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Sample records for genomic bac library

  1. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33 %. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor. PMID:26438131

  2. CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO BAC LIBRARIES FROM BRACHYPODIUM DISTACHYPON, A NEW MODEL FOR GRASS GENOMICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachypodium is well suited to be a model system for temperate grasses because of its compact genome and a range of biological features. In an effort to develop resources for genome research in this emerging model species, we constructed two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from the d...

  3. Selection of chromosome 22-specific clones from human genomic BAC library using a chromosome-specific cosmid library pool

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, U.J.; Shizuya, H.; Birren, B.

    1994-07-15

    A new approach to rapidly identify chromosome-specific subsets of clones from a total human genomic library is described. The authors report here the results of screening a human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using the total pool of clones from a chromosome 22-specific cosmid library as a composite probe. The human BAC library was gridded on filters at high density and hybridized with DNA from the pooled chromosome 22-specific Lawrist library under suppressive conditions. In a single hybridization, they picked 280 candidates from the BAC library representing over 30,000 clones (or 1.2 x coverage of human genome). This subset contained more than 60% of the chromosome 22-specific BAC clones that were previously found to be present in the original BAC library. In principle, this approach can be applied to select a subset of clones from other global libraries with relatively large inserts using a pool from a regional library as a composite probe. It is important to note that the target and probe libraries must be based on vectors that share no homology with each other. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Toward an Integrated BAC Library Resource for Genome Sequencing and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M. I.; Kim, U.-J.

    2002-02-26

    We developed a great deal of expertise in building large BAC libraries from a variety of DNA sources including humans, mice, corn, microorganisms, worms, and Arabidopsis. We greatly improved the technology for screening these libraries rapidly and for selecting appropriate BACs and mapping BACs to develop large overlapping contigs. We became involved in supplying BACs and BAC contigs to a variety of sequencing and mapping projects and we began to collaborate with Drs. Adams and Venter at TIGR and with Dr. Leroy Hood and his group at University of Washington to provide BACs for end sequencing and for mapping and sequencing of large fragments of chromosome 16. Together with Dr. Ian Dunham and his co-workers at the Sanger Center we completed the mapping and they completed the sequencing of the first human chromosome, chromosome 22. This was published in Nature in 1999 and our BAC contigs made a major contribution to this sequencing effort. Drs. Shizuya and Ding invented an automated highly accurate BAC mapping technique. We also developed long-term collaborations with Dr. Uli Weier at UCSF in the design of BAC probes for characterization of human tumors and specific chromosome deletions and breakpoints. Finally the contribution of our work to the human genome project has been recognized in the publication both by the international consortium and the NIH of a draft sequence of the human genome in Nature last year. Dr. Shizuya was acknowledged in the authorship of that landmark paper. Dr. Simon was also an author on the Venter/Adams Celera project sequencing the human genome that was published in Science last year.

  5. CONSTRUCTION OF AN ARABICA COFFEE BAC LIBRARY FOR MOLECULAR DISSECTION OF AN ALLOTETRAPLOID GENOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabica coffee (C. Arabica) is commercially the most important species of the genus Coffea. Arabica accounts for 70% of the world’s coffee production. We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using genomic DNA from the small bean, high-cupping quality, Arabica variety Mokka Hyb...

  6. Comparative genomics of Lupinus angustifolius gene-rich regions: BAC library exploration, genetic mapping and cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., is a grain legume species with a relatively compact genome. The species has 2n = 40 chromosomes and its genome size is 960 Mbp/1C. During the last decade, L. angustifolius genomic studies have achieved several milestones, such as molecular-marker development, linkage maps, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Here, these resources were integratively used to identify and sequence two gene-rich regions (GRRs) of the genome. Results The genome was screened with a probe representing the sequence of a microsatellite fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) marker linked to Phomopsis stem blight resistance. BAC clones selected by hybridization were subjected to restriction fingerprinting and contig assembly, and 232 BAC-ends were sequenced and annotated. BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) identified eight single-locus clones. Based on physical mapping, cytogenetic localization, and BAC-end annotation, five clones were chosen for sequencing. Within the sequences of clones that hybridized in FISH to a single-locus, two large GRRs were identified. The GRRs showed strong and conserved synteny to Glycine max duplicated genome regions, illustrated by both identical gene order and parallel orientation. In contrast, in the clones with dispersed FISH signals, more than one-third of sequences were transposable elements. Sequenced, single-locus clones were used to develop 12 genetic markers, increasing the number of L. angustifolius chromosomes linked to appropriate linkage groups by five pairs. Conclusions In general, probes originating from MFLP sequences can assist genome screening and gene discovery. However, such probes are not useful for positional cloning, because they tend to hybridize to numerous loci. GRRs identified in L. angustifolius contained a low number of interspersed repeats and had a high level of synteny to the genome of the model legume G. max. Our results showed that not only was the gene nucleotide sequence conserved between soybean and lupin GRRs, but the order and orientation of particular genes in syntenic blocks was homologous, as well. These findings will be valuable to the forthcoming sequencing of the lupin genome. PMID:23379841

  7. Genome Enablement of the Notothenioidei: Genome Size Estimates from 11 Species and BAC Libraries from 2 Representative Taxa

    PubMed Central

    DETRICH, H. WILLIAM; STUART, ANDREW; SCHOENBORN, MICHAEL; PARKER, SANDRA K.; METHÉ, BARBARA A.; AMEMIYA, CHRIS T.

    2013-01-01

    The perciform suborder Notothenoidei provides a compelling opportunity to study the adaptive radiation of a marine species flock in the cold Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica. To enable genome-level studies of these psychrophilic fishes, we estimated the sizes of the genomes of 11 Antarctic species and generated high-quality BAC libraries for 2, the notothen Notothenia coriiceps and the icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Our results indicate that evolution of phylogenetically derived notothenioid families, [e.g., the icefishes (Channichthyidae)], was accompanied by genome expansion. Species (n = 6) of the basal family Nototheniidae had C values that ranged between 0.98 and 1.20 pg, whereas those of the icefishes, the notothenioid crown group, were 1.66–1.83 pg (n = 4 species). The BAC libraries VMRC-19 (N. coriiceps) and VMRC-21 (C. aceratus) comprised 12X and 10X coverage of the respective genomes and had average insert sizes of 138 and 168 kb. Greater than 60% of paired BAC ends sampled from each library (~0.1% of each genome) contained repetitive sequences, and the repetitive element landscapes of the 2 genomes (13.4% of the N. coriiceps genome and 14.5% for C. aceratus) were similar. The representation and depth of coverage of the libraries were verified by identification of multiple Hox gene contigs: six discrete Hox clusters were found in N. coriiceps and at least five Hox clusters were found in C. aceratus. Given the unusual anatomical and physiological adaptations of the notothenioids, the availability of these BAC libraries sets the stage for expanded analysis of the psychrophilic mode of life. PMID:20235119

  8. Genome enablement of the notothenioidei: genome size estimates from 11 species and BAC libraries from 2 representative taxa.

    PubMed

    Detrich, H William; Stuart, Andrew; Schoenborn, Michael; Parker, Sandra K; Methé, Barbara A; Amemiya, Chris T

    2010-07-15

    The perciform suborder Notothenoidei provides a compelling opportunity to study the adaptive radiation of a marine species flock in the cold Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica. To enable genome-level studies of these psychrophilic fishes, we estimated the sizes of the genomes of 11 Antarctic species and generated high-quality BAC libraries for 2, the notothen Notothenia coriiceps and the icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Our results indicate that evolution of phylogenetically derived notothenioid families, [e.g., the icefishes (Channichthyidae)], was accompanied by genome expansion. Species (n=6) of the basal family Nototheniidae had C values that ranged between 0.98 and 1.20 pg, whereas those of the icefishes, the notothenioid crown group, were 1.66-1.83 pg (n=4 species). The BAC libraries VMRC-19 (N. coriiceps) and VMRC-21 (C. aceratus) comprised 12X and 10X coverage of the respective genomes and had average insert sizes of 138 and 168 kb. Greater than 60% of paired BAC ends sampled from each library ( approximately 0.1% of each genome) contained repetitive sequences, and the repetitive element landscapes of the 2 genomes (13.4% of the N. coriiceps genome and 14.5% for C. aceratus) were similar. The representation and depth of coverage of the libraries were verified by identification of multiple Hox gene contigs: six discrete Hox clusters were found in N. coriiceps and at least five Hox clusters were found in C. aceratus. Given the unusual anatomical and physiological adaptations of the notothenioids, the availability of these BAC libraries sets the stage for expanded analysis of the psychrophilic mode of life. PMID:20235119

  9. BAC libraries construction from the ancestral diploid genomes of the allotetraploid cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Patricia M; Garsmeur, Olivier; Proite, Karina; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Seijo, Guilhermo; Chaine, Christian; Bertioli, David J; D'Hont, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea is an allotetraploid of recent origin, with an AABB genome. In common with many other polyploids, it seems that a severe genetic bottle-neck was imposed at the species origin, via hybridisation of two wild species and spontaneous chromosome duplication. Therefore, the study of the genome of peanut is hampered both by the crop's low genetic diversity and its polyploidy. In contrast to cultivated peanut, most wild Arachis species are diploid with high genetic diversity. The study of diploid Arachis genomes is therefore attractive, both to simplify the construction of genetic and physical maps, and for the isolation and characterization of wild alleles. The most probable wild ancestors of cultivated peanut are A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis with genome types AA and BB respectively. Results We constructed and characterized two large-insert libraries in Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) vector, one for each of the diploid ancestral species. The libraries (AA and BB) are respectively c. 7.4 and c. 5.3 genome equivalents with low organelle contamination and average insert sizes of 110 and 100 kb. Both libraries were used for the isolation of clones containing genetically mapped legume anchor markers (single copy genes), and resistance gene analogues. Conclusion These diploid BAC libraries are important tools for the isolation of wild alleles conferring resistances to biotic stresses, comparisons of orthologous regions of the AA and BB genomes with each other and with other legume species, and will facilitate the construction of a physical map. PMID:18230166

  10. Characterization of a BAC Library from Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus: Indications of High Rates of Evolution Among Teleost Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CHORI-212 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed by cloning EcoRI/EcoRI partially digested DNA into the pTARBAC2.1 vector. The library has an average insert size of 161 kb, and provides 10.6-fold coverage of the channel catfish haploid genome. Screening of 32 genes using o...

  11. Construction and characterization of a genomic BAC library for the Mus m. musculus mouse subspecies (PWD/Ph inbred strain)

    PubMed Central

    Jansa, Petr; Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Background The genome of classical laboratory strains of mice is an artificial mosaic of genomes originated from several mouse subspecies with predominant representation (>90%) of the Mus m. domesticus component. Mice of another subspecies, East European/Asian Mus m. musculus, can interbreed with the classical laboratory strains to generate hybrids with unprecedented phenotypic and genotypic variations. To study these variations in depth we prepared the first genomic large insert BAC library from an inbred strain derived purely from the Mus m. musculus-subspecies. The library will be used to seek and characterize genomic sequences controlling specific monogenic and polygenic complex traits, including modifiers of dominant and recessive mutations. Results A representative mouse genomic BAC library was derived from a female mouse of the PWD/Ph inbred strain of Mus m. musculus subspecies. The library consists of 144 768 primary clones from which 97% contain an insert of 120 kb average size. The library represents an equivalent of 6.7 × mouse haploid genome, as estimated from the total number of clones carrying genomic DNA inserts and from the average insert size. The clones were arrayed in duplicates onto eight high-density membranes that were screened with seven single-copy gene probes. The individual probes identified four to eleven positive clones, corresponding to 6.9-fold coverage of the mouse genome. Eighty-seven BAC-ends of PWD/Ph clones were sequenced, edited, and aligned with mouse C57BL/6J (B6) genome. Seventy-three BAC-ends displayed unique hits on B6 genome and their alignment revealed 0.92 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) per 100 bp. Insertions and deletions represented 0.3% of the BAC end sequences. Conclusion Analysis of the novel genomic library for the PWD/Ph inbred strain demonstrated coverage of almost seven mouse genome equivalents and a capability to recover clones for specific regions of PWD/Ph genome. The single nucleotide polymorphism between the strains PWD/Ph and C57BL/6J was 0.92/100 bp, a value significantly higher than between classical laboratory strains. The library will serve as a resource for dissecting the phenotypic and genotypic variations between mice of the Mus m. musculus subspecies and classical laboratory mouse strains. PMID:16288658

  12. Construction of BAC libraries from two apomictic grasses to study the microcolinearity of their apospory-specific genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Roche, D.; Conner, A.; Budiman, A.; Frisch, D.; Wing, R.; Hanna, W.; Ozias-Akins, P.

    2002-04-01

    We have constructed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from two grass species that reproduce by apospory, a form of gametophytic apomixis. The library of an apomictic polyhaploid genotype (line MS228-20, with a 2C genome size of approximately 4,500 Mbp) derived from a cross between the obligate apomict, Pennisetum squamulatum, and pearl millet ( P. glaucum) comprises 118,272 clones with an average insert size of 82 kb. The library of buffelgrass ( Cenchrus ciliaris, apomictic line B-12-9, with a 2C genome size of approximately 3,000 Mbp) contains 68,736 clones with an average insert size of 109 kb. Based on the genome sizes of these two lines and correcting for the number for false-positive and organellar clones, library coverages were found to be 3.7 and 4.8 haploid genome equivalents for MS 228-20 and B12-9, respectively. Both libraries were screened by hybridization with six SCARs (sequence-characterized amplified regions), whose tight linkage in a single apospory-specific genomic region had been previously demonstrated in both species. Analysis of these BAC clones indicated that some of the SCAR markers are actually amplifying duplicated regions linked in coupling in both genomes and that restriction enzyme mapping will be necessary to sort out the duplications. PMID:12582640

  13. Development of BAC libraries and integrated physical mapping of human chromosome 22 using BACs. Annual report, July 1994--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, U.J.; Shizuya, Hiroaki; Simon, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    BACs and fosmids are stable, nonchimeric, and highly representative cloning systems. BACs maintain large-fragment genomic inserts (100 to 300 kb) that are easily prepared for most types of experiments, including DNA sequencing. The authors have improved the methods for generating BACs and developed extensive BAC libraries. They have constructed human BAC libraries with more than 175,000 clones from male fibroblast and sperm, and a mouse BAC library with more than 200,000 clones. The authors are currently expanding human library with the aim of achieving total 50X coverage human genomic library using sperm samples from anonymous donors.

  14. Adventures in the Enormous: A 1.8 Million Clone BAC Library for the 21.7 Gb Genome of Loblolly Pine

    PubMed Central

    Magbanua, Zenaida V.; Ozkan, Seval; Bartlett, Benjamin D.; Chouvarine, Philippe; Saski, Christopher A.; Liston, Aaron; Cronn, Richard C.; Nelson, C. Dana; Peterson, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    Loblolly pine (LP; Pinus taeda L.) is the most economically important tree in the U.S. and a cornerstone species in southeastern forests. However, genomics research on LP and other conifers has lagged behind studies on flowering plants due, in part, to the large size of conifer genomes. As a means to accelerate conifer genome research, we constructed a BAC library for the LP genotype 7-56. The LP BAC library consists of 1,824,768 individually-archived clones making it the largest single BAC library constructed to date, has a mean insert size of 96 kb, and affords 7.6X coverage of the 21.7 Gb LP genome. To demonstrate the efficacy of the library in gene isolation, we screened macroarrays with overgos designed from a pine EST anchored on LP chromosome 10. A positive BAC was sequenced and found to contain the expected full-length target gene, several gene-like regions, and both known and novel repeats. Macroarray analysis using the retrotransposon IFG-7 (the most abundant repeat in the sequenced BAC) as a probe indicates that IFG-7 is found in roughly 210,557 copies and constitutes about 5.8% or 1.26 Gb of LP nuclear DNA; this DNA quantity is eight times the Arabidopsis genome. In addition to its use in genome characterization and gene isolation as demonstrated herein, the BAC library should hasten whole genome sequencing of LP via next-generation sequencing strategies/technologies and facilitate improvement of trees through molecular breeding and genetic engineering. The library and associated products are distributed by the Clemson University Genomics Institute (www.genome.clemson.edu). PMID:21283709

  15. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  16. Construction of genome-wide physical BAC contigs using mapped cDNA as probes: Toward an integrated BAC library resource for genome sequencing and analysis. Annual report, July 1995--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.C.; Bocskai, D.; Cao, Y.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of human genome project is to characterize and sequence entire genomes of human and several model organisms, thus providing complete sets of information on the entire structure of transcribed, regulatory and other functional regions for these organisms. In the past years, a number of useful genetic and physical markers on human and mouse genomes have been made available along with the advent of BAC library resources for these organisms. The advances in technology and resource development made it feasible to efficiently construct genome-wide physical BAC contigs for human and other genomes. Currently, over 30,000 mapped STSs and 27,000 mapped Unigenes are available for human genome mapping. ESTs and cDNAs are excellent resources for building contig maps for two reasons. Firstly, they exist in two alternative forms--as both sequence information for PCR primer pairs, and cDoreen genomic libraries efficiently for large number of DNA probes by combining over 100 cDNA probes in each hybridization. Second, the linkage and order of genes are rather conserved among human, mouse and other model organisms. Therefore, gene markers have advantages over random anonymous STSs in building maps for comparative genomic studies.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICAL MAPPING OF MAIZE BAC LIBRARIES USING HIGH DENSITY BAC FILTER HYBRIDIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A HindIII and an EcoRI maize BAC library have been constructed from maize inbred line B73. Use of both libraries to make a physical map should minimize the under representation of certain genomic regions caused by the use of a particular restriction enzyme. High-density filter sets from the two libr...

  18. New genomic resources for the honey bee(Apis mellifera L.): development of a deep-coverage BAC library and a preliminary STC database.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, J P; Luo, M; Fang, G C; Main, D; Goicoechea, J L; Atkins, M; Frisch, D A; Page, R E; Guzmán-Novoa, E; Yu, Y; Hunt, G; Wing, R A

    2002-01-01

    We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for a European honey bee strain using the cloning enzyme HindIII in order to develop resources for structural genomics research. The library contains 36,864 clones (ninety-six 384-well plates). A random sampling of 247 clones indicated an average insert size of 113 kb (range = 27 to 213 kb) and 2% empty vectors. Based on an estimated genome size of 270 Mb, this library provides approximately 15 haploid genome equivalents, allowing >99% probability of recovering any specific sequence of interest. High-density colony filters were gridded robotically using a Genetix Q-BOT in a 4 x 4 double-spotted array on 22.5-cm2 filters. Screening of the library with four mapped honey bee genomic clones and two bee cDNA probes identified an average of 21 positive signals per probe, with a range of 7-38 positive signals per probe. An additional screening was performed with nine aphid gene fragments and one Drosophila gene fragment resulting in seven of the nine aphid probes and the Drosophila probe producing positive signals with a range of 1 to 122 positive signals per probe (average of 45). To evaluate the utility of the library for sequence tagged connector analysis, 1152 BAC clones were end sequenced in both forward and reverse directions, giving a total of 2061 successful reads of high quality. End sequences were queried against SWISS-PROT, insect genomic sequence GSS, insect EST, and insect transposable element databases. Results in spreadsheet format from these searches are publicly available at the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI) website in a searchable format (http://www.genome.clemson.edu/projects/stc/bee/AM__Ba/). PMID:14963821

  19. SEQUENCING THE PIG GENOME USING A BAC BY BAC APPROACH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have generated a highly contiguous physical map covering >98% of the pig genome in just 176 contigs. The map is localized to the genome through integration with the UIVC RH map as well BAC end sequence alignments to the human genome. Over 265k HindIII restriction digest fingerprints totaling 16.2...

  20. Construction and characterization of a deep-coverage carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library was constructed using imbred line B8503, which is nematode-resistant and accumulates carotenes in its roots. The BAC library consists of 92,160 clones comprising 22.4 haploid genome equivalents based on a genome size of 473 Mb/1C. Upon the analysis of ...

  1. Repetitive Genomic Elements in a European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, BAC Library were Indicated by BAC End Sequencing and Development of Sequence Tag Site Markers: Implications for Lepidopteran Genomic Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a serious pest of food, fiber, and biofuel crops in Europe, North America, and Asia, and a model system for insect olfaction and speciation. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library constructed for O. nubilalis contains 36,864 clones with estim...

  2. Library Resources for Bac End Sequencing. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pieter J. de Jong

    2000-10-01

    Studies directed towards the specific aims outlined for this research award are summarized. The RPCI II Human Bac Library has been expanded by the addition of 6.9-fold genomic coverage. This segment has been generated from a MBOI partial digest of the same anonymous donor DNA used for the rest of the library. A new cloning vector, pTARBAC1, has been constructed and used in the construction of RPCI-II segment 5. This new cloning vector provides a new strategy in identifying targeted genomic regions and will greatly facilitate a large-scale analysis for positional cloning. A new maleCS7BC/6J mouse BAC library has been constructed. RPCI-23 contain 576 plates (approx 210,000 clones) and represents approximately 11-fold coverage of the mouse genome.

  3. BAC Library of T. pallidum DNA in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Šmajs, David; McKevitt, Matthew; Wang, Ling; Howell, Jerrilyn K.; Norris, Steven J.; Palzkill, Timothy; Weinstock, George M.

    2002-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (Nichols) chromosomal DNA was used to construct a large insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library in Escherichia coli DH10B using the pBeloBAC11 cloning vector; 678 individual insert termini of 339 BAC clones (13.9 x coverage) were sequenced and the cloned chromosomal region in each clone was determined by comparison to the genomic sequence. A single 15.6-kb region of the T. pallidum chromosome was missing in the BAC library, between bp 248727 and 264323. In addition to the 12 open reading frames (ORFs) coded by this region, one additional ORF (TP0596) was not cloned as an intact gene. Altogether, 13 predicted T. pallidum ORFs (1.25% of the total) were incomplete or missing in the library. Three of 338 clones mapped by restriction enzyme digestion had detectable deletions and one clone had a detectable insertion within the insert. Of mapped clones, 19 were selected to represent the minimal set of E. coli BAC clones covering 1026 of the total 1040 (98.7%) predicted T. pallidum ORFs. Using this minimal set of clones, at least 12 T. pallidum proteins were shown to react with pooled sera from rabbits immunized with T. pallidum, indicating that at least some T. pallidum genes are transcribed and expressed in E. coli. PMID:11875041

  4. Generation of BAC-end sequences for rainbow trout genome analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For non-sequenced genomes, BAC end sequences (BES) provide a valuable sample of repetitive elements and gene content. Here we report the results of BAC end sequencing of just over half of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Swanson HindIII library. We sequenced 177,860 BAC ends that generated 17...

  5. Characterizing the walnut genome through analyses of BAC end sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is an economically important tree for its nut crop and timber. To gain insight into the structure and evolution of the walnut genome, we constructed two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, containing a total of 129,024 clones, from in vitro-grown shoots...

  6. SCREENING OF SUNFLOWER BAC LIBRARY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC BAC CLONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One BAC library and one BIBAC library from an inbred line HA 89 were constructed by using two restriction enzymes (BamH1, HindIII) and two vectors (pECBAC1, pCLD04541). Using the large-insert libraries, we identified a set of sunflower linkage group-specific BAC or BIBAC clones by overgo hybridizati...

  7. End Sequencing and Finger Printing of Human & Mouse BAC Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, C.

    2005-09-27

    This project provided for continued end sequencing of existing and new BAC libraries constructed to support human sequencing as well as to initiate BAC end sequencing from the mouse BAC libraries constructed to support mouse sequencing. The clones, the sequences, and the fingerprints are now an available resource for the community at large. Research and development of new metaodologies for BAC end sequencing have reduced costs and increase throughput.

  8. BAC Libraries from Wheat Chromosome 7D – Efficient Tool for Positional Cloning of Aphid Resistance Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Positional cloning in bread wheat is a tedious task due to its huge genome size (~17 Gbp) and polyploid character. BAC libraries represent an essential tool for positional cloning. However, wheat BAC libraries comprise more than million clones, which make their screening very laborious. Here we pres...

