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The Drosophila BAC resource The 19 Genomes of Drosophila: a BA C Library Resource for Genus-wide and1  

E-print Network

The Drosophila BAC resource 1 The 19 Genomes of Drosophila: a BA C Library Resource for Genus.126540 #12;The Drosophila BAC resource 2 Running Title: The Drosophila BAC resource22 Key Words: Drosophila;The Drosophila BAC resource 3 38 ABSTRA C T39 The genus Drosophila has been the subject of intense

Markow, Therese



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brachypodium is well suited to be a model system for temperate grasses because of its compact genome and a range of biological features. In an effort to develop resources for genome research in this emerging model species, we constructed two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from the d...


Advancing Eucalyptus genomics: identification and sequencing of lignin biosynthesis genes from deep-coverage BAC libraries  

PubMed Central

Background Eucalyptus species are among the most planted hardwoods in the world because of their rapid growth, adaptability and valuable wood properties. The development and integration of genomic resources into breeding practice will be increasingly important in the decades to come. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are key genomic tools that enable positional cloning of important traits, synteny evaluation, and the development of genome framework physical maps for genetic linkage and genome sequencing. Results We describe the construction and characterization of two deep-coverage BAC libraries EG_Ba and EG_Bb obtained from nuclear DNA fragments of E. grandis (clone BRASUZ1) digested with HindIII and BstYI, respectively. Genome coverages of 17 and 15 haploid genome equivalents were estimated for EG_Ba and EG_Bb, respectively. Both libraries contained large inserts, with average sizes ranging from 135 Kb (Eg_Bb) to 157 Kb (Eg_Ba), very low extra-nuclear genome contamination providing a probability of finding a single copy gene ? 99.99%. Libraries were screened for the presence of several genes of interest via hybridizations to high-density BAC filters followed by PCR validation. Five selected BAC clones were sequenced and assembled using the Roche GS FLX technology providing the whole sequence of the E. grandis chloroplast genome, and complete genomic sequences of important lignin biosynthesis genes. Conclusions The two E. grandis BAC libraries described in this study represent an important milestone for the advancement of Eucalyptus genomics and forest tree research. These BAC resources have a highly redundant genome coverage (> 15×), contain large average inserts and have a very low percentage of clones with organellar DNA or empty vectors. These publicly available BAC libraries are thus suitable for a broad range of applications in genetic and genomic research in Eucalyptus and possibly in related species of Myrtaceae, including genome sequencing, gene isolation, functional and comparative genomics. Because they have been constructed using the same tree (E. grandis BRASUZ1) whose full genome is being sequenced, they should prove instrumental for assembly and gap filling of the upcoming Eucalyptus reference genome sequence. PMID:21375742



Toward an Integrated BAC Library Resource for Genome Sequencing and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

We developed a great deal of expertise in building large BAC libraries from a variety of DNA sources including humans, mice, corn, microorganisms, worms, and Arabidopsis. We greatly improved the technology for screening these libraries rapidly and for selecting appropriate BACs and mapping BACs to develop large overlapping contigs. We became involved in supplying BACs and BAC contigs to a variety of sequencing and mapping projects and we began to collaborate with Drs. Adams and Venter at TIGR and with Dr. Leroy Hood and his group at University of Washington to provide BACs for end sequencing and for mapping and sequencing of large fragments of chromosome 16. Together with Dr. Ian Dunham and his co-workers at the Sanger Center we completed the mapping and they completed the sequencing of the first human chromosome, chromosome 22. This was published in Nature in 1999 and our BAC contigs made a major contribution to this sequencing effort. Drs. Shizuya and Ding invented an automated highly accurate BAC mapping technique. We also developed long-term collaborations with Dr. Uli Weier at UCSF in the design of BAC probes for characterization of human tumors and specific chromosome deletions and breakpoints. Finally the contribution of our work to the human genome project has been recognized in the publication both by the international consortium and the NIH of a draft sequence of the human genome in Nature last year. Dr. Shizuya was acknowledged in the authorship of that landmark paper. Dr. Simon was also an author on the Venter/Adams Celera project sequencing the human genome that was published in Science last year.

Simon, M. I.; Kim, U.-J.



Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the A genome of wheat.  


A genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of the A genome of wheat has been constructed. Triticum monococcum accession DV92 was selected for this purpose because it is a cultivated diploid wheat and one of the parental lines used in the construction of a saturated genetic map. Leaves from this accession were used to isolate high-molecular-weight DNA from nuclei. This DNA was partially digested with restriction enzyme Hind III, subjected to double size selection, electroeluted and cloned into the pINDIGO451 BAC vector. The library consists of 276,480 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Excluding the 1.33% of empty clones and 0.14% of clones with chloroplast DNA, the coverage of this library is 5.6 genome equivalents. With this genome coverage the probability of having any DNA sequence represented in this library is higher than 99.6%. Clones were sorted in 720,384-well plates and blotted onto 15 high-density filters. High-density filters were screened with several single or low-copy clones and five positive BAC clones were selected for further analysis. Since most of the T. monococcum BAC ends included repetitive sequences, a modification was introduced into the classical end-isolation procedure to select low copy sequences for chromosome walking. PMID:10659785

Lijavetzky, D; Muzzi, G; Wicker, T; Keller, B; Wing, R; Dubcovsky, J




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arabica coffee (C. Arabica) is commercially the most important species of the genus Coffea. Arabica accounts for 70% of the world’s coffee production. We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using genomic DNA from the small bean, high-cupping quality, Arabica variety Mokka Hyb...


Development of genomic resources for the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius): construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Lupinus angustifolius L, also known as narrow-leafed lupin (NLL), is becoming an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognised as a potential human health food. Recent interest is being directed at NLL to improve grain production, disease and pest management and health benefits of the grain. However, studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Results A NLL BAC library was constructed consisting of 111,360 clones with an average insert size of 99.7 Kbp from cv Tanjil. The library has approximately 12 × genome coverage. Both ends of 9600 randomly selected BAC clones were sequenced to generate 13985 BAC end-sequences (BESs), covering approximately 1% of the NLL genome. These BESs permitted a preliminary characterisation of the NLL genome such as organisation and composition, with the BESs having approximately 39% G:C content, 16.6% repetitive DNA and 5.4% putative gene-encoding regions. From the BESs 9966 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified and some of these are shown to be potential markers. Conclusions The NLL BAC library and BAC-end sequences are powerful resources for genetic and genomic research on lupin. These resources will provide a robust platform for future high-resolution mapping, map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole-genome sequencing data for the species. PMID:22014081



Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and a preliminary genome survey  

PubMed Central

Background Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. Aims In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Results The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 × 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6–28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50–90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible. Conclusion We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome. PMID:16672057

Luo, Meizhong; Kim, HyeRan; Kudrna, Dave; Sisneros, Nicholas B; Lee, So-Jeong; Mueller, Christopher; Collura, Kristi; Zuccolo, Andrea; Buckingham, E Bryan; Grim, Suzanne M; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Flajnik, Martin F; Wing, Rod A; Ohta, Yuko



New genomic resources for switchgrass: a BAC library and comparative analysis of homoeologous genomic regions harboring bioenergy traits  

PubMed Central

Background Switchgrass, a C4 species and a warm-season grass native to the prairies of North America, has been targeted for development into an herbaceous biomass fuel crop. Genetic improvement of switchgrass feedstock traits through marker-assisted breeding and biotechnology approaches calls for genomic tools development. Establishment of integrated physical and genetic maps for switchgrass will accelerate mapping of value added traits useful to breeding programs and to isolate important target genes using map based cloning. The reported polyploidy series in switchgrass ranges from diploid (2X = 18) to duodecaploid (12X = 108). Like in other large, repeat-rich plant genomes, this genomic complexity will hinder whole genome sequencing efforts. An extensive physical map providing enough information to resolve the homoeologous genomes would provide the necessary framework for accurate assembly of the switchgrass genome. Results A switchgrass BAC library constructed by partial digestion of nuclear DNA with EcoRI contains 147,456 clones covering the effective genome approximately 10 times based on a genome size of 3.2 Gigabases (~1.6 Gb effective). Restriction digestion and PFGE analysis of 234 randomly chosen BACs indicated that 95% of the clones contained inserts, ranging from 60 to 180 kb with an average of 120 kb. Comparative sequence analysis of two homoeologous genomic regions harboring orthologs of the rice OsBRI1 locus, a low-copy gene encoding a putative protein kinase and associated with biomass, revealed that orthologous clones from homoeologous chromosomes can be unambiguously distinguished from each other and correctly assembled to respective fingerprint contigs. Thus, the data obtained not only provide genomic resources for further analysis of switchgrass genome, but also improve efforts for an accurate genome sequencing strategy. Conclusions The construction of the first switchgrass BAC library and comparative analysis of homoeologous harboring OsBRI1 orthologs present a glimpse into the switchgrass genome structure and complexity. Data obtained demonstrate the feasibility of using HICF fingerprinting to resolve the homoeologous chromosomes of the two distinct genomes in switchgrass, providing a robust and accurate BAC-based physical platform for this species. The genomic resources and sequence data generated will lay the foundation for deciphering the switchgrass genome and lead the way for an accurate genome sequencing strategy. PMID:21767393



A BAC library of the SP80-3280 sugarcane variety (saccharum sp.) and its inferred microsynteny with the sorghum genome  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed in the last 30 years, but achieving additional yield gains has been difficult because of the constraints imposed by the complex ploidy of this crop. Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids between Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum. S. officinarum is an octoploid with 2n?=?80 chromosomes while S. spontaneum has 2n?=?40 to 128 chromosomes and ploidy varying from 5 to 16. The hybrid genome is composed of 70-80%?S. officinaram and 5-20%?S. spontaneum chromosomes and a small proportion of recombinants. Sequencing the genome of this complex crop may help identify useful genes, either per se or through comparative genomics using closely related grasses. The construction and sequencing of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of an elite commercial variety of sugarcane could help assembly the sugarcane genome. Results A BAC library designated SS_SBa was constructed with DNA isolated from the commercial sugarcane variety SP80-3280. The library contains 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 125 Kb, 88% of which has inserts larger than 90 Kb. Based on the estimated genome size of 760–930 Mb, the library exhibits 5–6 times coverage the monoploid sugarcane genome. Bidirectional BAC end sequencing (BESs) from a random sample of 192 BAC clones sampled genes and repetitive elements of the sugarcane genome. Forty-five per cent of the total BES nucleotides represents repetitive elements, 83% of which belonging to LTR retrotransposons. Alignment of BESs corresponding to 42 BACs to the genome sequence of the 10 sorghum chromosomes revealed regions of microsynteny, with expansions and contractions of sorghum genome regions relative to the sugarcane BAC clones. In general, the sampled sorghum genome regions presented an average 29% expansion in relation to the sugarcane syntenic BACs. Conclusion The SS_SBa BAC library represents a new resource for sugarcane genome sequencing. An analysis of insert size, genome coverage and orthologous alignment with the sorghum genome revealed that the library presents whole genome coverage. The comparison of syntenic regions of the sorghum genome to 42 SS_SBa BES pairs revealed that the sorghum genome is expanded in relation to the sugarcane genome. PMID:22524198



Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...


Development of genomic resources for the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster): construction of a BAC library and vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map  

PubMed Central

Background The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a premier animal model for understanding the genetic and neurological basis of social behaviors. Unlike other biomedical models, prairie voles display a rich repertoire of social behaviors including the formation of long-term pair bonds and biparental care. However, due to a lack of genomic resources for this species, studies have been limited to a handful of candidate genes. To provide a substrate for future development of genomic resources for this unique model organism, we report the construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from a single male prairie vole and a prairie vole-mouse (Mus musculus) comparative cytogenetic map. Results We constructed a prairie vole BAC library (CHORI-232) consisting of 194,267 recombinant clones with an average insert size of 139 kb. Hybridization-based screening of the gridded library at 19 loci established that the library has an average depth of coverage of ~10×. To obtain a small-scale sampling of the prairie vole genome, we generated 3884 BAC end-sequences totaling ~2.8 Mb. One-third of these BAC-end sequences could be mapped to unique locations in the mouse genome, thereby anchoring 1003 prairie vole BAC clones to an orthologous position in the mouse genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping of 62 prairie vole clones with BAC-end sequences mapping to orthologous positions in the mouse genome was used to develop a first-generation genome-wide prairie vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map. While conserved synteny was observed between this pair of rodent genomes, rearrangements between the prairie vole and mouse genomes were detected, including a minimum of five inversions and 16 inter-chromosomal rearrangements. Conclusions The construction of the prairie vole BAC library and the vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map represent the first genome-wide modern genomic resources developed for this species. The BAC library will support future genomic, genetic and molecular characterization of this genome and species, and the isolation of clones of high interest to the vole research community will allow for immediate characterization of the regulatory and coding sequences of genes known to play important roles in social behaviors. In addition, these resources provide an excellent platform for future higher resolution cytogenetic mapping and full genome sequencing. PMID:20109198



Construction of genome-wide physical BAC contigs using mapped cDNA as probes: Toward an integrated BAC library resource for genome sequencing and analysis. Annual report, July 1995--January 1997  

SciTech Connect

The goal of human genome project is to characterize and sequence entire genomes of human and several model organisms, thus providing complete sets of information on the entire structure of transcribed, regulatory and other functional regions for these organisms. In the past years, a number of useful genetic and physical markers on human and mouse genomes have been made available along with the advent of BAC library resources for these organisms. The advances in technology and resource development made it feasible to efficiently construct genome-wide physical BAC contigs for human and other genomes. Currently, over 30,000 mapped STSs and 27,000 mapped Unigenes are available for human genome mapping. ESTs and cDNAs are excellent resources for building contig maps for two reasons. Firstly, they exist in two alternative forms--as both sequence information for PCR primer pairs, and cDoreen genomic libraries efficiently for large number of DNA probes by combining over 100 cDNA probes in each hybridization. Second, the linkage and order of genes are rather conserved among human, mouse and other model organisms. Therefore, gene markers have advantages over random anonymous STSs in building maps for comparative genomic studies.

Mitchell, S.C.; Bocskai, D.; Cao, Y. [and others



New genomic resources for the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.): development of a deep-coverage BAC library and a preliminary STC database  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for a European honey bee strain using the cloning en- zyme HindIII in order to develop resources for structural genomics re- search. The library contains 36,864 clones (ninety-six 384-well plates). A random sampling of 247 clones indicated an average insert size of 113 kb (range = 27 to 213 kb) and

J. P. Tomkins; M. Luo; G. C. Fang; D. Main; J. L. Goicoechea; M. Atkins; D. A. Frisch; E. Guzmán-Novoa; Y. Yu


Anchoring of a large set of markers onto a BAC library for the development of a draft physical map of the grapevine genome.  


Five hundred and six EST-derived markers, 313 SSR markers and 26 BAC end-derived or SCAR markers were anchored by PCR on a subset of a Cabernet Sauvignon BAC library representing six genome equivalents pooled in three dimensions. In parallel, the 12,351 EST clusters of the grapevine UniGene set (build #11) from NCBI were used to design 12,125 primers pairs and perform electronic PCR on 67,543 nonredundant BAC-end sequences. This in silico experiment yielded 1,140 positive results concerning 638 different markers, among which 602 had not been already anchored by PCR. The data obtained will provide an easier access to the regulatory sequences surrounding important genes (represented by ESTs). In total, 1,731 islands of BAC clones (set of overlapping BAC clones containing at least one common marker) were obtained and 226 of them contained at least one genetically mapped anchor. These assigned islands are very useful because they will link the genetic map and the future fingerprint-based physical map and because they allowed us to indirectly place 93 ESTs on the genetic map. The islands containing two or more mapped SSR markers were also used to assess the quality of the integrated genetic map of the grapevine genome. PMID:16791700

Lamoureux, Didier; Bernole, Anne; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Tual, Sarah; Thareau, Vincent; Paillard, Sophie; Legeai, Fabrice; Dossat, Carole; Wincker, Patrick; Oswald, Marilyn; Merdinoglu, Didier; Vignault, Céline; Delrot, Serge; Caboche, Michel; Chalhoub, Boulos; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A HindIII and an EcoRI maize BAC library have been constructed from maize inbred line B73. Use of both libraries to make a physical map should minimize the under representation of certain genomic regions caused by the use of a particular restriction enzyme. High-density filter sets from the two libr...


Construction and characterization of BAC libraries from major grapevine cultivars.  


Genome projects were initiated on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L., 2n=38, genome size 475 Mb) through the successful construction of four bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from three major cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon (Cabernet S), Syrah and two different clones of Pinot Noir (Pinot N). Depending on the library, the genome coverage represented 4.5-14.8 genome equivalents with clones having a mean insert size of 93-158 kb. BAC pools suitable for PCR screening were constructed for two of these BAC libraries [Cabernet S and Pinot N clone (cl) 115] and subsequently used to confirm the genome coverage of both libraries by PCR anchoring of 74 genetic markers sampled from the 19 linkage groups. For ten of these markers, two bands on separate BAC pools were differentiated that could correspond either to different alleles or to a duplication of the locus being studied. Finally, a preliminary assessment of the correspondence between genetic and physical distances was made through the anchoring of all the markers mapped along linkage group 1 of the V. vinifera genetic map. A pair of markers, 2.1 cM apart, anchored the same BAC clones, which allowed us to estimate that 1 cM corresponded in this particular region to a maximum length of 130 kb. PMID:15834699

Adam-Blondon, A-F; Bernole, A; Faes, G; Lamoureux, D; Pateyron, S; Grando, M S; Caboche, M; Velasco, R; Chalhoub, B



Construction and characterization of a deep-coverage carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The first carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library was constructed using imbred line B8503, which is nematode-resistant and accumulates carotenes in its roots. The BAC library consists of 92,160 clones comprising 22.4 haploid genome equivalents based on a genome size of 473 Mb/1C. Upon the analysis of ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have generated a highly contiguous physical map covering >98% of the pig genome in just 176 contigs. The map is localized to the genome through integration with the UIVC RH map as well BAC end sequence alignments to the human genome. Over 265k HindIII restriction digest fingerprints totaling 16.2...


Repetitive Genomic Elements in a European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, BAC Library were Indicated by BAC End Sequencing and Development of Sequence Tag Site Markers: Implications for Lepidopteran Genomic Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a serious pest of food, fiber, and biofuel crops in Europe, North America, and Asia, and a model system for insect olfaction and speciation. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library constructed for O. nubilalis contains 36,864 clones with estim...


Library Resources for Bac End Sequencing. Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Studies directed towards the specific aims outlined for this research award are summarized. The RPCI II Human Bac Library has been expanded by the addition of 6.9-fold genomic coverage. This segment has been generated from a MBOI partial digest of the same anonymous donor DNA used for the rest of the library. A new cloning vector, pTARBAC1, has been constructed and used in the construction of RPCI-II segment 5. This new cloning vector provides a new strategy in identifying targeted genomic regions and will greatly facilitate a large-scale analysis for positional cloning. A new maleCS7BC/6J mouse BAC library has been constructed. RPCI-23 contain 576 plates (approx 210,000 clones) and represents approximately 11-fold coverage of the mouse genome.

Pieter J. de Jong



BAC Libraries from Wheat Chromosome 7D – Efficient Tool for Positional Cloning of Aphid Resistance Genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Positional cloning in bread wheat is a tedious task due to its huge genome size (~17 Gbp) and polyploid character. BAC libraries represent an essential tool for positional cloning. However, wheat BAC libraries comprise more than million clones, which make their screening very laborious. Here we pres...


Generation of BAC-end sequences for rainbow trout genome analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For non-sequenced genomes, BAC end sequences (BES) provide a valuable sample of repetitive elements and gene content. Here we report the results of BAC end sequencing of just over half of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Swanson HindIII library. We sequenced 177,860 BAC ends that generated 17...


Characterizing the walnut genome through analyses of BAC end sequences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is an economically important tree for its nut crop and timber. To gain insight into the structure and evolution of the walnut genome, we constructed two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, containing a total of 129,024 clones, from in vitro-grown shoots...


PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE BAC library construction, screening and clone sequencing of  

E-print Network

of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis, Salmonidae) towards the elucidation of adaptive species, characterization and screening of a nonar- rayed BAC library for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). We of extensive sequence information and other genomic resources. In lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis

Bernatchez, Louis


Construction of a 7-fold BAC library and cytogenetic mapping of 10 genes in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The giant panda, one of the most primitive carnivores, is an endangered animal. Although it has been the subject of many interesting studies during recent years, little is known about its genome. In order to promote research on this genome, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of the giant panda was constructed in this study. RESULTS: This BAC library

Wei Liu; Yonghui Zhao; Zhaoliang Liu; Ying Zhang; Zhengxing Lian; Ning Li




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have constructed a physical map of the pig genome by integrating restriction fingerprints and BAC end sequences generated from 4 BAC libraries with radiation hybrid markers, and contig alignments to the human genome. The map provides coverage across the 18 pig autosomes and the X chromosome in 17...


End Sequencing and Finger Printing of Human & Mouse BAC Libraries  

SciTech Connect

This project provided for continued end sequencing of existing and new BAC libraries constructed to support human sequencing as well as to initiate BAC end sequencing from the mouse BAC libraries constructed to support mouse sequencing. The clones, the sequences, and the fingerprints are now an available resource for the community at large. Research and development of new metaodologies for BAC end sequencing have reduced costs and increase throughput.

Fraser, C.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One BAC library and one BIBAC library from an inbred line HA 89 were constructed by using two restriction enzymes (BamH1, HindIII) and two vectors (pECBAC1, pCLD04541). Using the large-insert libraries, we identified a set of sunflower linkage group-specific BAC or BIBAC clones by overgo hybridizati...


A Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei BAC library - contig building and microsynteny studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, containing 12,000 clones with an average insert size of 41 kb, was constructed. The library represents about three genome equivalents and BAC-end sequencing showed a high content of repetitive sequences, making contig-building difficult. To identify overlapping clones, several strategies were used: colony hybridisation, PCR screening, fingerprinting techniques and the

Carsten Pedersen; Boqian Wu; Henriette Giese



BAC as tools for genome sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome sequencing represents the state-of-the-art technology for large-scale gene discovery, cloning and decoding. Bacteria-based large-insert clones, including bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), bacteriophage P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) and large-insert conventional plasmid-based clone (PBC), are desirable resources and have offered numerous potentials for accelerated sequencing of large, complex genomes. They are not only capable of cloning large DNA fragments of complex genomes

Hong-Bin Zhang; Chengcang Wu



Non-gridded library: a new approach for BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) exploitation in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum).  


The feasibility of exploiting non-gridded bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and some major factors affecting the efficiency of handling such libraries were studied in hexaploid wheat. Even for a bacterial culture containing only 55% recombinants, some 2000 BAC clones with inserts ranging from 45 to 245 kb could be pooled. The pooled BAC clones could be amplified by culturing for up to 6 h without losing any target clones. These results imply that even for hexaploid wheat, which has an extremely large genome, some 250 pools are sufficient for a BAC library that should satisfy many research objectives. This non-gridded strategy would dramatically reduce the cost and make robotic equipment non-essential in exploiting BAC technology. To construct a representative library and to minimise clone competition, thawing and re-freezing ligation mixtures and bacterial cultures should be avoided in BAC library construction and application. PMID:11121493

Ma, Z; Weining, S; Sharp, P J; Liu, C




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two BAC libraries and one plant transformation-competent BIBAC library were developed from the Gossypium hirsutum acc. TM-1 for the development of an integrative cotton physical and genetic map and other genomic applications. TM-1 is the most desirable choice for the physical map of Upland cotton be...


A BAC based physical map and genome survey of the rice false smut fungus Villosiclava virens  

PubMed Central

Background Rice false smut caused by Villosiclava virens is a devastating fungal disease that spreads in major rice-growing regions throughout the world. However, the genomic information for this fungal pathogen is limited and the pathogenic mechanism of this disease is still not clear. To facilitate genetic, molecular and genomic studies of this fungal pathogen, we constructed the first BAC-based physical map and performed the first genome survey for this species. Results High molecular weight genomic DNA was isolated from young mycelia of the Villosiclava virens strain UV-8b and a high-quality, large-insert and deep-coverage Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library was constructed with the restriction enzyme HindIII. The BAC library consisted of 5,760 clones, which covers 22.7-fold of the UV-8b genome, with an average insert size of 140 kb and an empty clone rate of lower than 1%. BAC fingerprinting generated successful fingerprints for 2,290 BAC clones. Using the fingerprints, a whole genome-wide BAC physical map was constructed that contained 194 contigs (2,035 clones) spanning 51.2 Mb in physical length. Bidirectional-end sequencing of 4,512 BAC clones generated 6,560 high quality BAC end sequences (BESs), with a total length of 3,030,658 bp, representing 8.54% of the genome sequence. Analysis of the BESs revealed general genome information, including 51.52% GC content, 22.51% repetitive sequences, 376.12/Mb simple sequence repeat (SSR) density and approximately 36.01% coding regions. Sequence comparisons to other available fungal genome sequences through BESs showed high similarities to Metarhizium anisopliae, Trichoderma reesei, Nectria haematococca and Cordyceps militaris, which were generally in agreement with the 18S rRNA gene analysis results. Conclusion This study provides the first BAC-based physical map and genome information for the important rice fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. The BAC clones, physical map and genome information will serve as fundamental resources to accelerate the genetic, molecular and genomic studies of this pathogen, including positional cloning, comparative genomic analysis and whole genome sequencing. The BAC library and physical map have been opened to researchers as public genomic resources ( PMID:24341590



Construction and characterization of human and mouse BAC libraries from sheared DNA  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new way to construct BAC libraries with small inserts using sheared DNA sources. Because of our use of the randomly sheared DNA as DNA sources, some regions of genome may be represented better in our libraries compared to the currently available and more conventional libraries constructed by enzymatic partial digestion. B263 We have developed a new fingerprinting method useful for physical mapping by large insert clones, in particular by BACs. It is based on four-color fluorescent labeling of fragments generated by combination of a type II and a type IIS restriction enzyme.

Shizuya, Hiroaki



Versatile P(acman) BAC Libraries for Transgenesis Studies in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

We constructed Drosophila melanogaster BAC libraries with 21-kb and 83-kb inserts in the P(acman) system. Clones representing 12-fold coverage and encompassing more than 95percent of annotated genes were mapped onto the reference genome. These clones can be integrated into predetermined attP sites in the genome using Phi C31 integrase to rescue mutations. They can be modified through recombineering, for example to incorporate protein tags and assess expression patterns.

Venken, Koen J.T.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Schulze, Karen L.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Spokony, Rebecca; Wan, Kenneth H.; Koriabine, Maxim; de Jong, Pieter J.; White, Kevin P.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Hoskins, Roger A.



The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei) is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690) were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish. PMID:20105308



Sequencing the Pig Genome Using a Mapped BAC by BAC Approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have generated a highly contiguous physical map covering >98% of the pig genome in just 176 contigs. The map is localised to the genome through integration with the UIUC RH map as well BAC end sequence alignments to the human genome. Over 265k HindIII restriction digest fingerprints totalling 1...


A BAC-based physical map of the Drosophila buzzatii genome  

SciTech Connect

Large-insert genomic libraries facilitate cloning of large genomic regions, allow the construction of clone-based physical maps and provide useful resources for sequencing entire genomes. Drosophilabuzzatii is a representative species of the repleta group in the Drosophila subgenus, which is being widely used as a model in studies of genome evolution, ecological adaptation and speciation. We constructed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic library of D. buzzatii using the shuttle vector pTARBAC2.1. The library comprises 18,353 clones with an average insert size of 152 kb and a {approx}18X expected representation of the D. buzzatii euchromatic genome. We screened the entire library with six euchromatic gene probes and estimated the actual genome representation to be {approx}23X. In addition, we fingerprinted by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis a sample of 9,555 clones, and assembled them using Finger Printed Contigs (FPC) software and manual editing into 345 contigs (mean of 26 clones per contig) and 670singletons. Finally, we anchored 181 large contigs (containing 7,788clones) to the D. buzzatii salivary gland polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization of 427 representative clones. The BAC library and a database with all the information regarding the high coverage BAC-based physical map described in this paper are available to the research community.

Gonzalez, Josefa; Nefedov, Michael; Bosdet, Ian; Casals, Ferran; Calvete, Oriol; Delprat, Alejandra; Shin, Heesun; Chiu, Readman; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Hoskins, Roger A.; Schein, JacquelineE.; de Jong, Pieter; Ruiz, Alfredo



Construction of a BAC library for Haplochromis chilotes, a cichlid fish from Lake Victoria.  


Cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are model organisms for studying rapid radiation and speciation. On the way to examine the molecular basis of how these cichlid fishes achieved such a remarkable morphological diversification, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library derived from a cichlid species, Haplochromis chilotes, from Lake Victoria. The library includes 157,056 clones with the average insert size of 128 kb, corresponding to a 10-fold coverage of the H. chilotes genome. Given that the cichlid fishes endemic to Lake Victoria are closely related to one another phylogenetically and their genomes are nearly identical, this BAC library can be utilized to isolate genes from the more than 200 Haplochromine cichlid species in Lake Victoria. PMID:12655142

Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kobayashi, Naoki; Fujiyama, Asao; Okada, Norihiro



A First Generation BAC Physical Map of the Rainbow Trout Genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The physical map was constructed using the high-information content fingerprinting (HICF) method of Luo et al. (2003; Genomics, 82, 378-389). All the clones from the Swanson YY doubled haploid male BAC library (10X coverage; 184,704 clones) were fingerprinted and edited using FPMiner software. App...


BAC library construction, screening and clone sequencing of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis, Salmonidae) towards the elucidation of adaptive species divergence.  


Genomic DNA sequences and other genomic resources are essential towards the elucidation of the genomic bases of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation. Here, we describe the construction, characterization and screening of a nonarrayed BAC library for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). We then show how the combined use of BAC library screening and next-generation sequencing can lead to efficient full-length assembly of candidate genes. The lake whitefish BAC library consists of 181,050 clones derived from a single heterozygous fish. The mean insert size is 92 Kb, representing 5.2 haploid genome equivalents. Ten BAC clones were isolated following a quantitative real-time PCR screening approach that targeted five previously identified candidate genes. Sequencing of these clones on a 454 GS FLX system yielded 178,000 reads with a mean length of 358 bp, for a total of 63.8 Mb. De novo assembly and annotation then allowed retrieval of contigs corresponding to each candidate gene, which also contained up- and/or downstream noncoding sequences. These results suggest that the lake whitefish BAC library combined with next-generation sequencing technologies will be key resources to achieve a better understanding of both adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation in lake whitefish species pairs as well as salmonid evolution in general. PMID:21481212

Jeukens, J; Boyle, B; Kukavica-Ibrulj, I; St-Cyr, J; Lévesque, R C; Bernatchez, L



Giant panda BAC library construction and assembly of a 650-kb contig spanning major histocompatibility complex class II region  

PubMed Central

Background Giant panda is rare and endangered species endemic to China. The low rates of reproductive success and infectious disease resistance have severely hampered the development of captive and wild populations of the giant panda. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays important roles in immune response and reproductive system such as mate choice and mother-fetus bio-compatibility. It is thus essential to understand genetic details of the giant panda MHC. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library will provide a new tool for panda genome physical mapping and thus facilitate understanding of panda MHC genes. Results A giant panda BAC library consisting of 205,800 clones has been constructed. The average insert size was calculated to be 97 kb based on the examination of 174 randomly selected clones, indicating that the giant panda library contained 6.8-fold genome equivalents. Screening of the library with 16 giant panda PCR primer pairs revealed 6.4 positive clones per locus, in good agreement with an expected 6.8-fold genomic coverage of the library. Based on this BAC library, we constructed a contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX spanning about 650 kb by a three-step method: (1) PCR-based screening of the BAC library with primers from homologous MHC class II gene loci, end sequences and BAC clone shotgun sequences, (2) DNA sequencing validation of positive clones, and (3) restriction digest fingerprinting verification of inter-clone overlapping. Conclusion The identifications of genes and genomic regions of interest are greatly favored by the availability of this giant panda BAC library. The giant panda BAC library thus provides a useful platform for physical mapping, genome sequencing or complex analysis of targeted genomic regions. The 650 kb sequence-ready BAC contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX, verified by the three-step method, offers a powerful tool for further studies on the giant panda MHC class II genes. PMID:17825108

Zeng, Chang-Jun; Pan, Hui-Juan; Gong, Shao-Bin; Yu, Jian-Qiu; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Fang, Sheng-Guo



Genomic tools development for Aquilegia: construction of a BAC-based physical map  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Aquilegia, consisting of approximately 70 taxa, is a member of the basal eudicot lineage, Ranuculales, which is evolutionarily intermediate between monocots and core eudicots, and represents a relatively unstudied clade in the angiosperm phylogenetic tree that bridges the gap between these two major plant groups. Aquilegia species are closely related and their distribution covers highly diverse habitats. These provide rich resources to better understand the genetic basis of adaptation to different pollinators and habitats that in turn leads to rapid speciation. To gain insights into the genome structure and facilitate gene identification, comparative genomics and whole-genome shotgun sequencing assembly, BAC-based genomics resources are of crucial importance. Results BAC-based genomic resources, including two BAC libraries, a physical map with anchored markers and BAC end sequences, were established from A. formosa. The physical map was composed of a total of 50,155 BAC clones in 832 contigs and 3939 singletons, covering 21X genome equivalents. These contigs spanned a physical length of 689.8 Mb (~2.3X of the genome) suggesting the complex heterozygosity of the genome. A set of 197 markers was developed from ESTs induced by drought-stress, or involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis or floral development, and was integrated into the physical map. Among these were 87 genetically mapped markers that anchored 54 contigs, spanning 76.4 Mb (25.5%) across the genome. Analysis of a selection of 12,086 BAC end sequences (BESs) from the minimal tiling path (MTP) allowed a preview of the Aquilegia genome organization, including identification of transposable elements, simple sequence repeats and gene content. Common repetitive elements previously reported in both monocots and core eudicots were identified in Aquilegia suggesting the value of this genome in connecting the two major plant clades. Comparison with sequenced plant genomes indicated a higher similarity to grapevine (Vitis vinifera) than to rice and Arabidopsis in the transcriptomes. Conclusions The A. formosa BAC-based genomic resources provide valuable tools to study Aquilegia genome. Further integration of other existing genomics resources, such as ESTs, into the physical map should enable better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive radiation and elaboration of floral morphology. PMID:21059242



Creation of a BAC resource to study the structure and evolution of the banana (Musa balbisiana) genome.  


The first bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of the banana species Musa balbisiana 'Pisang Klutuk Wulung' (PKW BAC library) was constructed and characterized. One improved and one novel protocol for nuclei isolation were employed to overcome problems caused by high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides present in leaf tissues. The use of flow cytometry to purify cell nuclei eliminated contamination with secondary metabolites and plastid DNA. Furthermore, the usefulness of the inducible pCC1BAC vector to obtain a higher amount of BAC DNA was demonstrated. The PKW BAC library represents nine haploid genome equivalents of M. balbisiana and its mean insert size is 135 kb. It consists of two sublibraries, of which the first one (SN sublibrary with 24,960 clones) was prepared according to an improved standard nuclei isolation protocol, whereas the second (FN sublibrary with 11,904 clones) was obtained from flow-sorted nuclei. Screening with 12 RFLP probes, which were genetically anchored to 8 genetic linkage groups of the banana species Musa acuminata, revealed an average of 11 BAC clones per probe, thus confirming the genome coverage estimated based on the insert size, as well as a high level of conservation between the two species of Musa. Localization of selected BAC clones to mitotic chromosomes using FISH indicated that the BAC library represented a useful resource for cytogenetic mapping. As the first step in map-based cloning of a genetic factor that is involved in the activation of integrated pararetroviral sequences of Banana streak virus (BSV), the BSV expressed locus (BEL) was physically delimited. The PKW BAC library represents a publicly available tool, and is currently used to reveal the integration and activation mechanisms of BSV sequences and to study banana genome structure and evolution. PMID:15644977

Safár, Jan; Noa-Carrazana, Juan Carlos; Vrána, Jan; Bartos, Jan; Alkhimova, Olena; Sabau, Xavier; Simková, Hana; Lheureux, Fabrice; Caruana, Marie-Line; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Piffanelli, Pietro



BAC library development, and clone characterization for dormancy-responsive DREB4A, DAM, and FT from leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) identifies differential splicing and conserved promoter motifs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We developed two leafy spurge BAC libraries that together represent approximately 5X coverage of the leafy spurge genome. The BAC libraries have an average insert size of approximately 143 kb, and copies of the library and filters for hybridization-based screening are publicly available through the ...


Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s) encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health. PMID:19615078

Loit, Evelin; Melnyk, Charles W; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Scott, Fraser W; Altosaar, Illimar



piggyBac transposase tools for genome engineering.  


The transposon piggyBac is being used increasingly for genetic studies. Here, we describe modified versions of piggyBac transposase that have potentially wide-ranging applications, such as reversible transgenesis and modified targeting of insertions. piggyBac is distinguished by its ability to excise precisely, restoring the donor site to its pretransposon state. This characteristic makes piggyBac useful for reversible transgenesis, a potentially valuable feature when generating induced pluripotent stem cells without permanent alterations to genomic sequence. To avoid further genome modification following piggyBac excision by reintegration, we generated an excision competent/integration defective (Exc(+)Int(-)) transposase. Our findings also suggest the position of a target DNA-transposase interaction. Another goal of genome engineering is to develop reagents that can guide transgenes to preferred genomic regions. Others have shown that piggyBac transposase can be active when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain. An Exc(+)Int(-) transposase, the intrinsic targeting of which is defective, might also be a useful intermediate in generating a transposase whose integration activity could be rescued and redirected by fusion to a site-specific DNA-binding domain. We show that fusion to two designed zinc finger proteins rescued the Int(-) phenotype. Successful guided transgene integration into genomic DNA would have broad applications to gene therapy and molecular genetics. Thus, an Exc(+)Int(-) transposase is a potentially useful reagent for genome engineering and provides insight into the mechanism of transposase-target DNA interaction. PMID:23723351

Li, Xianghong; Burnight, Erin R; Cooney, Ashley L; Malani, Nirav; Brady, Troy; Sander, Jeffry D; Staber, Janice; Wheelan, Sarah J; Joung, J Keith; McCray, Paul B; Bushman, Frederic D; Sinn, Patrick L; Craig, Nancy L



Construction of a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) BAC library and its use in identifying genes encoding seed storage proteins.  


Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to the harsh environments of the Andean Altiplano region. Its seeds have a well-balanced amino acid composition and exceptionally high protein content with respect to human nutrition. Quinoa grain is a staple in the diet of some of the most impoverished people in the world. The plant is an allotetraploid displaying disomic inheritance (2n=4x=36) with a di-haploid genome of 967 Mbp (megabase pair), or 2C=2.01 pg. We constructed two quinoa BAC libraries using BamHI (26,880 clones) and EcoRI (48,000 clones) restriction endonucleases. Cloned inserts in the BamHI library average 113 kb (kilobase) with approximately 2% of the clones lacking inserts, whereas cloned inserts in the EcoRI library average 130 kb and approximately 1% lack inserts. Three plastid genes used as probes of high-density arrayed blots of 73,728 BACs identified approximately 2.8% of the clones as containing plastid DNA inserts. We estimate that the combined quinoa libraries represent at least 9.0 di-haploid nuclear genome equivalents. An average of 12.2 positive clones per probe were identified with 13 quinoa single-copy ESTs as probes of the high-density arrayed blots, suggesting that the estimate of 9.0x coverage of the genome is conservative. Utility of the BAC libraries for gene identification was demonstrated by probing the library with a partial sequence of the 11S globulin seed storage protein gene and identifying multiple positive clones. The presence of the 11S globulin gene in four of the clones was verified by direct comparison with quinoa genomic DNA on a Southern blot. Besides serving as a useful tool for gene identification, the quinoa BAC libraries will be an important resource for physical mapping of the quinoa genome. PMID:16586115

Stevens, M R; Coleman, C E; Parkinson, S E; Maughan, P J; Zhang, H-B; Balzotti, M R; Kooyman, D L; Arumuganathan, K; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D J; Jellen, E N; Stevens, J J



Characterization of a deep-coverage carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library and initial analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 17.3-fold redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library has been synthesized for carrot, the most-economically important member of the family Apiaceae. The library consists of 92,160 clones with an average insert size of 121 kb and ~ 2 % organellar DNA content. To provide an overview of ...


Analysis of BAC end sequences in oak, a keystone forest tree species, providing insight into the composition of its genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  One of the key goals of oak genomics research is to identify genes of adaptive significance. This information may help to\\u000a improve the conservation of adaptive genetic variation and the management of forests to increase their health and productivity.\\u000a Deep-coverage large-insert genomic libraries are a crucial tool for attaining this objective. We report herein the construction\\u000a of a BAC library

Patricia Faivre Rampant; Isabelle Lesur; Clément Boussardon; Frédérique Bitton; Marie-Laure Martin-Magniette; Catherine Bodénès; Grégoire Le Provost; Hélène Bergès; Sylvia Fluch; Antoine Kremer; Christophe Plomion



Isolation of a 97-kb Minimal Essential MHC B Locus from a New Reverse-4D BAC Library of the Golden Pheasant  

PubMed Central

The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system is widely used in isolation of large genomic fragments of interest. Construction of a routine BAC library requires several months for picking clones and arraying BACs into superpools in order to employ 4D-PCR to screen positive BACs, which might be time-consuming and laborious. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cluster of genes involved in the vertebrate immune system, and the classical avian MHC-B locus is a minimal essential one, occupying a 100-kb genomic region. In this study, we constructed a more effective reverse-4D BAC library for the golden pheasant, which first creates sub-libraries and then only picks clones of positive sub-libraries, and identified several MHC clones within thirty days. The full sequencing of a 97-kb reverse-4D BAC demonstrated that the golden pheasant MHC-B locus contained 20 genes and showed good synteny with that of the chicken. The notable differences between these two species were the numbers of class II B loci and NK genes and the inversions of the TAPBP gene and the TAP1-TAP2 region. Furthermore, the inverse TAP2-TAP1 was unique in the golden pheasant in comparison with that of chicken, turkey, and quail. The newly defined genomic structure of the golden pheasant MHC will give an insight into the evolutionary history of the avian MHC. PMID:22403630

Wu, Shao-Ying; Wan, Qiu-Hong




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High-density filter sets from two maize B73 libraries containing 6X (HindIII) and 7X (EcoRI) haploid genome equivalents, respectively, were evaluated with a set of complex probes. The complex probes will provide information on chromosome architecture and organellar DNA content. A second set of pro...


Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa  

PubMed Central

Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola). Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS) were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH). Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs), 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus. Conclusion The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species. PMID:20969760



Development of genomic resources for the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster): construction of a BAC library and vole-mouse comparative cytogenetic map  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a premier animal model for understanding the genetic and neurological basis of social behaviors. Unlike other biomedical models, prairie voles display a rich repertoire of social behaviors including the formation of long-term pair bonds and biparental care. However, due to a lack of genomic resources for this species, studies have been limited to

Lisa A McGraw; Jamie K Davis; Josh J Lowman; Boudewijn FH ten Hallers; Maxim Koriabine; Larry J Young; Pieter J de Jong; M Katharine Rudd; James W Thomas



Characterization of a deep-coverage carrot ( Daucus carota L.) BAC library and initial analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrot is the most economically important member of the Apiaceae family and a major source of provitamin A carotenoids in\\u000a the human diet. However, carrot molecular resources are relatively underdeveloped, hampering a number of genetic studies.\\u000a Here, we report on the synthesis and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of carrot. The library\\u000a is 17.3-fold redundant and consists

Pablo F. Cavagnaro; Sang-Min Chung; Marek Szklarczyk; Dariusz Grzebelus; Douglas Senalik; Anne E. Atkins; Philipp W. Simon



Bac clones generated from sheared dna  

SciTech Connect

BAC libraries generated from restriction-digested genomic DNA display representational bias and lack some sequences. To facilitate completion of genome projects, procedures have been developed to create BACs from DNA physically sheared to create fragments extending up to 200kb. The DNA fragments were repaired to create blunt ends and ligated to a new BAC vector. This approach has been tested by generating BAC libraries from Drosophila DNA, with insert lengths of 50 kb to 150 kb. The libraries lack chimeric clone problems as determined by mapping paired BAC-end sequences of one library to the D. melanogaster genome sequence. The utility of ''sheared'' libraries was demonstrated by closure of a previous clone gap and by isolation of clones from telomeric regions, which were notably absent from previous Drosophila BAC libraries.

Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Vessere, Gery M.; Shu, Chung Li; Hoskins,Roger A.; Abad, Jose P.; de Pablos, Beatriz; Villasante, Alfredo; deJong, Pieter J.



Mapping of genes using a bovine BAC Library to determine their effects on economically important traits in cattle  

E-print Network

Five genes, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R), somatostatin (SS), prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogen (PLL) were isolated from a bovine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Library. The BAC clones containing GH...

Herring, Kimberly Lynn



Cotton genome mapping with new microsatellites from Acala 'Maxxa' BAC-ends.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fine mapping and positional cloning will eventually improve with the anchoring of additional markers derived from genomic clones such as BACs. From 2603 new BAC-end genomic sequences from Gossypium hirsutum Acala ‘Maxxa’, 1316 PCR primer pairs (designated as MUSB) were designed to flank microsatelli...


Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes  

PubMed Central

Background BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or a selected sub-genomic region of biological interest. Such a region can be approached with next-generation whole-genome sequencing and assembly as if it were an independent small genome. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library. Results This pooled BAC approach was taken to sequence and assemble a QTL-rich region, of ~3 Mbp and represented by twenty-seven BACs, on linkage group 5 of the Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 genome. Using various mixtures of read coverages from paired-end and linear 454 libraries, multiple assemblies of varied quality were generated. Quality was assessed by comparing the assembly of 454 reads with a subset of ten BACs individually sequenced and assembled using Sanger reads. A mixture of reads optimal for assembly was identified. We found, furthermore, that a quality assembly suitable for serving as a reference genome template could be obtained even with a reduced depth of sequencing coverage. Annotation of the resulting assembly revealed several genes potentially responsible for three T. cacao traits: black pod disease resistance, bean shape index, and pod weight. Conclusions Our results, as with other pooled BAC sequencing reports, suggest that pooling portions of a minimum tiling path derived from a BAC-based physical map is an effective method to target sub-genomic regions for sequencing. While we focused on a single QTL region, other QTL regions of importance could be similarly sequenced allowing for biological discovery to take place before a high quality whole-genome assembly is completed. PMID:21794110



Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage  

PubMed Central

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12), consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger. PMID:24608928

Liu, Changqing; Bai, Chunyu; Guo, Yu; Liu, Dan; Lu, Taofeng; Li, Xiangchen; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun



Construction of two BAC libraries from the wild Mexican diploid potato, Solanum pinnatisectum, and the identification of clones near the late blight and Colorado potato beetle resistance loci.  


To facilitate isolation and characterization of disease and insect resistance genes important to potato, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from genomic DNA of the Mexican wild diploid species, Solanum pinnatisectum, which carries high levels of resistance to the most important potato pathogen and pest, the late blight and the Colorado potato beetle (CPB). One of the libraries was constructed from the DNA, partially digested with BamHI, and it consists of 40328 clones with an average insert size of 125 kb. The other library was constructed from the DNA partially digested with EcoRI, and it consists of 17280 clones with an average insert size of 135 kb. The two libraries, together, represent approximately six equivalents of the wild potato haploid genome. Both libraries were evaluated for contamination with organellar DNA sequences and were shown to have a very low percentage (0.65-0.91%) of clones derived from the chloroplast genome. High-density filters, prepared from the two libraries, were screened with ten restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers linked to the resistance genes for late blight, CPB, Verticillium wilt and potato cyst nematodes, and the gene Sr1 for the self-incompatibility S-locus. Thirty nine positive clones were identified and at least two positive BAC clones were detected for each RFLP marker. Four markers that are linked to the late blight resistance gene Rpi1 hybridized to 14 BAC clones. Fifteen BAC clones were shown to harbor the PPO (polyphenol oxidase) locus for the CPB resistance by three RFLP probes. Two RFLP markers detected five BAC clones that were linked to the Sr1 gene for self-incompatibility. These results agree with the library's predicted extent of coverage of the potato genome, and indicated that the libraries are useful resources for the molecular isolation of disease and insect resistance genes, as well as other economically important genes in the wild potato species. The development of the two potato BAC libraries provides a starting point, and landmarks for BAC contig construction and chromosome walking towards the map-based cloning of agronomically important target genes in the species. PMID:15067385

Chen, Q; Sun, S; Ye, Q; McCuine, S; Huff, E; Zhang, H-B



A FISH approach for mapping the human genome using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs)  

SciTech Connect

As the Human Genome Project progresses, large insert cloning vectors such as BACs, P1, and P1 Artificial Chromosomes (PACs) will be required to complement the YAC mapping efforts. The value of the BAC vector for physical mapping lies in the stability of the inserts, the lack of chimerism, the length of inserts (up to 300 kb), the ability to obtain large amounts of pure clone DNA and the ease of BAC manipulation. These features helped us design two approaches for generating physical mapping reagents for human genetic studies. The first approach is a whole genome strategy in which randomly selected BACs are mapped, using FISH, to specific chromosomal bands. To date, 700 BACs have been mapped to single chromosome bands at a resolution of 2-5 Mb in addition to BACs mapped to 14 different centromeres. These BACs represent more than 90 Mb of the genome and include >70% of all human chromosome bands at the 350-band level. These data revealed that >97% of the BACs were non-chimeric and have a genomic distribution covering most gaps in the existing YAC map with excellent coverage of gene-rich regions. In the second approach, we used YACs to identify BACs on chromosome 21. A 1.5 Mb contig between D21S339 and D21S220 nears completion within the Down syndrome congenital heart disease (DS-CHD) region. Seventeen BACs ranging in size from 80 kb to 240 kb were ordered using 14 STSs with FISH confirmation. We have also used 40 YACs spanning 21q to identify, on average, >1 BAC/Mb to provide molecular cytogenetic reagents and anchor points for further mapping. The contig generated on chromosome 21 will be helpful in isolating the genes for DS-CHD. The physical mapping reagents generated using the whole genome approach will provide cytogenetic markers and mapped genomic fragments that will facilitate positional cloning efforts and the identification of genes within most chromosomal bands.

Hubert, R.S.; Chen, X.N.; Mitchell, S. [Univ. of Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others



Comparative BAC-based mapping in the white-throated sparrow, a novel behavioral genomics model, using interspecies overgo hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new "non-model" organisms offer unique opportunities to examine environmental effects on genomic patterns and processes. Here we use comparative mapping as a first step in characterizing the genome organization of a novel animal model, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), which occurs as white or tan morphs that exhibit alternative behaviors and physiology. Morph is determined by the presence or absence of a complex chromosomal rearrangement. This species is an ideal model for behavioral genomics because the association between genotype and phenotype is absolute, making it possible to identify the genomic bases of phenotypic variation. Findings We initiated a genomic study in this species by characterizing the white-throated sparrow BAC library via filter hybridization with overgo probes designed for the chicken, turkey, and zebra finch. Cross-species hybridization resulted in 640 positive sparrow BACs assigned to 77 chicken loci across almost all macro-and microchromosomes, with a focus on the chromosomes associated with morph. Out of 216 overgos, 36% of the probes hybridized successfully, with an average number of 3.0 positive sparrow BACs per overgo. Conclusions These data will be utilized for determining chromosomal architecture and for fine-scale mapping of candidate genes associated with phenotypic differences. Our research confirms the utility of interspecies hybridization for developing comparative maps in other non-model organisms. PMID:21693052



Construction of a binary BAC library for an apomictic monosomic addition line of Beta corolliflora in sugar beet and identification of the clones derived from the alien chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant-transformation-competent binary BAC library was constructed from the genomic DNA of the chromosome 9 monosomic addition line of Beta corolliflora Zoss. in sugar beet ( B. vulgaris. L). This monosomic addition line (designated M14) is characterized by diplosporic reproduction caused by the alien chromosome carrying the gene(s) responsible for diplospory. The library consists of 49,920 clones with an average

Xiaohua Fang; Suhai Gu; Zhanyou Xu; Fan Chen; Dedong Guo; Hong-Bin Zhang; Naihu Wu



Construction and Preliminary Characterization Analysis of Wuzhishan Miniature Pig Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 8-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage  

PubMed Central

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries have been invaluable tools for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. Here, we report the construction and characterization of a high-redundancy BAC library from a very valuable pig breed in China, Wuzhishan miniature pig (Sus scrofa), using its blood cells and fibroblasts, respectively. The library contains approximately 153,600 clones ordered in 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 152.3?kb, representing approximately 7.68 genome equivalents of the porcine haploid genome and a 99.93% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence in the library. 19 pairs of microsatellite marker primers covering porcine chromosomes were used for screening the BAC library, which showed that each of these markers was positive in the library; the positive clone number was 2 to 9, and the average number was 7.89, which was consistent with 7.68-fold coverage of the porcine genome. And there were no significant differences of genomic BAC library from blood cells and fibroblast cells. Therefore, we identified 19 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. As a result, this BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for gene identification, physical mapping, and comparative genomics and large-scale genome sequencing in the porcine. PMID:23691508

Liu, Changqing; Guo, Yuo; Lu, Taofeng; Wu, Hongmei; Na, Risu; Li, Xiangchen; Guan, Weijun; Ma, Yuehui



An integrated BAC/BIBAC-based physical and genetic map of the cotton genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated genome-wide genetic and physical maps are crucial to many aspects of cotton genome research. We report a genome-wide BAC/BIBAC-based physical and genetic map of the upland cotton genome using a high-resolution and high-throughput capillary-based fingerprinting method. The map was constr...


Cotton genome mapping with new microsatellites from Acala ‘Maxxa’ BAC-ends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine mapping and positional cloning will eventually improve with the anchoring of additional markers derived from genomic\\u000a clones such as BACs. From 2,603 new BAC-end genomic sequences from Gossypium hirsutum Acala ‘Maxxa’, 1,316 PCR primer pairs (designated as MUSB) were designed to flank microsatellite or simple sequence repeat\\u000a motif sequences. Most (1164 or 88%) MUSB primer pairs successfully amplified DNA

James E. Frelichowski; Michael B. Palmer; Dorrie Main; Jeffrey P. Tomkins; Roy G. Cantrell; David M. Stelly; John Yu; Russell J. Kohel; Mauricio Ulloa



Development of cell lines from the sheep used to construct the CHORI-243 ovine BAC library  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two cell lines, designated MARC.OVSM and MARC.OKF, were initiated from the aorta and kidney, respectively, obtained from the Texel ram used to make the CHORI-243 Ovine BAC library. These cell lines have been submitted to the NIA Aging Cell Repository at the Coriell Cell Respositories, Camden, NJ, U...


A hybrid BAC physical map of potato: a framework for sequencing a heterozygous genome  

PubMed Central

Background Potato is the world's third most important food crop, yet cultivar improvement and genomic research in general remain difficult because of the heterozygous and tetraploid nature of its genome. The development of physical map resources that can facilitate genomic analyses in potato has so far been very limited. Here we present the methods of construction and the general statistics of the first two genome-wide BAC physical maps of potato, which were made from the heterozygous diploid clone RH89-039-16 (RH). Results First, a gel electrophoresis-based physical map was made by AFLP fingerprinting of 64478 BAC clones, which were aligned into 4150 contigs with an estimated total length of 1361 Mb. Screening of BAC pools, followed by the KeyMaps in silico anchoring procedure, identified 1725 AFLP markers in the physical map, and 1252 BAC contigs were anchored the ultradense potato genetic map. A second, sequence-tag-based physical map was constructed from 65919 whole genome profiling (WGP) BAC fingerprints and these were aligned into 3601 BAC contigs spanning 1396 Mb. The 39733 BAC clones that overlap between both physical maps provided anchors to 1127 contigs in the WGP physical map, and reduced the number of contigs to around 2800 in each map separately. Both physical maps were 1.64 times longer than the 850 Mb potato genome. Genome heterozygosity and incomplete merging of BAC contigs are two factors that can explain this map inflation. The contig information of both physical maps was united in a single table that describes hybrid potato physical map. Conclusions The AFLP physical map has already been used by the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium for sequencing 10% of the heterozygous genome of clone RH on a BAC-by-BAC basis. By layering a new WGP physical map on top of the AFLP physical map, a genetically anchored genome-wide framework of 322434 sequence tags has been created. This reference framework can be used for anchoring and ordering of genomic sequences of clone RH (and other potato genotypes), and opens the possibility to finish sequencing of the RH genome in a more efficient way via high throughput next generation approaches. PMID:22142254



Insights into the Loblolly Pine Genome: Characterization of BAC and Fosmid Sequences  

PubMed Central

Despite their prevalence and importance, the genome sequences of loblolly pine, Norway spruce, and white spruce, three ecologically and economically important conifer species, are just becoming available to the research community. Following the completion of these large assemblies, annotation efforts will be undertaken to characterize the reference sequences. Accurate annotation of these ancient genomes would be aided by a comprehensive repeat library; however, few studies have generated enough sequence to fully evaluate and catalog their non-genic content. In this paper, two sets of loblolly pine genomic sequence, 103 previously assembled BACs and 90,954 newly sequenced and assembled fosmid scaffolds, were analyzed. Together, this sequence represents 280 Mbp (roughly 1% of the loblolly pine genome) and one of the most comprehensive studies of repetitive elements and genes in a gymnosperm species. A combination of homology and de novo methodologies were applied to identify both conserved and novel repeats. Similarity analysis estimated a repetitive content of 27% that included both full and partial elements. When combined with the de novo investigation, the estimate increased to almost 86%. Over 60% of the repetitive sequence consists of full or partial LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons. Through de novo approaches, 6,270 novel, full-length transposable element families and 9,415 sub-families were identified. Among those 6,270 families, 82% were annotated as single-copy. Several of the novel, high-copy families are described here, with the largest, PtPiedmont, comprising 133 full-length copies. In addition to repeats, analysis of the coding region reported 23 full-length eukaryotic orthologous proteins (KOGS) and another 29 novel or orthologous genes. These discoveries, along with other genomic resources, will be used to annotate conifer genomes and address long-standing questions about gymnosperm evolution. PMID:24023741

Dougherty, William M.; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Koriabine, Maxim; Holtz-Morris, Ann; deJong, Pieter; Crepeau, Marc; Langley, Charles H.; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L.; Neale, David B.; Stevens, Kristian A.



PiggyBac-ing on a Primate Genome: Novel Elements, Recent Activity and Horizontal Transfer  

E-print Network

PiggyBac-ing on a Primate Genome: Novel Elements, Recent Activity and Horizontal Transfer Heidi J, Microcebus murinus, whole genome shotgun (2X) draft assembly. Analysis of this strepsirrhine primate extended previous research that targeted anthropoid primates and found no activity within the last 37 Myr. We tested

Ray, David


Analysis Of Papaya BAC End Sequences: Insights Into The Organization Of A Tree Fruit Genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...


BAC-pool 454-sequencing: A rapid and efficient approach to sequence complex tetraploid cotton genomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New and emerging next generation sequencing technologies have been promising in reducing sequencing costs, but not significantly for complex polyploid plant genomes such as cotton. Large and highly repetitive genome of G. hirsutum (~2.5GB) is less amenable and cost-intensive with traditional BAC-by...


The nuclear genome of Brachypodium distachyon: analysis of BAC end sequences.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due in part to its small genome (~350 Mb), Brachypodium distachyon is emerging as a model system for temperate grasses, including important crops like wheat and barley. We present the analysis of 10.9% of the Brachypodium genome based on 64,696 BAC end sequences (BES). Analysis of repeat DNA content...


Assembly and sorting of homologous BAC contigs in allotetraploid cotton genomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a diploidized allopolyploid species containing At and Dt sub-genomes that have partial homology. Assembly and sorting of homologous BAC contigs into their subgenomes and further to individual chromosomes are of both great interest and great challenge for genome-wide i...


Construction and Characterization of a Human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed an arrayed human genomic BAC library with approximately 4× coverage that is represented by 96,000 BAC clones with average insert size of nearly 140 kb. A new BAC vector that allows color-based positive screening to identify transformants with inserts has increased BAC cloning efficiency. The library was gridded onto hybridization filters at high density for efficient identification

Ung-Jin Kim; Bruce W. Birren; Tatiana Slepak; Valeria Mancino; Cecilie Boysen; Hyung-Lyun Kang; Melvin I. Simon; Hiroaki Shizuya



Versatile P[acman] BAC libraries for transgenesis  

E-print Network

platform for D. melanogaster, the P[acman] (P/FC31 artificial chromosome for manipulation) system inserts5 and bacteriophage FC31 integrase­mediated germline transformation into the D. melanogaster genome an automated colony picking device. To create a resource for manipulation and analysis of D. melanogaster genes

Cai, Long


Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Library of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most economically important marine aquaculture species in the world. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization,\\u000a genome analysis, physical mapping, and molecular selection breeding of marine shrimp, we have developed the techniques to\\u000a isolate high-quality megabase-sized DNA from hemocyte nuclear DNA of female shrimp and constructed a bacterial artificial\\u000a chromosome (BAC)

Xiaojun Zhang; Yang Zhang; Chantel Scheuring; Hong-Bin Zhang; Pin Huan; Bing Wang; Chengzhang Liu; Fuhua Li; Bin Liu; Jianhai Xiang



Isolation of high molecular weight DNA suitable for BAC library construction from woody perennial soft-fruit species.  


We have developed a novel nuclei extraction method that allows for the extraction of high molecular weight DNA from leaves of woody perennial soft-fruit species that contain high levels of carbohydrates and polyphenolics. The method utilizes a modified buffer system including 4% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-10 and a combination of nylon filters and Percoll gradients to purify nuclei extracts prior to embedding in agarose plugs. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on leaves of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), two soft-fruit species that have shown to be recalcitrant to standard genomic DNA extraction methods. Extracted DNA was readily digested by restriction enzymes and, as shown for raspberry, suitable for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library construction. PMID:15679088

Hein, Ingo; Williamson, Sandie; Russell, Joanne; Powell, Wayne



Technology at Washington University School of Medicine Library: BACS, PHILSOM, and OCTANET.  

PubMed Central

A brief overview of the Bibliographic Access and Control System developed by the Washington University School of Medicine Library is presented. Because the system has been described in two previous reports, this paper focuses on its relationship to other automated programs (i.e., PHILSOM and OCTANET), education of users, evaluation of the system, and outreach to the medical center. In operation for more than two years, BACS represents the computerization of much of the managerial and operational functions of the library, and marks the completion of stage 1 of the three stages of library evolution described in the AAMC report Academic Information in the Academic Health Sciences Center: Roles for the Library in Information Management. PMID:6688750

Crawford, S; Johnson, M F; Kelly, E A



Chromosomal Mapping of Canine-Derived BAC Clones to the Red Fox and American Mink Genomes  

PubMed Central

High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene–containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations. PMID:19546120

Vorobieva, Nadegda V.; Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Temnykh, Svetlana V.; Yudkin, Dmitry V.; Trut, Lyudmila N.; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.



Chromosome arm-specific BAC end sequences permit comparative analysis of homoeologous chromosomes and genomes of polyploid wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Bread wheat, one of the world’s staple food crops, has the largest, highly repetitive and polyploid genome among the cereal crops. The wheat genome holds the key to crop genetic improvement against challenges such as climate change, environmental degradation, and water scarcity. To unravel the complex wheat genome, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) is pursuing a chromosome- and chromosome arm-based approach to physical mapping and sequencing. Here we report on the use of a BAC library made from flow-sorted telosomic chromosome 3A short arm (t3AS) for marker development and analysis of sequence composition and comparative evolution of homoeologous genomes of hexaploid wheat. Results The end-sequencing of 9,984 random BACs from a chromosome arm 3AS-specific library (TaaCsp3AShA) generated 11,014,359?bp of high quality sequence from 17,591 BAC-ends with an average length of 626?bp. The sequence represents 3.2% of t3AS with an average DNA sequence read every 19?kb. Overall, 79% of the sequence consisted of repetitive elements, 1.38% as coding regions (estimated 2,850 genes) and another 19% of unknown origin. Comparative sequence analysis suggested that 70-77% of the genes present in both 3A and 3B were syntenic with model species. Among the transposable elements, gypsy/sabrina (12.4%) was the most abundant repeat and was significantly more frequent in 3A compared to homoeologous chromosome 3B. Twenty novel repetitive sequences were also identified using de novo repeat identification. BESs were screened to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR) and transposable element junctions. A total of 1,057 SSRs were identified with a density of one per 10.4?kb, and 7,928 junctions between transposable elements (TE) and other sequences were identified with a density of one per 1.39?kb. With the objective of enhancing the marker density of chromosome 3AS, oligonucleotide primers were successfully designed from 758 SSRs and 695 Insertion Site Based Polymorphisms (ISBPs). Of the 96 ISBP primer pairs tested, 28 (29%) were 3A-specific and compared to 17 (18%) for 96 SSRs. Conclusion This work reports on the use of wheat chromosome arm 3AS-specific BAC library for the targeted generation of sequence data from a particular region of the huge genome of wheat. A large quantity of sequences were generated from the A genome of hexaploid wheat for comparative genome analysis with homoeologous B and D genomes and other model grass genomes. Hundreds of molecular markers were developed from the 3AS arm-specific sequences; these and other sequences will be useful in gene discovery and physical mapping. PMID:22559868



Genome evolution in Reptilia: in silico chicken mapping of 12,000 BAC-end sequences from two reptiles and a basal bird  

PubMed Central

Background With the publication of the draft chicken genome and the recent production of several BAC clone libraries from non-avian reptiles and birds, it is now possible to undertake more detailed comparative genomic studies in Reptilia. Of interest in particular are the genomic events that transformed the large, repeat-rich genomes of mammals and non-avian reptiles into the minimalist chicken genome. We have used paired BAC end sequences (BESs) from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) and emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) to investigate patterns of sequence divergence, gene and retroelement content, and microsynteny between these species and chicken. Results From a total of 11,967 curated BESs, we successfully mapped 725, 773 and 2597 sequences in alligator, turtle, and emu, respectively, to sites in the draft chicken genome using a stringent BLAST protocol. Most commonly, sequences mapped to a single site in the chicken genome. Of 1675, 1828 and 2936 paired BESs obtained for alligator, turtle, and emu, respectively, a total of 34 (alligator, 2%), 24 (turtle, 1.3%) and 479 (emu, 16.3%) pairs were found to map with high confidence and in the correct orientation and with BAC-sized intermarker distances to single chicken chromosomes, including 25 such paired hits in emu mapping to the chicken Z chromosome. By determining the insert sizes of a subset of BAC clones from these three species, we also found a significant correlation between the intermarker distance in alligator and turtle and in chicken, with slopes as expected on the basis of the ratio of the genome sizes. Conclusion Our results suggest that a large number of small-scale chromosomal rearrangements and deletions in the lineage leading to chicken have drastically reduced the number of detected syntenies observed between the chicken and alligator, turtle, and emu genomes and imply that small deletions occurring widely throughout the genomes of reptilian and avian ancestors led to the ~50% reduction in genome size observed in birds compared to reptiles. We have also mapped and identified likely gene regions in hundreds of new BAC clones from these species. PMID:19607659



High throughput direct end sequencing of BAC clones.  


Libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have become the choice for clone sets in high throughput genomic sequencing projects primarily because of their high stability. BAC libraries have been proposed as a source for minimally over-lapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions, and the use of BAC end sequences (i.e. sequences adjoining the insert sites) has been proposed as a primary means for selecting minimally overlapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions. For this strategy to be effective, high throughput methods for BAC end sequencing of all the clones in deep coverage BAC libraries needed to be developed. Here we describe a low cost, efficient, 96 well procedure for BAC end sequencing. These methods allow us to generate BAC end sequences from human and Arabidoposis libraries with an average read length of >450 bases and with a single pass sequencing average accuracy of >98%. Application of BAC end sequences in genomic sequen-cing is discussed. PMID:10037818

Kelley, J M; Field, C E; Craven, M B; Bocskai, D; Kim, U J; Rounsley, S D; Adams, M D



Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) using a large insert BAC library  

PubMed Central

Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440–637 Mb. Library coverage of 6–8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1–PPO3). Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190–510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate functional studies and provide genetic markers for plant breeding. PMID:19619287



Bacterial delivery of large intact genomic-DNA-containing BACs into mammalian cells  

PubMed Central

Efficient delivery of large intact vectors into mammalian cells remains problematical. Here we evaluate delivery by bacterial invasion of two large BACs of more than 150 kb in size into various cells. First, we determined the effect of several drugs on bacterial delivery of a small plasmid into different cell lines. Most drugs tested resulted in a marginal increase of the overall efficiency of delivery in only some cell lines, except the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine, which was found to increase the efficiency of delivery by 6-fold in B16F10 cells. Bacterial invasion was found to be significantly advantageous compared with lipofection in delivering large intact BACs into mouse cells, resulting in 100% of clones containing intact DNA. Furthermore, evaluation of expression of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene from its genomic locus, which was present in one of the BACs, showed that single copy integrations of the HPRT-containing BAC had occurred in mouse B16F10 cells and that expression of HPRT from each human copy was 0.33 times as much as from each endogenous mouse copy. These data provide new evidence that bacterial delivery is a convenient and efficient method to transfer large intact therapeutic genes into mammalian cells. PMID:22095052

Cheung, Wing; Kotzamanis, George; Abdulrazzak, Hassan; Goussard, Sylvie; Kaname, Tadashi; Kotsinas, Athanassios; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G.; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine; Huxley, Clare



Genome profiling of ovarian adenocarcinomas using pangenomic BACs microarray comparative genomic hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background Routine cytogenetic investigations for ovarian cancers are limited by culture failure and poor growth of cancer cells compared to normal cells. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) application or classical comparative genome hybridization techniques are also have their own limitations in detecting genome imbalance especially for small changes that are not known ahead of time and for which FISH probes could not be thus designed. Methods We applied microarray comparative genomic hybridization (A-CGH) using one mega base BAC arrays to investigate chromosomal disorders in ovarian adenocarcinoma in patients with familial history. Results Our data on 10 cases of ovarian cancer revealed losses of 6q (4 cases mainly mosaic loss), 9p (4 cases), 10q (3 cases), 21q (3 cases), 22q (4 cases) with association to a monosomy X and gains of 8q and 9q (occurring together in 8 cases) and gain of 12p. There were other abnormalities such as loss of 17p that were noted in two profiles of the studied cases. Total or mosaic segmental gain of 2p, 3q, 4q, 7q and 13q were also observed. Seven of 10 patients were investigated by FISH to control array CGH results. The FISH data showed a concordance between the 2 methods. Conclusion The data suggest that A-CGH detects unique and common abnormalities with certain exceptions such as tetraploidy and balanced translocation, which may lead to understanding progression of genetic changes as well as aid in early diagnosis and have an impact on therapy and prognosis. PMID:18492273

Caserta, Donatella; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Baldi, Marina; Fiorentino, Francesco; Qumsiyeh, Mazin; Moscarini, Massimo



Characterization of porcine endogenous retrovirus clones from the NIH miniature pig BAC library.  


Pigs have been considered as donors for xenotransplantation in the replacement of human organs and tissues. However, porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) might transmit new infectious disease to humans during xenotransplantation. To investigate PERV integration sites, 45 PERV-positive BAC clones, including 12 PERV-A, 16 PERV-B, and 17 PERV-C clones, were identified from the NIH miniature pig BAC library. The analysis of 12 selected full-length sequences of PERVs, including the long terminal repeat (LTR) region, identified the expected of open reading frame length, an indicative of active PERV, in all five PERV-C clones and one of the four PERV-B clones. Premature stop codons were observed in only three PERV-A clones. Also, eleven PERV integration sites were mapped using a 5000-rad IMpRH panel. The map locations of PERV-C clones have not been reported before, thus they are novel PERV clones identified in this study. The results could provide basic information for the elimination of site-specific PERVs in selection of pigs for xenotransplantation. PMID:21912484

Yu, Seong-Lan; Jung, Woo-Young; Jung, Kie-Chul; Cho, In-Cheol; Lim, Hyun-Tae; Jin, Dong-Il; Lee, Jun-Heon




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The BAC and BIBAC libraries were constructed from megabase-size DNA isolated from nuclei preparations of HA89, a widely used sunflower inbred line. The megabase-size DNA was partially digested with HindIII or BamHI, and then ligated into either HindIII-digested BIBAC vector pCLD04541 or BamHI-diges...


Using comparative genomics to reorder the human genome sequence into a virtual sheep genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Is it possible to construct an accurate and detailed subgene-level map of a genome using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, a sparse marker map, and the sequences of other genomes? RESULTS: A sheep BAC library, CHORI-243, was constructed and the BAC end sequences were determined and mapped with high sensitivity and low specificity onto the frameworks of the

Brian P Dalrymple; Ewen F Kirkness; Mikhail Nefedov; Sean McWilliam; Abhirami Ratnakumar; Wes Barris; Shaying Zhao; Jyoti Shetty; Jillian F Maddox; Margaret O'Grady; Frank Nicholas; Allan M Crawford; Tim Smith; Pieter J de Jong; John McEwan; V Hutton Oddy; Noelle E Cockett



Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or selected sub-genome regions of biological interest. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, it is possible to select specific BAC clones from prioritized genome sections such as a genetically defined QTL interv...


Construction of a genome-wide human BAC-Unigene resource. Final progress report, 1989--1996  

SciTech Connect

Currently, over 30,000 mapped STSs and 27,000 mapped Unigenes (non-redundant, unigene sets of cDNA representing EST clusters) are available for human alone. A total of 44,000 Unigene cDNA clones have been supplied by Research Genetics. Unigenes, or cDNAs are excellent resource for map building for two reasons. Firstly, they exist in two alternative forms -- as both sequence information for PCR primer pairs, and cDNA clones -- thus making library screening by colony hybridization as well as pooled library PCR possible. The authors have developed an efficient and robust procedure to screen genomic libraries with large number of DNA probes. Secondly, the linkage and order of expressed sequences, or genes are highly conserved among human, mouse and other mammalian species. Therefore, mapping with cDNA markers rather than random anonymous STSs will greatly facilitate comparative, evolutionary studies as well as physical map building. They have currently deconvoluted over 10,000 Unigene probes against a 4X coverage human BAC clones from the approved library D by high density colony hybridization method. 10,000 batches of Unigenes are arrayed in an imaginary 100 X 100 matrix from which 100 row pools and 100 column pools are obtained. Library filters are hybridized with pooled probes, thus reducing the number of hybridization required for addressing the positives for each Unigene from 10,000 to 200. Details on the experimental scheme as well as daily progress report is posted on the Web site (

Lim, C.S.; Xu, R.X.; Wang, M. [and others



Detecting single DNA copy number variations in complex genomes using one nanogram of starting DNA and BAC-array CGH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative genomic hybridization to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-arrays (array-CGH) is a highly efficient technique, allowing the simultaneous measurement of genomic DNA copy number at hundreds or thousands of loci, and the reliable detec- tion of local one-copy-level variations. We report a genome-wide amplification method allowing the same measurement sensitivity, using 1 ng of starting genomic DNA, instead of the classical

Marine Guillaud-Bataille; Alexander Valent; Pascal Soularue; Christine Perot; Maria-del-Mar Inda; Aline Receveur; Sadek Smaili; Hugues Roest Crollius; Jean Benard; Alain Bernheim; Xavier Gidrol; Gisele Danglot




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. Here we present the sequence analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on 50,661 BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17,483,563 high quality bases generated from 26,...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...


Comparative genomic hybridisation using a proximal 17p BAC/PAC array detects rearrangements responsible for four genomic disorders  

PubMed Central

Background: Proximal chromosome 17p is a region rich in low copy repeats (LCRs) and prone to chromosomal rearrangements. Four genomic disorders map within the interval 17p11–p12: Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, Smith–Magenis syndrome, and dup(17)(p11.2p11.2) syndrome. While 80–90% or more of the rearrangements resulting in each disorder are recurrent, several non-recurrent deletions or duplications of varying sizes within proximal 17p also have been characterised using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Methods: A BAC/PAC array based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) method was tested for its ability to detect these genomic dosage differences and map breakpoints in 25 patients with recurrent and non-recurrent rearrangements. Results: Array-CGH detected the dosage imbalances resulting from either deletion or duplication in all the samples examined. The array-CGH approach, in combination with a dependent statistical inference method, mapped 45/46 (97.8%) of the analysed breakpoints to within one overlapping BAC/PAC clone, compared with determinations done independently by FISH. Several clones within the array that contained large LCRs did not have an adverse effect on the interpretation of the array-CGH data. Conclusions: Array-CGH is an accurate and sensitive method for detecting genomic dosage differences and identifying rearrangement breakpoints, even in LCR-rich regions of the genome. PMID:14757858

Shaw, C; Shaw, C; Yu, W; Stankiewicz, P; White, L; Beaudet, A; Lupski, J



Cryptic loxP sites in mammalian genomes: genome-wide distribution and relevance for the efficiency of BAC/PAC recombineering techniques  

PubMed Central

Cre is widely used for DNA tailoring and, in combination with recombineering techniques, to modify BAC/PAC sequences for generating transgenic animals. However, mammalian genomes contain recombinase recognition sites (cryptic loxP sites) that can promote illegitimate DNA recombination and damage when cells express the Cre recombinase gene. We have created a new bioinformatic tool, FuzznucComparator, which searches for cryptic loxP sites and we have applied it to the analysis of the whole mouse genome. We found that cryptic loxP sites occur frequently and are homogeneously distributed in the genome. Given the mammalian nature of BAC/PAC genomic inserts, we hypothesised that the presence of cryptic loxP sites may affect the ability to grow and modify BAC and PAC clones in E. coli expressing Cre recombinase. We have observed a defect in bacterial growth when some BACs and PACs were transformed into EL350, a DH10B-derived bacterial strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of an arabinose-inducible promoter. In this study, we have demonstrated that Cre recombinase expression is leaky in un-induced EL350 cells and that some BAC/PAC sequences contain cryptic loxP sites, which are active and mediate the introduction of single-strand nicks in BAC/PAC genomic inserts. PMID:17284462

Semprini, S.; Troup, T.J.; Kotelevtseva, N.; King, K.; Davis, J.R.E.; Mullins, L.J.; Chapman, K.E.; Dunbar, D.R.; Mullins, J.J.



AFLP-based study of genetic difference and mega-base DNA isolation for BAC library construction from greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Homoptera:Aphididae)  

E-print Network

This research focuses on the study of genetic differences among eight greenbug biotypes revealed by AFLP analyses and isolation of mega-base DNA for BAC library construction. Genetic relationship among greenbug biotypes is an old, but interesting...

Li, Haiwen



Supplementary Information Genome Sequence and Assembly  

E-print Network

distachyon (Brachypodium) Bd21 plants derived by single- seed descent for 8 generations to reduce potential genome coverage. 1 BAC libraries DH and DB are described in 2-4 . Details of BAC libraries BD_CBa and BD 1 (HinDIII) 103,216 30,704 0.05 BAC DB 1 (BamH1) 108,177 36,388 0.04 BAC BD_CBa 2 (EcoR1) 124,935 25

Green, Pamela


Yeast Genomic Library Genomic DNA Sau3AI partial digestion  

E-print Network

Yeast Genomic Library Concept: Genomic DNA ­ Sau3AI partial digestion Vector DNA ­ BamHI full digestion partial Ligate and transform above products Vector Information: · use centromeric plasmid to avoid of the mcs Preparing Vector: 1) digest 3-4ug of library vector with BamHI for 2-4hrs in a total volume of 20

Odorizzi, Greg


Sequencing, annotation and comparative analysis of nine BACs of giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10-fold BAC library for giant panda was constructed and nine BACs were selected to generate finish sequences. These BACs\\u000a could be used as a validation resource for the de novo assembly accuracy of the whole genome shotgun sequencing reads of giant panda newly generated by the Illumina GA sequencing\\u000a technology. Complete sanger sequencing, assembly, annotation and comparative analysis were

Yang Zheng; Jing Cai; JianWen Li; Bo Li; Runmao Lin; Feng Tian; XiaoLing Wang; Jun Wang



New Resources for Marine Genomics: Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries for the Eastern and Pacific Oysters ( Crassostrea virginica and C. gigas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of two culturally and economically important oyster species,\\u000a Crassostrea virginica and C. gigas, have been developed as part of an international effort to develop tools and reagents that will advance our ability to conduct\\u000a genetic and genomic research. A total of 73,728 C. gigas clones with an average insert size of 152 kb were

Charles Cunningham; Jun-ichi Hikima; Matthew J. Jenny; Robert W. Chapman; Guang-Chen Fang; Chris Saski; Mats L. Lundqvist; Rod A. Wing; Pauline M. Cupit; Paul S. Gross; Greg W. Warr; Jeff P. Tomkins



A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome  

PubMed Central

Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF) of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1) anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2) comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3) contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits. PMID:17284319

Quiniou, Sylvie M-A; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Duke, Mary V



Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) with YAC/BAC-based probes and region-specific microdissection DNA libraries  

SciTech Connect

Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with a resolution of a few mega base pairs, i.e., slightly below the size of most visible chromosome bands. Based on the hybridization of over lapping region-specific probe libraries, chromosomal subregions are hybridized with probes that fluoresce in distinct wave length intervals, so they can be assigned predefined pseudo-colors during the digital imaging and visualization process. The present study demonstrates how MCB patterns can be produced by region-specific micro dissection derived (mcd) libraries as well as collections of yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs, respectively). We compared the efficiency of an mcd library based approach with the hybridization of collections of locus-specific probes (LSP) for fluorescent banding of three rather differently sized human chromosomes, i.e., chromosomes 2, 13, and 22. The LSP sets were comprised of 107 probes specific for chromosome 2, 82 probes for chromosome 13, and 31 probes for chromosome 22. The results demonstrated a more homogeneous coverage of chromosomes and thus, more desirable banding patterns using the microdissection library-based MCB. This may be related to the observation that chromosomes are difficult to cover completely with YAC and/or BAC clones as single-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed. Mcd libraries, on the other hand, provide high complexity probes that work well as region specific paints, but do not readily allow positioning of break points on genetic or physical maps as required for the positional cloning of genes. Thus, combinations of mcd libraries and locus-specific large insert DNA probes appear to be the most efficient tools for high-resolution cytogenetic analyses.

Liehr, T.; Weise, A.; Heller, A.; Starke, H.; Mrasek, K.; Kuechler, A.; Weier, H.-U.G.; Claussen, U.



Human Genome Anatomy: BACs Integrating the Genetic and Cytogenetic Maps for Bridging Genome and Biomedicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human genome sequencing is accelerating rapidly. Multiple genome maps link this sequence to problems in biology and clinical medicine. Because each map represents a different aspect of the structure, content, and behavior of human chromosomes, these fundamental properties must be integrated with the genome to understand disease genes, cancer instability, and human evolution. Cytogenetic maps use 400-850 visible band landmarks

Julie R. Korenberg; Xiao-Ning Chen; Zhiguang Sun; Zheng-Yang Shi; Shaowu Ma; Eddy Vataru; Dean Yimlamai; Jean S. Weissenbach; Hiroaki Shizuya; Melvin I. Simon; Sebastian S. Gerety; Huy Nguyen; Irina S. Zemsteva; Lester Hui; James Silva; Xiaoyun Wu; Bruce W. Birren; Thomas J. Hudson



RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Integrating cytogenetics and genomics in  

E-print Network

efforts. An efficient way to perform comparative cytogenetic mapping is based on BAC clones mapping in cichlid fishes, BAC clones of an Oreochromis niloticus library covering the linkage groups (LG) 1, 3, 5 (BAC) clones as probes represents an efficient approach to anchor genomic and linkage data on physical

Kocher, Thomas D.


Recombineering linear BACs.  


Recombineering is a powerful genetic engineering technique based on homologous recombination that can be used to accurately modify DNA independent of its sequence or size. One novel application of recombineering is the assembly of linear BACs in E. coli that can replicate autonomously as linear plasmids. A circular BAC is inserted with a short telomeric sequence from phage N15, which is subsequently cut and rejoined by the phage protelomerase enzyme to generate a linear BAC with terminal hairpin telomeres. Telomere-capped linear BACs are protected against exonuclease attack both in vitro and in vivo in E. coli cells and can replicate stably. Here we describe step-by-step protocols to linearize any BAC clone by recombineering, including inserting and screening for presence of the N15 telomeric sequence, linearizing BACs in vivo in E. coli, extracting linear BACs, and verifying the presence of hairpin telomere structures. Linear BACs may be useful for functional expression of genomic loci in cells, maintenance of linear viral genomes in their natural conformation, and for constructing innovative artificial chromosome structures for applications in mammalian and plant cells. PMID:25239740

Chen, Qingwen; Narayanan, Kumaran



BAC library for the amphipod crustacean, Parhyale hawaiensis Ronald J. Parchem a,1  

E-print Network

from genomic DNA isolated from whole adult animals and comprises 129,024 individual clones. The median large fragments of DNA and have become an invaluable tool for studying genome biology. To fill) and arthropods (e.g. insects, crustaceans) are ecdysozoans. Of these groups, the ecdysozoans contain the vast

Patel, Nipam H.


piggyBac internal sequences are necessary for efficient transformation of target genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously reported piggyBac minimal sequence cartridge, which is capable of efficient transposition in embryo interplasmid transposition assays, failed to produce transformants at a significant frequency in Drosophila melanogaster compared with full-length or less extensive internal deletion constructs. We have re- examined the importance of these internal domain (ID) sequences for germline transformation using a PCR strategy that effectively adds

X. Li; R. A. Harrell; A. M. Handler; T. Beam; K. Hennessy; M. J. Fraser



Evaluating the potential for undesired genomic effects of the piggyBac transposon system in human cells.  


Non-viral transposons have been used successfully for genetic modification of clinically relevant cells including embryonic stem, induced pluripotent stem, hematopoietic stem and primary human T cell types. However, there has been limited evaluation of undesired genomic effects when using transposons for human genome modification. The prevalence of piggyBac(PB)-like terminal repeat (TR) elements in the human genome raises concerns. We evaluated if there were undesired genomic effects of the PB transposon system to modify human cells. Expression of the transposase alone revealed no mobilization of endogenous PB-like sequences in the human genome and no increase in DNA double-strand breaks. The use of PB in a plasmid containing both transposase and transposon greatly increased the probability of transposase integration; however, using transposon and transposase from separate vectors circumvented this. Placing a eGFP transgene within transposon vector backbone allowed isolation of cells free from vector backbone DNA. We confirmed observable directional promoter activity within the 5'TR element of PB but found no significant enhancer effects from the transposon DNA sequence. Long-term culture of primary human cells modified with eGFP-transposons revealed no selective growth advantage of transposon-harboring cells. PB represents a promising vector system for genetic modification of human cells with limited undesired genomic effects. PMID:25605795

Saha, Sunandan; Woodard, Lauren E; Charron, Elizabeth M; Welch, Richard C; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H



Evaluating the potential for undesired genomic effects of the piggyBac transposon system in human cells  

PubMed Central

Non-viral transposons have been used successfully for genetic modification of clinically relevant cells including embryonic stem, induced pluripotent stem, hematopoietic stem and primary human T cell types. However, there has been limited evaluation of undesired genomic effects when using transposons for human genome modification. The prevalence of piggyBac(PB)-like terminal repeat (TR) elements in the human genome raises concerns. We evaluated if there were undesired genomic effects of the PB transposon system to modify human cells. Expression of the transposase alone revealed no mobilization of endogenous PB-like sequences in the human genome and no increase in DNA double-strand breaks. The use of PB in a plasmid containing both transposase and transposon greatly increased the probability of transposase integration; however, using transposon and transposase from separate vectors circumvented this. Placing a eGFP transgene within transposon vector backbone allowed isolation of cells free from vector backbone DNA. We confirmed observable directional promoter activity within the 5?TR element of PB but found no significant enhancer effects from the transposon DNA sequence. Long-term culture of primary human cells modified with eGFP-transposons revealed no selective growth advantage of transposon-harboring cells. PB represents a promising vector system for genetic modification of human cells with limited undesired genomic effects. PMID:25605795

Saha, Sunandan; Woodard, Lauren E.; Charron, Elizabeth M.; Welch, Richard C.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.



The Oryza map alignment project: Construction, alignment and analysis of 12 BAC fingerprint/end sequence framework physical maps that represent the 10 genome types of genus Oryza  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) provides the first comprehensive experimental system for understanding the evolution, physiology and biochemistry of a full genus in plants or animals. We have constructed twelve deep-coverage BAC libraries that are representative of both diploid and tetraploid...


Aquaculture Genomics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genomics chapter covers the basics of genome mapping and sequencing and the current status of several relevant species. The chapter briefly describes the development and use of (cDNA, BAC, etc.) libraries for mapping and obtaining specific sequence information. Other topics include comparative ...


Construction of a BAC Library of the Leymus Cinereus X L. Triticoides Hybrid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides are two wildrye grasses with many contrasting morphological and agronomic traits. The interspecific hybrid Leymus cinereus X L. triticoides and its progenies had been used to develop linkage maps of traits and molecular markers. To generate genomic DNA sequence i...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molecular markers serve three important functions in physical map assembly. First, they provide anchor points to genetic maps facilitating functional genomic studies. Second, they reduce the overlap required for BAC contig assembly from 80 to 50 percent. Finally, they validate assemblies based so...


[Vectors for constructing representative genome libraries].  


The general methodology for constructing genomic libraries of different types of vectors is discussed. Various ways of selection against non-recombinant molecules in generated libraries are considered. The general features of well-known vectors (lambda EMBL3, lambda EMBL4) and of new ones (lambda Ch40, lambda SK5, lambda FIX, pWE and other) are presented. A special attention is paid to vectors lambda SK9 and SK18 that have the features of lambda and M13 phages and of plasmids (diphasmids). Data on phasmids (lambda pMYF131 and lambda pSL51) and hyphages MC18 and MC19 are also presented. PMID:2698992

Zabarovski?, E R; Allikmets, R L



Making BAC transgene constructs with lambda-red recombineering system for transgenic animals or cell lines.  


