mouse Genome Sequence Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Mouse Genome Informatics program (last reported on in the NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences on March 19, 2004) at the Jackson Laboratory, this website presents The Mouse Genome Sequence (MGS) project. MGS is designed "to integrate emerging mouse genomic sequence data with the genetic and biological data available in MGD and GXD." The site links to Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Projects, as well as Sequence Analysis Tools including MouseBlast and Genome Analysis. The site also offers basic background information about the Mouse Genome Sequencing Initiative, and provides site users with access to groups involved in mouse genome sequencing, the BAC clone library, request forms for targeted sequencing, and more.

157

Construction of DNA libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed a series of DNA libraries from flow-sorted chromosomes. Small insert, complete digest libraries cloned into the EcoRI insertion site of Charon 21A are available from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD. Partial digest libraries cloned into cosmid (sCos1) or phage (Charon 40) vectors have been constructed for chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, X and Y. Purity estimates by in situ analysis of sorted chromosomes, flow karyotype analysis, and plaque or colony hybridization indicate that most of these libraries are 90-95% pure. Additional cosmid library constructions, 5-10X arrays of libraries into microtiter plates, and high density membrane arrays of libraries are in progress. Recently, we have completed YAC libraries for chromosomes 5, 9, 16, and 21. These libraries are made from complete DNA digests using the rare cutters Clal, SacII, EagI, or NotI/NheI. The average insert size is {similar_to}200 kb, and chimera frequencies are low (1-10%). Libraries have also been constructed using M13 or bluescript vectors (chromosomes 5, 7, 17) to generate STS markers for the selection of chromosome-specific inserts from total genomic AC libraries. Because of the advantages of insert size and stability associated with BAC and PAC cloning systems, we are currently attempting to adapt pBAC108L and pCYPAC1 vectors for use with flow-sorted chromosomal DNA.

Deaven, L.L.; McCormick, M.K.; Grady, D.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

158

Construction and characterization of three region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 18.  

PubMed

Three region-specific libraries for the entire human chromosome 18 were constructed using microdissection and Mbol linker-adaptor microcloning techniques. The libraries included 18pter-p11.1 (designated 18P library), 18q11.1-q12.3 (18Q1 library), and 18q21.1-qter (18Q2 library). Samples of the microclones from each library were analyzed in detail. The insert sizes ranged between 50-600 bp, with a mean of 180-220 bp for the three libraries. The libraries contained approximately 40-60% microclones with unique sequence inserts. More than 30 unique sequence microclones from each library were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization to demonstrate that they are human specific and were derived from chromosome 18. The human genomic HindIII fragments hybridized to each microclone were determined and microclones cross-hybridized to rodent species were identified. These region-specific libraries and the unique sequence microclones from the libraries are useful reagents for (1) isolating highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for refined linkage analysis, (2) identifying corresponding YAC, BAC or other clones with large inserts for contig assembly and high resolution physical mapping, (3) isolating cDNA clones from the dissected region, and (4) convenient sequencing of the microclones to prepare high density markers and sequence-tagged sites (STSs). Such applications have been demonstrated in a series of similarly constructed microdissection libraries from other regions of the human genome. PMID:8914604

Kao, F T; Tong, S; Shen, Y; Yu, J

1996-05-01

159

Towards a Library of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for (meta)genomic annotation  

SciTech Connect

Genome annotations describe the features of genomes and accompany sequences in genome databases. The methodologies used to generate genome annotation are diverse and typically vary amongst groups. Descriptions of the annotation procedure are helpful in interpreting genome annotation data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for genome annotation describe the processes that generate genome annotations. Some groups are currently documenting procedures but standards are lacking for structure and content of annotation SOPs. In addition, there is no central repository to store and disseminate procedures and protocols for genome annotation. We highlight the importance of SOPs for genome annotation and endorse a central online repository of SOPs.

Kyrpides, Nikos; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Cochrane, Guy; Field, Dawn; Garrity, George; Gussman, Aaron; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Klimke, William; Kyrpides, Nikos; Madupu, Ramana; Markowitz, Victor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thomson, Nick; White, Owen

2008-04-01

160

Bacterial Artificial Chromosome-Based Physical Map of the Rice Genome Constructed by Restriction Fingerprint Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide physical mapping with bacteria-based large-insert clones (e.g., BACs, PACs, and PBCs) promises to revolutionize genomics of large, complex genomes. To accelerate rice and other grass species genome research, we developed a genome-wide BAC-based map of the rice genome. The map consists of 298 BAC contigs and covers 419 Mb of the 430-Mb rice genome. Subsequent analysis indicated that the

Quanzhou Tao; Yueh-Long Chang; Jingzhao Wang; Huaming Chen; M. Nurul Islam-Faridi; Chantel Scheuring; Bin Wang; David M. Stelly; Hong-Bin Zhang

161

The position of repetitive DNA sequence in the southern cattle tick genome permits chromosome identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) using meiotic chromosome preparations and highly repetitive DNA from the southern\\u000a cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, was undertaken to investigate genome organization. Several classes of highly repetitive DNA elements were identified by screening\\u000a a R. microplus bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. A repeat unit of approximately 149 bp, RMR-1 was localized to the subtelomeric\\u000a regions of R. microplus

Catherine A. Hill; Felix D. Guerrero; Janice P. Van Zee; Nicholas S. Geraci; Jason G. Walling; Jeffrey J. Stuart

2009-01-01

162

Characterization of novel microsatellite markers derived from Korean rose bitterling (Rhodeus uyekii) genomic library.  

PubMed

Korean rose bitterling (Rhodeus uyekii) is a freshwater fish endemic to Korea. Natural populations of this species have experienced severe declines as a result of habitat fragmentation and water pollution. To conserve and restore R. uyekii, the genetic diversity of this species needs to be assessed at the population level. Eighteen novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for R. uyekii were developed using an enriched partial genomic library. Polymorphisms at these loci were studied in 150 individuals collected from three populations. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from 3 to 47 (mean = 17.1). Within the populations, the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.032 to 1.000, expected heterozygosity from 0.082 to 0.967, and polymorphism information content from 0.078 to 0.950. Six loci showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni's correction, and no significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between most locus pairs, except in three cases. These highly informative microsatellite markers should be useful for genetic population structure analyses of R. uyekii. PMID:25299199

Kim, W J; Shin, E H; Kong, H J; Kim, H S; Kim, B S; Nam, B H; Kim, Y O; Kim, C H; Jung, H; An, C M

2014-01-01

163

Barcoding-free BAC Pooling Enables Combinatorial Selective Sequencing of the Barley Gene Space  

E-print Network

We propose a new sequencing protocol that combines recent advances in combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach de novo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when dealing with hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as genome-tiling gene-rich BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundreds of million of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is extremely accurate (99.57% of the deconvoluted reads are assigned to the correct BAC), and the resulting BAC assemblies have very high quality (BACs are covered by contigs over about 77% of their length, on average). Experimental results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confir...

Lonardi, Stefano; Alpert, Matthew; Cordero, Francesca; Beccuti, Marco; Bhat, Prasanna R; Wu, Yonghui; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Alsaihati, Burair; Ma, Yaqin; Wanamaker, Steve; Resnik, Josh; Close, Timothy J

2011-01-01

164

Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for the Hexaploid Wheat Line 92R137  

PubMed Central

For map-based cloning of genes conferring important traits in the hexaploid wheat line 92R137, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, including two sublibraries, was constructed using the genomic DNA of 92R137 digested with restriction enzymes HindIII and BamHI. The BAC library was composed of total 765,696 clones, of which 390,144 were from the HindIII digestion and 375,552 from the BamHI digestion. Through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 453 clones randomly selected from the HindIII sublibrary and 573 clones from the BamHI sublibrary, the average insert sizes were estimated as 129 and 113?kb, respectively. Thus, the HindIII sublibrary was estimated to have a 3.01-fold coverage and the BamHI sublibrary a 2.53-fold coverage based on the estimated hexaploid wheat genome size of 16,700?Mb. The 765,696 clones were arrayed in 1,994 384-well plates. All clones were also arranged into plate pools and further arranged into 5-dimensional (5D) pools. The probability of identifying a clone corresponding to any wheat DNA sequence (such as gene Yr26 for stripe rust resistance) from the library was estimated to be more than 99.6%. Through polymerase chain reaction screening the 5D pools with Xwe173, a marker tightly linked to Yr26, six BAC clones were successfully obtained. These results demonstrate that the BAC library is a valuable genomic resource for positional cloning of Yr26 and other genes of interest. PMID:24895618

Yuan, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Shi, Xue; Zhuang, Hua; Wang, Zhonghua; Huang, Lili; Han, Dejun; Kang, Zhensheng

2014-01-01

165

Cytogenetic Analysis of Populus trichocarpa - Ribosomal DNA, Telomere Repeat Sequence, and Marker-selected BACs  

SciTech Connect

The 18S-28S rDNA and 5S rDNA loci in Populus trichocarpa were localized using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Two 18S-28S rDNA sites and one 5S rDNA site were identified and located at the ends of 3 different chromosomes. FISH signals from the Arabidopsis -type telomere repeat sequence were observed at the distal ends of each chromosome. Six BAC clones selected from 2 linkage groups based on genome sequence assembly (LG-I and LG-VI) were localized on 2 chromosomes, as expected. BACs from LG-I hybridized to the longest chromosome in the complement. All BAC positions were found to be concordant with sequence assembly positions. BAC-FISH will be useful for delineating each of the Populus trichocarpa chromosomes and improving the sequence assembly of this model angiosperm tree species.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University

2009-01-01

166

Genomic Library Screens for Genes Involved in n-Butanol Tolerance in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background n-Butanol is a promising emerging biofuel, and recent metabolic engineering efforts have demonstrated the use of several microbial hosts for its production. However, most organisms have very low tolerance to n-butanol (up to 2% (v/v)), limiting the economic viability of this biofuel. The rational engineering of more robust n-butanol production hosts relies upon understanding the mechanisms involved in tolerance. However, the existing knowledge of genes involved in n-butanol tolerance is limited. The goal of this study is therefore to identify E. coli genes that are involved in n-butanol tolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a genomic library enrichment strategy, we identified approximately 270 genes that were enriched or depleted in n-butanol challenge. The effects of these candidate genes on n-butanol tolerance were experimentally determined using overexpression or deletion libraries. Among the 55 enriched genes tested, 11 were experimentally shown to confer enhanced tolerance to n-butanol when overexpressed compared to the wild-type. Among the 84 depleted genes tested, three conferred increased n-butanol resistance when deleted. The overexpressed genes that conferred the largest increase in n-butanol tolerance were related to iron transport and metabolism, entC and feoA, which increased the n-butanol tolerance by 32.8±4.0% and 49.1±3.3%, respectively. The deleted gene that resulted in the largest increase in resistance to n-butanol was astE, which enhanced n-butanol tolerance by 48.7±6.3%. Conclusions/Significance We identified and experimentally verified 14 genes that decreased the inhibitory effect of n-butanol tolerance on E. coli. From the data, we were able to expand the current knowledge on the genes involved in n-butanol tolerance; the results suggest that an increased iron transport and metabolism and decreased acid resistance may enhance n-butanol tolerance. The genes and mechanisms identified in this study will be helpful in the rational engineering of more robust biofuel producers. PMID:21408113

Reyes, Luis H.; Almario, Maria P.; Kao, Katy C.

2011-01-01

167

Comparative sequence and genetic analyses of asparagus BACs reveal no microsynteny with onion or rice.  

PubMed

The Poales (includes the grasses) and Asparagales [includes onion (Allium cepa L.) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)] are the two most economically important monocot orders. The Poales are a member of the commelinoid monocots, a group of orders sister to the Asparagales. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed a high degree of synteny among the grasses; however, it is not known if this synteny extends to other major monocot groups such as the Asparagales. Although we previously reported no evidence for synteny at the recombinational level between onion and rice, microsynteny may exist across shorter genomic regions in the grasses and Asparagales. We sequenced nine asparagus BACs to reveal physically linked genic-like sequences and determined their most similar positions in the onion and rice genomes. Four of the asparagus BACs were selected using molecular markers tightly linked to the sex-determining M locus on chromosome 5 of asparagus. These BACs possessed only two putative coding regions and had long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons. Five asparagus BACs were selected after hybridization of three onion cDNAs that mapped to three different onion chromosomes. Genic-like sequences that were physically linked on the cDNA-selected BACs or genetically linked on the M-linked BACs showed significant similarities (e < -20) to expressed sequences on different rice chromosomes, revealing no evidence for microsynteny between asparagus and rice across these regions. Genic-like sequences that were linked in asparagus were used to identify highly similar (e < -20) expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of onion. These onion ESTs mapped to different onion chromosomes and no relationship was observed between physical or genetic linkages in asparagus and genetic linkages in onion. These results further indicate that synteny among grass genomes does not extend to a sister order in the monocots and that asparagus may not be an appropriate smaller genome model for plants in the Asparagales with enormous nuclear genomes. PMID:17016688

Jakse, Jernej; Telgmann, Alexa; Jung, Christian; Khar, Anil; Melgar, Sergio; Cheung, Foo; Town, Christopher D; Havey, Michael J

2006-12-01

168

Development of microsatellite markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) based on screening of non-enriched, small-insert genomic libraries.  

PubMed

Microsatellite markers are useful genetic tools for a wide array of genomic analyses although their development is time-consuming and requires the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from genomic sequences. Screening of non-enriched, small-insert libraries is an effective method of SSR isolation that can give an unbiased picture of motif frequency. Here we adapt high-throughput protocols for the screening of plasmid-based libraries using robotic colony picking and filter preparation. Seven non-enriched genomic libraries from common bean genomic DNA were made by digestion with four frequently cutting restriction enzymes, double digestion with a frequently cutting restriction enzyme and a less frequently cutting restriction enzyme, or sonication. Library quality was compared and three of the small-insert libraries were selected for further analysis. Each library was plated and picked into 384-well plates that were used to create high-density filter arrays of over 18 000 clones each, which were screened with oligonucleotide probes for various SSR motifs. Positive clones were found to have low redundancy. One hundred SSR markers were developed and 80 were tested for polymorphism in a standard parental survey. These microsatellite markers derived from non-SSR-enriched libraries should be useful additions to previous markers developed from enriched libraries. PMID:19935925

Blair, Matthew W; Torres, Monica Muñoz; Pedraza, Fabio; Giraldo, Martha C; Buendía, Hector F; Hurtado, Natalia

2009-09-01

169

Post-Integration Silencing of piggyBac Transposable Elements in Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

The piggyBac transposon, originating in the genome of the Lepidoptera Trichoplusia ni, has a broad host range, making it useful for the development of a number of transposon-based functional genomic technologies including gene vectors, enhancer-, gene- and protein-traps. While capable of being used as a vector for the creation of transgenic insects and insect cell lines, piggyBac has very limited mobility once integrated into the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. A transgenic Aedes aegypti cell line (AagPB8) was created containing three integrated piggyBac elements and the remobilization potential of the elements was tested. The integrated piggyBac elements in AagPB8 were transpositionally silent in the presence of functional transposase, which was shown to be capable of catalyzing the movement of plasmid-borne piggyBac elements in the same cells. The structural integrity of one of the integrated elements along with the quality of element-flanking DNA, which is known to influence transposition rates, were tested in D. melanogaster. The element was found to be structurally intact, capable of transposition and excision in the soma and germ-line of Drosophila melanogaster, and in a DNA sequence context highly conducive to element movement in Drosophila melanogaster. These data show that transpositional silencing of integrated piggyBac elements in the genome of Aedes aegypti appears to be a function of higher scale genome organization or perhaps epigenetic factors, and not due to structural defects or suboptimal integration sites. PMID:23861905

Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Esnault, Caroline; O'Brochta, David A.

2013-01-01

170

Use of in vitro OmniPlex libraries for high-throughput comparative genomics and molecular haplotyping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OmniPlex Technology is a new approach to genome amplification and targeted analysis. Initially the entire genome is reformatted into small, amplifiable molecules called Plexisomes, which represent the entire genome as an OmniPlex Library. The whole genome can be amplified en masse using universal primers; using locus-specific primers, regions as large as 50 kb can be amplified. Amplified Plexisomes can be analyzed using conventional methods such as capillary sequencing and microarray hybridization. The advantages to using OmniPlex as the 'front-end' for conventional analytical instruments are that a) the initial copy number of the analytes can be increased to achieve better signal-to-noire ratio, b) only a single priming site is used and c) up to 20 times fewer biochemical reactions and oligonucleotides are necessary to amplify a large region, compared to conventional PCR. These factors make OmniPlex more flexible, faster, and less expensive than conventional technologies. OmniPlex has been applied to targeted sequencing of human, animal, plant, and microorganism genomes. In addition, OmniPlex is inherently able to haplotype large regions of human DNA to accelerate target discovery and pharmacogenomics. OmniPlex will be a key tool for delivery of improved crops and livestock, new pharmaceutical products, and personalized medicine.

Kamberov, Emmanuel; Sleptsova, Irina; Suchyta, Stephen; Bruening, Eric D.; Ziehler, William; Seward Nagel, Julie; Langmore, John P.; Makarov, Vladimir

2002-06-01

171

Final progress report, Construction of a genome-wide highly characterized clone resource for genome sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

At TIGR, the human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) end sequencing and trimming were with an overall sequencing success rate of 65%. CalTech human BAC libraries A, B, C and D as well as Roswell Park Cancer Institute's library RPCI-11 were used. To date, we have generated >300,000 end sequences from >186,000 human BAC clones with an average read length â460

Nierman; William C

2000-01-01

172

High-throughput screening of a CRISPR/Cas9 library for functional genomics in human cells.  

PubMed

Targeted genome editing technologies are powerful tools for studying biology and disease, and have a broad range of research applications. In contrast to the rapid development of toolkits to manipulate individual genes, large-scale screening methods based on the complete loss of gene expression are only now beginning to be developed. Here we report the development of a focused CRISPR/Cas-based (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) lentiviral library in human cells and a method of gene identification based on functional screening and high-throughput sequencing analysis. Using knockout library screens, we successfully identified the host genes essential for the intoxication of cells by anthrax and diphtheria toxins, which were confirmed by functional validation. The broad application of this powerful genetic screening strategy will not only facilitate the rapid identification of genes important for bacterial toxicity but will also enable the discovery of genes that participate in other biological processes. PMID:24717434

Zhou, Yuexin; Zhu, Shiyou; Cai, Changzu; Yuan, Pengfei; Li, Chunmei; Huang, Yanyi; Wei, Wensheng

2014-05-22

173

SearchSmallRNA: a graphical interface tool for the assemblage of viral genomes using small RNA libraries data  

PubMed Central

Background Next-generation parallel sequencing (NGS) allows the identification of viral pathogens by sequencing the small RNAs of infected hosts. Thus, viral genomes may be assembled from host immune response products without prior virus enrichment, amplification or purification. However, mapping of the vast information obtained presents a bioinformatics challenge. Methods In order to by pass the need of line command and basic bioinformatics knowledge, we develop a mapping software with a graphical interface to the assemblage of viral genomes from small RNA dataset obtained by NGS. SearchSmallRNA was developed in JAVA language version 7 using NetBeans IDE 7.1 software. The program also allows the analysis of the viral small interfering RNAs (vsRNAs) profile; providing an overview of the size distribution and other features of the vsRNAs produced in infected cells. Results The program performs comparisons between each read sequenced present in a library and a chosen reference genome. Reads showing Hamming distances smaller or equal to an allowed mismatched will be selected as positives and used to the assemblage of a long nucleotide genome sequence. In order to validate the software, distinct analysis using NGS dataset obtained from HIV and two plant viruses were used to reconstruct viral whole genomes. Conclusions SearchSmallRNA program was able to reconstructed viral genomes using NGS of small RNA dataset with high degree of reliability so it will be a valuable tool for viruses sequencing and discovery. It is accessible and free to all research communities and has the advantage to have an easy-to-use graphical interface. Availability and implementation SearchSmallRNA was written in Java and is freely available at http://www.microbiologia.ufrj.br/ssrna/. PMID:24607237

2014-01-01

174

Conserved microstructure of the Brassica B Genome of Brassica nigra in relation to homologous regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa and B. oleracea  

PubMed Central

Background The Brassica B genome is known to carry several important traits, yet there has been limited analyses of its underlying genome structure, especially in comparison to the closely related A and C genomes. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Brassica nigra was developed and screened with 17 genes from a 222 kb region of A. thaliana that had been well characterised in both the Brassica A and C genomes. Results Fingerprinting of 483 apparently non-redundant clones defined physical contigs for the corresponding regions in B. nigra. The target region is duplicated in A. thaliana and six homologous contigs were found in B. nigra resulting from the whole genome triplication event shared by the Brassiceae tribe. BACs representative of each region were sequenced to elucidate the level of microscale rearrangements across the Brassica species divide. Conclusions Although the B genome species separated from the A/C lineage some 6 Mya, comparisons between the three paleopolyploid Brassica genomes revealed extensive conservation of gene content and sequence identity. The level of fractionation or gene loss varied across genomes and genomic regions; however, the greatest loss of genes was observed to be common to all three genomes. One large-scale chromosomal rearrangement differentiated the B genome suggesting such events could contribute to the lack of recombination observed between B genome species and those of the closely related A/C lineage. PMID:23586706

2013-01-01

175

Validation and comparison of microsatellite markers derived from Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) genomic and expressed sequence tags libraries.  

PubMed

In this work, we tested 100 potential new microsatellites (SSRs) equally derived from expressed sequence tag (EST) and enriched genomic-DNA libraries from Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup), a valuable cultured flatfish species. A final set of 69 new polymorphic microsatellites were validated after a population analysis, 37 of which corresponded to the first EST library constructed for Senegalese sole (EST-SSR). Although differences were not significant, EST sequences provided a higher proportion of quality markers (74%) than anonymous ones (64%). Most of the rejected anonymous SSRs (17 loci) were discarded because they did not generate PCR products; only one was monomorphic. On the contrary, all EST-SSRs gave PCR products, although monomorphism was more frequent (26%). Altogether, the number of alleles per locus was fairly similar in both SSR types, ranging from 2 to 19. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.105 to 1 and from 0.108 to 0.937, respectively. The main difference between the two sets was the percentage of annotated loci, being higher in EST-SSRs, as expected. Within the EST-SSRs, 46% of them showed flanking regions that significantly matched with EST sequences from other three flatfish species; however, the microsatellite itself was present only on half of these cases. These two new SSR sets constitute a suitable tool for fingerprinting, gene flow, genetic diversity, genome mapping studies and molecular-assisted breeding in this species. PMID:22734446

Molina-Luzón, M J; López, J R; Navajas-Pérez, R; Robles, F; Ruiz-Rejón, C; De La Herrán, R

2012-09-01

176

Introduction of large DNA inserts into the barley pathogenic fungus, Ustilago hordei , via recombined binary BAC vectors and Agrobacterium -mediated transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation of organisms with large genome fragments containing complete genes, with regulatory elements or clusters\\u000a of genes, can contribute to the functional analysis of such genes. However, large inserts, such as those found on bacterial\\u000a artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, are often not easy to transfer. We exploited an existing technique to convert BAC clones,\\u000a containing genomic DNA fragments from

Shawkat Ali; Guus Bakkeren

2011-01-01

177

BacDive--the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase  

PubMed Central

BacDive—the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (http://bacdive.dsmz.de) merges detailed strain-linked information on the different aspects of bacterial and archaeal biodiversity. Currently (release 9/2013), BacDive contains entries for 23 458 strains and provides information on their taxonomy, morphology, physiology, sampling and concomitant environmental conditions as well as molecular biology. Where available, links to access the respective biological resources are given. The majority of the BacDive data is manually annotated and curated. The BacDive portal offers an easy-to-use simple search and in addition powerful advanced search functionalities allowing to combine more than 30 search fields for text and numerical data. The user can compile individual sets of strains to a download selection that can easily be imported into nearly all spreadsheet applications. PMID:24214959

Sohngen, Carola; Bunk, Boyke; Podstawka, Adam; Gleim, Dorothea; Overmann, Jorg

2014-01-01

178

Construction and characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome library containing seven haploid human genome equivalents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to constructing a library of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing very large human DNA fragments, the authors performed a series of preliminary experiments aimed at developing a suitable protocol. They found an inverse relationship between YAC insert size and transformation efficiency. Evidence of occasional rearrangement within YAC inserts was found resulting in clonally stable internal deletions or clonally unstable

H. M. Albertsen; H. Abderrahim; H. M. Cann; J. Dausset; D. Le Paslier; D. Cohen

1990-01-01

179

Identifying Distal cis-acting Gene-Regulatory Sequences by Expressing BACs Functionalized with loxP-Tn10 Transposons in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) are large pieces of DNA from the chromosomes of organisms propagated faithfully in bacteria as large extra-chromosomal plasmids. Expression of genes contained in BACs can be monitored after functionalizing the BAC DNA with reporter genes and other sequences that allow stable maintenance and propagation of the DNA in the new host organism. The DNA in BACs can be altered within its bacterial host in several ways. Here we discuss one such approach, using Tn10 mini-transposons, to introduce exogenous sequences into BACs for a variety of purposes. The largely random insertions of Tn10 transposons carrying lox sites have been used to position mammalian cell-selectable antibiotic resistance genes, enhancer-traps and inverted repeat ends of the vertebrate transposon Tol2 precisely at the ends of the genomic DNA insert in BACs. These modified BACs are suitable for expression in zebrafish or mouse, and have been used to functionally identify important long-range gene regulatory sequences in both species. Enhancer-trapping using BACs should prove uniquely useful in analyzing multiple discontinuous DNA domains that act in concert to regulate expression of a gene, and is not limited by genome accessibility issues of traditional enhancer-trapping methods. PMID:24772295

Chatterjee, Pradeep K.; Shakes, Leighcraft A.; Wolf, Hope M.; Mujalled, Mohammad A.; Zhou, Constance; Hatcher, Charles; Norford, Derek C.

2014-01-01

180

Final report. Human artificial episomal chromosome (HAEC) for building large genomic libraries  

SciTech Connect

Collections of human DNA fragments are maintained for research purposes as clones in bacterial host cells. However for unknown reasons, some regions of the human genome appear to be unclonable or unstable in bacteria. Their team has developed a system using episomes (extrachromosomal, autonomously replication DNA) that maintains large DNA fragments in human cells. This human artificial episomal chromosomal (HAEC) system may prove useful for coverage of these especially difficult regions. In the broader biomedical community, the HAEC system also shows promise for use in functional genomics and gene therapy. Recent improvements to the HAEC system and its application to mapping, sequencing, and functionally studying human and mouse DNA are summarized. Mapping and sequencing the human genome and model organisms are only the first steps in determining the function of various genetic units critical for gene regulation, DNA replication, chromatin packaging, chromosomal stability, and chromatid segregation. Such studies will require the ability to transfer and manipulate entire functional units into mammalian cells.