  9. BAC-Pool Sequencing and Assembly of 19 Mb of the Complex Sugarcane Genome.

    PubMed

    Okura, Vagner Katsumi; de Souza, Rafael S C; de Siqueira Tada, Susely F; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing plant genomes are often challenging because of their complex architecture and high content of repetitive sequences. Sugarcane has one of the most complex genomes. It is highly polyploid, preserves intact homeologous chromosomes from its parental species and contains >55% repetitive sequences. Although bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries have emerged as an alternative for accessing the sugarcane genome, sequencing individual clones is laborious and expensive. Here, we present a strategy for sequencing and assembly reads produced from the DNA of pooled BAC clones. A set of 178 BAC clones, randomly sampled from the SP80-3280 sugarcane BAC library, was pooled and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 and PacBio platforms. A hybrid assembly strategy was used to generate 2,451 scaffolds comprising 19.2 MB of assembled genome sequence. Scaffolds of ≥20 Kb corresponded to 80% of the assembled sequences, and the full sequences of forty BACs were recovered in one or two contigs. Alignment of the BAC scaffolds with the chromosome sequences of sorghum showed a high degree of collinearity and gene order. The alignment of the BAC scaffolds to the 10 sorghum chromosomes suggests that the genome of the SP80-3280 sugarcane variety is ∼19% contracted in relation to the sorghum genome. In conclusion, our data show that sequencing pools composed of high numbers of BAC clones may help to construct a reference scaffold map of the sugarcane genome. PMID:27047520

  10. BAC-Pool Sequencing and Assembly of 19 Mb of the Complex Sugarcane Genome

    PubMed Central

    Okura, Vagner Katsumi; de Souza, Rafael S. C.; de Siqueira Tada, Susely F.; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing plant genomes are often challenging because of their complex architecture and high content of repetitive sequences. Sugarcane has one of the most complex genomes. It is highly polyploid, preserves intact homeologous chromosomes from its parental species and contains >55% repetitive sequences. Although bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries have emerged as an alternative for accessing the sugarcane genome, sequencing individual clones is laborious and expensive. Here, we present a strategy for sequencing and assembly reads produced from the DNA of pooled BAC clones. A set of 178 BAC clones, randomly sampled from the SP80-3280 sugarcane BAC library, was pooled and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 and PacBio platforms. A hybrid assembly strategy was used to generate 2,451 scaffolds comprising 19.2 MB of assembled genome sequence. Scaffolds of ≥20 Kb corresponded to 80% of the assembled sequences, and the full sequences of forty BACs were recovered in one or two contigs. Alignment of the BAC scaffolds with the chromosome sequences of sorghum showed a high degree of collinearity and gene order. The alignment of the BAC scaffolds to the 10 sorghum chromosomes suggests that the genome of the SP80-3280 sugarcane variety is ∼19% contracted in relation to the sorghum genome. In conclusion, our data show that sequencing pools composed of high numbers of BAC clones may help to construct a reference scaffold map of the sugarcane genome. PMID:27047520

  11. BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOME(BAC)LIBRARIES CONSTRUCTED FROM THE GENETIC STANDARD OF UPLAND COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two BAC libraries and one plant transformation-competent BIBAC library were developed from the Gossypium hirsutum acc. TM-1 for the development of an integrative cotton physical and genetic map and other genomic applications. TM-1 is the most desirable choice for the physical map of Upland cotton be...

  12. BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOME (BAC) LIBRARIES CONSTRUCTED FROM THE GENETIC STANDARD OF UPLAND COTTONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two BAC libraries and one plant transformation-competent BIBAC library were developed from the Gossypium hirsutum acc. TM-1 for the development of an integrative cotton physical and genetic map and other genomic applications. TM-1 is the most desirable choice for construction of the physical map of ...

  13. Construction and characterization of human and mouse BAC libraries from sheared DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Shizuya, Hiroaki

    2002-08-23

    We have developed a new way to construct BAC libraries with small inserts using sheared DNA sources. Because of our use of the randomly sheared DNA as DNA sources, some regions of genome may be represented better in our libraries compared to the currently available and more conventional libraries constructed by enzymatic partial digestion. B263 We have developed a new fingerprinting method useful for physical mapping by large insert clones, in particular by BACs. It is based on four-color fluorescent labeling of fragments generated by combination of a type II and a type IIS restriction enzyme.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE MAIZE BAC LIBRARIES AND ANCHORING OF THE PHYSICAL MAP TO THE GENETIC MAP USING HIGH-DENSITY BAC FILTER HYBRIDIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three maize (Zea mays L.) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, HindIII, EcoRI and MboI, were constructed from inbred line B73 to minimize under-representation of certain genomic regions caused by the use of a single restriction enzyme library. High-density filter sets from all three lib...

  15. A BAC based physical map and genome survey of the rice false smut fungus Villosiclava virens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice false smut caused by Villosiclava virens is a devastating fungal disease that spreads in major rice-growing regions throughout the world. However, the genomic information for this fungal pathogen is limited and the pathogenic mechanism of this disease is still not clear. To facilitate genetic, molecular and genomic studies of this fungal pathogen, we constructed the first BAC-based physical map and performed the first genome survey for this species. Results High molecular weight genomic DNA was isolated from young mycelia of the Villosiclava virens strain UV-8b and a high-quality, large-insert and deep-coverage Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library was constructed with the restriction enzyme HindIII. The BAC library consisted of 5,760 clones, which covers 22.7-fold of the UV-8b genome, with an average insert size of 140 kb and an empty clone rate of lower than 1%. BAC fingerprinting generated successful fingerprints for 2,290 BAC clones. Using the fingerprints, a whole genome-wide BAC physical map was constructed that contained 194 contigs (2,035 clones) spanning 51.2 Mb in physical length. Bidirectional-end sequencing of 4,512 BAC clones generated 6,560 high quality BAC end sequences (BESs), with a total length of 3,030,658 bp, representing 8.54% of the genome sequence. Analysis of the BESs revealed general genome information, including 51.52% GC content, 22.51% repetitive sequences, 376.12/Mb simple sequence repeat (SSR) density and approximately 36.01% coding regions. Sequence comparisons to other available fungal genome sequences through BESs showed high similarities to Metarhizium anisopliae, Trichoderma reesei, Nectria haematococca and Cordyceps militaris, which were generally in agreement with the 18S rRNA gene analysis results. Conclusion This study provides the first BAC-based physical map and genome information for the important rice fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. The BAC clones, physical map and genome information will serve as fundamental resources to accelerate the genetic, molecular and genomic studies of this pathogen, including positional cloning, comparative genomic analysis and whole genome sequencing. The BAC library and physical map have been opened to researchers as public genomic resources (http://gresource.hzau.edu.cn/resource/resource.html). PMID:24341590

  16. Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Jang Songhun; Zhou Fang; Xia Laixin; Zhao Wei; Cheng Hanhua . E-mail: hhcheng@whu.edu.cn; Zhou Rongjia . E-mail: rjzhou@whu.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes.

  17. Distribution of Genes and Repetitive Elements in the Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Genome Estimated Using BAC Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Brad S.; Alves, Analiza P.; Wang, Haichuan; Walden, Kimberly K. O.; French, B. Wade; Miller, Nicholas J.; Abel, Craig A.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Sappington, Thomas W.; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding damage caused by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is destructive to corn plants in North America and Europe where control remains challenging due to evolution of resistance to chemical and transgenic toxins. A BAC library, DvvBAC1, containing 109,486 clones with 104 ± 34.5 kb inserts was created, which has an ~4.56X genome coverage based upon a 2.58 Gb (2.80 pg) flow cytometry-estimated haploid genome size. Paired end sequencing of 1037 BAC inserts produced 1.17 Mb of data (~0.05% genome coverage) and indicated ~9.4 and 16.0% of reads encode, respectively, endogenous genes and transposable elements (TEs). Sequencing genes within BAC full inserts demonstrated that TE densities are high within intergenic and intron regions and contribute to the increased gene size. Comparison of homologous genome regions cloned within different BAC clones indicated that TE movement may cause haplotype variation within the inbred strain. The data presented here indicate that the D. virgifera virgifera genome is large in size and contains a high proportion of repetitive sequence. These BAC sequencing methods that are applicable for characterization of genomes prior to sequencing may likely be valuable resources for genome annotation as well as scaffolding. PMID:22919272

  18. Versatile P(acman) BAC Libraries for Transgenesis Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Venken, Koen J.T.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Schulze, Karen L.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Spokony, Rebecca; Wan, Kenneth H.; Koriabine, Maxim; de Jong, Pieter J.; White, Kevin P.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Hoskins, Roger A.

    2009-04-21

    We constructed Drosophila melanogaster BAC libraries with 21-kb and 83-kb inserts in the P(acman) system. Clones representing 12-fold coverage and encompassing more than 95percent of annotated genes were mapped onto the reference genome. These clones can be integrated into predetermined attP sites in the genome using Phi C31 integrase to rescue mutations. They can be modified through recombineering, for example to incorporate protein tags and assess expression patterns.

  19. Sequencing the Pig Genome Using a Mapped BAC by BAC Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have generated a highly contiguous physical map covering >98% of the pig genome in just 176 contigs. The map is localised to the genome through integration with the UIUC RH map as well BAC end sequence alignments to the human genome. Over 265k HindIII restriction digest fingerprints totalling 1...

  20. Construction and characterization of a human chromosome 2-specific BAC library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Shouse, S.; Manson, J.

    1994-12-01

    We have constructed a human chromosome 2-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using DNA from the somatic cell hybrid GM10826. The average size of the clones is about 63 kb. The coverage and distribution of the library were estimated by screening with known polymorphic genetic markers and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Twenty-one markers tested positive when DNA pools prepared from approximately one-sixth of the library were screened with 33 known markers. This is consistent with the theoretical calculation of 63% coverage at one genomic equivalent. This suggested that the coverage of the library is approximately 5-6X. FISH analysis with 54 BACs revealed single site hybridization to chromosome 2, and the clones were distributed randomly on the chromosome. We have also performed direct sequencing of the BAC insert ends to generate sequence-tagged sites suitable for mapping and chromosome walking. This is the first reported human chromosome 2-specific BAC library and should provide a resource for physical mapping and disease searching for this chromosome. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  1. BAC Libraries from Wheat Chromosome 7D: Efficient Tool for Positional Cloning of Aphid Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Číhalíková, Jarmila; Robert-Quatre, Heda; Azhaguvel, Perumal; Weng, Yiqun; Peng, Junhua; Lapitan, Nora L. V.; Ma, Yaqin; You, Frank M.; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Bartoš, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Positional cloning in bread wheat is a tedious task due to its huge genome size and hexaploid character. BAC libraries represent an essential tool for positional cloning. However, wheat BAC libraries comprise more than million clones, which makes their screening very laborious. Here, we present a targeted approach based on chromosome-specific BAC libraries. Such libraries were constructed from flow-sorted arms of wheat chromosome 7D. A library from the short arm (7DS) consisting of 49,152 clones with 113 kb insert size represented 12.1 arm equivalents whereas a library from the long arm (7DL) comprised 50,304 clones of 116 kb providing 14.9x arm coverage. The 7DS library was PCR screened with markers linked to Russian wheat aphid resistance gene DnCI2401, the 7DL library was screened by hybridization with a probe linked to greenbug resistance gene Gb3. The small number of clones combined with high coverage made the screening highly efficient and cost effective. PMID:21318113

  2. A BAC-based physical map of the Drosophila buzzatii genome

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Josefa; Nefedov, Michael; Bosdet, Ian; Casals, Ferran; Calvete, Oriol; Delprat, Alejandra; Shin, Heesun; Chiu, Readman; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Hoskins, Roger A.; Schein, JacquelineE.; de Jong, Pieter; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2005-03-18

    Large-insert genomic libraries facilitate cloning of large genomic regions, allow the construction of clone-based physical maps and provide useful resources for sequencing entire genomes. Drosophilabuzzatii is a representative species of the repleta group in the Drosophila subgenus, which is being widely used as a model in studies of genome evolution, ecological adaptation and speciation. We constructed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic library of D. buzzatii using the shuttle vector pTARBAC2.1. The library comprises 18,353 clones with an average insert size of 152 kb and a {approx}18X expected representation of the D. buzzatii euchromatic genome. We screened the entire library with six euchromatic gene probes and estimated the actual genome representation to be {approx}23X. In addition, we fingerprinted by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis a sample of 9,555 clones, and assembled them using Finger Printed Contigs (FPC) software and manual editing into 345 contigs (mean of 26 clones per contig) and 670singletons. Finally, we anchored 181 large contigs (containing 7,788clones) to the D. buzzatii salivary gland polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization of 427 representative clones. The BAC library and a database with all the information regarding the high coverage BAC-based physical map described in this paper are available to the research community.

  3. A First Generation BAC Physical Map of the Rainbow Trout Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physical map was constructed using the high-information content fingerprinting (HICF) method of Luo et al. (2003; Genomics, 82, 378-389). All the clones from the Swanson YY doubled haploid male BAC library (10X coverage; 184,704 clones) were fingerprinted and edited using FPMiner software. App...

  4. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average) were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs) were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 454 sequencing of selected BAC clones in mammals and re-assures the suitability of this technique for obtaining the sequence information of genes of interest in small genomics projects. The BAC end sequences described in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank data library [HN339419-HN341884, HN604664-HN604702]. The 454 produced contigs derived from selected clones are deposited with reference numbers [GenBank: JF288166-JF288183 &JF310744]. PMID:21740547

  5. Construction and characterization of a Coffea canephora BAC library to study the organization of sucrose biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Leroy, T; Marraccini, P; Dufour, M; Montagnon, C; Lashermes, P; Sabau, X; Ferreira, L P; Jourdan, I; Pot, D; Andrade, A C; Glaszmann, J C; Vieira, L G E; Piffanelli, P

    2005-10-01

    The first bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) was constructed, with the aim of developing molecular resources to study the genome structure and evolution of this perennial crop. Clone 126, which is highly productive and confers good technological and organoleptic qualities of beverage, was chosen for development of this library. The BAC library contains 55,296 clones, with an average insert size of 135 Kb per plasmid, therefore representing theoretically nine haploid genome equivalents of C. canephora. Its validation was achieved with a set of 13 genetically anchored single-copy and 4 duplicated RFLP probes and yielded on average 9 BAC clones per probe. Screening of this BAC library was also carried out with partial cDNA probes coding for enzymes of sugar metabolism like invertases and sucrose synthase, with the aim of characterizing the organization and promoter structure of this important class of genes. It was shown that genes for both cell wall and vacuolar forms of invertases were probably unique in the Robusta genome whereas sucrose synthase was encoded by at least two genes. One of them (CcSUS1) was cloned and sequenced, showing that our BAC library is a valuable tool to rapidly identify genes of agronomic interest or linked to cup quality in C. canephora. PMID:16133319

  6. Construction of Papaya Male and Female BAC Libraries and Application in Physical Mapping of the Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Paul; Saski, Christopher; Chen, Cuixia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Ming, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme BstY I and consists of 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 104 kb, providing 10.3x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme EcoR I and consists of 55,296 clones with an average insert size of 101 kb, providing 15.0x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was used in constructing the physical map of the male-specific region of the male Y chromosome (MSY) and in filling gaps and extending the physical map of the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and the X chromosome physical map. The female BAC library was used to extend the X physical map gap. The MSY, HSY, and X physical maps offer a unique opportunity to study chromosomal rearrangements, Y chromosome degeneration, and dosage compensation of the papaya nascent sex chromosomes. PMID:21765640

  7. Analysis of BAC end sequences in oak, a keystone forest tree species, providing insight into the composition of its genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the key goals of oak genomics research is to identify genes of adaptive significance. This information may help to improve the conservation of adaptive genetic variation and the management of forests to increase their health and productivity. Deep-coverage large-insert genomic libraries are a crucial tool for attaining this objective. We report herein the construction of a BAC library for Quercus robur, its characterization and an analysis of BAC end sequences. Results The EcoRI library generated consisted of 92,160 clones, 7% of which had no insert. Levels of chloroplast and mitochondrial contamination were below 3% and 1%, respectively. Mean clone insert size was estimated at 135 kb. The library represents 12 haploid genome equivalents and, the likelihood of finding a particular oak sequence of interest is greater than 99%. Genome coverage was confirmed by PCR screening of the library with 60 unique genetic loci sampled from the genetic linkage map. In total, about 20,000 high-quality BAC end sequences (BESs) were generated by sequencing 15,000 clones. Roughly 5.88% of the combined BAC end sequence length corresponded to known retroelements while ab initio repeat detection methods identified 41 additional repeats. Collectively, characterized and novel repeats account for roughly 8.94% of the genome. Further analysis of the BESs revealed 1,823 putative genes suggesting at least 29,340 genes in the oak genome. BESs were aligned with the genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Populus trichocarpa. One putative collinear microsyntenic region encoding an alcohol acyl transferase protein was observed between oak and chromosome 2 of V. vinifera. Conclusions This BAC library provides a new resource for genomic studies, including SSR marker development, physical mapping, comparative genomics and genome sequencing. BES analysis provided insight into the structure of the oak genome. These sequences will be used in the assembly of a future genome sequence for oak. PMID:21645357

  8. BAC library development, and clone characterization for dormancy-responsive DREB4A, DAM, and FT from leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) identifies differential splicing and conserved promoter motifs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed two leafy spurge BAC libraries that together represent approximately 5X coverage of the leafy spurge genome. The BAC libraries have an average insert size of approximately 143 kb, and copies of the library and filters for hybridization-based screening are publicly available through the ...

  9. Characterization of a deep-coverage carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library and initial analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 17.3-fold redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library has been synthesized for carrot, the most-economically important member of the family Apiaceae. The library consists of 92,160 clones with an average insert size of 121 kb and ~ 2 % organellar DNA content. To provide an overview of ...

  10. Sequencing of 6.7 Mb of the melon genome using a BAC pooling strategy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cucumis melo (melon) belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has a high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (454 Mb), which make it suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps, BAC genomic libraries, a BAC-based physical map and EST collections. Sequence information would be invaluable to complete the picture of the melon genomic landscape, furthering our understanding of this species' evolution from its relatives and providing an important genetic tool. However, to this day there is little sequence data available, only a few melon genes and genomic regions are deposited in public databases. The development of massively parallel sequencing methods allows envisaging new strategies to obtain long fragments of genomic sequence at higher speed and lower cost than previous Sanger-based methods. Results In order to gain insight into the structure of a significant portion of the melon genome we set out to perform massive sequencing of pools of BAC clones. For this, a set of 57 BAC clones from a double haploid line was sequenced in two pools with the 454 system using both shotgun and paired-end approaches. The final assembly consists of an estimated 95% of the actual size of the melon BAC clones, with most likely complete sequences for 50 of the BACs, and a total sequence coverage of 39x. The accuracy of the assembly was assessed by comparing the previously available Sanger sequence of one of the BACs against its 454 sequence, and the polymorphisms found involved only 1.7 differences every 10,000 bp that were localized in 15 homopolymeric regions and two dinucleotide tandem repeats. Overall, the study provides approximately 6.7 Mb or 1.5% of the melon genome. The analysis of this new data has allowed us to gain further insight into characteristics of the melon genome such as gene density, average protein length, or microsatellite and transposon content. The annotation of the BAC sequences revealed a high degree of collinearity and protein sequence identity between melon and its close relative Cucumis sativus (cucumber). Transposon content analysis of the syntenic regions suggests that transposition activity after the split of both cucurbit species has been low in cucumber but very high in melon. Conclusions The results presented here show that the strategy followed, which combines shotgun and BAC-end sequencing together with anchored marker information, is an excellent method for sequencing specific genomic regions, especially from relatively compact genomes such as that of melon. However, in agreement with other results, this map-based, BAC approach is confirmed to be an expensive way of sequencing a whole plant genome. Our results also provide a partial description of the melon genome's structure. Namely, our analysis shows that the melon genome is highly collinear with the smaller one of cucumber, the size difference being mainly due to the expansion of intergenic regions and proliferation of transposable elements. PMID:21073723

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICAL MAPPING OF MAIZE BAC LIBRARIES USING HIGH DENSITY BAC FILTER HYBRIDIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-density filter sets from two maize B73 libraries containing 6X (HindIII) and 7X (EcoRI) haploid genome equivalents, respectively, were evaluated with a set of complex probes. The complex probes will provide information on chromosome architecture and organellar DNA content. A second set of pro...

  12. Construction and characterization of a BAC library from a gynogenetic channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, designated CCBL1 and CCBL2, were constructed by cloning Hind III-digested high molecular weight DNA from a gynogenetic channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, into the vector pBeloBAC11. Approximately 53,500 clones from CCBL1 were arrayed in 384-we...

  13. Bac clones generated from sheared dna

    SciTech Connect

    Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Vessere, Gery M.; Shu, Chung Li; Hoskins,Roger A.; Abad, Jose P.; de Pablos, Beatriz; Villasante, Alfredo; deJong, Pieter J.

    2006-08-09

    BAC libraries generated from restriction-digested genomic DNA display representational bias and lack some sequences. To facilitate completion of genome projects, procedures have been developed to create BACs from DNA physically sheared to create fragments extending up to 200kb. The DNA fragments were repaired to create blunt ends and ligated to a new BAC vector. This approach has been tested by generating BAC libraries from Drosophila DNA, with insert lengths of 50 kb to 150 kb. The libraries lack chimeric clone problems as determined by mapping paired BAC-end sequences of one library to the D. melanogaster genome sequence. The utility of ''sheared'' libraries was demonstrated by closure of a previous clone gap and by isolation of clones from telomeric regions, which were notably absent from previous Drosophila BAC libraries.

  14. BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

  15. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or a selected sub-genomic region of biological interest. Such a region can be approached with next-generation whole-genome sequencing and assembly as if it were an independent small genome. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library. Results This pooled BAC approach was taken to sequence and assemble a QTL-rich region, of ~3 Mbp and represented by twenty-seven BACs, on linkage group 5 of the Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 genome. Using various mixtures of read coverages from paired-end and linear 454 libraries, multiple assemblies of varied quality were generated. Quality was assessed by comparing the assembly of 454 reads with a subset of ten BACs individually sequenced and assembled using Sanger reads. A mixture of reads optimal for assembly was identified. We found, furthermore, that a quality assembly suitable for serving as a reference genome template could be obtained even with a reduced depth of sequencing coverage. Annotation of the resulting assembly revealed several genes potentially responsible for three T. cacao traits: black pod disease resistance, bean shape index, and pod weight. Conclusions Our results, as with other pooled BAC sequencing reports, suggest that pooling portions of a minimum tiling path derived from a BAC-based physical map is an effective method to target sub-genomic regions for sequencing. While we focused on a single QTL region, other QTL regions of importance could be similarly sequenced allowing for biological discovery to take place before a high quality whole-genome assembly is completed. PMID:21794110

  16. A FISH approach for mapping the human genome using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, R.S.; Chen, X.N.; Mitchell, S.

    1994-09-01

    As the Human Genome Project progresses, large insert cloning vectors such as BACs, P1, and P1 Artificial Chromosomes (PACs) will be required to complement the YAC mapping efforts. The value of the BAC vector for physical mapping lies in the stability of the inserts, the lack of chimerism, the length of inserts (up to 300 kb), the ability to obtain large amounts of pure clone DNA and the ease of BAC manipulation. These features helped us design two approaches for generating physical mapping reagents for human genetic studies. The first approach is a whole genome strategy in which randomly selected BACs are mapped, using FISH, to specific chromosomal bands. To date, 700 BACs have been mapped to single chromosome bands at a resolution of 2-5 Mb in addition to BACs mapped to 14 different centromeres. These BACs represent more than 90 Mb of the genome and include >70% of all human chromosome bands at the 350-band level. These data revealed that >97% of the BACs were non-chimeric and have a genomic distribution covering most gaps in the existing YAC map with excellent coverage of gene-rich regions. In the second approach, we used YACs to identify BACs on chromosome 21. A 1.5 Mb contig between D21S339 and D21S220 nears completion within the Down syndrome congenital heart disease (DS-CHD) region. Seventeen BACs ranging in size from 80 kb to 240 kb were ordered using 14 STSs with FISH confirmation. We have also used 40 YACs spanning 21q to identify, on average, >1 BAC/Mb to provide molecular cytogenetic reagents and anchor points for further mapping. The contig generated on chromosome 21 will be helpful in isolating the genes for DS-CHD. The physical mapping reagents generated using the whole genome approach will provide cytogenetic markers and mapped genomic fragments that will facilitate positional cloning efforts and the identification of genes within most chromosomal bands.

  17. Development of cell lines from the sheep used to construct the CHORI-243 ovine BAC library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.OVSM and MARC.OKF, were initiated from the aorta and kidney, respectively, obtained from the Texel ram used to make the CHORI-243 Ovine BAC library. These cell lines have been submitted to the NIA Aging Cell Repository at the Coriell Cell Respositories, Camden, NJ, U...