The genomic DNA libraries based on Bacteria Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) are the foundation of whole genomic mapping, sequencing, and annotation for many species like mice and humans. With their large insert size, BACs harbor the gene-of-interest and nearby transcriptional regulatory elements necessary to direct the expression of the gene-of-interest in a temporal and cell-type specific manner. When replacing a gene-of-interest with a transgene in vivo, the transgene can be expressed with the same patterns and machinery as that of the endogenous gene. This chapter describes in detail a method of using lambda-red recombineering to make BAC transgene constructs with the integration of a transgene into a designated location within a BAC. As the final BAC construct will be used for transfection in cell lines or making transgenic animals, specific considerations with BAC transgenes such as genotyping, BAC coverage and integrity as well as quality of BAC DNA will be addressed. Not only does this approach provide a practical and effective way to modify large DNA constructs, the same recombineering principles can apply to smaller high copy plasmids as well as to chromosome engineering. PMID:25239742

Holmes, Scott; Lyman, Suzanne; Hsu, Jen-Kang; Cheng, JrGang




PubMed Central

In addition to their natural role in eukaryotic genome evolution, transposons can be powerful tools for functional genomics in diverse taxa. The piggyBac transposon has been applied as such in eukaryotic parasites, both protozoa and helminths, and in several important vector mosquitoes. piggyBac is advantageous for functional genomics because of its ability to transduce a wide range of taxa, its capacity to integrate large DNA ‘cargoes’ relative to other mobile genetic elements, its propensity to target transcriptional units and its ability to re-mobilize without leaving a pattern of non-excised sequences or ‘footprint’ in the genome. We recently demonstrated that piggyBac can integrate transgenes into the genome of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti, an important model for parasitic nematode biology and a close relative of the significant human pathogen S. stercoralis. Unlike transgenes encoded in conventional plasmid vectors, which we assume are assembled into multi-copy episomal arrays as they are in Caenorhabditis elegans, transgenes integrated via piggyBac are not only stably inherited in S. ratti, they are also continuously expressed. This has allowed derivation of the first stable transgene expressing lines in any parasitic nematode, a significant advance in the development of functional genomic tools for these important pathogens. PMID:23914309

Lok, James



The first report of a Pelecaniformes defensin cluster: characterization of ?-defensin genes in the crested ibis based on BAC libraries.  


Defensins play a key role in the innate immunity of various organisms. Detailed genomic studies of the defensin cluster have only been reported in a limited number of birds. Herein, we present the first characterization of defensins in a Pelecaniformes species, the crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), which is one of the most endangered birds in the world. We constructed bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, including a 4D-PCR library and a reverse-4D library, which provide at least 40 equivalents of this rare bird's genome. A cluster including 14 ?-defensin loci within 129?kb was assigned to chromosome 3 by FISH, and one gene duplication of AvBD1 was found. The ibis defensin genes are characterized by multiform gene organization ranging from two to four exons through extensive exon fusion. Splicing signal variations and alternative splice variants were also found. Comparative analysis of four bird species identified one common and multiple species-specific duplications, which might be associated with high GC content. Evolutionary analysis revealed birth-and-death mode and purifying selection for avian defensin evolution, resulting in different defensin gene numbers among bird species and functional conservation within orthologous genes, respectively. Additionally, we propose various directions for further research on genetic conservation in the crested ibis. PMID:25372018

Lan, Hong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Li-Cheng; Wang, Bei-Bing; Sun, Li; Ma, Mei-Ying; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Wan, Qiu-Hong



1-Mb Resolution Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization Using a BAC Clone Set Optimized for Cancer Gene Analysis  

PubMed Central

Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a recently developed tool for genome-wide determination of DNA copy number alterations. This technology has tremendous potential for disease-gene discovery in cancer and developmental disorders as well as numerous other applications. However, widespread utilization of a CGH has been limited by the lack of well characterized, high-resolution clone sets optimized for consistent performance in aCGH assays and specifically designed analytic software. We have assembled a set of ?4100 publicly available human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones evenly spaced at ?1-Mb resolution across the genome, which includes direct coverage of ?400 known cancer genes. This aCGH-optimized clone set was compiled from five existing sets, experimentally refined, and supplemented for higher resolution and enhancing mapping capabilities. This clone set is associated with a public online resource containing detailed clone mapping data, protocols for the construction and use of arrays, and a suite of analytical software tools designed specifically for aCGH analysis. These resources should greatly facilitate the use of aCGH in gene discovery. PMID:14672980

Greshock, Joel; Naylor, Tara L.; Margolin, Adam; Diskin, Sharon; Cleaver, Stephen H.; Futreal, P. Andrew; deJong, Pieter J.; Zhao, Shaying; Liebman, Michael; Weber, Barbara L.



BAC-HAPPY Mapping (BAP Mapping): A New and Efficient Protocol for Physical Mapping  

PubMed Central

Physical and linkage mapping underpin efforts to sequence and characterize the genomes of eukaryotic organisms by providing a skeleton framework for whole genome assembly. Hitherto, linkage and physical “contig” maps were generated independently prior to merging. Here, we develop a new and easy method, BAC HAPPY MAPPING (BAP mapping), that utilizes BAC library pools as a HAPPY mapping panel together with an Mbp-sized DNA panel to integrate the linkage and physical mapping efforts into one pipeline. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as an exemplar, a set of 40 Sequence Tagged Site (STS) markers spanning ?10% of chromosome 4 were simultaneously assembled onto a BAP map compiled using both a series of BAC pools each comprising 0.7x genome coverage and dilute (0.7x genome) samples of sheared genomic DNA. The resultant BAP map overcomes the need for polymorphic loci to separate genetic loci by recombination and allows physical mapping in segments of suppressed recombination that are difficult to analyze using traditional mapping techniques. Even virtual “BAC-HAPPY-mapping” to convert BAC landing data into BAC linkage contigs is possible. PMID:20161702

Vu, Giang T. H.; Dear, Paul H.; Caligari, Peter D. S.; Wilkinson, Mike J.



Comparison between BAC and oligo array platforms in detecting submicroscopic genomic rearrangements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has emerged as a powerful diagnostic technique for high resolution analysis of the human genome. It is a specific, sensitive, and rapid technique enabling detection of genomic arrangements and copy number changes. A variety of array CGH platf...


BAC CGH-array identified specific small-scale genomic imbalances in diploid DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Development of breast cancer is a multistage process influenced by hormonal and environmental factors as well as by genetic background. The search for genes underlying this malignancy has recently been highly productive, but the etiology behind this complex disease is still not understood. In studies using animal cancer models, heterogeneity of the genetic background and environmental factors is reduced and thus analysis and identification of genetic aberrations in tumors may become easier. To identify chromosomal regions potentially involved in the initiation and progression of mammary cancer, in the present work we subjected a subset of experimental mammary tumors to cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Methods Mammary tumors were induced with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthrazene) in female rats from the susceptible SPRD-Cu3 strain and from crosses and backcrosses between this strain and the resistant WKY strain. We first produced a general overview of chromosomal aberrations in the tumors using conventional kartyotyping (G-banding) and Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH) analyses. Particular chromosomal changes were then analyzed in more details using an in-house developed BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) CGH-array platform. Results Tumors appeared to be diploid by conventional karyotyping, however several sub-microscopic chromosome gains or losses in the tumor material were identified by BAC CGH-array analysis. An oncogenetic tree analysis based on the BAC CGH-array data suggested gain of rat chromosome (RNO) band 12q11, loss of RNO5q32 or RNO6q21 as the earliest events in the development of these mammary tumors. Conclusions Some of the identified changes appear to be more specific for DMBA-induced mammary tumors and some are similar to those previously reported in ACI rat model for estradiol-induced mammary tumors. The later group of changes is more interesting, since they may represent anomalies that involve genes with a critical role in mammary tumor development. Genetic changes identified in this work are at very small scales and thus may provide a more feasible basis for the identification of the target gene(s). Identification of the genes underlying these chromosome changes can provide new insights to the mechanisms of mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:22894538



Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

Kao, F.T.



Genome-wide target profiling of piggyBac and Tol2 in HEK 293: pros and cons for gene discovery and gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  DNA transposons have emerged as indispensible tools for manipulating vertebrate genomes with applications ranging from insertional\\u000a mutagenesis and transgenesis to gene therapy. To fully explore the potential of two highly active DNA transposons, piggyBac and Tol2, as mammalian genetic tools, we have conducted a side-by-side comparison of the two transposon systems in the same setting\\u000a to evaluate their advantages and

Yaa-Jyuhn J Meir; Matthew T Weirauch; Herng-Shing Yang; Pei-Cheng Chung; Robert K Yu; Sareina C-Y Wu



BAC TransgeneOmics  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of genome sequences requires reliable and standardized methods to assess protein function at high throughput. Here we describe a fast and reliable pipeline to study protein function in mammalian cells based on protein tagging in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The large size of the BAC transgenes ensures the presence of most, if not all, regulatory elements and results in expression that closely matches that of the endogenous gene. We show that BAC transgenes can be rapidly and reliably generated using 96-well-format recombineering. After stable transfection of these transgenes into human tissue culture cells or mouse embryonic stem cells, the localization, protein-protein and/or protein-DNA interactions of the tagged protein are studied using generic, tag-based assays. The same high-throughput approach will be generally applicable to other model systems. PMID:18391959

Poser, Ina; Sarov, Mihail; Hutchins, James R A; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Toyoda, Yusuke; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Weigl, Daniela; Nitzsche, Anja; Hegemann, Björn; Bird, Alexander W; Pelletier, Laurence; Kittler, Ralf; Hua, Sujun; Naumann, Ronald; Augsburg, Martina; Sykora, Martina M; Hofemeister, Helmut; Zhang, Youming; Nasmyth, Kim; White, Kevin P; Dietzel, Steffen; Mechtler, Karl; Durbin, Richard; Stewart, A Francis; Peters, Jan-Michael; Buchholz, Frank; Hyman, Anthony A



BAC sequencing using pooled methods.  


Shotgun sequencing and assembly of a large, complex genome can be both expensive and challenging to accurately reconstruct the true genome sequence. Repetitive DNA arrays, paralogous sequences, polyploidy, and heterozygosity are main factors that plague de novo genome sequencing projects that typically result in highly fragmented assemblies and are difficult to extract biological meaning. Targeted, sub-genomic sequencing offers complexity reduction by removing distal segments of the genome and a systematic mechanism for exploring prioritized genomic content through BAC sequencing. If one isolates and sequences the genome fraction that encodes the relevant biological information, then it is possible to reduce overall sequencing costs and efforts that target a genomic segment. This chapter describes the sub-genome assembly protocol for an organism based upon a BAC tiling path derived from a genome-scale physical map or from fine mapping using BACs to target sub-genomic regions. Methods that are described include BAC isolation and mapping, DNA sequencing, and sequence assembly. PMID:25239741

Saski, Christopher A; Feltus, F Alex; Parida, Laxmi; Haiminen, Niina



Marked improvement of PAC and BAC cloning is achieved using electroelution of pulsed-field gel-separated partial digests of genomic DNA.  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple electroelution method for purifying large, gel-fractionated DNA molecules that alleviates the need for melting of the agarose and subsequent enzymatic agarose digestion. The method yields DNA that is visibly more intact than that purified from a standard agarose-digestion protocol and is more amenable to large-fragment cloning with PAC and BAC vectors. These findings are notable in that PAC and BAC library construction is a very labor-intensive and costly procedure, such that any net improvement in cloning efficiency is highly advantageous. This method also should prove useful towards other applications which require purification of very large DNA molecules, such as YAC cloning. PMID:9380525

Strong, S J; Ohta, Y; Litman, G W; Amemiya, C T



A First Generation Bac-Based Physical Map of the Channel Catfish Genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the kar...



EPA Science Inventory

A technique for screening and simultaneously maintaining individual clones of the gene library for long-term storage is described. his method is particularly useful for identification and cloning of genes from cosmid-based genomic libraries of prokaryotes that constitute a smalle...


High-resolution BAC-based map of the central portion of mouse chromosome 5.  


The current strategy for sequencing the mouse genome involves the combination of a whole-genome shotgun approach with clone-based sequencing. High-resolution physical maps will provide a foundation for assembling contiguous segments of sequence. We have established a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based map of a 5-Mb region on mouse Chromosome 5, encompassing three gene families: receptor tyrosine kinases (PdgfraKit-Kdr), nonreceptor protein-tyrosine type kinases (Tec-Txk), and type-A receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA (Gabra2, Gabrb1, Gabrg1, and Gabra4). The construction of a BAC contig was initiated by hybridization screening the C57BL/6J (RPCI-23) BAC library, using known genes and sequence tagged sites (STSs). Additional overlapping clones were identified by searching the database of available restriction fingerprints for the RPCI-23 and RPCI-24 libraries. This effort resulted in the selection of >600 BAC clones, 251 kb of BAC-end sequences, and the placement of 40 known and/or predicted genes within this 5-Mb region. We use this high-resolution map to illustrate the integration of the BAC fingerprint map with a radiation-hybrid map via assembled expressed sequence tags (ESTs). From annotation of three representative BAC clones we demonstrate that up to 98% of the draft sequence for each contig could be ordered and oriented using known genes, BAC ends, consensus sequences for transcript assemblies, and comparisons with orthologous human sequence. For functional studies, annotation of sequence fragments as they are assembled into 50-200-kb stretches will be remarkably valuable. PMID:11591652

Crabtree, J; Wiltshire, T; Brunk, B; Zhao, S; Schug, J; Stoeckert, C J; Bucan, M



Adaptation of a commercial robot for genome library replication  

SciTech Connect

This report describes tools and fixtures developed at the Human Genome Center at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for the Hewlett-Packard ORCA{trademark} (Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis) to replicate large genome libraries. Photographs and engineering drawings of the various custom-designed components are included.

Uber, D.C.; Searles, W.L.



Recombineering-Based Procedure for Creating BAC Transgene Constructs for Animals and Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The use of BAC/P1 as a vector for the generation of a transgene has gained popularity after the genomic annotation of many organisms was completed (often based on the respective BAC library). Large-scale generation of BAC transgenic mice has proven that BAC transgene approaches have less integration position effects and dosage artifacts when compared with traditional transgenic approaches. Also, a BAC can achieve the same tissue-specific expression as a Knock-in of the same gene with less effort and shorter time of establishment. The ?-RED recombinogenic system has been used to manipulate DNA constructs with site-directed mutagenesis, truncation, and tagging with an epitope tag or as a fusion protein by homologous recombination, as well as used here to modify many BACs with various transgenes. The recombineering plasmid, pKD46, is used to fabricate BAC transgenic constructs that can be used in generating transgenic organisms as well as used in mammalian cell culture. PMID:21732318

Hollenback, Steven M.; Lyman, Suzanne; Cheng, JrGang



Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Sorghum bicolor.  


The construction of representative large insert DNA libraries is critical for the analysis of complex genomes. The predominant vector system for such work is the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) system. Despite the success of YACs, many problems have been described including: chimerism, tedious steps in library construction and low yields of YAC insert DNA. Recently a new E.coli based system has been developed, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system, which offers many potential advantages over YACs. We tested the BAC system in plants by constructing an ordered 13,440 clone sorghum BAC library. The library has a combined average insert size, from single and double size selections, of 157 kb. Sorghum inserts of up to 315 kb were isolated and shown to be stable when grown for over 100 generations in liquid media. No chimeric clones were detected as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization of ten BAC clones to metaphase and interphase S.bicolor nuclei. The library was screened with six sorghum probes and three maize probes and all but one sorghum probe hybridized to at least one BAC clone in the library. To facilitate chromosome walking with the BAC system, methods were developed to isolate the proximal ends of restriction fragments inserted into the BAC vector and used to isolate both the left and right ends of six randomly selected BAC clones. These results demonstrate that the S. bicolor BAC library will be useful for several physical mapping and map-based cloning applications not only in sorghum but other related cereal genomes, such as maize. Furthermore, we conclude that the BAC system is suitable for most large genome applications, is more 'user friendly' than the YAC system, and will likely lead to rapid progress in cloning biologically significant genes from plants. PMID:7800481

Woo, S S; Jiang, J; Gill, B S; Paterson, A H; Wing, R A



A BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L  

PubMed Central

Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important pulse crop worldwide. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about its genome. The availability of a genome-wide physical map allows rapid fine mapping of QTL, development of high-density genome maps, and sequencing of the entire genome. However, no such a physical map has been developed in chickpea. Results We present a genome-wide, BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea developed by fingerprint analysis. Four chickpea BAC and BIBAC libraries, two of which were constructed in this study, were used. A total of 67,584 clones were fingerprinted, and 64,211 (~11.7 ×) of the fingerprints validated and used in the physical map assembly. The physical map consists of 1,945 BAC/BIBAC contigs, with each containing an average of 28.3 clones and having an average physical length of 559 kb. The contigs collectively span approximately 1,088 Mb. By using the physical map, we identified the BAC/BIBAC contigs containing or closely linked to QTL4.1 for resistance to Didymella rabiei (RDR) and QTL8 for days to first flower (DTF), thus further verifying the physical map and confirming its utility in fine mapping and cloning of QTL. Conclusion The physical map represents the first genome-wide, BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea. This map, along with other genomic resources previously developed in the species and the genome sequences of related species (soybean, Medicago and Lotus), will provide a foundation necessary for many areas of advanced genomics research in chickpea and other legume species. The inclusion of transformation-ready BIBACs in the map greatly facilitates its utility in functional analysis of the legume genomes. PMID:20849583



BAC-End Microsatellites from Intra and Inter-Genic Regions of the Common Bean Genome and Their Correlation with Cytogenetic Features  

PubMed Central

Highly polymorphic markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are very useful for genetic mapping. In this study novel SSRs were identified in BAC-end sequences (BES) from non-contigged, non-overlapping bacterial artificial clones (BACs) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). These so called “singleton” BACs were from the G19833 Andean gene pool physical map and the new BES-SSR markers were used for the saturation of the inter-gene pool, DOR364×G19833 genetic map. A total of 899 SSR loci were found among the singleton BES, but only 346 loci corresponded to the single di- or tri-nucleotide motifs that were likely to be polymorphic (ATT or AG motifs, principally) and useful for primer design and individual marker mapping. When these novel SSR markers were evaluated in the DOR364×G19833 population parents, 136 markers revealed polymorphism and 106 were mapped. Genetic mapping resulted in a map length of 2291 cM with an average distance between markers of 5.2 cM. The new genetic map was compared to the most recent cytogenetic analysis of common bean chromosomes. We found that the new singleton BES-SSR were helpful in filling peri-centromeric spaces on the cytogenetic map. Short genetic distances between some new singleton-derived BES-SSR markers was common showing suppressed recombination in these regions compared to other parts of the genome. The correlation of singleton-derived SSR marker distribution with other cytogenetic features of the bean genome is discussed. PMID:25254501

Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Córdoba, Juana Marcela; Muñóz, Claritza; Yuyó, Deissy K.



Python Materials Genomics (pymatgen): A robust, open-source python library for materials analysis  

E-print Network

Python Materials Genomics (pymatgen): A robust, open-source python library for materials analysis-throughput a b s t r a c t We present the Python Materials Genomics (pymatgen) library, a robust, open

Ceder, Gerbrand


Screening of an E. coli O157:H7 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library by Comparative Genomic Hybridization to Identify Genomic Regions Contributing to Growth in Bovine Gastrointestinal Mucus and Epithelial Cell Colonization  

PubMed Central

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 can cause serious gastrointestinal and systemic disease in humans following direct or indirect exposure to ruminant feces containing the bacterium. The main colonization site of EHEC O157:H7 in cattle is the terminal rectum where the bacteria intimately attach to the epithelium and multiply in the intestinal mucus. This study aimed to identify genomic regions of EHEC O157:H7 that contribute to colonization and multiplication at this site. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. The library contains 1152 clones averaging 150?kbp. To verify the library, clones containing a complete locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) were identified by DNA hybridization. In line with a previous report, these did not confer a type III secretion (T3S) capacity to the K-12 host strain. However, conjugation of one of the BAC clones into a strain containing a partial LEE deletion restored T3S. Three hundred eighty-four clones from the library were subjected to two different selective screens; one involved three rounds of adherence assays to bovine primary rectal epithelial cells while the other competed the clones over three rounds of growth in bovine rectal mucus. The input strain DNA was then compared with the selected strains using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on an E. coli microarray. The adherence assay enriched for pO157 DNA indicating the importance of this plasmid for colonization of rectal epithelial cells. The mucus assay enriched for multiple regions involved in carbohydrate utilization, including hexuronate uptake, indicating that these regions provide a competitive growth advantage in bovine mucus. This BAC-CGH approach provides a positive selection screen that complements negative selection transposon-based screens. As demonstrated, this may be of particular use for identifying genes with redundant functions such as adhesion and carbon metabolism. PMID:21887152

Bai, Jianing; McAteer, Sean P.; Paxton, Edith; Mahajan, Arvind; Gally, David L.; Tree, Jai J.



A Multiway Analysis for Identifying High Integrity Bovine BACs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In large genomics projects involving many different types of analyses of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), such as fingerprinting, end sequencing (BES) and full BAC sequencing there are many opportunities for the identities of BACs to become confused. However, by comparing the results from t...


Theobroma cacao: A genetically integrated physical map and genome-scale comparative synteny analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A comprehensive integrated genomic framework is considered a centerpiece of genomic research. In collaboration with the USDA-ARS (SHRS) and Mars Inc., the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI) has developed a genetically anchored physical map of the T. cacao genome. Three BAC libraries contai...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have initiated a project to analyze expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the Diaprepes root weevil. Results of the first EST library for this species are presented, including total number of sequences, unique sequences, contigs, matches with genomic databases, and putative gene functions....


Multiplexed direct genomic selection (MDiGS): a pooled BAC capture approach for highly accurate CNV and SNP/INDEL detection  

PubMed Central

Despite declining sequencing costs, few methods are available for cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), insertion/deletion (INDEL) and copy number variation (CNV) discovery in a single assay. Commercially available methods require a high investment to a specific region and are only cost-effective for large samples. Here, we introduce a novel, flexible approach for multiplexed targeted sequencing and CNV analysis of large genomic regions called multiplexed direct genomic selection (MDiGS). MDiGS combines biotinylated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) capture and multiplexed pooled capture for SNP/INDEL and CNV detection of 96 multiplexed samples on a single MiSeq run. MDiGS is advantageous over other methods for CNV detection because pooled sample capture and hybridization to large contiguous BAC baits reduces sample and probe hybridization variability inherent in other methods. We performed MDiGS capture for three chromosomal regions consisting of ?550 kb of coding and non-coding sequence with DNA from 253 patients with congenital lower limb disorders. PITX1 nonsense and HOXC11 S191F missense mutations were identified that segregate in clubfoot families. Using a novel pooled-capture reference strategy, we identified recurrent chromosome chr17q23.1q23.2 duplications and small HOXC 5? cluster deletions (51 kb and 12 kb). Given the current interest in coding and non-coding variants in human disease, MDiGS fulfills a niche for comprehensive and low-cost evaluation of CNVs, coding, and non-coding variants across candidate regions of interest. PMID:24682816

Alvarado, David M.; Yang, Ping; Druley, Todd E.; Lovett, Michael; Gurnett, Christina A.



MultiBac turns sweet.  


The baculovirus/insect cell system has proven to be a powerful tool for the expression of eukaryotic proteins. Therapeutics, especially in the field of vaccinology, are often composed of several different protein subunits. Conventional baculoviral expression schemes largely lack efficient strategies for simultaneous multi-gene expression. The MultiBac technology which is based on an engineered genome of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in combination with specially designed transfer vectors is an elegant way for flexible generation of multi-subunit proteins in insect cells. Yet, the glycosylation pattern of insect cell-derived products is not favorable for many applications. Therefore, a modified version of MultiBac, SweetBac, was generated allowing for a flexible glycosylation of target proteins in insect cells. Beyond the SweetBac technology MultiBac can further be designed for bridging the gap between cell engineering and transient modulation of host genes for improved and product tailored expression of recombinant proteins. PMID:23018636

Palmberger, Dieter; Klausberger, Miriam; Berger, Imre; Grabherr, Reingard



Herpesvirus BACs: past, present, and future.  


The herpesviridae are a large family of DNA viruses with large and complicated genomes. Genetic manipulation and the generation of recombinant viruses have been extremely difficult. However, herpesvirus bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that were developed approximately 10 years ago have become useful and powerful genetic tools for generating recombinant viruses to study the biology and pathogenesis of herpesviruses. For example, BAC-directed deletion mutants are commonly used to determine the function and essentiality of viral genes. In this paper, we discuss the creation of herpesvirus BACs, functional analyses of herpesvirus mutants, and future applications for studies of herpesviruses. We describe commonly used methods to create and mutate herpesvirus BACs (such as site-directed mutagenesis and transposon mutagenesis). We also evaluate the potential future uses of viral BACs, including vaccine development and gene therapy. PMID:21048927

Warden, Charles; Tang, Qiyi; Zhu, Hua



Toward a Molecular Cytogenetic Map for Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by Landed BAC/BIBAC Clones  

PubMed Central

Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (?100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC- fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)?derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources. PMID:23316437

Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien



The development and characterisation of a bacterial artificial chromosome library for Fragaria vesca  

PubMed Central

Background The cultivated strawberry Fragaria ×ananassa is one of the most economically-important soft-fruit species. Few structural genomic resources have been reported for Fragaria and there exists an urgent need for the development of physical mapping resources for the genus. The first stage in the development of a physical map for Fragaria is the construction and characterisation of a high molecular weight bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Methods A BAC library, consisting of 18,432 clones was constructed from Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens accession 'Ali Baba'. BAC DNA from individual library clones was pooled to create a PCR-based screening assay for the library, whereby individual clones could be identified with just 34 PCR reactions. These pools were used to screen the BAC library and anchor individual clones to the diploid Fragaria reference map (FV×FN). Findings Clones from the BAC library developed contained an average insert size of 85 kb, representing over seven genome equivalents. The pools and superpools developed were used to identify a set of BAC clones containing 70 molecular markers previously mapped to the diploid Fragaria FV×FN reference map. The number of positive colonies identified for each marker suggests the library represents between 4× and 10× coverage of the diploid Fragaria genome, which is in accordance with the estimate of library coverage based on average insert size. Conclusion This BAC library will be used for the construction of a physical map for F. vesca and the superpools will permit physical anchoring of molecular markers using PCR. PMID:19772672

Bonet, Julio; Girona, Elena Lopez; Sargent, Daniel J; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Monfort, Amparo; Abbott, Albert G; Arús, Pere; Simpson, David W; Davik, Jahn



Using Partial Genomic Fosmid Libraries for Sequencing CompleteOrganellar Genomes  

SciTech Connect

Organellar genome sequences provide numerous phylogenetic markers and yield insight into organellar function and molecular evolution. These genomes are much smaller in size than their nuclear counterparts; thus, their complete sequencing is much less expensive than total nuclear genome sequencing, making broader phylogenetic sampling feasible. However, for some organisms it is challenging to isolate plastid DNA for sequencing using standard methods. To overcome these difficulties, we constructed partial genomic libraries from total DNA preparations of two heterotrophic and two autotrophic angiosperm species using fosmid vectors. We then used macroarray screening to isolate clones containing large fragments of plastid DNA. A minimum tiling path of clones comprising the entire genome sequence of each plastid was selected, and these clones were shotgun-sequenced and assembled into complete genomes. Although this method worked well for both heterotrophic and autotrophic plants, nuclear genome size had a dramatic effect on the proportion of screened clones containing plastid DNA and, consequently, the overall number of clones that must be screened to ensure full plastid genome coverage. This technique makes it possible to determine complete plastid genome sequences for organisms that defy other available organellar genome sequencing methods, especially those for which limited amounts of tissue are available.

McNeal, Joel R.; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Arumuganathan, K.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; dePamphilis, Claude W.



Sequencing, annotation and comparative analysis of nine BACs of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).  


A 10-fold BAC library for giant panda was constructed and nine BACs were selected to generate finish sequences. These BACs could be used as a validation resource for the de novo assembly accuracy of the whole genome shotgun sequencing reads of giant panda newly generated by the Illumina GA sequencing technology. Complete sanger sequencing, assembly, annotation and comparative analysis were carried out on the selected BACs of a joint length 878 kb. Homologue search and de novo prediction methods were used to annotate genes and repeats. Twelve protein coding genes were predicted, seven of which could be functionally annotated. The seven genes have an average gene size of about 41 kb, an average coding size of about 1.2 kb and an average exon number of 6 per gene. Besides, seven tRNA genes were found. About 27 percent of the BAC sequence is composed of repeats. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-join algorithm across five species, including giant panda, human, dog, cat and mouse, which reconfirms dog as the most related species to giant panda. Our results provide detailed sequence and structure information for new genes and repeats of giant panda, which will be helpful for further studies on the giant panda. PMID:20596962

Zheng, Yang; Cai, Jing; Li, JianWen; Li, Bo; Lin, RunMao; Tian, Feng; Wang, XiaoLing; Wang, Jun



Oligonucleotide arrays vs. metaphase-comparative genomic hybridisation and BAC arrays for single-cell analysis: first applications to preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Robertsonian translocation carriers.  


Comprehensive chromosome analysis techniques such as metaphase-Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (CGH) and array-CGH are available for single-cell analysis. However, while metaphase-CGH and BAC array-CGH have been widely used for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, oligonucleotide array-CGH has not been used in an extensive way. A comparison between oligonucleotide array-CGH and metaphase-CGH has been performed analysing 15 single fibroblasts from aneuploid cell-lines and 18 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. Afterwards, oligonucleotide array-CGH and BAC array-CGH were also compared analysing 16 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. All three comprehensive analysis techniques provided broadly similar cytogenetic profiles; however, non-identical profiles appeared when extensive aneuploidies were present in a cell. Both array techniques provided an optimised analysis procedure and a higher resolution than metaphase-CGH. Moreover, oligonucleotide array-CGH was able to define extra segmental imbalances in 14.7% of the blastomeres and it better determined the specific unbalanced chromosome regions due to a higher resolution of the technique (? 20 kb). Applicability of oligonucleotide array-CGH for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis has been demonstrated in two cases of Robertsonian translocation carriers 45,XY,der(13;14)(q10;q10). Transfer of euploid embryos was performed in both cases and pregnancy was achieved by one of the couples. This is the first time that an oligonucleotide array-CGH approach has been successfully applied to Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for balanced chromosome rearrangement carriers. PMID:25415307

Ramos, Laia; del Rey, Javier; Daina, Gemma; García-Aragonés, Manel; Armengol, Lluís; Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; Parriego, Mònica; Boada, Montserrat; Martinez-Passarell, Olga; Martorell, Maria Rosa; Casagran, Oriol; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima



Gene Transfer Efficiency and Genome-Wide Integration Profiling of Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, and PiggyBac Transposons in Human Primary T Cells  

PubMed Central

In this study, we compared the genomic integration efficiencies and transposition site preferences of Sleeping Beauty (SB or SB11), Tol2, and piggyBac (PB) transposon systems in primary T cells derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and umbilical cord blood (UCB). We found that PB demonstrated the highest efficiency of stable gene transfer in PBL-derived T cells, whereas SB11 and Tol2 mediated intermediate and lowest efficiencies, respectively. Southern hybridization analysis demonstrated that PB generated the highest number of integrants when compared to SB and Tol2 in both PBL and UCB T cells. Tol2 and PB appeared more likely to promote clonal expansion than SB, which may be in part due to the dysregulated expression of cancer-related genes near the insertion sites. Genome-wide integration analysis demonstrated that SB, Tol2, and PB integrations occurred in all the chromosomes without preference. Additionally, Tol2 and PB integration sites were mainly localized near transcriptional start sites (TSSs), CpG islands and DNaseI hypersensitive sites, whereas SB integrations were randomly distributed. These results suggest that SB may be a preferential choice of the delivery vector in T cells due to its random integration site preference and relatively high efficiency, and support continuing development of SB-mediated T-cell phase I trials. PMID:20606646

Huang, Xin; Guo, Hongfeng; Tammana, Syam; Jung, Yong-Chul; Mellgren, Emil; Bassi, Preetinder; Cao, Qing; Tu, Zheng Jin; Kim, Yeong C; Ekker, Stephen C; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, San Ming; Zhou, Xianzheng



The Neurospora crassa genome: cosmid libraries sorted by chromosome.  

PubMed Central

A Neurospora crassa cosmid library of 12,000 clones (at least nine genome equivalents) has been created using an improved cosmid vector pLorist6Xh, which contains a bacteriophage lambda origin of replication for low-copy-number replication in bacteria and the hygromycin phosphotransferase marker for direct selection in fungi. The electrophoretic karyotype of the seven chromosomes comprising the 42.9-Mb N. crassa genome was resolved using two translocation strains. Using gel-purified chromosomal DNAs as probes against the new cosmid library and the commonly used medium-copy-number pMOcosX N. crassa cosmid library in two independent screenings, the cosmids were assigned to chromosomes. Assignments of cosmids to linkage groups on the basis of the genetic map vs. the electrophoretic karyotype are 93 +/- 3% concordant. The size of each chromosome-specific subcollection of cosmids was found to be linearly proportional to the size of the particular chromosome. Sequencing of an entire cosmid containing the qa gene cluster indicated a gene density of 1 gene per 4 kbp; by extrapolation, 11,000 genes would be expected to be present in the N. crassa genome. By hybridizing 79 nonoverlapping cosmids with an average insert size of 34 kbp against cDNA arrays, the density of previously characterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was found to be slightly <1 per cosmid (i.e., 1 per 40 kbp), and most cosmids, on average, contained an identified N. crassa gene sequence as a starting point for gene identification. PMID:11238388

Kelkar, H S; Griffith, J; Case, M E; Covert, S F; Hall, R D; Keith, C H; Oliver, J S; Orbach, M J; Sachs, M S; Wagner, J R; Weise, M J; Wunderlich, J K; Arnold, J



Construction and phenotypic screening of mid-size insert marine microbial environmental genomic libraries  

E-print Network

Functional screening of environmental genomic libraries permits the identification of clones expressing activities of interest without requiring prior knowledge of the genes responsible. In this study, protocols were ...

Braff, Jennifer C



Advanced Integrated Mouse YAC Map Including BAC Framework  

PubMed Central

Functional characterization of the mouse genome requires the availability of a comprehensive physical map to obtain molecular access to chromosomal regions of interest. Positional cloning remains a crucial way of linking phenotype with particular genes. A key step and frequent stumbling block in positional cloning is making a contig of a genetically defined candidate region. The most efficient first step is isolating YAC (Yeast Artificial Chromosome) clones. A robust, detailed YAC contig map is thus an important tool. Employing Interspersed Repetitive Sequence (IRS)-PCR genomics, we have generated an advanced second-generation YAC contig map of the mouse genome that doubles both the depth of clones and the density of markers available. In addition to the primarily YAC-based map, we located 1942 BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones. This allows us to present for the first time a dense framework of BACs spanning the genome of the mouse, which, for instance, can serve as a nucleus for genomic sequencing. Four large-insert mouse YAC libraries from three different strains are included in our data, and our analysis incorporates the data of Hunter et al. and Nusbaum et al. There is a total of 20,205 markers on the final map, 12,033 from our own data, and a total of 56,093 YACs, of which 44,401 are positive for more than one marker. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession nos. BH174059–BH175013.] PMID:11731506

Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Cusack, Brian; Dunkel, Ilona; Hopp, Martina; Kramer, Markus; Palczewski, Stefanie; Piefke, Jutta; Scheel, Sabine; Weiher, Michael; Wenske, Gunther; Lehrach, Hans; Himmelbauer, Heinz



Comparative BAC-based mapping in the white-throated sparrow, a novel behavioral genomics model, using interspecies overgo hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that\\u000a do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new \\

Michael N Romanov; Jerry B Dodgson; Rusty A Gonser; Elaina M Tuttle



Optimizing restriction fragment fingerprinting methods for ordering large genomic libraries  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a statistical analysis of the problem of ordering large genomic cloned libraries through overlap detection based on restriction fingerprinting. Such ordering projects involve a large investment of effort involving many repetitious experiments. Their primary purpose here is to provide methods of maximizing the efficiency of such efforts. To this end, they adopt a statistical approach that uses the likelihood ratio as a statistic to detect overlap. The main advantages of this approach are that (1) it allows the relatively straightforward incorporation of the observed statistical properties of the data; (2) it permits the efficiency of a particular experimental method for detecting overlap to be quantitatively defined so that alternative experimental designs may be compared and optimized; and (3) it yields a direct estimate of the probability that any two library members overlap. This estimate is a critical tool for the accurate, automatic assembly of overlapping sets of fragments into islands called contigs.' These contigs must subsequently be connected by other methods to provide an ordered set of overlapping fragments covering the entire genome.

Branscomb, E.; Slezak, T.; Pae, R.; Carrano, A.V. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Galas, D.; Waterman, M. (Univ. of South California, Los Angeles (United States))




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries with large DNA inserts have rapidly become the preferred choice for physical mapping. BAC-derived microsatellite or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers facilitate integration of physical maps with genetic maps. The objective of this research was to ...


Random sheared fosmid library as a new genomic tool to accelerate complete finishing of rice ( Oryza sativa spp. Nipponbare) genome sequence: sequencing of gap-specific fosmid clones uncovers new euchromatic portions of the genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Rice Genome Sequencing Project has recently announced the high-quality finished sequence that covers nearly\\u000a 95% of the japonica rice genome representing 370 Mbp. Nevertheless, the current physical map of japonica rice contains 62 physical gaps corresponding to approximately 5% of the genome, that have not been identified\\/represented\\u000a in the comprehensive array of publicly available BAC, PAC and other genomic

Jetty S. S. Ammiraju; Yeisoo Yu; Meizhong Luo; Dave Kudrna; HyeRan Kim; Jose L. Goicoechea; Yuichi Katayose; Takashi Matsumoto; Jianzhong Wu; Takuji Sasaki; Rod A. Wing




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 3000 rad bovine whole genome radiation hybrid panel and bovine BAC libraries have been used to construct an integrated physical map of the bovine genome, which will contribute to the final assembly of the bovine genome sequence. The RH map now contains more than 4000 markers, the majority of whi...


Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information content fingerprinting: a distal region of wheat chromosome 3DS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of wheat. We report the use of the Ae. tauschii, the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome, for the construction of t...


Genomic analysis of Ovis aries (Ovar)MHC Class IIa loci  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Determining the genomic organization of the Ovis aries (Ovar) major histocompatibility complex class IIa region is essential for future functional studies related to antigen presentation. In this study, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes ...


Characterization of the genome of bald cypress  

PubMed Central

Background Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) is a coniferous tree of tremendous ecological and economic importance. It is a member of the family Cupressaceae which also includes cypresses, redwoods, sequoias, thujas, and junipers. While the bald cypress genome is more than three times the size of the human genome, its 1C DNA content is amongst the smallest of any conifer. To learn more about the genome of bald cypress and gain insight into the evolution of Cupressaceae genomes, we performed a Cot analysis and used Cot filtration to study Taxodium DNA. Additionally, we constructed a 6.7 genome-equivalent BAC library that we screened with known Taxodium genes and select repeats. Results The bald cypress genome is composed of 90% repetitive DNA with most sequences being found in low to mid copy numbers. The most abundant repeats are found in fewer than 25,000 copies per genome. Approximately 7.4% of the genome is single/low-copy DNA (i.e., sequences found in 1 to 5 copies). Sequencing of highly repetitive Cot clones indicates that most Taxodium repeats are highly diverged from previously characterized plant repeat sequences. The bald cypress BAC library consists of 606,336 clones (average insert size of 113 kb) and collectively provides 6.7-fold genome equivalent coverage of the bald cypress genome. Macroarray screening with known genes produced, on average, about 1.5 positive clones per probe per genome-equivalent. Library screening with Cot-1 DNA revealed that approximately 83% of BAC clones contain repetitive sequences iterated 103 to 104 times per genome. Conclusions The BAC library for bald cypress is the first to be generated for a conifer species outside of the family Pinaceae. The Taxodium BAC library was shown to be useful in gene isolation and genome characterization and should be an important tool in gymnosperm comparative genomics, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and gene/polymorphism discovery. The single/low-copy (SL) component of bald cypress is 4.6 times the size of the Arabidopsis genome. As suggested for other gymnosperms, the large amount of SL DNA in Taxodium is likely the result of divergence among ancient repeat copies and gene/pseudogene duplication. PMID:22077969



Employing BAC-reporter constructs in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.  


Changes in the expression and function of genes drive evolutionary change. Comparing how genes are regulated in different species is therefore becoming an important part of evo-devo studies. A key tool for investigating the regulation of genes is represented by bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC)-reporter constructs. BACs are large insert libraries, often >100 kb, which thus capture the genomic sequences surrounding a gene of interest, including all, or nearly all, of the elements underpinning regulation. Recombinant BACs, containing a reporter gene in place of the endogenous coding sequence of genes, can be utilized to drive the expression of reporter genes under the regulatory control of the gene of interest while still embedded within its genomic context. Systematic deletions within the BAC-reporter construct can be used to identify the minimal reporter in an unbiased way, avoiding the risk of overlooking regulatory elements that may be many kilobases away from the transcription start-site. Nematostella vectensis (Edwardsiidae, Anthozoa, Cnidaria) has become an important model in regenerative biology, ecology, and especially in studies of evo-devo and gene-regulatory networks due to its interesting phylogenetic position and amenability to molecular techniques. The increasing interest in this rising model system also led to a demand for methods that can be used to study the regulation of genes in Nematostella. Here, we present our progress in employing BAC-reporter constructs to visualize gene-expression in Nematostella. Using a new Nematostella-specific recombination cassette, we made nine different BAC-reporter constructs. Although five BAC recombinants gave variable effects, three constructs, namely Nv-bra:eGFP::L10 BAC, Nv-dpp:eGFP::L10 BAC, and Nv-grm:eGFP::L10 BAC delivered promising results. We show that these three constructs express the reporter gene eGFP in 10.4-17.2% of all analyzed larvae, out of which 26.2-41.9% express GFP in a mosaic fashion within the expected domain. In addition to the expression within the known domains, we also observed cases of misexpression of eGFP and examples that could represent actual expression outside the described domain. Furthermore, we deep-sequenced and assembled five different BACs containing Nv-chordin, Nv-foxa, Nv-dpp, Nv-wnta, and Nv-wnt1, to improve assembly around these genes. The use of BAC-reporter constructs will foster cis-regulatory analyses in Nematostella and thus help to improve our understanding of the regulatory network in this cnidarian system. Ultimately, this will advance the comparison of gene-regulation across species and lead to a much better understanding of evolutionary changes and novelties. PMID:23956207

Fischer, Antje H L; Tulin, Sarah; Fredman, David; Smith, Joel



Consequences of Normalizing Transcriptomic and Genomic Libraries of Plant Genomes Using a Duplex-Specific Nuclease and Tetramethylammonium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Several applications of high throughput genome and transcriptome sequencing would benefit from a reduction of the high-copy-number sequences in the libraries being sequenced and analyzed, particularly when applied to species with large genomes. We adapted and analyzed the consequences of a method that utilizes a thermostable duplex-specific nuclease for reducing the high-copy components in transcriptomic and genomic libraries prior to sequencing. This reduces the time, cost, and computational effort of obtaining informative transcriptomic and genomic sequence data for both fully sequenced and non-sequenced genomes. It also reduces contamination from organellar DNA in preparations of nuclear DNA. Hybridization in the presence of 3 M tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC), which equalizes the rates of hybridization of GC and AT nucleotide pairs, reduced the bias against sequences with high GC content. Consequences of this method on the reduction of high-copy and enrichment of low-copy sequences are reported for Arabidopsis and lettuce. PMID:23409088

Froenicke, Lutz; Lavelle, Dean; Martineau, Belinda; Perroud, Bertrand; Michelmore, Richard



Human genome libraries. Final progress report, February 1, 1994--August 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to use a novel technology of chromosome microdissection and microcloning to construct chromosome region-specific libraries as resources for various human genome program studies. Region specific libraries have been constructed for the entire human chromosomes 2 and 18.

Kao, Fa-Ten



Democratizing Human Genome Project Information: A Model Program for Education, Information and Debate in Public Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Mapping the Human Genome" project demonstrated that librarians can help whomever they serve in accessing information resources in the areas of biological and health information, whether it is the scientists who are developing the information or a member of the public who is using the information. Public libraries can guide library users…

Pollack, Miriam


Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We analyzed the DNA sequences of BACs from many wheat libraries containing the Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, to gain understanding of the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Mor...


A second generation integrated map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome: analysis of synteny with model fish genomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this paper we generated DNA fingerprints and end sequences from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) from two new libraries to improve the first generation integrated physical and genetic map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome. The current version of the physical map is compose...


Assignment of Homology to Genome Sequences using a Library of Hidden Markov Models that  

E-print Network

Assignment of Homology to Genome Sequences using a Library of Hidden Markov Models that Represent pairwise comparisons. Of the pro®le methods, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are apparently the best. The ®rst Academic Press Keywords: genome; superfamily; hidden Markov model; structure; homology*Corresponding author

Karplus, Kevin


Genomic analysis using a yeast artificial chromosome library with mouse DNA inserts.  


A yeast artificial chromosome library with mouse genomic DNA inserts has been constructed. The library encompasses a 2.5-fold coverage of the mouse genome, with an average insert size of 250 kilobases. The screening strategy uses the polymerase chain reaction on pooled DNAs prepared from individually stored clones. The usefulness of the library for chromosome walking was illustrated by constructing a 600-kilobase-long contig of DNA surrounding Hba-ps4, a DNA marker that is tightly linked to the fused (Fu) locus on chromosome 17. PMID:1347950

Rossi, J M; Burke, D T; Leung, J C; Koos, D S; Chen, H; Tilghman, S M



Pybedtools: a flexible Python library for manipulating genomic datasets and annotations  

PubMed Central

Summary: pybedtools is a flexible Python software library for manipulating and exploring genomic datasets in many common formats. It provides an intuitive Python interface that extends upon the popular BEDTools genome arithmetic tools. The library is well documented and efficient, and allows researchers to quickly develop simple, yet powerful scripts that enable complex genomic analyses. Availability: pybedtools is maintained under the GPL license. Stable versions of pybedtools as well as documentation are available on the Python Package Index at Contact:; Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21949271

Dale, Ryan K.; Pedersen, Brent S.; Quinlan, Aaron R.