Jean-Michael H. Vos

1999-12-09

181

Exploiting Chemical Libraries, Structure, and Genomics in the Search for Kinase Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective protein kinase inhibitors were developed on the basis of the unexpected binding mode of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines to the adenosine triphosphate-binding site of the human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). By iterating chemical library synthesis and biological screening, potent inhibitors of the human CDK2-cyclin A kinase complex and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc28p were identified. The structural basis for the binding affinity

David J. Lockhart; Sung-Hou Kim; Laurent Meijer; Sophie LeClerc; Georjana Barnes; David O. Morgan; F. Hernan Espinoza; Soojin Kwon; Andy-Mark W. H. Thunnissen; Lisa Wodicka; Nathanael S. Gray; Peter G. Schultz; Thea C. Norman

1998-01-01

182

Screening of Metagenomic and Genomic Libraries Reveals Three Classes of Bacterial Enzymes That Overcome the Toxicity of Acrylate  

PubMed Central

Acrylate is produced in significant quantities through the microbial cleavage of the highly abundant marine osmoprotectant dimethylsulfoniopropionate, an important process in the marine sulfur cycle. Acrylate can inhibit bacterial growth, likely through its conversion to the highly toxic molecule acrylyl-CoA. Previous work identified an acrylyl-CoA reductase, encoded by the gene acuI, as being important for conferring on bacteria the ability to grow in the presence of acrylate. However, some bacteria lack acuI, and, conversely, many bacteria that may not encounter acrylate in their regular environments do contain this gene. We therefore sought to identify new genes that might confer tolerance to acrylate. To do this, we used functional screening of metagenomic and genomic libraries to identify novel genes that corrected an E. coli mutant that was defective in acuI, and was therefore hyper-sensitive to acrylate. The metagenomic libraries yielded two types of genes that overcame this toxicity. The majority encoded enzymes resembling AcuI, but with significant sequence divergence among each other and previously ratified AcuI enzymes. One other metagenomic gene, arkA, had very close relatives in Bacillus and related bacteria, and is predicted to encode an enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, in the same family as FabK, which catalyses the final step in fatty-acid biosynthesis in some pathogenic Firmicute bacteria. A genomic library of Novosphingobium, a metabolically versatile alphaproteobacterium that lacks both acuI and arkA, yielded vutD and vutE, two genes that, together, conferred acrylate resistance. These encode sequential steps in the oxidative catabolism of valine in a pathway in which, significantly, methacrylyl-CoA is a toxic intermediate. These findings expand the range of bacteria for which the acuI gene encodes a functional acrylyl-CoA reductase, and also identify novel enzymes that can similarly function in conferring acrylate resistance, likely, again, through the removal of the toxic product acrylyl-CoA. PMID:24848004

Curson, Andrew R. J.; Burns, Oliver J.; Voget, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf; Todd, Jonathan D.; McInnis, Kathryn; Wexler, Margaret; Johnston, Andrew W. B.

2014-01-01

183

From Human Monocytes to Genome-Wide Binding Sites - A Protocol for Small Amounts of Blood: Monocyte Isolation/ChIP-Protocol/Library Amplification/Genome Wide Computational Data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with a genome-wide analysis via high-throughput sequencing is the state of the art method to gain genome-wide representation of histone modification or transcription factor binding profiles. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in the context of human experimental samples is limited, especially in the case of blood cells. The typically extremely low yields of precipitated DNA are usually not compatible with library amplification for next generation sequencing. We developed a highly reproducible protocol to present a guideline from the first step of isolating monocytes from a blood sample to analyse the distribution of histone modifications in a genome-wide manner. Conclusion: The protocol describes the whole work flow from isolating monocytes from human blood samples followed by a high-sensitivity and small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with guidance for generating libraries compatible with next generation sequencing from small amounts of immunoprecipitated DNA. PMID:24732314

Weiterer, Sebastian; Uhle, Florian; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Weigand, Markus A.; Bartkuhn, Marek

2014-01-01

184

From human monocytes to genome-wide binding sites--a protocol for small amounts of blood: monocyte isolation/ChIP-protocol/library amplification/genome wide computational data analysis.  

PubMed

Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with a genome-wide analysis via high-throughput sequencing is the state of the art method to gain genome-wide representation of histone modification or transcription factor binding profiles. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in the context of human experimental samples is limited, especially in the case of blood cells. The typically extremely low yields of precipitated DNA are usually not compatible with library amplification for next generation sequencing. We developed a highly reproducible protocol to present a guideline from the first step of isolating monocytes from a blood sample to analyse the distribution of histone modifications in a genome-wide manner. Conclusion: The protocol describes the whole work flow from isolating monocytes from human blood samples followed by a high-sensitivity and small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with guidance for generating libraries compatible with next generation sequencing from small amounts of immunoprecipitated DNA. PMID:24732314

Weiterer, Sebastian; Uhle, Florian; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Weigand, Markus A; Bartkuhn, Marek

2014-01-01

185

Pooled genomic indexing (PGI): analysis and design of experiments  

E-print Network

rat BAC clones and 207 mouse BAC clones are mapped onto homologous human sequence. D´epartement d College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular Milosavljevic July 29, 2004 Abstract Pooled Genomic Indexing (PGI) is a novel method for physical mapping

Csürös, Miklós

186

Genomic structure, chromosomal localization and expression profile of a porcine long non-coding RNA isolated from long SAGE libraries.  

PubMed

Long non-coding RNA (long ncRNA) is a novel class of ncRNA that may be involved in critical cellular processes. A considerable number of mammalian long ncRNAs have now been isolated but only a small number of these nucleic acids have been functionally well characterized. In this study, to determine the structure, regulation and function of long ncRNA in pigs, TncRNA was isolated from this mammal and its potential function during pig foetus development was identified. We anticipated that this would provide new insights into functional genomic studies in the pig. Using LongSAGE libraries generated from Chinese indigenous Tongcheng and Landrace pigs at three prenatal stages, a novel porcine long ncRNA was identified, TncRNA, which was found to be differentially expressed during myogenesis. The full-length cDNA for this gene is 3409 bp, and it harbours a typical polyadenylation signal sequence located 18 bp upstream from the 3' poly (A) tail. Genomic sequence analysis showed that pig TncRNA is alternatively spliced and several transcripts were detected. Using the INRA-University of Minnesota porcine radiation hybrid panel, TncRNA was assigned to SSC2 and found to be closely linked to the microsatellite marker SW256. Porcine TncRNA was found to be expressed in all tissues examined but in variable amounts. Comparisons between the expression profiles of TncRNA at different development stages in Tongcheng and Landrace pigs revealed up-regulation of this molecule in prenatal skeletal muscle, and differential expression in 90-day-old foetal skeletal muscle between these two pig breeds. This is the first report to describe a long ncRNA in pig. Moreover, the distinct expression pattern and structure of porcine TncRNA suggest that it performs complex and critical functions during foetal development. PMID:19397524

Ren, H; Li, Y; Tang, Z; Yang, S; Mu, Y; Cui, W; Ao, H; Du, L; Wang, L; Li, K

2009-08-01

187

Comparative study of BacT\\/alert FAN bottles and standard BacT\\/alert bottles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 5,230 paired blood cultures were studied. One sample was divided between aerobic and anaerobic BacT\\/Alert standard bottles, and the other divided between aerobic and anaerobic BacT\\/Alert FAN bottles. There were 44 occasions where Staphylococcus aureus was recovered only from the FAN bottles, compared to six where only the standard bottles were positive (p <0.001), and 21 occasions

Alan Patrick Gibb; Barry Hill; Bruce Chorel

1998-01-01

188

Characterization of rubber tree microRNA in phytohormone response using large genomic DNA libraries, promoter sequence and gene expression analysis.  

PubMed

The para rubber tree is the most widely cultivated tree species for producing natural rubber (NR) latex. Unfortunately, rubber tree characteristics such as a long life cycle, heterozygous genetic backgrounds, and poorly understood genetic profiles are the obstacles to breeding new rubber tree varieties, such as those with improved NR yields. Recent evidence has revealed the potential importance of controlling microRNA (miRNA) decay in some aspects of NR regulation. To gain a better understanding of miRNAs and their relationship with rubber tree gene regulation networks, large genomic DNA insert-containing libraries were generated to complement the incomplete draft genome sequence and applied as a new powerful tool to predict a function of interested genes. Bacterial artificial chromosome and fosmid libraries, containing a total of 120,576 clones with an average insert size of 43.35 kb, provided approximately 2.42 haploid genome equivalents of coverage based on the estimated 2.15 gb rubber tree genome. Based on these library sequences, the precursors of 1 member of rubber tree-specific miRNAs and 12 members of conserved miRNAs were successfully identified. A panel of miRNAs was characterized for phytohormone response by precisely identifying phytohormone-responsive motifs in their promoter sequences. Furthermore, the quantitative real-time PCR on ethylene stimulation of rubber trees was performed to demonstrate that the miR2118, miR159, miR164 and miR166 are responsive to ethylene, thus confirmed the prediction by genomic DNA analysis. The cis-regulatory elements identified in the promoter regions of these miRNA genes help augment our understanding of miRNA gene regulation and provide a foundation for further investigation of the regulation of rubber tree miRNAs. PMID:24859131

Kanjanawattanawong, Supanath; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Poopear, Supannee; Somyong, Suthasinee; Narangajavana, Jarunya

2014-10-01

189

The structure of Ba@C74.  

PubMed

The title compound has been produced by using the radio frequency (RF) method. Barium and carbon were evaporated simultaneously under dynamic flow of helium at different temperatures. About 0.5 mg of pure Ba@C(74) was isolated via a three-step high-pressure liquid chromatography separation. For the first time, the structure of a monometallofullerene has been analyzed by means of single-crystal synchrotron diffraction on microcrystals of Ba@C(74).Co(OEP).2C(6)H(6) (Co(II)(OEP): cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin) at 100 K. The monometallofullerene exhibits a high degree of localization of the endohedral metal ion, with just two split positions for Ba and two orientations of the C(74)-cage. The barium atom is localized inside the C(74)-cage and displaced off-center, toward the Co(OEP) molecule (d approximately 127 pm). The shortest Ba-C distance is 265 pm. The Co(OEP) molecules form dimers in which the coordination of the cobalt is (4 + 1). Due to the all-syn conformation of the ethyl groups, each Co(OEP) molecule of the dimer coordinates one C(74)-fullerene. The units (Ba@C(74))[Co(OEP)](2)(Ba@C(74)) are arranged in a distorted primitive hexagonal packing. The free space between these complex units is filled by benzene molecules of crystallization. The Ba L(III) XANES spectrum of a thin film sample of Ba@C(74) exhibits a pronounced double maximum structure at about E = 5275 eV. The comparison of the shape resonances of the experimental data with simulated XANES spectra, based on different exo- and endohedral structure models, confirm that the Ba atom is located inside the C(74)-cage (D(3)(h)()) in an off-center position. The Ba atom is shifted by about 130-150 pm from the geometric center of the C(74)-cage. This is in good agreement with quantum chemical results. Thus, despite the disorder still present, a consistent and conclusive structure model for the title compound has been derived by employing a combination of X-ray diffraction, XANES spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations. PMID:15521762

Reich, Andreas; Panthöfer, Martin; Modrow, Hartwig; Wedig, Ulrich; Jansen, Martin

2004-11-10

190

Genomic analysis of wild tomato introgressions determining metabolism- and yield-associated traits.  

PubMed

With the aim of determining the genetic basis of metabolic regulation in tomato fruit, we constructed a detailed physical map of genomic regions spanning previously described metabolic quantitative trait loci of a Solanum pennellii introgression line population. Two genomic libraries from S. pennellii were screened with 104 colocated markers from five selected genomic regions, and a total of 614 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)/cosmids were identified as seed clones. Integration of sequence data with the genetic and physical maps of Solanum lycopersicum facilitated the anchoring of 374 of these BAC/cosmid clones. The analysis of this information resulted in a genome-wide map of a nondomesticated plant species and covers 10% of the physical distance of the selected regions corresponding to approximately 1% of the wild tomato genome. Comparative analyses revealed that S. pennellii and domesticated tomato genomes can be considered as largely colinear. A total of 1,238,705 bp from both BAC/cosmid ends and nine large insert clones were sequenced, annotated, and functionally categorized. The sequence data allowed the evaluation of the level of polymorphism between the wild and cultivated tomato species. An exhaustive microsynteny analysis allowed us to estimate the divergence date of S. pennellii and S. lycopersicum at 2.7 million years ago. The combined results serve as a reference for comparative studies both at the macrosyntenic and microsyntenic levels. They also provide a valuable tool for fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci in tomato. Furthermore, they will contribute to a deeper understanding of the regulatory factors underpinning metabolism and hence defining crop chemical composition. PMID:20118271

Kamenetzky, Laura; Asís, Ramón; Bassi, Sebastián; de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Fernie, Alisdair R; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Rossi, Magdalena; Carrari, Fernando

2010-04-01

191

BAC-Pool Sequencing and Analysis of Large Segments of A12 and D12 Homoeologous Chromosomes in Upland Cotton  

PubMed Central

Although new and emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have reduced sequencing costs significantly, much work remains to implement them for de novo sequencing of complex and highly repetitive genomes such as the tetraploid genome of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Herein we report the results from implementing a novel, hybrid Sanger/454-based BAC-pool sequencing strategy using minimum tiling path (MTP) BACs from Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465, two large genomic segments in A12 and D12 homoeologous chromosomes (Ctg). To enable generation of longer contig sequences in assembly, we implemented a hybrid assembly method to process ~35x data from 454 technology and 2.8-3x data from Sanger method. Hybrid assemblies offered higher sequence coverage and better sequence assemblies. Homology studies revealed the presence of retrotransposon regions like Copia and Gypsy elements in these contigs and also helped in identifying new genomic SSRs. Unigenes were anchored to the sequences in Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465 to support the physical map. Gene density, gene structure and protein sequence information derived from protein prediction programs were used to obtain the functional annotation of these genes. Comparative analysis of both contigs with Arabidopsis genome exhibited synteny and microcollinearity with a conserved gene order in both genomes. This study provides insight about use of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing approach for sequencing complex polyploid genomes with limited constraints in generating better sequence assemblies to build reference scaffold sequences. Combining the utilities of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing with current longer and short read NGS technologies in multiplexed format would provide a new direction to cost-effectively and precisely sequence complex plant genomes. PMID:24116150

Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kantety, Ramesh V.; Yu, John Z.; Xu, Zhanyou; Kohel, Russell J.; Percy, Richard G.; Macmil, Simone; Wiley, Graham B.; Roe, Bruce A.; Sharma, Govind C.

2013-01-01

192

Reevaluation of the Coding Potential and Proteomic Analysis of the BAC Derived Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Strain 68-1  

SciTech Connect

Cytomegaloviruses are highly host restricted resulting in co-speciation with their hosts. As a natural pathogen of rhesus macaques (RM), Rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) has therefore emerged as a highly relevant experimental model for pathogenesis and vaccine development due to its close evolutionary relationship to human CMV (HCMV). To date, most in vivo experiments performed with RhCMV employed strain 68-1 cloned as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). However, the complete genome sequence of the 68-1 BAC has not been determined. Furthermore, the gene content of the RhCMV genome is unknown and previous open reading frame (ORF) predictions relied solely on uninterrupted ORFs with an arbitrary cutoff of 300bp. To obtain a more precise picture of the actual proteins encoded by the most commonly used molecular clone of RhCMV we re-evaluated the RhCMV 68-1 BAC-genome by whole genome shotgun sequencing and determined the protein content of the resulting RhCMV virions by proteomics. By additionally comparing the RhCMV genome to that of several closely related Old World Monkey (OWM) CMVs we were able to filter out many unlikely ORFs and obtain a simplified map of the RhCMV genome. This comparative genomics analysis eliminated many genes previously characterized as RhCMV-specific while consolidating a high conservation of ORFs among OWM-CMVs and between RhCMV and HCMV. Moreover, virion proteomics independently validated the revised ORF predictions since only proteins encoded by predicted ORFs could be detected. Taken together these data suggest a much higher conservation of genome and virion structure between CMVs of humans, apes and OWMs than previously assumed. Remarkably, BAC-derived RhCMV is able to establish and maintain persistent infection despite the lack of multiple genes homologous to HCMV genes involved in tissue tropism.

Malouli, Daniel; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Camp, David G.; Chang, W. L.; Barry, Peter A.; Smith, Richard D.; Fruh, Klaus

2012-09-01

193

Observing copepods through a genomic lens  

PubMed Central

Background Copepods outnumber every other multicellular animal group. They are critical components of the world's freshwater and marine ecosystems, sensitive indicators of local and global climate change, key ecosystem service providers, parasites and predators of economically important aquatic animals and potential vectors of waterborne disease. Copepods sustain the world fisheries that nourish and support human populations. Although genomic tools have transformed many areas of biological and biomedical research, their power to elucidate aspects of the biology, behavior and ecology of copepods has only recently begun to be exploited. Discussion The extraordinary biological and ecological diversity of the subclass Copepoda provides both unique advantages for addressing key problems in aquatic systems and formidable challenges for developing a focused genomics strategy. This article provides an overview of genomic studies of copepods and discusses strategies for using genomics tools to address key questions at levels extending from individuals to ecosystems. Genomics can, for instance, help to decipher patterns of genome evolution such as those that occur during transitions from free living to symbiotic and parasitic lifestyles and can assist in the identification of genetic mechanisms and accompanying physiological changes associated with adaptation to new or physiologically challenging environments. The adaptive significance of the diversity in genome size and unique mechanisms of genome reorganization during development could similarly be explored. Genome-wide and EST studies of parasitic copepods of salmon and large EST studies of selected free-living copepods have demonstrated the potential utility of modern genomics approaches for the study of copepods and have generated resources such as EST libraries, shotgun genome sequences, BAC libraries, genome maps and inbred lines that will be invaluable in assisting further efforts to provide genomics tools for copepods. Summary Genomics research on copepods is needed to extend our exploration and characterization of their fundamental biological traits, so that we can better understand how copepods function and interact in diverse environments. Availability of large scale genomics resources will also open doors to a wide range of systems biology type studies that view the organism as the fundamental system in which to address key questions in ecology and evolution. PMID:21933388

2011-01-01

194

A new look towards BAC-based array CGH through a comprehensive comparison with oligo-based array CGH  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, two main technologies are used for screening of DNA copy number; the BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) and the recently developed oligonucleotide-based CGH (Chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization) arrays which are capable of detecting small genomic regions with amplification or deletion. The correlation as well as the discriminative power of these platforms has never been compared statistically on a significant set of human patient samples. Results In this paper, we present an exhaustive comparison between the two CGH platforms, undertaken at two independent sites using the same batch of DNA from 19 advanced prostate cancers. The comparison was performed directly on the raw data and a significant correlation was found between the two platforms. The correlation was greatly improved when the data were averaged over large chromosomic regions using a segmentation algorithm. In addition, this analysis has enabled the development of a statistical model to discriminate BAC outliers that might indicate microevents. These microevents were validated by the oligo platform results. Conclusion This article presents a genome-wide statistical validation of the oligo array platform on a large set of patient samples and demonstrates statistically its superiority over the BAC platform for the Identification of chromosomic events. Taking advantage of a large set of human samples treated by the two technologies, a statistical model has been developed to show that the BAC platform could also detect microevents. PMID:17394638

Wicker, Nicolas; Carles, Annaick; Mills, Ian G; Wolf, Maija; Veerakumarasivam, Abhi; Edgren, Henrik; Boileau, Fabrice; Wasylyk, Bohdan; Schalken, Jack A; Neal, David E; Kallioniemi, Olli; Poch, Olivier

2007-01-01

195

Increased Body Weight of the BAC HD Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease Accounts for Some but Not All of the Observed HD-like Motor Deficits  

PubMed Central

The genome of the Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse model of Huntington’s Disease (BAC HD) contains the 170 kb human HTT locus modified by the addition of exon 1 with 97 mixed CAA-CAG repeats. BAC HD mice present robust behavioral deficits in both the open field and the accelerating rotarod tests, two standard behavioral assays of motor function. BAC HD mice, however, also typically present significantly increased body weights relative to wildtype littermate controls (WT) which potentially confounds the interpretation of any motor deficits associated directly with the effects of mutant huntingtin. In order to evaluate this possible confound of body weight, we directly compared the performance of BAC HD and WT female mice under food restricted versus free feeding conditions in both the open field and rotarod tasks to test the hypothesis that some of the motor deficits observed in this HTT-transgenic mouse line results solely from increased body weight. Our results suggest that the rotarod deficit exhibited by BAC HD mice is modulated by both body weight and non-body weight factors resulting from overexpression of full length mutant Htt. When body weights of WT and BAC HD transgenic mice were normalized using restricted feeding, the deficits exhibited by BAC HD mice on the rotarod task were less marked, but were still significant. Since the rotarod deficit between WT and BAC HD mice is attenuated when body weight is normalized by food restriction, utilization of this task in BAC HD mice during pre-clinical evaluation must be powered accordingly and results carefully considered as therapeutic benefit can result from decreased overall body weight and or motoric improvement that may not be related to body mass. Furthermore, after controlling for body weight differences, the hypoactive phenotype displayed by ad libitum fed BAC HD mice in the open field assay was not observed in the BAC HD mice undergoing food restriction. These findings suggest that assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity, as measured in the open field test, may not be the appropriate behavioral endpoint to evaluate the BAC HD mouse during preclinical evaluation since it appears that the apparent hypoactive phenotype in this model is driven primarily by body weight differences. PMID:24042107

Kudwa, Andrea E.; Menalled, Liliana B.; Oakeshott, Stephen; Murphy, Carol; Mushlin, Richard; Fitzpatrick, John; Miller, Sam F.; McConnell, Kristi; Port, Russell; Torello, Justin; Howland, David; Ramboz, Sylvie; Brunner, Dani

2013-01-01

196

Genetic Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first three articles of this Genetic Library are from a special issue of the Journal of Health Psychology , which is published in the UK. This particular issue is devoted to studies using interpretative phenomenological analysis(IPA) to examine several psychological and social issues in the “new genetics” (the clinical advances of the human genome project.) Its intended audience is

Martha D. MacMillin

2003-01-01

197

Illuminating Choices for Library Prep: A Comparison of Library Preparation Methods for Whole Genome Sequencing of Cryptococcus neoformans Using Illumina HiSeq  

PubMed Central

The industry of next-generation sequencing is constantly evolving, with novel library preparation methods and new sequencing machines being released by the major sequencing technology companies annually. The Illumina TruSeq v2 library preparation method was the most widely used kit and the market leader; however, it has now been discontinued, and in 2013 was replaced by the TruSeq Nano and TruSeq PCR-free methods, leaving a gap in knowledge regarding which is the most appropriate library preparation method to use. Here, we used isolates from the pathogenic fungi Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and sequenced them using the existing TruSeq DNA v2 kit (Illumina), along with two new kits: the TruSeq Nano DNA kit (Illumina) and the NEBNext Ultra DNA kit (New England Biolabs) to provide a comparison. Compared to the original TruSeq DNA v2 kit, both newer kits gave equivalent or better sequencing data, with increased coverage. When comparing the two newer kits, we found little difference in cost and workflow, with the NEBNext Ultra both slightly cheaper and faster than the TruSeq Nano. However, the quality of data generated using the TruSeq Nano DNA kit was superior due to higher coverage at regions of low GC content, and more SNPs identified. Researchers should therefore evaluate their resources and the type of application (and hence data quality) being considered when ultimately deciding on which library prep method to use. PMID:25409295

Rhodes, Johanna; Beale, Mathew A.; Fisher, Matthew C.

2014-01-01

198

Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genome project: analysis of sequenced clones from egg, instar, and adult (viruliferous and non-viruliferous) cDNA libraries  

PubMed Central

Background The past three decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in interest in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, owing to its nature as a taxonomically cryptic species, the damage it causes to a large number of herbaceous plants because of its specialized feeding in the phloem, and to its ability to serve as a vector of plant viruses. Among the most important plant viruses to be transmitted by B. tabaci are those in the genus Begomovirus (family, Geminiviridae). Surprisingly, little is known about the genome of this whitefly. The haploid genome size for male B. tabaci has been estimated to be approximately one billion bp by flow cytometry analysis, about five times the size of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The genes involved in whitefly development, in host range plasticity, and in begomovirus vector specificity and competency, are unknown. Results To address this general shortage of genomic sequence information, we have constructed three cDNA libraries from non-viruliferous whiteflies (eggs, immature instars, and adults) and two from adult insects that fed on tomato plants infected by two geminiviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV). In total, the sequence of 18,976 clones was determined. After quality control, and removal of 5,542 clones of mitochondrial origin 9,110 sequences remained which included 3,843 singletons and 1,017 contigs. Comparisons with public databases indicated that the libraries contained genes involved in cellular and developmental processes. In addition, approximately 1,000 bases aligned with the genome of the B. tabaci endosymbiotic bacterium Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, originating primarily from the egg and instar libraries. Apart from the mitochondrial sequences, the longest and most abundant sequence encodes vitellogenin, which originated from whitefly adult libraries, indicating that much of the gene expression in this insect is directed toward the production of eggs. Conclusion This is the first functional genomics project involving a hemipteran (Homopteran) insect from the subtropics/tropics. The B. tabaci sequence database now provides an important tool to initiate identification of whitefly genes involved in development, behaviour, and B. tabaci-mediated begomovirus transmission. PMID:16608516

Leshkowitz, Dena; Gazit, Shirley; Reuveni, Eli; Ghanim, Murad; Czosnek, Henryk; McKenzie, Cindy; Shatters, Robert L; Brown, Judith K

2006-01-01

199

New resources inform study of genome size, content, and organization in nonavian reptiles.  