  18. An integrated BAC/BIBAC-based physical and genetic map of the cotton genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated genome-wide genetic and physical maps are crucial to many aspects of cotton genome research. We report a genome-wide BAC/BIBAC-based physical and genetic map of the upland cotton genome using a high-resolution and high-throughput capillary-based fingerprinting method. The map was constr...

  19. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changqing; Bai, Chunyu; Guo, Yu; Liu, Dan; Lu, Taofeng; Li, Xiangchen; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12), consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger. PMID:24608928

  20. Construction and analysis of Siberian tiger bacterial artificial chromosome library with approximately 6.5-fold genome equivalent coverage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changqing; Bai, Chunyu; Guo, Yu; Liu, Dan; Lu, Taofeng; Li, Xiangchen; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12), consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger. PMID:24608928

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Conferring Energy Related Resistance to a Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptide (Bac8c)

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Eileen C.; Boyle, Nanette R.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Gill, Ryan T.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental issue in the design and development of antimicrobials is the lack of understanding of complex modes of action and how this complexity affects potential pathways for resistance evolution. Bac8c (RIWVIWRR-NH2) is an 8 amino acid antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that has been shown to have enhanced activity against a range of pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as yeast. We have previously demonstrated that Bac8c appears to interfere with multiple targets, at least in part through the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane related functions, and that resistance to this peptide does not easily develop using standard laboratory methods. Here, we applied a genomics approach, SCalar Analysis of Library Enrichement (SCALEs), to map the effect of gene overexpression onto Bac8c resistance in parallel for all genes and gene combinations (up to ∼ 10 adjacent genes) in the E. coli genome (a total of ∼ 500,000 individual clones were mapped). Our efforts identified an elaborate network of genes for which overexpression leads to low-level resistance to Bac8c (including biofilm formation, multi-drug transporters, etc). This data was analyzed to provide insights into the complex relationships between mechanisms of action and potential routes by which resistance to this synthetic AMP can develop. PMID:23383054

  2. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Rmi) a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs). Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) encoding gene sequence (rDNA), related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence differences were also determined for the papilin gene and the protein binding sites of the 18S subunit in a comparison to Bos taurus. Conclusion In the absence of a sequenced reference genome we have assembled two complex BAC sequences, characterised novel gene structure that was confirmed by gene expression and sequencing analyses. This is the first report to provide evidence for 2 eukaryotic genes with exon regions that overlap on the same strand, the first to describe Rhipicephalinae papilin, and the first to report the complete ribosomal DNA repeated unit sequence structure for ticks. The Cot data estimation of genome wide sequence frequency means this research will underpin future efforts for genome sequencing and assembly of the R. microplus genome. PMID:21777481

  3. Insights into the loblolly pine genome: characterization of BAC and fosmid sequences.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Jill L; Lin, Brian Y; Zieve, Jacob J; Dougherty, William M; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Koriabine, Maxim; Holtz-Morris, Ann; deJong, Pieter; Crepeau, Marc; Langley, Charles H; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L; Neale, David B; Stevens, Kristian A

    2013-01-01

    Despite their prevalence and importance, the genome sequences of loblolly pine, Norway spruce, and white spruce, three ecologically and economically important conifer species, are just becoming available to the research community. Following the completion of these large assemblies, annotation efforts will be undertaken to characterize the reference sequences. Accurate annotation of these ancient genomes would be aided by a comprehensive repeat library; however, few studies have generated enough sequence to fully evaluate and catalog their non-genic content. In this paper, two sets of loblolly pine genomic sequence, 103 previously assembled BACs and 90,954 newly sequenced and assembled fosmid scaffolds, were analyzed. Together, this sequence represents 280 Mbp (roughly 1% of the loblolly pine genome) and one of the most comprehensive studies of repetitive elements and genes in a gymnosperm species. A combination of homology and de novo methodologies were applied to identify both conserved and novel repeats. Similarity analysis estimated a repetitive content of 27% that included both full and partial elements. When combined with the de novo investigation, the estimate increased to almost 86%. Over 60% of the repetitive sequence consists of full or partial LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons. Through de novo approaches, 6,270 novel, full-length transposable element families and 9,415 sub-families were identified. Among those 6,270 families, 82% were annotated as single-copy. Several of the novel, high-copy families are described here, with the largest, PtPiedmont, comprising 133 full-length copies. In addition to repeats, analysis of the coding region reported 23 full-length eukaryotic orthologous proteins (KOGS) and another 29 novel or orthologous genes. These discoveries, along with other genomic resources, will be used to annotate conifer genomes and address long-standing questions about gymnosperm evolution. PMID:24023741

  4. Insights into the Loblolly Pine Genome: Characterization of BAC and Fosmid Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, William M.; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Koriabine, Maxim; Holtz-Morris, Ann; deJong, Pieter; Crepeau, Marc; Langley, Charles H.; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L.; Neale, David B.; Stevens, Kristian A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their prevalence and importance, the genome sequences of loblolly pine, Norway spruce, and white spruce, three ecologically and economically important conifer species, are just becoming available to the research community. Following the completion of these large assemblies, annotation efforts will be undertaken to characterize the reference sequences. Accurate annotation of these ancient genomes would be aided by a comprehensive repeat library; however, few studies have generated enough sequence to fully evaluate and catalog their non-genic content. In this paper, two sets of loblolly pine genomic sequence, 103 previously assembled BACs and 90,954 newly sequenced and assembled fosmid scaffolds, were analyzed. Together, this sequence represents 280 Mbp (roughly 1% of the loblolly pine genome) and one of the most comprehensive studies of repetitive elements and genes in a gymnosperm species. A combination of homology and de novo methodologies were applied to identify both conserved and novel repeats. Similarity analysis estimated a repetitive content of 27% that included both full and partial elements. When combined with the de novo investigation, the estimate increased to almost 86%. Over 60% of the repetitive sequence consists of full or partial LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons. Through de novo approaches, 6,270 novel, full-length transposable element families and 9,415 sub-families were identified. Among those 6,270 families, 82% were annotated as single-copy. Several of the novel, high-copy families are described here, with the largest, PtPiedmont, comprising 133 full-length copies. In addition to repeats, analysis of the coding region reported 23 full-length eukaryotic orthologous proteins (KOGS) and another 29 novel or orthologous genes. These discoveries, along with other genomic resources, will be used to annotate conifer genomes and address long-standing questions about gymnosperm evolution. PMID:24023741

  5. Assembly and sorting of homologous BAC contigs in allotetraploid cotton genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a diploidized allopolyploid species containing At and Dt sub-genomes that have partial homology. Assembly and sorting of homologous BAC contigs into their subgenomes and further to individual chromosomes are of both great interest and great challenge for genome-wide i...

  6. The nuclear genome of Brachypodium distachyon: analysis of BAC end sequences.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due in part to its small genome (~350 Mb), Brachypodium distachyon is emerging as a model system for temperate grasses, including important crops like wheat and barley. We present the analysis of 10.9% of the Brachypodium genome based on 64,696 BAC end sequences (BES). Analysis of repeat DNA content...

  7. Analysis Of Papaya BAC End Sequences: Insights Into The Organization Of A Tree Fruit Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

  8. BAC-pool 454-sequencing: A rapid and efficient approach to sequence complex tetraploid cotton genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New and emerging next generation sequencing technologies have been promising in reducing sequencing costs, but not significantly for complex polyploid plant genomes such as cotton. Large and highly repetitive genome of G. hirsutum (~2.5GB) is less amenable and cost-intensive with traditional BAC-by...

  9. BAC-end sequences analysis provides first insights into coffee (Coffea canephora P.) genome composition and evolution.

    PubMed

    Dereeper, Alexis; Guyot, Romain; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Anthony, François; Argout, Xavier; de Bellis, Fabien; Combes, Marie-Christine; Gavory, Frederick; de Kochko, Alexandre; Kudrna, Dave; Leroy, Thierry; Poulain, Julie; Rondeau, Myriam; Song, Xiang; Wing, Rod; Lashermes, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Coffee is one of the world's most important agricultural commodities. Coffee belongs to the Rubiaceae family in the euasterid I clade of dicotyledonous plants, to which the Solanaceae family also belongs. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of a homozygous doubled haploid plant of Coffea canephora were constructed using two enzymes, HindIII and BstYI. A total of 134,827 high quality BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from the 73,728 clones of the two libraries, and 131,412 BESs were conserved for further analysis after elimination of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences. This corresponded to almost 13 % of the estimated size of the C. canephora genome. 6.7 % of BESs contained simple sequence repeats, the most abundant (47.8 %) being mononucleotide motifs. These sequences allow the development of numerous useful marker sites. Potential transposable elements (TEs) represented 11.9 % of the full length BESs. A difference was observed between the BstYI and HindIII libraries (14.9 vs. 8.8 %). Analysis of BESs against known coding sequences of TEs indicated that 11.9 % of the genome corresponded to known repeat sequences, like for other flowering plants. The number of genes in the coffee genome was estimated at 41,973 which is probably overestimated. Comparative genome mapping revealed that microsynteny was higher between coffee and grapevine than between coffee and tomato or Arabidopsis. BESs constitute valuable resources for the first genome wide survey of coffee and provide new insights into the composition and evolution of the coffee genome. PMID:23708951

  10. Genome-Wide Mapping of PiggyBac Transposon Integrations in Primary Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Daniel L.; Nakazawa, Yozo; Kaja, Aparna; Kettlun, Claudia; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    The piggyBac transposon system represents a promising non-viral tool for gene delivery and discovery, and may also be of value for clinical gene therapy. PiggyBac is a highly efficient integrating vector that stably transfects (~40%) of primary human T cells for potential adoptive immunotherapy applications. To evaluate the potential genotoxicity of piggyBac, we compared 228 integration sites in primary human T cells to integrations in two other human derived cell lines (HEK293 and HeLa) and randomly simulated integrations into the human genome. Our results revealed distinct differences between cell types. PiggyBac had a non-random integration profile and a preference for transcriptional units (~50% into RefSeq genes in all cell types), CpG islands (18% in T cells and 8% in other human cells), and transcriptional start sites (TSS) (< 5kb, 16–20% in all cell types). PiggyBac also preferred TTAA but not AT rich regions of the human genome. We evaluated the expression of mapped genes into which piggyBac integrated, and found selection of more active genes in primary human T cells compared to other human cell types, possibly due to concomitant T cell activation during transposition. Importantly, we found that in comparison to what has been reported for gammaretroviral and human lenitviral vectors, piggyBac had decreased integration frequency into or within 50kb of the TSS of known proto-oncogenes. Hence the piggyBac non-viral gene delivery system appears to represent a promising gene transfer system for clinical applications using human T lymphocytes. PMID:19752750

  11. A multiway analysis for identifying high integrity bovine BACs

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Barris, Wesley; McWilliam, Sean; Brauning, Rudiger; McEwan, John C; Snelling, Warren M; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2009-01-01

    Background In large genomics projects involving many different types of analyses of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), such as fingerprinting, end sequencing (BES) and full BAC sequencing there are many opportunities for the identities of BACs to become confused. However, by comparing the results from the different analyses, inconsistencies can be identified and a set of high integrity BACs preferred for future research can be defined. Results The location of each bovine BAC in the BAC fingerprint-based genome map and in the genome assembly were compared based on the reported BESs, and for a smaller number of BACs the full sequence. BACs with consistent positions in all three datasets, or if the full sequence was not available, for both the fingerprint map and BES-based alignments, were deemed to be correctly positioned. BACs with consistent BES-based and fingerprint-based locations, but with conflicting locations based on the fully sequenced BAC, appeared to have been misidentified during sequencing, and included a number of apparently swapped BACs. Inconsistencies between BES-based and fingerprint map positions identified thirty one plates from the CHORI-240 library that appear to have suffered substantial systematic problems during the end-sequencing of the BACs. No systematic problems were identified in the fingerprinting of the BACs. Analysis of BACs overlapping in the assembly identified a small overrepresentation of clones with substantial overlap in the library and a substantial enrichment of highly overlapping BACs on the same plate in the CHORI-240 library. More than half of these BACs appear to have been present as duplicates on the original BAC-library plates and thus should be avoided in subsequent projects. Conclusion Our analysis shows that ~95% of the bovine CHORI-240 library clones with both a BAC fingerprint and two BESs mapping to the genome in the expected orientations (~27% of all BACs) have consistent locations in the BAC fingerprint map and the genome assembly. We have developed a broadly applicable methodology for checking the integrity of BAC-based datasets even where only incomplete and partially assembled genomic sequence is available. PMID:19166603

  12. Genome size evolution in pufferfish: an insight from BAC clone-based Diodon holocanthus genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in genome size within and between species have been observed since the 1950 s in diverse taxonomic groups. Serving as model organisms, smooth pufferfish possess the smallest vertebrate genomes. Interestingly, spiny pufferfish from its sister family have genome twice as large as smooth pufferfish. Therefore, comparative genomic analysis between smooth pufferfish and spiny pufferfish is useful for our understanding of genome size evolution in pufferfish. Results Ten BAC clones of a spiny pufferfish Diodon holocanthus were randomly selected and shotgun sequenced. In total, 776 kb of non-redundant sequences without gap representing 0.1% of the D. holocanthus genome were identified, and 77 distinct genes were predicted. In the sequenced D. holocanthus genome, 364 kb is homologous with 265 kb of the Takifugu rubripes genome, and 223 kb is homologous with 148 kb of the Tetraodon nigroviridis genome. The repetitive DNA accounts for 8% of the sequenced D. holocanthus genome, which is higher than that in the T. rubripes genome (6.89%) and that in the Te. nigroviridis genome (4.66%). In the repetitive DNA, 76% is retroelements which account for 6% of the sequenced D. holocanthus genome and belong to known families of transposable elements. More than half of retroelements were distributed within genes. In the non-homologous regions, repeat element proportion in D. holocanthus genome increased to 10.6% compared with T. rubripes and increased to 9.19% compared with Te. nigroviridis. A comparison of 10 well-defined orthologous genes showed that the average intron size (566 bp) in D. holocanthus genome is significantly longer than that in the smooth pufferfish genome (435 bp). Conclusion Compared with the smooth pufferfish, D. holocanthus has a low gene density and repeat elements rich genome. Genome size variation between D. holocanthus and the smooth pufferfish exhibits as length variation between homologous region and different accumulation of non-homologous sequences. The length difference of intron is consistent with the genome size variation between D. holocanthus and the smooth pufferfish. Different transposable element accumulation is responsible for genome size variation between D. holocanthus and the smooth pufferfish. PMID:20569428

  13. High-resolution genomic profiles of breast cancer cell lines assessed by tiling BAC array comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Göran; Staaf, Johan; Olsson, Eleonor; Heidenblad, Markus; Vallon-Christersson, Johan; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Oredsson, Stina; Ringnér, Markus; Höglund, Mattias; Borg, Ake

    2007-06-01

    A BAC-array platform for comparative genomic hybridization was constructed from a library of 32,433 clones providing complete genome coverage, and evaluated by screening for DNA copy number changes in 10 breast cancer cell lines (BT474, MCF7, HCC1937, SK-BR-3, L56Br-C1, ZR-75-1, JIMT1, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, and HCC2218) and one cell line derived from fibrocystic disease of the breast (MCF10A). These were also characterized by gene expression analysis and found to represent all five recently described breast cancer subtypes using the "intrinsic gene set" and centroid correlation. Three cell lines, HCC1937 and L56BrC1 derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers and MDA-MB-231, were of basal-like subtype and characterized by a high frequency of low-level gains and losses of typical pattern, including limited deletions on 5q. Four estrogen receptor positive cell lines were of luminal A subtype and characterized by a different pattern of aberrations and high-level amplifications, including ERBB2 and other 17q amplicons in BT474 and MDA-MB-361. SK-BR-3 cells, characterized by a complex genome including ERBB2 amplification, massive high-level amplifications on 8q and a homozygous deletion of CDH1 at 16q22, had an expression signature closest to luminal B subtype. The effects of gene amplifications were verified by gene expression analysis to distinguish targeted genes from silent amplicon passengers. JIMT1, derived from an ERBB2 amplified trastuzumab resistant tumor, was of the ERBB2 subtype. Homozygous deletions included other known targets such as PTEN (HCC1937) and CDKN2A (MDA-MB-231, MCF10A), but also new candidate suppressor genes such as FUSSEL18 (HCC1937) and WDR11 (L56Br-C1) as well as regions without known genes. The tiling BAC-arrays constitute a powerful tool for high-resolution genomic profiling suitable for cancer research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:17334996

  14. Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) using a large insert BAC library

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440–637 Mb. Library coverage of 6–8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1–PPO3). Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190–510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate functional studies and provide genetic markers for plant breeding. PMID:19619287

  15. BacMap: an up-to-date electronic atlas of annotated bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Joseph; Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Zhou, You; Wilson, Michael; Dennis, Jonathan J; Stothard, Paul; Van Domselaar, Gary; Wishart, David S

    2012-01-01

    Originally released in 2005, BacMap is an electronic, interactive atlas of fully sequenced bacterial genomes. It contains fully labeled, zoomable and searchable chromosome maps for essentially all sequenced prokaryotic (archaebacterial and eubacterial) species. Each map can be zoomed to the level of individual genes and each gene is hyperlinked to a richly annotated gene card. The latest release of BacMap (http://bacmap.wishartlab.com/) now contains data for more than 1700 bacterial species (~10 more than the 2005 release), corresponding to more than 2800 chromosome and plasmid maps. All bacterial genome maps are now supplemented with separate prophage genome maps as well as separate tRNA and rRNA maps. Each bacterial chromosome entry in BacMap also contains graphs and tables on a variety of gene and protein statistics. Likewise, every bacterial species entry contains a bacterial 'biography' card, with taxonomic details, phenotypic details, textual descriptions and images (when available). Improved data browsing and searching tools have also been added to allow more facile filtering, sorting and display of the chromosome maps and their contents. PMID:22135301

  16. TOWARD DEVELOPMENT OF A WHOLE-GENOME, BAC/BIBAC-BASED INTEGRATED PHYSICAL/GENETIC MAP OF THE COTTON GENOME USING THE UPLAND COTTON GENETIC STANDARD TM-1: BAC FINGERPRINTING AND PHYSICAL MAP CONTIG CONSTRUCTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are developing a whole-genome, BAC/BIBAC-based integrated physical/genetic map of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome using its genetic standard line TM-1 as the reference genotype. Whole-genome physical maps integrated with genetic maps will provide revolutionized tools and platforms for a...

  17. BAC-end sequence-based SNP mining in Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium) utilizing re-sequencing data, phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequences for Gossypium hirsutum L. have recently been developed. Here we report on genomic-based genome-wide SNP mining utilizing re-sequencing data with a BAC-end sequence reference for twelve G. hirsutum L. lines, one G. barbadense L. li...

  18. Biomedical applications and studies of molecular evolution: a proposal for a primate genomic library resource.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Evan E; DeJong, Pieter J

    2002-05-01

    The anticipated completion of two of the most biomedically relevant genomes, mouse and human, within the next three years provides an unparalleled opportunity for the large-scale exploration of genome evolution. Targeted sequencing of genomic regions in a panel of primate species and comparison to reference genomes will provide critical insight into the nature of single-base pair variation, mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangement, patterns of selection, and species adaptation. Although not recognized as model "genetic organisms" because of their longevity and low fecundity, 30 of the approximately 300 primate species are targets of biomedical research. The existence of a human reference sequence and genomic primate BAC libraries greatly facilitates the recovery of genes/genomic regions of high biological interest because of an estimated maximum neutral nucleotide sequence divergence of 25%. Primate species, therefore, may be regarded as the ideal model "genomic organisms". Based on existing BAC library resources, we propose the construction of a panel of primate BAC libraries from phylogenetic anchor species for the purpose of comparative medicine as well as studies of genome evolution. PMID:11997334

  19. Sequencing of 15 622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Luo, MingCheng; Madishetty, Kavitha; Svensson, Jan T; Moscou, Matthew J; Wanamaker, Steve; Jiang, Tao; Kleinhofs, Andris; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Wise, Roger P; Stein, Nils; Ma, Yaqin; Rodriguez, Edmundo; Kudrna, Dave; Bhat, Prasanna R; Chao, Shiaoman; Condamine, Pascal; Heinen, Shane; Resnik, Josh; Wing, Rod; Witt, Heather N; Alpert, Matthew; Beccuti, Marco; Bozdag, Serdar; Cordero, Francesca; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Ounit, Rachid; Wu, Yonghui; You, Frank; Zheng, Jie; Simková, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Duma, Denisa; Altschmied, Lothar; Blake, Tom; Bregitzer, Phil; Cooper, Laurel; Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Falk, Anders; Feiz, Leila; Graner, Andreas; Gustafson, Perry; Hayes, Patrick M; Lemaux, Peggy; Mammadov, Jafar; Close, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework. However, because only 6278 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) in the physical map were sequenced, fine structure was limited. To gain access to the gene-containing portion of the barley genome at high resolution, we identified and sequenced 15 622 BACs representing the minimal tiling path of 72 052 physical-mapped gene-bearing BACs. This generated ~1.7 Gb of genomic sequence containing an estimated 2/3 of all Morex barley genes. Exploration of these sequenced BACs revealed that although distal ends of chromosomes contain most of the gene-enriched BACs and are characterized by high recombination rates, there are also gene-dense regions with suppressed recombination. We made use of published map-anchored sequence data from Aegilops tauschii to develop a synteny viewer between barley and the ancestor of the wheat D-genome. Except for some notable inversions, there is a high level of collinearity between the two species. The software HarvEST:Barley provides facile access to BAC sequences and their annotations, along with the barley-Ae. tauschii synteny viewer. These BAC sequences constitute a resource to improve the efficiency of marker development, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in barley and related crops. Additional knowledge about regions of the barley genome that are gene-dense but low recombination is particularly relevant. PMID:26252423

  20. Large diversity of the piggyBac-like elements in the genome of Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Du, Yuzhou; Wang, Suzhi; Brown, Susan J; Park, Yoonseong

    2008-04-01

    The piggyBac transposable element (TE), originally discovered in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, has been widely used in insect transgenesis including the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. We surveyed piggyBac-like (PLE) sequences in the genome of T. castaneum by homology searches using as queries the diverse PLE sequences that have been described previously. The search yielded a total of 32 piggyBac-like elements (TcPLEs) which were classified into 14 distinct groups. Most of the TcPLEs contain defective functional motifs in that they are lacking inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) or have disrupted open reading frames. Only one single copy of TcPLE1 appears to be intact with imperfect 16bp ITRs flanking an open reading frame encoding a transposase of 571 amino acid residues. Many copies of TcPLEs were found to be inserted into or close to other transposon-like sequences. This large diversity of TcPLEs with generally low copy numbers suggests multiple invasions of the TcPLEs over a long evolutionary time without extensive multiplications or occurrence of rapid loss of TcPLEs copies. PMID:18342253

  1. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or selected sub-genome regions of biological interest. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, it is possible to select specific BAC clones from prioritized genome sections such as a genetically defined QTL interv...

  2. Construction of a genome-wide human BAC-Unigene resource. Final progress report, 1989--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, C.S.; Xu, R.X.; Wang, M.

    1996-12-31

    Currently, over 30,000 mapped STSs and 27,000 mapped Unigenes (non-redundant, unigene sets of cDNA representing EST clusters) are available for human alone. A total of 44,000 Unigene cDNA clones have been supplied by Research Genetics. Unigenes, or cDNAs are excellent resource for map building for two reasons. Firstly, they exist in two alternative forms -- as both sequence information for PCR primer pairs, and cDNA clones -- thus making library screening by colony hybridization as well as pooled library PCR possible. The authors have developed an efficient and robust procedure to screen genomic libraries with large number of DNA probes. Secondly, the linkage and order of expressed sequences, or genes are highly conserved among human, mouse and other mammalian species. Therefore, mapping with cDNA markers rather than random anonymous STSs will greatly facilitate comparative, evolutionary studies as well as physical map building. They have currently deconvoluted over 10,000 Unigene probes against a 4X coverage human BAC clones from the approved library D by high density colony hybridization method. 10,000 batches of Unigenes are arrayed in an imaginary 100 X 100 matrix from which 100 row pools and 100 column pools are obtained. Library filters are hybridized with pooled probes, thus reducing the number of hybridization required for addressing the positives for each Unigene from 10,000 to 200. Details on the experimental scheme as well as daily progress report is posted on the Web site (http://www.tree.caltech.edu).