Construction and Characterization of Three Wheat Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries  

PubMed Central

We have constructed three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Wangshuibai, germplasms T. monococcum TA2026 and TA2033. A total of 1,233,792,170,880 and 263,040 clones were picked and arrayed in 384-well plates. On the basis of genome sizes of 16.8 Gb for hexaploid wheat and 5.6 Gb for diploid wheat, the three libraries represented 9.05-, 2.60-, and 3.71-fold coverage of the haploid genomes, respectively. An improved descending pooling system for BAC libraries screening was established. This improved strategy can save 80% of the time and 68% of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the same successful rate as the universal 6D pooling strategy. PMID:25464379

Cao, Wenjin; Fu, Bisheng; Wu, Kun; Li, Na; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Zhongxia; Lin, Musen; Li, Guoqiang; Wu,  Xinyi; Ma, Zhengqiang; Jia, Haiyan



Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...


Rapid construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosomal (BAC) expression vector using designer DNA fragments.  


Bacterial artificial chromosomal (BAC) vectors are increasingly being used in cloning large DNA fragments containing complex biosynthetic pathways to facilitate heterologous production of microbial metabolites for drug development. To express inserted genes using Streptomyces species as the production hosts, an integration expression cassette is required to be inserted into the BAC vector, which includes genetic elements encoding a phage-specific attachment site, an integrase, an origin of transfer, a selection marker and a promoter. Due to the large sizes of DNA inserted into the BAC vectors, it is normally inefficient and time-consuming to assemble these fragments by routine PCR amplifications and restriction-ligations. Here we present a rapid method to insert fragments to construct BAC-based expression vectors. A DNA fragment of about 130 bp was designed, which contains upstream and downstream homologous sequences of both BAC vector and pIB139 plasmid carrying the whole integration expression cassette. In-Fusion cloning was performed using the designer DNA fragment to modify pIB139, followed by ?-RED-mediated recombination to obtain the BAC-based expression vector. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this method by rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector with an insert of about 120?kb that contains the entire gene cluster for biosynthesis of immunosuppressant FK506. The empty BAC-based expression vector constructed in this study can be conveniently used for construction of BAC libraries using either microbial pure culture or environmental DNA, and the selected BAC clones can be directly used for heterologous expression. Alternatively, if a BAC library has already been constructed using a commercial BAC vector, the selected BAC vectors can be manipulated using the method described here to get the BAC-based expression vectors with desired gene clusters for heterologous expression. The rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector facilitates heterologous expression of large gene clusters for drug discovery. PMID:25454071

Chen, Chao; Zhao, Xinqing; Jin, Yingyu; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Suh, Joo-Won



Molecular characterization and genomic organization of low molecular weight glutenin subunit genes at the Glu3 loci in hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report on the molecular characterization and genomic organization of the low molecular weight glutenin subunit\\u000a (LMW-GS) gene family in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Eighty-two positive BAC clones were identified to contain LMW-GS genes from the hexaploid wheat ‘Glenlea’ BAC library\\u000a via filter hybridization and PCR validation. Twelve unique LMW glutenin genes and seven pseudogenes were

Xiu-Qiang Huang; Sylvie Cloutier



A Genome-Wide Survey of Switchgrass Genome Structure and Organization  

PubMed Central

The perennial grass, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), is a promising bioenergy crop and the target of whole genome sequencing. We constructed two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from the AP13 clone of switchgrass to gain insight into the genome structure and organization, initiate functional and comparative genomic studies, and assist with genome assembly. Together representing 16 haploid genome equivalents of switchgrass, each library comprises 101,376 clones with average insert sizes of 144 (HindIII-generated) and 110 kb (BstYI-generated). A total of 330,297 high quality BAC-end sequences (BES) were generated, accounting for 263.2 Mbp (16.4%) of the switchgrass genome. Analysis of the BES identified 279,099 known repetitive elements, >50,000 SSRs, and 2,528 novel repeat elements, named switchgrass repetitive elements (SREs). Comparative mapping of 47 full-length BAC sequences and 330K BES revealed high levels of synteny with the grass genomes sorghum, rice, maize, and Brachypodium. Our data indicate that the sorghum genome has retained larger microsyntenous regions with switchgrass besides high gene order conservation with rice. The resources generated in this effort will be useful for a broad range of applications. PMID:22511929

Sharma, Manoj K.; Sharma, Rita; Cao, Peijian; Jenkins, Jerry; Bartley, Laura E.; Qualls, Morgan; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel; Ronald, Pamela C.



Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics  

PubMed Central

Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W.



Recent advances in cotton genomics.  


Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W



The Korea Brassica Genome Project: a Glimpse of the Brassica Genome Based on Comparative Genome Analysis With Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

A complete genome sequence provides unlimited information in the sequenced organism as well as in related taxa. According to the guidance of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project (MBGP), the Korea Brassica Genome Project (KBGP) is sequencing chromosome 1 (cytogenetically oriented chromosome #1) of Brassica rapa. We have selected 48 seed BACs on chromosome 1 using EST genetic markers and FISH analyses. Among them, 30 BAC clones have been sequenced and 18 are on the way. Comparative genome analyses of the EST sequences and sequenced BAC clones from Brassica chromosome 1 revealed their homeologous partner regions on the Arabidopsis genome and a syntenic comparative map between Brassica chromosome 1 and Arabidopsis chromosomes. In silico chromosome walking and clone validation have been successfully applied to extending sequence contigs based on the comparative map and BAC end sequences. In addition, we have defined the (peri)centromeric heterochromatin blocks with centromeric tandem repeats, rDNA and centromeric retrotransposons. In-depth sequence analyses of five homeologous BAC clones and an Arabidopsis chromosomal region reveal overall co-linearity, with 82% sequence similarity. The data indicate that the Brassica genome has undergone triplication and subsequent gene losses after the divergence of Arabidopsis and Brassica. Based on in-depth comparative genome analyses, we propose a comparative genomics approach for conquering the Brassica genome. In 2005 we intend to construct an integrated physical map, including sequence information from 500 BAC clones and integration of fingerprinting data and end sequence data of more than 100 000 BAC clones. The sequences have been submitted to GenBank with accession numbers: 10 204 BAC ends of the KBrH library (CW978640–CW988843); KBrH138P04, AC155338; KBrH117N09, AC155337; KBrH097M21, AC155348; KBrH093K03, AC155347; KBrH081N08, AC155346; KBrH080L24, AC155345; KBrH077A05, AC155343; KBrH020D15, AC155340; KBrH015H17, AC155339; KBrH001H24, AC155335; KBrH080A08, AC155344; KBrH004D11, AC155341; KBrH117M18, AC146875; KBrH052O08, AC155342. PMID:18629219

Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jung-Sun; Lim, Ki-Byung; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jin-A; Jin, Mina; Park, Jee Young; Lim, Myung-Ho; Kim, Ho-Il; Kim, Seog Hyung; Lim, Yong Pyo



Construction and characterization of two bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of pea (Pisum sativum L.) for the isolation of economically important genes.  


Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has a genome of about 4 Gb that appears to share conserved synteny with model legumes having genomes of 0.2-0.4 Gb despite extensive intergenic expansion. Pea plant inventory (PI) accession 269818 has been used to introgress genetic diversity into the cultivated germplasm pool. The aim here was to develop pea bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries that would enable the isolation of genes involved in plant disease resistance or control of economically important traits. The BAC libraries encompassed about 3.2 haploid genome equivalents consisting of partially HindIII-digested DNA fragments with a mean size of 105 kb that were inserted in 1 of 2 vectors. The low-copy oriT-based T-DNA vector (pCLD04541) library contained 55 680 clones. The single-copy oriS-based vector (pIndigoBAC-5) library contained 65 280 clones. Colony hybridization of a universal chloroplast probe indicated that about 1% of clones in the libraries were of chloroplast origin. The presence of about 0.1% empty vectors was inferred by white/blue colony plate counts. The usefulness of the libraries was tested by 2 replicated methods. First, high-density filters were probed with low copy number sequences. Second, BAC plate-pool DNA was used successfully to PCR amplify 7 of 9 published pea resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and several other low copy number pea sequences. Individual BAC clones encoding specific sequences were identified. Therefore, the HindIII BAC libraries of pea, based on germplasm accession PI 269818, will be useful for the isolation of genes underlying disease resistance and other economically important traits. PMID:17893728

Coyne, C J; McClendon, M T; Walling, J G; Timmerman-Vaughan, G M; Murray, S; Meksem, K; Lightfoot, D A; Shultz, J L; Keller, K E; Martin, R R; Inglis, D A; Rajesh, P N; McPhee, K E; Weeden, N F; Grusak, M A; Li, C-M; Storlie, E W



A new look towards BAC-based array CGH through a comprehensive comparison with oligo-based array CGH  

E-print Network

flexibility in probe design, greater coverage, and much higher resolution. The latter depends on array design and the cell type homogeneity. Moreover, oligonu- cleotides can more easily be produced for any organism for which the genome has been sequenced... isolated BAC outliers (boxes 1, 2, 3 and 5) and two groups of BAC outliers (boxes 4 and 6) on chromosome 3 of patient sam- ple 817. Isolated BAC outliers point to putative micro- events (microdeletion or small amplification) whereas groups of BAC outliers...

Wicker, Nicolas; Carles, Annaick; Mills, Ian G; Wolf, Maija; Veerakumarasivam, Abhi; Edgren, Henrik; Boileau, Fabrice; Wasylyk, Bohdan; Schalken, Jack A; Neal, David E; Kallioniemi, Olli; Poch, Olivier



Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis  

SciTech Connect

During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

Kao, Fa-Ten.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genomic structure of an MnSOD gene in wheat was elucidated by sequencing a clone from a BAC library of a stripe-rust resistant wheat line. The clone was identified by hybridization with a wheat MnSOD cDNA. The gene consisted of six exons interrupted by five introns with a total length of 4773 nu...


Construction and Characterization of a 10Genome Equivalent Yeast Artificial Chromosome Library for the Laboratory Rat, Rattus norvegicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries. Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing

Li Cai; Leonard C. Schalkwyk; Andreina Schoeberlein-Stehli; Robert Y. L. Zee; Avrial Smith; Thomas Haaf; Michel Georges; Hans Lehrach; Klaus Lindpaintner



Contribution of Asian mouse subspecies Mus musculus molossinus to genomic constitution of strain C57BL\\/6J, as defined by BAC-end sequence-SNP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

MSM\\/Ms is an inbred strain derived from the Japanese wild mouse, Mus musculus molossinus. It is believed that subspecies molossinus has contributed substantially to the genome constitution of common laboratory strains of mice, although the majority of their genome is derived from the west European M. m. domesticus. Information on the molossinus genome is thus essential not only for genetic

Kuniya Abe; Hideki Noguchi; Keiko Tagawa; Misako Yuzuriha; Atsushi Toyoda; Toshio Kojima; Kiyoshi Ezawa; Naruya Saitou; Masahira Hattori; Yoshiyuki Sakaki; Kazuo Moriwaki; Toshihiko Shiroishi



Construction and characterization of a 10-genome equivalent yeast artificial chromosome library for the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus  

SciTech Connect

Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries. Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing approximately 40,000 clones in the AB1380 host using the pCGS966 vector. An average size of 736 kb was estimated from 166 randomly chosen clones; thus the library provides 10-fold coverage of the genome, with a 99.99% probability of containing a unique sequence. Eight of 39 YACs analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization were found to be chimeric, indicating a proportion of about 20-30% of chimeric clones. The library was spotted on high-density filters to allow the identification of YAC clones by hybridization and was pooled using a 3-dimensional scheme for screening by PCR. Among 48 probes used to screen the library, an average of 9.3 positive clones were found, consistent with the calculated 10-fold genomic coverage of the library. This YAC library represents the first large-insert genomic library for the rat. It will be made available to the research community at large as an important new resource for complex genome analysis in this species. 35 refs., 4 figs.

Cai, L.; Zee, R.Y.L. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schalkwyk, L.C. [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin (Germany)] [and others] [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin (Germany); and others



Construction of a high-coverage bacterial artificial chromosome library and comprehensive genetic linkage map of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata  

PubMed Central

Background Japanese amberjack/yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) is a commonly cultured marine fish in Japan. For cost effective fish production, a breeding program that increases commercially important traits is one of the major solutions. In selective breeding, information of genetic markers is useful and sufficient to identify individuals carrying advantageous traits but if the aim is to determine the genetic basis of the trait, large insert genomic DNA libraries are essential. In this study, toward prospective understanding of genetic basis of several economically important traits, we constructed a high-coverage bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, obtained sequences from the BAC-end, and constructed comprehensive female and male linkage maps of yellowtail using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers developed from the BAC-end sequences and a yellowtail genomic library. Results The total insert length of the BAC library we constructed here was estimated to be approximately 11 Gb and hence 16-times larger than the yellowtail genome. Sequencing of the BAC-ends showed a low fraction of repetitive sequences comparable to that in Tetraodon and fugu. A total of 837 SSR markers developed here were distributed among 24 linkage groups spanning 1,026.70 and 1,057.83 cM with an average interval of 4.96 and 4.32 cM in female and male map respectively without any segregation distortion. Oxford grids suggested conserved synteny between yellowtail and stickleback. Conclusions In addition to characteristics of yellowtail genome such as low repetitive sequences and conserved synteny with stickleback, our genomic and genetic resources constructed and revealed here will be powerful tools for the yellowtail breeding program and also for studies regarding the genetic basis of traits. PMID:24684753



Preparation and screening of an arrayed human genomic library generated with the P1 cloning system.  

PubMed Central

We describe here the construction and initial characterization of a 3-fold coverage genomic library of the human haploid genome that was prepared using the bacteriophage P1 cloning system. The cloned DNA inserts were produced by size fractionation of a Sau3AI partial digest of high molecular weight genomic DNA isolated from primary cells of human foreskin fibroblasts. The inserts were cloned into the pAd10sacBII vector and packaged in vitro into P1 phage. These were used to generate recombinant bacterial clones, each of which was picked robotically from an agar plate into a well of a 96-well microtiter dish, grown overnight, and stored at -70 degrees C. The resulting library, designated DMPC-HFF#1 series A, consists of approximately 130,000-140,000 recombinant clones that were stored in 1500 microtiter dishes. To screen the library, clones were combined in a pooling strategy and specific loci were identified by PCR analysis. On average, the library contains two or three different clones for each locus screened. To date we have identified a total of 17 clones containing the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, human serum albumin-human alpha-fetoprotein, p53, cyclooxygenase I, human apurinic endonuclease, beta-polymerase, and DNA ligase I genes. The cloned inserts average 80 kb in size and range from 70 to 95 kb, with one 49-kb insert and one 62-kb insert. Images PMID:8146166

Shepherd, N S; Pfrogner, B D; Coulby, J N; Ackerman, S L; Vaidyanathan, G; Sauer, R H; Balkenhol, T C; Sternberg, N



BAC TransgeneOmics: a high-throughput method for exploration of protein function in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of genome sequences requires reliable and standardized methods to assess protein function at high throughput. Here we describe a fast and reliable pipeline to study protein function in mammalian cells based on protein tagging in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The large size of the BAC transgenes ensures the presence of most, if not all, regulatory elements and results

Ina Poser; Mihail Sarov; James R A Hutchins; Jean-Karim Hériché; Yusuke Toyoda; Andrei Pozniakovsky; Daniela Weigl; Anja Nitzsche; Björn Hegemann; Alexander W Bird; Laurence Pelletier; Ralf Kittler; Sujun Hua; Ronald Naumann; Martina Augsburg; Martina M Sykora; Helmut Hofemeister; Youming Zhang; Kim Nasmyth; Kevin P White; Steffen Dietzel; Karl Mechtler; Richard Durbin; A Francis Stewart; Jan-Michael Peters; Frank Buchholz; Anthony A Hyman



Physical mapping and microsynteny of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis genome corresponding to a 222 kbp gene-rich region of Arabidopsis chromosome 4 and partially duplicated on chromosome 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, designated as KBrH, from high molecular weight genomic DNA\\u000a of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage). This library, which was constructed using HindIII-cleaved genomic DNA, consists of 56,592 clones with average insert size of 115 kbp. Using a partially duplicated DNA\\u000a sequence of Arabidopsis, represented by 19 and 9 predicted genes on chromosome

J. Y. Park; D. H. Koo; C. P. Hong; S. J. Lee; J. W. Jeon; S. H. Lee; P. Y. Yun; B. S. Park; H. R. Kim; J. W. Bang; P. Plaha; I. Bancroft; Y. P. Lim



SVGenes: a library for rendering genomic features in scalable vector graphic format  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Drawing genomic features in attractive and informative ways is a key task in visualization of genomics data. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format is a modern and flexible open standard that provides advanced features including modular graphic design, advanced web interactivity and animation within a suitable client. SVGs do not suffer from loss of image quality on re-scaling and provide the ability to edit individual elements of a graphic on the whole object level independent of the whole image. These features make SVG a potentially useful format for the preparation of publication quality figures including genomic objects such as genes or sequencing coverage and for web applications that require rich user-interaction with the graphical elements. Results: SVGenes is a Ruby-language library that uses SVG primitives to render typical genomic glyphs through a simple and flexible Ruby interface. The library implements a simple Page object that spaces and contains horizontal Track objects that in turn style, colour and positions features within them. Tracks are the level at which visual information is supplied providing the full styling capability of the SVG standard. Genomic entities like genes, transcripts and histograms are modelled in Glyph objects that are attached to a track and take advantage of SVG primitives to render the genomic features in a track as any of a selection of defined glyphs. The feature model within SVGenes is simple but flexible and not dependent on particular existing gene feature formats meaning graphics for any existing datasets can easily be created without need for conversion. Availability: The library is provided as a Ruby Gem from under the MIT license, and open source code is available at also under the MIT License. Contact: PMID:23749959

Etherington, Graham J.; MacLean, Daniel



BAC transgenic zebrafish for transcriptional promoter and enhancer studies.  


With the advent of BAC recombineering techniques, transcriptional promoter and enhancer isolation studies have become much more feasible in zebrafish than in mouse given the easy access to large numbers of fertilized zebrafish eggs and offspring in general, the easy to follow ex-utero development of zebrafish, an overall less skill demand and a more cost-effective technique. Here we provide guidelines for the generation of BAC recombineering-based transgenic zebrafish for DNA transcriptional promoter and enhancer identification studies as well as protocols for their analysis, which have been successfully applied in our laboratories many times. BAC recombineering in zebrafish allows for economical functional genomics studies, for example by integrating developmental biology with comparative genomics approaches to validate potential enhancer elements of vertebrate transcription factors. PMID:25239750

Kraus, Petra; Winata, Cecilia L; Lufkin, Thomas



Design and evaluation of genome-wide libraries for RNA interference screens  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) screens have enabled the systematic analysis of many biological processes in cultured cells and whole organisms. The success of such screens and the interpretation of the data depend on the stringent design of RNAi libraries. We describe and validate NEXT-RNAi, a software for the automated design and evaluation of RNAi sequences on a genome-wide scale. NEXT-RNAi is implemented as open-source software and is accessible at PMID:20550664



Efficient construction of plant genomic libraries requires the use of mcr host strains and packaging mixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently become apparent that many strains ofE. coli contain nucleases encoded by themcrA andmcrB loci that, recognize the modified base 5-methylcytosine in DNA. Plant DNAs have particularly high levels of this modification\\u000a and the activity of these 5-methylcytosine-specific nucleases is particularly relevant to cloning plant genomic DNAs. We show\\u000a here that for preparing libraries in a ? replacement

Michael W. Graham; Judith P. Doherty; David M. Woodcock



The construction and characterization of three genomic libraries of trichoderma virens strain Tv29-8  

E-print Network

-copy genes, arg2 and gpd, each hybridizing to approximately 25 clones. A full-length copy of tex1 was isolated on a 150 kb BAC clone. A contig of plasmids containing 24.5 kb of tex1 was constructed from a BAC clone for sequencing and analysis....

Grzegorski, Darlene



The first insight into the Taxus genome via fosmid library construction and end sequencing.  


Taxus mairei is a critically endangered and commercially important cultured medicinal gymnosperm in China and forms an important medicinal resource, but the research of its genome is absent. In this study, we constructed a T. mairei fosmid library and analyzed the fosmid end sequences to provide a preliminary assessment of the genome. The library consists of one million clones with an average insert size of about 39 kb, amounting to 3.9 genome equivalents. Fosmid stability assays indicate that T. mairei DNA was stable during propagation in the fosmid system. End sequencing of both 5' and 3' ends of 968 individual clones generated 1,923 sequences after trimming, with an average sequence length of 839 bp. BLASTN searches of the nr and EST databases of GenBank and BLASTX searches of the nr database resulted in 560 (29.1%) significant hits (E < e(-5)). Repetitive sequences analysis revealed that 20.8% of end sequences are repetitive elements, which were composed of retroelements, DNA transposons, satellites, simple repeats, and low complexity sequences. The distribution pattern of various repeat types was found to be more similar to the gymnosperm Pinus and Picea than to the monocot and dicot. The satellites of T. mairei were significantly longer than those of P. taeda and P. glauca. The tetra-nucleotide repeats of T. mairei were much longer than those of P. glauca and P. taeda. The fosmid library and the fosmid end sequences, for the first time, will serve as a useful resource for large-scale genome sequencing, physical mapping, SSR marker development and positional cloning, and provide a better understanding of the Taxus genome. PMID:21207064

Hao, DaCheng; Yang, Ling; Xiao, PeiGen



Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes: Genomic Resources and Strategies for Analyzing an Adaptive Radiation  

PubMed Central

The perciform suborder Notothenoidei provides a compelling opportunity to study the adaptive radiation of a marine species-flock in the cold Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica. To facilitate genome-level studies of the diversification of these fishes, we present estimates of the genome sizes of 11 Antarctic species and describe the production of high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for two, the red-blooded notothen Notothenia coriiceps and the white-blooded icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Our results indicate that evolution of phylogenetically derived notothenioid families (e.g., the crown group Channichthyidae [icefishes]), was accompanied by genome expansion. Six species from the basal family Nototheniidae had C-values between 0.98 and 1.20?pg, a range that is consistent with the genome sizes of proposed outgroups (e.g., percids) of the notothenioid suborder. In contrast, four icefishes had C-values in the range 1.66–1.83?pg. The BAC libraries VMRC-19 (N. coriiceps) and VMRC-21 (C. aceratus) comprise 12× and 10× coverage of the respective genomes and have average insert sizes of 138 and 168?kb. Paired BAC-end reads representing ?0.1% of each genome showed that the repetitive element landscapes of the two genomes (13.4% of the N. coriiceps genome and 14.5% for C. aceratus) were similar. The availability of these high-quality and well-characterized BAC libraries sets the stage for targeted genomic analyses of the unusual anatomical and physiological adaptations of the notothenioids, some of which mimic human diseases. Here we consider the evolution of secondary pelagicism by various taxa of the group and illustrate the utility of Antarctic icefishes as an evolutionary-mutant model of human osteopenia (low-mineral density of bones). PMID:21082069

Detrich, H. W.; Amemiya, Chris T.



MethylC-seq library preparation for base-resolution whole-genome bisulfite sequencing.  


Current high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies enable acquisition of billions of data points through which myriad biological processes can be interrogated, including genetic variation, chromatin structure, gene expression patterns, small RNAs and protein-DNA interactions. Here we describe the MethylC-sequencing (MethylC-seq) library preparation method, a 2-d protocol that enables the genome-wide identification of cytosine DNA methylation states at single-base resolution. The technique involves fragmentation of genomic DNA followed by adapter ligation, bisulfite conversion and limited amplification using adapter-specific PCR primers in preparation for sequencing. To date, this protocol has been successfully applied to genomic DNA isolated from primary cell culture, sorted cells and fresh tissue from over a thousand plant and animal samples. PMID:25692984

Urich, Mark A; Nery, Joseph R; Lister, Ryan; Schmitz, Robert J; Ecker, Joseph R



Scribl: an HTML5 Canvas-based graphics library for visualizing genomic data over the web  

PubMed Central

Motivation: High-throughput biological research requires simultaneous visualization as well as analysis of genomic data, e.g. read alignments, variant calls and genomic annotations. Traditionally, such integrative analysis required desktop applications operating on locally stored data. Many current terabyte-size datasets generated by large public consortia projects, however, are already only feasibly stored at specialist genome analysis centers. As even small laboratories can afford very large datasets, local storage and analysis are becoming increasingly limiting, and it is likely that most such datasets will soon be stored remotely, e.g. in the cloud. These developments will require web-based tools that enable users to access, analyze and view vast remotely stored data with a level of sophistication and interactivity that approximates desktop applications. As rapidly dropping cost enables researchers to collect data intended to answer questions in very specialized contexts, developers must also provide software libraries that empower users to implement customized data analyses and data views for their particular application. Such specialized, yet lightweight, applications would empower scientists to better answer specific biological questions than possible with general-purpose genome browsers currently available. Results: Using recent advances in core web technologies (HTML5), we developed Scribl, a flexible genomic visualization library specifically targeting coordinate-based data such as genomic features, DNA sequence and genetic variants. Scribl simplifies the development of sophisticated web-based graphical tools that approach the dynamism and interactivity of desktop applications. Availability and implementation: Software is freely available online at and is implemented in JavaScript with all modern browsers supported. Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23172864

Miller, Chase A.; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M.; Marth, Gabor



Analysis of Genomic Regions of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Related to Biomass Degradation  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we demonstrate a rapid and efficient tool that focuses on specific genomic regions by combining a BAC library with transcriptomic data. This is the first BAC-based structural genomic study of the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum, and its findings provide new perspectives regarding the use of this species in biomass degradation processes. PMID:25836973

Crucello, Aline; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; Viana, Américo José Carvalho; Beloti, Lilian Luzia; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; Vincentz, Michel; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; de Souza, Anete Pereira



A Novel Helper Phage Enabling Construction of Genome-Scale ORF-Enriched Phage Display Libraries  

PubMed Central

Phagemid-based expression of cloned genes fused to the gIIIP coding sequence and rescue using helper phages, such as VCSM13, has been used extensively for constructing large antibody phage display libraries. However, for randomly primed cDNA and gene fragment libraries, this system encounters reading frame problems wherein only one of 18 phages display the translated foreign peptide/protein fused to phagemid-encoded gIIIP. The elimination of phages carrying out-of-frame inserts is vital in order to improve the quality of phage display libraries. In this study, we designed a novel helper phage, AGM13, which carries trypsin-sensitive sites within the linker regions of gIIIP. This renders the phage highly sensitive to trypsin digestion, which abolishes its infectivity. For open reading frame (ORF) selection, the phagemid-borne phages are rescued using AGM13, so that clones with in-frame inserts express fusion proteins with phagemid-encoded trypsin-resistant gIIIP, which becomes incorporated into the phages along with a few copies of AGM13-encoded trypsin-sensitive gIIIP. In contrast, clones with out-of-frame inserts produce phages carrying only AGM13-encoded trypsin-sensitive gIIIP. Trypsin treatment of the phage population renders the phages with out-of-frame inserts non-infectious, whereas phages carrying in-frame inserts remain fully infectious and can hence be enriched by infection. This strategy was applied efficiently at a genome scale to generate an ORF-enriched whole genome fragment library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in which nearly 100% of the clones carried in-frame inserts after selection. The ORF-enriched libraries were successfully used for identification of linear and conformational epitopes for monoclonal antibodies specific to mycobacterial proteins. PMID:24086469

Grover, Payal; Singh, Ajay; Mathur, Kapil; Verma, Vaishali; Kaur, Charanpreet; Chaudhary, Vijay K.



Genome-Wide Sequence Comparison of Centromeric Regions and BAC-Landing on Chromosomes Provide New Insights into Centromere Evolution Among Wheat, Brachypodium, and Rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As an emerging model system, the nearly finished sequence of Brachypodium distachyon will provide new insights into comparative and functional genomics of grass species. However, centromeres of B. distachyon are unlikely to be sequenced and assembled precisely similar to many other sequenced organis...


Technology development at the interface of proteome research and genomics: Mapping nonpolymorphic proteins on the physical map of mouse chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained from protein spots by peptide mass fingerprinting are used to identify the corresponding genes in sequence databases. The relevant cDNAs are obtained as crones from the Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genome Expression (I.M.A.G.E.) consortium. Mapping of I.M.A.G.E. clones is performed in two steps: first, cDNA clones are hybridized against a 10-hit genomic mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library.

Christina Nock; Christine Gauss; Leonard C. Schalkwyk; Joachim Klose; Hans Lehrach; Heinz Himmelbauer



Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton, one of the world’s leading crops, is important to the world’s textile and energy industries, and is a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction of a plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library and comparative genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with one of its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii Ulbr. Results We constructed the cotton BIBAC library in a vector competent for high-molecular-weight DNA transformation in different plant species through either Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. The library contains 76,800 clones with an average insert size of 135 kb, providing an approximate 99% probability of obtaining at least one positive clone from the library using a single-copy probe. The quality and utility of the library were verified by identifying BIBACs containing genes important for fiber development, fiber cellulose biosynthesis, seed fatty acid metabolism, cotton-nematode interaction, and bacterial blight resistance. In order to gain an insight into the Upland cotton genome and its relationship with G. raimondii, we sequenced nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs) randomly selected from the library, generating approximately one BES for every 250 kb along the Upland cotton genome. The retroelement Gypsy/DIRS1 family predominates in the Upland cotton genome, accounting for over 77% of all transposable elements. From the BESs, we identified 1,269 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), of which 1,006 were new, thus providing additional markers for cotton genome research. Surprisingly, comparative sequence analysis showed that Upland cotton is much more diverged from G. raimondii at the genomic sequence level than expected. There seems to be no significant difference between the relationships of the Upland cotton D- and A-subgenomes with the G. raimondii genome, even though G. raimondii contains a D genome (D5). Conclusions The library represents the first BIBAC library in cotton and related species, thus providing tools useful for integrative physical mapping, large-scale genome sequencing and large-scale functional analysis of the Upland cotton genome. Comparative sequence analysis provides insights into the Upland cotton genome, and a possible mechanism underlying the divergence and evolution of polyploid Upland cotton from its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii. PMID:23537070



Construction and analysis of Pst I DNA library for RFLP mapping of the rye genome  

SciTech Connect

Pst I, a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme, was used for producing a library of rye genome DNA rich in low-copy sequences, and intended as probes for genetic mapping. Dot-hybridization and Southern blot analysis showed that 43.6% of the library is represented by low-copy DNA sequences. To locate these sequences on chromosomes and determine the degree of their repetitiveness, 11 clones were hybridized with DNA of nulli-tetrasomic lines of Chinese Spring wheat, wheat-rye addition lines, and barley cleaved by Hind III, EcoR I, EcoR V, Dra I, and BamH I restriction enzymes. Each of the rye DNA clones studied hybridized with wheat and barley DNA, suggesting that low-copy Pst I clones of rye correspond to the evolutionary conservative DNA fraction in cereals. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Korzun, V.N.; Kartel, N.A. [Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Minsk (Belarus); Boerner, A. [Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany)



NINDS GENSAT BAC Transgenic Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Rockefeller University in New York contains "a gene expression atlas of the central nervous system of the mouse based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)." GENSAT, or the Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas, contains brain slice images of BAC transgenic mice at the embryonic, postnatal (7 days old), and adult stages, stained to show areas of gene activity. The website comes with a detailed and helpful tutorial that recreates GENSAT's user interface and demonstrates how to manipulate search results.


Pulling out the 1%: whole-genome capture for the targeted enrichment of ancient DNA sequencing libraries.  


Most ancient specimens contain very low levels of endogenous DNA, precluding the shotgun sequencing of many interesting samples because of cost. Ancient DNA (aDNA) libraries often contain <1% endogenous DNA, with the majority of sequencing capacity taken up by environmental DNA. Here we present a capture-based method for enriching the endogenous component of aDNA sequencing libraries. By using biotinylated RNA baits transcribed from genomic DNA libraries, we are able to capture DNA fragments from across the human genome. We demonstrate this method on libraries created from four Iron Age and Bronze Age human teeth from Bulgaria, as well as bone samples from seven Peruvian mummies and a Bronze Age hair sample from Denmark. Prior to capture, shotgun sequencing of these libraries yielded an average of 1.2% of reads mapping to the human genome (including duplicates). After capture, this fraction increased substantially, with up to 59% of reads mapped to human and enrichment ranging from 6- to 159-fold. Furthermore, we maintained coverage of the majority of regions sequenced in the precapture library. Intersection with the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel yielded an average of 50,723 SNPs (range 3,062-147,243) for the postcapture libraries sequenced with 1 million reads, compared with 13,280 SNPs (range 217-73,266) for the precapture libraries, increasing resolution in population genetic analyses. Our whole-genome capture approach makes it less costly to sequence aDNA from specimens containing very low levels of endogenous DNA, enabling the analysis of larger numbers of samples. PMID:24568772

Carpenter, Meredith L; Buenrostro, Jason D; Valdiosera, Cristina; Schroeder, Hannes; Allentoft, Morten E; Sikora, Martin; Rasmussen, Morten; Gravel, Simon; Guillén, Sonia; Nekhrizov, Georgi; Leshtakov, Krasimir; Dimitrova, Diana; Theodossiev, Nikola; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Sandoval, Karla; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Greenleaf, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D



Genome wide SNP discovery in flax through next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries  

PubMed Central

Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a significant fibre and oilseed crop. Current flax molecular markers, including isozymes, RAPDs, AFLPs and SSRs are of limited use in the construction of high density linkage maps and for association mapping applications due to factors such as low reproducibility, intense labour requirements and/or limited numbers. We report here on the use of a reduced representation library strategy combined with next generation Illumina sequencing for rapid and large scale discovery of SNPs in eight flax genotypes. SNP discovery was performed through in silico analysis of the sequencing data against the whole genome shotgun sequence assembly of flax genotype CDC Bethune. Genotyping-by-sequencing of an F6-derived recombinant inbred line population provided validation of the SNPs. Results Reduced representation libraries of eight flax genotypes were sequenced on the Illumina sequencing platform resulting in sequence coverage ranging from 4.33 to 15.64X (genome equivalents). Depending on the relatedness of the genotypes and the number and length of the reads, between 78% and 93% of the reads mapped onto the CDC Bethune whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. A total of 55,465 SNPs were discovered with the largest number of SNPs belonging to the genotypes with the highest mapping coverage percentage. Approximately 84% of the SNPs discovered were identified in a single genotype, 13% were shared between any two genotypes and the remaining 3% in three or more. Nearly a quarter of the SNPs were found in genic regions. A total of 4,706 out of 4,863 SNPs discovered in Macbeth were validated using genotyping-by-sequencing of 96 F6 individuals from a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between CDC Bethune and Macbeth, corresponding to a validation rate of 96.8%. Conclusions Next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries was successfully implemented for genome-wide SNP discovery from flax. The genotyping-by-sequencing approach proved to be efficient for validation. The SNP resources generated in this work will assist in generating high density maps of flax and facilitate QTL discovery, marker-assisted selection, phylogenetic analyses, association mapping and anchoring of the whole genome shotgun sequence. PMID:23216845



Rapid editing and evolution of bacterial genomes using libraries of synthetic DNA.  


Multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE) is a powerful technology for in vivo genome editing that uses synthetic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to introduce targeted modifications directly into the Escherichia coli chromosome. MAGE is a cyclical process that involves transformation of ssDNA (by electroporation) followed by outgrowth, during which bacteriophage homologous recombination proteins mediate annealing of ssDNAs to their genomic targets. By iteratively introducing libraries of mutagenic ssDNAs targeting multiple sites, MAGE can generate combinatorial genetic diversity in a cell population. Alternatively, MAGE can introduce precise mutant alleles at many loci for genome-wide editing or for recoding projects that are not possible with other methods. In recent technological advances, MAGE has been improved by strain modifications and selection techniques that enhance allelic replacement. This protocol describes the manual execution of MAGE wherein each cycle takes ? 2.5 h, which, if carried out by two people, allows ? 10 continuous cycles of MAGE-based mutagenesis per day. PMID:25188632

Gallagher, Ryan R; Li, Zhe; Lewis, Aaron O; Isaacs, Farren J



Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus. PMID:20416060



Identifying microbial fitness determinants by Insertion Sequencing (INSeq) using genome-wide transposon mutant libraries  

PubMed Central

Insertion Sequencing (INSeq) is a method for determining the insertion site and relative abundance of large numbers of transposon mutants in a mixed population of isogenic mutants of a sequenced microbial species. INSeq is based on a modified mariner transposon containing MmeI sites at its ends, allowing cleavage at chromosomal sites 16–17bp from the inserted transposon. Genomic regions adjacent to the transposons are amplified by linear PCR with a biotinylated primer. Products are bound to magnetic beads, digested with MmeI, and barcoded with sample-specific linkers appended to each restriction fragment. After limited PCR amplification, fragments are sequenced using a high-throughput instrument. The sequence of each read can be used to map the location of a transposon in the genome. Read count measures the relative abundance of that mutant in the population. Solid-phase library preparation makes this protocol rapid (18h), easy to scale-up, amenable to automation, and useful for a variety of samples. A protocol for characterizing libraries of transposon mutant strains clonally arrayed in multi-well format is provided. PMID:22094732

Goodman, Andrew L.; Wu, Meng; Gordon, Jeffrey I.



Pig genome sequence - analysis and publication strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The pig genome is being sequenced and characterised under the auspices of the Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium. The sequencing strategy followed a hybrid approach combining hierarchical shotgun sequencing of BAC clones and whole genome shotgun sequencing. RESULTS: Assemblies of the BAC clone derived genome sequence have been annotated using the Pre-Ensembl and Ensembl automated pipelines and made accessible through

Alan L Archibald; Lars Bolund; Carol Churcher; Merete Fredholm; Martien AM Groenen; Barbara Harlizius; Kyung-Tai Lee; Denis Milan; Jane Rogers; Max F Rothschild; Hirohide Uenishi; Jun Wang; Lawrence B Schook



A low-copy-number plasmid for retrieval of toxic genes from BACs and generation of conditional targeting constructs.  


Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones are widely used for retrieving genomic DNA sequences for gene targeting. In this study, low-copy-number plasmids pBAC-FB, pBAC-FC, and pBAC-DE, which carry the F plasmid replicon, were generated from pBACe3.6. pBAC-FB was successfully used to retrieve a sequence of a BAC that was resistant to retrieval by a high-copy-number plasmid via ? Red-mediated recombineering (gap-repair cloning). This plasmid was also used to retrieve two other genes from BAC, indicating its general usability retrieving genes from BAC. The retrieved genes were manipulated in generating targeting vectors for gene knockouts by recombineering. The functionality of the targeting vector was further validated in a targeting experiment with C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. The low-copy-number plasmid pBAC-FB is a plasmid of choice to retrieve toxic DNA sequences from BACs and to manipulate them to generate gene-targeting constructs by recombineering. PMID:22945876

Na, Giyoun; Wolfe, Andrew; Ko, Chemyong; Youn, Hyesook; Lee, Young-Min; Byun, Sung June; Jeon, Iksoo; Koo, Yongbum



High-Throughput Screening of a Corynebacterium glutamicum Mutant Library on Genomic and Metabolic Level  

PubMed Central

Due to impressive achievements in genomic research, the number of genome sequences has risen quickly, followed by an increasing number of genes with unknown or hypothetical function. This strongly calls for development of high-throughput methods in the fields of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Of these platforms, metabolic profiling has the strongest correlation with the phenotype. We previously published a high-throughput metabolic profiling method for C. glutamicum as well as the automatic GC/MS processing software MetaboliteDetector. Here, we added a high-throughput transposon insertion determination for our C. glutamicum mutant library. The combination of these methods allows the parallel analysis of genotype/phenotype correlations for a large number of mutants. In a pilot project we analyzed the insertion points of 722 transposon mutants and found that 36% of the affected genes have unknown functions. This underlines the need for further information gathered by high-throughput techniques. We therefore measured the metabolic profiles of 258 randomly chosen mutants. The MetaboliteDetector software processed this large amount of GC/MS data within a few hours with a low relative error of 11.5% for technical replicates. Pairwise correlation analysis of metabolites over all genotypes showed dependencies of known and unknown metabolites. For a first insight into this large data set, a screening for interesting mutants was done by a pattern search, focusing on mutants with changes in specific pathways. We show that our transposon mutant library is not biased with respect to insertion points. A comparison of the results for specific mutants with previously published metabolic results on a deletion mutant of the same gene confirmed the concept of high-throughput metabolic profiling. Altogether the described method could be applied to whole mutant libraries and thereby help to gain comprehensive information about genes with unknown, hypothetical and known functions. PMID:24504095

Reimer, Lorenz C.; Spura, Jana; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Schomburg, Dietmar



Advances in plant chromosome genomics.  


Next generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing genomics and is providing novel insights into genome organization, evolution and function. The number of plant genomes targeted for sequencing is rising. For the moment, however, the acquisition of full genome sequences in large genome species remains difficult, largely because the short reads produced by NGS platforms are inadequate to cope with repeat-rich DNA, which forms a large part of these genomes. The problem of sequence redundancy is compounded in polyploids, which dominate the plant kingdom. An approach to overcoming some of these difficulties is to reduce the full nuclear genome to its individual chromosomes using flow-sorting. The DNA acquired in this way has proven to be suitable for many applications, including PCR-based physical mapping, in situ hybridization, forming DNA arrays, the development of DNA markers, the construction of BAC libraries and positional cloning. Coupling chromosome sorting with NGS offers opportunities for the study of genome organization at the single chromosomal level, for comparative analyses between related species and for the validation of whole genome assemblies. Apart from the primary aim of reducing the complexity of the template, taking a chromosome-based approach enables independent teams to work in parallel, each tasked with the analysis of a different chromosome(s). Given that the number of plant species tractable for chromosome sorting is increasing, the likelihood is that chromosome genomics - the marriage of cytology and genomics - will make a significant contribution to the field of plant genetics. PMID:24406816

Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Kubaláková, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Simková, Hana



Array-based comparative genomic hybridization of mapped BAC DNA clones to screen for chromosome 14 copy number abnormalities in meningiomas.  


Chromosome 14 loss in meningiomas are associated with more aggressive tumour behaviour. To date, no studies have been reported in which the entire chromosome 14q of meningioma tumour cells has been studied by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH). Here, we used a high-resolution a-CGH to define the exact localization and extent of numerical changes of chromosome 14 in meningioma patients. An array containing 807 bacterial artificial chromosome clones specific for chromosome 14q (average resolution of approximately 130 Kb) was constructed and applied to the study of 25 meningiomas in parallel to the confirmatory interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) analyses. Overall, abnormalities of chromosome 14q were detected in 10/25 cases (40%). Interestingly, in seven of these cases, loss of chromosome 14q32.3 was detected by iFISH and confirmed to correspond to monosomy 14 by a-CGH. In contrast, discrepant results were found between iFISH and a-CGH in the other three altered cases. In one patient, a diploid background was observed by iFISH, while monosomy 14 was identified by a-CGH. In the remaining two cases, which showed gains of the IGH gene by iFISH, a-CGH did not detected copy number changes in one case showing a tetraploid karyotype, while in the other tumour, varying genetic imbalances along the long arm of chromosome 14 were detected. In summary, here, we report for the first time, the high-resolution a-CGH profiles of chromosome 14q in meningiomas, confirming that monosomy 14 is the most frequent alteration associated with this chromosome; other numerical abnormalities being only sporadically detected. PMID:18628790

Espinosa, Ana Belén; Mackintosh, Carlos; Maíllo, Angel; Gutierrez, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Merino, Marta; Ortiz, Javier; de Alava, Enrique; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores



Ligation Bias in Illumina Next-Generation DNA Libraries: Implications for Sequencing Ancient Genomes  

PubMed Central

Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of endogenous molecules and contaminant DNA templates, often originating from environmental microbes. These two populations of templates exhibit different chemical characteristics, with the former showing depurination and cytosine deamination by-products, resulting from post-mortem DNA damage. Such chemical modifications can interfere with the molecular tools used for building second-generation DNA libraries, and limit our ability to fully characterize the true complexity of ancient DNA extracts. In this study, we first use fresh DNA extracts to demonstrate that library preparation based on adapter ligation at AT-overhangs are biased against DNA templates starting with thymine residues, contrarily to blunt-end adapter ligation. We observe the same bias on fresh DNA extracts sheared on Bioruptor, Covaris and nebulizers. This contradicts previous reports suggesting that this bias could originate from the methods used for shearing DNA. This also suggests that AT-overhang adapter ligation efficiency is affected in a sequence-dependent manner and results in an uneven representation of different genomic contexts. We then show how this bias could affect the base composition of ancient DNA libraries prepared following AT-overhang ligation, mainly by limiting the ability to ligate DNA templates starting with thymines and therefore deaminated cytosines. This results in particular nucleotide misincorporation damage patterns, deviating from the signature generally expected for authenticating ancient sequence data. Consequently, we show that models adequate for estimating post-mortem DNA damage levels must be robust to the molecular tools used for building ancient DNA libraries. PMID:24205269

Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel; Clary, Joel; Stagegaard, Julia; Alberdi, Maria T.; Prado, José Luis; Prieto, Alfredo; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic



Functional Screening of Metagenome and Genome Libraries for Detection of Novel Flavonoid-Modifying Enzymes  

PubMed Central

The functional detection of novel enzymes other than hydrolases from metagenomes is limited since only a very few reliable screening procedures are available that allow the rapid screening of large clone libraries. For the discovery of flavonoid-modifying enzymes in genome and metagenome clone libraries, we have developed a new screening system based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). This metagenome extract thin-layer chromatography analysis (META) allows the rapid detection of glycosyltransferase (GT) and also other flavonoid-modifying activities. The developed screening method is highly sensitive, and an amount of 4 ng of modified flavonoid molecules can be detected. This novel technology was validated against a control library of 1,920 fosmid clones generated from a single Bacillus cereus isolate and then used to analyze more than 38,000 clones derived from two different metagenomic preparations. Thereby we identified two novel UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes. The metagenome-derived gtfC gene encoded a 52-kDa protein, and the deduced amino acid sequence was weakly similar to sequences of putative UGTs from Fibrisoma and Dyadobacter. GtfC mediated the transfer of different hexose moieties and exhibited high activities on flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and stilbenes and also accepted isoflavones and chalcones. From the control library we identified a novel macroside glycosyltransferase (MGT) with a calculated molecular mass of 46 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly similar to sequences of MGTs from Bacillus thuringiensis. Recombinant MgtB transferred the sugar residue from UDP-glucose effectively to flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and flavanones. Moreover, MgtB exhibited high activity on larger flavonoid molecules such as tiliroside. PMID:23686272

Rabausch, U.; Juergensen, J.; Ilmberger, N.; Böhnke, S.; Fischer, S.; Schubach, B.; Schulte, M.