PubMed

Genomic resources for studies of nonavian reptiles have recently improved and will reach a new level of access once the genomes of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) and the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) have been published. Eleven speakers gathered for a symposium on reptilian genomics and evolutionary genetics at the 2008 meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology in San Antonio, Texas. Presentations described results of reptilian genetic studies concerning molecular evolution, chromosomal evolution, genomic architecture, population dynamics, endocrinology and endocrine disruption, and the evolution of developmental mechanisms. The presented studies took advantage of the recent generation of genetic and genomic tools and resources. Novel findings demonstrated the positive impact made by the improved availability of resources like genome annotations and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The symposium was timely and important because it provided a vehicle for the dissemination of novel findings that advance the field. Moreover, this meeting fostered the synergistic interaction of the participants as a group, which is anticipated to encourage the funding and creation of further resources such as additional BAC libraries and genomic projects. Novel data have already been collected and studies like those presented in this symposium promise to shape and improve our understanding of overall amniote evolution. Additional reptilian taxa such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) should be the foci of future genomic projects. We hope that the following articles in this volume will help promote these efforts by describing the conclusions and the potential that the improvement of genomic resources for nonavian reptiles can continue having in this important area of integrative and comparative biology. PMID:21669805

Janes, Daniel E; Organ, Christopher; Valenzuela, Nicole

2008-10-01

200

Genomic Analysis of Wild Tomato Introgressions Determining Metabolism- and Yield-Associated Traits1[C][W  

PubMed Central

With the aim of determining the genetic basis of metabolic regulation in tomato fruit, we constructed a detailed physical map of genomic regions spanning previously described metabolic quantitative trait loci of a Solanum pennellii introgression line population. Two genomic libraries from S. pennellii were screened with 104 colocated markers from five selected genomic regions, and a total of 614 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)/cosmids were identified as seed clones. Integration of sequence data with the genetic and physical maps of Solanum lycopersicum facilitated the anchoring of 374 of these BAC/cosmid clones. The analysis of this information resulted in a genome-wide map of a nondomesticated plant species and covers 10% of the physical distance of the selected regions corresponding to approximately 1% of the wild tomato genome. Comparative analyses revealed that S. pennellii and domesticated tomato genomes can be considered as largely colinear. A total of 1,238,705 bp from both BAC/cosmid ends and nine large insert clones were sequenced, annotated, and functionally categorized. The sequence data allowed the evaluation of the level of polymorphism between the wild and cultivated tomato species. An exhaustive microsynteny analysis allowed us to estimate the divergence date of S. pennellii and S. lycopersicum at 2.7 million years ago. The combined results serve as a reference for comparative studies both at the macrosyntenic and microsyntenic levels. They also provide a valuable tool for fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci in tomato. Furthermore, they will contribute to a deeper understanding of the regulatory factors underpinning metabolism and hence defining crop chemical composition. PMID:20118271

Kamenetzky, Laura; Asis, Ramon; Bassi, Sebastian; de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermudez, Luisa; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Rossi, Magdalena; Carrari, Fernando

2010-01-01

201

Generation of a Complete Single-Gene Knockout Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of Cowpox Virus and Identification of Its Essential Genes  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus (CPXV) belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus in the Poxviridae family. It infects a broad range of vertebrates and can cause zoonotic infections. CPXV has the largest genome among the orthopoxviruses and is therefore considered to have the most complete set of genes of all members of the genus. Since CPXV has also become a model for studying poxvirus genetics and pathogenesis, we created and characterized a complete set of single gene knockout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of the CPXV strain Brighton Red. These mutants allow a systematic assessment of the contribution of single CPXV genes to the outcome of virus infection and replication, as well as to the virus host range. A full-length BAC clone of CPXV strain Brighton Red (pBRF) harboring the gene expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of a viral late promoter was modified by introducing the mrfp1 gene encoding the monomeric red fluorescent protein driven by a synthetic early vaccinia virus promoter. Based on the modified BAC (pBRFseR), a library of targeted knockout mutants for each single viral open reading frame (ORF) was generated. Reconstitution of infectious virus was successful for 109 of the 183 mutant BAC clones, indicating that the deleted genes are not essential for virus replication. In contrast, 74 ORFs were identified as essential because no virus progeny was obtained upon transfection of the mutant BAC clones and in the presence of a helper virus. More than 70% of all late CPXV genes belonged to this latter group of essential genes. PMID:24155400

Xu, Zhiyong; Zikos, Dimitrios; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

2014-01-01

202

Microarray-based genomic selection for high-  

E-print Network

a general method, microarray-based genomic selection (MGS), capable of selecting and enriching targeted artificial chromosome (BAC)-based genomic selection. We demonstrate that large human genomic regions- investigator laboratories. Technological innovation in DNA sequencing offers the promise of a more

Cai, Long

203

Library Regulations Library Regulations  

E-print Network

Library Regulations 2012-13 Library Regulations UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM REGULATIONS LIBRARY REGULATIONS Preamble: The Library Regulations apply to all users of library facilities managed on behalf of the University by Library Services, and thus there are sections that apply also to non- members of the University

Birmingham, University of

204

LIBRARY SERVICES LIBRARY HOURS  

E-print Network

LIBRARY SERVICES LIBRARY HOURS Up-to-date library hours are posted at http Wesleyan ID that is linked to the library circulation database is needed to charge out library materials to visit the Circulation Office in Olin Library 115 to set up their borrowing privileges. If you have

Royer, Dana

205

Potential Risks of Providing Drinking Drivers with BAC Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to discuss the benefits and risks of providing drinkers with tools that allow them to estimate their blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and to examine the field usability of one commercially available tool. Drinking and driving laws are specified in terms of the driver's BAC, and there is concern that the absence of a method

MARK B. JOHNSON; ROBERT B. VOAS

2004-01-01

206

Identification of variable regions in the genomes of tubercle bacilli using bacterial artificial chromosome arrays.  

PubMed

Whole-genome comparisons of the tubercle bacilli were undertaken using ordered bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Pasteur, together with the complete genome sequence of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Restriction-digested BAC arrays of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were used in hybridization experiments with radiolabelled M. bovis BCG genomic DNA to reveal the presence of 10 deletions (RD1-RD10) relative to M. tuberculosis. Seven of these regions, RD4-RD10, were also found to be deleted from M. bovis, with the three M. bovis BCG-specific deletions being identical to the RD1-RD3 loci described previously. The distribution of RD4-RD10 in Mycobacterium africanum resembles that of M. tuberculosis more closely than that of M. bovis, whereas an intermediate arrangement was found in Mycobacterium microti, suggesting that the corresponding genes may affect host range and virulence of the various tubercle bacilli. Among the known products encoded by these loci are a copy of the proposed mycobacterial invasin Mce, three phospholipases, several PE, PPE and ESAT-6 proteins, epoxide hydrolase and an insertion sequence. In a complementary approach, direct comparison of BACs uncovered a third class of deletions consisting of two M. tuberculosis H37Rv loci, RvD1 and RvD2, deleted from the genome relative to M. bovis BCG and M. bovis. These deletions affect a further seven genes, including a fourth phospholipase, plcD. In summary, the insertions and deletions described here have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of the tubercle complex. PMID:10320585

Gordon, S V; Brosch, R; Billault, A; Garnier, T; Eiglmeier, K; Cole, S T

1999-05-01

207

Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

Kao, Fa-Ten

1992-08-01

208

Generation of an inducible and optimized piggyBac transposon system†  

PubMed Central

Genomic studies in the mouse have been slowed by the lack of transposon-mediated mutagenesis. However, since the resurrection of Sleeping Beauty (SB), the possibility of performing forward genetics in mice has been reinforced. Recently, piggyBac (PB), a functional transposon from insects, was also described to work in mammals. As the activity of PB is higher than that of SB11 and SB12, two hyperactive SB transposases, we have characterized and improved the PB system in mouse ES cells. We have generated a mouse codon-optimized version of the PB transposase coding sequence (CDS) which provides transposition levels greater than the original. We have also found that the promoter sequence predicted in the 5?-terminal repeat of the PB transposon is active in the mammalian context. Finally, we have engineered inducible versions of the optimized piggyBac transposase fused with ERT2. One of them, when induced, provides higher levels of transposition than the native piggyBac CDS, whereas in the absence of induction its activity is indistinguishable from background. We expect that these tools, adaptable to perform mouse-germline mutagenesis, will facilitate the identification of genes involved in pathological and physiological processes, such as cancer or ES cell differentiation. PMID:17576687

Cadinanos, Juan; Bradley, Allan

2007-01-01

209

Hyperactive self-inactivating piggyBac for transposase-enhanced pronuclear microinjection transgenesis  

PubMed Central

We have developed a unique method for mouse transgenesis. The transposase-enhanced pronuclear microinjection (PNI) technique described herein uses the hyperactive piggyBac transposase to insert a large transgene into the mouse genome. This procedure increased transgene integration efficiency by fivefold compared with conventional PNI or intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated transgenesis. Our data indicate that the transposase-enhanced PNI technique additionally requires fewer embryos to be microinjected than traditional methods to obtain transgenic animals. This transposase-mediated approach is also very efficient for single-cell embryo cytoplasmic injections, offering an easy-to-implement transgenesis method to the scientific community. PMID:23093669

Marh, Joel; Stoytcheva, Zoia; Urschitz, Johann; Sugawara, Atsushi; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Owens, Jesse B.; Stoytchev, Ilko; Pelczar, Pawel; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Moisyadi, Stefan

2012-01-01

210

From raw materials to validated system: the construction of a genomic library and microarray to interpret systemic perturbations in Northern bobwhite.  

PubMed

The limited availability of genomic tools and data for nonmodel species impedes computational and systems biology approaches in nonmodel organisms. Here we describe the development, functional annotation, and utilization of genomic tools for the avian wildlife species Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) to determine the molecular impacts of exposure to 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), a field contaminant of military concern. Massively parallel pyrosequencing of a normalized multitissue library of Northern bobwhite cDNAs yielded 71,384 unique transcripts that were annotated with gene ontology (GO), pathway information, and protein domain analysis. Comparative genome analyses with model organisms revealed functional homologies in 8,825 unique Northern bobwhite genes that are orthologous to 48% of Gallus gallus protein-coding genes. Pathway analysis and GO enrichment of genes differentially expressed in livers of birds exposed for 60 days (d) to 10 and 60 mg/kg/d 2,6-DNT revealed several impacts validated by RT-qPCR including: prostaglandin pathway-mediated inflammation, increased expression of a heme synthesis pathway in response to anemia, and a shift in energy metabolism toward protein catabolism via inhibition of control points for glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, PCK1 and PPARGC1, respectively. This research effort provides the first comprehensive annotated gene library for Northern bobwhite. Transcript expression analysis provided insights into the metabolic perturbations underlying several observed toxicological phenotypes in a 2,6-DNT exposure case study. Furthermore, the systemic impact of dinitrotoluenes on liver function appears conserved across species as PPAR signaling is similarly affected in fathead minnow liver tissue after exposure to 2,4-DNT. PMID:20406850

Rawat, Arun; Gust, Kurt A; Deng, Youping; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Quinn, Michael J; Johnson, Mark S; Indest, Karl J; Elasri, Mohamed O; Perkins, Edward J

2010-07-01

211

From raw materials to validated system: the construction of a genomic library and microarray to interpret systemic perturbations in Northern bobwhite  

PubMed Central

The limited availability of genomic tools and data for nonmodel species impedes computational and systems biology approaches in nonmodel organisms. Here we describe the development, functional annotation, and utilization of genomic tools for the avian wildlife species Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) to determine the molecular impacts of exposure to 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), a field contaminant of military concern. Massively parallel pyrosequencing of a normalized multitissue library of Northern bobwhite cDNAs yielded 71,384 unique transcripts that were annotated with gene ontology (GO), pathway information, and protein domain analysis. Comparative genome analyses with model organisms revealed functional homologies in 8,825 unique Northern bobwhite genes that are orthologous to 48% of Gallus gallus protein-coding genes. Pathway analysis and GO enrichment of genes differentially expressed in livers of birds exposed for 60 days (d) to 10 and 60 mg/kg/d 2,6-DNT revealed several impacts validated by RT-qPCR including: prostaglandin pathway-mediated inflammation, increased expression of a heme synthesis pathway in response to anemia, and a shift in energy metabolism toward protein catabolism via inhibition of control points for glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, PCK1 and PPARGC1, respectively. This research effort provides the first comprehensive annotated gene library for Northern bobwhite. Transcript expression analysis provided insights into the metabolic perturbations underlying several observed toxicological phenotypes in a 2,6-DNT exposure case study. Furthermore, the systemic impact of dinitrotoluenes on liver function appears conserved across species as PPAR signaling is similarly affected in fathead minnow liver tissue after exposure to 2,4-DNT. PMID:20406850

Rawat, Arun; Deng, Youping; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Quinn, Michael J.; Johnson, Mark S.; Indest, Karl J.; Elasri, Mohamed O.; Perkins, Edward J.

2010-01-01

212

Olefin Isomerization Regiochemistries during Tandem Action of BacA and BacB on Prephenate in Bacilysin Biosynthesis†  

PubMed Central

BacA and BacB, the first two enzymes of the bacilysin pathway, convert prephenate to an exocylic regioisomer of dihydrohydroxyphenylpyruvate (ex-H2HPP) on the way to the epoxycyclohexanone warhead in the dipeptide antibiotic, bacilysin. BacA decarboxylates prephenate without aromatization, converting the 1,4-diene in prephenate to the endocyclic 1,3 diene in ?4?8-dihydrohydroxyphenylpyruvate (en-H2HPP). BacB then performs an allylic isomerization to bring the diene into conjugation with the 2-ketone in the product ?3?5-dihydrohydroxyphenylpyruvate (ex-H2HPP). To prove that BacA acts regiospecifically on one of the two prochiral olefins in prephenate, we generated 1,5,8-[13C]-chorismate from bacterial fermentation of 5-[13C]-glucose and in turn produced 2,4,6-[13C]-prephenate via chorismate mutase. Tandem action of BacA and BacB gave 2,4,8-[13C]-7R-ex-H2HPP, showing that BacA isomerizes only the pro-R double bond in prephenate. Nonenzymatic isomerization of the BacA product into conjugation gives only the ?3 E-geometric isomer of ?3?5-ex-H2HPP. On the other hand, acceleration of the allylic isomerization by BacB gives a mixture of the E- and Z-geometric isomers of the 7R-product, indicating some rerouting of the flux, likely through dienolate geometric isomers. PMID:22483065

Parker, Jared B.; Walsh, Christopher T.

2012-01-01

213

Library System Library System  

E-print Network

Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

Cinabro, David

214

A Genomic-Scale Artificial MicroRNA Library as a Tool to Investigate the Functionally Redundant Gene Space in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Traditional forward genetic screens are limited in the identification of homologous genes with overlapping functions. Here, we report the analyses and assembly of genome-wide protein family definitions that comprise the largest estimate for the potentially redundant gene space in Arabidopsis thaliana. On this basis, a computational design of genome-wide family-specific artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) was performed using high-performance computing resources. The amiRNA designs are searchable online (http://phantomdb.ucsd.edu). A computationally derived library of 22,000 amiRNAs was synthesized in 10 sublibraries of 1505 to 4082 amiRNAs, each targeting defined functional protein classes. For example, 2964 amiRNAs target annotated DNA and RNA binding protein families and 1777 target transporter proteins, and another sublibrary targets proteins of unknown function. To evaluate the potential of an amiRNA-based screen, we tested 122 amiRNAs targeting transcription factor, protein kinase, and protein phosphatase families. Several amiRNA lines showed morphological phenotypes, either comparable to known phenotypes of single and double/triple mutants or caused by overexpression of microRNAs. Moreover, novel morphological and abscisic acid–insensitive seed germination mutants were identified for amiRNAs targeting zinc finger homeodomain transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases, respectively. These resources provide an approach for genome-wide genetic screens of the functionally redundant gene space in Arabidopsis. PMID:23956262

Hauser, Felix; Chen, Wenxiao; Deinlein, Ulrich; Chang, Kenneth; Ossowski, Stephan; Fitz, Joffrey; Hannon, Gregory J.; Schroeder, Julian I.

2013-01-01

215

Flip-Flop HSV-BAC: bacterial artificial chromosome based system for rapid generation of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors using two independent site-specific recombinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors that specifically replicate in and kill tumor cells sparing normal cells are a promising cancer therapy. Traditionally, recombinant HSV vectors have been generated through homologous recombination between the HSV genome and a recombination plasmid, which usually requires laborious screening or selection and can take several months. Recent advances in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)

Toshihiko Kuroda; Robert L Martuza; Tomoki Todo; Samuel D Rabkin

2006-01-01

216

Matita, a new retroelement from peanut: characterization and evolutionary context in the light of the Arachis A-B genome divergence.  

PubMed

Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid with an AB-genome. In order to learn more of the genomic structure of peanut, we characterized and studied the evolution of a retrotransposon originally isolated from a resistance gene analog (RGA)-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone. It is a moderate copy number Ty1-copia retrotransposon from the Bianca lineage and we named it Matita. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed that Matita is mainly located on the distal regions of chromosome arms and is of approximately equal frequency on both A- and B-chromosomes. Its chromosome-specific hybridization pattern facilitates the identification of individual chromosomes, a useful cytogenetic tool considering that chromosomes in peanut are mostly metacentric and of similar size. Phylogenetic analysis of Matita elements, molecular dating of transposition events, and an estimation of the evolutionary divergence of the most probable A- and B-donor species suggest that Matita underwent its last major burst of transposition activity at around the same time of the A- and B-genome divergence about 3.5 million years ago. By probing BAC libraries with overgos probes for Matita, resistance gene analogues, and single- or low-copy genes, it was demonstrated that Matita is not randomly distributed in the genome but exhibits a significant tendency of being more abundant near resistance gene homologues than near single-copy genes. The described work is a further step towards broadening the knowledge on genomic and chromosomal structure of peanut and on its evolution. PMID:22120641

Nielen, Stephan; Vidigal, Bruna S; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Ratnaparkhe, Milind; Paterson, Andrew H; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Guimarães, Patricia M; Bertioli, David J

2012-01-01

217

A Nucleolus-Predominant piggyBac Transposase, NP-mPB, Mediates Elevated Transposition Efficiency in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3–4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells. PMID:24586748

Ku, Amy T.; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

2014-01-01

218

In vivo repackaging of recombinant cosmid molecules for analyses of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus mutans, and mycobacterial genomic libraries.  

PubMed Central

Strains of Escherichia coli K-12 were constructed that permitted the amplification of in vitro-packaged recombinant cosmid-transducing particles by in vivo repackaging of recombinant cosmid molecules. Thermal induction of these thermoinducible, excision-defective lysogens containing recombinant cosmid molecules yielded high titers of packaged recombinant cosmids and low levels of PFU. These strains were used to amplify packaged recombinant cosmid libraries of Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium vaccae, Salmonella typhimurium, and Streptococcus mutans DNA. Contiguous and noncontiguous libraries were compared for the successful identification of cloned genes. Construction of noncontiguous libraries allowed the dissociation of desired genes from genes that were deleterious to the survival of a cosmid recombinant and permitted selection for unlinked traits that resulted in a selected phenotype. In vivo repackaging of recombinant cosmids permitted amplification of the original in vitro-packaged collection of transducing particles, storage of cosmid libraries as phage lysates, facilitation of complementation screening, expression analysis of repackaged recombinant cosmids after UV-irradiated cells were infected, in situ enzyme or immunological screening, and facilitation of recovery of recombinant cosmid molecules containing transposon inserts. Images PMID:2937735

Jacobs, W R; Barrett, J F; Clark-Curtiss, J E; Curtiss, R

1986-01-01

219

Second-generation genetic linkage map of catfish and its integration with the BAC-based physical map.  

PubMed

Construction of high-density genetic linkage maps is crucially important for quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies, and they are more useful when integrated with physical maps. Such integrated maps are valuable genome resources for fine mapping of QTL, comparative genomics, and accurate and efficient whole-genome assembly. Previously, we established both linkage maps and a physical map for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, the dominant aquaculture species in the United States. Here we added 2030 BAC end sequence (BES)-derived microsatellites from 1481 physical map contigs, as well as markers from singleton BES, ESTs, anonymous microsatellites, and SNPs, to construct a second-generation linkage map. Average marker density across the 29 linkage groups reached 1.4 cM/marker. The increased marker density highlighted variations in recombination rates within and among catfish chromosomes. This work effectively anchored 44.8% of the catfish BAC physical map contigs, covering ~52.8% of the genome. The genome size was estimated to be 2546 cM on the linkage map, and the calculated physical distance per centimorgan was 393 Kb. This integrated map should enable comparative studies with teleost model species as well as provide a framework for ordering and assembling whole-genome scaffolds. PMID:23050234

Ninwichian, Parichart; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Liu, Shikai; Li, Ping; Jiang, Yanliang; Sha, Zhenxia; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Abernathy, Jason W; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Wong, Lilian; Wang, Shaolin; Lu, Jianguo; Liu, Zhanjiang

2012-10-01

220

Transcription activator like effector (TALE)-directed piggyBac transposition in human cells  

PubMed Central

Insertional therapies have shown great potential for combating genetic disease and safer methods would undoubtedly broaden the variety of possible illness that can be treated. A major challenge that remains is reducing the risk of insertional mutagenesis due to random insertion by both viral and non-viral vectors. Targetable nucleases are capable of inducing double-stranded breaks to enhance homologous recombination for the introduction of transgenes at specific sequences. However, off-target DNA cleavages at unknown sites can lead to mutations that are difficult to detect. Alternatively, the piggyBac transposase is able perform all of the steps required for integration; therefore, cells confirmed to contain a single copy of a targeted transposon, for which its location is known, are likely to be devoid of aberrant genomic modifications. We aimed to retarget transposon insertions by comparing a series of novel hyperactive piggyBac constructs tethered to a custom transcription activator like effector DNA-binding domain designed to bind the first intron of the human CCR5 gene. Multiple targeting strategies were evaluated using combinations of both plasmid-DNA and transposase-protein relocalization to the target sequence. We demonstrated user-defined directed transposition to the CCR5 genomic safe harbor and isolated single-copy clones harboring targeted integrations. PMID:23921635

Owens, Jesse B.; Mauro, Damiano; Stoytchev, Ilko; Bhakta, Mital S.; Kim, Moon-Soo; Segal, David J.; Moisyadi, Stefan

2013-01-01

221

Induction of Specific T-Cell Responses, Opsonizing Antibodies, and Protection against Plasmodium chabaudi adami Infection in Mice Vaccinated with Genomic Expression Libraries Expressed in Targeted and Secretory DNA Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that a multivalent malaria vaccine is necessary to mimic the naturally acquired resistance to this disease observed in humans. A major experimental challenge is to identify the optimal components to be used in such a multivalent vaccine. Expression library immunization (ELI) is a method for screening genomes of a pathogen to identify novel combinations of vaccine

A. Rainczuk; T. Scorza; P. M. Smooker; T. W. Spithill

2003-01-01

222

A genomic-library based discovery of a novel, possibly synthetic, acid-tolerance mechanismin Clostridium acetobutylicum involving non-coding RNAs and ribosomal RNA processing  

PubMed Central

We generated a genomic library from sheared Clostridium acetobutylicum 824 DNA, whereby inserts can be expressed in both directions from the thiolase promoter, Pthl. Serial transfer of library-bearing C. acetobutylicum cultures exposed to increasing butyrate concentrations enriched for inserts containing fragments of rRNA genetic loci. The selected library inserts were placed so that antisense (to the rRNAs) non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) would be transcribed from Pthl. Different enriched inserts imparted similar butyrate-tolerance characteristics. A minimal tolerance fragment (RDNA7) was identified as the 16S-rRNA promoter region. Expressed on plasmid pRD7 off Pthl, RDNA7 can produce putative ncRNAs termed ncRNARD7. C. acetobutylicum 824(pRD7) showed superior resistance to butyrate and other carboxylic acids. Transcriptional analysis of butyrate stress identified 120 differentially expressed genes between 824(pRD7) and 824(pSOS95del). The few upregulated genes included the ffh gene of the putative signal recognition particle (SRP) system. Northern analysis of ncRNARD7 and corresponding antisense RNAs demonstrated multiple ncRNARD7 molecules in 824(pRD7). Several corresponding antisense RNA molecules were identified both in 824(pRD7) and 824(pSOS95del), but at much higher levels in 824(pRD7). Northern analysis of 16S rRNA expression suggested complex RDNA7-dependent rRNA processing. Our data suggest that by hybridizing against unprocessed rRNA precursors, ncRNARD7 alters rRNA processing, and these alterations result in acid tolerance, possibly through a mechanism involving the Ffh protein. PMID:20060060

Borden, Jacob R.; Jones, Shawn W.; Indurthi, Dinesh; Chen, Yili; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios Terry

2010-01-01

223

The Library The Public Library  

E-print Network

The Library The Public Library The Library Mission The library Function Acquisition Section of information and public library services to contribute in achieving the university's goals in education of the library The library holdings Distribution of the library collections Organzation of Konwledge The library

224

Efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac system.  

PubMed

The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ?5?mg/L, which needs 55?h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2?×?10(6)?cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1?:?100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies. PMID:25136612

Lin, Bo; Meng, Hailing; Bing, Hui; Zhangsun, Dongting; Luo, Sulan

2014-01-01

225

Efficient Expression of Acetylcholine-Binding Protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac System  

PubMed Central

The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ?5?mg/L, which needs 55?h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2?×?106?cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1?:?100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies. PMID:25136612

Lin, Bo; Bing, Hui; Zhangsun, Dongting; Luo, Sulan

2014-01-01

226

Isolation and sequence analysis of the wheat B genome subtelomeric DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Telomeric and subtelomeric regions are essential for genome stability and regular chromosome replication. In this work, we have characterized the wheat BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones containing Spelt1 and Spelt52 sequences, which belong to the subtelomeric repeats of the B/G genomes of wheats and Aegilops species from the section Sitopsis. Results The BAC library from Triticum aestivum cv. Renan was screened using Spelt1 and Spelt52 as probes. Nine positive clones were isolated; of them, clone 2050O8 was localized mainly to the distal parts of wheat chromosomes by in situ hybridization. The distribution of the other clones indicated the presence of different types of repetitive sequences in BACs. Use of different approaches allowed us to prove that seven of the nine isolated clones belonged to the subtelomeric chromosomal regions. Clone 2050O8 was sequenced and its sequence of 119 737 bp was annotated. It is composed of 33% transposable elements (TEs), 8.2% Spelt52 (namely, the subfamily Spelt52.2) and five non-TE-related genes. DNA transposons are predominant, making up 24.6% of the entire BAC clone, whereas retroelements account for 8.4% of the clone length. The full-length CACTA transposon Caspar covers 11 666 bp, encoding a transposase and CTG-2 proteins, and this transposon accounts for 40% of the DNA transposons. The in situ hybridization data for 2050O8 derived subclones in combination with the BLAST search against wheat mapped ESTs (expressed sequence tags) suggest that clone 2050O8 is located in the terminal bin 4BL-10 (0.95-1.0). Additionally, four of the predicted 2050O8 genes showed significant homology to four putative orthologous rice genes in the distal part of rice chromosome 3S and confirm the synteny to wheat 4BL. Conclusion Satellite DNA sequences from the subtelomeric regions of diploid wheat progenitor can be used for selecting the BAC clones from the corresponding regions of hexaploid wheat chromosomes. It has been demonstrated for the first time that Spelt52 sequences were involved in the evolution of terminal regions of common wheat chromosomes. Our research provides new insights into the microcollinearity in the terminal regions of wheat chromosomes 4BL and rice chromosome 3S. PMID:19732459

Salina, Elena A; Sergeeva, Ekaterina M; Adonina, Irina G; Shcherban, Andrey B; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Belcram, Harry; Huneau, Cecile; Chalhoub, Boulos

2009-01-01

227

Pooled genomic indexing (PGI): mathematical analysis and experiment design  

E-print Network

are mapped onto homologous human sequence. 1 Introduction Pooled Genomic Indexing (PGI) is a novel method Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics Baylor College of Medicine 3 comparative BAC-based physical maps at a fraction (on the order of 1%) of the cost of full genome sequencing

Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

228

Progress in the characterization of a human genomic YAC library selected on the basis of homology to T{sub 2}AG{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

Using a combination of physical and genetic mapping methods we have characterized more than 190 YAC clones originally isolated on the basis of hybridization to the human telomere regions by FISH (using Alu-PCR products or YAC subclones individually or pooled as probes). Thirty-seven of the YACs mapped to single telomeres while 16 mapped to more than one telomere, or to interstitial regions, including centromeres. Subclone libraries were constructed for a subset of YACs, genetic markers developed, and the loci incorporated into genetic maps for chromosomes 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14 and 20. Altogether 28 different telomeres are now defined by chromosomally mapped STSs which were derived from YACs that were FISH mapped to the termini of 1p, 2p{sup *}, 2q{sup +}, 3p, 3q, 4q, 5q, 6q{sup *}, 7p, 7q{sup *+}, 8p{sup +}, 9q, 10p{sup *}, 10q, 11q, 12p{sup *}, 13q{sup *+}, 14q{sup *+}, 16p, 16q, 17p, 17q, 18p, 18q, 20p, 21q, and 22q ({sup *} microsatellite marker, {sup +}RFLP). Development of microsatellite genetic markers for the five additional telomeres is currently in progress [7p (50 b), 10q (275 kb). 17p (100 kb), 17q (175 kb), and 18p (225 kb)]. For YACs that have been localized to telomeres by FISH and to chromosomes by STS mapping to a rodent/human somatic cell hybrid chromosome panel, five genome equivalent bacteriophage lamda subclone libraries have been constructed and screened for the presence of human DNA and CA{sub n} dinucleotide repeats by plaque filter hybridization. A number of CA positive clones have been sequenced revealing simple repeats of 12 or more CAs per clone. STS development and testing for polymorphism using the CEPH pedigree resource is in progress.