  3. Isolating promoters of multigene family members from the polyploid sugarcane genome by PCR-based walking in BAC DNA.

    PubMed

    Damaj, Mona B; Beremand, Phillip D; Buenrostro-Nava, Marco T; Ivy, John; Kumpatla, Siva P; Jifon, John; Beyene, Getu; Yu, Qingyi; Thomas, Terry L; Mirkov, T Erik

    2010-10-01

    The availability of a wider range of promoters for regulated expression in valuable transgenic crops would benefit functional genomics studies and current biotechnology programs aimed at improved productivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genome walking techniques are commonly used to isolate promoters or 5' flanking genomic regions adjacent to known cDNA sequences in genomes that are not yet completely sequenced. However, these techniques are problematic when applied directly to DNA isolated from crops with highly complex and large genomes. An adaptor ligation-mediated PCR-based BAC genome walking method is described here for the efficient isolation of promoters of multigene family members, such as the putative defense and fiber biosynthesis DIRIGENT genes that are abundant in the stem of sugarcane, a species with a highly polyploid genome. The advantage of this method is the efficient and specific amplification of the target promoter using BAC genomic DNA as template for the adaptor ligation-mediated PCR walking. PMID:20962891

  4. THE WHEAT D-GENOME HMW-GLUTENIN LOCUS:BAC SEQUENCING, GENE DISTRIBUTION, AND RETROTRANSPOSON CLUSTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacterial-artificial-chromosome (BAC) clone from the genome of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome ancestor of hexaploid bread wheat, was sequenced and the presence of the two paralogous x- and y- type high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin genes of the Glu-D1 locus was confirmed. These two genes occur...

  5. Using comparative genomics to reorder the human genome sequence into a virtual sheep genome

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Brian P; Kirkness, Ewen F; Nefedov, Mikhail; McWilliam, Sean; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Barris, Wes; Zhao, Shaying; Shetty, Jyoti; Maddox, Jillian F; O'Grady, Margaret; Nicholas, Frank; Crawford, Allan M; Smith, Tim; de Jong, Pieter J; McEwan, John; Oddy, V Hutton; Cockett, Noelle E

    2007-01-01

    Background Is it possible to construct an accurate and detailed subgene-level map of a genome using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, a sparse marker map, and the sequences of other genomes? Results A sheep BAC library, CHORI-243, was constructed and the BAC end sequences were determined and mapped with high sensitivity and low specificity onto the frameworks of the human, dog, and cow genomes. To maximize genome coverage, the coordinates of all BAC end sequence hits to the cow and dog genomes were also converted to the equivalent human genome coordinates. The 84,624 sheep BACs (about 5.4-fold genome coverage) with paired ends in the correct orientation (tail-to-tail) and spacing, combined with information from sheep BAC comparative genome contigs (CGCs) built separately on the dog and cow genomes, were used to construct 1,172 sheep BAC-CGCs, covering 91.2% of the human genome. Clustered non-tail-to-tail and outsize BACs located close to the ends of many BAC-CGCs linked BAC-CGCs covering about 70% of the genome to at least one other BAC-CGC on the same chromosome. Using the BAC-CGCs, the intrachromosomal and interchromosomal BAC-CGC linkage information, human/cow and vertebrate synteny, and the sheep marker map, a virtual sheep genome was constructed. To identify BACs potentially located in gaps between BAC-CGCs, an additional set of 55,668 sheep BACs were positioned on the sheep genome with lower confidence. A coordinate conversion process allowed us to transfer human genes and other genome features to the virtual sheep genome to display on a sheep genome browser. Conclusion We demonstrate that limited sequencing of BACs combined with positioning on a well assembled genome and integrating locations from other less well assembled genomes can yield extensive, detailed subgene-level maps of mammalian genomes, for which genomic resources are currently limited. PMID:17663790

  6. Screening and chromosome localization of two cotton BAC clones

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xinglei; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yuling; Zhou, Zhongli; Wang, Chunying; Yanyan Zhao; Meng, Fei; Wang, Xingxing; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuhong; Peng, Renhai; Wang, Kunbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones (350B21 and 299N22) of Pima 90-53 cotton [Gossypium barbadense Linnaeus, 1753 (2n=4x=52)] were screened from a BAC library using SSR markers. Strong hybridization signals were detected at terminal regions of all A genome (sub-genome) chromosomes, but were almost absent in D genome (sub-genome) chromosomes with BAC clone 350B21 as the probe. The results indicate that specific sequences, which only exist at the terminal parts of A genome (sub-genome) chromosomes with a huge repeat number, may be contained in BAC clone 350B21. When utilizing FISH with the BAC clone 299N22 as probe, a pair of obvious signals was detected on chromosome 13 of D genome (sub-genome), while strong dispersed signals were detected on all A genome (sub-genome) chromosomes. The results showed that peculiar repetitive sequence, which was distributed throughout all A genome (sub-genome) chromosomes, may exist in BAC clone 299N22. The absence of the repetitive sequences, which exist in the two BAC clones, in D genome may account for the genome-size variation between A and D genomes. In addition, the microcolinearity analysis of the clone 299N22 and its homologous region on Gossypium raimondii Ulbrich, 1932 chromosome 13 (D513) indicated that the clone 299N22 might come from A sub-genome of sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense), and a huge number of small deletions, illegitimate recombination, translocation and rearrangements may have occurred during the genus evolution. The two BAC clones studied here can be used as cytological markers but will be also be helpful to research in cotton genome evolution and comparative genomics.

  7. Construction and characterization of an eightfold redundant dog genomic bacterial artificial chromosome library.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Mignot, E; Faraco, J; Kadotani, H; Cantanese, J; Zhao, B; Lin, X; Hinton, L; Ostrander, E A; Patterson, D F; de Jong, P J

    1999-05-15

    A large insert canine genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was built from a Doberman pinscher. Approximately 166,000 clones were gridded on nine high-density hybridization filters. Insert analysis of randomly selected clones indicated a mean insert size of 155 kb and predicted 8.1 coverage of the canine genome. Two percent of the clones were nonrecombinant. Chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization studies of 60 BAC clones indicated no chimerism. The library was hybridized with dog PCR products representing eight genes (ADA, TNFA, GCA, MYB, HOXA, GUSB, THY1, and TOP1). The resulting positive clones were characterized and shown to be compatible with an eightfold redundant library. PMID:10331940

  8. Localization and Characterization of 170 BAC-derived clones and mapping of Ninety-Four Microsatellites in the Hessian Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-four microsatellites from enriched genomic libraries of Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) were localized to 170 cognate clones in a Hessian fly bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. These microsatellite-positive BAC clones were physically mapped to polytene chromosomes by fl...

  9. Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) with YAC/BAC-based probes and region-specific microdissection DNA libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Liehr, T.; Weise, A.; Heller, A.; Starke, H.; Mrasek, K.; Kuechler, A.; Weier, H.-U.G.; Claussen, U.

    2003-06-23

    Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with a resolution of a few mega base pairs, i.e., slightly below the size of most visible chromosome bands. Based on the hybridization of over lapping region-specific probe libraries, chromosomal subregions are hybridized with probes that fluoresce in distinct wave length intervals, so they can be assigned predefined pseudo-colors during the digital imaging and visualization process. The present study demonstrates how MCB patterns can be produced by region-specific micro dissection derived (mcd) libraries as well as collections of yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs, respectively). We compared the efficiency of an mcd library based approach with the hybridization of collections of locus-specific probes (LSP) for fluorescent banding of three rather differently sized human chromosomes, i.e., chromosomes 2, 13, and 22. The LSP sets were comprised of 107 probes specific for chromosome 2, 82 probes for chromosome 13, and 31 probes for chromosome 22. The results demonstrated a more homogeneous coverage of chromosomes and thus, more desirable banding patterns using the microdissection library-based MCB. This may be related to the observation that chromosomes are difficult to cover completely with YAC and/or BAC clones as single-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed. Mcd libraries, on the other hand, provide high complexity probes that work well as region specific paints, but do not readily allow positioning of break points on genetic or physical maps as required for the positional cloning of genes. Thus, combinations of mcd libraries and locus-specific large insert DNA probes appear to be the most efficient tools for high-resolution cytogenetic analyses.

  10. Construction, characterization and preliminary BAC-end sequencing analysis of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of white clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a forage legume widely used in combination with grass in pastures due to its ability for nitrogen fixation. We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of an advanced breeding line of white clover. The library contains 37,248 clones wit...

  11. piggyBac Transposon.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Kosuke

    2015-04-01

    The piggyBac transposon was originally isolated from the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni, in the 1980s. Despite its early discovery and dissimilarity to the other DNA transposon families, the piggyBac transposon was not recognized as a member of a large transposon superfamily for a long time. Initially, the piggyBac transposon was thought to be a rare transposon. This view, however, has now been completely revised as a number of fully sequenced genomes have revealed the presence of piggyBac-like repetitive elements. The isolation of active copies of the piggyBac-like elements from several distinct species further supported this revision. This includes the first isolation of an active mammalian DNA transposon identified in the bat genome. To date, the piggyBac transposon has been deeply characterized and it represents a number of unique characteristics. In general, all members of the piggyBac superfamily use TTAA as their integration target sites. In addition, the piggyBac transposon shows precise excision, i.e., restoring the sequence to its preintegration state, and can transpose in a variety of organisms such as yeasts, malaria parasites, insects, mammals, and even in plants. Biochemical analysis of the chemical steps of transposition revealed that piggyBac does not require DNA synthesis during the actual transposition event. The broad host range has attracted researchers from many different fields, and the piggyBac transposon is currently the most widely used transposon system for genetic manipulations. PMID:26104701

  12. A large-insert (130 kbp) bacterial artificial chromosome library of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea: genome analysis, contig assembly, and gene cloning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Choi, S; Johnston, A K; Wing, R A; Dean, R A

    1997-06-01

    Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr causes rice blast, one of the most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa) worldwide. This fungus is an ideal organism for studying a number of aspects of plant-pathogen interactions, including infection-related morphogenesis, avirulence, and pathogen evolution. To facilitate M. grisea genome analysis, physical mapping, and positional cloning, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from the rice infecting strain 70-15. A new method was developed for separation of partially digested large-molecular-weight DNA fragments that facilitated library construction with large inserts. The library contains 9216 clones, with an average insert size of 130 kbp (> 25 genome equivalents) stored in 384-well microtiter plates that can be double spotted robotically on to a single nylon membrane. Several unlinked single-copy DNA probes were used to screen 4608 clones in the library and an average of 13 (minimum of 6) overlapping BAC clones was found in each case. Hybridization of total genomic DNA to the library and analysis of individual clones indicated that approximately 26% of the clones contain single-copy DNA. Approximately 35% of BAC clones contained the retrotransposon MAGGY. The library was used to identify BAC clones containing a adenylate cyclase gene (mac1). In addition, a 550-kbp contig composed of 6 BAC clones was constructed that encompassed two adjacent RFLP markers on chromosome 2. These data show that the BAC library is suitable for genome analysis of M. grisea. Copies of colony hybridization membranes are available upon request. PMID:9290247

  13. Recombineering linear BACs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingwen; Narayanan, Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Recombineering is a powerful genetic engineering technique based on homologous recombination that can be used to accurately modify DNA independent of its sequence or size. One novel application of recombineering is the assembly of linear BACs in E. coli that can replicate autonomously as linear plasmids. A circular BAC is inserted with a short telomeric sequence from phage N15, which is subsequently cut and rejoined by the phage protelomerase enzyme to generate a linear BAC with terminal hairpin telomeres. Telomere-capped linear BACs are protected against exonuclease attack both in vitro and in vivo in E. coli cells and can replicate stably. Here we describe step-by-step protocols to linearize any BAC clone by recombineering, including inserting and screening for presence of the N15 telomeric sequence, linearizing BACs in vivo in E. coli, extracting linear BACs, and verifying the presence of hairpin telomere structures. Linear BACs may be useful for functional expression of genomic loci in cells, maintenance of linear viral genomes in their natural conformation, and for constructing innovative artificial chromosome structures for applications in mammalian and plant cells. PMID:25239740

  14. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for the Australian saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and its utilization in gene isolation and genome characterization

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Crocodilians (Order Crocodylia) are an ancient vertebrate group of tremendous ecological, social, and evolutionary importance. They are the only extant reptilian members of Archosauria, a monophyletic group that also includes birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs. Consequently, crocodilian genomes represent a gateway through which the molecular evolution of avian lineages can be explored. To facilitate comparative genomics within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and other archosaurs, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the Australian saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus. This is the first BAC library for a crocodile and only the second BAC resource for a crocodilian. Results The C. porosus BAC library consists of 101,760 individually archived clones stored in 384-well microtiter plates. NotI digestion of random clones indicates an average insert size of 102 kb. Based on a genome size estimate of 2778 Mb, the library affords 3.7 fold (3.7×) coverage of the C. porosus genome. To investigate the utility of the library in studying sequence distribution, probes derived from CR1a and CR1b, two crocodilian CR1-like retrotransposon subfamilies, were hybridized to C. porosus macroarrays. The results indicate that there are a minimum of 20,000 CR1a/b elements in C. porosus and that their distribution throughout the genome is decidedly non-random. To demonstrate the utility of the library in gene isolation, we probed the C. porosus macroarrays with an overgo designed from a C-mos (oocyte maturation factor) partial cDNA. A BAC containing C-mos was identified and the C-mos locus was sequenced. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignment of the C. porosus C-mos coding sequence with avian and reptilian C-mos orthologs reveals greater sequence similarity between C. porosus and birds (specifically chicken and zebra finch) than between C. porosus and squamates (green anole). Conclusion We have demonstrated the utility of the Crocodylus porosus BAC library as a tool in genomics research. The BAC library should expedite complete genome sequencing of C. porosus and facilitate detailed analysis of genome evolution within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and diverse amniote lineages including birds, mammals, and other non-avian reptiles. PMID:19607660

  15. De novo 454 sequencing of barcoded BAC pools for comprehensive gene survey and genome analysis in the complex genome of barley

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background De novo sequencing the entire genome of a large complex plant genome like the one of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a major challenge both in terms of experimental feasibility and costs. The emergence and breathtaking progress of next generation sequencing technologies has put this goal into focus and a clone based strategy combined with the 454/Roche technology is conceivable. Results To test the feasibility, we sequenced 91 barcoded, pooled, gene containing barley BACs using the GS FLX platform and assembled the sequences under iterative change of parameters. The BAC assemblies were characterized by N50 of ~50 kb (N80 ~31 kb, N90 ~21 kb) and a Q40 of 94%. For ~80% of the clones, the best assemblies consisted of less than 10 contigs at 24-fold mean sequence coverage. Moreover we show that gene containing regions seem to assemble completely and uninterrupted thus making the approach suitable for detecting complete and positionally anchored genes. By comparing the assemblies of four clones to their complete reference sequences generated by the Sanger method, we evaluated the distribution, quality and representativeness of the 454 sequences as well as the consistency and reliability of the assemblies. Conclusion The described multiplex 454 sequencing of barcoded BACs leads to sequence consensi highly representative for the clones. Assemblies are correct for the majority of contigs. Though the resolution of complex repetitive structures requires additional experimental efforts, our approach paves the way for a clone based strategy of sequencing the barley genome. PMID:19930547

  16. Metagenomic analysis of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in naturally populated psyllids (Diaphorina citri) using BAC libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the most prevalent species of three species of Ca. Liberibacter causing citrus huanglongbing (HLB) in the world. The Las genome sequence published in 2009 was obtained from a single Las-infected psyllid using metagenomic approach. Studies of genetic divers...

  17. Construction of a BAC Library of the Leymus Cinereus X L. Triticoides Hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides are two wildrye grasses with many contrasting morphological and agronomic traits. The interspecific hybrid Leymus cinereus X L. triticoides and its progenies had been used to develop linkage maps of traits and molecular markers. To generate genomic DNA sequence i...

  18. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library for hexaploid wheat line 92R137

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For map-based cloning of genes conferring important traits in the hexaploid wheat line 92R137, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, including two sub libraries, was constructed using the genomic DNA of 92R137 digested with restriction enzymes HindIII and BamHI. The BAC library was compos...

  19. Evaluating the potential for undesired genomic effects of the piggyBac transposon system in human cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sunandan; Woodard, Lauren E; Charron, Elizabeth M; Welch, Richard C; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-02-18

    Non-viral transposons have been used successfully for genetic modification of clinically relevant cells including embryonic stem, induced pluripotent stem, hematopoietic stem and primary human T cell types. However, there has been limited evaluation of undesired genomic effects when using transposons for human genome modification. The prevalence of piggyBac(PB)-like terminal repeat (TR) elements in the human genome raises concerns. We evaluated if there were undesired genomic effects of the PB transposon system to modify human cells. Expression of the transposase alone revealed no mobilization of endogenous PB-like sequences in the human genome and no increase in DNA double-strand breaks. The use of PB in a plasmid containing both transposase and transposon greatly increased the probability of transposase integration; however, using transposon and transposase from separate vectors circumvented this. Placing a eGFP transgene within transposon vector backbone allowed isolation of cells free from vector backbone DNA. We confirmed observable directional promoter activity within the 5'TR element of PB but found no significant enhancer effects from the transposon DNA sequence. Long-term culture of primary human cells modified with eGFP-transposons revealed no selective growth advantage of transposon-harboring cells. PB represents a promising vector system for genetic modification of human cells with limited undesired genomic effects. PMID:25605795

  20. Evaluating the potential for undesired genomic effects of the piggyBac transposon system in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sunandan; Woodard, Lauren E.; Charron, Elizabeth M.; Welch, Richard C.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Non-viral transposons have been used successfully for genetic modification of clinically relevant cells including embryonic stem, induced pluripotent stem, hematopoietic stem and primary human T cell types. However, there has been limited evaluation of undesired genomic effects when using transposons for human genome modification. The prevalence of piggyBac(PB)-like terminal repeat (TR) elements in the human genome raises concerns. We evaluated if there were undesired genomic effects of the PB transposon system to modify human cells. Expression of the transposase alone revealed no mobilization of endogenous PB-like sequences in the human genome and no increase in DNA double-strand breaks. The use of PB in a plasmid containing both transposase and transposon greatly increased the probability of transposase integration; however, using transposon and transposase from separate vectors circumvented this. Placing a eGFP transgene within transposon vector backbone allowed isolation of cells free from vector backbone DNA. We confirmed observable directional promoter activity within the 5′TR element of PB but found no significant enhancer effects from the transposon DNA sequence. Long-term culture of primary human cells modified with eGFP-transposons revealed no selective growth advantage of transposon-harboring cells. PB represents a promising vector system for genetic modification of human cells with limited undesired genomic effects. PMID:25605795

  1. The Oryza map alignment project: Construction, alignment and analysis of 12 BAC fingerprint/end sequence framework physical maps that represent the 10 genome types of genus Oryza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) provides the first comprehensive experimental system for understanding the evolution, physiology and biochemistry of a full genus in plants or animals. We have constructed twelve deep-coverage BAC libraries that are representative of both diploid and tetraploid...

  2. Localization and characterization of 170 BAC-derived clones and mapping of 94 microsatellites in the Hessian fly.

    PubMed

    Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Crane, Yan M; Morton, Philip K; Aggarwal, Rajat; Benatti, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-four microsatellites from enriched genomic libraries of Hessian fly (Hf, Mayetiola destructor [Say]) were localized to 170 cognate clones in an Hf bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. These microsatellite-positive BAC clones were physically mapped to polytene chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The mapped microsatellite loci can be used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of Hf. PMID:19592640

  3. Anchoring of rice BAC clones to the rice genetic map in silico

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qiaoping; Liang, Feng; Hsiao, Joseph; Zismann, Victoria; Benito, Maria-Ines; Quackenbush, John; Wing, Rod; Buell, Robin

    2000-01-01

    A wealth of molecular resources have been developed for rice genomics, including dense genetic maps, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), yeast artificial chromosome maps, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and BAC end sequence databases. Integration of genetic and physical maps involves labor-intensive empirical experiments. To accelerate the integration of the bacterial clone resources with the genetic map for the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project, we cleaned and filtered the available EST and BAC end sequences for repetitive sequences and then searched all available rice genetic markers with our filtered databases. We identified 418 genetic markers that aligned with at least one BAC end sequence with >95% sequence identity, providing a set of large insert clones with an average separation of 1 Mb that can serve as nucleation points for the sequencing phase of the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project. PMID:10982886

  4. Comparison between BAC and oligo array platforms in detecting submicroscopic genomic rearrangements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has emerged as a powerful diagnostic technique for high resolution analysis of the human genome. It is a specific, sensitive, and rapid technique enabling detection of genomic arrangements and copy number changes. A variety of array CGH platf...

  5. CONSTRUCTION OF CONTIGS OF AEGILOPS TAUSCHII GENOMIC DNA FRAGMENTS CLONED IN BAC AND BIBAC VECTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-throughput, fully automated, multi-color fluorescent fingerprinting technique for large-insert genomic DNA clones was developed. The technique was used to fingerprint 200,000 genomic DNA fragments of Aegilops tauschii line genetically closely related to the D genome of Chinese Spring wheat. T...

  6. Mapping genomic library clones using oligonucleotide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Sapolsky, R.J.; Lipshutz, R.J.

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a high-density DNA probe array and accompanying biochemical and informatic methods to order clones from genomic libraries. This approach involves a series of enzymatic steps for capturing a set of short dispersed sequence markers scattered throughout a high-molecular-weight DNA. By this process, all the ambiguous sequences lying adjacent to a given Type IIS restriction site are ligated between two DNA adaptors. These markers, once amplified and labeled by PCR, can be hybridized and detected on a high-density olligonucleotide array bearing probes complementary to all possible markers. The array is synthesized using light-directed combinatorial chemistry. For each clone in a genomic library, a characteristic set of sequence markers can be determined. On the basis of the similarity between the marker sets for each pair of clones, their relative overlap can be measured. The library can be sequentially ordered into a contig map using this overlap information. This new methodology does not require gel-based methods or prior sequence information and involves manipulations that should allow for easy adaptation to automated processing and data collection. 28 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Enzymatically Generated CRISPR Libraries for Genome Labeling and Screening.

    PubMed

    Lane, Andrew B; Strzelecka, Magdalena; Ettinger, Andreas; Grenfell, Andrew W; Wittmann, Torsten; Heald, Rebecca

    2015-08-10

    CRISPR-based technologies have emerged as powerful tools to alter genomes and mark chromosomal loci, but an inexpensive method for generating large numbers of RNA guides for whole genome screening and labeling is lacking. Using a method that permits library construction from any source of DNA, we generated guide libraries that label repetitive loci or a single chromosomal locus in Xenopus egg extracts and show that a complex library can target the E.coli genome at high frequency. PMID:26212133

  8. Aquaculture Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomics chapter covers the basics of genome mapping and sequencing and the current status of several relevant species. The chapter briefly describes the development and use of (cDNA, BAC, etc.) libraries for mapping and obtaining specific sequence information. Other topics include comparative ...

  9. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Rmi) a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crusta...

  10. A First Generation Bac-Based Physical Map of the Channel Catfish Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the kar...

  11. Distribution of genes and repetitive elements in the Diabrotica virgifera virgifera genome estimated using BAC sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding damage caused by the corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is destructive to corn plants in North America and Europe where control remains challenging due to evolution of resistance traits that allow survival when exposed to chemical and transgenic toxins. Genome sequencing of an i...

  12. Complete Genomic Sequence and an Infectious BAC Clone of Feline Herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is classified under the genus Varicellovirus within the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, and is a major cause of upper respiratory infection in cats. In this report, we present the first complete genomic sequence of FHV-1, as well as a bacterial artificial chromosome (...

  13. TOWARD AN INTEGRATED PHYSICAL AND GENETIC MAP OF COTTON GEMONE: BAC FINGERPRINTING AND PHYSICAL MAP CONSTRUCTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are developing an integrated physical/genetic map of the cultivated allotetraploid cotton (AD genome) using three large-insert BAC and BIBAC libraries that were constructed from the genetic standard line TM-1. We have investigated all fingerprinting methods both previously developed and used in t...

  14. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  15. BAC to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.