Ligation bias in illumina next-generation DNA libraries: implications for sequencing ancient genomes.  


Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of endogenous molecules and contaminant DNA templates, often originating from environmental microbes. These two populations of templates exhibit different chemical characteristics, with the former showing depurination and cytosine deamination by-products, resulting from post-mortem DNA damage. Such chemical modifications can interfere with the molecular tools used for building second-generation DNA libraries, and limit our ability to fully characterize the true complexity of ancient DNA extracts. In this study, we first use fresh DNA extracts to demonstrate that library preparation based on adapter ligation at AT-overhangs are biased against DNA templates starting with thymine residues, contrarily to blunt-end adapter ligation. We observe the same bias on fresh DNA extracts sheared on Bioruptor, Covaris and nebulizers. This contradicts previous reports suggesting that this bias could originate from the methods used for shearing DNA. This also suggests that AT-overhang adapter ligation efficiency is affected in a sequence-dependent manner and results in an uneven representation of different genomic contexts. We then show how this bias could affect the base composition of ancient DNA libraries prepared following AT-overhang ligation, mainly by limiting the ability to ligate DNA templates starting with thymines and therefore deaminated cytosines. This results in particular nucleotide misincorporation damage patterns, deviating from the signature generally expected for authenticating ancient sequence data. Consequently, we show that models adequate for estimating post-mortem DNA damage levels must be robust to the molecular tools used for building ancient DNA libraries. PMID:24205269

Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel; Clary, Joel; Stagegaard, Julia; Alberdi, Maria T; Prado, José Luis; Prieto, Alfredo; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic



Pre-Nursing Post-Bac Info  

E-print Network

Pre-Nursing Post-Bac Info Session Rachel Small Co-Director, SFSU Pre- Nursing Post-Bac Program January 31, 2013 #12;SFSU Pre-Nursing Post-Bac Program ! Highly structured program intended for students with a bachelor's degree ! Provides prerequisite and elective coursework for pre-nursing students ! Strong


Generation of knockout alleles by RFLP based BAC targeting of polymorphic embryonic stem cells.  


The isolation of germ line competent mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells and the ability to modify the genome by homologous recombination has revolutionized life science research. Since its initial discovery, several approaches have been introduced to increase the efficiency of homologous recombination, including the use of isogenic DNA for the generation of targeting constructs, and the use of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). BACs have the advantage of combining long stretches of homologous DNA, thereby increasing targeting efficiencies, with the possibilities delivered by BAC recombineering approaches, which provide the researcher with almost unlimited possibilities to efficiently edit the genome in a controlled fashion. Despite these advantages of BAC targeting approaches, a widespread use has been hampered, mainly because of the difficulties in identifying BAC-targeted knockout alleles by conventional methods like Southern Blotting. Recently, we introduced a novel BAC targeting strategy, in which Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) are targeted in polymorphic mouse ES cells, enabling an efficient and easy PCR-based readout to identify properly targeted alleles. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the generation of targeting constructs, targeting of ES cells, and convenient PCR-based analysis of targeted clones, which enable the user to generate knockout ES cells of almost every gene in the mouse genome within a 2-month period. PMID:25239745

Barakat, Tahsin Stefan; Gribnau, Joost



Integrating cytogenetics and genomics in comparative evolutionary studies of cichlid fish  

PubMed Central

Background The availability of a large number of recently sequenced vertebrate genomes opens new avenues to integrate cytogenetics and genomics in comparative and evolutionary studies. Cytogenetic mapping can offer alternative means to identify conserved synteny shared by distinct genomes and also to define genome regions that are still not fine characterized even after wide-ranging nucleotide sequence efforts. An efficient way to perform comparative cytogenetic mapping is based on BAC clones mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In this report, to address the knowledge gap on the genome evolution in cichlid fishes, BAC clones of an Oreochromis niloticus library covering the linkage groups (LG) 1, 3, 5, and 7 were mapped onto the chromosomes of 9 African cichlid species. The cytogenetic mapping data were also integrated with BAC-end sequences information of O. niloticus and comparatively analyzed against the genome of other fish species and vertebrates. Results The location of BACs from LG1, 3, 5, and 7 revealed a strong chromosomal conservation among the analyzed cichlid species genomes, which evidenced a synteny of the markers of each LG. Comparative in silico analysis also identified large genomic blocks that were conserved in distantly related fish groups and also in other vertebrates. Conclusions Although it has been suggested that fishes contain plastic genomes with high rates of chromosomal rearrangements and probably low rates of synteny conservation, our results evidence that large syntenic chromosome segments have been maintained conserved during evolution, at least for the considered markers. Additionally, our current cytogenetic mapping efforts integrated with genomic approaches conduct to a new perspective to address important questions involving chromosome evolution in fishes. PMID:22958299




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study of aphid-plant interactions can be greatly enhanced by the development of genomic tools for both an insect and its host plant. In this study, two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed for greenbug using a PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. The two greenbu...


SiRNA sequence model: redesign algorithm based on available genome-wide libraries.  


The evolution of RNA interference (RNAi) and the development of technologies exploiting its biology have enabled scientists to rapidly examine the consequences of depleting a particular gene product in cells. Design tools have been developed based on experimental data to increase the knockdown efficiency of siRNAs. Not all siRNAs that are developed to a given target mRNA are equally effective. Currently available design algorithms take an accession, identify conserved regions among their transcript space, find accessible regions within the mRNA, design all possible siRNAs for these regions, filter them based on multi-scores thresholds, and then perform off-target filtration. These different criteria are used by commercial suppliers to produce siRNA genome-wide libraries for different organisms. In this article, we analyze existing siRNA design algorithms and evaluate weight of design parameters for libraries produced in the last decade. We proved that not all essential parameters are currently applied by siRNA vendors. Based on our evaluation results, we were able to suggest an siRNA sequence pattern. The findings in our study can be useful for commercial vendors improving the design of RNAi constructs, by addressing both the issue of potency and the issue of specificity. PMID:23252789

Kozak, Karol



Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci identified from a small insert genomic library for Peronospora tabacina.  


Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci for the obligate biotrophic, oomycete pathogen of tobacco, Peronospora tabacina, were identified from a small insert genomic library enriched for GT motifs. Eighty-five percent of the 162 loci identified were composed of dinucleotide repeats, whereas only 4% and 11% were tri-and tetra-nucleotide repeats respectively. About 82% of all the microsatellites were perfect and within the library; only about 7% of the loci were duplicated. Primers were designed for 63 loci; 10 loci were polymorphic, 19 were monomorphic and 34 either failed to amplify or produced ambiguous/inconsistent results. The 10 polymorphic loci were characterized with 44 isolates of P. tabacina collected from tobacco plants growing in Europe, the Near East and North and South America. The number of alleles per locus was either three or four with a mean of 3.2, and the mean number of genotypes per locus was 3.6. Observed heterozygosity was 0.32-0.95, whereas expected heterozygosity was 0.44-0.69 for these loci. All loci except PT054 did not conform to the Hardy-Weinberg distribution. Polymorphic information content (PIC) for the loci was 0.35-0.69 with a mean of 0.50. These microsatellite loci provide a set of markers sufficient to perform genetic diversity and population studies of P. tabacina, and possibly other species of Peronospora. PMID:22241615

Trigiano, Robert N; Wadl, Phillip A; Dean, Deborah; Hadziabdic, Denita; Scheffler, Brian E; Runge, Fabian; Telle, Sabine; Thines, Marco; Ristaino, Jean; Spring, Otmar



An arrayed human genomic library constructed in the PAC shuttle vector pJCPAC-Mam2 for genome-wide association studies and gene therapy  

PubMed Central

The various iterations of the HapMap Project and many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of potential genes involved in monogenic and multifactorial traits. We constructed an arrayed 115,000-member human genomic library in the PAC shuttle vector pJCPAC-Mam2 that can be propagated in both bacterial and human cells. The library appears to represent a two-fold coverage of the human genome. Transient transfection of a p53-containing PAC clone into p53-null Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells demonstrated that both p53 mRNA and protein were produced. Additionally, expression of the p53 protein triggered apoptosis in a subset of the Saos-2 cells. This library should serve as a valuable resource to validate potential disease genes identified by GWAS in human cell lines and in animal models. Also, individual library members could potentially be used for gene therapy trials for a variety of recessive disorders. PMID:22285925

Fuesler, John; Nagahama, Yasunori; Szulewski, Joseph; Mundorff, Joshua; Bireley, Stephanie; Coren, Jonathon S.



An arrayed human genomic library constructed in the PAC shuttle vector pJCPAC-Mam2 for genome-wide association studies and gene therapy.  


The various iterations of the HapMap Project and many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of potential genes involved in monogenic and multifactorial traits. We constructed an arrayed 115,000-member human genomic library in the PAC shuttle vector pJCPAC-Mam2 that can be propagated in both bacterial and human cells. The library appears to represent a two-fold coverage of the human genome. Transient transfection of a p53-containing PAC clone into p53-null Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells demonstrated that both p53 mRNA and protein were produced. Additionally, expression of the p53 protein triggered apoptosis in a subset of the Saos-2 cells. This library should serve as a valuable resource to validate potential disease genes identified by GWAS in human cell lines and in animal models. Also, individual library members could potentially be used for gene therapy trials for a variety of recessive disorders. PMID:22285925

Fuesler, John; Nagahama, Yasunori; Szulewski, Joseph; Mundorff, Joshua; Bireley, Stephanie; Coren, Jonathon S



Isolation of rare recombinants without using selectable markers for one-step seamless BAC mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Current laboratory methods to isolate rare (1:10,000 to 1:100,000) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombinants require selectable markers. Seamless BAC mutagenesis needs two steps: isolation of rare recombinants using selectable markers, followed by marker removal through counterselection. Here we illustrate founder principle-driven enrichment (FPE), a simple method developed to rapidly isolate rare recombinants without using selectable markers, allowing one-step seamless BAC mutagenesis. As proof-of-principle, we isolated 1:100,000 seamless fluorescent protein-modified Nodal BACs via FPE and confirmed BAC functionality by generating fluorescent reporter mice. We also isolated small indel P1-phage derived artificial chromosome (PAC) and BAC recombinants. Statistical analysis revealed that 1:100,000 recombinants can be isolated running <40 PCRs and we developed a web-based calculator to optimize FPE. By eliminating the need for selection-counterselection, this work highlights a straightforward and low-cost approach to BAC mutagenesis, providing a tool for seamless recombineering pipelines in functional genomics. PMID:25028895

Lyozin, George T.; Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Demarest, Bradley L.; Yost, H. Joseph; Kuehn, Michael R.; Brunelli, Luca



Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants  

PubMed Central

Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi



An Efficient Method for High-Fidelity BAC/PAC Retrofitting with a Selectable Marker for Mammalian Cell Transfection  

PubMed Central

Large-scale genomic sequencing projects have provided DNA sequence information for many genes, but the biological functions for most of them will only be known through functional studies. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) are large genomic clones stably maintained in bacteria and are very important in functional studies through transfection because of their large size and stability. Because most BAC or PAC vectors do not have a mammalian selection marker, transfecting mammalian cells with genes cloned in BACs or PACs requires the insertion into the BAC/PAC of a mammalian selectable marker. However, currently available procedures are not satisfactory in efficiency and fidelity. We describe a very simple and efficient procedure that allows one to retrofit dozens of BACs in a day with no detectable deletions or unwanted recombination. We use a BAC/PAC retrofitting vector that, on transformation into competent BAC or PAC strains, will catalyze the specific insertion of itself into BAC/PAC vectors through in vivo cre/loxP site-specific recombination. PMID:11156622

Wang, Zunde; Engler, Peter; Longacre, Angelika; Storb, Ursula



Barcoding-free BAC Pooling Enables Combinatorial Selective Sequencing of the Barley Gene Space  

E-print Network

We propose a new sequencing protocol that combines recent advances in combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach de novo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when dealing with hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as genome-tiling gene-rich BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundreds of million of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is extremely accurate (99.57% of the deconvoluted reads are assigned to the correct BAC), and the resulting BAC assemblies have very high quality (BACs are covered by contigs over about 77% of their length, on average). Experimental results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confir...

Lonardi, Stefano; Alpert, Matthew; Cordero, Francesca; Beccuti, Marco; Bhat, Prasanna R; Wu, Yonghui; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Alsaihati, Burair; Ma, Yaqin; Wanamaker, Steve; Resnik, Josh; Close, Timothy J



Genetic transformation mediated by piggyBac in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  


The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is a serious pest of corn, sorghum, and cotton in China and other Asian countries. The present study is the first attempt to establish the transgenic line in O. furnacalis using a piggyBac transposon, which will shed light on the future genetic control of O. furnacalis. A piggyBac vector pBac[A3EGFP] was constructed to express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)under the control of Bombyx mori actin3 promoter. Transient EGFP expression was detected 48 h after preblastodermic microinjection of pBac[A3EGFP] and the excision assay showed the transgenic vector was precisely excised. In G1 animals, PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-based investigations revealed that the exogenous gene had been introduced into O. furnacalis genome and expressed at the transcriptional level. Western blot analysis showed EGFP expression at the protein level, indicating the heritability of the transgene. PMID:22696097

Liu, Dan; Yan, Shanchun; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang; Stanley, David W; Song, Qisheng



Cytogenetic Analysis of Populus trichocarpa - Ribosomal DNA, Telomere Repeat Sequence, and Marker-selected BACs  

SciTech Connect

The 18S-28S rDNA and 5S rDNA loci in Populus trichocarpa were localized using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Two 18S-28S rDNA sites and one 5S rDNA site were identified and located at the ends of 3 different chromosomes. FISH signals from the Arabidopsis -type telomere repeat sequence were observed at the distal ends of each chromosome. Six BAC clones selected from 2 linkage groups based on genome sequence assembly (LG-I and LG-VI) were localized on 2 chromosomes, as expected. BACs from LG-I hybridized to the longest chromosome in the complement. All BAC positions were found to be concordant with sequence assembly positions. BAC-FISH will be useful for delineating each of the Populus trichocarpa chromosomes and improving the sequence assembly of this model angiosperm tree species.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University



Conversion of BAC clones into binary BAC (BIBAC) vectors and their delivery into basidiomycete fungal cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  


The genetic transformation of certain organisms, required for gene function analysis or complementation, is often not very efficient, especially when dealing with large gene constructs or genomic fragments. We have adapted the natural DNA transfer mechanism from the soil pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, to deliver intact large DNA constructs to basidiomycete fungi of the genus Ustilago where they stably integrated into their genome. To this end, Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones containing large fungal genomic DNA fragments were converted via a Lambda phage-based recombineering step to Agrobacterium transfer-competent binary vectors (BIBACs) with a Ustilago-specific selection marker. The fungal genomic DNA fragment was subsequently successfully delivered as T-DNA through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into Ustilago species where an intact copy stably integrated into the genome. By modifying the recombineering vector, this method can theoretically be adapted for many different fungi. PMID:25239747

Ali, Shawkat; Bakkeren, Guus



Construction of Signature-tagged Mutant Library in Mesorhizobium loti as a Powerful Tool for Functional Genomics  

PubMed Central

Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that establish endosymbiosis with some leguminous plants. The completion of several rhizobial genome sequences provides opportunities for genome-wide functional studies of the physiological roles of many rhizobial genes. In order to carry out genome-wide phenotypic screenings, we have constructed a large mutant library of the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium, Mesorhizobium loti, by transposon mutagenesis. Transposon insertion mutants were generated using the signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) technique and a total of 29 330 independent mutants were obtained. Along with the collection of transposon mutants, we have determined the transposon insertion sites for 7892 clones, and confirmed insertions in 3680 non-redundant M. loti genes (50.5% of the total number of M. loti genes). Transposon insertions were randomly distributed throughout the M. loti genome without any bias toward G+C contents of insertion target sites and transposon plasmids used for the mutagenesis. We also show the utility of STM mutants by examining the specificity of signature tags and test screenings for growth- and nodulation-deficient mutants. This defined mutant library allows for genome-wide forward- and reverse-genetic functional studies of M. loti and will serve as an invaluable resource for researchers to further our understanding of rhizobial biology. PMID:18658183

Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Kamimatsuse, Hiroko; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Nishiyama, Eri; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka; Shinpo, Sayaka; Watanabe, Akiko; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Yamada, Manabu; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Sato, Shusei



Towards a Library of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for (meta)genomic annotation  

SciTech Connect

Genome annotations describe the features of genomes and accompany sequences in genome databases. The methodologies used to generate genome annotation are diverse and typically vary amongst groups. Descriptions of the annotation procedure are helpful in interpreting genome annotation data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for genome annotation describe the processes that generate genome annotations. Some groups are currently documenting procedures but standards are lacking for structure and content of annotation SOPs. In addition, there is no central repository to store and disseminate procedures and protocols for genome annotation. We highlight the importance of SOPs for genome annotation and endorse a central online repository of SOPs.

Kyrpides, Nikos; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Cochrane, Guy; Field, Dawn; Garrity, George; Gussman, Aaron; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Klimke, William; Kyrpides, Nikos; Madupu, Ramana; Markowitz, Victor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thomson, Nick; White, Owen



Construction of a genomic DNA library with a TA vector and its application in cloning of the phytoene synthase gene from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis M-135  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient and simple method for constructing a genomic DNA library using a TA cloning vector is presented. It is based on the sonicative cleavage of genomic DNA and modification of fragment ends with Taq DNA polymerase, followed by ligation using a TA vector. This method was applied for cloning of the phytoene synthase gene crt B from Spirulina platensis. This method is useful when genomic DNA cannot be efficiently digested with restriction enzymes, a problem often encountered during the construction of a genomic DNA library of cyanobacteria.

Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Hiroyuki, Kojima



How Accurate are the Extremely Small P-values Used in Genomic Research: An Evaluation of Numerical Libraries  

PubMed Central

In the fields of genomics and high dimensional biology (HDB), massive multiple testing prompts the use of extremely small significance levels. Because tail areas of statistical distributions are needed for hypothesis testing, the accuracy of these areas is important to confidently make scientific judgments. Previous work on accuracy was primarily focused on evaluating professionally written statistical software, like SAS, on the Statistical Reference Datasets (StRD) provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and on the accuracy of tail areas in statistical distributions. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance to investigators, who are developing their own custom scientific software built upon numerical libraries written by others. In specific, we evaluate the accuracy of small tail areas from cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the Chi-square and t-distribution by comparing several open-source, free, or commercially licensed numerical libraries in Java, C, and R to widely accepted standards of comparison like ELV and DCDFLIB. In our evaluation, the C libraries and R functions are consistently accurate up to six significant digits. Amongst the evaluated Java libraries, Colt is most accurate. These languages and libraries are popular choices among programmers developing scientific software, so the results herein can be useful to programmers in choosing libraries for CDF accuracy. PMID:20161126

Bangalore, Sai Santosh; Wang, Jelai; Allison, David B.



Comparative physical maps derived from BAC end sequences of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

PubMed Central

Background The Nile tilapia is the second most important fish in aquaculture. It is an excellent laboratory model, and is closely related to the African lake cichlids famous for their rapid rates of speciation. A suite of genomic resources has been developed for this species, including genetic maps and ESTs. Here we analyze BAC end-sequences to develop comparative physical maps, and estimate the number of genome rearrangements, between tilapia and other model fish species. Results We obtained sequence from one or both ends of 106,259 tilapia BACs. BLAST analysis against the genome assemblies of stickleback, medaka and pufferfish allowed identification of homologies for approximately 25,000 BACs for each species. We calculate that rearrangement breakpoints between tilapia and these species occur about every 3 Mb across the genome. Analysis of 35,000 clones previously assembled into contigs by restriction fingerprints allowed identification of longer-range syntenies. Conclusions Our data suggest that chromosomal evolution in recent teleosts is dominated by alternate loss of gene duplicates, and by intra-chromosomal rearrangements (~one per million years). These physical maps are a useful resource for comparative positional cloning of traits in cichlid fishes. The paired BAC end sequences from these clones will be an important resource for scaffolding forthcoming shotgun sequence assemblies of the tilapia genome. PMID:21080946



Alu repeats: Tools for mapping the human genome  

SciTech Connect

There are over 500,000 Alu repeats dispersed throughout the human genome in a semi-random manner. Alu elements serve as priming sites for the amplification of unique DNA sequences located between Alu repeats that reside in the relatively close proximity in a process termed inter-Alu PCR. Physical mapping of the human genome involves a variety of complex hybridization based procedures. Some of these procedures rely upon the ability to separate human clones derived from human/rodent hybrid cell lines from those that contain background rodent derived DNA sequences. The ability to block the repetitive element (Alu repeat) portion of inter-Alu PCR products derived from a variety of complex sources is also crucial for the isolation of unique DNA sequences. We have constructed a new consensus Alu repeat probe (pPD39) designed for these purposes. We have also employed inter-Alu repeat PCR for the rapid detection of overlap between a number of chromosome 19-specific large insert bacterial and P1-derived artificial chromosomes (BACs and PACs) isolated from the total genomic libraries as well as the generation of human-specific probes to identify overlapping cosmid clones. Using this approach we have generated a high resolution BAC, PAC, and cosmid contig spanning over 440 kb of chromosome 19q13.2 containing the human DNA repair gene XRCC1. The overlap between the BAC, PAC and cosmid clones from the contig has been confirmed using automated EcoRI restriction site mapping.

Batzer, M.A.; Hartman, A.; Ashworth, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others



Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...


Sequenced BAC anchored reference genetic map that reconciles the ten individual chromosomes of Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In view of the immense value of Brassica rapa in the fields of agriculture and molecular biology, the multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) was launched in 2003 by five countries. The developing BrGSP has valuable resources for the community, including a reference genetic map and seed BAC sequences. Although the initial B. rapa linkage map served as

HyeRan Kim; Su Ryun Choi; Jina Bae; Chang Pyo Hong; Seo Yeon Lee; Dan Van Nguyen; Mina Jin; Beom-Seok Park; Jea-Wook Bang; Ian Bancroft; Yong Pyo Lim



Sequence for BAC OSJNBA0082N40 from Rice Variety Nipponbare to Genbank  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The complete DNA sequence of BAC OSJNBa0082N20 from chromosome 11 of rice variety Nipponbare was deposited in Genbank as part of the International Rice Sequencing Project. The DNA sequence of a syntenic (corresponding) region of the rice genome associated with disease resistance to rice blast has be...


Sequence for BAC OSJNBa0044D15 from Rice Variety Nipponbare GenBank  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The complete DNA sequence of BAC OSJNa0044D15 from chromosome 11 of rice variety Nipponbare was deposited in Genbank as part of the International Rice Sequencing Project. The DNA sequence with syntenic (corresponding) region of the rice genome associated with disease resistance to rice blast has be...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are developing a pachytene cytogenetic FISH map of the maize genome using sorghum BACs corresponding to the 90 maize Core Bin Marker (CBM) loci. These loci were chosen because they are uniformly distributed and they delineate the genetic bins derived from the UMC98 (Genetic 2005) maize linkage ma...


Clone libraries and single cell genome amplification reveal extended diversity of uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria from marine and freshwater environments.  


Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which orient along the earth's magnetic field using magnetosomes, are ubiquitous and abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Previous phylogenetic analysis of diverse MTB has been limited to few cultured species and the most abundant and conspicuous members of natural populations, which were assigned to various lineages of the Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum as well as the candidate division OP3. However, their known phylogenetic diversity still not matches the large morphological and ultrastructural variability of uncultured MTB found in environmental communities. Here, we used analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries in combination with microsorting and whole-genome amplification to systematically address the entire diversity of uncultured MTB from two different habitats. This approach revealed extensive and novel diversity of MTB within the freshwater and marine sediment samples. In total, single-cell analysis identified eight different phylotypes, which were only partly represented in the clone libraries, and which could be unambiguously assigned to their respective morphotypes. Identified MTB belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria (seven species) and the Nitrospirae phylum (two species). End-sequencing of a small insert library created from WGA-derived DNA of a novel conspicuous magnetotactic vibrio identified genes with highest similarity to two cultivated MTB as well as to other phylogenetic groups. In conclusion, the combination of metagenomic cloning and single cell sorting represents a powerful approach to recover maximum bacterial diversity including low-abundant magnetotactic phylotypes from environmental samples and also provides access to genomic analysis of uncultivated MTB. PMID:23106823

Kolinko, Sebastian; Wanner, Gerhard; Katzmann, Emanuel; Kiemer, Felizitas; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Schüler, Dirk



Use of in vitro OmniPlex libraries for high-throughput comparative genomics and molecular haplotyping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OmniPlex Technology is a new approach to genome amplification and targeted analysis. Initially the entire genome is reformatted into small, amplifiable molecules called Plexisomes, which represent the entire genome as an OmniPlex Library. The whole genome can be amplified en masse using universal primers; using locus-specific primers, regions as large as 50 kb can be amplified. Amplified Plexisomes can be analyzed using conventional methods such as capillary sequencing and microarray hybridization. The advantages to using OmniPlex as the 'front-end' for conventional analytical instruments are that a) the initial copy number of the analytes can be increased to achieve better signal-to-noire ratio, b) only a single priming site is used and c) up to 20 times fewer biochemical reactions and oligonucleotides are necessary to amplify a large region, compared to conventional PCR. These factors make OmniPlex more flexible, faster, and less expensive than conventional technologies. OmniPlex has been applied to targeted sequencing of human, animal, plant, and microorganism genomes. In addition, OmniPlex is inherently able to haplotype large regions of human DNA to accelerate target discovery and pharmacogenomics. OmniPlex will be a key tool for delivery of improved crops and livestock, new pharmaceutical products, and personalized medicine.

Kamberov, Emmanuel; Sleptsova, Irina; Suchyta, Stephen; Bruening, Eric D.; Ziehler, William; Seward Nagel, Julie; Langmore, John P.; Makarov, Vladimir



Identification of novel genes involved in DNA damage response by screening a genome-wide Schizosaccharomyces pombe deletion library  

PubMed Central

Background DNA damage response (DDR) plays pivotal roles in maintaining genome integrity and stability. An effective DDR requires the involvement of hundreds of genes that compose a complicated network. Because DDR is highly conserved in evolution, studies in lower eukaryotes can provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism in higher organisms. Fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) has emerged as an excellent model for DDR research in recent years. To identify novel genes involved in DDR, we screened a genome-wide S. pombe haploid deletion library against six different DNA damage reagents. The library covered 90.5% of the nonessential genes of S. pombe. Results We have identified 52 genes that were actively involved in DDR. Among the 52 genes, 20 genes were linked to DDR for the first time. Flow cytometry analysis of the repair defective mutants revealed that most of them exhibited a defect in cell cycle progression, and some caused genome instability. Microarray analysis and genetic complementation assays were carried out to characterize 6 of the novel DDR genes in more detail. Data suggested that SPBC2A9.02 and SPAC27D7.08c were required for efficient DNA replication initiation because they interacted genetically with DNA replication initiation proteins Abp1 and Abp2. In addition, deletion of sgf73+, meu29+, sec65+ or pab1+ caused improper cytokinesis and DNA re-replication, which contributed to the diploidization in the mutants. Conclusions A genome-wide screen of genes involved in DDR emphasized the key role of cell cycle control in the DDR network. Characterization of novel genes identified in the screen helps to elucidate the mechanism of the DDR network and provides valuable clues for understanding genome stability in higher eukaryotes. PMID:23173672



Availability of birth defects and genetic disease information in public libraries -- implications for the Human Genome Project  

SciTech Connect

In order to better educate the public about birth defects and genetic diseases/testing, access to information is critical. The public library system of the United States is extensive and serves as an invaluable resource to citizens. We surveyed reference librarians at each of 87 public libraries in Allegheny and Westmoreland Counties, Pennsylvania. The study design included a questionnaire to ascertain the genetic knowledge of reference librarians and cataloged current resources in print and via telecommunications available to the public. A high compliance rate was achieved due to the incentive of providing copies of the Alliance of Genetic Support Group Directory to those who responded to the survey along with complete sets of the forty-three March of Dimes Information Sheets currently available. Analysis of demographic data related to the age, gender, and educational background, in addition to the occurrence of personal experiences with genetic disease was ascertained. Reference librarians were chosen as the study group due to the common experience of families seeking further information from the public library after or prior to a genetic consultation. As the Human Genome Project identifies new genes for conditions, people will seek public information more frequently. The study shows that public libraries are an appropriate point of education to and for the public.

Sell, S.; Gettig, E.; Mulvihill, J.J.



piggyBac Transposon System Modification of Primary Human T Cells  

PubMed Central

The piggyBac transposon system is naturally active, originally derived from the cabbage looper moth1,2. This non-viral system is plasmid based, most commonly utilizing two plasmids with one expressing the piggyBac transposase enzyme and a transposon plasmid harboring the gene(s) of interest between inverted repeat elements which are required for gene transfer activity. PiggyBac mediates gene transfer through a "cut and paste" mechanism whereby the transposase integrates the transposon segment into the genome of the target cell(s) of interest. PiggyBac has demonstrated efficient gene delivery activity in a wide variety of insect1,2, mammalian3-5, and human cells6 including primary human T cells7,8. Recently, a hyperactive piggyBac transposase was generated improving gene transfer efficiency9,10. Human T lymphocytes are of clinical interest for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer11. Of note, the first clinical trial involving transposon modification of human T cells using the Sleeping beauty transposon system has been approved12. We have previously evaluated the utility of piggyBac as a non-viral methodology for genetic modification of human T cells. We found piggyBac to be efficient in genetic modification of human T cells with a reporter gene and a non-immunogenic inducible suicide gene7. Analysis of genomic integration sites revealed a lack of preference for integration into or near known proto-oncogenes13. We used piggyBac to gene-modify cytotoxic T lymphocytes to carry a chimeric antigen receptor directed against the tumor antigen HER2, and found that gene-modified T cells mediated targeted killing of HER2-positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model14. We have also used piggyBac to generate human T cells resistant to rapamycin, which should be useful in cancer therapies where rapamycin is utilized15. Herein, we describe a method for using piggyBac to genetically modify primary human T cells. This includes isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human blood followed by culture, gene modification, and activation of T cells. For the purpose of this report, T cells were modified with a reporter gene (eGFP) for analysis and quantification of gene expression by flow cytometry. PiggyBac can be used to modify human T cells with a variety of genes of interest. Although we have used piggyBac to direct T cells to tumor antigens14, we have also used piggyBac to add an inducible safety switch in order to eliminate gene modified cells if needed7. The large cargo capacity of piggyBac has also enabled gene transfer of a large rapamycin resistant mTOR molecule (15 kb)15. Therefore, we present a non-viral methodology for stable gene-modification of primary human T cells for a wide variety of purposes. PMID:23149543

Saha, Sunandan; Nakazawa, Yozo; Huye, Leslie E.; Doherty, Joseph E.; Galvan, Daniel L.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.



Advances in BAC-Based Physical Mapping and Map Integration Strategies in Plants  

PubMed Central

In the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, map-based sequencing strategy has been recently suppressed being too expensive and laborious. The detailed studies on NGS drafts alone indicated these assemblies remain far from gold standard reference quality, especially when applied on complex genomes. In this context the conventional BAC-based physical mapping has been identified as an important intermediate layer in current hybrid sequencing strategy. BAC-based physical map construction and its integration with high-density genetic maps have benefited from NGS and high-throughput array platforms. This paper addresses the current advancements of BAC-based physical mapping and high-throughput map integration strategies to obtain densely anchored well-ordered physical maps. The resulted maps are of immediate utility while providing a template to harness the maximum benefits of the current NGS platforms. PMID:22500080

Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils



Genomic Sequence around Butterfly Wing Development Genes: Annotation and Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of genomic sequence allows characterization of genome content and organization, and access beyond gene-coding regions for identification of functional elements. BAC libraries, where relatively large genomic regions are made readily available, are especially useful for species without a fully sequenced genome and can increase genomic coverage of phylogenetic and biological diversity. For example, no butterfly genome is yet available despite the unique genetic and biological properties of this group, such as diversified wing color patterns. The evolution and development of these patterns is being studied in a few target species, including Bicyclus anynana, where a whole-genome BAC library allows targeted access to large genomic regions. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterize ?1.3 Mb of genomic sequence around 11 selected genes expressed in B. anynana developing wings. Extensive manual curation of in silico predictions, also making use of a large dataset of expressed genes for this species, identified repetitive elements and protein coding sequence, and highlighted an expansion of Alcohol dehydrogenase genes. Comparative analysis with orthologous regions of the lepidopteran reference genome allowed assessment of conservation of fine-scale synteny (with detection of new inversions and translocations) and of DNA sequence (with detection of high levels of conservation of non-coding regions around some, but not all, developmental genes). Conclusions The general properties and organization of the available B. anynana genomic sequence are similar to the lepidopteran reference, despite the more than 140 MY divergence. Our results lay the groundwork for further studies of new interesting findings in relation to both coding and non-coding sequence: 1) the Alcohol dehydrogenase expansion with higher similarity between the five tandemly-repeated B. anynana paralogs than with the corresponding B. mori orthologs, and 2) the high conservation of non-coding sequence around the genes wingless and Ecdysone receptor, both involved in multiple developmental processes including wing pattern formation. PMID:21909358

Conceição, Inês C.; Long, Anthony D.; Gruber, Jonathan D.; Beldade, Patrícia



Insertional Mutagenesis by a Hybrid PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty Transposon in the Rat  

PubMed Central

A hybrid piggyBac/Sleeping Beauty transposon-based insertional mutagenesis system that can be mobilized by simple breeding was established in the rat. These transposons were engineered to include gene trap sequences and a tyrosinase (Tyr) pigmentation reporter to rescue the albinism of the genetic background used in the mutagenesis strategy. Single-copy transposon insertions were transposed into the rat genome by co-injection of plasmids carrying the transposon and RNA encoding piggyBac transposase into zygotes. The levels of transgenic Tyr expression were influenced by chromosomal context, leading to transgenic rats with different pigmentation that enabled visual genotyping. Transgenic rats designed to ubiquitously express either piggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposase were generated by standard zygote injection also on an albino background. Bigenic rats carrying single-copy transposons at known loci and transposase transgenes exhibited coat color mosaicism, indicating somatic transposition. PiggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposase bigenic rats bred with wild-type albino rats yielded offspring with pigmentation distinct from the initial transposon insertions as a consequence of germline transposition to new loci. The germline transposition frequency for Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac was ?10% or about one new insertion per litter. Approximately 50% of the insertions occurred in introns. Chimeric transcripts containing endogenous and gene trap sequences were identified in Gabrb1 mutant rats. This mutagenesis system based on simple crosses and visual genotyping can be used to generate a collection of single-gene mutations in the rat. PMID:23023007

Furushima, Kenryo; Jang, Chuan-Wei; Chen, Diane W.; Xiao, Ningna; Overbeek, Paul A.; Behringer, Richard R.



BAC-probes applied for characterization of fragile sites (FS).  


Genomic instability tends to occur at specific genomic regions known as common fragile sites (FS). FS are evolutionarily conserved and generally involve late replicating regions with AT-rich sequences. The possible correlation between some FS and cancer-related breakpoints emphasizes on the importance of understanding the mechanisms of chromosomal instability at these sites. Although about 230 FS have already been mapped cytogenetically, only a few of them have been characterized on a molecular level. In this chapter, we provide a protocol for mapping of common FS using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and suggest the usage of lymphocytes from Fanconi anemia patients as a model system. In the latter, rare FS are expressed much more frequently than in, for example, aphidicolin-induced blood lymphocyte preparations. Knowing the exact location of FS enables the molecular comparison of their location and breakpoints that appear during evolution, cancer development and inherited disorders. PMID:25239753

Mrasek, Kristin; Wilhelm, Kathleen; Quintana, Luciana G; Theuss, Luise; Liehr, Thomas; Leskovac, Andreja; Filipovic, Jelena; Joksic, Gordana; Joksic, Ivana; Weise, Anja



Bac to the future: The use of bac transgenic mice for neuroscience research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of methods for engineering bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), and for the efficient production of BAC transgenic mice, has allowed the design of in vivo approaches to the analysis of gene expression and function in the brain, which could not be accomplished using traditional methods. These strategies have shed light on the functions of single genes in the nervous

Nathaniel Heintz



Large Gap Size Paired-end Library Construction for Second Generation Sequencing  

SciTech Connect

Fosmid or BAC end sequencing plays an important role in de novo assembly of large genomes like fungi and plants. However construction and Sanger sequencing of fosmid or BAC libraries are laborious and costly. The current 454 Paired-End (PE) Library and Illumina Jumping Library construction protocols are limited with the gap sizes of approximately 20 kb and 8 kb, respectively. In the attempt to understand the limitations of constructing PE libraries with greater than 30Kb gaps, we have purified 18, 28, 45, and 65Kb sheared DNA fragments from yeast and circularized the ends using the Cre-loxP approach described in the 454 PE Library protocol. With the increasing fragment sizes, we found a general trend of decreasing library quality in several areas. First, redundant reads and reads containing multiple loxP linkers increase when the average fragment size increases. Second, the contamination of short distance pairs (<10Kb) increases as the fragment size increases. Third, chimeric rate increases with the increasing fragment sizes. We have modified several steps to improve the quality of the long span PE libraries. The modification includes (1) the use of special PFGE program to reduce small fragment contamination; (2) the increase of DNA samples in the circularization step and prior to the PCR to reduce redundant reads; and (3) the decrease of fragment size in the double SPRI size selection to get a higher frequency of LoxP linker containing reads. With these modifications we have generated large gap size PE libraries with a much better quality.

Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Froula, Jeff; Ewing, Aren; Foster, Brian; Cheng, Jan-Fang



Wheat Genomics: Present Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with a large genome (16000 Mb) and high proportion (?80%) of repetitive sequences, has been a difficult crop for genomics research. However, the availability of extensive cytogenetics stocks has been an asset, which facilitated significant progress in wheat genomic research in recent years. For instance, fairly dense molecular maps (both genetic and physical maps) and a large set of ESTs allowed genome-wide identification of gene-rich and gene-poor regions as well as QTL including eQTL. The availability of markers associated with major economic traits also allowed development of major programs on marker-assisted selection (MAS) in some countries, and facilitated map-based cloning of a number of genes/QTL. Resources for functional genomics including TILLING and RNA interference (RNAi) along with some new approaches like epigenetics and association mapping are also being successfully used for wheat genomics research. BAC/BIBAC libraries for the subgenome D and some individual chromosomes have also been prepared to facilitate sequencing of gene space. In this brief review, we discuss all these advances in some detail, and also describe briefly the available resources, which can be used for future genomics research in this important crop. PMID:18528518

Gupta, P. K.; Mir, R. R.; Mohan, A.; Kumar, J.



Construction and characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome library containing seven haploid human genome equivalents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to constructing a library of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing very large human DNA fragments, the authors performed a series of preliminary experiments aimed at developing a suitable protocol. They found an inverse relationship between YAC insert size and transformation efficiency. Evidence of occasional rearrangement within YAC inserts was found resulting in clonally stable internal deletions or clonally unstable

H. M. Albertsen; H. Abderrahim; H. M. Cann; J. Dausset; D. Le Paslier; D. Cohen



Genomic Libraries and a Host Strain Designed for Highly Efficient Two-Hybrid Selection in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twehybrid system is a powerful technique for detecting protein-protein interactions that utilizes the well-developed molecular genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cermisiae. However, the full potential of this technique has not been realized due to limitations imposed by the components available for use in the system. These limitations include unwieldy plasmid vectors, incomplete or poorly designed two- hybrid libraries, and

Philip James; John Halladay; Elizabeth A. Craig



Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genome project: analysis of sequenced clones from egg, instar, and adult (viruliferous and nonviruliferous) cDNA libraries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To address a general shortage of genomic sequence information in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, we have constructed three cDNA libraries for non-viruliferous whiteflies (eggs, immature instars, and adults)and two from adult insects that fed on tomato plants infected by two geminiviruses: To...


Final report. Human artificial episomal chromosome (HAEC) for building large genomic libraries  

SciTech Connect

Collections of human DNA fragments are maintained for research purposes as clones in bacterial host cells. However for unknown reasons, some regions of the human genome appear to be unclonable or unstable in bacteria. Their team has developed a system using episomes (extrachromosomal, autonomously replication DNA) that maintains large DNA fragments in human cells. This human artificial episomal chromosomal (HAEC) system may prove useful for coverage of these especially difficult regions. In the broader biomedical community, the HAEC system also shows promise for use in functional genomics and gene therapy. Recent improvements to the HAEC system and its application to mapping, sequencing, and functionally studying human and mouse DNA are summarized. Mapping and sequencing the human genome and model organisms are only the first steps in determining the function of various genetic units critical for gene regulation, DNA replication, chromatin packaging, chromosomal stability, and chromatid segregation. Such studies will require the ability to transfer and manipulate entire functional units into mammalian cells.

Jean-Michael H. Vos



Screening a genome wide S. pombe deletion library identifies novel genes and pathways involved in the DNA damage response  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of genome stability is essential for an organism to avoid cell death and cancer. Based on screens for mutant sensitivity against DNA damaging agents a large number of DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint genes have previously been identified in genetically amenable model organisms. These screens have however not been exhaustive and various genes have been, and remain to be, identified by other means. We therefore screened a genome wide Schizosaccharomyces pombe deletion library for mutants sensitive against various DNA damaging agents. Screening the library on different concentrations of these genotoxins allowed us to assign a semi-quantitative score to each mutant expressing the degree of sensitivity. We isolated a total of 229 mutants which show sensitivity to one or more of the DNA damaging agents used. This set of mutants was significantly enriched for processes involved in DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage checkpoint, response to UV, mating type switching, telomere length maintenance and meiosis, and also for processes involved in the establishment and maintenance of chromatin architecture (notably members of the SAGA complex), transcription (members of the CCr4-Not complex) and microtubule related processes (members of the DASH complex). We also identified 23 sensitive mutants which had previously been classified as “sequence orphan” or as “conserved hypothetical”. Among these, we identified genes showing extensive homology to CtIP, Stra13, Ybp1/Ybp2, Human Fragile X mental retardation interacting protein NUFIP1, and Aprataxin. The identification of these homologues will provide a basis for the further characterisation of the role of these conserved proteins in the genetically amenable model organism S. pombe. PMID:19264558

Deshpande, Gaurang P.; Hayles, Jacqueline; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Park, Han-Oh; Hartsuiker, Edgar



SplinkBES - A Splinkerette-Based Method for Generating Long End Sequences From Large Insert DNA Libraries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report on the development of a novel splinkerette-based method for generating long end-sequences from large insert library clones, using a carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library as a model. The procedure involves digestion of the BAC DNA with a 6-bp restriction enzyme, followed by ligation of spli...


Exploiting Chemical Libraries, Structure, and Genomics in the Search for Kinase Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective protein kinase inhibitors were developed on the basis of the unexpected binding mode of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines to the adenosine triphosphate-binding site of the human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). By iterating chemical library synthesis and biological screening, potent inhibitors of the human CDK2-cyclin A kinase complex and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc28p were identified. The structural basis for the binding affinity

David J. Lockhart; Sung-Hou Kim; Laurent Meijer; Sophie LeClerc; Georjana Barnes; David O. Morgan; F. Hernan Espinoza; Soojin Kwon; Andy-Mark W. H. Thunnissen; Lisa Wodicka; Nathanael S. Gray; Peter G. Schultz; Thea C. Norman



An object-oriented framework to organize genomic data  

E-print Network

Bioinformatics resources should provide simple and flexible support for genomics research. A huge amount of gene mapping data, micro-array expression data, expressed sequence tags (EST), BAC sequence data and genome sequence data are already...

Wei, Ning



Genome-wide recessive genetic screening in mammalian cells with a lentiviral CRISPR-guide RNA library.  