Vocero-Akbani, A.; Sanjurjo, H.; Fair, K. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

229

Mouse Molecular Cytogenetic Resource: 157 BACs Link the Chromosomal and Genetic Maps  

PubMed Central

We have established a collection of strong molecular cytogenetic markers that span the mouse autosomes and X chromosome at an average spacing of one per 19 Mb and identify 127 distinct band landmarks. In addition, this Mouse Molecular Cytogenetic Resource relates the ends of the genetic maps to their chromosomal locations. The resource consists of 157 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, each of which identifies specific mouse chromosome bands or band borders, and 42 of which are linked to genetic markers that define the centromeric and telomeric ends of the Whitehead/MIT recombinational maps. In addition, 108 randomly selected and 6 STS-linked BACs have been assigned to single chromosome bands. We have also developed a high-resolution fluorescent reverse-banding technique for mouse chromosomes that allows simultaneous localization of probes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with respect to the cytogenetic landmarks. This approach integrates studies of the entire mouse genome. Moreover, these reagents will simplify gene mapping and analyses of genomic fragments in fetal and adult mouse models. As shown with the MMU16 telomeric marker for the trisomy 16 mouse model of Down syndrome, these clones can obviate the need for metaphase analyses. The potential contribution of this resource and associated methods extends well beyond mapping and includes clues to understanding mouse chromosomes and their rearrangements in cancers and evolution. Finally it will facilitate the development of an integrated view of the mouse genome by providing anchor points from the genetic to the cytogenetic and functional maps of the mouse as we attempt to understand mutations, their biological consequences, and gene function. PMID:10330132

Korenberg, Julie R.; Chen, Xiao-Ning; Devon, Keri L.; Noya, David; Oster-Granite, Mary L.; Birren, Bruce W.

1999-01-01

230

BacMet: antibacterial biocide and metal resistance genes database  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance has become a major human health concern due to widespread use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics. In addition to antibiotics, antibacterial biocides and metals can contribute to the development and maintenance of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities through co-selection. Information on metal and biocide resistance genes, including their sequences and molecular functions, is, however, scattered. Here, we introduce BacMet (http://bacmet.biomedicine.gu.se)—a manually curated database of antibacterial biocide- and metal-resistance genes based on an in-depth review of the scientific literature. The BacMet database contains 470 experimentally verified resistance genes. In addition, the database also contains 25 477 potential resistance genes collected from public sequence repositories. All resistance genes in the BacMet database have been organized according to their molecular function and induced resistance phenotype. PMID:24304895

Pal, Chandan; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Rensing, Christopher; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D. G. Joakim

2014-01-01

231

Novel SSR Markers from BAC-End Sequences, DArT Arrays and a Comprehensive Genetic Map with 1,291 Marker Loci for Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

PubMed Central

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important cool season food legume, cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The goal of this study was to develop novel molecular markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-end sequences (BESs) and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers, and to construct a high-density genetic map based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) population ICC 4958 (C. arietinum)×PI 489777 (C. reticulatum). A BAC-library comprising 55,680 clones was constructed and 46,270 BESs were generated. Mining of these BESs provided 6,845 SSRs, and primer pairs were designed for 1,344 SSRs. In parallel, DArT arrays with ca. 15,000 clones were developed, and 5,397 clones were found polymorphic among 94 genotypes tested. Screening of newly developed BES-SSR markers and DArT arrays on the parental genotypes of the RIL mapping population showed polymorphism with 253 BES-SSR markers and 675 DArT markers. Segregation data obtained for these polymorphic markers and 494 markers data compiled from published reports or collaborators were used for constructing the genetic map. As a result, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 1,291 markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total of 845.56 cM distance was developed (http://cmap.icrisat.ac.in/cmap/sm/cp/thudi/). The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 68 (LG 8) to 218 (LG 3) with an average inter-marker distance of 0.65 cM. While the developed resource of molecular markers will be useful for genetic diversity, genetic mapping and molecular breeding applications, the comprehensive genetic map with integrated BES-SSR markers will facilitate its anchoring to the physical map (under construction) to accelerate map-based cloning of genes in chickpea and comparative genome evolution studies in legumes. PMID:22102885

Nayak, Spurthi N.; Varghese, Nicy; Shah, Trushar M.; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Gudipati, Srivani; Gaur, Pooran M.; Kulwal, Pawan L.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; KaviKishor, Polavarapu B.; Winter, Peter; Kahl, Gunter; Town, Christopher D.; Kilian, Andrzej; Cook, Douglas R.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

2011-01-01

232

Genome Improvement at JGI-HAGSC  

SciTech Connect

Since the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, the JGI has rapidly expanded its scientific goals in several DOE mission-relevant areas. At the JGI-HAGSC, we have kept pace with this rapid expansion of projects with our focus on assessing, assembling, improving and finishing eukaryotic whole genome shotgun (WGS) projects for which the shotgun sequence is generated at the Production Genomic Facility (JGI-PGF). We follow this by combining the draft WGS with genomic resources generated at JGI-HAGSC or in collaborator laboratories (including BAC end sequences, genetic maps and FLcDNA sequences) to produce an improved draft sequence. For eukaryotic genomes important to the DOE mission, we then add further information from directed experiments to produce reference genomic sequences that are publicly available for any scientific researcher. Also, we have continued our program for producing BAC-based finished sequence, both for adding information to JGI genome projects and for small BAC-based sequencing projects proposed through any of the JGI sequencing programs. We have now built our computational expertise in WGS assembly and analysis and have moved eukaryotic genome assembly from the JGI-PGF to JGI-HAGSC. We have concentrated our assembly development work on large plant genomes and complex fungal and algal genomes.

Grimwood, Jane: Schmutz, Jeremy, J.: Myers, Richard, M.

2012-03-03

233

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Newly Isolated Pyrethroid-Degrading Esterase Gene from a Genomic Library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1  

PubMed Central

A novel pyrethroid-degrading esterase gene pytY was isolated from the genomic library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1. It possesses an open reading frame (ORF) of 897 bp. Blast search showed that its deduced amino acid sequence shares moderate identities (30% to 46%) with most homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PytY is a member of the esterase VI family. pytY showed very low sequence similarity compared with reported pyrethroid-degrading genes. PytY was expressed, purified, and characterized. Enzyme assay revealed that PytY is a broad-spectrum degrading enzyme that can degrade various pyrethroids. It is a new pyrethroid-degrading gene and enriches genetic resource. Kinetic constants of Km and Vmax were 2.34 mmol·L?1 and 56.33 nmol min?1, respectively, with lambda-cyhalothrin as substrate. PytY displayed good degrading ability and stability over a broad range of temperature and pH. The optimal temperature and pH were of 35°C and 7.5. No cofactors were required for enzyme activity. The results highlighted the potential use of PytY in the elimination of pyrethroid residuals from contaminated environments. PMID:24155944

Song, Jinlong; Shi, Yanhua; Li, Kang; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Yanchun

2013-01-01

234

Molecular cloning and characterization of a newly isolated pyrethroid-degrading esterase gene from a genomic library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1.  

PubMed

A novel pyrethroid-degrading esterase gene pytY was isolated from the genomic library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1. It possesses an open reading frame (ORF) of 897 bp. Blast search showed that its deduced amino acid sequence shares moderate identities (30% to 46%) with most homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PytY is a member of the esterase VI family. pytY showed very low sequence similarity compared with reported pyrethroid-degrading genes. PytY was expressed, purified, and characterized. Enzyme assay revealed that PytY is a broad-spectrum degrading enzyme that can degrade various pyrethroids. It is a new pyrethroid-degrading gene and enriches genetic resource. Kinetic constants of Km and Vmax were 2.34 mmol·L(-1) and 56.33 nmol min(-1), respectively, with lambda-cyhalothrin as substrate. PytY displayed good degrading ability and stability over a broad range of temperature and pH. The optimal temperature and pH were of 35°C and 7.5. No cofactors were required for enzyme activity. The results highlighted the potential use of PytY in the elimination of pyrethroid residuals from contaminated environments. PMID:24155944

Ruan, Zhiyong; Zhai, Yi; Song, Jinlong; Shi, Yanhua; Li, Kang; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Yanchun

2013-01-01

235

As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment Past Issues / ... of Contents For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content (BAC) is used to define intoxication and ...

236

A physical map of the human genome  

SciTech Connect

The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the construction of the whole-genome bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) map and its integration with previous landmark maps and information from mapping efforts focused on specific chromosomal regions. We also describe the integration of sequence data with the map.

McPherson, J.D.; Marra, M.; Hillier, L.; Waterston, R.H.; Chinwalla, A.; Wallis, J.; Sekhon, M.; Wylie, K.; Mardis, E.R.; Wilson, R.K.; Fulton, R.; Kucaba, T.A.; Wagner-McPherson, C.; Barbazuk, W.B.; Gregory, S.G.; Humphray, S.J.; French, L.; Evans, R.S.; Bethel, G.; Whittaker, A.; Holden, J.L.; McCann, O.T.; Dunham, A.; Soderlund, C.; Scott, C.E.; Bentley, D.R.; Schuler, G.; Chen, H.-C.; Jang, W.; Green, E.D.; Idol, J.R.; Maduro, V.V. Braden; Montgomery, K.T.; Lee, E.; Miller, A.; Emerling, S.; Kucherlapati; Gibbs, R.; Scherer, S.; Gorrell, J.H.; Sodergren, E.; Clerc-Blankenburg, K.; Tabor, P.; Naylor, S.; Garcia, D.; de Jong, P.J.; Catanese, J.J.; Nowak, N.; Osoegawa, K.; Qin, S.; Rowen, L.; Madan, A.; Dors, M.; Hood, L.; Trask, B.; Friedman, C.; Massa, H.; Cheung, V.G.; Kirsch, I.R.; Reid, T.; Yonescu, R.; Weissenbach, J.; Bruls, T.; Heilig, R.; Branscomb, E.; Olsen, A.; Doggett, N.; Cheng, J.F.; Hawkins, T.; Myers, R.M.; Shang, J.; Ramirez, L.; Schmutz, J.; Velasquez, O.; Dixon, K.; Stone, N.E.; Cox, D.R.; Haussler, D.; Kent, W.J.; Furey, T.; Rogic, S.; Kennedy, S.; Jones, S.; Rosenthal, A.; Wen, G.; Schilhabel, M.; Gloeckner, G.; Nyakatura, G.; Siebert, R.; Schlegelberger, B.; Korenberg, J.; Chen, X.N.; Fujiyama, A.; Hattori, M.; Toyoda, A.; Yada, T.; Park, H.S.; Sakaki, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Asakawa, S.; Kawasaki, K.; Sasaki, T.; Shintani, A.; Shimizu, A.; Shibuya, K.; Kudoh, J.; Minoshima, S.; Ramser, J.; Seranski, P.; Hoff, C.; Poustka, A.; Reinhardt, R.; Lehrach, H.

2001-01-01

237

The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads.  

PubMed

Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp to 10 kb were sequenced using an Illumina genome analyzer. A de novo assembly, comprised exclusively of deep-coverage (approximately 94× raw, approximately 69× filtered) short-sequence reads (44-100 bp), produced a set of scaffolds with N(50) =694 kb, including contigs with N(50)=20.1 kb. The contig assembly contained 302 Mb of non-redundant sequence representing an estimated 81% genome coverage. Up to 96% of published flax ESTs aligned to the whole-genome shotgun scaffolds. However, comparisons with independently sequenced BACs and fosmids showed some mis-assembly of regions at the genome scale. A total of 43384 protein-coding genes were predicted in the whole-genome shotgun assembly, and up to 93% of published flax ESTs, and 86% of A. thaliana genes aligned to these predicted genes, indicating excellent coverage and accuracy at the gene level. Analysis of the synonymous substitution rates (K(s) ) observed within duplicate gene pairs was consistent with a recent (5-9 MYA) whole-genome duplication in flax. Within the predicted proteome, we observed enrichment of many conserved domains (Pfam-A) that may contribute to the unique properties of this crop, including agglutinin proteins. Together these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species. PMID:22757964

Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo; Zhu, Shilin; Shi, Daihu; McDill, Joshua; Yang, Linfeng; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey; Datla, Raju; Lambert, Georgina; Galbraith, David W; Grassa, Christopher J; Geraldes, Armando; Cronk, Quentin C; Cullis, Christopher; Dash, Prasanta K; Kumar, Polumetla A; Cloutier, Sylvie; Sharpe, Andrew G; Wong, Gane K-S; Wang, Jun; Deyholos, Michael K

2012-11-01

238

Direct Cloning and Sequencing of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Insert Ends Based on Double Digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional digestion and ligation was developed into a novel and efficient approach for directly cloning and sequencing the two ends of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone inserts. Most BAC vectors have two Not I sites. This end isolation method is based on double digestion of the BAC clone DNA with Not I and any blunt-end restriction enzyme for which there

Chunxian Chen; FRED G. GMITTER JR

1999-01-01

239

A Community-Based Feedback Process for Disseminating Pedestrian BAC Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

During National Collegiate Alcohol Awareness Weeks of 1992, 1994, and 1995, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) feedback was offered to pedestrians. Two BAC feedback stations were set up near bars frequented by many university students, and were staffed for either two or three consecutive nights. These stations provided passers-by with their. BAC, as determined by portable breathalyzers. Across the three years

Kent E. Glindemann; E. Scott Geller; Steven W. Clarke; Candice R. Chevaillier; Charles B. Pettinger

1998-01-01

240

Bis(amino)cyclopropenylidene (BAC) Catalyzed Aza-Benzoin Reaction.  

PubMed

A bis(amino)cyclopropenylidene (BAC) catalyzed aza-benzoin reaction between aldehydes and phosphinoyl imines has been developed. The reaction is general with a wide range of aromatic aldehydes and aromatic imines. The reaction displays excellent chemoselectivity favoring aza-benzoin products over homobenzoin products. PMID:25272948

Wilde, Myron M D; Gravel, Michel

2014-10-17

241

Duplication and differentiation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) myoglobin genes revealed by BAC analysis.  

PubMed

Two distinct myoglobin (mb) transcripts have been reported in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, which is a hypoxia-tolerant fish living in habitats with greatly fluctuant dissolved oxygen levels. Recombinant protein analysis has shown functional specialization of the two mb transcripts. In this work, analysis for mb-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones indicated different genome loci for common carp myoglobin-1 (mb-1) and myoglobin-2 (mb-2) genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that mb-1 and mb-2 are located on separate chromosomes. In both of the mb-1 and mb-2 containing BAC clones, gene synteny was well conserved with the homologous region on zebrafish chromosome 1, supporting that the common carp specific mb-2 gene originated from the recent whole genome duplication event in cyprinid lineage. Transcription factor binding sites search indicated that both common carp mb genes lacked specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding sites, which mediated muscle-specific and calcium-dependent expression in the well-studied mb promoters. Potential hypoxia response elements (HREs) were predicted in the regulatory region of common carp mb genes. These characteristics of common carp mb gene regulatory region well interpreted the hypoxia-inducible, non-muscle expression pattern of mb-1. In the case of mb-2, a 10 bp insertion to the binding site of upstream stimulatory factor (USF), which was a co-factor of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), might cause the non-response to hypoxia treatment of mb-2. The case of common carp mb gene duplication and subsequent differentiation in expression pattern and protein function provided an example for adaptive evolution toward aquatic hypoxia tolerance. PMID:25026501

Zhao, Zi-Xia; Xu, Peng; Cao, Ding-Chen; Kuang, You-Yi; Deng, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Li-Ming; Li, Jiong-Tang; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2014-09-15

242

A re-assigned American mink (Neovison vison) map optimal for genome-wide studies.  

PubMed

Our previously published second generation genetic map for the American mink (Neovison vison) has been used and redesigned in its best for genome-wide studies with maximum of efficiency. A number of 114 selected markers, including 33 newly developed microsatellite markers from the CHORI-231 mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library, have been genotyped in a two generation population composed of 1200 individuals. The outcome reassigns the position of some markers on the chromosomes and it produces a more reliable map with a convenient distance between markers. A total of 104 markers mapped to 14 linkage groups corresponding to the mink autosomes. Six markers are unlinked and four markers are allocated to the X chromosome by homology but no linkage was detected. The sex-average linkage map spans 1192 centiMorgans (cM) with an average intermarker distance of 11.4cM and 1648cM when the ends of the linkage groups and the autosomal unlinked markers are added. Sex-specific genetic linkage maps were also generated. The male sex-specific map had a total length of 1014.6cM between the linked markers and an average inter-marker interval of 9.7cM. The female map has a corresponding length of 1378.6cM and an average inter-marker interval of 13.3cM. The study is complemented with additional anchorage for most of the chromosomes of the map by BAC in situ hybridization with clones containing microsatellites strategically selected from the various parts of the genome. This map provides an improved tool for genetic mapping and comparative genomics in mink, also useful for the future assembly of the mink genome sequence when this will be taken forward. PMID:22982743

Anistoroaei, Razvan; Nielsen, Vivi; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus B; Christensen, Knud; Fredholm, Merete

2012-12-10

243

SweetBac: A New Approach for the Production of Mammalianised Glycoproteins in Insect Cells  

PubMed Central

Recombinant production of therapeutically active proteins has become a central focus of contemporary life science research. These proteins are often produced in mammalian cells, in order to obtain products with post-translational modifications similar to their natural counterparts. However, in cases where a fast and flexible system for recombinant production of proteins is needed, the use of mammalian cells is limited. The baculoviral insect cell system has proven to be a powerful alternative for the expression of a wide range of recombinant proteins in short time frames. The major drawback of baculoviral systems lies in the inability to perform mammalian-like glycosylation required for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins. In this study we integrated sequences encoding Caenorhabditis elegans N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II and bovine ?1,4-galactosyltransferase I into the backbone of a baculovirus genome. The thereby generated SweetBac virus was subsequently used for the production of the human HIV anti-gp41 antibody 3D6 by integrating heavy and light chain open reading frames into the SweetBac genome. The parallel expression of target genes and glycosyltransferases reduced the yield of secreted antibody. However, the overall expression rate, especially in the recently established Tnao38 cell line, was comparable to that of transient expression in mammalian cells. In order to evaluate the ability of SweetBac to generate mammalian-like N-glycan structures on 3D6 antibody, we performed SDS-PAGE and tested for the presence of terminal galactose using Riccinus communis agglutinin I. The mammalianised variants of 3D6 showed highly specific binding to the lectin, indicating proper functionality. To confirm these results, PNGase A released N-glycans were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS and shown to contain structures with mainly one or two terminal galactose residues. Since the presence of specific N-glycans has an impact on antibodies ability to exert different effector functions, we tested the binding to human Fc gamma receptor I present on U937 cells. PMID:22485160

Palmberger, Dieter; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Berger, Imre; Grabherr, Reingard; Rendic, Dubravko

2012-01-01

244

Library Cooperation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes nine articles that discuss cooperative library networking in Illinois. Highlights include library systems as cooperative agencies; PALI (Private Academic Libraries of Illinois); rural school and public library development; systemwide users; regional medical libraries; virtual libraries and the Coalition for Networked Information; a…

Lund, Patricia; And Others

1993-01-01

245

The value of avian genomics to the conservation of wildlife  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic studies in non-domestic avian models, such as the California condor and white-throated sparrow, can lead to more comprehensive conservation plans and provide clues for understanding mechanisms affecting genetic variation, adaptation and evolution. Developing genomic tools and resources including genomic libraries and a genetic map of the California condor is a prerequisite for identification of candidate loci for a heritable embryonic lethal condition. The white-throated sparrow exhibits a stable genetic polymorphism (i.e. chromosomal rearrangements) associated with variation in morphology, physiology, and behavior (e.g., aggression, social behavior, sexual behavior, parental care). In this paper we outline the utility of these species as well as report on recent advances in the study of their genomes. Results Genotyping of the condor resource population at 17 microsatellite loci provided a better assessment of the current population's genetic variation. Specific New World vulture repeats were found in the condor genome. Using condor BAC library and clones, chicken-condor comparative maps were generated. A condor fibroblast cell line transcriptome was characterized using the 454 sequencing technology. Our karyotypic analyses of the sparrow in combination with other studies indicate that the rearrangements in both chromosomes 2m and 3a are complex and likely involve multiple inversions, interchromosomal linkage, and pleiotropy. At least a portion of the rearrangement in chromosome 2m existed in the common ancestor of the four North American species of Zonotrichia, but not in the one South American species, and that the 2m form, originally thought to be the derived condition, might actually be the ancestral one. Conclusion Mining and characterization of candidate loci in the California condor using molecular genetic and genomic techniques as well as linkage and comparative genomic mapping will eventually enable the identification of carriers of the chondrodystrophy allele, resulting in improved genetic management of this disease. In the white-throated sparrow, genomic studies, combined with ecological data, will help elucidate the basis of genic selection in a natural population. Morphs of the sparrow provide us with a unique opportunity to study intraspecific genomic differences, which have resulted from two separate yet linked evolutionary trajectories. Such results can transform our understanding of evolutionary and conservation biology. PMID:19607652

2009-01-01

246

Discover your Library Medical Library  

E-print Network

) Computers for walk in public access. Use Findit@Flinders to search the library catalogue. No wider internetDiscover your Library Medical Library Welcome to the Gus Fraenkel Medical Library. The Library is a branch of the Flinders University Libraries including: Central (on the Plaza of the north ridge precinct

247

A chromosomal genomics approach to assess and validate the desi and kabuli draft chickpea genome assemblies.  

PubMed

With the expansion of next-generation sequencing technology and advanced bioinformatics, there has been a rapid growth of genome sequencing projects. However, while this technology enables the rapid and cost-effective assembly of draft genomes, the quality of these assemblies usually falls short of gold standard genome assemblies produced using the more traditional BAC by BAC and Sanger sequencing approaches. Assembly validation is often performed by the physical anchoring of genetically mapped markers, but this is prone to errors and the resolution is usually low, especially towards centromeric regions where recombination is limited. New approaches are required to validate reference genome assemblies. The ability to isolate individual chromosomes combined with next-generation sequencing permits the validation of genome assemblies at the chromosome level. We demonstrate this approach by the assessment of the recently published chickpea kabuli and desi genomes. While previous genetic analysis suggests that these genomes should be very similar, a comparison of their chromosome sizes and published assemblies highlights significant differences. Our chromosomal genomics analysis highlights short defined regions that appear to have been misassembled in the kabuli genome and identifies large-scale misassembly in the draft desi genome. The integration of chromosomal genomics tools within genome sequencing projects has the potential to significantly improve the construction and validation of genome assemblies. The approach could be applied both for new genome assemblies as well as published assemblies, and complements currently applied genome assembly strategies. PMID:24702794

Ruperao, Pradeep; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Azam, Sarwar; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Hayashi, Satomi; Cížková, Jana; Saxena, Rachit K; Simková, Hana; Song, Chi; Vrána, Jan; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Visendi, Paul; Gaur, Pooran M; Millán, Teresa; Singh, Karam B; Taran, Bunyamin; Wang, Jun; Batley, Jacqueline; Doležel, Jaroslav; Varshney, Rajeev K; Edwards, David

2014-08-01

248

British Library Newspaper Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Library Newspaper Library in Colindale has its catalog of over 50,000 newspaper and periodical title holdings online. Researchers planning a trip to Colindale can now look up titles and dates held in advance. Reservations for materials can even be made by telephone or email. The catalog is searchable by keyword and sorted by title, date, or place. Entries include place, main title, numbers, dates, shelfmark, dates held on microfilm, and other notes. The British Library Newspaper Library's holdings include "all UK national daily and Sunday newspapers from 1801 to the present; most UK and Irish provincial newspapers, some from the early 18th century onwards; [and] selected newspapers from around the world in western and Slavonic languages dating from the 17th century onwards."

2001-01-01

249

A physical map for the Amborella trichopoda genome sheds light on the evolution of angiosperm genome structure  

PubMed Central

Background Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome. Results Analysis of Amborella BAC ends sequenced from each contig suggests that the density of long terminal repeat retrotransposons is negatively correlated with that of protein coding genes. Syntenic, presumably ancestral, gene blocks were identified in comparisons of the Amborella BAC contigs and the sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa genomes. Parsimony mapping of the loss of synteny corroborates previous analyses suggesting that the rate of structural change has been more rapid on lineages leading to Arabidopsis and Oryza compared with lineages leading to Populus and Vitis. The gamma paleohexiploidy event identified in the Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis genomes is shown to have occurred after the divergence of all other known angiosperms from the lineage leading to Amborella. Conclusions When placed in the context of a physical map, BAC end sequences representing just 5.4% of the Amborella genome have facilitated reconstruction of gene blocks that existed in the last common ancestor of all flowering plants. The Amborella genome is an invaluable reference for inferences concerning the ancestral angiosperm and subsequent genome evolution. PMID:21619600

2011-01-01

250

[Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22 using Pace electrophoresis and large fragment cloning]. Annual report, October 1, 1991--July 1, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In the past two years, the authors have made a great deal of progress in establishing Fosmid and BAC libraries and in using large BAC libraries for gene mapping. In addition, they initiated work on the application of BAC clones to long range genome sequencing. They continue to increase the ability to rapidly generate large BAC libraries and to efficiently apply these libraries to genome mapping. The BACs provide a very effective means of developing physical maps. The current work suggests that BAC contigs will be extremely useful as source material for genome sequencing.

Simon, M.I.

1994-12-31

251

What everybody should know about the rat genome and its online resources  

E-print Network

by the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Group. This assembly (RGSC v3.4) used a variety of sequencing and mapping resources based on a BAC plus whole-genome shotgun (WGS) strat- egy. After its initial the original publication of the draft sequence of the rat genome. Five groups are now working together

Cai, Long

252

Sequence-tagged connectors: A sequence approach to mapping and scanning the human genome  

PubMed Central

The sequence-tagged connector (STC) strategy proposes to generate sequence tags densely scattered (every 3.3 kilobases) across the human genome by arraying 450,000 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with randomly cleaved inserts, sequencing both ends of each, and preparing a restriction enzyme fingerprint of each. The STC resource, containing end sequences, fingerprints, and arrayed BACs, creates a map where the interrelationships of the individual BAC clones are resolved through their STCs as overlapping BAC clones are sequenced. Once a seed or initiation BAC clone is sequenced, the minimum overlapping 5? and 3? BAC clones can be identified computationally and sequenced. By reiterating this “sequence-then-map by computer analysis against the STC database” strategy, a minimum tiling path of clones can be sequenced at a rate that is primarily limited by the sequencing throughput of individual genome centers. As of February 1999, we had deposited, together with The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), into GenBank 314,000 STCs (?135 megabases), or 4.5% of human genomic DNA. This genome survey reveals numerous genes, genome-wide repeats, simple sequence repeats (potential genetic markers), and CpG islands (potential gene initiation sites). It also illustrates the power of the STC strategy for creating minimum tiling paths of BAC clones for large-scale genomic sequencing. Because the STC resource permits the easy integration of genetic, physical, gene, and sequence maps for chromosomes, it will be a powerful tool for the initial analysis of the human genome and other complex genomes. PMID:10449764

Mahairas, Gregory G.; Wallace, James C.; Smith, Kim; Swartzell, Steven; Holzman, Ted; Keller, Andrew; Shaker, Ron; Furlong, Jeff; Young, Janet; Zhao, Shaying; Adams, Mark D.; Hood, Leroy

1999-01-01

253

An Abundant Evolutionarily Conserved CSB-PiggyBac Fusion Protein Expressed in Cockayne Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a devastating progeria most often caused by mutations in the CSB gene encoding a SWI/SNF family chromatin remodeling protein. Although all CSB mutations that cause CS are recessive, the complete absence of CSB protein does not cause CS. In addition, most CSB mutations are located beyond exon 5 and are thought to generate only C-terminally truncated protein fragments. We now show that a domesticated PiggyBac-like transposon PGBD3, residing within intron 5 of the CSB gene, functions as an alternative 3? terminal exon. The alternatively spliced mRNA encodes a novel chimeric protein in which CSB exons 1–5 are joined in frame to the PiggyBac transposase. The resulting CSB-transposase fusion protein is as abundant as CSB protein itself in a variety of human cell lines, and continues to be expressed by primary CS cells in which functional CSB is lost due to mutations beyond exon 5. The CSB-transposase fusion protein has been highly conserved for at least 43 Myr since the divergence of humans and marmoset, and appears to be subject to selective pressure. The human genome contains over 600 nonautonomous PGBD3-related MER85 elements that were dispersed when the PGBD3 transposase was last active at least 37 Mya. Many of these MER85 elements are associated with genes which are involved in neuronal development, and are known to be regulated by CSB. We speculate that the CSB-transposase fusion protein has been conserved for host antitransposon defense, or to modulate gene regulation by MER85 elements, but may cause CS in the absence of functional CSB protein. PMID:18369450

Newman, John C.; Bailey, Arnold D.; Fan, Hua-Ying; Pavelitz, Thomas; Weiner, Alan M.