    1993-03-19

    The emerging problems with YACs may have been a blow to many genome researchers, but some scientists have long been advocating more funding for alternative DNA carriers. As the Human Genome Project focused on YACs in recent years, however, support for the development of non-YAC systems has been hard to come by. But as the community comes to grips with the limitations of YACs, researchers are starting to take another look at the alternatives. One of the most promising is the newest-the Bacteria Artificial Chromosome (BAC). Like a YAC, it is formed by inserting foreign DNA into a microorganism - E. coli in the case of the BAC - and letting the organism's genetic reproduction machinery take over to make copies. Mel Simon and his group at Caltech developed the BAC in 1990 specifically to try to get around some of the problems with YACs, and Simon says they have ben at least partially successful. BACs don't appear to result in unrelated pieces of DNA being spliced together and cloned, for example, and very preliminary analysis suggests that deletion of stretches of DNA will not be a significant problem. Best of all, he says, those regions of the human genome that are uncloneable in YACs will probably clone just fine in BACs, and vice-versa. BACs do, however, have one significant disadvantage: They can carry stretches of only 200,000 to 300,000 bases of foreign DNA - less than one-quarter as long as the best YACs. And other possible alternatives to YACs are limited to even shorter fragments. Another bacteria-based carrier known as a P1 can carry DNA insets of about 100,000 bases, and cosmids, which have been around the longest, are shorter yet - about 40,000 bases. While none of these systems is going to challenge the YAC for the size of their genome fragments, Simon says, they should provide a more precise complement to the YACs brute-force capabilities.

  16. Serial assembly of Thermus megaplasmid DNA in the genome of Bacillus subtilis 168: a BAC-based domino method applied to DNA with a high GC content.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Naoto; Hasegawa, Miki; Sato, Mitsuru; Tomita, Masaru; Kaneko, Shinya; Itaya, Mitsuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the only bacterium-based host able to clone giant DNA above 1000 kbp. DNA previously handled by this host was limited to that with GC content similar to or lower than that of the B. subtilis genome. To expand the target DNA range to higher GC content, we tried to clone a pTT27 megaplasmid (257 kbp, 69% of G+C) from Thermus thermophilus. To facilitate the reconstruction process, we subcloned pTT27 in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector of Escherichia coli. Owing to the ability of BAC to carry around 100 kbp DNA, only 4 clones were needed to cover the pTT27 and conduct step-by-step assembly in the B. subtilis genome. The full length of 257 kbp was reconstructed through 3 intermediary lengths (108, 153, and 226 kbp), despite an unexpected difficulty in the maintenance of DNA >200 kbp. Retrieval of these four pTT27 segments from the B. subtilis genome by genetic transfer to a plasmid pLS20 was attempted. A stable plasmid clone was obtained only for the 108 and 153 kbp intermediates. The B. subtilis genome was demonstrated to accommodate large DNA with a high GC content, but may be restricted to less than 200 kbp by unidentified mechanisms. PMID:22553167

  17. TECHNIQUE FOR SCREENING AND MAINTAINING SMALLER GENOMIC LIBRARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique for screening and simultaneously maintaining individual clones of the gene library for long-term storage is described. his method is particularly useful for identification and cloning of genes from cosmid-based genomic libraries of prokaryotes that constitute a smalle...

  18. Construction, characterization and FISH mapping of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla).

    PubMed

    Che, J; Wang, J; Su, W; Ye, J; Wang, Y; Nie, W; Yang, F

    2008-01-01

    Chinese pangolins as a representative species in the order Pholidota have highly specified morphological characters and occupy an important place in the mammalian phylogenetic tree. To obtain genomic data for this species, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Chinese pangolin. The library contains 208,272 clones with an average insert size of 122.1 kb and represents approximately eight times the Chinese pangolin haploid genome (if we assume that the Chinese pangolins have a genome size similar to human). One hundred and twenty randomly-selected BAC clones were mapped onto Chinese pangolin chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), showing a largely unbiased chromosomal distribution. Several clones containing repetitive DNA and ribosomal DNA genes were also found. The BAC library and FISH mapped BAC clones are useful resources for comparative genomics and cytogenetics of mammals and in particular, the ongoing genome sequencing project of Chinese pangolins. PMID:18931486

  19. Adaptation of a commercial robot for genome library replication

    SciTech Connect

    Uber, D.C.; Searles, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes tools and fixtures developed at the Human Genome Center at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for the Hewlett-Packard ORCA{trademark} (Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis) to replicate large genome libraries. Photographs and engineering drawings of the various custom-designed components are included.

  20. Analysis of BAC-end sequences in rainbow trout: Content characterization and assessment of synteny between trout and other fish genomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are cultivated worldwide for aquaculture production and are widely used as a model species to gain knowledge of many aspects of fish biology. The common ancestor of the salmonids experienced a whole genome duplication event, making extant salmonids such as the rainbow trout an excellent model for studying the evolution of tetraploidization and re-diploidization in vertebrates. However, the lack of a reference genome sequence hampers research progress for both academic and applied purposes. In order to enrich the genomic tools already available in this species and provide further insight on the complexity of its genome, we sequenced a large number of rainbow trout BAC-end sequences (BES) and characterized their contents. Results A total of 176,485 high quality BES, were generated, representing approximately 4% of the trout genome. BES analyses identified 6,848 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), of which 3,854 had high quality flanking sequences for PCR primers design. The first rainbow trout repeat elements database (INRA RT rep1.0) containing 735 putative repeat elements was developed, and identified almost 59.5% of the BES database in base-pairs as repetitive sequence. Approximately 55% of the BES reads (97,846) had more than 100 base pairs of contiguous non-repetitive sequences. The fractions of the 97,846 non-repetitive trout BES reads that had significant BLASTN hits against the zebrafish, medaka and stickleback genome databases were 15%, 16.2% and 17.9%, respectively, while the fractions of the non-repetitive BES reads that had significant BLASTX hits against the zebrafish, medaka, and stickleback protein databases were 10.7%, 9.5% and 9.5%, respectively. Comparative genomics using paired BAC-ends revealed several regions of conserved synteny across all the fish species analyzed in this study. Conclusions The characterization of BES provided insights on the rainbow trout genome. The discovery of specific repeat elements will facilitate analyses of sequence content (e.g. for SNPs discovery and for transcriptome characterization) and future genome sequence assemblies. The numerous microsatellites will facilitate integration of the linkage and physical maps and serve as valuable resource for fine mapping QTL and positional cloning of genes affecting aquaculture production traits. Furthermore, comparative genomics through BES can be used for identifying positional candidate genes from QTL mapping studies, aid in future assembly of a reference genome sequence and elucidating sequence content and complexity in the rainbow trout genome. PMID:21672188

  1. BAC-End Microsatellites from Intra and Inter-Genic Regions of the Common Bean Genome and Their Correlation with Cytogenetic Features

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Córdoba, Juana Marcela; Muñóz, Claritza; Yuyó, Deissy K.

    2014-01-01

    Highly polymorphic markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are very useful for genetic mapping. In this study novel SSRs were identified in BAC-end sequences (BES) from non-contigged, non-overlapping bacterial artificial clones (BACs) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). These so called “singleton” BACs were from the G19833 Andean gene pool physical map and the new BES-SSR markers were used for the saturation of the inter-gene pool, DOR364×G19833 genetic map. A total of 899 SSR loci were found among the singleton BES, but only 346 loci corresponded to the single di- or tri-nucleotide motifs that were likely to be polymorphic (ATT or AG motifs, principally) and useful for primer design and individual marker mapping. When these novel SSR markers were evaluated in the DOR364×G19833 population parents, 136 markers revealed polymorphism and 106 were mapped. Genetic mapping resulted in a map length of 2291 cM with an average distance between markers of 5.2 cM. The new genetic map was compared to the most recent cytogenetic analysis of common bean chromosomes. We found that the new singleton BES-SSR were helpful in filling peri-centromeric spaces on the cytogenetic map. Short genetic distances between some new singleton-derived BES-SSR markers was common showing suppressed recombination in these regions compared to other parts of the genome. The correlation of singleton-derived SSR marker distribution with other cytogenetic features of the bean genome is discussed. PMID:25254501

  2. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) genomic library and EST resources.

    PubMed

    von Schalburg, K R; Leong, J; Cooper, G A; Robb, A; Beetz-Sargent, M R; Lieph, R; Holt, R A; Moore, R; Ewart, K V; Driedzic, W R; ten Hallers, B F H; Zhu, B; de Jong, P J; Davidson, W S; Koop, B F

    2008-01-01

    Genomic resources in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) enable us to examine the genome duplication process in salmonids and test hypotheses relating to the fate of duplicated genes. They further enable us to pursue physiological and ecological studies in smelt. A bacterial artificial chromosome library containing 52,410 clones with an average insert size of 146 kb was constructed. This library represents an 11-fold average coverage of the rainbow smelt (O. mordax) genome. In addition, several complementary deoxyribonucleic acid libraries were constructed, and 36,758 sequences were obtained and combined into 12,159 transcripts. Over half of these transcripts have been identified, several of which have been associated with cold adaptation. These basic resources show high levels of similarity (86%) to salmonid genes and provide initial support for genome duplication in the salmonid ancestor. They also facilitate identification of genes important to fish and direct us toward new technologies for other studies in fish biology. PMID:18386095

  3. Reconstruction of the complete human cytomegalovirus genome in a BAC reveals RL13 to be a potent inhibitor of replication

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Richard J.; Baluchova, Katarina; Dargan, Derrick J.; Cunningham, Charles; Sheehy, Orla; Seirafian, Sepehr; McSharry, Brian P.; Neale, M. Lynne; Davies, James A.; Tomasec, Peter; Davison, Andrew J.; Wilkinson, Gavin W.G.

    2010-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in clinical material cannot replicate efficiently in vitro until it has adapted by mutation. Consequently, wild-type HCMV differ fundamentally from the passaged strains used for research. To generate a genetically intact source of HCMV, we cloned strain Merlin into a self-excising BAC. The Merlin BAC clone had mutations in the RL13 gene and UL128 locus that were acquired during limited replication in vitro prior to cloning. The complete wild-type HCMV gene complement was reconstructed by reference to the original clinical sample. Characterization of viruses generated from repaired BACs revealed that RL13 efficiently repressed HCMV replication in multiple cell types; moreover, RL13 mutants rapidly and reproducibly emerged in transfectants. Virus also acquired mutations in genes UL128, UL130, or UL131A, which inhibited virus growth specifically in fibroblast cells in wild-type form. We further report that RL13 encodes a highly glycosylated virion envelope protein and thus has the potential to modulate tropism. To overcome rapid emergence of mutations in genetically intact HCMV, we developed a system in which RL13 and UL131A were conditionally repressed during virus propagation. This technological advance now permits studies to be undertaken with a clonal, characterized HCMV strain containing the complete wild-type gene complement and promises to enhance the clinical relevance of fundamental research on HCMV. PMID:20679731

  4. A Multiway Analysis for Identifying High Integrity Bovine BACs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In large genomics projects involving many different types of analyses of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), such as fingerprinting, end sequencing (BES) and full BAC sequencing there are many opportunities for the identities of BACs to become confused. However, by comparing the results from t...

  5. The Atlas Genome Assembly System

    PubMed Central

    Havlak, Paul; Chen, Rui; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Ren, Yanru; Song, Xing-Zhi; Weinstock, George M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    Atlas is a suite of programs developed for assembly of genomes by a “combined approach” that uses DNA sequence reads from both BACs and whole-genome shotgun (WGS) libraries. The BAC clones afford advantages of localized assembly with reduced computational load, and provide a robust method for dealing with repeated sequences. Inclusion of WGS sequences facilitates use of different clone insert sizes and reduces data production costs. A core function of Atlas software is recruitment of WGS sequences into appropriate BACs based on sequence overlaps. Because construction of consensus sequences is from local assembly of these reads, only small (<0.1%) units of the genome are assembled at a time. Once assembled, each BAC is used to derive a genomic layout. This “sequence-based” growth of the genome map has greater precision than with non-sequence-based methods. Use of BACs allows correction of artifacts due to repeats at each stage of the process. This is aided by ancillary data such as BAC fingerprint, other genomic maps, and syntenic relations with other genomes. Atlas was used to assemble a draft DNA sequence of the rat genome; its major components including overlapper and split-scaffold are also being used in pure WGS projects. PMID:15060016

  6. Unraveling CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering parameters via a library-on-library approach.

    PubMed

    Chari, Raj; Mali, Prashant; Moosburner, Mark; Church, George M

    2015-09-01

    We developed an in vivo library-on-library methodology to simultaneously assess single guide RNA (sgRNA) activity across ∼1,400 genomic loci. Assaying across multiple human cell types and end-processing enzymes as well as two Cas9 orthologs, we unraveled underlying nucleotide sequence and epigenetic parameters. Our results and software (http://crispr.med.harvard.edu/sgRNAScorer) enable improved design of reagents, shed light on mechanisms of genome targeting, and provide a generalizable framework to study nucleic acid-nucleic acid interactions and biochemistry in high throughput. PMID:26167643

  7. The first report of a Pelecaniformes defensin cluster: characterization of β-defensin genes in the crested ibis based on BAC libraries.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Li-Cheng; Wang, Bei-Bing; Sun, Li; Ma, Mei-Ying; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Wan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Defensins play a key role in the innate immunity of various organisms. Detailed genomic studies of the defensin cluster have only been reported in a limited number of birds. Herein, we present the first characterization of defensins in a Pelecaniformes species, the crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), which is one of the most endangered birds in the world. We constructed bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, including a 4D-PCR library and a reverse-4D library, which provide at least 40 equivalents of this rare bird's genome. A cluster including 14 β-defensin loci within 129 kb was assigned to chromosome 3 by FISH, and one gene duplication of AvBD1 was found. The ibis defensin genes are characterized by multiform gene organization ranging from two to four exons through extensive exon fusion. Splicing signal variations and alternative splice variants were also found. Comparative analysis of four bird species identified one common and multiple species-specific duplications, which might be associated with high GC content. Evolutionary analysis revealed birth-and-death mode and purifying selection for avian defensin evolution, resulting in different defensin gene numbers among bird species and functional conservation within orthologous genes, respectively. Additionally, we propose various directions for further research on genetic conservation in the crested ibis. PMID:25372018

  8. WEEVIL GENOMICS: AN EST LIBRARY FROM THE DIAPREPES ROOT WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have initiated a project to analyze expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the Diaprepes root weevil. Results of the first EST library for this species are presented, including total number of sequences, unique sequences, contigs, matches with genomic databases, and putative gene functions....

  9. A physical map of the bovine genome

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Chiu, Readman; Schein, Jacqueline E; Hobbs, Matthew; Abbey, Colette A; Adelson, David L; Aerts, Jan; Bennett, Gary L; Bosdet, Ian E; Boussaha, Mekki; Brauning, Rudiger; Caetano, Alexandre R; Costa, Marcos M; Crawford, Allan M; Dalrymple, Brian P; Eggen, Andr; Everts-van der Wind, Annelie; Floriot, Sandrine; Gautier, Mathieu; Gill, Clare A; Green, Ronnie D; Holt, Robert; Jann, Oliver; Jones, Steven JM; Kappes, Steven M; Keele, John W; de Jong, Pieter J; Larkin, Denis M; Lewin, Harris A; McEwan, John C; McKay, Stephanie; Marra, Marco A; Mathewson, Carrie A; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Moore, Stephen S; Murdoch, Brenda; Nicholas, Frank W; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Roy, Alice; Salih, Hanni; Schibler, Laurent; Schnabel, Robert D; Silveri, Licia; Skow, Loren C; Smith, Timothy PL; Sonstegard, Tad S; Taylor, Jeremy F; Tellam, Ross; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Williams, John L; Womack, James E; Wye, Natasja H; Yang, George; Zhao, Shaying

    2007-01-01

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential genetic polymorphisms will be enhanced by integration with each other and with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The BAC libraries and clone maps are essential for the hybrid clone-by-clone/whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach taken by the bovine genome sequencing project. Results A bovine BAC map was constructed with HindIII restriction digest fragments of 290,797 BAC clones from animals of three different breeds. Comparative mapping of 422,522 BAC end sequences assisted with BAC map ordering and assembly. Genotypes and pedigree from two genetic maps and marker scores from three whole-genome RH panels were consolidated on a 17,254-marker composite map. Sequence similarity allowed integrating the BAC and composite maps with the bovine draft assembly (Btau3.1), establishing a comprehensive resource describing the bovine genome. Agreement between the marker and BAC maps and the draft assembly is high, although discrepancies exist. The composite and BAC maps are more similar than either is to the draft assembly. Conclusion Further refinement of the maps and greater integration into the genome assembly process may contribute to a high quality assembly. The maps provide resources to associate phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation, and are crucial resources for understanding the biology underpinning this important ruminant species so closely associated with humans. PMID:17697342

  10. Multiplexed direct genomic selection (MDiGS): a pooled BAC capture approach for highly accurate CNV and SNP/INDEL detection

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, David M.; Yang, Ping; Druley, Todd E.; Lovett, Michael; Gurnett, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite declining sequencing costs, few methods are available for cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), insertion/deletion (INDEL) and copy number variation (CNV) discovery in a single assay. Commercially available methods require a high investment to a specific region and are only cost-effective for large samples. Here, we introduce a novel, flexible approach for multiplexed targeted sequencing and CNV analysis of large genomic regions called multiplexed direct genomic selection (MDiGS). MDiGS combines biotinylated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) capture and multiplexed pooled capture for SNP/INDEL and CNV detection of 96 multiplexed samples on a single MiSeq run. MDiGS is advantageous over other methods for CNV detection because pooled sample capture and hybridization to large contiguous BAC baits reduces sample and probe hybridization variability inherent in other methods. We performed MDiGS capture for three chromosomal regions consisting of ∼550 kb of coding and non-coding sequence with DNA from 253 patients with congenital lower limb disorders. PITX1 nonsense and HOXC11 S191F missense mutations were identified that segregate in clubfoot families. Using a novel pooled-capture reference strategy, we identified recurrent chromosome chr17q23.1q23.2 duplications and small HOXC 5′ cluster deletions (51 kb and 12 kb). Given the current interest in coding and non-coding variants in human disease, MDiGS fulfills a niche for comprehensive and low-cost evaluation of CNVs, coding, and non-coding variants across candidate regions of interest. PMID:24682816

  11. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, J P; Yu, Y; Miller-Smith, H; Frisch, D A; Woo, S S; Wing, R A

    1999-08-01

    Modern cultivated sugarcane is a complex aneuploid polyploid with an estimated genome size of 3000 Mb. Although most traits in sugarcane show complex inheritance, a rust locus showing monogenic inheritance has been documented. In order to facilitate cloning of the rust locus, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the cultivar R570. The library contains 103,296 clones providing 4.5 sugarcane genome equivalents. A random sampling of 240 clones indicated an average insert size of 130 kb allowing a 98% probability of recovering any specific sequence of interest. High-density filters were gridded robotically using a Genetix Q-BOT in a 4 × 4 double-spotted array on 22.5-cm(2) filters. Each set of five filters provides a genome coverage of 4x with 18,432 clones represented per filter. Screening of the library with three different barley chloroplast gene probes indicated an exceptionally low chloroplast DNA content of less than 1%. To demonstrate the library's potential for map-based cloning, single-copy RFLP sugarcane mapping probes anchored to nine different linkage groups and three different gene probes were used to screen the library. The number of positive hybridization signals resulting from each probe ranged from 8 to 60. After determining addresses of the signals, clones were evaluated for insert size and HindIII-fingerprinted. The fingerprints were then used to determine clone relationships and assemble contigs. For comparison with other monocot genomes, sugarcane RFLP probes were also used to screen a Sorghum bicolor BAC library and two rice BAC libraries. The rice and sorghum BAC clones were characterized for insert size and fingerprinted, and the results compared to sugarcane. The library was screened with a rust resistance RFLP marker and candidate BAC clones were subjected to RFLP fragment matching to identify those corresponding to the same genomic region as the rust gene. PMID:22665173

  12. Competitive Genomic Screens of Barcoded Yeast Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Urbanus, Malene; Proctor, Michael; Heisler, Lawrence E.; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2011-01-01

    By virtue of advances in next generation sequencing technologies, we have access to new genome sequences almost daily. The tempo of these advances is accelerating, promising greater depth and breadth. In light of these extraordinary advances, the need for fast, parallel methods to define gene function becomes ever more important. Collections of genome-wide deletion mutants in yeasts and E. coli have served as workhorses for functional characterization of gene function, but this approach is not scalable, current gene-deletion approaches require each of the thousands of genes that comprise a genome to be deleted and verified. Only after this work is complete can we pursue high-throughput phenotyping. Over the past decade, our laboratory has refined a portfolio of competitive, miniaturized, high-throughput genome-wide assays that can be performed in parallel. This parallelization is possible because of the inclusion of DNA 'tags', or 'barcodes,' into each mutant, with the barcode serving as a proxy for the mutation and one can measure the barcode abundance to assess mutant fitness. In this study, we seek to fill the gap between DNA sequence and barcoded mutant collections. To accomplish this we introduce a combined transposon disruption-barcoding approach that opens up parallel barcode assays to newly sequenced, but poorly characterized microbes. To illustrate this approach we present a new Candida albicans barcoded disruption collection and describe how both microarray-based and next generation sequencing-based platforms can be used to collect 10,000 - 1,000,000 gene-gene and drug-gene interactions in a single experiment. PMID:21860376

  13. Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A; Starbuck, Kristen D; Kim, James C; Bernay, Derek C; Scangas, George A; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T; Betensky, Rebecca A; Louis, David N

    2011-04-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA). Because diffuse malignant gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks are often the only tissue available for genetic analysis; FFPE tissues are also needed to study the intratumoral heterogeneity that characterizes these neoplasms. In this paper, we present a combination of evaluations and technical advances that provide strong support for the ready use of oligonucleotide aCGH on FFPE diffuse gliomas. We first compared aCGH using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays in 45 paired frozen and FFPE gliomas, and demonstrate a high concordance rate between FFPE and frozen DNA in an individual clone-level analysis of sensitivity and specificity, assuring that under certain array conditions, frozen and FFPE DNA can perform nearly identically. However, because oligonucleotide arrays offer advantages to BAC arrays in genomic coverage and practical availability, we next developed a method of labeling DNA from FFPE tissue that allows efficient hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. To demonstrate utility in FFPE tissues, we applied this approach to biphasic anaplastic oligoastrocytomas and demonstrate CNA differences between DNA obtained from the two components. Therefore, BAC and oligonucleotide aCGH can be sensitive and specific tools for detecting CNAs in FFPE DNA, and novel labeling techniques enable the routine use of oligonucleotide arrays for FFPE DNA. In combination, these advances should facilitate genome-wide analysis of rare, small and/or histologically heterogeneous gliomas from FFPE tissues. PMID:21080181

  14. Genome Engineering Using Targeted Oligonucleotide Libraries and Functional Selection

    PubMed Central

    Diner, Elie J.; Garza-Sánchez, Fernando; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The λ phage Red proteins greatly enhance homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Red-mediated recombination or “recombineering” can be used to construct targeted gene deletions as well as to introduce point mutations into the genome. Here, we describe our method for scanning mutagenesis using recombineered oligonucleotide libraries. This approach entails randomization of specific codons within a target gene, followed by functional selection to isolate mutants. Oligonucleotide library mutagenesis has generated hundreds of novel antibiotic resistance mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins, and should be applicable to other systems for which functional selections exist. PMID:21815087

  15. Oligonucleotide Arrays vs. Metaphase-Comparative Genomic Hybridisation and BAC Arrays for Single-Cell Analysis: First Applications to Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Robertsonian Translocation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Laia; del Rey, Javier; Daina, Gemma; García-Aragonés, Manel; Armengol, Lluís; Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; Parriego, Mònica; Boada, Montserrat; Martinez-Passarell, Olga; Martorell, Maria Rosa; Casagran, Oriol; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive chromosome analysis techniques such as metaphase-Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (CGH) and array-CGH are available for single-cell analysis. However, while metaphase-CGH and BAC array-CGH have been widely used for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, oligonucleotide array-CGH has not been used in an extensive way. A comparison between oligonucleotide array-CGH and metaphase-CGH has been performed analysing 15 single fibroblasts from aneuploid cell-lines and 18 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. Afterwards, oligonucleotide array-CGH and BAC array-CGH were also compared analysing 16 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. All three comprehensive analysis techniques provided broadly similar cytogenetic profiles; however, non-identical profiles appeared when extensive aneuploidies were present in a cell. Both array techniques provided an optimised analysis procedure and a higher resolution than metaphase-CGH. Moreover, oligonucleotide array-CGH was able to define extra segmental imbalances in 14.7% of the blastomeres and it better determined the specific unbalanced chromosome regions due to a higher resolution of the technique (≈20 kb). Applicability of oligonucleotide array-CGH for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis has been demonstrated in two cases of Robertsonian translocation carriers 45,XY,der(13;14)(q10;q10). Transfer of euploid embryos was performed in both cases and pregnancy was achieved by one of the couples. This is the first time that an oligonucleotide array-CGH approach has been successfully applied to Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for balanced chromosome rearrangement carriers. PMID:25415307

  16. Theobroma cacao: A genetically integrated physical map and genome-scale comparative synteny analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive integrated genomic framework is considered a centerpiece of genomic research. In collaboration with the USDA-ARS (SHRS) and Mars Inc., the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI) has developed a genetically anchored physical map of the T. cacao genome. Three BAC libraries contai...