Identification of genes influencing a phenotype of interest is frequently achieved through genetic screening by RNA interference (RNAi) or knockouts. However, RNAi may only achieve partial depletion of gene activity, and knockout-based screens are difficult in diploid mammalian cells. Here we took advantage of the efficiency and high throughput of genome editing based on type II, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems to introduce genome-wide targeted mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We designed 87,897 guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting 19,150 mouse protein-coding genes and used a lentiviral vector to express these gRNAs in ESCs that constitutively express Cas9. Screening the resulting ESC mutant libraries for resistance to either Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin or 6-thioguanine identified 27 known and 4 previously unknown genes implicated in these phenotypes. Our results demonstrate the potential for efficient loss-of-function screening using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. PMID:24535568

Koike-Yusa, Hiroko; Li, Yilong; Tan, E-Pien; Velasco-Herrera, Martin Del Castillo; Yusa, Kosuke



Screening of Metagenomic and Genomic Libraries Reveals Three Classes of Bacterial Enzymes That Overcome the Toxicity of Acrylate  

PubMed Central

Acrylate is produced in significant quantities through the microbial cleavage of the highly abundant marine osmoprotectant dimethylsulfoniopropionate, an important process in the marine sulfur cycle. Acrylate can inhibit bacterial growth, likely through its conversion to the highly toxic molecule acrylyl-CoA. Previous work identified an acrylyl-CoA reductase, encoded by the gene acuI, as being important for conferring on bacteria the ability to grow in the presence of acrylate. However, some bacteria lack acuI, and, conversely, many bacteria that may not encounter acrylate in their regular environments do contain this gene. We therefore sought to identify new genes that might confer tolerance to acrylate. To do this, we used functional screening of metagenomic and genomic libraries to identify novel genes that corrected an E. coli mutant that was defective in acuI, and was therefore hyper-sensitive to acrylate. The metagenomic libraries yielded two types of genes that overcame this toxicity. The majority encoded enzymes resembling AcuI, but with significant sequence divergence among each other and previously ratified AcuI enzymes. One other metagenomic gene, arkA, had very close relatives in Bacillus and related bacteria, and is predicted to encode an enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, in the same family as FabK, which catalyses the final step in fatty-acid biosynthesis in some pathogenic Firmicute bacteria. A genomic library of Novosphingobium, a metabolically versatile alphaproteobacterium that lacks both acuI and arkA, yielded vutD and vutE, two genes that, together, conferred acrylate resistance. These encode sequential steps in the oxidative catabolism of valine in a pathway in which, significantly, methacrylyl-CoA is a toxic intermediate. These findings expand the range of bacteria for which the acuI gene encodes a functional acrylyl-CoA reductase, and also identify novel enzymes that can similarly function in conferring acrylate resistance, likely, again, through the removal of the toxic product acrylyl-CoA. PMID:24848004

Curson, Andrew R. J.; Burns, Oliver J.; Voget, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf; Todd, Jonathan D.; McInnis, Kathryn; Wexler, Margaret; Johnston, Andrew W. B.



Microsatellite Discovery from BAC End Sequences and Genetic Mapping to Anchor the Soybean Physical and Genetic Maps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physical maps can be an invaluable resource for improving and assessing the quality of a whole-genome sequence assembly. Here we report the identification and screening of 3,290 microsatellites (SSRs) identified from BAC end sequences of clones comprising the physical map of the cultivar Williams 8...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are developing a pachytene cytogenetic FISH map of the maize genome using sorghum BACs corresponding to the 90 maize Core Bin Marker (CBM) loci. These loci were chosen because they are uniformly distributed and they delineate the genetic bins derived from the UMC98 (Genetic 2005) maize linkage ma...


Epigenome analyses using BAC microarrays identify evolutionary conservation of tissue-specific methylation of SHANK3  

Microsoft Academic Search

CpG islands are present in one-half of all human and mouse genes and typically overlap with promoters or exons. We developed a method for high-resolution analysis of the methylation status of CpG islands genome-wide, using arrays of BAC clones and the methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme NotI. Here we demonstrate the accuracy and specificity of the method. By computationally mapping all NotI

Tsui-Ting Ching; Alika K Maunakea; Peter Jun; Chibo Hong; Giuseppe Zardo; Daniel Pinkel; Donna G Albertson; Jane Fridlyand; Jian-Hua Mao; Ksenya Shchors; William A Weiss; Joseph F Costello



Comparison of homoeolocus organisation in paired BAC clones from white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and microcolinearity with model legume species  

PubMed Central

Background White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is an outbreeding allotetraploid species and an important forage legume in temperate grassland agriculture. Comparison of sub-genome architecture and study of nucleotide sequence diversity within allopolyploids provides insight into evolutionary divergence mechanisms, and is also necessary for the development of whole-genome sequencing strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of divergence between the O and P' sub-genomes of white clover through sequencing of BAC clones containing paired homoeoloci. The microsyntenic relationships between the genomes of white clover and the model legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula as well as Arabidopsis thaliana were also characterised. Results A total of four paired homoeologous BACs were selected and sequenced to generate 173 kb of overlapping sequence between the O and P' sub-genomes. Equivalent gene content was generally observed, apart from small-scale deletions, in contrast to conservation of intergenic sequences, which varied between the four selected regions. Measurement of the number of synonymous substitutions between homoeologous genes led to estimation of a 4.2 million year divergence time between the two sub-genomes. Microsynteny was observed between the genomes of white clover and L. japonicus for all four targeted regions, but corresponding M. truncatula genomic regions were only identified for two BAC pairs. Conclusions This study describes the first analysis of sub-genome structural conservation across selected genomic regions in white clover. Although the high levels of sequence conservation between the O and P' sub-genomes would complicate efforts for whole genome sequence assembly, the conserved microsynteny with model legume genomes, especially that of L. japonicus, will be highly valuable for the future of white clover genomics and molecular breeding. PMID:20492736



From Human Monocytes to Genome-Wide Binding Sites - A Protocol for Small Amounts of Blood: Monocyte Isolation/ChIP-Protocol/Library Amplification/Genome Wide Computational Data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with a genome-wide analysis via high-throughput sequencing is the state of the art method to gain genome-wide representation of histone modification or transcription factor binding profiles. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in the context of human experimental samples is limited, especially in the case of blood cells. The typically extremely low yields of precipitated DNA are usually not compatible with library amplification for next generation sequencing. We developed a highly reproducible protocol to present a guideline from the first step of isolating monocytes from a blood sample to analyse the distribution of histone modifications in a genome-wide manner. Conclusion: The protocol describes the whole work flow from isolating monocytes from human blood samples followed by a high-sensitivity and small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with guidance for generating libraries compatible with next generation sequencing from small amounts of immunoprecipitated DNA. PMID:24732314

Weiterer, Sebastian; Uhle, Florian; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Weigand, Markus A.; Bartkuhn, Marek



The Genome of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with high heterozygosity of the genome. The genome encodes about 23,300 genes,

Erica Sodergren; George M. Weinstock; Eric H. Davidson; R. Andrew Cameron; Richard A. Gibbs; Robert C. Angerer; Lynne M. Angerer; Maria Ina Arnone; David R. Burgess; Robert D. Burke; James A. Coffman; Michael Dean; Maurice R. Elphick; Charles A. Ettensohn; Kathy R. Foltz; Amro Hamdoun; Richard O. Hynes; William H. Klein; William Marzluff; David R. McClay; Robert L. Morris; Arcady Mushegian; Jonathan P. Rast; L. Courtney Smith; Michael C. Thorndyke; Victor D. Vacquier; Gary M. Wessel; Greg Wray; Lan Zhang; Christine G. Elsik; Olga Ermolaeva; Wratko Hlavina; Gretchen Hofmann; Paul Kitts; Melissa J. Landrum; Aaron J. Mackey; Donna Maglott; Georgia Panopoulou; Albert J. Poustka; Kim Pruitt; Victor Sapojnikov; Xingzhi Song; Alexandre Souvorov; Victor Solovyev; Zheng Wei; Charles A. Whittaker; Kim Worley; K. James Durbin; Yufeng Shen; Olivier Fedrigo; David Garfield; Ralph Haygood; Alexander Primus; Rahul Satija; Tonya Severson; Manuel L. Gonzalez-Garay; Andrew R. Jackson; Aleksandar Milosavljevic; Mark Tong; Christopher E. Killian; Brian T. Livingston; Fred H. Wilt; Nikki Adams; Robert Bellé; Seth Carbonneau; Rocky Cheung; Patrick Cormier; Bertrand Cosson; Jenifer Croce; Antonio Fernandez-Guerra; Anne-Marie Genevière; Manisha Goel; Hemant Kelkar; Julia Morales; Odile Mulner-Lorillon; Anthony J. Robertson; Jared V. Goldstone; Bryan Cole; David Epel; Bert Gold; Mark E. Hahn; Meredith Howard-Ashby; Mark Scally; John J. Stegeman; Erin L. Allgood; Jonah Cool; Kyle M. Judkins; Shawn S. McCafferty; Ashlan M. Musante; Robert A. Obar; Amanda P. Rawson; Blair J. Rossetti; Ian R. Gibbons; Matthew P. Hoffman; Andrew Leone; Sorin Istrail; Stefan C. Materna; Manoj P. Samanta; Viktor Stolc; Waraporn Tongprasit; Qiang Tu; Karl-Frederik Bergeron; Bruce P. Brandhorst; James Whittle; Kevin Berney; David J. Bottjer; Cristina Calestani; Kevin Peterson; Elly Chow; Qiu Autumn Yuan; Eran Elhaik; Dan Graur; Justin T. Reese; Ian Bosdet; Shin Heesun; Marco A. Marra; Jacqueline Schein; Michele K. Anderson; Virginia Brockton; Katherine M. Buckley; Avis H. Cohen; Sebastian D. Fugmann; Taku Hibino; Mariano Loza-Coll; Audrey J. Majeske; Cynthia Messier; Sham V. Nair; Zeev Pancer; David P. Terwilliger; Cavit Agca; Enrique Arboleda; Nansheng Chen; Allison M. Churcher; F. Hallböök; Glen W. Humphrey; Mohammed M. Idris; Takae Kiyama; Shuguang Liang; Dan Mellott; Xiuqian Mu; Greg Murray; Robert P. Olinski; Florian Raible; Matthew Rowe; John S. Taylor; Kristin Tessmar-Raible; D. Wang; Karen H. Wilson; Shunsuke Yaguchi; Terry Gaasterland; Blanca E. Galindo; Herath J. Gunaratne; Celina Juliano; Masashi Kinukawa; Gary W. Moy; Anna T. Neill; Mamoru Nomura; Michael Raisch; Anna Reade; Michelle M. Roux; Jia L. Song; Yi-Hsien Su; Ian K. Townley; Ekaterina Voronina; Julian L. Wong; Gabriele Amore; Margherita Branno; Euan R. Brown; Vincenzo Cavalieri; Véronique Duboc; Louise Duloquin; Constantin Flytzanis; Christian Gache; François Lapraz; Thierry Lepage; Annamaria Locascio; Pedro Martinez; Giorgio Matassi; Valeria Matranga; Ryan Range; Francesca Rizzo; Eric Röttinger; Wendy Beane; Cynthia Bradham; Christine Byrum; Tom Glenn; Sofia Hussain; Mariano Loza; Gerard Manning; Esther Miranda; Rebecca Thomason; Katherine Walton; Athula Wikramanayke; Shu-Yu Wu; Ronghui Xu; C. Titus Brown; Lili Chen; Rachel F. Gray; Pei Yun Lee; Jongmin Nam; Paola Oliveri; Joel Smith; Donna Muzny; Stephanie Bell; Joseph Chacko; Andrew Cree; Stacey Curry; Clay Davis; Huyen Dinh; Shannon Dugan-Rocha; Jerry Fowler; Rachel Gill; Judith Hernandez; Sandra Hines; Jennifer Hume; LaRonda Jackson; Angela Jolivet; Christie Kovar; Sandra Lee; Lora Lewis; George Miner; Margaret Morgan; Lynne V. Nazareth; Geoffrey Okwuonu; David Parker; Ling-Ling Pu; Rachel Thorn; Rita Wright



Microarray-based genomic selection for high-  

E-print Network

artificial chromosome (BAC)-based genomic selection. We demonstrate that large human genomic regions, is in isolating the target DNA to be sequenced. Complex eukaryotic genomes, such as the human genome, are too and selec- tion8, transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning9,10, selector technology11

Cai, Long


Genome Clone Libraries and Data from the Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression (I.M.A.G.E.) Consortium  

DOE Data Explorer

The I.M.A.G.E. Consortium was initiated in 1993 by four academic groups on a collaborative basis after informal discussions led to a common vision of how to achieve an important goal in the study of the human genome: the Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression Consortium's primary goal is to create arrayed cDNA libraries and associated bioinformatics tools, and make them publicly available to the research community. The primary organisms of interest include intensively studied mammalian species, including human, mouse, rat and non-human primate species. The Consortium has also focused on several commonly studied model organisms; as part of this effort it has arrayed cDNAs from zebrafish, and Fugu (pufferfish) as well as Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis (frog). Utilizing high speed robotics, over nine million individual cDNA clones have been arrayed into 384-well microtiter plates, and sufficient replicas have been created to distribute copies both to sequencing centers and to a network of five distributors located worldwide. The I.M.A.G.E. Consortium represents the world's largest public cDNA collection, and works closely with the National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection(MGC) to help it achieve its goal of creating a full-length cDNA clone for every human and mouse gene. I.M.A.G.E. is also a member of the ORFeome Collaboration, working to generate a complete set of expression-ready open reading frame clones representing each human gene. Custom informatics tools have been developed in support of these projects to better allow the research community to select clones of interest and track and collect all data deposited into public databases about those clones and their related sequences. I.M.A.G.E. clones are publicly available, free of any royalties, and may be used by anyone agreeing with the Consortium's guidelines.


A Sequence-Ready BAC Clone Contig of a 2.2-Mb Segment of Human Chromosome 1q24  

PubMed Central

Human chromosomal region 1q24 encodes two cloned disease genes and lies within large genetic inclusion intervals for several disease genes that have yet to be identified. We have constructed a single bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone contig that spans over 2 Mb of 1q24 and consists of 78 clones connected by 100 STSs. The average density of mapped STSs is one of the highest described for a multimegabase region of the human genome. The contig was efficiently constructed by generating STSs from clone ends, followed by library walking. Distance information was added by determining the insert sizes of all clones, and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes were incorporated to create a partial transcript map of the region, providing candidate genes for local disease loci. The gene order and content of the region provide insight into ancient duplication events that have occurred on proximal 1q. The stage is now set for further elucidation of this interesting region through large-scale sequencing. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. G42259–G42312 and G42330–G42335.] PMID:10022979

Vollrath, Douglas; Jaramillo-Babb, Virna L.



Improved method for high-efficiency electrotransformation of Escherichia coli with the large BAC plasmids.  


High transformation competency of Escherichia coli is one of the critical factors in the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based DNA library construction. Many electroporation protocols have been published until now, but the majority of them was optimized for transformation of small plasmids. Large plasmids with a size above 50 kbp display reduced transformation efficiency and thereby require specific conditions in the preparation and electroporation of electrocompetent cells. In the present work, we have optimized the parameters critical to the application of BAC DNA electrotransformation into E. coli. Systematic evaluation of electroporation variables has revealed several key factors like temperature of growth, media supplements, washing buffer, and cell concentration. Improvements made in the transformation protocol have led to electrocompetent cells with transformation efficiency up to 7?×?10(8) transformants per microgram of 120 kbp BAC plasmid DNA. We have successfully used in-house prepared competent cells, the quality of which is comparable with those produced by different companies, in the construction of metagenomic libraries from the soil. Our protocol can also be beneficial for other application with limited DNA source. PMID:23846555

Nováková, Jana; Izsáková, Anita; Grivalský, Tomáš; Ottmann, Christian; Farkašovský, Marian



BAC-Pool Sequencing and Analysis of Large Segments of A12 and D12 Homoeologous Chromosomes in Upland Cotton  

PubMed Central

Although new and emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have reduced sequencing costs significantly, much work remains to implement them for de novo sequencing of complex and highly repetitive genomes such as the tetraploid genome of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Herein we report the results from implementing a novel, hybrid Sanger/454-based BAC-pool sequencing strategy using minimum tiling path (MTP) BACs from Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465, two large genomic segments in A12 and D12 homoeologous chromosomes (Ctg). To enable generation of longer contig sequences in assembly, we implemented a hybrid assembly method to process ~35x data from 454 technology and 2.8-3x data from Sanger method. Hybrid assemblies offered higher sequence coverage and better sequence assemblies. Homology studies revealed the presence of retrotransposon regions like Copia and Gypsy elements in these contigs and also helped in identifying new genomic SSRs. Unigenes were anchored to the sequences in Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465 to support the physical map. Gene density, gene structure and protein sequence information derived from protein prediction programs were used to obtain the functional annotation of these genes. Comparative analysis of both contigs with Arabidopsis genome exhibited synteny and microcollinearity with a conserved gene order in both genomes. This study provides insight about use of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing approach for sequencing complex polyploid genomes with limited constraints in generating better sequence assemblies to build reference scaffold sequences. Combining the utilities of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing with current longer and short read NGS technologies in multiplexed format would provide a new direction to cost-effectively and precisely sequence complex plant genomes. PMID:24116150

Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kantety, Ramesh V.; Yu, John Z.; Xu, Zhanyou; Kohel, Russell J.; Percy, Richard G.; Macmil, Simone; Wiley, Graham B.; Roe, Bruce A.; Sharma, Govind C.



Reevaluation of the Coding Potential and Proteomic Analysis of the BAC Derived Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Strain 68-1  

SciTech Connect

Cytomegaloviruses are highly host restricted resulting in co-speciation with their hosts. As a natural pathogen of rhesus macaques (RM), Rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) has therefore emerged as a highly relevant experimental model for pathogenesis and vaccine development due to its close evolutionary relationship to human CMV (HCMV). To date, most in vivo experiments performed with RhCMV employed strain 68-1 cloned as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). However, the complete genome sequence of the 68-1 BAC has not been determined. Furthermore, the gene content of the RhCMV genome is unknown and previous open reading frame (ORF) predictions relied solely on uninterrupted ORFs with an arbitrary cutoff of 300bp. To obtain a more precise picture of the actual proteins encoded by the most commonly used molecular clone of RhCMV we re-evaluated the RhCMV 68-1 BAC-genome by whole genome shotgun sequencing and determined the protein content of the resulting RhCMV virions by proteomics. By additionally comparing the RhCMV genome to that of several closely related Old World Monkey (OWM) CMVs we were able to filter out many unlikely ORFs and obtain a simplified map of the RhCMV genome. This comparative genomics analysis eliminated many genes previously characterized as RhCMV-specific while consolidating a high conservation of ORFs among OWM-CMVs and between RhCMV and HCMV. Moreover, virion proteomics independently validated the revised ORF predictions since only proteins encoded by predicted ORFs could be detected. Taken together these data suggest a much higher conservation of genome and virion structure between CMVs of humans, apes and OWMs than previously assumed. Remarkably, BAC-derived RhCMV is able to establish and maintain persistent infection despite the lack of multiple genes homologous to HCMV genes involved in tissue tropism.

Malouli, Daniel; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Camp, David G.; Chang, W. L.; Barry, Peter A.; Smith, Richard D.; Fruh, Klaus



Inference of subgenomic origin of BACs in an interspecific hybrid sugarcane cultivar by overlapping oligonucleotide hybridizations.  


Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeders in the early 20th century made remarkable progress in increasing yield and disease resistance by crossing Saccharum spontaneum L., a wild relative, to Saccharum officinarum L., a traditional cultivar. Modern sugarcane cultivars have approximately 71%-83% of their chromosomes originating from S. officinarum, approximately 10%-21% from S. spontaneum, and approximately 2%-13% recombinant or translocated chromosomes. In the present work, C(0)t-based cloning and sequencing (CBCS) was implemented to further explore highly repetitive DNA and to seek species-specific repeated DNA in both S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. For putatively species-specific sequences, overlappping oligonucleotide probes (overgos) were designed and hybridized to BAC filters from the interspecific hybrid sugarcane cultivar 'R570' to try to deduce parental origins of BAC clones. We inferred that 12?967 BACs putatively originated from S. officinarum and 5117 BACs from S. spontaneum. Another 1103 BACs were hybridized by both species-specific overgos, too many to account for by conventional recombination, thus suggesting ectopic recombination and (or) translocation of DNA elements. Constructing a low C(0)t library is useful to collect highly repeated DNA sequences and to search for potentially species-specific molecular markers, especially among recently diverged species. Even in the absence of repeat families that are species-specific in their entirety, the identification of localized variations within consensus sequences, coupled with the site specificity of short synthetic overgos, permits researchers to monitor species-specific or species-enriched variants. PMID:21883018

Kim, Changsoo; Robertson, Jon S; Paterson, Andrew H



Observing copepods through a genomic lens  

PubMed Central

Background Copepods outnumber every other multicellular animal group. They are critical components of the world's freshwater and marine ecosystems, sensitive indicators of local and global climate change, key ecosystem service providers, parasites and predators of economically important aquatic animals and potential vectors of waterborne disease. Copepods sustain the world fisheries that nourish and support human populations. Although genomic tools have transformed many areas of biological and biomedical research, their power to elucidate aspects of the biology, behavior and ecology of copepods has only recently begun to be exploited. Discussion The extraordinary biological and ecological diversity of the subclass Copepoda provides both unique advantages for addressing key problems in aquatic systems and formidable challenges for developing a focused genomics strategy. This article provides an overview of genomic studies of copepods and discusses strategies for using genomics tools to address key questions at levels extending from individuals to ecosystems. Genomics can, for instance, help to decipher patterns of genome evolution such as those that occur during transitions from free living to symbiotic and parasitic lifestyles and can assist in the identification of genetic mechanisms and accompanying physiological changes associated with adaptation to new or physiologically challenging environments. The adaptive significance of the diversity in genome size and unique mechanisms of genome reorganization during development could similarly be explored. Genome-wide and EST studies of parasitic copepods of salmon and large EST studies of selected free-living copepods have demonstrated the potential utility of modern genomics approaches for the study of copepods and have generated resources such as EST libraries, shotgun genome sequences, BAC libraries, genome maps and inbred lines that will be invaluable in assisting further efforts to provide genomics tools for copepods. Summary Genomics research on copepods is needed to extend our exploration and characterization of their fundamental biological traits, so that we can better understand how copepods function and interact in diverse environments. Availability of large scale genomics resources will also open doors to a wide range of systems biology type studies that view the organism as the fundamental system in which to address key questions in ecology and evolution. PMID:21933388



Functional Genomics with a Comprehensive Library of Transposon Mutants for the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The genomes of sulfate-reducing bacteria remain poorly characterized, largely due to a paucity of experimental data and genetic tools. To meet this challenge, we generated an archived library of 15,477 mapped transposon insertion mutants in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. To demonstrate the utility of the individual mutants, we profiled gene expression in mutants of six regulatory genes and used these data, together with 1,313 high-confidence transcription start sites identified by tiling microarrays and transcriptome sequencing (5? RNA-Seq), to update the regulons of Fur and Rex and to confirm the predicted regulons of LysX, PhnF, PerR, and Dde_3000, a histidine kinase. In addition to enabling single mutant investigations, the D. alaskensis G20 transposon mutants also contain DNA bar codes, which enables the pooling and analysis of mutant fitness for thousands of strains simultaneously. Using two pools of mutants that represent insertions in 2,369 unique protein-coding genes, we demonstrate that the hypothetical gene Dde_3007 is required for methionine biosynthesis. Using comparative genomics, we propose that Dde_3007 performs a missing step in methionine biosynthesis by transferring a sulfur group to O-phosphohomoserine to form homocysteine. Additionally, we show that the entire choline utilization cluster is important for fitness in choline sulfate medium, which confirms that a functional microcompartment is required for choline oxidation. Finally, we demonstrate that Dde_3291, a MerR-like transcription factor, is a choline-dependent activator of the choline utilization cluster. Taken together, our data set and genetic resources provide a foundation for systems-level investigation of a poorly studied group of bacteria of environmental and industrial importance. PMID:24865553

Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Price, Morgan N.; Ray, Jayashree; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Esquivel, Zuelma; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Nguyen, Michelle; Kuehn, Raquel; Davis, Ronald W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.



The MICHR Genomic DNA BioLibrary: An Empirical Study of the Ethics of Biorepository Development.  


In this article, we report on an effort to study the development and usefulness of a large, broad-use, opt-in biorepository for genomic research, focusing on three ethical issues: providing appropriate understanding, recruiting in ways that do not comprise autonomous decisions, and assessing costs versus benefits. We conclude the following: (a) Understanding can be improved by separating the task of informing subjects from documenting informed consent (Common Rule) and permission to use personal health information and samples for research (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA]); however, regulations might have to be changed to accommodate this approach. (b) Changing recruiting methods increases efficiency but can interfere with subject autonomy. (c) Finally, we propose a framework for the objective evaluation of the utility of biorepositories and suggest that more attention needs to be paid to use and sustainability. PMID:25742665

Roessler, Blake J; Steneck, Nicholas H; Connally, Lisa



A BACwards glance at neurodegeneration: molecular insights into disease from LRRK2, SNCA and MAPT BAC-transgenic mice.  


BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome)-transgenic mice expressing a transgene from an entire genomic locus under the control of the native promoter offer the opportunity to generate more accurate genetic models of human disease. The present review discusses results of recent studies investigating PD (Parkinson's disease) and tauopathies using BAC-transgenic mice carrying either the LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2), ?-synuclein (SNCA) or MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) genes. In all lines, expression of the WT (wild-type) gene resulted in physiologically relevant protein expression. The effect of expressing the mutant form of a gene varied depending on the mouse strain or the particular disease mutation used, although it was common to see either neurochemical or behavioural differences in these animals. Overall, BAC technology offers an exciting opportunity to generate a wide range of new animal models of human-disease states. PMID:21787314

Johnson, Sara J; Wade-Martins, Richard



Discovery of previously unidentified genomic disorders from the duplication architecture of the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic disorders are characterized by the presence of flanking segmental duplications that predispose these regions to recurrent rearrangement. Based on the duplication architecture of the genome, we investigated 130 regions that we hypothesized as candidates for previously undescribed genomic disorders(1). We tested 290 individuals with mental retardation by BAC array comparative genomic hybridization and identified 16 pathogenic rearrangements, including de

Andrew J Sharp; Sierra Hansen; Rebecca R Selzer; Ze Cheng; Regina Regan; Jane A Hurst; Helen Stewart; Sue M Price; Edward Blair; Raoul C Hennekam; Carrie A Fitzpatrick; Rick Segraves; Todd A Richmond; Cheryl Guiver; Donna G Albertson; Daniel Pinkel; Peggy S Eis; Stuart Schwartz; Samantha J L Knight; Evan E Eichler



Hox complex analysis through BAC recombineering.  


BAC transgenesis in mice has proved to be useful in exploring the regulatory mechanisms and functions of the Hox complexes. The large constructs used may include most of the relevant components of the cis-regulatory landscape. Manipulations can be accomplished without compromising the integrity of the endogenous complex which reduces the likelihood of producing confounding phenotypic abnormalities. The development of recombineering tools has been critical in providing the means necessary to make many types of precise and varied manipulations of these large constructs. Here, we will discuss the methodologies necessary to manipulate Hox complex BACs, generation of transgenic animals bearing these constructs and the utilization of these resources to address fundamental aspects of Hox biology. PMID:25151158

Parrish, Mark; Ahn, Youngwook; Nolte, Christof; De Kumar, Bony; Krumlauf, Robb



New resources inform study of genome size, content, and organization in nonavian reptiles.  


Genomic resources for studies of nonavian reptiles have recently improved and will reach a new level of access once the genomes of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) and the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) have been published. Eleven speakers gathered for a symposium on reptilian genomics and evolutionary genetics at the 2008 meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology in San Antonio, Texas. Presentations described results of reptilian genetic studies concerning molecular evolution, chromosomal evolution, genomic architecture, population dynamics, endocrinology and endocrine disruption, and the evolution of developmental mechanisms. The presented studies took advantage of the recent generation of genetic and genomic tools and resources. Novel findings demonstrated the positive impact made by the improved availability of resources like genome annotations and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The symposium was timely and important because it provided a vehicle for the dissemination of novel findings that advance the field. Moreover, this meeting fostered the synergistic interaction of the participants as a group, which is anticipated to encourage the funding and creation of further resources such as additional BAC libraries and genomic projects. Novel data have already been collected and studies like those presented in this symposium promise to shape and improve our understanding of overall amniote evolution. Additional reptilian taxa such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) should be the foci of future genomic projects. We hope that the following articles in this volume will help promote these efforts by describing the conclusions and the potential that the improvement of genomic resources for nonavian reptiles can continue having in this important area of integrative and comparative biology. PMID:21669805

Janes, Daniel E; Organ, Christopher; Valenzuela, Nicole



piggyBac-like elements in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella.  


A transgenic line of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, a key lepidopteran cotton pest, was generated previously using the piggyBac transposon IFP2 from Trichoplusia ni. Here we identified an endogenous piggyBac-like element (PLE), designated as PgPLE1, in the pink bollworm. A putatively intact copy of PgPLE1 (PgPLE1.1) presents the canonical features of PLE: inverted terminal repeats with three C/G residues at the extreme ends, inverted subterminal repeats, TTAA target site and an open reading frame encoding transposase with 68% similarity to IFP2. Vectorette PCR revealed large variation in the insertion sites of PgPLE1 amongst worldwide populations, indicating the potential mobility of PgPLE1. The PgPLE1 was undetectable in the genome of Pectinophora endema, implying the recent invasion of PgPLE1 after the divergence of these two closely related species. PMID:20017756

Wang, J; Miller, E D; Simmons, G S; Miller, T A; Tabashnik, B E; Park, Y




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A hybridization-based approach was used to estimate genome-wide microsynteny between genomes of Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 187 soybean BAC subclones and RFLP probes, plus 106 whole BAC clones from genetically mapped contigs were used. Restriction fragment...


Estimation of the Extent of Synteny Between Tetraodon nigroviridis and Homo sapiens Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a genomic comparison between 20 sequenced BACs (or fragments of BACs) from Tetraodon nigroviridis and the human genome. A total of 199 fish genes were identified by informatics resources, together with their putative human orthologues. Comparisons of the localizations in both species led to the identification of 32 syntenic regions and a minimum of 131 rearrangements in

Alain Bernot; Jean Weissenbach



Fungicidal mechanisms of the antimicrobial peptide Bac8c.  


Bac8c (RIWVIWRR-NH2) is an analogue peptide derived through complete substitution analysis of the linear bovine host defense peptide variant Bac2A. In the present study, the antifungal mechanism of Bac8c against pathogenic fungi was investigated, with a particular focus on the effects of Bac8c on the cytoplasmic membrane. We used bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol [DiBAC4(3)] staining and 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide [DiSC3(5)] assays to show that Bac8c induced disturbances in the membrane potential of Candida albicans. An increase in membrane permeability and suppression of cell wall regeneration were also observed in Bac8c-treated C. albicans. We studied the effects of Bac8c treatment on model membranes to elucidate its antifungal mechanism. Using calcein and FITC-labeled dextran leakage assays from Bac8c-treated large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), we found that Bac8c has a pore-forming action on fungal membranes, with an estimated pore radius of between 2.3 and 3.3nm. A membrane-targeted mechanism of action was also supported by the observation of potassium release from the cytosol of Bac8c-treated C. albicans. These results indicate that Bac8c is considered as a potential candidate to develop a novel antimicrobial agent because of its low-cost production characteristics and high antimicrobial activity via its ability to induce membrane perturbations in fungi. PMID:25434926

Lee, Wonyoung; Lee, Dong Gun



Paired-end sequencing of Fosmid libraries by Illumina  

PubMed Central

Eliminating the bacterial cloning step has been a major factor in the vastly improved efficiency of massively parallel sequencing approaches. However, this also has made it a technical challenge to produce the modern equivalent of the Fosmid- or BAC-end sequences that were crucial for assembling and analyzing complex genomes during the Sanger-based sequencing era. To close this technology gap, we developed Fosill, a method for converting Fosmids to Illumina-compatible jumping libraries. We constructed Fosmid libraries in vectors with Illumina primer sequences and specific nicking sites flanking the cloning site. Our family of pFosill vectors allows multiplex Fosmid cloning of end-tagged genomic fragments without physical size selection and is compatible with standard and multiplex paired-end Illumina sequencing. To excise the bulk of each cloned insert, we introduced two nicks in the vector, translated them into the inserts, and cleaved them. Recircularization of the vector via coligation of insert termini followed by inverse PCR generates a jumping library for paired-end sequencing with 101-base reads. The yield of unique Fosmid-sized jumps is sufficiently high, and the background of short, incorrectly spaced and chimeric artifacts sufficiently low, to enable applications such as mapping of structural variation and scaffolding of de novo assemblies. We demonstrate the power of Fosill to map genome rearrangements in a cancer cell line and identified three fusion genes that were corroborated by RNA-seq data. Our Fosill-powered assembly of the mouse genome has an N50 scaffold length of 17.0 Mb, rivaling the connectivity (16.9 Mb) of the Sanger-sequencing based draft assembly. PMID:22800726

Williams, Louise J.S.; Tabbaa, Diana G.; Li, Na; Berlin, Aaron M.; Shea, Terrance P.; MacCallum, Iain; Lawrence, Michael S.; Drier, Yotam; Getz, Gad; Young, Sarah K.; Jaffe, David B.; Nusbaum, Chad; Gnirke, Andreas



Generation of a Genome Scale Lentiviral Vector Library for EF1? Promoter-Driven Expression of Human ORFs and Identification of Human Genes Affecting Viral Titer  

PubMed Central

The bottleneck in elucidating gene function through high-throughput gain-of-function genome screening is the limited availability of comprehensive libraries for gene overexpression. Lentiviral vectors are the most versatile and widely used vehicles for gene expression in mammalian cells. Lentiviral supernatant libraries for genome screening are commonly generated in the HEK293T cell line, yet very little is known about the effect of introduced sequences on the produced viral titer, which we have shown to be gene dependent. We have generated an arrayed lentiviral vector library for the expression of 17,030 human proteins by using the GATEWAY® cloning system to transfer ORFs from the Mammalian Gene Collection into an EF1alpha promoter-dependent lentiviral expression vector. This promoter was chosen instead of the more potent and widely used CMV promoter, because it is less prone to silencing and provides more stable long term expression. The arrayed lentiviral clones were used to generate viral supernatant by packaging in the HEK293T cell line. The efficiency of transfection and virus production was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of IRES driven GFP, co-expressed with the ORFs. More than 90% of cloned ORFs produced sufficient virus for downstream screening applications. We identified genes which consistently produced very high or very low viral titer. Supernatants from select clones that were either high or low virus producers were tested on a range of cell lines. Some of the low virus producers, including two previously uncharacterized proteins were cytotoxic to HEK293T cells. The library we have constructed presents a powerful resource for high-throughput gain-of-function screening of the human genome and drug-target discovery. Identification of human genes that affect lentivirus production may lead to improved technology for gene expression using lentiviral vectors. PMID:23251614

Škalamera, Dubravka; Dahmer, Mareike; Purdon, Amy S.; Wilson, Benjamin M.; Ranall, Max V.; Blumenthal, Antje; Gabrielli, Brian; Gonda, Thomas J.



Poultry Genome Sequences: Progress and Outstanding Challenges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The first build of the chicken genome sequence appeared in March 2004 – the first genome sequence of any animal agriculture species. That sequence was done primarily by whole genome shotgun Sanger sequencing, along with the use of an extensive BAC contig-based physical map to assemble the sequence ...


Illuminating Choices for Library Prep: A Comparison of Library Preparation Methods for Whole Genome Sequencing of Cryptococcus neoformans Using Illumina HiSeq  

PubMed Central

The industry of next-generation sequencing is constantly evolving, with novel library preparation methods and new sequencing machines being released by the major sequencing technology companies annually. The Illumina TruSeq v2 library preparation method was the most widely used kit and the market leader; however, it has now been discontinued, and in 2013 was replaced by the TruSeq Nano and TruSeq PCR-free methods, leaving a gap in knowledge regarding which is the most appropriate library preparation method to use. Here, we used isolates from the pathogenic fungi Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and sequenced them using the existing TruSeq DNA v2 kit (Illumina), along with two new kits: the TruSeq Nano DNA kit (Illumina) and the NEBNext Ultra DNA kit (New England Biolabs) to provide a comparison. Compared to the original TruSeq DNA v2 kit, both newer kits gave equivalent or better sequencing data, with increased coverage. When comparing the two newer kits, we found little difference in cost and workflow, with the NEBNext Ultra both slightly cheaper and faster than the TruSeq Nano. However, the quality of data generated using the TruSeq Nano DNA kit was superior due to higher coverage at regions of low GC content, and more SNPs identified. Researchers should therefore evaluate their resources and the type of application (and hence data quality) being considered when ultimately deciding on which library prep method to use. PMID:25409295

Rhodes, Johanna; Beale, Mathew A.; Fisher, Matthew C.



Matita, a new retroelement from peanut: characterization and evolutionary context in the light of the Arachis A-B genome divergence.  


Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid with an AB-genome. In order to learn more of the genomic structure of peanut, we characterized and studied the evolution of a retrotransposon originally isolated from a resistance gene analog (RGA)-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone. It is a moderate copy number Ty1-copia retrotransposon from the Bianca lineage and we named it Matita. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed that Matita is mainly located on the distal regions of chromosome arms and is of approximately equal frequency on both A- and B-chromosomes. Its chromosome-specific hybridization pattern facilitates the identification of individual chromosomes, a useful cytogenetic tool considering that chromosomes in peanut are mostly metacentric and of similar size. Phylogenetic analysis of Matita elements, molecular dating of transposition events, and an estimation of the evolutionary divergence of the most probable A- and B-donor species suggest that Matita underwent its last major burst of transposition activity at around the same time of the A- and B-genome divergence about 3.5 million years ago. By probing BAC libraries with overgos probes for Matita, resistance gene analogues, and single- or low-copy genes, it was demonstrated that Matita is not randomly distributed in the genome but exhibits a significant tendency of being more abundant near resistance gene homologues than near single-copy genes. The described work is a further step towards broadening the knowledge on genomic and chromosomal structure of peanut and on its evolution. PMID:22120641

Nielen, Stephan; Vidigal, Bruna S; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Ratnaparkhe, Milind; Paterson, Andrew H; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Guimarães, Patricia M; Bertioli, David J



doi:10.1155/2008/742304 Review Article Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics  

E-print Network

Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world’s leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. Copyright © 2008 Hong-Bin Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1.

Hong-bin Zhang; Yaning Li; Baohua Wang; Peng W. Chee


Availability of birth defects and genetic disease information in public libraries -- implications for the Human Genome Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better educate the public about birth defects and genetic diseases\\/testing, access to information is critical. The public library system of the United States is extensive and serves as an invaluable resource to citizens. We surveyed reference librarians at each of 87 public libraries in Allegheny and Westmoreland Counties, Pennsylvania. The study design included a questionnaire to ascertain

S. Sell; E. Gettig; J. J. Mulvihill



PiggyBac:A flexible and highly active transposon as compared to Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, and Mos1 in mammalian cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A non-viral vector for highly efficient site-specific integration would be desirable for many applications in transgenesis, including gene therapy. In this study, we directly compared the genomic integration efficiencies of piggyBac, hyperactive Sleeping Beauty(SB11), Tol2, and Mos1 in four mammalia...


Library Regulations Library Regulations  

E-print Network

Library Regulations 2012-13 Library Regulations UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM REGULATIONS LIBRARY REGULATIONS Preamble: The Library Regulations apply to all users of library facilities managed on behalf of the University by Library Services, and thus there are sections that apply also to non- members of the University

Birmingham, University of



E-print Network

LIBRARY SERVICES LIBRARY HOURS Up-to-date library hours are posted at http Wesleyan ID that is linked to the library circulation database is needed to charge out library materials to visit the Circulation Office in Olin Library 115 to set up their borrowing privileges. If you have

Royer, Dana


A Nucleolus-Predominant piggyBac Transposase, NP-mPB, Mediates Elevated Transposition Efficiency in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3–4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells. PMID:24586748

Ku, Amy T.; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung



Olefin Isomerization Regiochemistries during Tandem Action of BacA and BacB on Prephenate in Bacilysin Biosynthesis†  

PubMed Central

BacA and BacB, the first two enzymes of the bacilysin pathway, convert prephenate to an exocylic regioisomer of dihydrohydroxyphenylpyruvate (ex-H2HPP) on the way to the epoxycyclohexanone warhead in the dipeptide antibiotic, bacilysin. BacA decarboxylates prephenate without aromatization, converting the 1,4-diene in prephenate to the endocyclic 1,3 diene in ?4?8-dihydrohydroxyphenylpyruvate (en-H2HPP). BacB then performs an allylic isomerization to bring the diene into conjugation with the 2-ketone in the product ?3?5-dihydrohydroxyphenylpyruvate (ex-H2HPP). To prove that BacA acts regiospecifically on one of the two prochiral olefins in prephenate, we generated 1,5,8-[13C]-chorismate from bacterial fermentation of 5-[13C]-glucose and in turn produced 2,4,6-[13C]-prephenate via chorismate mutase. Tandem action of BacA and BacB gave 2,4,8-[13C]-7R-ex-H2HPP, showing that BacA isomerizes only the pro-R double bond in prephenate. Nonenzymatic isomerization of the BacA product into conjugation gives only the ?3 E-geometric isomer of ?3?5-ex-H2HPP. On the other hand, acceleration of the allylic isomerization by BacB gives a mixture of the E- and Z-geometric isomers of the 7R-product, indicating some rerouting of the flux, likely through dienolate geometric isomers. PMID:22483065

Parker, Jared B.; Walsh, Christopher T.



Molecular characterization and genomic organization of low molecular weight glutenin subunit genes at the Glu-3 loci in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  


In this study, we report on the molecular characterization and genomic organization of the low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) gene family in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Eighty-two positive BAC clones were identified to contain LMW-GS genes from the hexaploid wheat 'Glenlea' BAC library via filter hybridization and PCR validation. Twelve unique LMW glutenin genes and seven pseudogenes were isolated from these positive BAC clones by primer-template mismatch PCR and subsequent primer walking using hemi-nested touchdown PCR. These genes were sequenced and each consisted of a single-open reading frame (ORF) and untranslated 5' and 3' flanking regions. All 12 LMW glutenin subunits contained eight cysteine residues. The LMW-m-type subunits are the most abundant in hexaploid wheat. Of the 12 LMW-GS, 1, 2 and 9 are i-type, s-type and m-type, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the LMW-i type gene showed greater differences to LMW-s and LMW-m-type genes, which, in turn, were more closely related to one another. On the basis of their N-terminal sequences, they were classified into nine groups. Fingerprinting of the 82 BAC clones indicated 30 BAC clones assembled into eight contigs, while the remaining clones were singletons. BAC end sequencing of the 82 clones revealed that long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were abundant in the Glu-3 regions. The average physical distance between two adjacent LMW-GS genes was estimated to be 81 kb. Most of LMW-GS genes are located in the D: -genome, suggesting that the Glu-D3 locus is much larger than the Glu-B3 locus and Glu-A3 locus. Alignments of sequences indicated that the same type (starting with the same N-terminal sequence) LMW-GS genes were highly conserved in the homologous genomes between hexaploid wheat and its donors such as durum wheat and T. tauschii. PMID:18305921

Huang, Xiu-Qiang; Cloutier, Sylvie



Integration of draft sequence and physical map as framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three independent BAC libraries, consisting of 223,640 clones, combined with genetic and gene-based markers were used to construct a minimal tiling path (MTP) of BAC clones. Out of the 134,182 fingerprinted clones, 107,214 clones were assembled into contigs and 1,355 FPC contigs were aligned to buil...


Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

Kao, Fa-Ten



From raw materials to validated system: the construction of a genomic library and microarray to interpret systemic perturbations in Northern bobwhite  

PubMed Central

The limited availability of genomic tools and data for nonmodel species impedes computational and systems biology approaches in nonmodel organisms. Here we describe the development, functional annotation, and utilization of genomic tools for the avian wildlife species Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) to determine the molecular impacts of exposure to 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), a field contaminant of military concern. Massively parallel pyrosequencing of a normalized multitissue library of Northern bobwhite cDNAs yielded 71,384 unique transcripts that were annotated with gene ontology (GO), pathway information, and protein domain analysis. Comparative genome analyses with model organisms revealed functional homologies in 8,825 unique Northern bobwhite genes that are orthologous to 48% of Gallus gallus protein-coding genes. Pathway analysis and GO enrichment of genes differentially expressed in livers of birds exposed for 60 days (d) to 10 and 60 mg/kg/d 2,6-DNT revealed several impacts validated by RT-qPCR including: prostaglandin pathway-mediated inflammation, increased expression of a heme synthesis pathway in response to anemia, and a shift in energy metabolism toward protein catabolism via inhibition of control points for glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, PCK1 and PPARGC1, respectively. This research effort provides the first comprehensive annotated gene library for Northern bobwhite. Transcript expression analysis provided insights into the metabolic perturbations underlying several observed toxicological phenotypes in a 2,6-DNT exposure case study. Furthermore, the systemic impact of dinitrotoluenes on liver function appears conserved across species as PPAR signaling is similarly affected in fathead minnow liver tissue after exposure to 2,4-DNT. PMID:20406850

Rawat, Arun; Deng, Youping; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Quinn, Michael J.; Johnson, Mark S.; Indest, Karl J.; Elasri, Mohamed O.; Perkins, Edward J.



Library System Library System  

E-print Network

Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

Cinabro, David


A conditional piggyBac transposition system for genetic screening in mice identifies oncogenic networks in pancreatic cancer.  