2008-01-01

254

Library Computing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special supplement to "Library Journal" and "School Library Journal" includes articles on technological dependency, promise of computers for reluctant readers, copyright and database downloading, access to neighborhood of Mister Rogers, library acquisitions, circulating personal computers, "microcomputeritis," simultaneous remote searching,…

Library Journal, 1985

1985-01-01

255

Digital Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This projects introduces digital libraries, digital initiatives, search techniques, and the Instructional Architect Review Rubric. Digital Library Information : The Scope of the Digital Library D-Lib Journal article, 1998 2008 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) Annual meeting devoted to Digital Libraries Initiatives : Digital Libraries Initiative The Initiative's focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, and make it available for searching, retrieval, and processing via communication networks -- all in ...

Heather

2008-09-29

256

PiggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer in Cashmere goat fetal fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

PiggyBac (PB) has recently been found to be functional in various organisms. To verify and exploit its application in the cashmere goat, a PB transposon system including donor and helper vector of was developed, in which the EGFP gene in donor of vector was used as reporter. Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts cells (GFFs) were transfected with the PB transposon system and the efficiency of gene transfer was determined. Compared with random integration, PB-mediated EGFP expression levels increased 7.78-fold in the GFFs, confirming that the PB transposon system constructed successfully mediated efficient foreign gene integration in the GFFs. To further investigate the characteristics of PB-mediated integration instance, PB integration site distribution in the goat genome was examined. The results showed that PB had a preference for AT rich regions of the goat genome. Thus this study confirms the function of PB transposon in GFFs and provides a potential genetic tool for producing transgenic goats. PMID:22738962

Bai, Ding-Ping; Yang, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yu-Lin

2012-01-01

257

BAC-Based Sequencing of Behaviorally-Relevant Genes in the Prairie Vole  

PubMed Central

The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is an important model organism for the study of social behavior, yet our ability to correlate genes and behavior in this species has been limited due to a lack of genetic and genomic resources. Here we report the BAC-based targeted sequencing of behaviorally-relevant genes and flanking regions in the prairie vole. A total of 6.4 Mb of non-redundant or haplotype-specific sequence assemblies were generated that span the partial or complete sequence of 21 behaviorally-relevant genes as well as an additional 55 flanking genes. Estimates of nucleotide diversity from 13 loci based on alignments of 1.7 Mb of haplotype-specific assemblies revealed an average pair-wise heterozygosity (8.4×10?3). Comparative analyses of the prairie vole proteins encoded by the behaviorally-relevant genes identified >100 substitutions specific to the prairie vole lineage. Finally, our sequencing data indicate that a duplication of the prairie vole AVPR1A locus likely originated from a recent segmental duplication spanning a minimum of 105 kb. In summary, the results of our study provide the genomic resources necessary for the molecular and genetic characterization of a high-priority set of candidate genes for regulating social behavior in the prairie vole. PMID:22238603

McGraw, Lisa A.; Davis, Jamie K.; Thomas, Pamela J.; Young, Larry J.; Thomas, James W.

2012-01-01

258

BAC-based sequencing of behaviorally-relevant genes in the prairie vole.  

PubMed

The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is an important model organism for the study of social behavior, yet our ability to correlate genes and behavior in this species has been limited due to a lack of genetic and genomic resources. Here we report the BAC-based targeted sequencing of behaviorally-relevant genes and flanking regions in the prairie vole. A total of 6.4 Mb of non-redundant or haplotype-specific sequence assemblies were generated that span the partial or complete sequence of 21 behaviorally-relevant genes as well as an additional 55 flanking genes. Estimates of nucleotide diversity from 13 loci based on alignments of 1.7 Mb of haplotype-specific assemblies revealed an average pair-wise heterozygosity (8.4×10(-3)). Comparative analyses of the prairie vole proteins encoded by the behaviorally-relevant genes identified >100 substitutions specific to the prairie vole lineage. Finally, our sequencing data indicate that a duplication of the prairie vole AVPR1A locus likely originated from a recent segmental duplication spanning a minimum of 105 kb. In summary, the results of our study provide the genomic resources necessary for the molecular and genetic characterization of a high-priority set of candidate genes for regulating social behavior in the prairie vole. PMID:22238603

McGraw, Lisa A; Davis, Jamie K; Thomas, Pamela J; Young, Larry J; Thomas, James W

2012-01-01

259

A new genomic tool, ultra-frequently cleaving TaqII/sinefungin endonuclease with a combined 2.9-bp recognition site, applied to the construction of horse DNA libraries  

PubMed Central

Background Genomics and metagenomics are currently leading research areas, with DNA sequences accumulating at an exponential rate. Although enormous advances in DNA sequencing technologies are taking place, progress is frequently limited by factors such as genomic contig assembly and generation of representative libraries. A number of DNA fragmentation methods, such as hydrodynamic sharing, sonication or DNase I fragmentation, have various drawbacks, including DNA damage, poor fragmentation control, irreproducibility and non-overlapping DNA segment representation. Improvements in these limited DNA scission methods are consequently needed. An alternative method for obtaining higher quality DNA fragments involves partial digestion with restriction endonucleases (REases). We have shown previously that class-IIS/IIC/IIG TspGWI REase, the prototype member of the Thermus sp. enzyme family, can be chemically relaxed by a cofactor analogue, allowing it to recognize very short DNA sequences of 3-bp combined frequency. Such frequently cleaving REases are extremely rare, with CviJI/CviJI*, SetI and FaiI the only other ones found in nature. Their unusual features make them very useful molecular tools for the development of representative DNA libraries. Results We constructed a horse genomic library and a deletion derivative library of the butyrylcholinesterase cDNA coding region using a novel method, based on TaqII, Thermus sp. family bifunctional enzyme exhibiting cofactor analogue specificity relaxation. We used sinefungin (SIN) – an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) analogue with reversed charge pattern, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), to convert the 6-bp recognition site TaqII (5?-GACCGA-3? [11/9]) into a theoretical 2.9-bp REase, with 70 shortened variants of the canonical recognition sequence detected. Because partial DNA cleavage is an inherent feature of the Thermus sp. enzyme family, this modified TaqII is uniquely suited to quasi-random library generation. Conclusions In the presence of SIN/DMSO, TaqII REase is transformed from cleaving every 4096 bp on average to cleaving every 58 bp. TaqII SIN/DMSO thus extends the palette of available REase prototype specificities. This phenomenon, employed under partial digestion conditions, was applied to quasi-random DNA fragmentation. Further applications include high sensitivity probe generation and metagenomic DNA amplification. PMID:23724933

2013-01-01

260

Isolation of rare recombinants without using selectable markers for one-step seamless BAC mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Current methods to isolate rare (1:10,000-1:100,000) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombinants require selectable markers. For seamless BAC mutagenesis, selectable markers need to be removed after isolation of recombinants through counterselection. Here we illustrate founder principle-driven enrichment (FPE), a simple method to rapidly isolate rare recombinants without using selectable markers, allowing one-step seamless BAC mutagenesis. As proof of principle, we isolated 1:100,000 seamless fluorescent protein-modified Nodal BACs and confirmed BAC functionality by generating fluorescent reporter mice. We also isolated small indel P1 phage-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) and BAC recombinants. Statistical analysis revealed that 1:100,000 recombinants can be isolated with <40 PCRs, and we developed a web-based calculator to optimize FPE. PMID:25028895

Lyozin, George T; Bressloff, Paul C; Kumar, Amit; Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Demarest, Bradley L; Yost, H Joseph; Kuehn, Michael R; Brunelli, Luca

2014-09-01

261

AC\\/O 3BAC processes for removing refractory and hazardous pollutants in raw water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbon (AC)\\/O3-biological activated carbon (BAC) process was employed to treat raw water and compared to O3-BAC process in its optimum parameters (3mg\\/L ozone dosage with 15min oxidation time and 15min empty bed contact time in BAC). The results showed that the presence of AC improved ozone utilization and biodegradability of the effluent. For dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal,

Laisheng Li; Wanpeng Zhu; Pengyi Zhang; Qiuyun Zhang; Zulin Zhang

2006-01-01

262

DRUNK DRIVING LEGISLATION AND TRAFFIC FATALITIES: NEW EVIDENCE ON BAC 08 LAWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reexamines the effectiveness of blood alcohol content (BAC) laws in reducing traffic fatalities. Differences-in-differences estimators of U.S. state-level data with standard errors corrected for autocorrelation show no evidence that lowering the BAC limits to 0.08 g\\/dL reduced fatality rates, either in total or in crashes likely to be alcohol related, or in states that passed BAC 08 in

DONALD G. FREEMAN

2007-01-01

263

Library 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 1984, the Georgia Institute of Technology administration and library staff began planning for Library 2000, a project aimed at creating a showcase library to demonstrate the application of the latest information technology in an academic and research environment. The purposes of Library 2000 include: increasing awareness of students,…

Drake, Miriam A.

264

Special Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Special Library is distinguished from other libraries as being a library serving a particular group of readers, who have an existence as a group outside of their readership of the library, and whose members direct at least some of their activities towards a common purpose. Thus, the special librarian's first and major responsibility is to know…

Foskett, D. J.

265

Library Computing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Library Journal's" fourth semiannual section on library automation provides basic and introductory articles on: remote public access to automated library systems, electronic bulletin boards, the online integrated automation system at the Oklahoma City public library, and buying a phone system. Tables include statistics on various aspects of…

Sloan, Bernard C.; And Others

1986-01-01

266

Three minimum tile paths from bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of the soybean (Glycine max cv. 'Forrest'): tools for structural and functional genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The creation of minimally redundant tile paths (hereafter MTP) from contiguous sets of overlapping clones (hereafter contigs) in physical maps is a critical step for structural and functional genomics. Build 4 of the physical map of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. 'Forrest') showed the 1 Gbp haploid genome was composed of 0.7 Gbp diploid, 0.1 Gbp tetraploid and

JL Shultz; C Yesudas; S Yaegashi; AJ Afzal; S Kazi; DA Lightfoot

2006-01-01

267

Genomic organisation analysis of novel immunoglobulin-like transcripts in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals a tightly clustered and multigene family  

PubMed Central

Background Several novel immunoglobulin-like transcripts (NILTs) which have previously been identified in the salmonid species rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) contain either one or two extracellular Ig domains of the V-type. NILTs also possess either an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activating motif (ITAM) or immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic region resulting in different signalling abilities. Here we report for the first time the genomic organisation and structure of the multigene family of NILTs in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using a BAC sequencing approach. Results We have identified six novel Atlantic salmon NILT genes (Ssa-NILT1-6), two pseudogenes (Ssa-NILTp1 and Ssa-NILTp2) and seven genes encoding putative transposable elements in one BAC covering more than 200 kbp. Ssa-NILT1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 contain one Ig domain, all having a CX3C motif, whereas Ssa-NILT3 contains two Ig domains, having a CX6C motif in Ig1 and a CX7C motif in Ig2. Atlantic salmon NILTs possess several ITIMs in the cytoplasmic region and the ITIM-bearing exons are in phase 0. A comparison of identity between the amino acid sequences of the CX3C Ig domains from NILTs varies from 77% to 96%. Ssa-NILT1, 2, 3 and 4 were all confirmed to be expressed either by their presence in EST databases (Ssa-NILT1) or RT-PCR (Ssa-NILT2, 3, and 4) using cDNA as template. A survey of the repertoire of putative NILT genes in a single individual revealed three novel genes (Ssa-NILT7-9) represented by the Ig domain, which together with Ig domains from Ssa-NILT1-6 could be divided into different groups based on specific motifs. Conclusions This report reveals a tightly clustered, multigene NILT family in Atlantic salmon. By screening a highly redundant Atlantic salmon BAC library we have identified and characterised the genomic organisation of six genes encoding NILT receptors. The genes show similar characteristics to NILTs previously identified in rainbow trout, having highly conserved cysteines in the Ig domain and several inhibitory signalling motifs in the cytoplasmic region. In a single individual three unique NILT Ig domain sequences were discovered at the genomic DNA level, which were divided into two different groups based on a four residue motif after the third cysteine. Our results from the BAC screening and analysis on the repertoire of NILT genes in a single individual indicates that many genes of this expanding Ig containing NILT family are still to be discovered in fish. PMID:21143889

2010-01-01

268

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY  

E-print Network

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY Burlington Street Tel: 0161 275 3751 THE ALAN GILBERT LEARNING COMMONS Oxford Road Tel: 0161 306 4306 ART & ARCHAEOLOGY LIBRARY Mansfield Cooper Building Tel: 0161 275 3657 BRADDICK LIBRARY School of Physics & Astronomy Brunswick Street Tel: 0161 275 4078 EDDIE DAVIES

Sidorov, Nikita

269

Role of Bacillus subtilis BacB in the synthesis of bacilysin.  

PubMed

Bacilysin is a non-ribosomally synthesized dipeptide antibiotic that is active against a wide range of bacteria and some fungi. Synthesis of bacilysin (l-alanine-[2,3-epoxycyclohexano-4]-l-alanine) is achieved by proteins in the bac operon, also referred to as the bacABCDE (ywfBCDEF) gene cluster in B. subtilis. Extensive genetic analysis from several strains of B. subtilis suggests that the bacABC gene cluster encodes all the proteins that synthesize the epoxyhexanone ring of l-anticapsin. These data, however, were not consistent with the putative functional annotation for these proteins whereby BacA, a prephenate dehydratase along with a potential isomerase/guanylyl transferase, BacB and an oxidoreductase, BacC, could synthesize l-anticapsin. Here we demonstrate that BacA is a decarboxylase that acts on prephenate. Further, based on the biochemical characterization and the crystal structure of BacB, we show that BacB is an oxidase that catalyzes the synthesis of 2-oxo-3-(4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dienyl)propanoic acid, a precursor to l-anticapsin. This protein is a bi-cupin, with two putative active sites each containing a bound metal ion. Additional electron density at the active site of the C-terminal domain of BacB could be interpreted as a bound phenylpyruvic acid. A significant decrease in the catalytic activity of a point variant of BacB with a mutation at the N-terminal domain suggests that the N-terminal cupin domain is involved in catalysis. PMID:19776011

Rajavel, Malligarjunan; Mitra, Ashima; Gopal, Balasubramanian

2009-11-13

270

Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato  

PubMed Central

The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1?cM and an average of 750?kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ?214?000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

Foolad, Majid R.

2007-01-01

271

Genome mapping and molecular breeding of tomato.  

PubMed

The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum x L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1 cM and an average of 750 kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes approximately 214 000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

Foolad, Majid R

2007-01-01

272

BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF) or chorionic villus (CV) samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding) of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples. PMID:24795887

Martinez-Conejero, Jose Antonio; Serra, Vicente; Olmo, Ines; Lara, Coral; Simon, Carlos

2014-01-01

273

Analysis of 90 Mb of the potato genome reveals conservation of gene structures and order with tomato but divergence in repetitive sequence composition  

PubMed Central

Background The Solanaceae family contains a number of important crop species including potato (Solanum tuberosum) which is grown for its underground storage organ known as a tuber. Albeit the 4th most important food crop in the world, other than a collection of ~220,000 Expressed Sequence Tags, limited genomic sequence information is currently available for potato and advances in potato yield and nutrition content would be greatly assisted through access to a complete genome sequence. While morphologically diverse, Solanaceae species such as potato, tomato, pepper, and eggplant share not only genes but also gene order thereby permitting highly informative comparative genomic analyses. Results In this study, we report on analysis 89.9 Mb of potato genomic sequence representing 10.2% of the genome generated through end sequencing of a potato bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone library (87 Mb) and sequencing of 22 potato BAC clones (2.9 Mb). The GC content of potato is very similar to Solanum lycopersicon (tomato) and other dicotyledonous species yet distinct from the monocotyledonous grass species, Oryza sativa. Parallel analyses of repetitive sequences in potato and tomato revealed substantial differences in their abundance, 34.2% in potato versus 46.3% in tomato, which is consistent with the increased genome size per haploid genome of these two Solanum species. Specific classes and types of repetitive sequences were also differentially represented between these two species including a telomeric-related repetitive sequence, ribosomal DNA, and a number of unclassified repetitive sequences. Comparative analyses between tomato and potato at the gene level revealed a high level of conservation of gene content, genic feature, and gene order although discordances in synteny were observed. Conclusion Genomic level analyses of potato and tomato confirm that gene sequence and gene order are conserved between these solanaceous species and that this conservation can be leveraged in genomic applications including cross-species annotation and genome sequencing initiatives. While tomato and potato share genic features, they differ in their repetitive sequence content and composition suggesting that repetitive sequences may have a more significant role in shaping speciation than previously reported. PMID:18554403

Zhu, Wei; Ouyang, Shu; Iovene, Marina; O'Brien, Kimberly; Vuong, Hue; Jiang, Jiming; Buell, C Robin

2008-01-01

274

Sequence-Tagged Connectors: A Sequence Approach to Mapping and Scanning the Human Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence-tagged connector (STC) strategy proposes to generate sequence tags densely scattered (every 3.3 kilobases) across the human genome by arraying 450,000 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with randomly cleaved inserts, sequencing both ends of each, and preparing a restriction enzyme fingerprint of each. The STC resource, containing end sequences, fingerprints, and arrayed BACs, creates a map where the interrelationships of

Gregory G. Mahairas; James C. Wallace; Kim Smith; Steven Swartzell; Ted Holzman; Andrew Keller; Ron Shaker; Jepf Furlong; Janet Young; Shaying Zhao; Mark D. Adams; Leroy Hood

1999-01-01

275

Optical Mapping of BAC Clones from the Human Y Chromosome DAZ Locus  

E-print Network

Optical Mapping of BAC Clones from the Human Y Chromosome DAZ Locus Joseph Giacalone,1 Stephanie a set of 16 BAC clones derived from the DAZ locus of the human Y chromosome long arm, a locus in which­Biotechnology Center, University of Wisconsin­Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA The accurate mapping of clones

Mishra, Bud

276

Efficient transformation of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report efficient germ-line transformation in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti accomplished using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Two transgenic lines were established and characterized; each contained the Vg-Defensin A transgene with strong eye-specific expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene regulated by the artificial 3xP3 promoter. Southern blot hybridization and inverse PCR analyses

V. Kokoza; A. Ahmed; E. A. Wimmer; A. S. Raikhel

2001-01-01

277

Library Buildings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines a century of library architecture in relation to the changing perceptions of library functions, the development of building techniques and materials, fluctuating esthetic fashions and sometimes wildly erratic economic climates. (Author)

Allen, Walter C.

1976-01-01

278

Special Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)

Lavendel, Giuliana

1977-01-01

279

The Genome Sequence of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium virguliforme That Causes Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean  

PubMed Central

Fusarium virguliforme causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, a disease of serious concern throughout most of the soybean producing regions of the world. Despite the global importance, little is known about the pathogenesis mechanisms of F. virguliforme. Thus, we applied Next-Generation DNA Sequencing to reveal the draft F. virguliforme genome sequence and identified putative pathogenicity genes to facilitate discovering the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We have generated the draft genome sequence of F. virguliforme by conducting whole-genome shotgun sequencing on a 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Initially, single-end reads of a 400-bp shotgun library were assembled using the PCAP program. Paired end sequences from 3 and 20 Kb DNA fragments and approximately 100 Kb inserts of 1,400 BAC clones were used to generate the assembled genome. The assembled genome sequence was 51 Mb. The N50 scaffold number was 11 with an N50 Scaffold length of 1,263 Kb. The AUGUSTUS gene prediction program predicted 14,845 putative genes, which were annotated with Pfam and GO databases. Gene distributions were uniform in all but one of the major scaffolds. Phylogenic analyses revealed that F. virguliforme was closely related to the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca. Of the 14,845 F. virguliforme genes, 11,043 were conserved among five Fusarium species: F. virguliforme, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum and N. haematococca; and 1,332 F. virguliforme-specific genes, which may include pathogenicity genes. Additionally, searches for candidate F. virguliforme pathogenicity genes using gene sequences of the pathogen-host interaction database identified 358 genes. Conclusions The F. virguliforme genome sequence and putative pathogenicity genes presented here will facilitate identification of pathogenicity mechanisms involved in SDS development. Together, these resources will expedite our efforts towards discovering pathogenicity mechanisms in F. virguliforme. This will ultimately lead to improvement of SDS resistance in soybean. PMID:24454689

Srivastava, Subodh K.; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Brar, Hargeet K.; Fakhoury, Ahmad M.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

2014-01-01

280

DNA transposition by protein transduction of the piggyBac transposase from lentiviral Gag precursors  

PubMed Central

DNA transposon-based vectors have emerged as gene vehicles with a wide biomedical and therapeutic potential. So far, genomic insertion of such vectors has relied on the co-delivery of genetic material encoding the gene-inserting transposase protein, raising concerns related to persistent expression, insertional mutagenesis and cytotoxicity. This report describes potent DNA transposition achieved by direct delivery of transposase protein. By adapting integrase-deficient lentiviral particles (LPs) as carriers of the hyperactive piggyBac transposase protein (hyPBase), we demonstrate rates of DNA transposition that are comparable with the efficiency of a conventional plasmid-based strategy. Embedded in the Gag polypeptide, hyPBase is robustly incorporated into LPs and liberated from the viral proteins by the viral protease during particle maturation. We demonstrate lentiviral co-delivery of the transposase protein and vector RNA carrying the transposon sequence, allowing robust DNA transposition in a variety of cell types. Importantly, this novel delivery method facilitates a balanced cellular uptake of hyPBase, as shown by confocal microscopy, and allows high-efficiency production of clones harboring a single transposon insertion. Our findings establish engineered LPs as a new tool for transposase delivery. We believe that protein transduction methods will increase applicability and safety of DNA transposon-based vector technologies. PMID:24270790

Cai, Yujia; Bak, Rasmus O.; Krogh, Louise Bechmann; Staunstrup, Nicklas H.; Moldt, Brian; Corydon, Thomas J.; Schr?der, Lisbeth Dahl; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

2014-01-01

281

Abundance and characterization of simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) isolated from a size-fractionated genomic library of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A size-fractionated library of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed), composed of 15000 clones, was screened for the presence of GA-, CA-, and GATA-simple-sequence repeats (SSRs). GA-SSRs were four- and five-fold more abundant than CA- and GATA-SSRs, respectively, and present at a frequency of approximately one SSR for every 100 kb of DNA. Following the sequencing of 124 positive clones, primer pairs

S. Kresovich; A. K. Szewc-McFadden; S. M. Bliek; J. R. McFerson

1995-01-01

282

Analysis of a genomic DNA expression library of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using tuberculosis patient sera: evidence for modulation of host immune response.  

PubMed Central

DNA obtained from a human sputum isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, NTI-64719, which showed extensive dissemination in the guinea pig model resulting in a high score for virulence was used to construct an expression library in the lambda ZAP vector. The size of DNA inserts in the library ranged from 1 to 3 kb, and recombinants represented 60% of the total plaques obtained. When probed with pooled serum from chronically infected tuberculosis patients, the library yielded 176 recombinants with a range of signal intensities. Among these, 93 recombinants were classified into 12 groups on the basis of DNA hybridization experiments. The polypeptides synthesized by the recombinants were predominantly LacZ fusion proteins. Serum obtained from patients who were clinically diagnosed to be in the early phase of M. tuberculosis infection was used to probe the 176 recombinants obtained. Interestingly, some recombinants that gave very strong signals in the original screen did not react with early-phase serum; conversely, other whose signals were extremely weak in the original screen gave very intense signals with serum from recently infected patients. This indicates the differential nature of either the expression of these antigens or the immune response elicited by them as a function of disease progression. PMID:8751927

Amara, R R; Satchidanandam, V

1996-01-01

283

Post-Integration stability of piggyBac in Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

The post-integration activity of piggyBac transposable element gene vectors in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was tested under a variety of conditions. The embryos from five independent transgenic lines of Aedes aegypti, each with a single integrated non-autonomous piggyBac transposable element gene vector, were injected with plasmids containing the piggyBac transposase open-reading frame under the regulatory control of the Drosophila melanogaster hsp70 promoter. No evidence for somatic remobilization was detected in the subsequent adults whereas somatic remobilization was readily detected when similar lines of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster were injected with the same piggyBac transposase-expressing plasmid. Aedes aegypti heterozygotes of piggyBac reporter-containing transgenes and piggyBac transposase-expressing transgenes showed no evidence of somatic and germ-line remobilization based on phenotypic and molecular detection methods. The post-integration mobility properties of piggyBac in Aedes aegypti enhance the utility of this gene vector for certain applications, particularly those where any level of vector remobilization is unacceptable. PMID:17681233

Sethuraman, Nagaraja; Fraser, Malcolm J.; Eggleston, Paul; O'Brochta, David. A

2008-01-01

284

Infectious delivery of the 132 kb CDKN2A\\/CDKN2B genomic DNA region results in correctly spliced gene expression and growth suppression in glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of genes from genomic loci can be relatively complex, utilizing exonic, intronic and flanking sequences to regulate tissue and developmental specificity. Infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (iBACs) have been shown to deliver and express large genomic loci (up to 135 kb) into primary cells for functional analyses. The delivery of large genomic DNA inserts allows the expression of complex

R Inoue; K A Moghaddam; M Ranasinghe; Y Saeki; E A Chiocca; R Wade-Martins

2004-01-01

285

Libraries program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

2011-01-01

286

Status and opportunities for genomics research with rainbow trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely studied of model fish species. Extensive basic biological information has been collected for this species, which because of their large size relative to other model fish species are particularly suitable for studies requiring ample quantities of specific cells and tissue types. Rainbow trout have been widely utilized for research in carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. They are distinctive in having evolved from a relatively recent tetraploid event, resulting in a high incidence of duplicated genes. Natural populations are available and have been well characterized for chromosomal, protein, molecular and quantitative genetic variation. Their ease of culture, and experimental and aquacultural significance has led to the development of clonal lines and the widespread application of transgenic technology to this species. Numerous microsatellites have been isolated and two relatively detailed genetic maps have been developed. Extensive sequencing of expressed sequence tags has begun and four BAC libraries have been developed. The development and analysis of additional genomic sequence data will provide distinctive opportunities to address problems in areas such as evolution of the immune system and duplicate genes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

Thorgaard, G.H.; Bailey, G.S.; Williams, D.; Buhler, D.R.; Kaattari, S.L.; Ristow, S.S.; Hansen, J.D.; Winton, J.R.; Bartholomew, J.L.; Nagler, J.J.; Walsh, P.J.; Vijayan, M.M.; Devlin, R.H.; Hardy, R.W.; Overturf, K.E.; Young, W.P.; Robison, B.D.; Rexroad, C.; Palti, Y.