  17. EMGLib: the Enhanced Microbial Genomes Library (update 2000)

    PubMed Central

    Perrière, Guy; Bessières, Philippe; Labedan, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    As the number of complete microbial genomes publicly available is still growing, the problem of annotation quality in these very large sequences remains unsolved. Indeed, the number of annotations associated with complete genomes is usually lower than those of the shorter entries encountered in the repository collections. Moreover, classical sequence database management systems have difficulties in handling entries of such size. In this context, the Enhanced Microbial Genomes Library (EMGLib) was developed to try to alleviate these problems. This library contains all the complete genomes from prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) already sequenced and the yeast genome in GenBank format. The annotations are improved by the introduction of data on codon usage, gene orientation on the chromosome and gene families. It is possible to access EMGLib through two database systems set up on WWW servers: the PBIL server at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/emglib/emglib.html and the MICADO server at http://locus.jouy.inra.fr/micado PMID:10592183

  18. Sequencing of 15 622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework....

  19. Inexpensive Multiplexed Library Preparation for Megabase-Sized Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Michael M.; Kishony, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing has become an indispensible tool of modern biology. However, the cost of sample preparation relative to the cost of sequencing remains high, especially for small genomes where the former is dominant. Here we present a protocol for rapid and inexpensive preparation of hundreds of multiplexed genomic libraries for Illumina sequencing. By carrying out the Nextera tagmentation reaction in small volumes, replacing costly reagents with cheaper equivalents, and omitting unnecessary steps, we achieve a cost of library preparation of $8 per sample, approximately 6 times cheaper than the standard Nextera XT protocol. Furthermore, our procedure takes less than 5 hours for 96 samples. Several hundred samples can then be pooled on the same HiSeq lane via custom barcodes. Our method will be useful for re-sequencing of microbial or viral genomes, including those from evolution experiments, genetic screens, and environmental samples, as well as for other sequencing applications including large amplicon, open chromosome, artificial chromosomes, and RNA sequencing. PMID:26000737

  20. Using Partial Genomic Fosmid Libraries for Sequencing CompleteOrganellar Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    McNeal, Joel R.; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Arumuganathan, K.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-08-26

    Organellar genome sequences provide numerous phylogenetic markers and yield insight into organellar function and molecular evolution. These genomes are much smaller in size than their nuclear counterparts; thus, their complete sequencing is much less expensive than total nuclear genome sequencing, making broader phylogenetic sampling feasible. However, for some organisms it is challenging to isolate plastid DNA for sequencing using standard methods. To overcome these difficulties, we constructed partial genomic libraries from total DNA preparations of two heterotrophic and two autotrophic angiosperm species using fosmid vectors. We then used macroarray screening to isolate clones containing large fragments of plastid DNA. A minimum tiling path of clones comprising the entire genome sequence of each plastid was selected, and these clones were shotgun-sequenced and assembled into complete genomes. Although this method worked well for both heterotrophic and autotrophic plants, nuclear genome size had a dramatic effect on the proportion of screened clones containing plastid DNA and, consequently, the overall number of clones that must be screened to ensure full plastid genome coverage. This technique makes it possible to determine complete plastid genome sequences for organisms that defy other available organellar genome sequencing methods, especially those for which limited amounts of tissue are available.

  1. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Fa-Ten.

    1991-01-01

    We have made important progress since the beginning of the current grant year. We have further developed the microdissection and PCR- assisted microcloning techniques using the linker-adaptor method. We have critically evaluated the microdissection libraries constructed by this microtechnology and proved that they are of high quality. We further demonstrated that these microdissection clones are useful in identifying corresponding YAC clones for a thousand-fold expansion of the genomic coverage and for contig construction. We are also improving the technique of cloning the dissected fragments in test tube by the TDT method. We are applying both of these PCR cloning technique to human chromosomes 2 and 5 to construct region-specific libraries for physical mapping purposes of LLNL and LANL. Finally, we are exploring efficient procedures to use unique sequence microclones to isolate cDNA clones from defined chromosomal regions as valuable resources for identifying expressed gene sequences in the human genome. We believe that we are making important progress under the auspices of this DOE human genome program grant and we will continue to make significant contributions in the coming year. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Library construction for ancient genomics: single strand or double strand?

    PubMed

    Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Lizzo, Giulia; Daligault, Julien; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    A novel method of library construction that takes advantage of a single-stranded DNA ligase has been recently described and used to generate high-resolution genomes from ancient DNA samples. While this method is effective and appears to recover a greater fraction of endogenous ancient material, there has been no direct comparison of results from different library construction methods on a diversity of ancient DNA samples. In addition, the single-stranded method is limited by high cost and lengthy preparation time and is restricted to the Illumina sequencing platform. Here we present in-depth comparisons of the different available library construction methods for DNA purified from 16 ancient and modern faunal and human remains, covering a range of different taphonomic and climatic conditions. We further present a DNA purification method for ancient samples that permits the concentration of a large volume of dissolved extract with minimal manipulation and methodological improvements to the single-stranded method to render it more economical and versatile, in particular to expand its use to both the Illumina and the Ion Torrent sequencing platforms. We show that the single-stranded library construction method improves the relative recovery of endogenous to exogenous DNA for most, but not all, of our ancient extracts. PMID:24924389

  3. Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A.; Starbuck, Kristen D.; Kim, James C.; Bernay, Derek C.; Scangas, George A.; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Louis, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of cancer is rapidly evolving as a result of improvement in genomic technologies and the growing applicability of such analyses to clinical oncology. Array based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA), particularly in solid tumors, and has been applied to the study of malignant gliomas. In the clinical setting, however, gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies and thus formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks are often the only tissue available for genetic analysis, especially for rare types of gliomas. Moreover, the biological basis for the marked intratumoral heterogeneity in gliomas is most readily addressed in FFPE material. Therefore, for gliomas, the ability to use DNA from FFPE tissue is essential for both clinical and research applications. In this study, we have constructed a custom bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array and show excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting CNAs in a panel of paired frozen and FFPE glioma samples. Our study demonstrates a high concordance rate between CNAs detected in FFPE compared to frozen DNA. We have also developed a method of labeling DNA from FFPE tissue that allows efficient hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. This labeling technique was applied to a panel of biphasic anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA) to identify genetic changes unique to each component. Together, results from these studies suggest that BAC and oligonucleotide aCGH are sensitive tools for detecting CNAs in FFPE DNA, and can enable genome-wide analysis of rare, small and/or histologically heterogeneous gliomas. PMID:21080181

  4. Development of the piggyBac transposable system for Plasmodium berghei and its application for random mutagenesis in malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genome of a number of species of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) has been sequenced in the hope of identifying new drug and vaccine targets. However, almost one-half of predicted Plasmodium genes are annotated as hypothetical and are difficult to analyse in bulk due to the inefficiency of current reverse genetic methodologies for Plasmodium. Recently, it has been shown that the transposase piggyBac integrates at random into the genome of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum offering the possibility to develop forward genetic screens to analyse Plasmodium gene function. This study reports the development and application of the piggyBac transposition system for the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei and the evaluation of its potential as a tool in forward genetic studies. P. berghei is the most frequently used malaria parasite model in gene function analysis since phenotype screens throughout the complete Plasmodium life cycle are possible both in vitro and in vivo. Results We demonstrate that piggyBac based gene inactivation and promoter-trapping is both easier and more efficient in P. berghei than in the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. Random piggyBac-mediated insertion into genes was achieved after parasites were transfected with the piggyBac donor plasmid either when transposase was expressed either from a helper plasmid or a stably integrated gene in the genome. Characterization of more than 120 insertion sites demonstrated that more than 70 most likely affect gene expression classifying their protein products as non-essential for asexual blood stage development. The non-essential nature of two of these genes was confirmed by targeted gene deletion one of which encodes P41, an ortholog of a human malaria vaccine candidate. Importantly for future development of whole genome phenotypic screens the remobilization of the piggyBac element in parasites that stably express transposase was demonstrated. Conclusion These data demonstrate that piggyBac behaved as an efficient and random transposon in P. berghei. Remobilization of piggyBac element shows that with further development the piggyBac system can be an effective tool to generate random genome-wide mutation parasite libraries, for use in large-scale phenotype screens in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21418605

  5. BAC array CGH in patients with Velocardiofacial syndrome-like features reveals genomic aberrations on chromosome region 1q21.1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Microdeletion of the chromosome 22q11.2 region is the most common genetic aberration among patients with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) but a subset of subjects do not show alterations of this chromosome region. Methods We analyzed 18 patients with VCFS-like features by comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) array and performed a face-to-face slide hybridization with two different arrays: a whole genome and a chromosome 22-specific BAC array. Putative rearrangements were confirmed by FISH and MLPA assays. Results One patient carried a combination of rearrangements on 1q21.1, consisting in a microduplication of 212 kb and a close microdeletion of 1.15 Mb, previously reported in patients with variable phenotypes, including mental retardation, congenital heart defects (CHD) and schizophrenia. While 326 control samples were negative for both 1q21.1 rearrangements, one of 73 patients carried the same 212-kb microduplication, reciprocal to TAR microdeletion syndrome. Also, we detected four copy number variants (CNVs) inherited from one parent (a 744-kb duplication on 10q11.22; a 160 kb duplication and deletion on 22q11.21 in two cases; and a gain of 140 kb on 22q13.2), not present in control subjects, raising the potential role of these CNVs in the VCFS-like phenotype. Conclusions Our results confirmed aCGH as a successful strategy in order to characterize additional submicroscopic aberrations in patients with VCF-like features that fail to show alterations in 22q11.2 region. We report a 212-kb microduplication on 1q21.1, detected in two patients, which may contribute to CHD. PMID:20030804

  6. The Neurospora crassa genome: cosmid libraries sorted by chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, H S; Griffith, J; Case, M E; Covert, S F; Hall, R D; Keith, C H; Oliver, J S; Orbach, M J; Sachs, M S; Wagner, J R; Weise, M J; Wunderlich, J K; Arnold, J

    2001-01-01

    A Neurospora crassa cosmid library of 12,000 clones (at least nine genome equivalents) has been created using an improved cosmid vector pLorist6Xh, which contains a bacteriophage lambda origin of replication for low-copy-number replication in bacteria and the hygromycin phosphotransferase marker for direct selection in fungi. The electrophoretic karyotype of the seven chromosomes comprising the 42.9-Mb N. crassa genome was resolved using two translocation strains. Using gel-purified chromosomal DNAs as probes against the new cosmid library and the commonly used medium-copy-number pMOcosX N. crassa cosmid library in two independent screenings, the cosmids were assigned to chromosomes. Assignments of cosmids to linkage groups on the basis of the genetic map vs. the electrophoretic karyotype are 93 +/- 3% concordant. The size of each chromosome-specific subcollection of cosmids was found to be linearly proportional to the size of the particular chromosome. Sequencing of an entire cosmid containing the qa gene cluster indicated a gene density of 1 gene per 4 kbp; by extrapolation, 11,000 genes would be expected to be present in the N. crassa genome. By hybridizing 79 nonoverlapping cosmids with an average insert size of 34 kbp against cDNA arrays, the density of previously characterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was found to be slightly <1 per cosmid (i.e., 1 per 40 kbp), and most cosmids, on average, contained an identified N. crassa gene sequence as a starting point for gene identification. PMID:11238388

  7. SSW Library: An SIMD Smith-Waterman C/C++ Library for Use in Genomic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengyao; Lee, Wan-Ping; Garrison, Erik P.; Marth, Gabor T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Smith-Waterman algorithm, which produces the optimal pairwise alignment between two sequences, is frequently used as a key component of fast heuristic read mapping and variation detection tools for next-generation sequencing data. Though various fast Smith-Waterman implementations are developed, they are either designed as monolithic protein database searching tools, which do not return detailed alignment, or are embedded into other tools. These issues make reusing these efficient Smith-Waterman implementations impractical. Results To facilitate easy integration of the fast Single-Instruction-Multiple-Data Smith-Waterman algorithm into third-party software, we wrote a C/C++ library, which extends Farrar’s Striped Smith-Waterman (SSW) to return alignment information in addition to the optimal Smith-Waterman score. In this library we developed a new method to generate the full optimal alignment results and a suboptimal score in linear space at little cost of efficiency. This improvement makes the fast Single-Instruction-Multiple-Data Smith-Waterman become really useful in genomic applications. SSW is available both as a C/C++ software library, as well as a stand-alone alignment tool at: https://github.com/mengyao/Complete-Striped-Smith-Waterman-Library. Conclusions The SSW library has been used in the primary read mapping tool MOSAIK, the split-read mapping program SCISSORS, the MEI detector TANGRAM, and the read-overlap graph generation program RZMBLR. The speeds of the mentioned software are improved significantly by replacing their ordinary Smith-Waterman or banded Smith-Waterman module with the SSW Library. PMID:24324759

  8. Optimizing restriction fragment fingerprinting methods for ordering large genomic libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Branscomb, E.; Slezak, T.; Pae, R.; Carrano, A.V. ); Galas, D.; Waterman, M. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a statistical analysis of the problem of ordering large genomic cloned libraries through overlap detection based on restriction fingerprinting. Such ordering projects involve a large investment of effort involving many repetitious experiments. Their primary purpose here is to provide methods of maximizing the efficiency of such efforts. To this end, they adopt a statistical approach that uses the likelihood ratio as a statistic to detect overlap. The main advantages of this approach are that (1) it allows the relatively straightforward incorporation of the observed statistical properties of the data; (2) it permits the efficiency of a particular experimental method for detecting overlap to be quantitatively defined so that alternative experimental designs may be compared and optimized; and (3) it yields a direct estimate of the probability that any two library members overlap. This estimate is a critical tool for the accurate, automatic assembly of overlapping sets of fragments into islands called contigs.' These contigs must subsequently be connected by other methods to provide an ordered set of overlapping fragments covering the entire genome.

  9. Sequence-based physical mapping of complex genomes by whole genome profiling

    PubMed Central

    van Oeveren, Jan; de Ruiter, Marjo; Jesse, Taco; van der Poel, Hein; Tang, Jifeng; Yalcin, Feyruz; Janssen, Antoine; Volpin, Hanne; Stormo, Keith E.; Bogden, Robert; van Eijk, Michiel J.T.; Prins, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We present whole genome profiling (WGP), a novel next-generation sequencing-based physical mapping technology for construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs of complex genomes, using Arabidopsis thaliana as an example. WGP leverages short read sequences derived from restriction fragments of two-dimensionally pooled BAC clones to generate sequence tags. These sequence tags are assigned to individual BAC clones, followed by assembly of BAC contigs based on shared regions containing identical sequence tags. Following in silico analysis of WGP sequence tags and simulation of a map of Arabidopsis chromosome 4 and maize, a WGP map of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia was constructed de novo using a six-genome equivalent BAC library. Validation of the WGP map using the Columbia reference sequence confirmed that 350 BAC contigs (98%) were assembled correctly, spanning 97% of the 102-Mb calculated genome coverage. We demonstrate that WGP maps can also be generated for more complex plant genomes and will serve as excellent scaffolds to anchor genetic linkage maps and integrate whole genome sequence data. PMID:21324881

  10. Genomic Resources for Gene Discovery, Functional Genome Annotation, and Evolutionary Studies of Maize and Its Close Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Shi, Xue; Liu, Lin; Li, Haiyan; Ammiraju, Jetty S.S.; Kudrna, David A.; Xiong, Wentao; Wang, Hao; Dai, Zhaozhao; Zheng, Yonglian; Lai, Jinsheng; Jin, Weiwei; Messing, Joachim; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wing, Rod A.; Luo, Meizhong

    2013-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important food crops and a key model for genetics and developmental biology. A genetically anchored and high-quality draft genome sequence of maize inbred B73 has been obtained to serve as a reference sequence. To facilitate evolutionary studies in maize and its close relatives, much like the Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) (www.OMAP.org) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) resource did for the rice community, we constructed BAC libraries for maize inbred lines Zheng58, Chang7-2, and Mo17 and maize wild relatives Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and Tripsacum dactyloides. Furthermore, to extend functional genomic studies to maize and sorghum, we also constructed binary BAC (BIBAC) libraries for the maize inbred B73 and the sorghum landrace Nengsi-1. The BAC/BIBAC vectors facilitate transfer of large intact DNA inserts from BAC clones to the BIBAC vector and functional complementation of large DNA fragments. These seven Zea Map Alignment Project (ZMAP) BAC/BIBAC libraries have average insert sizes ranging from 92 to 148 kb, organellar DNA from 0.17 to 2.3%, empty vector rates between 0.35 and 5.56%, and genome equivalents of 4.7- to 8.4-fold. The usefulness of the Parviglumis and Tripsacum BAC libraries was demonstrated by mapping clones to the reference genome. Novel genes and alleles present in these ZMAP libraries can now be used for functional complementation studies and positional or homology-based cloning of genes for translational genomics. PMID:24037269

  11. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries of Pulse Crops: Characteristics and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kangfu

    2012-01-01

    Pulse crops are considered minor on a global scale despite their nutritional value for human consumption. Therefore, they are relatively less extensively studied in comparison with the major crops. The need to improve pulse crop production and quality will increase with the increasing global demand for food security and people's awareness of nutritious food. The improvement of pulse crops will require fully utilizing all their genetic resources. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of pulse crops are essential genomic resources that have the potential to accelerate gene discovery and enhance molecular breeding in these crops. Here, we review the availability, characteristics, applications, and potential applications of the BAC libraries of pulse crops. PMID:21811383

  12. PiggyBac toolbox.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Mario; Mátrai, Janka; Belay, Eyayu; Firdissa, Tewodros; Vandendriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K L

    2012-01-01

    The PiggyBac (PB) transposon system was originally derived from the cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni and represents one of the most promising transposon systems to date. Engineering of the PB transposase enzyme (PBase) and its cognate transposon DNA elements resulted in a substantial increase in transposition activities. Consequently, this has greatly enhanced the versatility of the PB toolbox. It is now widely used for stable gene delivery into a broad variety of cell types from different species, including mammalian cells. This opened up new perspectives for potential therapeutic applications in the fields of gene therapy and regenerative medicine. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that PB transposons could be used to stably deliver genes into human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) resulting in sustained transgene expression in its differentiated progeny. The PB transposon system is particularly attractive for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Typically, this can be accomplished by stable gene transfer of genes encoding one or more reprogramming factors (i.e., c-MYC, KLF-4, OCT-4, and/or SOX-2). We have generated a PB-based nonviral reprogramming toolbox that contains different combinations of these reprogramming genes. The main advantage of using this PB toolbox for iPS generation is that the reprogramming cassette can be excised by de novo transposase expression, without leaving any molecular trace in the target cell genome. This "traceless excision" paradigm obviates potential risks associated with inadvertent re-expression of reprogramming factors in the iPS progeny. These various applications in gene therapy, stem cell engineering, and regenerative medicine underscore the emerging versatility of the PB toolbox. PMID:22367876

  13. Precise excision of TTAA-specific lepidopteran transposons piggyBac (IFP2) and tagalong (TFP3) from the baculovirus genome in cell lines from two species of Lepidoptera.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Fraser MJ; Ciszczon T; Elick T; Bauser C

    1996-05-01

    Transposon mutagenesis of baculoviruses provides an ideal experimental system for analysis of the movement of a unique family of mobile element identified from lepidopteran genomes. Members of this family of short-inverted-repeat elements are characterized by their extreme specificity for TTAA target sites. This report describes the analysis of excision events for two representatives of this family, tagalong (formerly TFP3) and piggyBac (formerly IFP2). These elements were tagged with a polyhedrin/lacZ reporter gene and inserted back into the virus genome either by homologous recombination or by transposition. Revertants were selected based on a white plaque phenotype. Both elements excise in a precise fashion from their positions in the baculovirus genome in either TN-368 cells or IPLB-SF21 AE cells. The precise excision of these elements in infected IPLB-SF21 AE cells occurs in the absence of either tagalong or piggyBac element encoded functions. The common characteristics of both insertion and excision for these elements provides further validation for their inclusion in a single family of unique transposons.

  14. Precise excision of TTAA-specific lepidopteran transposons piggyBac (IFP2) and tagalong (TFP3) from the baculovirus genome in cell lines from two species of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Fraser, M J; Ciszczon, T; Elick, T; Bauser, C

    1996-05-01

    Transposon mutagenesis of baculoviruses provides an ideal experimental system for analysis of the movement of a unique family of mobile element identified from lepidopteran genomes. Members of this family of short-inverted-repeat elements are characterized by their extreme specificity for TTAA target sites. This report describes the analysis of excision events for two representatives of this family, tagalong (formerly TFP3) and piggyBac (formerly IFP2). These elements were tagged with a polyhedrin/lacZ reporter gene and inserted back into the virus genome either by homologous recombination or by transposition. Revertants were selected based on a white plaque phenotype. Both elements excise in a precise fashion from their positions in the baculovirus genome in either TN-368 cells or IPLB-SF21 AE cells. The precise excision of these elements in infected IPLB-SF21 AE cells occurs in the absence of either tagalong or piggyBac element encoded functions. The common characteristics of both insertion and excision for these elements provides further validation for their inclusion in a single family of unique transposons. PMID:8673264

  15. Physical Mapping in a Triplicated Genome: Mapping the Downy Mildew Resistance Locus Pp523 in Brassica oleracea L.

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, Jorge D.; Alabaça, Claudia S.; Sousa, Nelson H.; Coelho, Paula S.; Monteiro, António A.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Leitão, José M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the construction of a BAC contig and identification of a minimal tiling path that encompass the dominant and monogenically inherited downy mildew resistance locus Pp523 of Brassica oleracea L. The selection of BAC clones for construction of the physical map was carried out by screening gridded BAC libraries with DNA overgo probes derived from both genetically mapped DNA markers flanking the locus of interest and BAC-end sequences that align to Arabidopsis thaliana sequences within the previously identified syntenic region. The selected BAC clones consistently mapped to three different genomic regions of B. oleracea. Although 83 BAC clones were accurately mapped within a ∼4.6 cM region surrounding the downy mildew resistance locus Pp523, a subset of 33 BAC clones mapped to another region on chromosome C8 that was ∼60 cM away from the resistance gene, and a subset of 63 BAC clones mapped to chromosome C5. These results reflect the triplication of the Brassica genomes since their divergence from a common ancestor shared with A. thaliana, and they are consonant with recent analyses of the C genome of Brassica napus. The assembly of a minimal tiling path constituted by 13 (BoT01) BAC clones that span the Pp523 locus sets the stage for map-based cloning of this resistance gene. PMID:22384370

  16. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of wheat genome, Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat...

  17. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information content fingerprinting: a distal region of wheat chromosome 3DS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of wheat. We report the use of the Ae. tauschii, the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome, for the construction of t...

  18. HIGH DENSITY ESTS BASED BOVINE PHYSICAL MAPS AND THEIR USE TO CONSTRUCT COMPARATIVE MAPS AND INFORM THE BOVINE GENOME SEQUENCE ASSEMBLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 3000 rad bovine whole genome radiation hybrid panel and bovine BAC libraries have been used to construct an integrated physical map of the bovine genome, which will contribute to the final assembly of the bovine genome sequence. The RH map now contains more than 4000 markers, the majority of whi...

  19. Separation of homologous BAC contigs in the tetraploid Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland cotton has an allotetraploid genome. Separation of homologous BAC contigs to their sub-genomes and further to individual chromosomes is a great challenge for genome-wide integrated genetic and physical mapping. As a pilot experiment to test the feasibility of separating the contigs in sub-g...

  20. Genomic analysis of Ovis aries (Ovar)MHC Class IIa loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the genomic organization of the Ovis aries (Ovar) major histocompatibility complex class IIa region is essential for future functional studies related to antigen presentation. In this study, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes ...