Here we describe a conditional piggyBac transposition system in mice and report the discovery of large sets of new cancer genes through a pancreatic insertional mutagenesis screen. We identify Foxp1 as an oncogenic transcription factor that drives pancreatic cancer invasion and spread in a mouse model and correlates with lymph node metastasis in human patients with pancreatic cancer. The propensity of piggyBac for open chromatin also enabled genome-wide screening for cancer-relevant noncoding DNA, which pinpointed a Cdkn2a cis-regulatory region. Histologically, we observed different tumor subentities and discovered associated genetic events, including Fign insertions in hepatoid pancreatic cancer. Our studies demonstrate the power of genetic screening to discover cancer drivers that are difficult to identify by other approaches to cancer genome analysis, such as downstream targets of commonly mutated human cancer genes. These piggyBac resources are universally applicable in any tissue context and provide unique experimental access to the genetic complexity of cancer. PMID:25485836

Rad, Roland; Rad, Lena; Wang, Wei; Strong, Alexander; Ponstingl, Hannes; Bronner, Iraad F; Mayho, Matthew; Steiger, Katja; Weber, Julia; Hieber, Maren; Veltkamp, Christian; Eser, Stefan; Geumann, Ulf; Öllinger, Rupert; Zukowska, Magdalena; Barenboim, Maxim; Maresch, Roman; Cadiñanos, Juan; Friedrich, Mathias; Varela, Ignacio; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; Sarver, Aaron; Ten Hoeve, Jelle; Prosser, Haydn; Seidler, Barbara; Bauer, Judith; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Metzakopian, Emmanouil; Krug, Anne; Ehmer, Ursula; Schneider, Günter; Knösel, Thomas; Rümmele, Petra; Aust, Daniela; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian; Ning, Zemin; Wessels, Lodewyk; Schmid, Roland M; Quail, Michael A; Vassiliou, George; Esposito, Irene; Liu, Pentao; Saur, Dieter; Bradley, Allan



Development and validation of a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri DNA microarray platform (XACarray) generated from the shotgun libraries previously used in the sequencing of this bacterial genome  

PubMed Central

Background From shotgun libraries used for the genomic sequencing of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (XAC), clones that were representative of the largest possible number of coding sequences (CDSs) were selected to create a DNA microarray platform on glass slides (XACarray). The creation of the XACarray allowed for the establishment of a tool that is capable of providing data for the analysis of global genome expression in this organism. Findings The inserts from the selected clones were amplified by PCR with the universal oligonucleotide primers M13R and M13F. The obtained products were purified and fixed in duplicate on glass slides specific for use in DNA microarrays. The number of spots on the microarray totaled 6,144 and included 768 positive controls and 624 negative controls per slide. Validation of the platform was performed through hybridization of total DNA probes from XAC labeled with different fluorophores, Cy3 and Cy5. In this validation assay, 86% of all PCR products fixed on the glass slides were confirmed to present a hybridization signal greater than twice the standard deviation of the deviation of the global median signal-to-noise ration. Conclusions Our validation of the XACArray platform using DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that it can be used to evaluate the expression of 2,365 individual CDSs from all major functional categories, which corresponds to 52.7% of the annotated CDSs of the XAC genome. As a proof of concept, we used this platform in a previously work to verify the absence of genomic regions that could not be detected by sequencing in related strains of Xanthomonas. PMID:20507617




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clones containing the gene for baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2 (BIRC2) were identified by PCR screening of a gynogenetic channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) BAC library. Directed sequencing of ~9.5 kb of the BAC clones revealed eight exons and seven introns in the catfish BIRC2 gene. Express...


Highly conserved gene order and numerous novel repetitive elements in genomic regions linked to wing pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies  

E-print Network

to screen H. erato BAC libraries in order to identify clones for sequencing. Gene density across 600 kb of BAC sequences appeared relatively low, although the number of predicted open reading frames was typical for an insect. We focused analyses on the D...

Papa, Riccardo; Morrison, Clayton M.; Walters, James R.; Counterman, Brian A.; Chen, Rui; Halder, Georg; Ferguson, Laura; Chamberlain, Nicola; ffrench-Constant, Richard; Kapan, Durrell D.; Jiggins, Chris D.; Reed, Robert D.; McMillan, William O.



Structural & FunctionalStructural & Functional GenomicsGenomics  

E-print Network

NCBINCBI Structural & FunctionalStructural & Functional GenomicsGenomics:: The Information Information National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland Current Topics in Genome Analysis, 4 November 1997 #12;NCBINCBI Growth of Biomedical Information (1)Growth of Biomedical

Boguski, Mark S.


Flow cytogenetics and plant genome mapping.  


The application of flow cytometry and sorting (flow cytogenetics) to plant chromosomes did not begin until the mid-1980s, having been delayed by difficulties in preparation of suspensions of intact chromosomes and discrimination of individual chromosome types. These problems have been overcome during the last ten years. So far, chromosome analysis and sorting has been reported in 17 species, including major legume and cereal crops. While chromosome classification by flow cytometry (flow karyotyping) may be used for quantitative detection of structural and numerical chromosome changes, chromosomes purified by flow sorting were found to be invaluable in a broad range of applications. These included physical mapping using PCR, high-resolution cytogenetic mapping using FISH and PRINS, production of recombinant DNA libraries, targeted isolation of markers, and protein analysis. A great potential is foreseen for the use of sorted chromosomes for construction of chromosome and chromosome-arm-specific BAC libraries, targeted isolation of low-copy (genic) sequences, high-throughput physical mapping of ESTs and other DNA sequences by hybridization to DNA arrays, and global characterization of chromosomal proteins using approaches of proteomics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the methodology and application of flow cytogenetics, and assesses its potential for plant genome analysis. PMID:14984104

Dolezel, Jaroslav; Kubaláková, Marie; Bartos, Jan; Macas, Jirí



Efficient Expression of Acetylcholine-Binding Protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac System  

PubMed Central

The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ?5?mg/L, which needs 55?h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2?×?106?cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1?:?100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies. PMID:25136612

Lin, Bo; Bing, Hui; Zhangsun, Dongting; Luo, Sulan



Efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac system.  


The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP) and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ?5?mg/L, which needs 55?h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2?×?10(6)?cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1?:?100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies. PMID:25136612

Lin, Bo; Meng, Hailing; Bing, Hui; Zhangsun, Dongting; Luo, Sulan



A genome-wide polyketide synthase deletion library uncovers novel genetic links to polyketides and meroterpenoids in Aspergillus nidulans.  


Fungi possess an advanced secondary metabolism that is regulated and coordinated in a complex manner depending on environmental challenges. To understand this complexity, a holistic approach is necessary. We initiated such an analysis in the important model fungus Aspergillus nidulans by systematically deleting all 32 individual genes encoding polyketide synthases. Wild-type and all mutant strains were challenged on different complex media to provoke induction of the secondary metabolism. Screening of the mutant library revealed direct genetic links to two austinol meroterpenoids and expanded the current understanding of the biosynthetic pathways leading to arugosins and violaceols. We expect that the library will be an important resource towards a systemic understanding of polyketide production in A. nidulans. PMID:21658102

Nielsen, Michael L; Nielsen, Jakob B; Rank, Christian; Klejnstrup, Marie L; Holm, Dorte K; Brogaard, Katrine H; Hansen, Bjarne G; Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O; Mortensen, Uffe H



The creation of transgenic pigs expressing human proteins using BAC-derived, full-length genes and intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer.  


In most transgenic (Tg) animals created to date, a transgene consisting of the minimum promoter region linked to a cDNA has been used. However, transgenes on small plasmids are susceptible to the position effect, increasing the difficulty of controlling transgene expression. In this study, we attempted to create Tg pigs by intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer (ICSI-MGT) using two large genomic transgenes derived from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the full genomic region encoding two human proteins, type I collagen and albumin. The production efficiencies (Tg piglets/live offspring) of type I collagen and albumin Tg pigs were 11.8% (6/51) and 18.2% (2/11), respectively. In all of the Tg pigs examined by real-time PCR analysis, tissue-specific expression of the transgene was confirmed (type I collagen: skin, tendon, vessels, genitalia; albumin: liver). The production of human proteins derived from BAC transgenes was also confirmed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the BAC transgenes transferred into porcine oocytes by ICSI-MGT were integrated into single or multiple sites on the host chromosomes. These data demonstrate that Tg pigs expressing human proteins in a tissue-specific manner can be created using a BAC transgenic construct and the ICSI-MGT method. PMID:22038447

Watanabe, Masahito; Kurome, Mayuko; Matsunari, Hitomi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Umeyema, Kazuhiro; Shiota, Akira; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Nagashima, Hiroshi



Application of BAC-probes to visualize copy number variants (CNVs).  


Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural variations of the human genome. These alterations result in variant copy numbers of certain stretches of DNA. In other words, some regions may be present in more or less copies than in a reference genome; however, these copy number changes do not have any impact on the phenotype. Also, CNVs may be extremely large and cytogenetically detectable or submicroscopic but still spanning several megabasepairs (Mb). In the recent years, array technology has identified especially the latter ones as so-called copy number variant (CNV) polymorphisms. These CNVs are detected in ~12 % of the human genome sequences and may comprise several hundred kilobasepairs. CNVs contribute significantly to the inter-individual differences in humans, and can range between 0.5 and 1.5 Mb amongst different genomes, well within the level of detection using cytogenetics techniques. Thus, they can be visualized by FISH using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) as probes. Here we describe a method that enables discrimination of individual homologous chromosomes at the single cell level based on CNVs in the genome, called parental origin determination fluorescence in situ hybridization (POD-FISH). Possible fields of applications of this single cell-directed approach are in analyses of the parental origin of single chromosomes in inherited and acquired chromosomal aberrations. PMID:25239754

Weise, Anja; Othman, Moneeb A K; Bhatt, Samarth; Löhmer, Sharon; Liehr, Thomas



Construction and characterization of a repetitive DNA library in parodontidae (actinopterygii: characiformes): a genomic and evolutionary approach to the degeneration of the w sex chromosome.  


Repetitive DNA sequences, including tandem and dispersed repeats, comprise a large portion of eukaryotic genomes and are important for gene regulation, sex chromosome differentiation, and karyotype evolution. In Parodontidae, only the repetitive DNAs WAp and pPh2004 and rDNAs were previously studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This study aimed to build a library of repetitive DNA in Parodontidae. We isolated 40 clones using Cot-1; 17 of these clones exhibited similarity to repetitive DNA sequences, including satellites, minisatellites, microsatellites, and class I and class II transposable elements (TEs), from Danio rerio and other organisms. The physical mapping of the clones to chromosomes revealed the presence of a satellite DNA, a Helitron element, and degenerate short interspersed element (SINE), long interspersed element (LINE), and tc1-mariner elements on the sex chromosomes. Some clones exhibited dispersed signals; other sequences were not detected. The 5S rDNA was detected on an autosomal pair. These elements likely function in the molecular degeneration of the W chromosome in Parodontidae. Thus, the location of these elements on the chromosomes is important for understanding the function of these repetitive DNAs and for integrative studies with genome sequencing. The presented data demonstrate that an intensive invasion of TEs occurred during W sex chromosome differentiation in the Parodontidae. PMID:25122415

Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Oliveira, Jordana Inácio Nascimento; Nogaroto, Viviane; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo



Pigeonpea genomics initiative (PGI): an international effort to improve crop productivity of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)  

PubMed Central

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an important food legume crop in the semi-arid regions of the world and the second most important pulse crop in India, has an average crop productivity of 780 kg/ha. The relatively low crop yields may be attributed to non-availability of improved cultivars, poor crop husbandry and exposure to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses in pigeonpea growing regions. Narrow genetic diversity in cultivated germplasm has further hampered the effective utilization of conventional breeding as well as development and utilization of genomic tools, resulting in pigeonpea being often referred to as an ‘orphan crop legume’. To enable genomics-assisted breeding in this crop, the pigeonpea genomics initiative (PGI) was initiated in late 2006 with funding from Indian Council of Agricultural Research under the umbrella of Indo-US agricultural knowledge initiative, which was further expanded with financial support from the US National Science Foundation’s Plant Genome Research Program and the Generation Challenge Program. As a result of the PGI, the last 3 years have witnessed significant progress in development of both genetic as well as genomic resources in this crop through effective collaborations and coordination of genomics activities across several institutes and countries. For instance, 25 mapping populations segregating for a number of biotic and abiotic stresses have been developed or are under development. An 11X-genome coverage bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library comprising of 69,120 clones have been developed of which 50,000 clones were end sequenced to generate 87,590 BAC-end sequences (BESs). About 10,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Sanger sequencing and ca. 2 million short ESTs by 454/FLX sequencing have been generated. A variety of molecular markers have been developed from BESs, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR)-enriched libraries and mining of ESTs and genomic amplicon sequencing. Of about 21,000 SSRs identified, 6,698 SSRs are under analysis along with 670 orthologous genes using a GoldenGate SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotyping platform, with large scale SNP discovery using Solexa, a next generation sequencing technology, is in progress. Similarly a diversity array technology array comprising of ca. 15,000 features has been developed. In addition, >600 unique nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain containing members of the NBS-leucine rich repeat disease resistance homologs were cloned in pigeonpea; 960 BACs containing these sequences were identified by filter hybridization, BES physical maps developed using high information content fingerprinting. To enrich the genomic resources further, sequenced soybean genome is being analyzed to establish the anchor points between pigeonpea and soybean genomes. In addition, Solexa sequencing is being used to explore the feasibility of generating whole genome sequence. In summary, the collaborative efforts of several research groups under the umbrella of PGI are making significant progress in improving molecular tools in pigeonpea and should significantly benefit pigeonpea genetics and breeding. As these efforts come to fruition, and expanded (depending on funding), pigeonpea would move from an ‘orphan legume crop’ to one where genomics-assisted breeding approaches for a sustainable crop improvement are routine. PMID:20976284

Penmetsa, R. V.; Dutta, S.; Kulwal, P. L.; Saxena, R. K.; Datta, S.; Sharma, T. R.; Rosen, B.; Carrasquilla-Garcia, N.; Farmer, A. D.; Dubey, A.; Saxena, K. B.; Gao, J.; Fakrudin, B.; Singh, M. N.; Singh, B. P.; Wanjari, K. B.; Yuan, M.; Srivastava, R. K.; Kilian, A.; Upadhyaya, H. D.; Mallikarjuna, N.; Town, C. D.; Bruening, G. E.; He, G.; May, G. D.; McCombie, R.; Jackson, S. A.; Singh, N. K.; Cook, D. R.



Comparison of the BacT/Alert PF pediatric FAN blood culture bottle with the standard pediatric blood culture bottle, the Pedi-BacT.  


The performance of the BacT/Alert PF (Organon-Teknika Corp., Durham, N.C.), a new nonvented pediatric FAN blood culture bottle, was compared to that of the original pediatric bottle, the Pedi-BacT, with matched aerobic cultures obtained from two separate facilities. A total of 244 clinically significant isolates were recovered from 4,015 compliant pairs. Among the positive cultures, 170 (70%) isolates were detected in both the BacT/Alert PF and the Pedi-BacT bottles, while 47 (19%) isolates were recovered in the BacT/Alert PF bottle only and 27 (11%) isolates were recovered in the Pedi-BacT bottle only. Although isolation of specific microorganisms was comparable for the two bottles, the total number of organisms recovered by the BacT/Alert PF was greater than that by the Pedi-BacT (P = 0.0272). In addition, more organisms were recovered by the BacT/Alert PF bottle from the blood of patients receiving antimicrobial therapy (P = 0.0180). Overall time to detection was similar for the two bottles; however, a significantly decreased mean time to detection was recorded for yeast from the BacT/Alert PF bottle (22.9 h; P = 0.0001) and staphylococci from the Pedi-BacT bottle (22.5 h; P = 0.0056). One false-negative culture and five false-positive cultures occurred with the Pedi-BacT bottle, compared to one false-positive culture with the BacT/Alert PF bottle. The BacT/Alert PF bottle is a reliable blood culture bottle for pediatric blood culture specimens and may offer improved recovery of microbes from patients on antimicrobial therapy. The use of the nonvented bottle will both facilitate bottle processing and decrease expenditures for materials due to the elimination of the venting needles required for the original vented bottles. PMID:11474007

Krisher, K K; Gibb, P; Corbett, S; Church, D



Genome Improvement at JGI-HAGSC  

SciTech Connect

Since the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, the JGI has rapidly expanded its scientific goals in several DOE mission-relevant areas. At the JGI-HAGSC, we have kept pace with this rapid expansion of projects with our focus on assessing, assembling, improving and finishing eukaryotic whole genome shotgun (WGS) projects for which the shotgun sequence is generated at the Production Genomic Facility (JGI-PGF). We follow this by combining the draft WGS with genomic resources generated at JGI-HAGSC or in collaborator laboratories (including BAC end sequences, genetic maps and FLcDNA sequences) to produce an improved draft sequence. For eukaryotic genomes important to the DOE mission, we then add further information from directed experiments to produce reference genomic sequences that are publicly available for any scientific researcher. Also, we have continued our program for producing BAC-based finished sequence, both for adding information to JGI genome projects and for small BAC-based sequencing projects proposed through any of the JGI sequencing programs. We have now built our computational expertise in WGS assembly and analysis and have moved eukaryotic genome assembly from the JGI-PGF to JGI-HAGSC. We have concentrated our assembly development work on large plant genomes and complex fungal and algal genomes.

Grimwood, Jane: Schmutz, Jeremy, J.: Myers, Richard, M.



The Pinus taeda genome is characterized by diverse and highly diverged repetitive sequences  

PubMed Central

Background In today's age of genomic discovery, no attempt has been made to comprehensively sequence a gymnosperm genome. The largest genus in the coniferous family Pinaceae is Pinus, whose 110-120 species have extremely large genomes (c. 20-40 Gb, 2N = 24). The size and complexity of these genomes have prompted much speculation as to the feasibility of completing a conifer genome sequence. Conifer genomes are reputed to be highly repetitive, but there is little information available on the nature and identity of repetitive units in gymnosperms. The pines have extensive genetic resources, with approximately 329000 ESTs from eleven species and genetic maps in eight species, including a dense genetic map of the twelve linkage groups in Pinus taeda. Results We present here the Sanger sequence and annotation of ten P. taeda BAC clones and Genome Analyzer II whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequences representing 7.5% of the genome. Computational annotation of ten BACs predicts three putative protein-coding genes and at least fifteen likely pseudogenes in nearly one megabase of sequence. We found three conifer-specific LTR retroelements in the BACs, and tentatively identified at least 15 others based on evidence from the distantly related angiosperms. Alignment of WGS sequences to the BACs indicates that 80% of BAC sequences have similar copies (? 75% nucleotide identity) elsewhere in the genome, but only 23% have identical copies (99% identity). The three most common repetitive elements in the genome were identified and, when combined, represent less than 5% of the genome. Conclusions This study indicates that the majority of repeats in the P. taeda genome are 'novel' and will therefore require additional BAC or genomic sequencing for accurate characterization. The pine genome contains a very large number of diverged and probably defunct repetitive elements. This study also provides new evidence that sequencing a pine genome using a WGS approach is a feasible goal. PMID:20609256



The repetitive component of the A genome of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its role in remodelling intergenic sequence space since its evolutionary divergence from the B genome  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid (AABB-type genome) of recent origin, with a genome of about 2·8 Gb and a high repetitive content. This study reports an analysis of the repetitive component of the peanut A genome using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from A. duranensis, the most probable A genome donor, and the probable consequences of the activity of these elements since the divergence of the peanut A and B genomes. Methods The repetitive content of the A genome was analysed by using A. duranensis BAC clones as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH), and by sequencing and characterization of 12 genomic regions. For the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics, two A genome regions are compared with their B genome homeologues. Key Results BAC-FISH using 27 A. duranensis BAC clones as probes gave dispersed and repetitive DNA characteristic signals, predominantly in interstitial regions of the peanut A chromosomes. The sequences of 14 BAC clones showed complete and truncated copies of ten abundant long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, characterized here. Almost all dateable transposition events occurred <3·5 million years ago, the estimated date of the divergence of A and B genomes. The most abundant retrotransposon is Feral, apparently parasitic on the retrotransposon FIDEL, followed by Pipa, also non-autonomous and probably parasitic on a retrotransposon we named Pipoka. The comparison of the A and B genome homeologous regions showed conserved segments of high sequence identity, punctuated by predominantly indel regions without significant similarity. Conclusions A substantial proportion of the highly repetitive component of the peanut A genome appears to be accounted for by relatively few LTR retrotransposons and their truncated copies or solo LTRs. The most abundant of the retrotransposons are non-autonomous. The activity of these retrotransposons has been a very significant driver of genome evolution since the evolutionary divergence of the A and B genomes. PMID:23828319

Bertioli, David J.; Vidigal, Bruna; Nielen, Stephan; Ratnaparkhe, Milind B.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Kim, Changsoo; Guimarães, Patricia M.; Seijo, Guillermo; Schwarzacher, Trude; Paterson, Andrew H.; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Araujo, Ana C. G.



BacMet: antibacterial biocide and metal resistance genes database  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance has become a major human health concern due to widespread use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics. In addition to antibiotics, antibacterial biocides and metals can contribute to the development and maintenance of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities through co-selection. Information on metal and biocide resistance genes, including their sequences and molecular functions, is, however, scattered. Here, we introduce BacMet (—a manually curated database of antibacterial biocide- and metal-resistance genes based on an in-depth review of the scientific literature. The BacMet database contains 470 experimentally verified resistance genes. In addition, the database also contains 25 477 potential resistance genes collected from public sequence repositories. All resistance genes in the BacMet database have been organized according to their molecular function and induced resistance phenotype. PMID:24304895

Pal, Chandan; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Rensing, Christopher; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D. G. Joakim



Aerobic biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment of a phenolic wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Organic removal rates achieved in the aerobic BAC process were comparable to rates typically reported for traditional aerobic fixed-film systems. When operated at organic loading rates lower than 0.03 g COD/g GAC-d and air as the oxygen source, greater than 90% COD removal and 99% phenol removal was achieved. At higher organic loading rates, oxygen limitations resulted in less than optimal performance. Observed oxygen limitations were mitigated by the use of pure oxygen. Long-term stability of operation of the BAC process was excellent with one aerobic BAC column operated under the same conditions in excess of 260 days. During that time, consistent column performance was achieved without the need to provide supplemental carbon or carbon regeneration. System biomass yields ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 g VSS/g COD removed and increased with effluent COD concentration.

Wei Lin; Weber, A.S. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States))



Initial and Continuous Commissioning of Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) -Preview EN ISO 16484-  

E-print Network

of the global BACS standard is specifying the requirements for project implementation and system integration including engineering and commissioning of a BACS. System integration allows the user to take advantage of synergies between the different applications...

Kranz, H. R.



Characterizing a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 for potential biological control application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: Identify and characterize a bacterial strain from suppressive soil, BAC03, evaluate its antimicrobial activity against Streptomyces scabies and other microorganisms, and characterize an antimicrobial substance produced by this strain. Methods and Results: Bacterial strain BAC03 (isolated from ...


High efficiency application of a mate-paired library from next-generation sequencing to postlight sequencing: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis as a case study for microbial de novo genome assembly.  


With the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms, there has been a reduction in the cost and time of sequencing. With these advantages, new challenges have emerged, such as the handling of large amounts of data, quality assessment, and the assembly of short reads. Currently, benchtop high-throughput sequencers enable the genomes of prokaryotic organisms to be sequenced within two hours with a reduction in coverage compared with the SOLiD, Illumina and 454 FLX Titanium platforms, making it necessary to evaluate the efficiency of less expensive benchtop instruments for prokaryotic genomics. In the present work, we evaluate and propose a methodology for the use of the Ion Torrent PGM platform for decoding the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, for which 15 complete genome sequences have already been deposited based on fragment and mate-paired libraries with a 3-kb insert size. Despite the low coverage, a single sequencing run using a mate-paired library generated 39 scaffolds after de novo assembly without data curation. This result is superior to that obtained by sequencing using libraries generated from fragments marketed by the equipment's manufacturer, as well as that observed for mate-pairs sequenced by SOLiD. The generated sequence added an extra 91kb to the genome available at NCBI. PMID:23792707

Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Barbosa, Silvanira; Varuzza, Leonardo; Orabona, Guilherme; Tauch, Andreas; Azevedo, Vasco; Schneider, Maria Paula; Silva, Artur



Suicidal Autointegration of Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac Transposons in Eukaryotic Cells  

PubMed Central

Transposons are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes across the tree of life. ‘Cut and paste’ DNA transposition involves excision from a donor locus and reintegration into a new locus in the genome. We studied molecular events following the excision steps of two eukaryotic DNA transposons, Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) that are widely used for genome manipulation in vertebrate species. SB originates from fish and PB from insects; thus, by introducing these transposons to human cells we aimed to monitor the process of establishing a transposon-host relationship in a naïve cellular environment. Similarly to retroviruses, neither SB nor PB is capable of self-avoidance because a significant portion of the excised transposons integrated back into its own genome in a suicidal process called autointegration. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BANF1), a cellular co-factor of certain retroviruses, inhibited transposon autointegration, and was detected in higher-order protein complexes containing the SB transposase. Increasing size sensitized transposition for autointegration, consistent with elevated vulnerability of larger transposons. Both SB and PB were affected similarly by the size of the transposon in three different assays: excision, autointegration and productive transposition. Prior to reintegration, SB is completely separated from the donor molecule and followed an unbiased autointegration pattern, not associated with local hopping. Self-disruptive autointegration occurred at similar frequency for both transposons, while aberrant, pseudo-transposition events were more frequently observed for PB. PMID:24625543

Devaraj, Anatharam; Singh, Manvendra; Jimenez Orgaz, Ana; Chen, Jia-Xuan; Selbach, Matthias; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna



Action and Timing of BacC and BacD in the Late Stages of Biosynthesis of the Dipeptide Antibiotic Bacilysin  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin, encoded by the seven B. subtilis genes bacA-G, involves diversion of flux from prephenate to the noncognate amino acid anticapsin. The anticapsin warhead is then ligated to the C-terminus of l-alanine to produce mature bacilysin. We have previously noted the formation of two diastereomers of tetrahydrotyrosine (4S- and 4R-H4Tyr) by tandem action of the four purified enzymes BacABGF. BacC (oxidase) and BacD (ligase) have been hypothesized to be remaining late stage enzymes in bacilysin biosynthesis. Using a combination of BacCD in vitro studies, B. subtilis deletion mutants, and isotopic feeding studies, we were able to determine that the H4Tyr diastereomers are actually shunt products that are not on-pathway to bacilysin biosynthesis. Dihydroanticapsin and dihydrobacilysin accumulate in extracts of a ?bacC strain and are processed to anticapsin and then bacilysin on addition of BacC and BacD, respectively. These results suggest the epoxide group in bacilysin is installed in an earlier step of bacilysin biosynthesis, while BacC oxidation of the C7-hydroxyl followed by BacD ligation of anticapsin to l-Ala are the penultimate and ultimate steps of bacilysin biosynthesis. PMID:23317005

Parker, Jared B.; Walsh, Christopher T.



Highly recombinogenic regions at seed storage protein loci on chromosome 1DS of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of wheat.  

PubMed Central

A detailed RFLP map was constructed of the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 1D of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid D-genome donor species of hexaploid wheat. Ae. tauschii was used to overcome some of the limitations commonly associated with molecular studies of wheat such as low levels of DNA polymorphism. Detection of multiple loci by most RFLP probes suggests that gene duplication events have occurred throughout this chromosomal region. Large DNA fragments isolated from a BAC library of Ae. tauschii were used to determine the relationship between physical and genetic distance at seed storage protein loci located at the distal end of chromosome 1DS. Highly recombinogenic regions were identified where the ratio of physical to genetic distance was estimated to be <20 kb/cM. These results are discussed in relation to the genome-wide estimate of the relationship between physical and genetic distance. PMID:10790409

Spielmeyer, W; Moullet, O; Laroche, A; Lagudah, E S



Comparative genome analysis of Lactococcus garvieae using a suppression subtractive hybridization library: discovery of novel DNA signatures.  


Lactococcus garvieae, the pathogenic species in the genus Lactococcus, is recognized as an emerging pathogen in fish, animals, and humans. Despite the widespread distribution and emerging clinical significance of L. garvieae, little is known about the genomic content of this microorganism. Suppression subtractive hybridization was performed to identify the genomic differences between L. garvieae and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, its closest phylogenetic neighbor, and the type species of the genus Lactococcus. Twenty-seven clones were specific to L. garvieae and were highly different from Lactococcus lactis in their nucleotide and protein sequences. Lactococcus garvieae primer sets were subsequently designed for two of these clones corresponding to a pyrH gene and a novel DNA signature for application in the specific detection of L. garvieae. The primer specificities were evaluated relative to three previously described 16S rRNA gene-targeted methods using 32 Lactococcus and closely related strains. Both newly designed primer sets were highly specific to L. garvieae and performed better than did the existing primers. Our findings may be useful for developing more stable and accurate tools for the discrimination of L. garvieae from other closely related species. PMID:22092865

Kim, Wonyong; Park, Hee Kuk; Thanh, Hien Dang; Lee, Bo-Young; Shin, Jong Wook; Shin, Hyoung-Shik



Prokaryotic Genomes Eurkaryotic Genomes  

E-print Network

Prokaryotic Genomes Eurkaryotic Genomes Chapter 6. Genomics and Gene Identification Weigang Qiu Weigang Qiu Chapter 6. Genomics and Gene Identification #12;Prokaryotic Genomes Eurkaryotic Genomes Outline 1 Prokaryotic Genomes 2 Eurkaryotic Genomes Weigang Qiu Chapter 6. Genomics and Gene

Qiu, Weigang


[Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22 using Pace electrophoresis and large fragment cloning]. Annual report, October 1, 1991--July 1, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In the past two years, the authors have made a great deal of progress in establishing Fosmid and BAC libraries and in using large BAC libraries for gene mapping. In addition, they initiated work on the application of BAC clones to long range genome sequencing. They continue to increase the ability to rapidly generate large BAC libraries and to efficiently apply these libraries to genome mapping. The BACs provide a very effective means of developing physical maps. The current work suggests that BAC contigs will be extremely useful as source material for genome sequencing.

Simon, M.I.



High-throughput generation of an activation-tagged mutant library for functional genomic analyses in tobacco.  


Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is an ideal model system for molecular biological and genetic studies. In this study, activation tagging was used to generate approximately 100,000 transgenic tobacco plants. Southern blot analysis indicated that there were 1.6 T-DNA inserts per line on average in our transformed population. The phenotypes observed include abnormalities in leaf and flower morphology, plant height, flowering time, branching, and fertility. Among 6,000 plants in the T0 generation, 57 displayed obvious phenotypes. Among 4,105 lines in the T1 generation, 311 displayed abnormal phenotypes. Fusion primer and nested integrated PCR was used to identify 963 independent genomic loci of T-DNA insertion sites in 1,257 T1 lines. The distribution of T-DNA insertions was non-uniform and correlated well with the predicted gene density along each chromosome. The insertions were biased toward genic regions and noncoding regions within 5 kb of a gene. Fifteen plants that showed the same phenotype as their parent with a dominant pattern in the T2 generation were chosen randomly to detect the expression levels of genes adjacent to the T-DNA integration sites by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Fifteen candidate genes were identified. Activation was observed in 7 out of the 15 adjacent genes, including one that was located 13.1 kb away from the enhancer sequence. The activation-tagged population described in this paper will be a highly valuable resource for tobacco functional genomics research using both forward and reverse genetic approaches. PMID:25408504

Liu, Feng; Gong, Daping; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Dawei; Cui, Mengmeng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Liu, Guanshan; Wu, Jinxia; Wang, Yuanying



Preparation of BAC DNA for Pronuclear Injection Drop Dialysis  

E-print Network

Preparation of BAC DNA for Pronuclear Injection Drop Dialysis 1. Fill the bottom of a Petri dish with injection buffer (MIB)a. 2. Float the dialysis membrane (VSWP02500, Millipore) on the surface of MIB in determining the dialysis time required. Most samples are dialyzed in less than 30 minutes. 4. Place a tight

Oliver, Douglas L.


YACs, BACs, PACs and MACs: artificial chromosomes as research tools.  


Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) have become essential research tools as they enable large fragments of DNA to be cloned. In order to overcome several disadvantages of YACs, including chimaerism and instability, several complementary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have been developed. More recently, attempts are being made to construct artificial chromosomes in mammalian cells (MACs). PMID:7765076

Monaco, A P; Larin, Z



Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Newly Isolated Pyrethroid-Degrading Esterase Gene from a Genomic Library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1  

PubMed Central

A novel pyrethroid-degrading esterase gene pytY was isolated from the genomic library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1. It possesses an open reading frame (ORF) of 897 bp. Blast search showed that its deduced amino acid sequence shares moderate identities (30% to 46%) with most homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PytY is a member of the esterase VI family. pytY showed very low sequence similarity compared with reported pyrethroid-degrading genes. PytY was expressed, purified, and characterized. Enzyme assay revealed that PytY is a broad-spectrum degrading enzyme that can degrade various pyrethroids. It is a new pyrethroid-degrading gene and enriches genetic resource. Kinetic constants of Km and Vmax were 2.34 mmol·L?1 and 56.33 nmol min?1, respectively, with lambda-cyhalothrin as substrate. PytY displayed good degrading ability and stability over a broad range of temperature and pH. The optimal temperature and pH were of 35°C and 7.5. No cofactors were required for enzyme activity. The results highlighted the potential use of PytY in the elimination of pyrethroid residuals from contaminated environments. PMID:24155944

Song, Jinlong; Shi, Yanhua; Li, Kang; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Yanchun



[On the problem of genome redundancy in viruses and prokaryotes].  


A specific index of nucleotide sequence redundancy, the specific restriction length of a finite frequency dictionary, was determined for a complete set of genes in some viral genomes and a genome of a bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. The distribution of the gene number over the specific restriction length was shown to be bimodal for viral genomes and unimodal for the Bac. subtilis genome. These results agree with earlier data. PMID:12068554

Sadovski?, M G



Frequent Itemsets for Genomic Profiling Jeannette M. de Graaf1  

E-print Network

Profiling 105 (relatively short pieces of DNA) such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACsFrequent Itemsets for Genomic Profiling Jeannette M. de Graaf1 , Ren´ee X. de Menezes2,3 , Judith M approach to the study of genomic profiling data. Here a dataset consists of real num- bers describing

Kosters, Walter


A chromosomal genomics approach to assess and validate the desi and kabuli draft chickpea genome assemblies.  


With the expansion of next-generation sequencing technology and advanced bioinformatics, there has been a rapid growth of genome sequencing projects. However, while this technology enables the rapid and cost-effective assembly of draft genomes, the quality of these assemblies usually falls short of gold standard genome assemblies produced using the more traditional BAC by BAC and Sanger sequencing approaches. Assembly validation is often performed by the physical anchoring of genetically mapped markers, but this is prone to errors and the resolution is usually low, especially towards centromeric regions where recombination is limited. New approaches are required to validate reference genome assemblies. The ability to isolate individual chromosomes combined with next-generation sequencing permits the validation of genome assemblies at the chromosome level. We demonstrate this approach by the assessment of the recently published chickpea kabuli and desi genomes. While previous genetic analysis suggests that these genomes should be very similar, a comparison of their chromosome sizes and published assemblies highlights significant differences. Our chromosomal genomics analysis highlights short defined regions that appear to have been misassembled in the kabuli genome and identifies large-scale misassembly in the draft desi genome. The integration of chromosomal genomics tools within genome sequencing projects has the potential to significantly improve the construction and validation of genome assemblies. The approach could be applied both for new genome assemblies as well as published assemblies, and complements currently applied genome assembly strategies. PMID:24702794

Ruperao, Pradeep; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Azam, Sarwar; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Hayashi, Satomi; Cížková, Jana; Saxena, Rachit K; Simková, Hana; Song, Chi; Vrána, Jan; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Visendi, Paul; Gaur, Pooran M; Millán, Teresa; Singh, Karam B; Taran, Bunyamin; Wang, Jun; Batley, Jacqueline; Doležel, Jaroslav; Varshney, Rajeev K; Edwards, David



The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a major step toward understanding the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to ~7x coverage using a combined whole genome shotgun and BAC skim approach. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs found in seven mammalian...


A tiling resolution DNA microarray with complete coverage of the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a tiling resolution array consisting of 32,433 overlapping BAC clones covering the entire human genome. This increases our ability to identify genetic alterations and their boundaries throughout the genome in a single comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) experiment. At this tiling resolution, we identified minute DNA alterations not previously reported. These alterations include microamplifications and deletions containing oncogenes, tumor-suppressor

Adrian S Ishkanian; Chad A Malloff; Spencer K Watson; Ronald J deLeeuw; Bryan Chi; Bradley P Coe; Antoine Snijders; Donna G Albertson; Daniel Pinkel; Marco A Marra; Victor Ling; Calum MacAulay; Wan L Lam



A Comprehensive Whole-Genome Integrated Cytogenetic Map for the Alpaca (Lama pacos).  


Genome analysis of the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) has progressed slowly compared to other domestic species. Here, we report the development of the first comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and CHORI-246 BAC library clones. The map is comprised of 230 linearly ordered markers distributed among all 36 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes. For the first time, markers were assigned to LPA14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. Additionally, 86 genes from 15 alpaca chromosomes were mapped in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius, CDR), demonstrating exceptional synteny and linkage conservation between the 2 camelid genomes. Cytogenetic mapping of 191 protein-coding genes improved and refined the known Zoo-FISH homologies between camelids and humans: we discovered new homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) corresponding to HSA1-LPA/CDR11, HSA4-LPA/CDR31 and HSA7-LPA/CDR36, and revised the location of breakpoints for others. Overall, gene mapping was in good agreement with the Zoo-FISH and revealed remarkable evolutionary conservation of gene order within many human-camelid HSBs. Most importantly, 91 FISH-mapped markers effectively integrated the alpaca whole-genome sequence and the radiation hybrid maps with physical chromosomes, thus facilitating the improvement of the sequence assembly and the discovery of genes of biological importance. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25662411

Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Perelman, Polina; Das, Pranab J; Pontius, Joan; Chowdhary, Renuka; Owens, Elaine; Johnson, Warren E; Merriwether, David A; Raudsepp, Terje



Creating Library Spaces: Libraries 2040.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that by 2004, the traditional public libraries will have ceased to exist and new, attractive future libraries will have taken their place. The Libraries 2040 project of the Netherlands is initiating seven different libraries of the future. The Brabant library is the "ultimate library of the future" for the Dutch province of…

Bruijnzeels, Rob


Comparison of visual and photometric Bac-T-Screen results.  


The Bac-T-Screen (Marion Laboratories, Kansas City, MO) was used to screen 826 urine specimens. Of these, 85 either pigmented or clogged the Bac-T-Screen filter and could not be evaluated. Results for the remaining 741 specimens were examined both visually and photometrically by a newly developed photometric card reader. The results were then compared. Screening results for all urines containing greater than or equal to 10(5) pathogens/mL were equivalent for both methods, with sensitivity and predictive negative values of greater than 98% and greater than 99%, respectively. The predictive values of positive tests were also equivalent at 57.5% for visual and 59.6% by photometry. The overall agreement varied with the card reader value used because the photometric card-reader procedure allows the user to select desired sensitivity and specificity levels. PMID:3518401

Wright, D N; Clark, S; Saxon, B; Matsen, J M



Screening for the interacting partners of the proteins MamK & MamJ by two-hybrid genomic DNA library of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1.  


Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of prokaryotes capable of sensing and navigating along the earth's magnetic field. The linear alignment of magnetosomes, which acts as a compass needle for orientation, is dependent on the proteins MamJ (amb0964) & MamK (amb0965). We constructed Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 two-hybrid DNA libraries by fusing the random genomic fragments of AMB-1 to the N-terminal domain of the ?-subunit of RNA polymerase in vector pTRG and used as preys. The genes mamJ & mamK were cloned in frame with the ? repressor protein (? cI) in vector pBT and used as baits for screening the binding partners. After preliminary screening, we further confirmed the candidate interactions between selected protein pairs. The results showed that there were relatively strong interactions between MamK versus Amb3498 (flagella motor switch protein fliM), versus Amb0854 MCPs (signal domain of methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein) and versus Amb3568 (GGDEF domain-containing protein), respectively. MamJ versus Amb1722 (hypothetical protein), MamJ versus MamK, and MamK versus Amb1807 (cation transport ATPase) exhibited low level of interaction. Although the TPR repeat protein MamA (amb0971) showed no interaction with either MamJ or MamK, the TPR repeat protein Amb0024 with more motif sequences exhibited relatively strong interaction with MamK. Among the identified proteins, all categorized as signal transduction-related displayed interaction only with MamK and without MamJ, suggesting that magnetotaxis via MamK in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 might be somehow concerned with the widely accepted chemotaxis mechanism in bacteria. PMID:22382918

Pan, Weidong; Xie, Chunlan; Lv, Jing



An Abundant Evolutionarily Conserved CSB-PiggyBac Fusion Protein Expressed in Cockayne Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a devastating progeria most often caused by mutations in the CSB gene encoding a SWI/SNF family chromatin remodeling protein. Although all CSB mutations that cause CS are recessive, the complete absence of CSB protein does not cause CS. In addition, most CSB mutations are located beyond exon 5 and are thought to generate only C-terminally truncated protein fragments. We now show that a domesticated PiggyBac-like transposon PGBD3, residing within intron 5 of the CSB gene, functions as an alternative 3? terminal exon. The alternatively spliced mRNA encodes a novel chimeric protein in which CSB exons 1–5 are joined in frame to the PiggyBac transposase. The resulting CSB-transposase fusion protein is as abundant as CSB protein itself in a variety of human cell lines, and continues to be expressed by primary CS cells in which functional CSB is lost due to mutations beyond exon 5. The CSB-transposase fusion protein has been highly conserved for at least 43 Myr since the divergence of humans and marmoset, and appears to be subject to selective pressure. The human genome contains over 600 nonautonomous PGBD3-related MER85 elements that were dispersed when the PGBD3 transposase was last active at least 37 Mya. Many of these MER85 elements are associated with genes which are involved in neuronal development, and are known to be regulated by CSB. We speculate that the CSB-transposase fusion protein has been conserved for host antitransposon defense, or to modulate gene regulation by MER85 elements, but may cause CS in the absence of functional CSB protein. PMID:18369450

Newman, John C.; Bailey, Arnold D.; Fan, Hua-Ying; Pavelitz, Thomas; Weiner, Alan M.



British Library Newspaper Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Library Newspaper Library in Colindale has its catalog of over 50,000 newspaper and periodical title holdings online. Researchers planning a trip to Colindale can now look up titles and dates held in advance. Reservations for materials can even be made by telephone or email. The catalog is searchable by keyword and sorted by title, date, or place. Entries include place, main title, numbers, dates, shelfmark, dates held on microfilm, and other notes. The British Library Newspaper Library's holdings include "all UK national daily and Sunday newspapers from 1801 to the present; most UK and Irish provincial newspapers, some from the early 18th century onwards; [and] selected newspapers from around the world in western and Slavonic languages dating from the 17th century onwards."


Epigenome analyses using BAC microarrays identify evolutionary conservation of tissue-specific methylation of SHANK3.  


CpG islands are present in one-half of all human and mouse genes and typically overlap with promoters or exons. We developed a method for high-resolution analysis of the methylation status of CpG islands genome-wide, using arrays of BAC clones and the methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme NotI. Here we demonstrate the accuracy and specificity of the method. By computationally mapping all NotI sites, methylation events can be defined with single-nucleotide precision throughout the genome. We also demonstrate the unique expandability of the array method using a different methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme, BssHII. We identified and validated new CpG island loci that are methylated in a tissue-specific manner in normal human tissues. The methylation status of the CpG islands is associated with gene expression for several genes, including SHANK3, which encodes a structural protein in neuronal postsynaptic densities. Defects in SHANK3 seem to underlie human 22q13 deletion syndrome. Furthermore, these patterns for SHANK3 are conserved in mice and rats. PMID:15895082

Ching, Tsui-Ting; Maunakea, Alika K; Jun, Peter; Hong, Chibo; Zardo, Giuseppe; Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G; Fridlyand, Jane; Mao, Jian-Hua; Shchors, Ksenya; Weiss, William A; Costello, Joseph F



BAC-Based Sequencing of Behaviorally-Relevant Genes in the Prairie Vole  

PubMed Central

The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is an important model organism for the study of social behavior, yet our ability to correlate genes and behavior in this species has been limited due to a lack of genetic and genomic resources. Here we report the BAC-based targeted sequencing of behaviorally-relevant genes and flanking regions in the prairie vole. A total of 6.4 Mb of non-redundant or haplotype-specific sequence assemblies were generated that span the partial or complete sequence of 21 behaviorally-relevant genes as well as an additional 55 flanking genes. Estimates of nucleotide diversity from 13 loci based on alignments of 1.7 Mb of haplotype-specific assemblies revealed an average pair-wise heterozygosity (8.4×10?3). Comparative analyses of the prairie vole proteins encoded by the behaviorally-relevant genes identified >100 substitutions specific to the prairie vole lineage. Finally, our sequencing data indicate that a duplication of the prairie vole AVPR1A locus likely originated from a recent segmental duplication spanning a minimum of 105 kb. In summary, the results of our study provide the genomic resources necessary for the molecular and genetic characterization of a high-priority set of candidate genes for regulating social behavior in the prairie vole. PMID:22238603

McGraw, Lisa A.; Davis, Jamie K.; Thomas, Pamela J.; Young, Larry J.; Thomas, James W.