2002-01-01

287

Preparation of PAC libraries. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project were to create P1 Artificial Chromosome (PAC) cloning vectors and use these vectors to generate, characterize, and distribute both human and mouse genomic PAC libraries to the scientific community.

Pieter J. de Jong

1997-12-31

288

Mapping of the CCXCR1, CX3CR1, CCBP2 and CCR9 genes to the CCR cluster within the 3p21.3 region of the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human CC-chemokine receptor genes are known to be clustered. The detailed structure of this cluster was established by radiation hybrid mapping, and organization of BAC contigs by fluorescence hybridization on combed genomic DNA. A main cluster of six genes (CCR1, CCR3, CCRL2, CCR5, CCR2 and CCXCR1), covered by four BACs, was mapped to the 3p21.3 region of the human genome.

A. Maho; A. Bensimon; G. Vassart; M. Parmentier

1999-01-01

289

Construction and characterization of two bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of pea ( Pisum sativum L.) for the isolation of economically important genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has a genome of about 4 Gb that appears to share conserved synteny with model le- gumes having genomes of 0.2-0.4 Gb despite extensive intergenic expansion. Pea plant inventory (PI) accession 269818 has been used to introgress genetic diversity into the cultivated germplasm pool. The aim here was to develop pea bacte- rial artificial chromosome (BAC)

C. J. Coyne; M. T. McClendon; J. G. Walling; G. M. Timmerman-Vaughan; S. Murray; K. Meksem; D. A. Lightfoot; J. L. Shultz; K. E. Keller; R. R. Martin; D. A. Inglis; P. N. Rajesh; K. E. McPhee; N. F. Weeden; M. A. Grusak; C.-M. Li; E. W. Storlie

2007-01-01

290

Minnesota: Library Automation and Technology in Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of library automation in Minnesota. Topics include regional public library systems; library automation vendors; multitype library systems; postsecondary and academic libraries; state government libraries; the Internet; telecommunications and statewide online system legislation and funding; and state library agency involvement…

Feye-Stukas, Jan

1996-01-01

291

America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

2009-01-01

292

Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond  

E-print Network

The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic ...

Feng, Guoping

293

A physical map for the Amborella trichopoda genome sheds light on the evolution of angiosperm genome structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering\\u000a plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to\\u000a root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end

Andrea Zuccolo; John E Bowers; James C Estill; Zhiyong Xiong; Meizhong Luo; Aswathy Sebastian; José Luis Goicoechea; Kristi Collura; Yeisoo Yu; Yuannian Jiao; Jill Duarte; Haibao Tang; Saravanaraj Ayyampalayam; Steve Rounsley; Dave Kudrna; Andrew H Paterson; J Chris Pires; Andre Chanderbali; Douglas E Soltis; Srikar Chamala; Brad Barbazuk; Pamela S Soltis; Victor A Albert; Hong Ma; Dina Mandoli; Jody Banks; John E Carlson; Jeffrey Tomkins; Claude W dePamphilis; Rod A Wing; Jim Leebens-Mack

2011-01-01

294

Genetic Analysis of the Sinorhizobium meliloti BacA Protein: Differential Effects of Mutations on Phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinorhizobium meliloti strains lacking BacA function are impaired in symbiosis with alfalfa host plants and display altered sensitivities to a number of compounds relative to wild-type strains. With the goal of finding clues to the currently unknown biological function(s) of BacA, we carried out a genetic analysis to determine which amino acids are critical for protein function and to attempt

KRISTIN LEVIER; GRAHAM C. WALKER

2001-01-01

295

Cloning and characterization of piggyBac - like elements in lepidopteran insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

PiggyBac-like elements (PLE) are widespread in variety of organisms, however, few of them are active or have an intact transposon\\u000a structure. To further define the distribution PLEs in Lepidoptera, where the original active piggyBac IFP2 was discovered, and potentially isolate new functional elements, a survey for PLEs by PCR amplification and Southern\\u000a dot blots was performed. Two new PLEs, AyPLE

Min Wu; Zhichan Sun; Guanghua Luo; Chunlin Hu; Wei Zhang; Zhaojun Han

2011-01-01

296

Digital Screening for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) in a Southern Nigeria City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was digitally determined for transport operators, passengers, and pedestrians in a southern Nigeria city.Methods. The subjects were screened with a digital breathalyzer, Alco Scan CA 2000, for BAC along major accident-prone highways, resting spots, and hospitals. The mouthpieces were complemented with disposable straws for rapid and hygienic screening of the subjects.Results. Based on convenience sampling,

Edeaghe E. Ehikhamenor; Hope O. Obianwuho

2006-01-01

297

BacT\\/Alert: anAutomated Colorimetric Microbial Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

BacT\\/Alert (Organon Teknika Corp., Durham, N.C.) isanautomated microbial detection system based on thecolorimetric detection ofC02produced bygrowing microorganisms. Results ofanevaluation ofthemedia, sensor, detection system, anddetection algorithm indicate thatthesystem reliably growsanddetects awide variety ofbacteria andfungi. Results ofalimited pilot clinical trial withaprototype research instrument indicate thatthesystem iscomparable totheradiometric BACTEC460system initsability togrowanddetect microorganisms inblood. Onthebasis ofthese initial findings, large-scale clinical trials comparing BacT\\/Alert withother

THURMAN C. THORPE; MICHAEL L. WILSON; JAMES E. TURNER; L. BARTH RELLER

1990-01-01

298

Initial and Continuous Commissioning of Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) -Preview EN ISO 16484-  

E-print Network

Forst 0 04 91 72/ 2 92 60 21 hans@kranz.com INITIAL AND CONTINUOUS COMMISSIONING OF BUILDING AUTOMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS (BACS) - PREVIEW EN ISO 16484 - Did you ever think about: ?why are our buildings so dumb?? The simple answer might be... integrated building management comprising building automation and control (BAC) along with fire safety and/or security. Those solutions require coordinated procedures during the design phase as well as during the execution phase. For energy performance...

Kranz, H. R.

2008-01-01

299

Design and validation of a pericentromeric BAC clone set aimed at improving diagnosis and phenotype prediction of supernumerary marker chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) are additional, structurally abnormal chromosomes, generally smaller than chromosome 20 of the same metaphase spread. Due to their small size, they are difficult to characterize by conventional cytogenetics alone. In regard to their clinical effects, sSMCs are a heterogeneous group: in particular, sSMCs containing pericentromeric euchromatin are likely to be associated with abnormal outcomes, although exceptions have been reported. To improve characterization of the genetic content of sSMCs, several approaches might be applied based on different molecular and molecular-cytogenetic assays, e.g., fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). To provide a complementary tool for the characterization of sSMCs, we constructed and validated a new, FISH-based, pericentromeric Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clone set that with a high resolution spans the most proximal euchromatic sequences of all human chromosome arms, excluding the acrocentric short arms. Results By FISH analysis, we assayed 561 pericentromeric BAC probes and excluded 75 that showed a wrong chromosomal localization. The remaining 486 probes were used to establish 43 BAC-based pericentromeric panels. Each panel consists of a core, which with a high resolution covers the most proximal euchromatic ~0.7 Mb (on average) of each chromosome arm and generally bridges the heterochromatin/euchromatin junction, as well as clones located proximally and distally to the core. The pericentromeric clone set was subsequently validated by the characterization of 19 sSMCs. Using the core probes, we could rapidly distinguish between heterochromatic (1/19) and euchromatic (11/19) sSMCs, and estimate the euchromatic DNA content, which ranged from approximately 0.13 to more than 10 Mb. The characterization was not completed for seven sSMCs due to a lack of information about the covered region in the reference sequence (1/19) or sample insufficiency (6/19). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this pericentromeric clone set is useful as an alternative tool for sSMC characterization, primarily in cases of very small SMCs that contain either heterochromatin exclusively or a tiny amount of euchromatic sequence, and also in cases of low-level or cryptic mosaicism. The resulting data will foster knowledge of human proximal euchromatic regions involved in chromosomal imbalances, thereby improving genotype–phenotype correlations. PMID:24171812

2013-01-01

300

AC/O3-BAC processes for removing refractory and hazardous pollutants in raw water.  

PubMed

Granular activated carbon (AC)/O(3)-biological activated carbon (BAC) process was employed to treat raw water and compared to O(3)-BAC process in its optimum parameters (3 mg/L ozone dosage with 15 min oxidation time and 15 min empty bed contact time in BAC). The results showed that the presence of AC improved ozone utilization and biodegradability of the effluent. For dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, AC/O(3)-BAC was more efficient than O(3)-BAC and its synergetic effect could be noticed. It was showed that small molecules with molecular weight (MW)<3 kDa predominated in the raw water accounting for more than 56% DOC, and their amount increased after oxidation, accounting for more than 64% DOC. Except for organic pollutants with MW>10 kDa, those of other MW range were decomposed better by AC/O(3) process than by O(3) process alone. GC/MS analysis showed that AC/O(3)-BAC process was effective in removing phthalate esters (PAEs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PAEs' removal ratio reached more than 93% and reduced with the increase of the length of the alkyl side chains and the alkyl branch chains. POPs-polybromobiphenyls' removal reached more than 94% except for 2,2',4,5',6-pentabromophenyl and decreased with the substitutional bromines increase except for 2,2',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl, which could be completely removed. PMID:16386361

Li, Laisheng; Zhu, Wanpeng; Zhang, Pengyi; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zhang, Zulin

2006-07-31

301

Absolute quantitation of Marek's disease virus genome copy number in chicken feather and lymphocyte samples using real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time PCR method was developed, optimised and validated, to enable quantitation of Marek's disease virus genomes as copy number per million host cells. The duplex PCR measured the virus meq gene and host ovotransferrin gene in a single reaction enabling correction for differences in amount of sample DNA added. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of the virus genome,

Susan J. Baigent; Lawrence J. Petherbridge; Ken Howes; Lorraine P. Smith; Richard J. W. Currie; Venugopal K. Nair

2005-01-01

302

Region-specific deficits in dopamine, but not norepinephrine, signaling in a novel A30P ?-synuclein BAC transgenic mouse.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder classically characterized by the death of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and by intracellular Lewy bodies composed largely of ?-synuclein. Approximately 5-10% of PD patients have a familial form of Parkinsonism, including mutations in ?-synuclein. To better understand the cell-type specific role of ?-synuclein on DA neurotransmission, and the effects of the disease-associated A30P mutation, we generated and studied a novel transgenic model of PD. We expressed the A30P mutant form of human ?-synuclein in a spatially-relevant manner from the 111kb SNCA genomic DNA locus on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) insert on a mouse null (Snca-/-) background. The BAC transgenic mice expressed ?-synuclein in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and expression of either A30P ?-synuclein or wildtype ?-synuclein restored the sensitivity of DA neurons to MPTP in resistant Snca-/- animals. A30P ?-synuclein mice showed no Lewy body-like aggregation, and did not lose catecholamine neurons in substantia nigra or locus coeruleus. However, using cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes we identified a deficit in evoked DA release in the caudate putamen, but not in the nucleus accumbens, of SNCA-A30P Snca-/- mice but no changes to release of another catecholamine, norepinephrine (NE), in the NE-rich ventral bed nucleus of stria terminalis. SNCA-A30P Snca-/- mice had no overt behavioral impairments but exhibited a mild increase in wheel-running. In summary, this refined PD mouse model shows that A30P ?-synuclein preferentially perturbs the dopaminergic system in the dorsal striatum, reflecting the region-specific change seen in PD. PMID:24121116

Taylor, Tonya N; Potgieter, Dawid; Anwar, Sabina; Senior, Steven L; Janezic, Stephanie; Threlfell, Sarah; Ryan, Brent; Parkkinen, Laura; Deltheil, Thierry; Cioroch, Milena; Livieratos, Achilleas; Oliver, Peter L; Jennings, Katie A; Davies, Kay E; Ansorge, Olaf; Bannerman, David M; Cragg, Stephanie J; Wade-Martins, Richard

2014-02-01

303

Helper-independent piggyBac plasmids for gene delivery approaches: Strategies for avoiding potential genotoxic effects  

PubMed Central

Efficient integration of functional genes is an essential prerequisite for successful gene delivery such as cell transfection, animal transgenesis, and gene therapy. Gene delivery strategies based on viral vectors are currently the most efficient. However, limited cargo capacity, host immune response, and the risk of insertional mutagenesis are limiting factors and of concern. Recently, several groups have used transposon-based approaches to deliver genes to a variety of cells. The piggyBac (pB) transposase in particular has been shown to be well suited for cell transfection and gene therapy approaches because of its flexibility for molecular modification, large cargo capacity, and high transposition activity. However, safety considerations regarding transposase gene insertions into host genomes have rarely been addressed. Here we report our results on engineering helper-independent pB plasmids. The single-plasmid gene delivery system carries both the piggyBac transposase (pBt) expression cassette as well as the transposon cargo flanked by terminal repeat element sequences. Improvements to the helper-independent structure were achieved by developing new plasmids in which the pBt gene is rendered inactive after excision of the transposon from the plasmid. As a consequence, potentially negative effects that may develop by the persistence of an active pBt gene posttransposition are eliminated. The results presented herein demonstrate that our helper-independent plasmids represent an important step in the development of safe and efficient gene delivery methods that should prove valuable in gene therapy and transgenic approaches. PMID:20404201

Urschitz, Johann; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Owens, Jesse; Morozumi, Kazuto; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Stoytchev, Ilko; Marh, Joel; Dee, James A.; Kawamoto, Kris; Coates, Craig J.; Kaminski, Joseph M.; Pelczar, Pawel; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Moisyadi, Stefan

2010-01-01

304

Expression of green fluorescent protein in the chicken using in vivo transfection of the piggyBac transposon.  

PubMed

The chicken is a well-established model system for studying developmental biology and is recognized as one of the top food production animals in the world. For this reason the chicken is an excellent candidate for transgenic applications, as the technology can be applied to both areas of research. Transgenic technology has not been broadly utilized in the chicken model, however, primarily due to difficulties in targeting germ cells and establishing germ line transmission. Transgenic technologies using non-replicating viral particles have been used in the chick, but are unsuitable for many applications because of size and sequence restraints and low efficiency. To create a more versatile method to target chick germ line stem cells, we utilized the transposable element system piggyBac paired with an in vivo transfection reagent, JetPEI. piggyBac has been previously shown to be highly active in mammalian cells and will transpose into the chicken genome. Here, we show that JetPEI can transfect multiple chick cell types, most notably germline stem cells. We also show that pairing these two reagents is a viable and reproducible method for long-term expression of a transgene in the chicken. Stable expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene was seen in multiple tissue types including heart, brain, liver, intestine, kidney and gonad. Combining an in vivo transfection strategy with the PB system provides a simple and flexible method for efficiently producing stable chimeric birds and could be used for production of germ line transgenics. PMID:24452099

Jordan, Brian J; Vogel, Seth; Stark, Michael R; Beckstead, Robert B

2014-03-10

305

Region-specific deficits in dopamine, but not norepinephrine, signaling in a novel A30P ?-synuclein BAC transgenic mouse?  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder classically characterized by the death of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and by intracellular Lewy bodies composed largely of ?-synuclein. Approximately 5–10% of PD patients have a familial form of Parkinsonism, including mutations in ?-synuclein. To better understand the cell-type specific role of ?-synuclein on DA neurotransmission, and the effects of the disease-associated A30P mutation, we generated and studied a novel transgenic model of PD. We expressed the A30P mutant form of human ?-synuclein in a spatially-relevant manner from the 111 kb SNCA genomic DNA locus on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) insert on a mouse null (Snca ?/?) background. The BAC transgenic mice expressed ?-synuclein in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and expression of either A30P ?-synuclein or wildtype ?-synuclein restored the sensitivity of DA neurons to MPTP in resistant Snca ?/? animals. A30P ?-synuclein mice showed no Lewy body-like aggregation, and did not lose catecholamine neurons in substantia nigra or locus coeruleus. However, using cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes we identified a deficit in evoked DA release in the caudate putamen, but not in the nucleus accumbens, of SNCA-A30P Snca ?/? mice but no changes to release of another catecholamine, norepinephrine (NE), in the NE-rich ventral bed nucleus of stria terminalis. SNCA-A30P Snca ?/? mice had no overt behavioral impairments but exhibited a mild increase in wheel-running. In summary, this refined PD mouse model shows that A30P ?-synuclein preferentially perturbs the dopaminergic system in the dorsal striatum, reflecting the region-specific change seen in PD. PMID:24121116

Taylor, Tonya N.; Potgieter, Dawid; Anwar, Sabina; Senior, Steven L.; Janezic, Stephanie; Threlfell, Sarah; Ryan, Brent; Parkkinen, Laura; Deltheil, Thierry; Cioroch, Milena; Livieratos, Achilleas; Oliver, Peter L.; Jennings, Katie A.; Davies, Kay E.; Ansorge, Olaf; Bannerman, David M.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Wade-Martins, Richard

2014-01-01

306

Analysis of BAC-end sequences in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) towards the development and characterization of long motifs SSRs.  

PubMed

The increasing volume of genomic data on the Phaseolus vulgaris species have contributed to its importance as a model genetic species and positively affected the investigation of other legumes of scientific and economic value. To expand and gain a more in-depth knowledge of the common bean genome, the ends of a number of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) were sequenced, annotated and the presence of repetitive sequences was determined. In total, 52,270 BESs (BAC-end sequences), equivalent to 32 Mbp (~6 %) of the genome, were processed. In total, 3,789 BES-SSRs were identified, with a distribution of one SSR (simple sequence repeat) per 8.36 kbp and 2,000 were suitable for the development of SSRs, of which 194 were evaluated in low-resolution screening. From 40 BES-SSRs based on long motifs SSRs (?trinucleotides) analyzed in high-resolution genotyping, 34 showed an equally good amplification for the Andean and for the Mesoamerican genepools, exhibiting an average gene diversity (H E) of 0.490 and 5.59 alleles/locus, of which six classified as Class I showed a H E ? 0.7. The PCoA and structure analysis allowed to discriminate the gene pools (K = 2, FST = 0.733). From the 52,270 BESs, 2 % corresponded to transcription factors and 3 % to transposable elements. Putative functions for 24,321 BESs were identified and for 19,363 were assigned functional categories (gene ontology). This study identified highly polymorphic BES-SSRs containing tri- to hexanucleotides motifs and bringing together relevant genetic characteristics useful for breeding programs. Additionally, the BESs were incorporated into the international genome-sequencing project for the common bean. PMID:25164100

Müller, Bárbara Salomão de Faria; Sakamoto, Tetsu; Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto de; Prado, Guilherme Souza; Martins, Wellington Santos; Brondani, Claudio; Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves de; Vianello, Rosana Pereira

2014-11-01

307

Progress in Understanding and Sequencing the Genome of Brassica rapa  

PubMed Central

Brassica rapa, which is closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana, is an important crop and a model plant for studying genome evolution via polyploidization. We report the current understanding of the genome structure of B. rapa and efforts for the whole-genome sequencing of the species. The tribe Brassicaceae, which comprises ca. 240 species, descended from a common hexaploid ancestor with a basic genome similar to that of Arabidopsis. Chromosome rearrangements, including fusions and/or fissions, resulted in the present-day “diploid” Brassica species with variation in chromosome number and phenotype. Triplicated genomic segments of B. rapa are collinear to those of A. thaliana with InDels. The genome triplication has led to an approximately 1.7-fold increase in the B. rapa gene number compared to that of A. thaliana. Repetitive DNA of B. rapa has also been extensively amplified and has diverged from that of A. thaliana. For its whole-genome sequencing, the Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) consortium has developed suitable genomic resources and constructed genetic and physical maps. Ten chromosomes of B. rapa are being allocated to BrGSP consortium participants, and each chromosome will be sequenced by a BAC-by-BAC approach. Genome sequencing of B. rapa will offer a new perspective for plant biology and evolution in the context of polyploidization. PMID:18288250

Hong, Chang Pyo; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jung Sun; Yang, Tae-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo

2008-01-01

308

A physical map of the highly heterozygous Populus genome: integration with the genome sequence and genetic map  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger project to sequence the Populus genome and generate genomic resources for this emerging model tree, we constructed a physical map of the Populus genome, representing one of the few such maps of an undomesticated, highly heterozygous plant species. The physical map, consisting of 2802 contigs, was constructed from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The map represents approximately 9.4-fold coverage of the Populus genome, which has been estimated from the genome sequence assembly to be 485 {+-} 10 Mb in size. BAC ends were sequenced to assist long-range assembly of whole-genome shotgun sequence scaffolds and to anchor the physical map to the genome sequence. Simple sequence repeat-based markers were derived from the end sequences and used to initiate integration of the BAC and genetic maps. A total of 2411 physical map contigs, representing 97% of all clones assigned to contigs, were aligned to the sequence assembly (JGI Populus trichocarpa, version 1.0). These alignments represent a total coverage of 384 Mb (79%) of the entire poplar sequence assembly and 295 Mb (96%) of linkage group sequence assemblies. A striking result of the physical map contig alignments to the sequence assembly was the co-localization of multiple contigs across numerous regions of the 19 linkage groups. Targeted sequencing of BAC clones and genetic analysis in a small number of representative regions showed that these co-aligning contigs represent distinct haplotypes in the heterozygous individual sequenced, and revealed the nature of these haplotype sequence differences.

Kelleher, Colin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; CHIU, Dr. R. [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Shin, Dr. H. [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Krywinski, Martin [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Fjell, Chris [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Wilkin, Jennifer [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Difazio, Stephen P. [West Virginia University

2007-01-01

309

Generation of transgenic pigs by cytoplasmic injection of piggyBac transposase-based pmGENIE-3 plasmids.  

PubMed

The process of transgenesis involves the introduction of a foreign gene, the transgene, into the genome of an animal. Gene transfer by pronuclear microinjection (PNI) is the predominant method used to produce transgenic animals. However, this technique does not always result in germline transgenic offspring and has a low success rate for livestock. Alternate approaches, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer using transgenic fibroblasts, do not show an increase in efficiency compared to PNI, while viral-based transgenesis is hampered by issues regarding transgene size and biosafety considerations. We have recently described highly successful transgenesis experiments with mice using a piggyBac transposase-based vector, pmhyGENIE-3. This construct, a single and self-inactivating plasmid, contains all the transpositional elements necessary for successful gene transfer. In this series of experiments, our laboratories have implemented cytoplasmic injection (CTI) of pmGENIE-3 for transgene delivery into in vivo-fertilized pig zygotes. More than 8.00% of the injected embryos developed into transgenic animals containing monogenic and often single transgenes in their genome. However, the CTI technique was unsuccessful during the injection of in vitro-fertilized pig zygotes. In summary, here we have described a method that is not only easy to implement, but also demonstrated the highest efficiency rate for nonviral livestock transgenesis. PMID:24671876

Li, Zicong; Zeng, Fang; Meng, Fanming; Xu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Xianwei; Huang, Xiaoling; Tang, Fei; Gao, Wenchao; Shi, Junsong; He, Xiaoyan; Liu, Dewu; Wang, Chong; Urschitz, Johann; Moisyadi, Stefan; Wu, Zhenfang

2014-05-01

310

Telecommunications Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Telecommunications Library at WilTel, includes resources such as the Long Distance Digest, Telecom Digest, Telecom Glossary, the working papers from The Research Institute for Telecommunications and Information Marketing, among others.

311

INTEGRATED PLANNING: UNIVERSITY LIBRARY your library  

E-print Network

INTEGRATED PLANNING: UNIVERSITY LIBRARY your library engage, enlighten, explore at library.usask.ca Transforming Library Services, Collections and Facilities: The University Library People Plan SUMMARY VERSION OVERVIEW Central themes in the library strategic plan highlight the critical importance which our people

Peak, Derek

312

[The Presidential Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are seven Presidential libraries in various states of existence, from quite active to proposed: (1) Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, (2) Harry S. Truman Library, (3) Herbert Hoover Library, (4) Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, (5) John F. Kennedy Memorial Library (6) Lyndon B. Johnson Library and (7) Rutherford B. Hayes Memorial Library. Each…

Webb, John

313

Engineering Library Guidance  

E-print Network

Science & Engineering Library Library Guidance April 2014 1 #12;Contents 1 Overview of Waseda University Library 2 Science & Engineering Library and the Student Reading Room 3 WINE: Waseda's Library Catalog3 WINE: Waseda's Library Catalog 4 Library Services 5 Notes 2 #12;How many libraries

Kaji, Hajime

314

Use of baculovirus BacMam vectors for expression of ABC drug transporters in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters ABCB1 [P-glycoprotein (Pgp)] and ABCG2 are expressed in many tissues including those of the intestines, the liver, the kidney and the brain and are known to influence the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of therapeutic drugs. In vitro studies involving their functional characteristics provide important information that allows improvements in drug delivery or drug design. In this study, we report use of the BacMam (baculovirus-based expression in mammalian cells) expression system to express and characterize the function of Pgp and ABCG2 in mammalian cell lines. BacMam-Pgp and BacMam-ABCG2 baculovirus-transduced cell lines showed similar cell surface expression (as detected by monoclonal antibodies with an external epitope) and transport function of these transporters compared to drug-resistant cell lines that overexpress the two transporters. Transient expression of Pgp was maintained in HeLa cells for up to 72 h after transduction (48 h after removal of the BacMam virus). These BacMam-baculovirus-transduced mammalian cells expressing Pgp or ABCG2 were used for assessing the functional activity of these transporters. Crude membranes isolated from these cells were further used to study the activity of these transporters by biochemical techniques such as photo-cross-linking with transport substrate and adenosine triphosphatase assays. In addition, we show that the BacMam expression system can be exploited to coexpress both Pgp and ABCG2 in mammalian cells to determine their contribution to the transport of a common anticancer drug substrate. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the BacMam-baculovirus-based expression system can be used to simultaneously study the transport function and biochemical properties of ABC transporters. PMID:22041108

Shukla, Suneet; Schwartz, Candice; Kapoor, Khyati; Kouanda, Abdul; Ambudkar, Suresh V

2012-02-01

315

Deficiency of a Sinorhizobium meliloti bacA Mutant in Alfalfa Symbiosis Correlates with Alteration of the Cell Envelope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BacA protein is essential for the long-term survival of Sinorhizobium meliloti and Brucella abortus within acidic compartments in plant and animal cells, respectively. Since both the S. meliloti and B. abortus bacA mutants have an increased resistance to bleomycin, it was hypothesized that BacA was a transporter of bleomycin and bleomycin-like compounds into the bacterial cell. However, our finding

Gail P. Ferguson; R. Martin Roop II; Graham C. Walker

2002-01-01

316

Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using a piggyBac transposon-derived vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a system for stable germline transformation in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using piggyBac, a transposon discovered in the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. The transformation constructs consist of the piggyBac inverted terminal repeats flanking a fusion of the B. mori cytoplasmic actin gene BmA3 promoter and the green fluorescent protein (GFP). A nonautonomous helper plasmid encodes the piggyBac

Toshiki Tamura; Chantal Thibert; Corinne Royer; Toshio Kanda; Abraham Eappen; Mari Kamba; Natuo Kômoto; Jean-Luc Thomas; Bernard Mauchamp; Gérard Chavancy; Paul Shirk; Malcolm Fraser; Jean-Claude Prudhomme; Pierre Couble

2000-01-01

317

PA2. Neutron stars "PA2. NSs" http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/rxxu R. X. Xu  

E-print Network

PA2. Neutron stars "PA2. NSs" http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/rxxu R. X. Xu #12;... **** ... "" "" "PA2. NSs" http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/rxxu R. X. Xu #12;Alford et al. RMP 80 (2008) 1455 Quark Star ·1968BellHewish"" ·1968 Gold" = " 1 "PA2. NSs" http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/rxxu R. X. Xu #12;Fermi ·1969

Xu, Ren-Xin

318

Simulation of a Video-on-Demand Song Bac Toh  

E-print Network

materials and lectures on demand. Libraries, which must increasingly archive and provide access to non-print media, can use such a system to present multimedia items on demand. This paper describes a simulation related work on video- on-demand systems and continuous media. Section 4 describes the design

319

High-Resolution Genomic Profiles of Breast Cancer Cell Lines Assessed by Tiling BAC Array  

E-print Network

number changes in 10 breast cancer cell lines (BT474, MCF7, HCC1937, SK-BR-3, L56Br-C1, ZR-75-1, JIMT1 cell lines, HCC1937 and L56BrC1 derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers and MDA-MB-231, were of basal deletions included other known targets such as PTEN (HCC1937) and CDKN2A (MDA-MB-231, MCF10A), but also new

Lunds Universitet,

320

Genomic tools development for Aquilegia: construction of a BAC-based physical map  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The genus Aquilegia, consisting of approximately 70 taxa, is a member of the basal eudicot lineage, Ranuculales, which is evolutionarily intermediate between monocots and core eudicots, and represents a relatively unstudied clade in the angiosperm phylogenetic tree that bridges the gap between these two major plant groups. Aquilegia species are closely related and their distribution covers highly diverse habitats.