  1. Characterization of the genome of bald cypress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) is a coniferous tree of tremendous ecological and economic importance. It is a member of the family Cupressaceae which also includes cypresses, redwoods, sequoias, thujas, and junipers. While the bald cypress genome is more than three times the size of the human genome, its 1C DNA content is amongst the smallest of any conifer. To learn more about the genome of bald cypress and gain insight into the evolution of Cupressaceae genomes, we performed a Cot analysis and used Cot filtration to study Taxodium DNA. Additionally, we constructed a 6.7 genome-equivalent BAC library that we screened with known Taxodium genes and select repeats. Results The bald cypress genome is composed of 90% repetitive DNA with most sequences being found in low to mid copy numbers. The most abundant repeats are found in fewer than 25,000 copies per genome. Approximately 7.4% of the genome is single/low-copy DNA (i.e., sequences found in 1 to 5 copies). Sequencing of highly repetitive Cot clones indicates that most Taxodium repeats are highly diverged from previously characterized plant repeat sequences. The bald cypress BAC library consists of 606,336 clones (average insert size of 113 kb) and collectively provides 6.7-fold genome equivalent coverage of the bald cypress genome. Macroarray screening with known genes produced, on average, about 1.5 positive clones per probe per genome-equivalent. Library screening with Cot-1 DNA revealed that approximately 83% of BAC clones contain repetitive sequences iterated 103 to 104 times per genome. Conclusions The BAC library for bald cypress is the first to be generated for a conifer species outside of the family Pinaceae. The Taxodium BAC library was shown to be useful in gene isolation and genome characterization and should be an important tool in gymnosperm comparative genomics, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and gene/polymorphism discovery. The single/low-copy (SL) component of bald cypress is 4.6 times the size of the Arabidopsis genome. As suggested for other gymnosperms, the large amount of SL DNA in Taxodium is likely the result of divergence among ancient repeat copies and gene/pseudogene duplication. PMID:22077969

  2. Expression of heterologous sigma factors enables functional screening of metagenomic and heterologous genomic libraries

    PubMed Central

    Gaida, Stefan M.; Sandoval, Nicholas R.; Nicolaou, Sergios A.; Chen, Yili; Venkataramanan, Keerthi P.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    2015-01-01

    A key limitation in using heterologous genomic or metagenomic libraries in functional genomics and genome engineering is the low expression of heterologous genes in screening hosts, such as Escherichia coli. To overcome this limitation, here we generate E. coli strains capable of recognizing heterologous promoters by expressing heterologous sigma factors. Among seven sigma factors tested, RpoD from Lactobacillus plantarum (Lpl) appears to be able of initiating transcription from all sources of DNA. Using the promoter GFP-trap concept, we successfully screen several heterologous and metagenomic DNA libraries, thus enlarging the genomic space that can be functionally sampled in E. coli. For an application, we show that screening fosmid-based Lpl genomic libraries in an E. coli strain with a chromosomally integrated Lpl rpoD enables the identification of Lpl genetic determinants imparting strong ethanol tolerance in E. coli. Transcriptome analysis confirms increased expression of heterologous genes in the engineered strain. PMID:25944046

  3. Democratizing Human Genome Project Information: A Model Program for Education, Information and Debate in Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Miriam

    The "Mapping the Human Genome" project demonstrated that librarians can help whomever they serve in accessing information resources in the areas of biological and health information, whether it is the scientists who are developing the information or a member of the public who is using the information. Public libraries can guide library users…

  4. Human genome libraries. Final progress report, February 1, 1994--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Fa-Ten

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this program is to use a novel technology of chromosome microdissection and microcloning to construct chromosome region-specific libraries as resources for various human genome program studies. Region specific libraries have been constructed for the entire human chromosomes 2 and 18.

  5. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of banana (Musa acuminata Colla).

    PubMed

    Vilarinhos, A D; Piffanelli, P; Lagoda, P; Thibivilliers, S; Sabau, X; Carreel, F; D'Hont, A

    2003-04-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for banana was constructed from leaves of the wild diploid 'Calcutta 4' clone (Musa acuminata subsp. Burmannicoides 2n = 2 x = 22). 'Calcutta 4' is widely used in breeding programs for its resistance to the current major disease of banana and is being used to build a genetic reference map of banana. As banana leaves are particularly rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides a protocol was adapted to isolate intact nuclei and high-molecular-weight (HMW) DNA. A total of 55,152 clones with an average insert size of 100 kb were picked. The frequency of BAC clones carrying inserts derived from chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA was estimated to be 1.5%. The coverage of the library is equivalent to 9.0-times the haploid genome. The BAC library was screened with 13 RFLP probes belonging to the 8 linkage groups of the consensus molecular map of banana. A total of 135 clones were identified giving an average of 10.38 clones for each locus. This BAC library will be a valuable starting tool for many of the goals of the recently emerged International Musa Genomic Consortium. One of our initial objectives will be to develop a banana physical map by BAC-FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) viewing the characterization of translocation break points. PMID:12671759

  6. Use of BAC clones as standardized reagents for Marek’s disease virus research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cloning of the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone have led to major advances through our ability to study individual gene function by making precise insertions and deletions in the viral genome. We believe that MDV BAC clones will repl...

  7. Construction and Characterization of Three Wheat Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenjin; Fu, Bisheng; Wu, Kun; Li, Na; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Zhongxia; Lin, Musen; Li, Guoqiang; Wu,  Xinyi; Ma, Zhengqiang; Jia, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Wangshuibai, germplasms T. monococcum TA2026 and TA2033. A total of 1,233,792,170,880 and 263,040 clones were picked and arrayed in 384-well plates. On the basis of genome sizes of 16.8 Gb for hexaploid wheat and 5.6 Gb for diploid wheat, the three libraries represented 9.05-, 2.60-, and 3.71-fold coverage of the haploid genomes, respectively. An improved descending pooling system for BAC libraries screening was established. This improved strategy can save 80% of the time and 68% of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the same successful rate as the universal 6D pooling strategy. PMID:25464379

  8. Final progress report, Construction of a genome-wide highly characterized clone resource for genome sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, William C.

    2000-02-14

    At TIGR, the human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) end sequencing and trimming were with an overall sequencing success rate of 65%. CalTech human BAC libraries A, B, C and D as well as Roswell Park Cancer Institute's library RPCI-11 were used. To date, we have generated >300,000 end sequences from >186,000 human BAC clones with an average read length {approx}460 bp for a total of 141 Mb covering {approx}4.7% of the genome. Over sixty percent of the clones have BAC end sequences (BESs) from both ends representing over five-fold coverage of the genome by the paired-end clones. The average phred Q20 length is {approx}400 bp. This high accuracy makes our BESs match the human finished sequences with an average identity of 99% and a match length of 450 bp, and a frequency of one match per 12.8 kb contig sequence. Our sample tracking has ensured a clone tracking accuracy of >90%, which gives researchers a high confidence in (1) retrieving the right clone from the BA C libraries based on the sequence matches; and (2) building a minimum tiling path of sequence-ready clones across the genome and genome assembly scaffolds.

  9. A second generation integrated map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome: analysis of synteny with model fish genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we generated DNA fingerprints and end sequences from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) from two new libraries to improve the first generation integrated physical and genetic map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome. The current version of the physical map is compose...

  10. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Fa-Ten.

    1992-08-01

    During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

  11. Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...

  12. Transposon-mediated BAC transgenesis in human ES cells

    PubMed Central

    Rostovskaya, Maria; Fu, Jun; Obst, Mandy; Baer, Isabell; Weidlich, Stefanie; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Andrew J. H.; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Stewart, A. Francis

    2012-01-01

    Transgenesis is a cornerstone of molecular biology. The ability to integrate a specifically engineered piece of DNA into the genome of a living system is fundamental to our efforts to understand life and exploit its implications for medicine, nanotechnology and bioprospecting. However, transgenesis has been hampered by position effects and multi-copy integration problems, which are mainly due to the use of small, plasmid-based transgenes. Large transgenes based on native genomic regions cloned into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) circumvent these problems but are prone to fragmentation. Herein, we report that contrary to widely held notions, large BAC-sized constructs do not prohibit transposition. We also report the first reliable method for BAC transgenesis in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The PiggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposon inverted repeats were integrated into BAC vectors by recombineering, followed by co-lipofection with the corresponding transposase in hESCs to generate robust fluorescent protein reporter lines for OCT4, NANOG, GATA4 and PAX6. BAC transposition delivers several advantages, including increased frequencies of single-copy, full-length integration, which will be useful in all transgenic systems but especially in difficult venues like hESCs. PMID:22753106

  13. BAC-End Sequence-Based SNP Mining in Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium) Utilizing Resequencing Data, Phylogenetic Inferences, and Perspectives for Genetic Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M.; Ashrafi, Hamid; Stoffel, Kevin; Zheng, Xiuting; Saski, Christopher A.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Fang, David D.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey; Van Deynze, Allen; Stelly, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome library and BAC-end sequences for cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have recently been developed. This report presents genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mining utilizing resequencing data with BAC-end sequences as a reference by alignment of 12 G. hirsutum L. lines, one G. barbadense L. line, and one G. longicalyx Hutch and Lee line. A total of 132,262 intraspecific SNPs have been developed for G. hirsutum, whereas 223,138 and 470,631 interspecific SNPs have been developed for G. barbadense and G. longicalyx, respectively. Using a set of interspecific SNPs, 11 randomly selected and 77 SNPs that are putatively associated with the homeologous chromosome pair 12 and 26, we mapped 77 SNPs into two linkage groups representing these chromosomes, spanning a total of 236.2 cM in an interspecific F2 population (G. barbadense 3-79 × G. hirsutum TM-1). The mapping results validated the approach for reliably producing large numbers of both intraspecific and interspecific SNPs aligned to BAC-ends. This will allow for future construction of high-density integrated physical and genetic maps for cotton and other complex polyploid genomes. The methods developed will allow for future Gossypium resequencing data to be automatically genotyped for identified SNPs along the BAC-end sequence reference for anchoring sequence assemblies and comparative studies. PMID:25858960

  14. BAC-End Sequence-Based SNP Mining in Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium) Utilizing Resequencing Data, Phylogenetic Inferences, and Perspectives for Genetic Mapping.

    PubMed

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Stoffel, Kevin; Zheng, Xiuting; Saski, Christopher A; Scheffler, Brian E; Fang, David D; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Van Deynze, Allen; Stelly, David M

    2015-06-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome library and BAC-end sequences for cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have recently been developed. This report presents genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mining utilizing resequencing data with BAC-end sequences as a reference by alignment of 12 G. hirsutum L. lines, one G. barbadense L. line, and one G. longicalyx Hutch and Lee line. A total of 132,262 intraspecific SNPs have been developed for G. hirsutum, whereas 223,138 and 470,631 interspecific SNPs have been developed for G. barbadense and G. longicalyx, respectively. Using a set of interspecific SNPs, 11 randomly selected and 77 SNPs that are putatively associated with the homeologous chromosome pair 12 and 26, we mapped 77 SNPs into two linkage groups representing these chromosomes, spanning a total of 236.2 cM in an interspecific F2 population (G. barbadense 3-79 × G. hirsutum TM-1). The mapping results validated the approach for reliably producing large numbers of both intraspecific and interspecific SNPs aligned to BAC-ends. This will allow for future construction of high-density integrated physical and genetic maps for cotton and other complex polyploid genomes. The methods developed will allow for future Gossypium resequencing data to be automatically genotyped for identified SNPs along the BAC-end sequence reference for anchoring sequence assemblies and comparative studies. PMID:25858960

  15. A deep coverage Dictyostelium discoideum genomic DNA library replicates stably in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rosengarten, Rafael D; Beltran, Pamela R; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-10-01

    The natural history of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has inspired scientific inquiry for seventy-five years. A genetically tractable haploid eukaryote, D. discoideum appeals as a laboratory model as well. However, certain rote molecular genetic tasks, such as PCR and cloning, are difficult due to the AT-richness and low complexity of its genome. Here we report on the construction of a ~20 fold coverage D. discoideum genomic library in Escherichia coli, cloning 4-10 kilobase partial restriction fragments into a linear vector. End-sequencing indicates that most clones map to the six chromosomes in an unbiased distribution. Over 70% of these clones contain at least one complete open reading frame. We demonstrate that individual clones and library composition are stable over multiple replication cycles. Our library will enable numerous molecular biological applications and the completion of additional species' genome sequences, and suggests a path towards the long-elusive goal of genetic complementation. PMID:26028264

  16. A Genome-Wide Survey of Switchgrass Genome Structure and Organization

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj K.; Sharma, Rita; Cao, Peijian; Jenkins, Jerry; Bartley, Laura E.; Qualls, Morgan; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2012-01-01

    The perennial grass, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), is a promising bioenergy crop and the target of whole genome sequencing. We constructed two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from the AP13 clone of switchgrass to gain insight into the genome structure and organization, initiate functional and comparative genomic studies, and assist with genome assembly. Together representing 16 haploid genome equivalents of switchgrass, each library comprises 101,376 clones with average insert sizes of 144 (HindIII-generated) and 110 kb (BstYI-generated). A total of 330,297 high quality BAC-end sequences (BES) were generated, accounting for 263.2 Mbp (16.4%) of the switchgrass genome. Analysis of the BES identified 279,099 known repetitive elements, >50,000 SSRs, and 2,528 novel repeat elements, named switchgrass repetitive elements (SREs). Comparative mapping of 47 full-length BAC sequences and 330K BES revealed high levels of synteny with the grass genomes sorghum, rice, maize, and Brachypodium. Our data indicate that the sorghum genome has retained larger microsyntenous regions with switchgrass besides high gene order conservation with rice. The resources generated in this effort will be useful for a broad range of applications. PMID:22511929

  17. piggyBac transposon mediated transgenesis of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria E; Mann, Victoria H; Kines, Kristine J; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Fraser, Malcolm J; Kalinna, Bernd H; Correnti, Jason M; Pearce, Edward J; Brindley, Paul J

    2007-11-01

    The transposon piggyBac from the genome of the cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni has been observed in the laboratory to jump into the genomes of key model and pathogenic eukaryote organisms including mosquitoes, planarians, human and other mammalian cells, and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Introduction of exogenous transposons into schistosomes has not been reported but transposon-mediated transgenesis of schistosomes might supersede current methods for functional genomics of this important human pathogen. In the present study we examined whether the piggyBac transposon could deliver reporter transgenes into the genome of Schistosoma mansoni parasites. A piggyBac donor plasmid modified to encode firefly luciferase under control of schistosome gene promoters was introduced along with 7-methylguanosine capped RNAs encoding piggyBac transposase into cultured schistosomula by square wave electroporation. The activity of the helper transposase mRNA was confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis of genomic DNA from the transformed schistosomes, and hybridization signals indicated that the piggyBac transposon had integrated into numerous sites within the parasite chromosomes. piggyBac integrations were recovered by retrotransposon-anchored PCR, revealing characteristic piggyBac TTAA footprints in the vicinity of the endogenous schistosome retrotransposons Boudicca, SR1, and SR2. This is the first report of chromosomal integration of a transgene and somatic transgenesis of this important human pathogen, in this instance accomplished by mobilization of the piggyBac transposon. PMID:17586730

  18. Sequence composition of BAC clones and SSR markers mapped to Upland cotton chromosomes 11 and 21 targeting resistance to soil-borne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Congli; Ulloa, Mauricio; Shi, Xinyi; Yuan, Xiaohui; Saski, Christopher; Yu, John Z.; Roberts, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and physical framework mapping in cotton (Gossypium spp.) were used to discover putative gene sequences involved in resistance to common soil-borne pathogens. Chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) are foci for discovery of resistance (R) or pathogen-induced R (PR) genes underlying QTLs involved in response to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis), Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum), Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae), and black root rot (Thielaviopsis basicola). Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from a BAC library developed from the Upland cotton Acala Maxxa were mapped on Chr 11 and Chr 21. DNA sequence through Gene Ontology (GO) of 99 of 256 Chr 11 and 109 of 239 Chr 21 previously mapped SSRs revealed response elements to internal and external stimulus, stress, signaling process, and cell death. The reconciliation between genetic and physical mapping of gene annotations from new DNA sequences of 20 BAC clones revealed 467 (Chr 11) and 285 (Chr 21) G. hirsutum putative coding sequences, plus 146 (Chr 11) and 98 (Chr 21) predicted genes. GO functional profiling of Unigenes uncovered genes involved in different metabolic functions and stress response elements (SRE). Our results revealed that Chrs 11 and 21 harbor resistance gene rich genomic regions. Sequence comparisons with the ancestral diploid D5 (G. raimondii), A2 (G. arboreum) and domesticated tetraploid TM-1 AD1 (G. hirsutum) genomes revealed abundance of transposable elements and confirmed the richness of resistance gene motifs in these chromosomes. The sequence information of SSR markers and BAC clones and the genetic mapping of BAC clones provide enhanced genetic and physical frameworks of resistance gene-rich regions of the cotton genome, thereby aiding discovery of R and PR genes and breeding for resistance to cotton diseases. PMID:26483808

  19. Sequence composition of BAC clones and SSR markers mapped to Upland cotton chromosomes 11 and 21 targeting resistance to soil-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congli; Ulloa, Mauricio; Shi, Xinyi; Yuan, Xiaohui; Saski, Christopher; Yu, John Z; Roberts, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and physical framework mapping in cotton (Gossypium spp.) were used to discover putative gene sequences involved in resistance to common soil-borne pathogens. Chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) are foci for discovery of resistance (R) or pathogen-induced R (PR) genes underlying QTLs involved in response to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis), Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum), Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae), and black root rot (Thielaviopsis basicola). Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from a BAC library developed from the Upland cotton Acala Maxxa were mapped on Chr 11 and Chr 21. DNA sequence through Gene Ontology (GO) of 99 of 256 Chr 11 and 109 of 239 Chr 21 previously mapped SSRs revealed response elements to internal and external stimulus, stress, signaling process, and cell death. The reconciliation between genetic and physical mapping of gene annotations from new DNA sequences of 20 BAC clones revealed 467 (Chr 11) and 285 (Chr 21) G. hirsutum putative coding sequences, plus 146 (Chr 11) and 98 (Chr 21) predicted genes. GO functional profiling of Unigenes uncovered genes involved in different metabolic functions and stress response elements (SRE). Our results revealed that Chrs 11 and 21 harbor resistance gene rich genomic regions. Sequence comparisons with the ancestral diploid D5 (G. raimondii), A2 (G. arboreum) and domesticated tetraploid TM-1 AD1 (G. hirsutum) genomes revealed abundance of transposable elements and confirmed the richness of resistance gene motifs in these chromosomes. The sequence information of SSR markers and BAC clones and the genetic mapping of BAC clones provide enhanced genetic and physical frameworks of resistance gene-rich regions of the cotton genome, thereby aiding discovery of R and PR genes and breeding for resistance to cotton diseases. PMID:26483808

  20. Genome-wide Profiling Reveals Remarkable Parallels Between Insertion Site Selection Properties of the MLV Retrovirus and the piggyBac Transposon in Primary Human CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Ammar, Ismahen; Gupta, Saumyashree; Bunse, Mario; Miskey, Csaba; Chen, Wei; Uckert, Wolfgang; Schulz, Thomas F; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The inherent risks associated with vector insertion in gene therapy need to be carefully assessed. We analyzed the genome-wide distributions of Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) transposon insertions as well as MLV retrovirus and HIV lentivirus insertions in human CD4+ T cells with respect to a panel of 40 chromatin states. The distribution of SB transposon insertions displayed the least deviation from random, while the PB transposon and the MLV retrovirus showed unexpected parallels across all chromatin states. Both MLV and PB insertions are enriched at transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and co-localize with BRD4-associated sites. We demonstrate physical interaction between the PB transposase and bromodomain and extraterminal domain proteins (including BRD4), suggesting convergent evolution of a tethering mechanism that directs integrating genetic elements into TSSs. We detect unequal biases across the four systems with respect to targeting genes whose deregulation has been previously linked to serious adverse events in gene therapy clinical trials. The SB transposon has the highest theoretical chance of targeting a safe harbor locus in the human genome. The data underscore the significance of vector choice to reduce the mutagenic load on cells in clinical applications. PMID:26755332

  1. Genome-wide Profiling Reveals Remarkable Parallels Between Insertion Site Selection Properties of the MLV Retrovirus and the piggyBac Transposon in Primary Human CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Ammar, Ismahen; Gupta, Saumyashree; Bunse, Mario; Miskey, Csaba; Chen, Wei; Uckert, Wolfgang; Schulz, Thomas F; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    The inherent risks associated with vector insertion in gene therapy need to be carefully assessed. We analyzed the genome-wide distributions of Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) transposon insertions as well as MLV retrovirus and HIV lentivirus insertions in human CD4(+) T cells with respect to a panel of 40 chromatin states. The distribution of SB transposon insertions displayed the least deviation from random, while the PB transposon and the MLV retrovirus showed unexpected parallels across all chromatin states. Both MLV and PB insertions are enriched at transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and co-localize with BRD4-associated sites. We demonstrate physical interaction between the PB transposase and bromodomain and extraterminal domain proteins (including BRD4), suggesting convergent evolution of a tethering mechanism that directs integrating genetic elements into TSSs. We detect unequal biases across the four systems with respect to targeting genes whose deregulation has been previously linked to serious adverse events in gene therapy clinical trials. The SB transposon has the highest theoretical chance of targeting a safe harbor locus in the human genome. The data underscore the significance of vector choice to reduce the mutagenic load on cells in clinical applications. PMID:26755332

  2. AIMS Library - A community resource for sorghum genomic studies and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum genome sequence is completed. A systematically mutagenized population linking gene function to sequence is becoming increasingly urgent. A project was initiated to develop an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) library using (EMS) ethyl methane sulfonate for sel...

  3. BAC transgenic zebrafish for transcriptional promoter and enhancer studies.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Petra; Winata, Cecilia L; Lufkin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of BAC recombineering techniques, transcriptional promoter and enhancer isolation studies have become much more feasible in zebrafish than in mouse given the easy access to large numbers of fertilized zebrafish eggs and offspring in general, the easy to follow ex-utero development of zebrafish, an overall less skill demand and a more cost-effective technique. Here we provide guidelines for the generation of BAC recombineering-based transgenic zebrafish for DNA transcriptional promoter and enhancer identification studies as well as protocols for their analysis, which have been successfully applied in our laboratories many times. BAC recombineering in zebrafish allows for economical functional genomics studies, for example by integrating developmental biology with comparative genomics approaches to validate potential enhancer elements of vertebrate transcription factors. PMID:25239750

  4. Library Construction for Mutation Identification by Whole-Genome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Harold E

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing provides a rapid and powerful method for mutation identification. Herein is described a workflow for sample preparation to allow the simultaneous mapping and identification of candidate mutations by whole-genome sequencing in Caenorhabditis elegans. The protocol is designed for small numbers of worms to accommodate classes of mutations, such as lethal and sterile alleles, that are difficult to identify by traditional means. PMID:26423963

  5. Construction and characterization of a 10-genome equivalent yeast artificial chromosome library for the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, L.; Zee, R.Y.L.; Schalkwyk, L.C.