Microsoft Academic Search

This article reexamines the effectiveness of blood alcohol content (BAC) laws in reducing traffic fatalities. Differences-in-differences estimators of U.S. state-level data with standard errors corrected for autocorrelation show no evidence that lowering the BAC limits to 0.08 g\\/dL reduced fatality rates, either in total or in crashes likely to be alcohol related, or in states that passed BAC 08 in




Functional Identification of the Mouse Circadian Clock Gene by Transgenic BAC Rescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a complementary approach to positional cloning, we used in vivo complementation with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones expressed in transgenic mice to identify the circadian Clock gene. A 140 kb BAC transgene completely rescued both the long period and the loss-of-rhythm phenotypes in Clock mutant mice. Analysis with overlapping BAC transgenes demonstrates that a large transcription unit spanning ?100,000

Marina P Antoch; Eun-Joo Song; Anne-Marie Chang; Martha Hotz Vitaterna; Yaliang Zhao; Lisa D Wilsbacher; Ashvin M Sangoram; David P King; Lawrence H Pinto; Joseph S Takahashi



Sex Chromosome Evolution in Amniotes: Applications for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries  

PubMed Central

Variability among sex chromosome pairs in amniotes denotes a dynamic history. Since amniotes diverged from a common ancestor, their sex chromosome pairs and, more broadly, sex-determining mechanisms have changed reversibly and frequently. These changes have been studied and characterized through the use of many tools and experimental approaches but perhaps most effectively through applications for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Individual BAC clones carry 100–200?kb of sequence from one individual of a target species that can be isolated by screening, mapped onto karyotypes, and sequenced. With these techniques, researchers have identified differences and similarities in sex chromosome content and organization across amniotes and have addressed hypotheses regarding the frequency and direction of past changes. Here, we review studies of sex chromosome evolution in amniotes and the ways in which the field of research has been affected by the advent of BAC libraries. PMID:20981143

Janes, Daniel E.; Valenzuela, Nicole; Ezaz, Tariq; Amemiya, Chris; Edwards, Scott V.



Multimedia Library

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Multimedia Library Learn more about TCGA, its researchers, components and how it works from our multimedia library. Images Image: TCGA Pipeline for Comprehensive Characterization 72 DPI | 300 DPIThe path of TCGA


A BAC contig map over the proximal approximately 3.3 Mb region of horse chromosome 21.  


A total of 207 BAC clones containing 155 loci were isolated and arranged into a map of linearly ordered overlapping clones over the proximal part of horse chromosome 21 (ECA21), which corresponds to the proximal half of the short arm of human chromosome 19 (HSA19p) and part of HSA5. The clones form two contigs - each corresponding to the respective human chromosomes - that are estimated to be separated by a gap of approximately 200 kb. Of the 155 markers present in the two contigs, 141 (33 genes and 108 STS) were generated and mapped in this study. The BACs provide a 4-5x coverage of the region and span an estimated length of approximately 3.3 Mb. The region presently contains one mapped marker per 22 kb on average, which represents a major improvement over the previous resolution of one marker per 380 kb obtained through the generation of a dense RH map for this segment. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization on metaphase and interphase chromosomes verified the relative order of some of the BACs and helped to orient them accurately in the contigs. Despite having similar gene order and content, the equine region covered by the contigs appears to be distinctly smaller than the corresponding region in human (3.3 Mb vs. 5.5-6 Mb) because the latter harbors a host of repetitive elements and gene families unique to humans/primates. Considering limited representation of the region in the latest version of the horse whole genome sequence EquCab2, the dense map developed in this study will prove useful for the assembly and annotation of the sequence data on ECA21 and will be instrumental in rapid search and isolation of candidate genes for traits mapped to this region. PMID:18467843

Brinkmeyer-Langford, C; Raudsepp, T; Gustafson-Seabury, A; Chowdhary, B P



Discover your Library Medical Library  

E-print Network

as the Universities' Research Repository. This short guide offers a quick self-paced tour of the Gus Fraenkel MedicalDiscover your Library Medical Library Welcome to the Gus Fraenkel Medical Library. The Library desks. #12;6. Computers No booking needed. The Medical Library has access to the universi- ty wireless


Digital Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This projects introduces digital libraries, digital initiatives, search techniques, and the Instructional Architect Review Rubric. Digital Library Information : The Scope of the Digital Library D-Lib Journal article, 1998 2008 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) Annual meeting devoted to Digital Libraries Initiatives : Digital Libraries Initiative The Initiative's focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, and make it available for searching, retrieval, and processing via communication networks -- all in ...




Construction of a 1.2Mb contig including the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene locus using a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus tristeza virus resistance gene ( Ctv) is a single dominant gene in Poncirus trifoliata, a sexually compatible relative of citrus. To clone this gene, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library has been constructed from an individual plant that was homozygous for Ctv. This library contains 45 696 clones with an average insert size of 80 kb, corresponding to

Zhong-Nan Yang; Xin-Rong Ye; Sandong Choi; Joe Molina; Francis Moonan; Rod A. Wing; Mikeal L. Roose; T. Erik Mirkov



Exogenous mRNA delivery and bioavailability in gene transfer mediated by piggyBac transposition  

PubMed Central

Background Up to now, the different uptake pathways and the subsequent intracellular trafficking of plasmid DNA have been largely explored. By contrast, the mode of internalization and the intracellular routing of an exogenous mRNA in transfected cells are poorly investigated and remain to be elucidated. The bioavailability of internalized mRNA depends on its intracellular routing and its potential accumulation in dynamic sorting sites for storage: stress granules and processing bodies. This question is of particular significance when a secure transposon-based system able to integrate a therapeutic transgene into the genome is used. Transposon vectors usually require two components: a plasmid DNA, carrying the gene of interest, and a source of transposase allowing the integration of the transgene. The principal drawback is the lasting presence of the transposase, which could remobilize the transgene once it has been inserted. Our study focused on the pharmacokinetics of the transposition process mediated by the piggyBac transposase mRNA transfection. Exogenous mRNA internalization and trafficking were investigated towards a better apprehension and fine control of the piggyBac transposase bioavailability. Results The mRNA prototype designed in this study provides a very narrow expression window of transposase, which allows high efficiency transposition with no cytotoxicity. Our data reveal that exogenous transposase mRNA enters cells by clathrin and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, before finishing in late endosomes 3 h after transfection. At this point, the mRNA is dissociated from its carrier and localized in stress granules, but not in cytoplasmic processing bodies. Some weaker signals have been observed in stress granules at 18 h and 48 h without causing prolonged production of the transposase. So, we designed an mRNA that is efficiently translated with a peak of transposase production 18 h post-transfection without additional release of the molecule. This confines the integration of the transgene in a very small time window. Conclusion Our results shed light on processes of exogenous mRNA trafficking, which are crucial to estimate the mRNA bioavailability, and increase the biosafety of transgene integration mediated by transposition. This approach provides a new way for limiting the transgene copy in the genome and their remobilization by mRNA engineering and trafficking. PMID:24070093



Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato  

PubMed Central

The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1?cM and an average of 750?kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ?214?000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

Foolad, Majid R.



BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF) or chorionic villus (CV) samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding) of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples. PMID:24795887

Martínez-Conejero, José Antonio; Serra, Vicente; Olmo, Inés; Lara, Coral; Simón, Carlos



Distant regulatory elements in a Sox10-beta GEO BAC transgene are required for expression of Sox10 in the enteric nervous system and other neural crest-derived tissues.  


Sox10 is an essential transcription factor required for development of neural crest-derived melanocytes, peripheral glia, and enteric ganglia. Multiple transcriptional targets regulated by Sox10 have been identified; however, little is known regarding regulation of Sox10. High sequence conservation surrounding 5' exons 1 through 3 suggests these regions might contain functional regulatory elements. However, we observed that these Sox10 genomic sequences do not confer appropriate cell-specific transcription in vitro when linked to a heterologous reporter. To identify elements required for expression of Sox10 in vivo, we modified bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to generate a Sox10betaGeoBAC transgene. Our approach leaves endogenous Sox10 loci unaltered, circumventing haploinsufficiency issues that arise from gene targeting. Sox10betaGeoBAC expression closely approximates Sox10 expression in vivo, resulting in expression in anterior dorsal neural tube at embryonic day (E) 8.5 and in cranial ganglia, otic vesicle, and developing dorsal root ganglia at E10.5. Characterization of Sox10betaGeoBAC expression confirms the presence of essential regulatory regions and additionally identifies previously unreported expression in thyroid parafollicular cells, thymus, salivary, adrenal, and lacrimal glands. Fortuitous deletions in independent Sox10betaGeoBAC lines result in loss of transgene expression in peripheral nervous system lineages and coincide with evolutionarily conserved regions. Our analysis indicates that Sox10 expression requires the presence of distant cis-acting regulatory elements. The Sox10betaGeoBAC transgene offers one avenue for specifically testing the role of individual conserved regions in regulation of Sox10 and makes possible analysis of Sox10+ derivatives in the context of normal neural crest development. PMID:16586440

Deal, Karen K; Cantrell, V Ashley; Chandler, Ronald L; Saunders, Thomas L; Mortlock, Douglas P; Southard-Smith, E Michelle



Genomics Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because genomics is an interdisciplinary science that unites biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics, its language is diverse and includes terms not always found in dictionaries. This site from Cambridge Healthtech Institute of Massachusetts was designed to help scientists keep on top of this complex language. Loads of terms in categories such as basic genetics, functional and structural genomics, informatics, and genomic-related technology are defined here. Users can access the glossary terms either through a short index of major subject headings or by a longer alphabetically-arranged subject list. The Genomics Glossary deserves bonus points for including links to related resources in the text of its definitions. For example, within the definition of "polymerase chain reaction" are links to sites at Yale Medical School and the National Library of Medicine. In addition, links to pages on nomenclature, a bibliography of Web and print resources, and a FAQ page are available at this fantastic Website.

Chitty, Mary Glen.


The Genome Sequence of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium virguliforme That Causes Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean  

PubMed Central

Fusarium virguliforme causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, a disease of serious concern throughout most of the soybean producing regions of the world. Despite the global importance, little is known about the pathogenesis mechanisms of F. virguliforme. Thus, we applied Next-Generation DNA Sequencing to reveal the draft F. virguliforme genome sequence and identified putative pathogenicity genes to facilitate discovering the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We have generated the draft genome sequence of F. virguliforme by conducting whole-genome shotgun sequencing on a 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Initially, single-end reads of a 400-bp shotgun library were assembled using the PCAP program. Paired end sequences from 3 and 20 Kb DNA fragments and approximately 100 Kb inserts of 1,400 BAC clones were used to generate the assembled genome. The assembled genome sequence was 51 Mb. The N50 scaffold number was 11 with an N50 Scaffold length of 1,263 Kb. The AUGUSTUS gene prediction program predicted 14,845 putative genes, which were annotated with Pfam and GO databases. Gene distributions were uniform in all but one of the major scaffolds. Phylogenic analyses revealed that F. virguliforme was closely related to the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca. Of the 14,845 F. virguliforme genes, 11,043 were conserved among five Fusarium species: F. virguliforme, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum and N. haematococca; and 1,332 F. virguliforme-specific genes, which may include pathogenicity genes. Additionally, searches for candidate F. virguliforme pathogenicity genes using gene sequences of the pathogen-host interaction database identified 358 genes. Conclusions The F. virguliforme genome sequence and putative pathogenicity genes presented here will facilitate identification of pathogenicity mechanisms involved in SDS development. Together, these resources will expedite our efforts towards discovering pathogenicity mechanisms in F. virguliforme. This will ultimately lead to improvement of SDS resistance in soybean. PMID:24454689

Srivastava, Subodh K.; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Brar, Hargeet K.; Fakhoury, Ahmad M.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.



Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond.  


The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic tools have played a central role in the optogenetic revolution in neuroscience. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion of studies in this field have made use of BAC transgenic Cre driver lines to achieve targeted expression of optogenetic probes in the brain. In addition, several BAC transgenic mouse lines have been established for direct cell-type specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). While the benefits of these new tools largely outweigh any accompanying challenges, many available BAC transgenic lines may suffer from confounds due in part to increased gene dosage of one or more "extra" genes contained within the large BAC DNA sequences. Here we discuss this under-appreciated issue and propose strategies for developing the next generation of BAC transgenic lines that are devoid of extra genes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these strategies are simple, reproducible, and do not disrupt the intended cell-type specific transgene expression patterns for several distinct BAC clones. These strategies may be widely implemented for improved BAC transgenesis across diverse disciplines. PMID:24772073

Ting, Jonathan T; Feng, Guoping



Optical Mapping of BAC Clones from the Human Y Chromosome DAZ Locus  

E-print Network

Optical Mapping of BAC Clones from the Human Y Chromosome DAZ Locus Joseph Giacalone,1 Stephanie a set of 16 BAC clones derived from the DAZ locus of the human Y chromosome long arm, a locus in which­Biotechnology Center, University of Wisconsin­Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA The accurate mapping of clones

Mishra, Bud


Sperm-mediated transgenesis in chicken using a PiggyBac transposon system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Towards development of transgenic chickens without the use of viral vectors, factors affecting sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) using a piggyBac vector are being studied. The piggyBac pPBCAG-LacZ contains 13bp terminal inverted repeats flanking a LacZ gene driven by the CAG promoter. A helper pla...


A non-autonomous insect piggyBac trasposable element is mobile in tobacco  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The piggyBac transposable element, originally isolated from a virus in an insect cell line, is a valuable molecular tool for transgenesis and mutagenesis of invertebrates. For heterologous transgenesis in a variety of mammals, transfer of the piggyBac transposable element from an ectopic plasmid onl...


Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond  

PubMed Central

The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic tools have played a central role in the optogenetic revolution in neuroscience. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion of studies in this field have made use of BAC transgenic Cre driver lines to achieve targeted expression of optogenetic probes in the brain. In addition, several BAC transgenic mouse lines have been established for direct cell-type specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). While the benefits of these new tools largely outweigh any accompanying challenges, many available BAC transgenic lines may suffer from confounds due in part to increased gene dosage of one or more “extra” genes contained within the large BAC DNA sequences. Here we discuss this under-appreciated issue and propose strategies for developing the next generation of BAC transgenic lines that are devoid of extra genes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these strategies are simple, reproducible, and do not disrupt the intended cell-type specific transgene expression patterns for several distinct BAC clones. These strategies may be widely implemented for improved BAC transgenesis across diverse disciplines. PMID:24772073

Ting, Jonathan T.; Feng, Guoping



Efficient transformation of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report efficient germ-line transformation in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti accomplished using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Two transgenic lines were established and characterized; each contained the Vg-Defensin A transgene with strong eye-specific expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene regulated by the artificial 3xP3 promoter. Southern blot hybridization and inverse PCR analyses

V. Kokoza; A. Ahmed; E. A. Wimmer; A. S. Raikhel



Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY  

E-print Network

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY Burlington Street Tel: 0161 275 3751 THE ALAN GILBERT LEARNING COMMONS Oxford Road Tel: 0161 306 4306 ART & ARCHAEOLOGY LIBRARY Mansfield Cooper Building Tel: 0161 275 3657 BRADDICK LIBRARY School of Physics & Astronomy Brunswick Street Tel: 0161 275 4078 EDDIE DAVIES

Sidorov, Nikita


Paucity and preferential suppression of transgenes in late replication domains of the D. melanogaster genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic genomes are organized in extended domains with distinct features intimately linking genome structure, replication pattern and chromatin state. Recently we identified a set of long late replicating euchromatic regions that are underreplicated in salivary gland polytene chromosomes of D. melanogaster. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate that these underreplicated regions (URs) have a low density of P-element and piggyBac insertions

Vladimir N Babenko; Igor V Makunin; Irina V Brusentsova; Elena S Belyaeva; Daniil A Maksimov; Stepan N Belyakin; Peter Maroy; Lyubov A Vasil'eva; Igor F Zhimulev



Microcolinearity and genome evolution in the AdhA region of diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium)  

E-print Network

Microcolinearity and genome evolution in the AdhA region of diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium. Prior analysis of the CesA region in two cotton genomes that diverged 5­10 million years ago (Ma to include BAC sequences surrounding the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase A (AdhA) from four cotton

Wendel, Jonathan F.


Purification of Plasmid and BAC Transgenic DNA Constructs  

PubMed Central

Pronuclear microinjection is the most used method for generating transgenic mice. The quality of DNA to be microinjected is a key determinant of the success rate of this method. DNA purity is a critical factor because trace amounts of many substances, when microinjected into the pronucleus of the fertilized egg, can kill or prevent the further development of the embryo. Avoiding all contaminants is not a trivial issue, because most transgenic fragments need to be purified from agarose gels. Small particles and viscous materials in the DNA solution can also dramatically reduce the efficiency of microinjection because they tend to clog the injection needles. DNA shearing or breakage during purification and microinjection is also a potential problem, particularly when linearized bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) DNAs are used. The overall quantity and the final DNA concentration are also important considerations, because egg pronuclei are very sensitive to the amount of foreign DNA. In this chapter, we first discuss the general guidelines and cautions for preparing microinjection-quality DNA, and then describe in detail two protocols, one for gel purification of transgenic fragments from plasmid vectors and the other for isolating high-quality BAC DNA from bacteria. PMID:23912988

Liu, Chengyu; Du, Yubin; Xie, Wen; Gui, Changyun



High-throughput SNP discovery through deep resequencing of a reduced representation library to anchor and orient scaffolds in the soybean whole genome sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Soybean Consensus Map 4.0 facilitated the anchoring of 95.6% of the soybean whole genome sequence developed by the Joint Genome Institute, Department of Energy, but its marker density was only sufficient to properly orient 66% of the sequence scaffolds. The discovery and genetic mapping of more single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were needed to anchor and orient the

David L Hyten; Steven B Cannon; Qijian Song; Edward W Fickus; Randy C Shoemaker; James E Specht; Andrew D Farmer; Gregory D May; Perry B Cregan



High-Throughput SNP Discovery through Deep Resequencing of a Reduced Representation Library to Anchor and Orient Scaffolds in the Soybean Whole Genome Sequence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soybean Consensus Map 4.0 facilitated the anchoring of 95.6% of the soybean whole genome sequence developed by the Joint Genome Institute, Department of Energy but only properly oriented 66% of the sequence scaffolds. To find additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for additiona...


A physical map of the highly heterozygous Populus genome: integration with the genome sequence and genetic map and analysis of haplotype variation  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger project to sequence the Populus genome and generate genomic resources for this emerging model tree, we constructed a physical map of the Populus genome, representing one of the first maps of an undomesticated, highly heterozygous plant species. The physical map, consisting of 2,802 contigs, was constructed from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The map represents approximately 9.4-fold coverage of the 485+10 Mb Populus genome, as estimated from the genome sequence assembly. BAC ends were sequenced to aid in long-range assembly of whole genome shotgun sequence scaffolds and to anchor the physical map to the genome sequence. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers were derived from the end sequences and used to initiate integration of the BAC and genetic maps. 2,411 physical map contigs, representing 97% of all clones assigned to contigs, were aligned to the sequence assembly (JGI Populus trichocarpa v1.0). These alignments represent a total coverage of 384 Mb (79%) of the entire poplar sequence assembly and 295 Mb (96%) of linkage group sequence assemblies. A striking result of the physical map contig alignments to the sequence assembly was the co-localization of multiple contigs across numerous regions of the 19 linkage groups. Targeted sequencing of BAC clones and genetic analysis in a small number of representative regions showed that these co-aligning contigs represent distinct haplotypes in the heterozygous individual sequenced, and revealed the nature of these haplotype sequence differences.

Kelleher, Colin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chiu, Readman [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Shin, Heesun [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Bosdet, Ian [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Krywinski, Martin [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Fjell, Chris [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Wilkin, Jennifer [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [ORNL; Ali, Johar [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Asano, Jennifer [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Chan, Susanna [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Cloutier, Alison [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Girn, Noreen [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Leach, Stephen [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Lee, Darlene [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Mathewson, Carrie [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Olson, Teika [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; O'Connor, Katie [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Prabhu, Anna-Liisa [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Smailus, Duane [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Stott, Jeffery [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Tsai, Miranda [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Wye, Natasaja [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Yang, George [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Zhuang, Jun [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Holt, Robert A. [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Putnam, Nicholas [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Vrebalov, Julia [Cornell University; Giovannoni, James [Cornell University; Grimwood, Jane [Stanford University; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Jones, Steven [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Marra, Marco [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Bohlmann, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ellis, Brian [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ritland, Kermit [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Schein, Jacqueline [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada



BacA Is Essential for Bacteroid Development in Nodules of Galegoid, but not Phaseoloid, Legumes? †  

PubMed Central

BacA is an integral membrane protein, the mutation of which leads to increased resistance to the antimicrobial peptides bleomycin and Bac71-35 and a greater sensitivity to SDS and vancomycin in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, and Rhizobium etli. The growth of Rhizobium strains on dicarboxylates as a sole carbon source was impaired in bacA mutants but was overcome by elevating the calcium level. While bacA mutants elicited indeterminate nodule formation on peas, which belong to the galegoid tribe of legumes, bacteria lysed after release from infection threads and mature bacteroids were not formed. Microarray analysis revealed almost no change in a bacA mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae in free-living culture. In contrast, 45 genes were more-than 3-fold upregulated in a bacA mutant isolated from pea nodules. Almost half of these genes code for cell membrane components, suggesting that BacA is crucial to alterations that occur in the cell envelope during bacteroid development. In stark contrast, bacA mutants of R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli and R. etli elicited the formation of normal determinate nodules on their bean host, which belongs to the phaseoloid tribe of legumes. Bacteroids from these nodules were indistinguishable from the wild type in morphology and nitrogen fixation. Thus, while bacA mutants of bacteria that infect galegoid or phaseoloid legumes have similar phenotypes in free-living culture, BacA is essential only for bacteroid development in indeterminate galegoid nodules. PMID:20363949

Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Haag, Andreas F.; East, Alison K.; Ramachandran, Vinoy K.; Prell, Jurgen; James, Euan K.; Scocchi, Marco; Ferguson, Gail P.; Poole, Philip S.



Rapid recombinant protein production from piggyBac transposon-mediated stable CHO cell pools.  


Heterogeneous populations of stably transfected cells (cell pools) can serve for the rapid production of moderate amounts of recombinant proteins. Here, we propose the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to improve the productivity and long-term stability of cell pools derived from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. PB is a naturally occurring genetic element that has been engineered to facilitate the integration of a transgene into the genome of the host cell. In this report PB-derived cell pools were generated after 10 days of selection with puromycin. The resulting cell pools had volumetric productivities that were 3-4 times higher than those achieved with cell pools generated by conventional plasmid transfection even though the number of integrated transgene copies per cell was similar in the two populations. In 14-day batch cultures, protein levels up to 600 and 800mg/L were obtained for an Fc-fusion protein and a monoclonal antibody, respectively, at volumetric scales up to 1L. In general, the volumetric protein yield from cell pools remained constant for up to 3 months in the absence of selection. In conclusion, transfection of CHO cells with the PB transposon system is a simple, efficient, and reproducible approach to the generation of cell pools for the rapid production of recombinant proteins. PMID:25758242

Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Matasci, Mattia; Kadlecova, Zuzana; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M



Infectious delivery of the 132 kb CDKN2A\\/CDKN2B genomic DNA region results in correctly spliced gene expression and growth suppression in glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of genes from genomic loci can be relatively complex, utilizing exonic, intronic and flanking sequences to regulate tissue and developmental specificity. Infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (iBACs) have been shown to deliver and express large genomic loci (up to 135 kb) into primary cells for functional analyses. The delivery of large genomic DNA inserts allows the expression of complex

R Inoue; K A Moghaddam; M Ranasinghe; Y Saeki; E A Chiocca; R Wade-Martins



Cloning and expression of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 in Bac-to-Bac system.  


UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the transfer of glucuronic acid from uridine diphosphate-glucuronic acid (UDP-GA) to compounds with amine, hydroxyl, and carboxylic acid moieties. N-glucuronidation is an important pathway for elimination of many tertiary amine therapeutic agents used in humans. UGT1A4 has been reported to be specific for glucuronidating primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, forming N-glucuronides. To further investigate the drugs metabolized by UGT1A4, the Bac-to-Bac expression system was used to express the recombinant UGT1A4 with His-tag on the C-terminal. The His-tagged recombinant UGT1A4 expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were detected using anti-His antibody and the molecular weight of the recombinant protein was approximately 55kDa. The enzyme activity towards imipramine in cell homogenate protein was found to be 83.14+/-15pmol/min/mg protein (n=3) with 0.5mM imipramine by HPLC, but was not detectable in blank Sf9 cells. It paved the way for the further studies for drug glucuronidation by UGT1A4. The purification of the UGT1A4 can be done by Ni-resin. This is helpful to do research on the structure of the UFT1A4. PMID:15178418

Qian, Mingrong; Chen, Shuqing; Li, Xin; Zeng, Su



The medicago genome provides insight into evolution of rhizobial symbiosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Medicago truncatula is an excellent model for the study of legume-specific biology, especially endosymbiotic interactions with bacteria and fungi. This paper describes the sequence of the euchromatic portion of the M. truncatula genome based on a recently completed BAC-based assembly supplemented by...


Constructing a Cytogenetic Map of the Maize Genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are developing a pachytene cytogenetic FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridization) map of the maize (Zea mays L.) genome using maize marker-selected sorghum BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) as described by Koumbaris and Bass (2003, Plant J. 35:647). The two main projects are the production of...


Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, 10 BAC clone sequences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. We used labeled DNA probes from the coding reg...


Post-integration stability of piggyBac in Aedes aegypti.  


The post-integration activity of piggyBac transposable element gene vectors in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was tested under a variety of conditions. The embryos from five independent transgenic lines of Ae. aegypti, each with a single integrated non-autonomous piggyBac transposable element gene vector, were injected with plasmids containing the piggyBac transposase open-reading frame under the regulatory control of the Drosophila melanogaster hsp70 promoter. No evidence for somatic remobilization was detected in the subsequent adults whereas somatic remobilization was readily detected when similar lines of transgenic D. melanogaster were injected with the same piggyBac transposase-expressing plasmid. Ae. aegypti heterozygotes of piggyBac reporter-containing transgenes and piggyBac transposase-expressing transgenes showed no evidence of somatic and germ-line remobilization based on phenotypic and molecular detection methods. The post-integration mobility properties of piggyBac in Ae. aegypti enhance the utility of this gene vector for certain applications, particularly those where any level of vector remobilization is unacceptable. PMID:17681233

Sethuraman, Nagaraja; Fraser, Malcolm J; Eggleston, Paul; O'Brochta, David A



Status and opportunities for genomics research with rainbow trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely studied of model fish species. Extensive basic biological information has been collected for this species, which because of their large size relative to other model fish species are particularly suitable for studies requiring ample quantities of specific cells and tissue types. Rainbow trout have been widely utilized for research in carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. They are distinctive in having evolved from a relatively recent tetraploid event, resulting in a high incidence of duplicated genes. Natural populations are available and have been well characterized for chromosomal, protein, molecular and quantitative genetic variation. Their ease of culture, and experimental and aquacultural significance has led to the development of clonal lines and the widespread application of transgenic technology to this species. Numerous microsatellites have been isolated and two relatively detailed genetic maps have been developed. Extensive sequencing of expressed sequence tags has begun and four BAC libraries have been developed. The development and analysis of additional genomic sequence data will provide distinctive opportunities to address problems in areas such as evolution of the immune system and duplicate genes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

Thorgaard, G.H.; Bailey, G.S.; Williams, D.; Buhler, D.R.; Kaattari, S.L.; Ristow, S.S.; Hansen, J.D.; Winton, J.R.; Bartholomew, J.L.; Nagler, J.J.; Walsh, P.J.; Vijayan, M.M.; Devlin, R.H.; Hardy, R.W.; Overturf, K.E.; Young, W.P.; Robison, B.D.; Rexroad, C.; Palti, Y.



Construction and characterization of two bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of pea ( Pisum sativum L.) for the isolation of economically important genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has a genome of about 4 Gb that appears to share conserved synteny with model le- gumes having genomes of 0.2-0.4 Gb despite extensive intergenic expansion. Pea plant inventory (PI) accession 269818 has been used to introgress genetic diversity into the cultivated germplasm pool. The aim here was to develop pea bacte- rial artificial chromosome (BAC)

C. J. Coyne; M. T. McClendon; J. G. Walling; G. M. Timmerman-Vaughan; S. Murray; K. Meksem; D. A. Lightfoot; J. L. Shultz; K. E. Keller; R. R. Martin; D. A. Inglis; P. N. Rajesh; K. E. McPhee; N. F. Weeden; M. A. Grusak; C.-M. Li; E. W. Storlie



Dalhousie University Libraries Sexton Design & Technology Library  

E-print Network

1 Dalhousie University Libraries Sexton Design & Technology Library EEXXTTEERRNNAALL RREEVVIIEEWW Marilyn Berger, McGill University Library Jane Philipps, Queen's University Libraries Carolynne Presser, University of Manitoba Libraries RREEPPOORRTT IINNTTRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN Members of the Committee were asked

Brownstone, Rob


Preparation of PAC libraries. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project were to create P1 Artificial Chromosome (PAC) cloning vectors and use these vectors to generate, characterize, and distribute both human and mouse genomic PAC libraries to the scientific community.

Pieter J. de Jong



As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment ... attention, coordination, balance impairments Perceived beneficial effects, such as relaxation Sleepiness can begin 0.06 - 0.15% ...


Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond  

E-print Network

The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic ...

Feng, Guoping


Abundance and characterization of simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) isolated from a size-fractionated genomic library of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A size-fractionated library of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed), composed of 15000 clones, was screened for the presence of GA-, CA-, and GATA-simple-sequence repeats (SSRs). GA-SSRs were four- and five-fold more abundant than CA- and GATA-SSRs, respectively, and present at a frequency of approximately one SSR for every 100 kb of DNA. Following the sequencing of 124 positive clones, primer pairs

S. Kresovich; A. K. Szewc-McFadden; S. M. Bliek; J. R. McFerson



Design and validation of a pericentromeric BAC clone set aimed at improving diagnosis and phenotype prediction of supernumerary marker chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) are additional, structurally abnormal chromosomes, generally smaller than chromosome 20 of the same metaphase spread. Due to their small size, they are difficult to characterize by conventional cytogenetics alone. In regard to their clinical effects, sSMCs are a heterogeneous group: in particular, sSMCs containing pericentromeric euchromatin are likely to be associated with abnormal outcomes, although exceptions have been reported. To improve characterization of the genetic content of sSMCs, several approaches might be applied based on different molecular and molecular-cytogenetic assays, e.g., fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). To provide a complementary tool for the characterization of sSMCs, we constructed and validated a new, FISH-based, pericentromeric Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clone set that with a high resolution spans the most proximal euchromatic sequences of all human chromosome arms, excluding the acrocentric short arms. Results By FISH analysis, we assayed 561 pericentromeric BAC probes and excluded 75 that showed a wrong chromosomal localization. The remaining 486 probes were used to establish 43 BAC-based pericentromeric panels. Each panel consists of a core, which with a high resolution covers the most proximal euchromatic ~0.7 Mb (on average) of each chromosome arm and generally bridges the heterochromatin/euchromatin junction, as well as clones located proximally and distally to the core. The pericentromeric clone set was subsequently validated by the characterization of 19 sSMCs. Using the core probes, we could rapidly distinguish between heterochromatic (1/19) and euchromatic (11/19) sSMCs, and estimate the euchromatic DNA content, which ranged from approximately 0.13 to more than 10 Mb. The characterization was not completed for seven sSMCs due to a lack of information about the covered region in the reference sequence (1/19) or sample insufficiency (6/19). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this pericentromeric clone set is useful as an alternative tool for sSMC characterization, primarily in cases of very small SMCs that contain either heterochromatin exclusively or a tiny amount of euchromatic sequence, and also in cases of low-level or cryptic mosaicism. The resulting data will foster knowledge of human proximal euchromatic regions involved in chromosomal imbalances, thereby improving genotype–phenotype correlations. PMID:24171812



BacT\\/Alert: anAutomated Colorimetric Microbial Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

BacT\\/Alert (Organon Teknika Corp., Durham, N.C.) isanautomated microbial detection system based on thecolorimetric detection ofC02produced bygrowing microorganisms. Results ofanevaluation ofthemedia, sensor, detection system, anddetection algorithm indicate thatthesystem reliably growsanddetects awide variety ofbacteria andfungi. Results ofalimited pilot clinical trial withaprototype research instrument indicate thatthesystem iscomparable totheradiometric BACTEC460system initsability togrowanddetect microorganisms inblood. Onthebasis ofthese initial findings, large-scale clinical trials comparing BacT\\/Alert withother




Evaluation of Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) process in wastewater treatment secondary effluent for reclamation purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two different granular activated carbon (GAC) types (steam activated, PK1–3 and chemically activated, CAgran) on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, nitrification and denitrification were evaluated in BAC columns for wastewater reclamation\\/reuse purposes. Continuous-flow laboratory-scale BAC columns were operated for 320days using the secondary effluent water of Pasakoy Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant. During the first 83days of column

Çigdem Kalkan; Kozet Yapsakli; Bulent Mertoglu; Deniz Tufan; Ahmet Saatci




Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded on high density filters, a P1 genomic library of 17-fold coverage and a cosmid library of 8 genome equivalents, both made from S. pombe strain 972h-, were ordered by hybridizing genetic markers and individual clones from the two libraries. Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones covering the entire genome were used to subdivide the libraries, and hybridization of short oligonucleotides

J. D. Hoheisel; E. Maier; R. Mott; L. McCarthy; A. V. Grigoriev; L. C. Schalkwyk; D. Nizetic; F. Francis; H. Lehrach



Comparative DNA Sequence Analysis of Wheat and Rice Genomes  

PubMed Central

The use of DNA sequence-based comparative genomics for evolutionary studies and for transferring information from model species to crop species has revolutionized molecular genetics and crop improvement strategies. This study compared 4485 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that were physically mapped in wheat chromosome bins, to the public rice genome sequence data from 2251 ordered BAC/PAC clones using BLAST. A rice genome view of homologous wheat genome locations based on comparative sequence analysis revealed numerous chromosomal rearrangements that will significantly complicate the use of rice as a model for cross-species transfer of information in nonconserved regions. PMID:12902377

Sorrells, Mark E.; La Rota, Mauricio; Bermudez-Kandianis, Catherine E.; Greene, Robert A.; Kantety, Ramesh; Munkvold, Jesse D.; Miftahudin; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Ma, Xuefeng; Gustafson, Perry J.; Qi, Lili L.; Echalier, Benjamin; Gill, Bikram S.; Matthews, David E.; Lazo, Gerard R.; Chao, Shiaoman; Anderson, Olin D.; Edwards, Hugh; Linkiewicz, Anna M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Akhunov, Eduard D.; Dvorak, Jan; Zhang, Deshui; Nguyen, Henry T.; Peng, Junhua; Lapitan, Nora L.V.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L.; Anderson, James A.; Hossain, Khwaja; Kalavacharla, Venu; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Choi, Dong-Woog; Close, Timothy J.; Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Steber, Camille; Walker-Simmons, Mary K.; McGuire, Patrick E.; Qualset, Calvin O.



Hybrid process of BAC and sMBR for treating polluted raw water.  


The hybrid process of biological activated carbon (BAC) and submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR) was evaluated for the drinking water treatment from polluted raw water, with the respective hydraulic retention time of 0.5 h. The results confirmed the synergetic effects between the BAC and the subsequent sMBR. A moderate amount of ammonium (54.5%) was decreased in the BAC; while the total removal efficiency was increased to 89.8% after the further treatment by the sMBR. In the hybrid process, adsorption of granular activated carbon (in BAC), two stages of biodegradation (in BAC and sMBR), and separation by the membrane (in sMBR) jointly contributed to the removal of organic matter. As a result, the hybrid process managed to eliminate influent DOC, UV(254), COD(Mn), TOC, BDOC and AOC by 26.3%, 29.9%, 22.8%, 27.8%, 57.2% and 49.3%, respectively. Due to the pre-treatment effect of BAC, the membrane fouling in the downstream sMBR was substantially mitigated. PMID:19682892

Tian, Jia-yu; Chen, Zhong-lin; Yang, Yan-ling; Liang, Heng; Nan, Jun; Wang, Zhao-zhi; Li, Gui-bai



Measurement Properties of the Low Back Activity Confidence Scale (LoBACS).  


The purpose of this study was to determine the measurement properties of the Low Back Activity Confidence Scale (LoBACS) in individuals with post-acute low back pain (LBP) receiving nonsurgical intervention, including construct validity, factorial validity, and internal consistency reliability. Data were analyzed from an existing randomized clinical trial involving 112 patients with LBP. Evidence for convergent validity was observed through significant correlations between LoBACS subscale scores and other function, pain, and psychobehavioral measures. LoBACS subscales accounted for 36% of the unique variance in dependent variable measurements, suggesting a satisfactory level of statistical divergence between the LoBACS and other psychobehavioral measurements in this study. Cronbach's ? ranged from .88 to .92 for LoBACS subscales, and item-total correlations exceeded .6, indicating high internal consistency reliability. Principal axis factoring confirmed the hypothesized three-subscale structure by correctly classifying 14 of the 15 items. These findings indicate the LoBACS is valid and internally consistent to measure domain-specific self-efficacy beliefs. PMID:24686745

Davenport, Todd E; Cleland, Joshua A; Yamada, Kimiko A; Kulig, Kornelia



Expression of green fluorescent protein in the chicken using in vivo transfection of the piggyBac transposon.  


The chicken is a well-established model system for studying developmental biology and is recognized as one of the top food production animals in the world. For this reason the chicken is an excellent candidate for transgenic applications, as the technology can be applied to both areas of research. Transgenic technology has not been broadly utilized in the chicken model, however, primarily due to difficulties in targeting germ cells and establishing germ line transmission. Transgenic technologies using non-replicating viral particles have been used in the chick, but are unsuitable for many applications because of size and sequence restraints and low efficiency. To create a more versatile method to target chick germ line stem cells, we utilized the transposable element system piggyBac paired with an in vivo transfection reagent, JetPEI. piggyBac has been previously shown to be highly active in mammalian cells and will transpose into the chicken genome. Here, we show that JetPEI can transfect multiple chick cell types, most notably germline stem cells. We also show that pairing these two reagents is a viable and reproducible method for long-term expression of a transgene in the chicken. Stable expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene was seen in multiple tissue types including heart, brain, liver, intestine, kidney and gonad. Combining an in vivo transfection strategy with the PB system provides a simple and flexible method for efficiently producing stable chimeric birds and could be used for production of germ line transgenics. PMID:24452099

Jordan, Brian J; Vogel, Seth; Stark, Michael R; Beckstead, Robert B



Region-specific deficits in dopamine, but not norepinephrine, signaling in a novel A30P ?-synuclein BAC transgenic mouse.  


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder classically characterized by the death of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and by intracellular Lewy bodies composed largely of ?-synuclein. Approximately 5-10% of PD patients have a familial form of Parkinsonism, including mutations in ?-synuclein. To better understand the cell-type specific role of ?-synuclein on DA neurotransmission, and the effects of the disease-associated A30P mutation, we generated and studied a novel transgenic model of PD. We expressed the A30P mutant form of human ?-synuclein in a spatially-relevant manner from the 111kb SNCA genomic DNA locus on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) insert on a mouse null (Snca-/-) background. The BAC transgenic mice expressed ?-synuclein in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and expression of either A30P ?-synuclein or wildtype ?-synuclein restored the sensitivity of DA neurons to MPTP in resistant Snca-/- animals. A30P ?-synuclein mice showed no Lewy body-like aggregation, and did not lose catecholamine neurons in substantia nigra or locus coeruleus. However, using cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes we identified a deficit in evoked DA release in the caudate putamen, but not in the nucleus accumbens, of SNCA-A30P Snca-/- mice but no changes to release of another catecholamine, norepinephrine (NE), in the NE-rich ventral bed nucleus of stria terminalis. SNCA-A30P Snca-/- mice had no overt behavioral impairments but exhibited a mild increase in wheel-running. In summary, this refined PD mouse model shows that A30P ?-synuclein preferentially perturbs the dopaminergic system in the dorsal striatum, reflecting the region-specific change seen in PD. PMID:24121116

Taylor, Tonya N; Potgieter, Dawid; Anwar, Sabina; Senior, Steven L; Janezic, Stephanie; Threlfell, Sarah; Ryan, Brent; Parkkinen, Laura; Deltheil, Thierry; Cioroch, Milena; Livieratos, Achilleas; Oliver, Peter L; Jennings, Katie A; Davies, Kay E; Ansorge, Olaf; Bannerman, David M; Cragg, Stephanie J; Wade-Martins, Richard



Libraries program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.



A physical map of the highly heterozygous Populus genome: integration with the genome sequence and genetic map  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger project to sequence the Populus genome and generate genomic resources for this emerging model tree, we constructed a physical map of the Populus genome, representing one of the few such maps of an undomesticated, highly heterozygous plant species. The physical map, consisting of 2802 contigs, was constructed from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The map represents approximately 9.4-fold coverage of the Populus genome, which has been estimated from the genome sequence assembly to be 485 {+-} 10 Mb in size. BAC ends were sequenced to assist long-range assembly of whole-genome shotgun sequence scaffolds and to anchor the physical map to the genome sequence. Simple sequence repeat-based markers were derived from the end sequences and used to initiate integration of the BAC and genetic maps. A total of 2411 physical map contigs, representing 97% of all clones assigned to contigs, were aligned to the sequence assembly (JGI Populus trichocarpa, version 1.0). These alignments represent a total coverage of 384 Mb (79%) of the entire poplar sequence assembly and 295 Mb (96%) of linkage group sequence assemblies. A striking result of the physical map contig alignments to the sequence assembly was the co-localization of multiple contigs across numerous regions of the 19 linkage groups. Targeted sequencing of BAC clones and genetic analysis in a small number of representative regions showed that these co-aligning contigs represent distinct haplotypes in the heterozygous individual sequenced, and revealed the nature of these haplotype sequence differences.

Kelleher, Colin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; CHIU, Dr. R. [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Shin, Dr. H. [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Krywinski, Martin [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Fjell, Chris [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Wilkin, Jennifer [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Difazio, Stephen P. [West Virginia University



America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray



Sequence genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ghrelin receptors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration ...


Human Genome Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an effort to track the progress of and provide access to the work of the Human Genome Project (see the October 14, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering), the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) has expanded their Web resource. An international research program "designed to construct detailed genetic and physical maps of the human genome." The Human Genome Resources page provides a wealth of relevant resources, from background information on the project, to specific sequences for each human chromosome (click on the desired chromosome), to Genome Maps of other organisms.


Making Your Own Gene Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment aimed at constructing a genomic library that can be carried out over a week. Helps students learn concepts such as donor and vector DNAs, construction of recombinant DNA, host strain, and experiments in gene cloning more clearly. (PVD)

Perez-Ortin, Jose E.; Li Del Olmo, Marcel; Matallana, Emilia; Tordera, Vicente



Two duplicated chicken-type lysozyme genes in disc abalone Haliotis discus discus: molecular aspects in relevance to structure, genomic organization, mRNA expression and bacteriolytic function.  


Lysozymes are crucial antibacterial proteins that are associated with catalytic cleavage of peptidoglycan and subsequent bacteriolysis. The present study describes the identification of two lysozyme genes from disc abalone Haliotis discus discus and their characterization at sequence-, genomic-, transcriptional- and functional-levels. Two cDNAs and BAC clones bearing lysozyme genes were isolated from abalone transcriptome and BAC genomic libraries, respectively and sequences were determined. Corresponding deduced amino acid sequences harbored a chicken-type lysozyme (LysC) family profile and exhibited conserved characteristics of LysC family members including active residues (Glu and Asp) and GS(S/T)DYGIFQINS motif suggested that they are LysC counterparts in disc abalone and designated as abLysC1 and abLysC2. While abLysC1 represented the homolog recently reported in Ezo abalone [1], abLysC2 shared significant identity with LysC homologs. Unlike other vertebrate LysCs, coding sequence of abLysCs were distributed within five exons interrupted by four introns. Both abLysCs revealed a broader mRNA distribution with highest levels in mantle (abLysC1) and hepatopancreas (abLysC2) suggesting their likely main role in defense and digestion, respectively. Investigation of temporal transcriptional profiles post-LPS and -pathogen challenges revealed induced-responses of abLysCs in gills and hemocytes. The in vitro muramidase activity of purified recombinant (r) abLysCs proteins was evaluated, and findings indicated that they are active in acidic pH range (3.5-6.5) and over a broad temperature range (20-60 °C) and influenced by ionic strength. When the antibacterial spectra of (r)abLysCs were examined, they displayed differential activities against both Gram positive and Gram negative strains providing evidence for their involvement in bacteriolytic function in abalone physiology. PMID:23664908

Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee



Genomic organization of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fatty acid binding protein (fabp2) genes reveals independent loss of duplicate loci in teleosts.  


Gene and genome duplications are considered to be driving forces of evolution. The relatively recent genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids makes this group of fish an excellent system for studying the re-diploidization process and the fates of duplicate genes. We characterized the structure and genome organization of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (fabp2) genes in Atlantic salmon as a means of understanding the evolutionary fates of members of this protein family in teleosts. A survey of EST databases identified three unique salmonid fabp2 transcripts (fabp2aI, fabp2aII and fabp2b) compared to one transcript in zebrafish. We screened the CHORI-214 Atlantic salmon BAC library and identified BACs containing each of the three fabp2 genes. Physical mapping, genetic mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization of Atlantic salmon chromosomes revealed that Atlantic salmon fabp2aI, fabp2aII and fabp2b correspond to separate genetic loci that reside on different chromosomes. Comparative genomic analyses indicated that these genes are related to one another by two genome duplications and a gene loss. The first genome duplication occurred in t