Guang-Chen Fang; Barbara P Blackmon; David C Henry; Margaret E Staton; Christopher A Saski; Scott A Hodges; Jeff P Tomkins; Hong Luo

2010-01-01

321

TiO 2\\/UV\\/O 3BAC processes for removing refractory and hazardous pollutants in raw water  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2\\/UV\\/O3-BAC (biological activated carbon) process was employed to treat raw water and compared to UV\\/O3-BAC process in its optimum parameters (3mg\\/L ozone dosage with 15min oxidation time and 15min empty bed contact time in BAC). The results showed that the presence of TiO2 improved ozone utilization and biodegradability of the effluent. For the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, TiO2\\/UV\\/O3-BAC was

Laisheng Li; Wanpeng Zhu; Pengyi Zhang; Qiuyun Zhang; Zulin Zhang

2006-01-01

322

Music Library Research Library Collections,  

E-print Network

Carlton Print Acquisitions Germaine Wadeborn Preservation Program Cataloging and Metadata Center John Riemer Scholarly Communication and Licensing Angela Riggio Regional Medical Library Alan Carr, interim Cataloging and Metadata Center John Riemer Scholarly Communication and Licensing Angela Riggio Regional

Jalali. Bahram

323

Library Services: Library Shorts What is the online library?  

E-print Network

Library Services: Library Shorts What is the online library? When I decided to study with the Open to thousands of up-to- date articles and books and the Getting Started guide will help you make the most to library resources. I discovered that I can access a vast range of resources & library services online

Bandara, Arosha

324

Development and characterization of BAC-end sequence derived SSRs, and their incorporation into a new higher density genetic map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop worldwide, valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. It has a very narrow genetic base that may well derive from a relatively recent single polyploidization event. Accordingly molecular markers have low levels of polymorphism and the number of polymorphic molecular markers available for cultivated peanut is still limiting. Results Here, we report a large set of BAC-end sequences (BES), use them for developing SSR (BES-SSR) markers, and apply them in genetic linkage mapping. The majority of BESs had no detectable homology to known genes (49.5%) followed by sequences with similarity to known genes (44.3%), and miscellaneous sequences (6.2%) such as transposable element, retroelement, and organelle sequences. A total of 1,424 SSRs were identified from 36,435 BESs. Among these identified SSRs, dinucleotide (47.4%) and trinucleotide (37.1%) SSRs were predominant. The new set of 1,152 SSRs as well as about 4,000 published or unpublished SSRs were screened against two parents of a mapping population, generating 385 polymorphic loci. A genetic linkage map was constructed, consisting of 318 loci onto 21 linkage groups and covering a total of 1,674.4 cM, with an average distance of 5.3 cM between adjacent loci. Two markers related to resistance gene homologs (RGH) were mapped to two different groups, thus anchoring 1 RGH-BAC contig and 1 singleton. Conclusions The SSRs mined from BESs will be of use in further molecular analysis of the peanut genome, providing a novel set of markers, genetically anchoring BAC clones, and incorporating gene sequences into a linkage map. This will aid in the identification of markers linked to genes of interest and map-based cloning. PMID:22260238

2012-01-01

325

Two duplicated chicken-type lysozyme genes in disc abalone Haliotis discus discus: molecular aspects in relevance to structure, genomic organization, mRNA expression and bacteriolytic function.  

PubMed

Lysozymes are crucial antibacterial proteins that are associated with catalytic cleavage of peptidoglycan and subsequent bacteriolysis. The present study describes the identification of two lysozyme genes from disc abalone Haliotis discus discus and their characterization at sequence-, genomic-, transcriptional- and functional-levels. Two cDNAs and BAC clones bearing lysozyme genes were isolated from abalone transcriptome and BAC genomic libraries, respectively and sequences were determined. Corresponding deduced amino acid sequences harbored a chicken-type lysozyme (LysC) family profile and exhibited conserved characteristics of LysC family members including active residues (Glu and Asp) and GS(S/T)DYGIFQINS motif suggested that they are LysC counterparts in disc abalone and designated as abLysC1 and abLysC2. While abLysC1 represented the homolog recently reported in Ezo abalone [1], abLysC2 shared significant identity with LysC homologs. Unlike other vertebrate LysCs, coding sequence of abLysCs were distributed within five exons interrupted by four introns. Both abLysCs revealed a broader mRNA distribution with highest levels in mantle (abLysC1) and hepatopancreas (abLysC2) suggesting their likely main role in defense and digestion, respectively. Investigation of temporal transcriptional profiles post-LPS and -pathogen challenges revealed induced-responses of abLysCs in gills and hemocytes. The in vitro muramidase activity of purified recombinant (r) abLysCs proteins was evaluated, and findings indicated that they are active in acidic pH range (3.5-6.5) and over a broad temperature range (20-60 °C) and influenced by ionic strength. When the antibacterial spectra of (r)abLysCs were examined, they displayed differential activities against both Gram positive and Gram negative strains providing evidence for their involvement in bacteriolytic function in abalone physiology. PMID:23664908

Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

2013-08-01

326

Cancer Genome Anatomy Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Cancer Institute has launched the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project to "achieve a comprehensive molecular characterization of normal, precancerous, and malignant cells." Sequenced genes are held as library entries in a database and are available for downloading (fasta format). Each cDNA library entry may include biological source, number of sequences, and library construction detail information. Thousands of gene sequences are available for over 15 cancers, including breast, colon, and prostrate. Contact information for donating or obtaining tissue samples for research purposes is provided.

1997-01-01

327

Targeting homologous recombination and telomerase in Barrett's adenocarcinoma: Impact on telomere maintenance, genomic instability, and tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination (HR), a mechanism to accurately repair DNA in normal cells, is deregulated in cancer. Elevated/deregulated HR is implicated in genomic instability and telomere maintenance, which are critical lifelines of cancer cells. We have previously shown that HR activity is elevated and significantly contributes to genomic instability in BAC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of HR inhibition, alone and in combination with telomerase inhibition, in BAC. We demonstrate that telomerase inhibition in BAC cells increases HR activity, RAD51 expression, and association of RAD51 to telomeres. Suppression of HR leads to shorter telomeres as well as markedly reduced genomic instability in BAC cells over time. Combination of HR suppression (whether transgenic or chemical) with telomerase inhibition, causes a significant increase in telomere attrition and apoptotic death in all BAC cell lines tested, relative to either treatment alone. A subset of treated cells also stain positive for ?-galactosidase, indicating senescence. The combined treatment is also associated with decline in S-phase and a strong G2/M arrest, indicating massive telomere attrition. In a subcutaneous tumor model, the combined treatment resulted in the smallest tumors, which were even smaller (P=0.001) than those resulted from either treatment alone. Even the tumors removed from these mice had significantly reduced telomeres and evidence of apoptosis. We therefore conclude that although telomeres are elongated by telomerase, elevated RAD51/HR assist in their maintenance/stabilization in BAC cells. Telomerase inhibitor prevents telomere elongation but induces RAD51/HR, which contribute to telomere maintenance/stabilization and prevention of apoptosis, reducing the efficacy of treatment. Combining HR inhibition with telomerase, makes telomeres more vulnerable to degradation and significantly increases/expedites their attrition, leading to apoptosis. We therefore demonstrate that a therapy, targeting HR and telomerase, has potential to prevent both the tumor growth and genomic evolution in BAC. PMID:23604115

Lu, Renquan; Pal, Jagannath; Buon, Leutz; Nanjappa, Puru; Shi, Jialan; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Guo, Lin; Yu, Min; Gryaznov, Sergei; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Shammas, Masood A.

2014-01-01

328

Pulling out the 1%: Whole-Genome Capture for the Targeted Enrichment  

E-print Network

sequencing of these libraries yielded an average of 1.2% of reads mapping to the human genome (including the endogenous component of aDNA sequencing libraries. By using biotinylated RNA baits transcribed from genomic DNA libraries, we are able to capture DNA fragments from across the human genome. We demonstrate

Straight, Aaron

329

FISH applications for genomics and plant breeding strategies in tomato and other solanaceous crops.  

PubMed

This paper describes the use of advanced fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies for genomics and breeding of tomato and related Solanum species. The first part deals with the major determinants of FISH technology: (1) spatial resolution, which depends on the diffraction limit of the microscope and the type of chromosome, chromatin or isolated DNA fibres as target for the hybridisation; (2) the detection sensitivity, which is limited by the sensitivity and dynamic range of the CCD camera and the quality of the microscope, and the amplification system of the weak signals from tiny probe molecules; (3) simultaneous detection of multiple probes labelled directly or indirectly with up to 5 different fluorophores, whether or not in different combinations and/or mixed at different ratios. The power and usability of such multicolour FISH is indispensable when large numbers of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) or other vectors with genomic DNA are available. Mapping of multiple BACs on chromosomes are powerful instruments confirming their assumed genetic position, whereas pooled BACs for a given chromosome arm will reveal the gaps between the BACs or derived contigs of their physical maps. Tandem and dispersed repeats, which are abundant in the genomes of most species, can be analysed in repeat bar coding FISH, showing the major blocks of repeats in heterochromatin and euchromatin areas. Repeat-rich areas of the chromosomes can also be demonstrated by hybridisation of probed Cot fractions of sheared genomic DNA; a powerful method to elucidate the heterochromatin domains for genomic studies. In addition, unlabelled Cot DNA, as blocking agent in BAC-FISH painting, suppresses repetitive sequences from the BACs to hybridise on the chromosomes. Cross-species BAC-FISH painting with labelled probes from tomato and potato BACs and hybridised on the chromosomes of related species, under appropriate conditions, is a powerful instrument to demonstrate chromosomal rearrangements, including inversions and translocations. The technology not only supports phylogenetic studies between the taxa under study but can also be helpful in breeding programs with crops containing introgressed regions from related species when linkage drag or meiotic pairing disturbances between the homoeologues are assumed. In the next steps in comparative genomics, we now can detect smaller chromosomal and DNA rearrangements, diminutions and amplifications of repeats and changes of the epigenetic status of introgressed regions. PMID:20628252

Szinay, D; Bai, Y; Visser, R; de Jong, H

2010-07-01

330

Pharmacological Screening Using an FXN-EGFP Cellular Genomic Reporter Assay for the Therapy of Friedreich Ataxia  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy. The presence of a GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of the FXN gene results in the inhibition of gene expression and an insufficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. There is a correlation between expansion length, the amount of residual frataxin and the severity of disease. As the coding sequence is unaltered, pharmacological up-regulation of FXN expression may restore frataxin to therapeutic levels. To facilitate screening of compounds that modulate FXN expression in a physiologically relevant manner, we established a cellular genomic reporter assay consisting of a stable human cell line containing an FXN-EGFP fusion construct, in which the EGFP gene is fused in-frame with the entire normal human FXN gene present on a BAC clone. The cell line was used to establish a fluorometric cellular assay for use in high throughput screening (HTS) procedures. A small chemical library containing FDA-approved compounds and natural extracts was screened and analyzed. Compound hits identified by HTS were further evaluated by flow cytometry in the cellular genomic reporter assay. The effects on FXN mRNA and frataxin protein levels were measured in lymphoblast and fibroblast cell lines derived from individuals with FRDA and in a humanized GAA repeat expansion mouse model of FRDA. Compounds that were established to increase FXN gene expression and frataxin levels included several anti-cancer agents, the iron-chelator deferiprone and the phytoalexin resveratrol. PMID:23418481

Li, Lingli; Voullaire, Lucille; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Pook, Mark A.

2013-01-01

331

DNA Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive, adapted from the Dolan DNA Learning Center, to help students learn about DNA Libraries, "the tools scientists use to store and reproduce genetic information that they can later access for their research." After an introduction, students can explore more about the different types of DNA libraries by clicking on any of the five DNA vectors: Yeast Artificial Chromosomes, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Cosmids, Bacteriophage Lambda, and Plasmids. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-06

332

America's Star Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

2009-01-01

333

Missionary Research Library Archives The Burke Library  

E-print Network

Missionary Research Library Archives The Burke Library at Union Theological Seminary Finding Aid Library Union Theological Seminary 3041 Broadway New York, NY 10027 Phone: 212-851-5612 Fax: 212, Hunter Corbett & Harold F. Smith Papers, Missionary Research Library Archives, The Burke Library at Union

Salzman, Daniel

334

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library  

E-print Network

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library Example: Feminist Studies HQ1410 .U54 2009 University of California, Santa Barbara Library www.library.ucsb.edu Updated 3-2014 A - B.......................................6 Central M - N..................................................Arts Library (Music Building) P

335

LIBRARY REGULATIONS 1. THE LIBRARY POLICY COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

1 LIBRARY REGULATIONS 1. THE LIBRARY POLICY COMMITTEE 1.1 The Library Policy Committee shall shall be: [i] to formulate proposals in regard to policy matters relating to the Library for consideration by the Academic Council and the Governing Body; [ii] to monitor the implementation of Library

Schellekens, Michel P.

336

UNBC Library External Review 2012 Library Response  

E-print Network

UNBC Library External Review 2012 Library Response November 2, 2012 An external review was conducted of the UNBC Library services in April 2012 by Dr. Vicki Williamson of University of Saskatchewan is available at https://library.unbc.ca/external- review/ . Below is the Library's planned followup

Northern British Columbia, University of

337

Library Annual Report Library Annual Report  

E-print Network

Library Annual Report 2007 Library Annual Report 2007 #12;www.library.uwa.edu.au Our mission: By delivering excellent information resources and services the Library is integral to the University's mission of advancing, transmitting and sustaining knowledge. Our vision: The Library will continue to be at the heart

Tobar, Michael

338

Library texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss how text messaging offers a variety of ways to stay vital and visible to younger patrons with whom libraries most need to establish a relationship to ensure their future. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses narrowcasting, one-to-one communication and reference queries, all methods of text messaging Findings – Even with the

John Maxymuk

2009-01-01

339

TiO2/UV/O3-BAC processes for removing refractory and hazardous pollutants in raw water.  

PubMed

TiO2/UV/O3-BAC (biological activated carbon) process was employed to treat raw water and compared to UV/O3-BAC process in its optimum parameters (3 mg/L ozone dosage with 15 min oxidation time and 15 min empty bed contact time in BAC). The results showed that the presence of TiO2 improved ozone utilization and biodegradability of the effluent. For the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, TiO2/UV/O3-BAC was more efficient than UV/O3-BAC and its synergetic effect is more than that in UV/O(3)-BAC process. It was showed that small molecules with MW<3000 Da predominated in the raw water accounting for more than 56% DOC, they were increased after oxidation, accounting for more than 64% DOC. GC/MS analysis showed that TiO2/UV/O3-BAC process was effective in removing phthalate esters (PAEs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PAEs' removal ratio reached more than 94% and reduced with the increase of the length of the alkyl side chains and the alkyl branch chains. TiO2/UV/O3-BAC process was also very effective in removing POPs. Polybromobiphenyls' removal rate reached more than 89% and decreased with the increase of substitutional bromines except for 2,2',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl, which can be completely removed. PMID:16257116

Li, Laisheng; Zhu, Wanpeng; Zhang, Pengyi; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zhang, Zulin

2006-02-01

340

BacM, an N-terminally processed bactofilin of Myxococcus xanthus, is crucial for proper cell shape  

PubMed Central

Summary Bactofilins are fibre-forming bacterial cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we report the structural and biochemical characterization of MXAN_7475 (BacM), one of the four bactofilins of Myxococcus xanthus. Absence of BacM leads to a characteristic ‘crooked’ cell morphology and an increased sensitivity to antibiotics targeting cell wall biosynthesis. The absence of the other three bactofilins MXAN_4637–4635 (BacN-P) has no obvious phenotype. In M. xanthus, BacM exists as a 150-amino-acid full-length version and as a version cleaved before Ser28. In the cell, native BacM forms 3 nm wide fibres, which assemble into bundles forming helix-like cytoplasmic cables throughout the cell, and in a subset of cells additionally a polarly arranged lateral rod-like structure. Isolated fibres consist almost completely of the N-terminally truncated version, suggesting that the proteolytic cleavage occurs before or during fibre formation. Fusion of BacM to mCherry perturbs BacM function and cellular fibre arrangement, resulting for example in the formation of one prominent polar corkscrew-like structure per cell. Immunofluorescence staining of BacM and MreB shows that their cellular distributions are not matching. Taken together, these data suggest that rod-shaped bacteria like M. xanthus use bactofilin fibres to achieve and maintain their characteristic cell morphology and cell wall stability. PMID:21414039

Koch, Matthias K.; McHugh, Colleen A.; Hoiczyk, Egbert

2011-01-01

341

For Immediate Release BAC adds IgM and IgA matrices to its CaptureSelect  

E-print Network

of IgA and IgM, address a substantial need in the antibody purification market, which up until now has that enable researchers to follow a simple one-step process with no need for method testing or lengthy, and manufactured using a completely animal component-free S.cerevisiae system. -Ends- About BAC BAC BV ­ the Bio

Lebendiker, Mario

342

Complete Genome Sequence of Border Disease Virus Genotype 3 Strain Gifhorn  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of the genotype 3 border disease virus strain Gifhorn has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from pigs. This represents the consensus sequence for the virus used to produce the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cDNA clone pBeloGif3, which yields a virus that is severely attenuated in cell culture. PMID:24435861

Fahn?e, Ulrik; Hoper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Beer, Martin

2014-01-01

343

Tomato Genome Sequencing beyond Heinz 1706 and Update on SOL 100  

E-print Network

Tomato Genome Sequencing beyond Heinz 1706 and Update on SOL 100 #12;Overview ¡Update on Heinz 1706 sequence ¡Other tomato genotypes being (re)sequenced ¡Groups involved in the work ¡Number of different Thompson Institute, University of Oklahoma, and Colorado State University ¡ 1000 BACs sequenced post tomato

Pawlowski, Wojtek

344

Databases and information integration for the Medicago truncatula genome and transcriptome.  

PubMed

An international consortium is sequencing the euchromatic genespace of Medicago truncatula. Extensive bioinformatic and database resources support the marker-anchored bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing strategy. Existing physical and genetic maps and deep BAC-end sequencing help to guide the sequencing effort, while EST databases provide essential resources for genome annotation as well as transcriptome characterization and microarray design. Finished BAC sequences are joined into overlapping sequence assemblies and undergo an automated annotation process that integrates ab initio predictions with EST, protein, and other recognizable features. Because of the sequencing project's international and collaborative nature, data production, storage, and visualization tools are broadly distributed. This paper describes databases and Web resources for the project, which provide support for physical and genetic maps, genome sequence assembly, gene prediction, and integration of EST data. A central project Web site at medicago.org/genome provides access to genome viewers and other resources project-wide, including an Ensembl implementation at medicago.org, physical map and marker resources at mtgenome.ucdavis.edu, and genome viewers at the University of Oklahoma (www.genome.ou.edu), the Institute for Genomic Research (www.tigr.org), and Munich Information for Protein Sequences Center (mips.gsf.de). PMID:15888676

Cannon, Steven B; Crow, John A; Heuer, Michael L; Wang, Xiaohong; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Dwan, Christopher; Lamblin, Anne-Francoise; Vasdewani, Jayprakash; Mudge, Joann; Cook, Andrew; Gish, John; Cheung, Foo; Kenton, Steve; Kunau, Timothy M; Brown, Douglas; May, Gregory D; Kim, Dongjin; Cook, Douglas R; Roe, Bruce A; Town, Chris D; Young, Nevin D; Retzel, Ernest F

2005-05-01

345

Minnesota Zoological Garden Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history and functions of the Minnesota Zoological Garden library. Topics covered include the library collections; library services, including online search capabilities; and the various groups of users served by the library. (three references) (CLB)

Norell, Angela

1988-01-01

346

NASA Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Headquarters Library is perfect for anyone doing research or for those would like to find scholarly articles, journals, books, maps, databases, videos, people, websites, or audio files in the fields of Aerospace or Space Science. With dozens of topics to choose from, the user can quickly and easily browse or search for a scholarly journal or article. The site provides the data sorted by area of interest or topic and the lists of the articles and journals are also followed by their respective citation in proper format. Since it is a library, users can request the aid of a librarian to find exactly what he or she is looking for. The site includes links to other similar sites.

2006-11-15

347

Library Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1876, Library Journal has brought a new "look & feel" to its digital version. Items in this e-zine include LJ's Hot Picks, News (divided into This Week, People and Calendar), View, Infotech (which covers industry news), Multimedia (covering the web, CD-ROMs, audiobooks and video), BestSellers and Job Search. This site contains a fair amount of coverage and is well organized; at no point will the reader feel lost.

348

BAC and Beer: Operationalizing Drunk Driving Laws in a Research Methods Course Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on an exercise utilized in a research methods class and based on social problems that invites student interest. Explains the exercise has students determine their blood alcohol level (BAC) by asking them to estimate the number of beers it would take to have them just reach driving under the influence (DUI) status. (CMK)

Taylor, Ralph B.; McConnell, Patrick

2001-01-01

349

Blind, Adaptive Channel Shortening Equalizer Algorithm Which Can Provide Shortened Channel State Information (BACS-SI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channel shortening equalization plays an important role in multicarrier modulation (MCM) systems. In this paper, we propose a blind channel shortening equalizer structure named blind, adaptive channel shortening equalizer which can provide the shortened channel state information (BACS-SI). The algorithm depends on the minimization of a cost function defined as the sum-squared difference of the autocorrelations of the shortened channel

Cenk Toker; Gökhan Altin

2009-01-01

350

North-directed Triassic nappes in Northeastern Vietnam (East Bac Bo) Claude Lepvrier a  

E-print Network

1 1 North-directed Triassic nappes in Northeastern Vietnam (East Bac Bo) Claude Lepvrier nappes, including recumbent folds, formed during the Triassic, prior to the unconformable deposition of « preyunnanaises nappes », represented by Middle-Upper Paleozoic foliated limestone resting through a flat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Bromate removal during transition from new granular activated carbon (GAC) to biological activated carbon (BAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromate removal by activated carbon after ozonation is a subject of concern, since bromate is commonly found in the ozonation of bromide-containing water. Though new GAC (granular activated carbon) shows the capacity to reduce bromate to bromide, in the long-term use of GAC following ozonation, its bromate removal rate apparently decreases during transition from new GAC to BAC (biological activated

Mari Asami; Takako Aizawa; Takayuki Morioka; Wataru Nishijima; Akihisa Tabata; Yasumoto Magara

1999-01-01

352

The Garden of Ulysses: Ferdinand Bac, modernism and the afterlife of myth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferdinand Bac's three Mediterranean gardens constructed between 1913 and 1925 are more than a chapter in the history of horticultural design. They are the product of an existential conflict that reflects one of the central cultural dilemmas of the age for designers of all sorts as well as for writers: the problem of epigonism. How was one to create in

Lawrence Joseph

2000-01-01

353

Cloning and characterization of piggyBac-like elements in lepidopteran insects.  

PubMed

PiggyBac-like elements (PLE) are widespread in variety of organisms, however, few of them are active or have an intact transposon structure. To further define the distribution PLEs in Lepidoptera, where the original active piggyBac IFP2 was discovered, and potentially isolate new functional elements, a survey for PLEs by PCR amplification and Southern dot blots was performed. Two new PLEs, AyPLE and AaPLE, were successfully isolated from the noctuid species, Agrotis ypsilon and Argyrogramma agnate, respectively. These elements were found to be closely related to each other by sequence similarity, and by sharing the same 16 bp inverted terminal repeat sequences. The AyPLE1.1 and AaPLE1.1 elements are structurally intact having characteristic TTAA target site duplications, inverted terminal repeats and intact open reading frames encoding putative transposases with the presumed piggyBac DDD domains, which are features consistent with autonomous functional transposons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AyPLE1.1 and AaPLE1.1 cluster with another noctuid species element, HaPLE1.1, suggesting a common ancestor for the three types of PLEs. This contributes to our understanding of the distribution and evolution of piggyBac in Lepidoptera. PMID:21210187

Wu, Min; Sun, Zhichan; Luo, Guanghua; Hu, Chunlin; Zhang, Wei; Han, Zhaojun

2011-01-01

354

Library Research and Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These nine articles discuss research and statistics on libraries and librarianship, including libraries in the United States, Canada, and Mexico; acquisition expenditures in public, academic, special, and government libraries; price indexes; state rankings of public library data; library buildings; expenditures in school library media centers; and…

Lynch, Mary Jo; St. Lifer, Evan; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee; Miller, Marilyn L.; Shontz, Marilyn L.

2001-01-01

355

Library Buildings and Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six articles discuss library buildings and construction: (1) library buildings and their parts; (2) the North Campus Library of California State University at Long Beach in 1995; (3) new structures for teaching libraries; (4) construction standards for California public libraries; (5) Sick (Library) Building Syndrome; and (6) using focus-group…

Oringdulph, Robert E.; And Others

1990-01-01

356

3 Library Regulations Definitions  

E-print Network

3 Library Regulations Definitions In Regulation 3: 'Library' means the University Library as defined in Regulation 3.1; 'Library staff' means the staff of the University Library; 'Librarian' means the University Librarian and Head of Information Resources Directorate or nominee; `Library Committee' means

Mottram, Nigel

357

University of Tsukuba Library Welcome to Library  

E-print Network

. 2 3How to find library materials OPAC : Online Public Access Catalog How to find books University of Tsukuba Library #12; Welcome to Library PC For safety, always carry your valuables with you or use lockers. No smoking, no foods or drinks are allowed in the Library. Do not talk

Tanaka, Jiro

358

Regulation 28: Library REGULATION 28: LIBRARY  

E-print Network

consideration. 16. The Library is a public building. Do not leave personal belongings unattended at any time. WeRegulation 28: Library 180 REGULATION 28: LIBRARY The purpose of this Regulation is to safeguard the common interests of all Library users. All persons are admitted on the understanding that they have read

Sussex, University of

359

Art Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on art libraries, librarianship, and documentation presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The Tyranny of Distance: Art Libraries in Canada," a description by Mary F. Williamson of Canada's regional art libraries which serve both art students and the general public; (2) "A…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

360

The Library UBC LIBRARY CARD APPLICATION FORM  

E-print Network

The Library UBC LIBRARY CARD APPLICATION FORM For Faculty Authorized Users UBC FACULTY MEMBER to the following person so that s/he may borrow Library materials and access services in my name for my UBC September 15th , 2014 Faculty member's statement: I understand that this is a separate library card from my

Michelson, David G.

361

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library  

E-print Network

Studies Library (EGSL) Curriculum Laboratory: 1 North East Asian Collection: 5 Central Ethnic & Gender.library.ucsb.edu/depts/access/annex.html Arts Library: 1st Floor, Music Building Asian American Studies: 2 South, Ethnic & Gender Studies Collections: 3rd Floor Southern Regional Library Facility (SRLF): Off campus storage. See: www

362

Library Instruction Assessment in Academic Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining the best methods of assessment for a library instruction program in a large research university can be a challenging task. Albert R. Mann Library at Cornell University Library has pilot-tested three methods of formative and summative assessment for its library instruction program--attitudinal, outcomes-based, and gap-measure--and…

Tancheva, Kornelia; Andrews, Camille; Steinhart, Gail

2007-01-01

363

Creation and characterization of BAC-transgenic mice with physiological overexpression of epitope-tagged RCAN1 (DSCR1).  

PubMed

The chromosome 21 gene RCAN1, encoding a modulator of the calcineurin (CaN) phosphatase, is a candidate gene for contributing to cognitive disability in people with Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21). To develop a physiologically relevant model for studying the biochemistry of RCAN1 and its contribution to DS, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic (BAC-Tg) mouse lines containing the human RCAN1 gene with a C-terminal HA-FLAG epitope tag incorporated by recombineering. The BAC-Tg was expressed at levels only moderately higher than the native Rcan1 gene: approximately 1.5-fold in RCAN1 (BAC-Tg1) and twofold in RCAN1 (BAC-Tg2). Affinity purification of the RCAN1 protein complex from brains of these mice revealed a core complex of RCAN1 with CaN, glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (Gsk3b), and calmodulin, with substoichiometric components, including LOC73419. The BAC-Tg mice are fully viable, but long-term synaptic potentiation is impaired in proportion to BAC-Tg dosage in hippocampal brain slices from these mice. RCAN1 can act as a tumor suppressor in some systems, but we found that the RCAN1 BAC-Tg did not reduce mammary cancer growth when present at a low copy number in Tp53;WAP-Cre mice. This work establishes a useful mouse model for investigating the biochemistry and dose-dependent functions of the RCAN1 protein in vivo. PMID:23096997

Xing, Luzhou; Salas, Martha; Zhang, Hong; Gittler, Julia; Ludwig, Thomas; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Murty, Vundavalli V; Silverman, Wayne; Arancio, Ottavio; Tycko, Benjamin

2013-02-01

364

Shearing DNA for genomic library construction.  

PubMed

Methods and reagents is a unique monthly column that highlights current discussion in the newsgroup bionet.molibio.methds-reagnts, available on the internet. This month's column discusses the pros and cons of various techniques used to shear DNA for shotgun cloning. For details on how to partake in the newsgroup, see the accompanying box. PMID:9255070

Hengen, P N

1997-07-01

365

Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries  

SciTech Connect

Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

2008-05-22

366

Sequence analysis of the whole genome of a recombinant Marek's disease virus strain, GX0101, with a reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR insert.  

PubMed

Marek's disease virus Chinese strain GX0101, isolated in 2001, is the first reported recombinant gallid herpesvirus type 2 (GaHV-2) field strain with one reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) insert. We constructed an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of GX0101, which showed characteristics very similar to those of the parental virus in replication and pathogenicity. Using the GX0101 BAC clone, the complete genome of GX0101 was sequenced and analyzed. The length of the GX0101 genome is 178,101 bp, and it contains only one REV-LTR insert at a site 267 bp upstream of the sorf2 gene. PMID:23553452

Su, Shuai; Cui, Ning; Sun, Aijun; Li, Yanpeng; Ding, Jiabo; Chen, Zimeng; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

2013-09-01

367

Yeast Genomic Library Genomic DNA Sau3AI partial digestion  

E-print Network

fragments - load the gel pieces into dialysis tubing and clamp at each end - place the dialysis tubing tubing - remove the liquid from the dialysis tubing and ETOH ppt as described above (at the end of step 4/Chloroform extraction - add equal volume of PCI to each tube - vortex and spin, max speed for 5min at room temp

Odorizzi, Greg

368

Library Research and Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents: "Research on Libraries/Librarianship in 1998"; "Assessment of the Role of School/Public Libraries in Support of Education Reform"; "Number of Libraries in the United States, Canada, and Mexico"; Highlights of NCES Surveys"; "Library Acquisition Expenditures, 1997-1998: United States Public, Academic, Special and Government Libraries";…

Lynch, Mary Jo; Dunn, Christina; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee; Jones, Emily J.

1999-01-01

369

Helpful Websites Ebling Library  

E-print Network

Helpful Websites · Ebling Library o http://ebling.library.wisc.edu/ · Ebling Library NIH Public Help with NIH Public Access Policy Compliance? · nihpolicy@library.wisc.edu · Trisha Adamus, Ebling Access Policy Help o http://ebling.library.wisc.edu/help/nih.cfm · PubMed o http://www.pubmed.gov · NIH

Bohnhoff, David

370

Library Research and Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides nine articles: research on libraries and librarianship, 1997; changing faces of library education (ALA-accredited graduate program title changes); number of libraries in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico; highlights of NCES surveys; library acquisition expenditures; price indexes for public and academic libraries; state rankings of selected…

Lynch, Mary Jo; Brier, David J.; Lebbin, Vickery K.; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee; Kremen, Maya L.; Miller, Marilyn L.; Shontz, Marilyn L.

1998-01-01

371

Development of a database system for mapping insertional mutations onto the mouse genome with large-scale experimental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Insertional mutagenesis is an effective method for functional genomic studies in various organisms. It can rapidly generate easily tractable mutations. A large-scale insertional mutagenesis with the piggyBac (PB) transposon is currently performed in mice at the Institute of Developmental Biology and Molecular Medicine (IDM), Fudan University in Shanghai, China. This project is carried out via collaborations among multiple groups

Wenwei Yang; Ke Jin; Xing Xie; Dongsheng Li; Jigang Yang; Li Wang; Ning Gu; Yang Zhong; Ling V Sun

2009-01-01

372

Structural transformation and vibrational properties of BaC2 at high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the ambient-pressure tetragonal phase of BaC2 (CaC2-type, space group I4/mmm), with sixfold coordination of Ba atoms and C2 dumbbells, transforms reversibly to a new structure type at 4 GPa; it is an eight-coordinated rhombohedral modification (space group R3¯m), which can be viewed as a distorted variant of the CsCl-type structure. X-ray diffraction experiments further reveal an irreversible amorphization of BaC2 above 30 GPa. The possibility of a pressure-induced polymerization of isolated C2 dumbbells into a network is considered. We also study lattice dynamics of both crystalline phases by Raman measurements, and compare the experimental observations on structures, phonons, and the first phase transition with the results of ab initio calculations. The latter also supply additional data on atomic positions, interatomic distances, and the volume-dependent equation of state (total energy and pressure).

Efthimiopoulos, I.; Kunc, K.; Vazhenin, G. V.; Stavrou, E.; Syassen, K.; Hanfland, M.; Liebig, St.; Ruschewitz, U.

2012-02-01

373

Controlled Clinical Comparison of VersaTREK and BacT\\/ALERT Blood Culture Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the relative yields in automated microbial detection systems of bacteria and yeasts isolated from the blood of adult patients with suspected sepsis, we compared the new VersaTREK system (VTI) (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) to the BacT\\/ALERT 3D system (3D) (bioMerieux, Inc., Durham, NC). Identical protocols were followed for the two systems. Paired aerobic (REDOX 1) and anaerobic

Kimberly E. Hanson; L. Barth Reller

2007-01-01

374

Unsteady Transonic Fluid - Structure - Interaction at the BAC 3-11 High Aspect Ratio Swept Wing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A comprehensive analysis of experimental results from several wind tunnel test campaigns is presented. The experiments were\\u000a conducted in the subproject B6 of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 401. The main focus of this research is the interaction\\u000a of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena in transonic flow over a supercritical BAC 3-11\\/RES\\/30\\/21 high aspect ratio swept wing configuration\\u000a in the context of

P. C. Steimle; W. Schröder; M. Klaas

375

Evaluation of long-term transgene expression in piggyBac-modified human T lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

The piggyBac transposon system is a promising nonviral method to genetically modifiy T cells for immunotherapeutic applications. To evaluate the regulation and stability of transgene expression in human T cells modified with piggyBac transposons, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were nucleofected with transposase and an eGFP-expressing transposon. Single cell clones that were subsequently stimulated and expanded exhibited homogeneous eGFP expression for >26 weeks in culture. CD3 stimulation of the T cell receptor together with CD28-mediated costimulation resulted in an approximate ten-fold transient increase in eGFP expression, but immunomodulatory cytokines, including interferon-?, interleukin-12, interleukin-4, and transforming growth factor-?, did not alter transgene expression in actively dividing, activated, or resting T cells. Epigenetic modification with 5-azacytidine or Trichostatin-A increased transgene expression indicating that piggyBac-mediated transgene expression could be modulated by methylation or histone acetylation, respectively. We performed transposon copy number analysis of populations of stably transfected T cells, comparing transposon plasmids of 5.6kb and 3.5kb. The smaller vector achieved an average of 22 transposon copies per cell whereas the larger vector achieved 1.6 copies per cell, implying that transposon copy number can be engineered to be low or high depending on the vector employed. Our results provide important insight into the ability of piggyBac to achieve stable genetic modification of T cells for immunotherapy applications as well as how transgene expression might be regulated by TCR activation, cytokines, and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23211626

Nakazawa, Yozo; Saha, Sunandan; Galvan, Daniel L.; Huye, Leslie; Rollins, Lisa; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

2012-01-01

376

Constructing recombinant herpesvirus BAC vectors with mating-assisted genetically integrated clone method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large capacity of pseudorabies virus (PRV) for foreign DNA and broad host range make it a prospective tool for the preparation\\u000a of vaccines and agents of gene and tumour therapy. Here we introduced a cloning strategy that facilitates construction of\\u000a recombinant PRV–BAC vectors based on mating-assisted genetically integrated clone (MAGIC). The target gene was cloned into\\u000a a small conditionally

Sijing JiangXing; Xing Zhong; Chao Zhai; Liang Chen; Lixin Ma; Meilin Jin; Huanchun Chen

2010-01-01

377

Toward positional cloning of everblooming gene (evb) in plants: a BAC library of Rosa chinensis cv. old blush  

E-print Network

flowering mutation named everblooming (evb). The mutation is recessive to once blooming and is found in the rose species Rosa chinensis. Although several molecular maps have been developed for rose, little is known about the evb gene, except for its classic...

Hess, Gregory

2006-10-30

378

Mapping of genes using a bovine BAC Library to determine their effects on economically important traits in cattle  

E-print Network

F2 families from F, Angus-Brahman animals (n=28) were genotyped for the identified microsatellites. Phenotypic data was collected for birth weight (BW), cannon bone length and circumference (CBL and CBC), gestation length (GEST), weaning weight...

Herring, Kimberly Lynn

2012-06-07

379

Construction of a quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) BAC library and its use in identifying genes encoding seed storage proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to the harsh environments of the Andean Altiplano region. Its seeds have a well-balanced amino acid composition and exceptionally high protein content with respect to human nutrition. Quinoa grain is a staple in the diet of some of the most impoverished people in the world. The plant is an allotetraploid displaying disomic inheritance (2n=4x=36)

M. R. Stevens; C. E. Coleman; S. E. Parkinson; P. J. Maughan; H.-B. Zhang; M. R. Balzotti; D. L. Kooyman; K. Arumuganathan; A. Bonifacio; D. J. Fairbanks; E. N. Jellen; J. J. Stevens

2006-01-01

380

[Study on the combination of preozonation and post-ozonation-BAC process for drinking water treatment].  

PubMed

This study was conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of preozonation or O3-BAC or combination of these two process in controlling DBPs for treating a dam source water in South China through SBR and continuous flow (200 L/h) experiments and the variables in the treatment train included the point of preozonation with respect to coagulation; the point of ozonation with respect to BAC, the ozone dosage required for preozonation and the Br- content of raw water. Results indicated the reduction in DBP formation potential closely paralleled the reduction in UV absorbance, and trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential can be removed under a dose of preozone at 0.5 - 1.0 mg/L, at the same time, ozone by-products (bromate and formaldehyde) can be controlled in low level. The continuous flow experiment results show that combination of preozonation and O3-BAC process has obviously positive effects on the removals of particles with a size above 2 microm, COD(Mn), and TOC. However, DBPs formation can be controlled by the removal of organic matters. PMID:16447434

Guo, Zhao-hai; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Pei, Yi-shan; Zhang, Jun-zhi; Hirotsuji, Juni

2005-11-01

381

Enforcement following 0.08% BAC law change: sex-specific consequences of changing arrest practices?  

PubMed

This research evaluated effects of stricter 0.08% BAC drunken driving law on changes in sex-specific DUI arrest rates, controlling for increased law enforcement resources and shifts in DUI-related behaviors. Another main purpose, the study assessed female/male differences in arrest increases due to broader enforcement standards and efforts. Panel data was assembled for 24 states over 1990-2007 on DUI arrests, alcohol policy, law enforcement resources, drinking and drunken driving prevalence. Two-way fixed-effects seemingly unrelated regression models predicted female versus male changes in DUI arrests following implementation of lower legal limits of intoxication, net controls. Findings suggest, first, that a broader legal definition of drunken driving intending to officially sanction less serious offenders (0.08% vs. 0.10% BAC) was associated with increased DUI arrests for both sexes. Second, growth in specialized DUI-enforcement units also was related to increased arrests. Whereas male and female arrest trends were equally affected by the direct net-widening effects of 0.08% BAC alcohol-policy, specialized DUI-enforcement efforts to dig deeper into the offender-pool had stronger arrest-producing effects on females, particularly prior to law change. Specifying how changes in law and enforcement resources affect arrest outcomes is an important pre-cursor to alcohol-policy analyses of effectiveness. A potential unintended consequence, effects of law and enforcement may differ across population segments. PMID:23773958

Schwartz, Jennifer; Davaran, Ardavan

2013-10-01

382

Assessment of acrylamide degradation potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa BAC-6 isolated from industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Acrylamide finds diverse industrial applications but is considered an environmental threat because of its neurotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. Certain bacteria enzymatically degrade acrylamide to acrylic acid and ammonia. The present investigation was carried out to isolate and identify an acrylamide-degrading bacterium from industrial effluent. Bacterial growth and extent of acrylamide degradation in the presence of different acrylamide concentrations, nutrients, varied range of pH, and temperature were analyzed. Among the eight acrylamide-degrading isolates, isolate BAC-6 demonstrated the highest degradation, and based upon the partial 16S rDNA sequencing, it was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa BAC-6 grew over a wide range of acrylamide concentrations, but the highest degradation was recorded at 500 mg/L concentration with concomitant cell growth. Among the carbon supplements, mannitol supported the highest growth and degradation. Maximum degradation was reported at neutral pH. A mesophilic temperature range (25-40 °C) facilitated conducive bacterial growth followed by degradation. The highest degradation and bacterial growth were observed at 30 and 35 °C, respectively. Thus, it could be inferred from the present investigation that cultural conditions strongly affected the degradation potential of P. aeruginosa BAC-6 and advocated the utilization of the isolate in bioremediation of sites polluted with acrylamide. PMID:24771288

Chandrashekar, Vijayashree; Chandrashekar, Chandrika; Shivakumar, Rajath; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; Gouda, Bhaskar; Rajan, Subbaramiah Sundara

2014-07-01

383

The Whole Library Handbook 3: Current Data, Professional Advice, and Curiosa about Libraries and Library Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook contains articles, guidelines, and other information from the field of library science organized into the following chapters: (1) "Libraries," including some basic figures, academic libraries, public libraries, school libraries, special libraries, national libraries, state libraries, small libraries, facilities, the past, and the…

Eberhart, George M., Comp.

384

What's in the genome of a filamentous fungus? Analysis of the Neurospora genome sequence  

PubMed Central

The German Neurospora Genome Project has assembled sequences from ordered cosmid and BAC clones of linkage groups II and V of the genome of Neurospora crassa in 13 and 12 contigs, respectively. Including additional sequences located on other linkage groups a total of 12 Mb were subjected to a manual gene extraction and annotation process. The genome comprises a small number of repetitive elements, a low degree of segmental duplications and very few paralogous genes. The analysis of the 3218 identified open reading frames provides a first overview of the protein equipment of a filamentous fungus. Significantly, N.crassa possesses a large variety of metabolic enzymes including a substantial number of enzymes involved in the degradation of complex substrates as well as secondary metabolism. While several of these enzymes are specific for filamentous fungi many are shared exclusively with prokaryotes. PMID:12655011

Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Montrone, Corinna; Haase, Dirk; Mewes, H. Werner; Aign, Verena; Hoheisel, Jorg D.; Fartmann, Berthold; Nyakatura, Gerald; Kempken, Frank; Maier, Josef; Schulte, Ulrich

2003-01-01

385

Diagnosis and Prognostication of Ductal Adenocarcinomas of the Pancreas Based on Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Array-Based Methylated CpG Island Amplification  

PubMed Central

To establish diagnostic criteria for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (PCs), bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array-based methylated CpG island amplification was performed using 139 tissue samples. Twelve BAC clones, for which DNA methylation status was able to discriminate cancerous tissue (T) from noncancerous pancreatic tissue in the learning cohort with a specificity of 100%, were identified. Using criteria that combined the 12 BAC clones, T-samples were diagnosed as cancers with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both the learning and validation cohorts. DNA methylation status on 11 of the BAC clones, which was able to discriminate patients showing early relapse from those with no relapse in the learning cohort with 100% specificity, was correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival rates in the validation cohort and was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling may provide optimal diagnostic markers and prognostic indicators for patients with PCs. PMID:21197409

Gotoh, Masahiro; Arai, Eri; Wakai-Ushijima, Saori; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Kosuge, Tomoo; Hosoda, Fumie; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Kondo, Tadashi; Yokoi, Sana; Imoto, Issei; Inazawa, Johji; Kanai, Yae

2011-01-01

386

Library Literature: Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE (discussed in the February 9, 1996 Scout Report) has added the first in what will be a series of library literature, Michael Buckland's Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto. Buckland argues against what he sees as library literature's over-emphasis on technology for technology's sake, "on means, rather than on ends, and tactics rather than strategy." Though electronic library management has certainly changed and grown since Redesigning Library Services was first published (1992), the book's primary emphasis on the goals and purposes of library services still serves as a relevant touchstone. Buckland's book is meant to countervail against the fact that "there is so much more written, for example, on how to build collections than on the roles that collections play." The text can be read online, downloaded (.pdf), or searched for keywords (Note that searches return only links to chapters, not passages of text).

Buckland, Michael K.

1998-01-01

387

Genomic characterization of interferon regulatory factor 5 from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and its role in antiviral defense.  

PubMed

The interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a key mediator of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR8 signaling pathways. In this study, we describe the identification of IRF5 (Rb-IRF5) from rock bream fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and its characteristics features at the genomic and expression levels. The full-length Rb-IRF5 sequence was identified from a cDNA library and its genomic sequence was obtained by screening and sequencing of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomic DNA library of rock bream. The genomic sequence is comprised of 8 exons interrupted by 7 introns. The complete coding sequence of Rb-IRF5 is 1497 bp in length and encodes for 498 amino acids. The putative Rb-IRF5 protein consists of 3 important conserved domains: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) at the N-terminus, an IRF-associated domain (IAD), and a virus-activated domain (VAD) at the C-terminus. Based on pairwise sequence analysis, the highest sequence similarity/identity for Rb-IRF5 was observed with the IRF5 gene from turbot fish (>87%) and Japanese flounder (83%). Several important putative transcription factor-binding sites shared by the IRF gene family, including the NF-?B, Ap-1, IRF-1, and ICSBP/ISRE sites, were found in the 5' flanking region of Rb-IRF5. The predicted tertiary structure of the dimerized IAD and VAD of the Rb-IRF5 protein resembled that of its orthologs from humans. In healthy rock bream, the highest constitutive expression of Rb-IRF5 was detected in the liver. After iridovirus and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) challenge, Rb-IRF5 expression was significantly induced in the head kidney. Furthermore, rock bream recombinant type I interferon (Rb-IFN1) was also found to be an efficient inducer of Rb-IRF5 in a head kidney primary cell culture model. Upon IRF5 transfection, rock bream Mx (Rb-Mx), interferon I (Rb-IFN1) and tumor-necrosis factor ? (Rb-TNF?) genes get significantly upregulated in rock bream heart cells. The findings of the present study explain the involvement of Rb-IRF5 in the induction of interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines and thereby provide a model for how IRF5 modulates immune responses against viral infections in rock bream. PMID:24560681

Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; Wan, Qiang; Lim, Bong-Soo; Jung, Hyung-Bok; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Park, Myoung-Ae; Lee, Jehee; Whang, Ilson

2014-04-01

388

Next-generation sequencing strategies for characterizing the turkey genome.  

PubMed

The turkey genome sequencing project was initiated in 2008 and has relied primarily on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Our first efforts used a synergistic combination of 2 NGS platforms (Roche/454 and Illumina GAII), detailed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) maps, and unique assembly tools to sequence and assemble the genome of the domesticated turkey, Meleagris gallopavo. Since the first release in 2010, efforts to improve the genome assembly, gene annotation, and genomic analyses continue. The initial assembly build (2.01) represented about 89% of the genome sequence with 17X coverage depth (931 Mb). Sequence contigs were assigned to 30 of the 40 chromosomes with approximately 10% of the assembled sequence corresponding to unassigned chromosomes (ChrUn). The sequence has been refined through both genome-wide and area-focused sequencing, including shotgun and paired-end sequencing, and targeted sequencing of chromosomal regions with low or incomplete coverage. These additional efforts have improved the sequence assembly resulting in 2 subsequent genome builds of higher genome coverage (25X/Build3.0 and 30X/Build4.0) with a current sequence totaling 1,010 Mb. Further, BAC with end sequences assigned to the Z/W and MG18 (MHC) chromosomes, ChrUn, or not placed in the previous build were isolated, deeply sequenced (Hi-Seq), and incorporated into the latest build (5.0). To aid in the annotation and to generate a gene expression atlas of major tissues, a comprehensive set of RNA samples was collected at various developmental stages of female and male turkeys. Transcriptome sequencing data (using Illumina Hi-Seq) will provide information to enhance the final assembly and ultimately improve sequence annotation. The most current sequence covers more than 95% of the turkey genome and should yield a much improved gene level of annotation, making it a valuable resource for studying genetic variations underlying economically important traits in poultry. PMID:24570472

Dalloul, Rami A; Zimin, Aleksey V; Settlage, Robert E; Kim, Sungwon; Reed, Kent M

2014-02-01

389

Optimization of Library Construction Protocol to Sequence Large Fragment Libraries on PacBio  

PubMed Central

The PacBio RS single molecule long-read sequencing platform offers the long sequence reads and robust coverage and thus the potential to produce improved genome assembly of finished quality containing fewer gaps and longer contigs. However, in order to take the full advantage of PacBio technology a large fragment size high-quality library is essential. The University of Florida is an early adopter of PacBio technology and has supported wide range of projects successfully. Following our RS150 (v2.1) upgrade and the use of the P5/C3 chemistry, we started experiencing issues with sequencing runs using large fragment libraries. The problems were more obvious to libraries that had been blue pippin selected. To overcome our obstacles, we optimized the library construction protocol in collaboration with PacBio. Here we present the challenges and improvements with the long fragment PacBio libraries.

Panayotova, N.G.; Zhou, X.H.; Yuan, G; Moraga, D.A.; Shanker, S.

2014-01-01

390

Libraries, Ebooks, and Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People keep writing articles about how valuable libraries are, even with ebooks and the Internet. What people are overlooking is that the reason libraries are having such fits dealing with a changing environment is not that libraries are unrecognized as fountains of value, it's that libraries are so valuable that they attract voracious new…

Hellman, Eric

2010-01-01

391

Libraries and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles address issues that relate to libraries and the environment. Highlights include recycling projects; buying recycled paper products and other ecology-minded purchasing ideas; energy-efficient libraries; indoor pollution problems; a list of environmental information sources; designing library buildings; and activities that libraries

LaRue, James; And Others

1991-01-01

392

Facility Focus: Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the Charles V. Park Library at Central Michigan University and the Martha Rivers and E. Bronson Ingram Library, an addition to the Frederick Ferris Thompson Memorial Library at Vassar College. Discusses the libraries as examples of merging tradition with technology. Includes photographs. (EV)

College Planning & Management, 2002

2002-01-01

393

UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN LIBRARY  

E-print Network

, publications and documents published by the EU. Law library Rare books and pictures. Department of Special Collections: Rare Book Collection, Picture Collection The library resources are accessible through our website THE UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN LIBRARY The University of Bergen Library has more than 2 million books of which 185 000

Fomin, Fedor V.

394

The TPTP Problem Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper provides a description of the TPTP library ofproblems for automated theorem provers. The library is available viaInternet, and is intended to form a common basis for the development ofand experimentation with automated theorem provers. To support thisgoal, this paper provides:-- the motivations for building the library;-- a description of the library structure including overview information;-- a description

Geoff Sutcliffe; Christian B. Suttner; Theodor Yemenis

1994-01-01

395

SFU Library Ask. Explore. Discover.  

E-print Network

SFU Library to continue the development of the Public Knowledge Project (PKP) software for scholarlySFU Library Ask. Explore. Discover. SFU Library Annual Report 2007-08 #12;SFU Library Annual Report..................................................................................................... 8 WAC BENNETT LIBRARY

396

Adenovirus vector library: an approach to the discovery of gene and protein function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to generate a complex cDNA expression library within an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-based vector backbone, termed AdLibrary. Construction of the AdLibrary entailed the conversion of an Ad5 genome-containing cosmid to infectious virus particles. The Ad5 genome was modified by replacing the E1A and E1B genes with a Rous sarcoma virus-driven expression cassette. Conversion was accomplished by

Duncan McVey; Mohammed Zuber; Douglas E. Brough; Imre Kovesdi

2003-01-01