    1997-02-01

    Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries. Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing approximately 40,000 clones in the AB1380 host using the pCGS966 vector. An average size of 736 kb was estimated from 166 randomly chosen clones; thus the library provides 10-fold coverage of the genome, with a 99.99% probability of containing a unique sequence. Eight of 39 YACs analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization were found to be chimeric, indicating a proportion of about 20-30% of chimeric clones. The library was spotted on high-density filters to allow the identification of YAC clones by hybridization and was pooled using a 3-dimensional scheme for screening by PCR. Among 48 probes used to screen the library, an average of 9.3 positive clones were found, consistent with the calculated 10-fold genomic coverage of the library. This YAC library represents the first large-insert genomic library for the rat. It will be made available to the research community at large as an important new resource for complex genome analysis in this species. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Preparation and screening of an arrayed human genomic library generated with the P1 cloning system

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, N.S.; Perogner, B.D.; Coulby, J.N.; Ackerman, S.L.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Sauer, R.H.; Balkenhol, T.C.; Sternberg, N. |

    1994-03-29

    The authors describe here the construction and initial characterization of a 3-fold coverage genomic library of the human haploid genome that was prepared using the bacteriophase P1 cloning system. The cloned DNA inserts were produced by size fractionation of a Sau3AI partial digest of high molecular weight genomic DNA isolated from primary cells of human foreskin fibroblasts. The inserts were cloned into the pAd10sacBII vector and packaged in vitro into P1 phage. These were used to generate recombinant bacterial clones, each of which was picked robotically from an agar plate into a well of a 96-well microtiter dish, grown overnight, and stored at -70{degrees}C. The resulting library, designated DMPC-HFF No. 1 series A, consists of {approximately}130,000-140,000 recombinant clones that were stored in 1500 microtiter dishes. To screen the library, clones were combined in a pooling strategy and specific loci were identified by PCR analysis. On average, the library contains two or three different clones for each locus screened. To date the authors have identified a total of 17 clones containing the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, human serum albumin-human {alpha}-fetoprotein, p53, cyclooxygenase I, human apurinic endonuclease, {beta}-polymerase, and DNA ligase I genes. The cloned inserts average 80 kb in size and range from 70 to 95 kb, with one 49-kb insert and one 62-kb insert. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Synthesis of an arrayed sgRNA library targeting the human genome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Tobias; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Hornung, Veit

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in conjunction with CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) can be employed to introduce double stand breaks into mammalian genomes at user-defined loci. The endonuclease activity of the Cas complex can be targeted to a specific genomic region using a single guide RNA (sgRNA). We developed a ligation-independent cloning (LIC) assembly method for efficient and bias-free generation of large sgRNA libraries. Using this system, we performed an iterative shotgun cloning approach to generate an arrayed sgRNA library that targets one critical exon of almost every protein-coding human gene. An orthogonal mixing and deconvolution approach was used to obtain 19,506 unique sequence-validated sgRNAs (91.4% coverage). As tested in HEK 293T cells, constructs of this library have a median genome editing activity of 54.6% and employing sgRNAs of this library to generate knockout cells was successful for 19 out of 19 genes tested. PMID:26446710

  8. Synthesis of an arrayed sgRNA library targeting the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Tobias; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L.; Hornung, Veit

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in conjunction with CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) can be employed to introduce double stand breaks into mammalian genomes at user-defined loci. The endonuclease activity of the Cas complex can be targeted to a specific genomic region using a single guide RNA (sgRNA). We developed a ligation-independent cloning (LIC) assembly method for efficient and bias-free generation of large sgRNA libraries. Using this system, we performed an iterative shotgun cloning approach to generate an arrayed sgRNA library that targets one critical exon of almost every protein-coding human gene. An orthogonal mixing and deconvolution approach was used to obtain 19,506 unique sequence-validated sgRNAs (91.4% coverage). As tested in HEK 293T cells, constructs of this library have a median genome editing activity of 54.6% and employing sgRNAs of this library to generate knockout cells was successful for 19 out of 19 genes tested. PMID:26446710

  9. A Plasmid Set for Efficient Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Transgenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Fernando; Reynolds, Eric; Lewellis, Stephen W.; Venkiteswaran, Gayatri; Knaut, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Transgenesis of large DNA constructs is essential for gene function analysis. Recently, Tol2 transposase-mediated transgenesis has emerged as a powerful tool to insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) DNA constructs into the genome of zebrafish. For efficient transgenesis, the genomic DNA piece in the BAC construct needs to be flanked by Tol2 transposon sites, and the constructs should contain a transgenesis marker for easy identification of transgenic animals. We report a set of plasmids that contain targeting cassettes that allow the insertion of Tol2 sites and different transgenesis markers into BACs. Using BACs containing these targeting cassettes, we show that transgenesis is as efficient as iTol2, that preselecting for expression of the transgenesis marker increases the transgenesis rate, and that BAC transgenics faithfully recapitulate the endogenous gene expression patterns and allow for the estimation of the endogenous gene expression levels. PMID:26818072

  10. Analysis of BAC-end sequences in rainbow trout: content characterization and assessment of synteny between trout and other fish genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are cultivated worldwide for aquaculture production and used as a model species to gain knowledge of many aspects of fish biology. As a salmonid, the species experienced recent whole genome duplication, making it a model for studying the evolution of t...

  11. Genome-Wide Sequence Comparison of Centromeric Regions and BAC-Landing on Chromosomes Provide New Insights into Centromere Evolution Among Wheat, Brachypodium, and Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As an emerging model system, the nearly finished sequence of Brachypodium distachyon will provide new insights into comparative and functional genomics of grass species. However, centromeres of B. distachyon are unlikely to be sequenced and assembled precisely similar to many other sequenced organis...

  12. Construction of a high-coverage bacterial artificial chromosome library and comprehensive genetic linkage map of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese amberjack/yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) is a commonly cultured marine fish in Japan. For cost effective fish production, a breeding program that increases commercially important traits is one of the major solutions. In selective breeding, information of genetic markers is useful and sufficient to identify individuals carrying advantageous traits but if the aim is to determine the genetic basis of the trait, large insert genomic DNA libraries are essential. In this study, toward prospective understanding of genetic basis of several economically important traits, we constructed a high-coverage bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, obtained sequences from the BAC-end, and constructed comprehensive female and male linkage maps of yellowtail using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers developed from the BAC-end sequences and a yellowtail genomic library. Results The total insert length of the BAC library we constructed here was estimated to be approximately 11 Gb and hence 16-times larger than the yellowtail genome. Sequencing of the BAC-ends showed a low fraction of repetitive sequences comparable to that in Tetraodon and fugu. A total of 837 SSR markers developed here were distributed among 24 linkage groups spanning 1,026.70 and 1,057.83 cM with an average interval of 4.96 and 4.32 cM in female and male map respectively without any segregation distortion. Oxford grids suggested conserved synteny between yellowtail and stickleback. Conclusions In addition to characteristics of yellowtail genome such as low repetitive sequences and conserved synteny with stickleback, our genomic and genetic resources constructed and revealed here will be powerful tools for the yellowtail breeding program and also for studies regarding the genetic basis of traits. PMID:24684753

  13. SORGHUM BICOLOR-AN IMPORTANT SPECIES FOR COMPARATIVE GRASS GENOMICS AND A SOURCE OF BENEFICIAL GENES FOR AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high resolution genetic, physical and cytological map of the sorghum genome is being assembled using Amplified Fragment Length polymorphic DNA marker technology, six dimensional pooling of BAC libraries, cDNA mapping technology, and cytogenetic analysis. Recent advances in sorghum comparative gen...

  14. SVGenes: a library for rendering genomic features in scalable vector graphic format

    PubMed Central

    Etherington, Graham J.; MacLean, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Drawing genomic features in attractive and informative ways is a key task in visualization of genomics data. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format is a modern and flexible open standard that provides advanced features including modular graphic design, advanced web interactivity and animation within a suitable client. SVGs do not suffer from loss of image quality on re-scaling and provide the ability to edit individual elements of a graphic on the whole object level independent of the whole image. These features make SVG a potentially useful format for the preparation of publication quality figures including genomic objects such as genes or sequencing coverage and for web applications that require rich user-interaction with the graphical elements. Results: SVGenes is a Ruby-language library that uses SVG primitives to render typical genomic glyphs through a simple and flexible Ruby interface. The library implements a simple Page object that spaces and contains horizontal Track objects that in turn style, colour and positions features within them. Tracks are the level at which visual information is supplied providing the full styling capability of the SVG standard. Genomic entities like genes, transcripts and histograms are modelled in Glyph objects that are attached to a track and take advantage of SVG primitives to render the genomic features in a track as any of a selection of defined glyphs. The feature model within SVGenes is simple but flexible and not dependent on particular existing gene feature formats meaning graphics for any existing datasets can easily be created without need for conversion. Availability: The library is provided as a Ruby Gem from https://rubygems.org/gems/bio-svgenes under the MIT license, and open source code is available at https://github.com/danmaclean/bioruby-svgenes also under the MIT License. Contact: dan.maclean@tsl.ac.uk PMID:23749959

  15. A new age in functional genomics using CRISPR/Cas9 in arrayed library screening

    PubMed Central

    Agrotis, Alexander; Ketteler, Robin

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR technology has rapidly changed the face of biological research, such that precise genome editing has now become routine for many labs within several years of its initial development. What makes CRISPR/Cas9 so revolutionary is the ability to target a protein (Cas9) to an exact genomic locus, through designing a specific short complementary nucleotide sequence, that together with a common scaffold sequence, constitute the guide RNA bridging the protein and the DNA. Wild-type Cas9 cleaves both DNA strands at its target sequence, but this protein can also be modified to exert many other functions. For instance, by attaching an activation domain to catalytically inactive Cas9 and targeting a promoter region, it is possible to stimulate the expression of a specific endogenous gene. In principle, any genomic region can be targeted, and recent efforts have successfully generated pooled guide RNA libraries for coding and regulatory regions of human, mouse and Drosophila genomes with high coverage, thus facilitating functional phenotypic screening. In this review, we will highlight recent developments in the area of CRISPR-based functional genomics and discuss potential future directions, with a special focus on mammalian cell systems and arrayed library screening. PMID:26442115

  16. Library+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses possible future directions for academic libraries in the post Web/Library 2.0 world. These possible directions include areas such as data literacy, linked data sets, and opportunities for libraries in support of digital humanities. The author provides a brief sketch of the background information regarding the topics and…

  17. Library+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses possible future directions for academic libraries in the post Web/Library 2.0 world. These possible directions include areas such as data literacy, linked data sets, and opportunities for libraries in support of digital humanities. The author provides a brief sketch of the background information regarding the topics and

  18. Construction, complete sequence, and annotation of a BAC contig covering the silkworm chorion locus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nohata, Junko; Guo, Huizhen; Li, Shenglong; Liu, Jianqiu; Guo, Youbing; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Liu, Chun; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shiping; Labropoulou, Vassiliki; Swevers, Luc; Tsitoura, Panagiota; Iatrou, Kostas; Gopinathan, Karumathil P; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2015-01-01

    The silkmoth chorion was studied extensively by F.C. Kafatos' group for almost 40 years. However, the complete structure of the chorion locus was not obtained in the genome sequence of Bombyx mori published in 2008 due to repetitive sequences, resulting in gaps and an incomplete view of the locus. To obtain the complete sequence of the chorion locus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from follicular epithelium cells were used as probes to screen a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Seven BACs were selected to construct a contig which covered the whole chorion locus. By Sanger sequencing, we successfully obtained complete sequences of the chorion locus spanning 871,711 base pairs on chromosome 2, where we annotated 127 chorion genes. The dataset reported here will recruit more researchers to revisit one of the oldest model systems which has been used to study developmentally regulated gene expression. It also provides insights into egg development and fertilization mechanisms and is relevant to applications related to improvements in breeding procedures and transgenesis. PMID:26594380

  19. A Computational Solution to Automatically Map Metabolite Libraries in the Context of Genome Scale Metabolic Networks.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Benjamin; Paulhe, Nils; Vinson, Florence; Frainay, Clément; Chazalviel, Maxime; Poupin, Nathalie; Gloaguen, Yoann; Giacomoni, Franck; Jourdan, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a generic programmatic method for mapping chemical compound libraries on organism-specific metabolic networks from various databases (KEGG, BioCyc) and flat file formats (SBML and Matlab files). We show how this pipeline was successfully applied to decipher the coverage of chemical libraries set up by two metabolomics facilities MetaboHub (French National infrastructure for metabolomics and fluxomics) and Glasgow Polyomics (GP) on the metabolic networks available in the MetExplore web server. The present generic protocol is designed to formalize and reduce the volume of information transfer between the library and the network database. Matching of metabolites between libraries and metabolic networks is based on InChIs or InChIKeys and therefore requires that these identifiers are specified in both libraries and networks. In addition to providing covering statistics, this pipeline also allows the visualization of mapping results in the context of metabolic networks. In order to achieve this goal, we tackled issues on programmatic interaction between two servers, improvement of metabolite annotation in metabolic networks and automatic loading of a mapping in genome scale metabolic network analysis tool MetExplore. It is important to note that this mapping can also be performed on a single or a selection of organisms of interest and is thus not limited to large facilities. PMID:26909353

  20. A Computational Solution to Automatically Map Metabolite Libraries in the Context of Genome Scale Metabolic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Merlet, Benjamin; Paulhe, Nils; Vinson, Florence; Frainay, Clément; Chazalviel, Maxime; Poupin, Nathalie; Gloaguen, Yoann; Giacomoni, Franck; Jourdan, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a generic programmatic method for mapping chemical compound libraries on organism-specific metabolic networks from various databases (KEGG, BioCyc) and flat file formats (SBML and Matlab files). We show how this pipeline was successfully applied to decipher the coverage of chemical libraries set up by two metabolomics facilities MetaboHub (French National infrastructure for metabolomics and fluxomics) and Glasgow Polyomics (GP) on the metabolic networks available in the MetExplore web server. The present generic protocol is designed to formalize and reduce the volume of information transfer between the library and the network database. Matching of metabolites between libraries and metabolic networks is based on InChIs or InChIKeys and therefore requires that these identifiers are specified in both libraries and networks. In addition to providing covering statistics, this pipeline also allows the visualization of mapping results in the context of metabolic networks. In order to achieve this goal, we tackled issues on programmatic interaction between two servers, improvement of metabolite annotation in metabolic networks and automatic loading of a mapping in genome scale metabolic network analysis tool MetExplore. It is important to note that this mapping can also be performed on a single or a selection of organisms of interest and is thus not limited to large facilities. PMID:26909353

  1. A High-throughput AFLP-based Method for Constructing Integrated Genetic and Physical Maps: Progress Toward a Sorghum Genome Map

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Patricia E.; Klein, Robert R.; Cartinhour, Samuel W.; Ulanch, Paul E.; Dong, Jianmin; Obert, Jacque A.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Schlueter, Shannon D.; Childs, Kevin L.; Ale, Melissa; Mullet, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Sorghum is an important target for plant genomic mapping because of its adaptation to harsh environments, diverse germplasm collection, and value for comparing the genomes of grass species such as corn and rice. The construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of the sorghum genome (750 Mbp) is a primary goal of our sorghum genome project. To help accomplish this task, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based method for building BAC contigs and locating BAC clones on the sorghum genetic map. This task involved pooling 24,576 sorghum BAC clones (∼4× genome equivalents) in six different matrices to create 184 pools of BAC DNA. DNA fragments from each pool were amplified using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technology, resolved on a LI-COR dual-dye DNA sequencing system, and analyzed using Bionumerics software. On average, each set of AFLP primers amplified 28 single-copy DNA markers that were useful for identifying overlapping BAC clones. Data from 32 different AFLP primer combinations identified ∼2400 BACs and ordered ∼700 BAC contigs. Analysis of a sorghum RIL mapping population using the same primer pairs located ∼200 of the BAC contigs on the sorghum genetic map. Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of the entire collection of sorghum BAC clones was applied to test and extend the contigs constructed using this PCR-based methodology. Analysis of the fingerprint data allowed for the identification of 3366 contigs each containing an average of 5 BACs. BACs in ∼65% of the contigs aligned by AFLP analysis had sufficient overlap to be confirmed by DNA fingerprint analysis. In addition, 30% of the overlapping BACs aligned by AFLP analysis provided information for merging contigs and singletons that could not be joined using fingerprint data alone. Thus, the combination of fingerprinting and AFLP-based contig assembly and mapping provides a reliable, high-throughput method for building an integrated genetic and physical map of the sorghum genome. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession no. AF218263.] PMID:10854411

  2. Identification of piggyBac-mediated insertions in Plasmodium berghei by next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The piggyBac transposon system provides a powerful forward genetics tool to study gene function in Plasmodium parasites via random insertion mutagenesis and phenotypic screening. The identification of genotype of piggyBac mutants in the Plasmodium genome is thus an indispensable step in forward genetic analysis. Several PCR-based approaches have been used to identify the piggyBac insertion sites in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, but all are tedious and inefficient. Next generation sequencing can produce large amounts of sequence data and is particularly suitable for genome-wide association studies. In this study, the Next generation sequencing technology was employed to efficiently identify piggyBac insertion sites in the genome of P. berghei. Methods Plasmodium berghei parasites were co-transfected with piggyBac donor and helper plasmids. Initially, the classical inverse PCR method was used to identify the existence of piggyBac insertions in the P. berghei genome. The whole genome of post-transfection parasites was subsequently sequenced with a PCR-free paired-end module using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing system. The two distinct methods (BLAST method and SOAP method) were employed to identify piggyBac insertion sites in the P. berghei genome with Illumina sequencing data. All the identified piggyBac insertions were further tested by half-nested PCR. Results The inverse PCR method resulted in a very low yield of ten individual insertions identified. Conversely, 47 piggyBac insertions were identified from about 1 Gb of Illumina sequencing data via the two distinct analysis methods. The majority of identified piggyBac insertions were confirmed by half-nested PCR. In addition, 1,850 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified through alignment of the Illumina sequencing data of the P. berghei ANKA strain used in this study with the reference genome sequences. Conclusion This study demonstrates that a high-throughput genome sequencing approach is an efficient tool for the identification of piggyBac-mediated insertions in Plasmodium parasites. PMID:23961915

  3. The complete genomes of three viruses assembled from shotgun libraries of marine RNA virus communities

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Alexander I; Lang, Andrew S; Suttle, Curtis A

    2007-01-01

    Background RNA viruses have been isolated that infect marine organisms ranging from bacteria to whales, but little is known about the composition and population structure of the in situ marine RNA virus community. In a recent study, the majority of three genomes of previously unknown positive-sense single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses were assembled from reverse-transcribed whole-genome shotgun libraries. The present contribution comparatively analyzes these genomes with respect to representative viruses from established viral taxa. Results Two of the genomes (JP-A and JP-B), appear to be polycistronic viruses in the proposed order Picornavirales that fall into a well-supported clade of marine picorna-like viruses, the characterized members of which all infect marine protists. A temporal and geographic survey indicates that the JP genomes are persistent and widespread in British Columbia waters. The third genome, SOG, encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that is related to the RdRp of viruses in the family Tombusviridae, but the remaining SOG sequence has no significant similarity to any sequences in the NCBI database. Conclusion The complete genomes of these viruses permitted analyses that resulted in a more comprehensive comparison of these pathogens with established taxa. For example, in concordance with phylogenies based on the RdRp, our results support a close homology between JP-A and JP-B and RsRNAV. In contrast, although classification of the SOG genome based on the RdRp places SOG within the Tombusviridae, SOG lacks a capsid and movement protein conserved within this family and SOG is thus likely more distantly related to the Tombusivridae than the RdRp phylogeney indicates. PMID:17617913

  4. Defining the orientation of the tandem fusions that occurred during the evolution of Indian muntjac chromosomes by BAC mapping.

    PubMed

    Chi, J X; Huang, L; Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, B; Yang, F

    2005-08-01

    The Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis) has a karyotype of 2n=6 in the female and 7 in the male, the karyotypic evolution of which through extensive tandem fusions and several centric fusions has been well-documented by recent molecular cytogenetic studies. In an attempt to define the fusion orientations of conserved chromosomal segments and the molecular mechanisms underlying the tandem fusions, we have constructed a highly redundant (more than six times of whole genome coverage) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Indian muntjac. The BAC library contains 124,800 clones with no chromosome bias and has an average insert DNA size of 120 kb. A total of 223 clones have been mapped by fluorescent in situ hybridization onto the chromosomes of both Indian muntjac and Chinese muntjac and a high-resolution comparative map has been established. Our mapping results demonstrate that all tandem fusions that occurred during the evolution of Indian muntjac karyotype from the acrocentric 2n=70 hypothetical ancestral karyotype are centromere-telomere (head-tail) fusions. PMID:16010580

  5. Effects of Blood-Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Feedback on BAC Estimates Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullers, Susan; Ennis, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of self-tested blood alcohol concentration (BAC) feedback, from personal hand-held breathalyzers, on the accuracy of BAC estimation. Using an e-mail prompted web-based questionnaire, 19 participants were asked to report both BAC estimates and subsequently measured BAC levels over the course of 27 days. Results from…

  6. Next-generation libraries for robust RNA interference-based genome-wide screens.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Martin; Horlbeck, Max A; Chen, Yuwen; Tsai, Jordan C; Bassik, Michael C; Gilbert, Luke A; Villalta, Jacqueline E; Kwon, S Chul; Chang, Hyeshik; Kim, V Narry; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2015-06-30

    Genetic screening based on loss-of-function phenotypes is a powerful discovery tool in biology. Although the recent development of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based screening approaches in mammalian cell culture has enormous potential, RNA interference (RNAi)-based screening remains the method of choice in several biological contexts. We previously demonstrated that ultracomplex pooled short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) libraries can largely overcome the problem of RNAi off-target effects in genome-wide screens. Here, we systematically optimize several aspects of our shRNA library, including the promoter and microRNA context for shRNA expression, selection of guide strands, and features relevant for postscreen sample preparation for deep sequencing. We present next-generation high-complexity libraries targeting human and mouse protein-coding genes, which we grouped into 12 sublibraries based on biological function. A pilot screen suggests that our next-generation RNAi library performs comparably to current CRISPR interference (CRISPRi)-based approaches and can yield complementary results with high sensitivity and high specificity. PMID:26080438

  7. Construction and analysis of Pst I DNA library for RFLP mapping of the rye genome

    SciTech Connect

    Korzun, V.N.; Kartel, N.A.; Boerner, A.

    1995-06-01

    Pst I, a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme, was used for producing a library of rye genome DNA rich in low-copy sequences, and intended as probes for genetic mapping. Dot-hybridization and Southern blot analysis showed that 43.6% of the library is represented by low-copy DNA sequences. To locate these sequences on chromosomes and determine the degree of their repetitiveness, 11 clones were hybridized with DNA of nulli-tetrasomic lines of Chinese Spring wheat, wheat-rye addition lines, and barley cleaved by Hind III, EcoR I, EcoR V, Dra I, and BamH I restriction enzymes. Each of the rye DNA clones studied hybridized with wheat and barley DNA, suggesting that low-copy Pst I clones of rye correspond to the evolutionary conservative DNA fraction in cereals. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Sequencing a new target genome: the Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) genome project.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Felix D; Nene, Vishvanath M; George, John E; Barker, Stephen C; Willadsen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), causes annual economic losses in the hundreds of millions of dollars to cattle producers throughout the world, and ranks as the most economically important tick from a global perspective. Control failures attributable to the development of pesticide resistance have become commonplace, and novel control technologies are needed. The availability of the genome sequence will facilitate the development of these new technologies, and we are proposing sequencing to a 4-6X draft coverage. Many existing biological resources are available to facilitate a genome sequencing project, including several inbred laboratory tick strains, a database of approximately 45,000 expressed sequence tags compiled into a B. microplus Gene Index, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, an established B. microplus cell line, and genomic DNA suitable for library synthesis. Collaborative projects are underway to map BACs and cDNAs to specific chromosomes and to sequence selected BAC clones. When completed, the genome sequences from the cow, B. microplus, and the B. microplus-borne pathogens Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale will enhance studies of host-vector-pathogen systems. Genes involved in the regeneration of amputated tick limbs and transitions through developmental stages are largely unknown. Studies of these and other interesting biological questions will be advanced by tick genome sequence data. Comparative genomics offers the prospect of new insight into many, perhaps all, aspects of the biology of ticks and the pathogens they transmit to farm animals and people. The B. microplus genome sequence will fill a major gap in comparative genomics: a sequence from the Metastriata lineage of ticks. The purpose of the article is to synergize interest in and provide rationales for sequencing the genome of B. microplus and for publicizing currently available genomic resources for this tick. PMID:16506442

  9. Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton, one of the worlds leading crops, is important to the worlds textile and energy industries, and is a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction of a plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library and comparative genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with one of its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii Ulbr. Results We constructed the cotton BIBAC library in a vector competent for high-molecular-weight DNA transformation in different plant species through either Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. The library contains 76,800 clones with an average insert size of 135kb, providing an approximate 99% probability of obtaining at least one positive clone from the library using a single-copy probe. The quality and utility of the library were verified by identifying BIBACs containing genes important for fiber development, fiber cellulose biosynthesis, seed fatty acid metabolism, cotton-nematode interaction, and bacterial blight resistance. In order to gain an insight into the Upland cotton genome and its relationship with G. raimondii, we sequenced nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs) randomly selected from the library, generating approximately one BES for every 250kb along the Upland cotton genome. The retroelement Gypsy/DIRS1 family predominates in the Upland cotton genome, accounting for over 77% of all transposable elements. From the BESs, we identified 1,269 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), of which 1,006 were new, thus providing additional markers for cotton genome research. Surprisingly, comparative sequence analysis showed that Upland cotton is much more diverged from G. raimondii at the genomic sequence level than expected. There seems to be no significant difference between the relationships of the Upland cotton D- and A-subgenomes with the G. raimondii genome, even though G. raimondii contains a D genome (D5). Conclusions The library represents the first BIBAC library in cotton and related species, thus providing tools useful for integrative physical mapping, large-scale genome sequencing and large-scale functional analysis of the Upland cotton genome. Comparative sequence analysis provides insights into the Upland cotton genome, and a possible mechanism underlying the divergence and evolution of polyploid Upland cotton from its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii. PMID:23537070

  10. Analysis of Genomic Regions of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Related to Biomass Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Crucello, Aline; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; Viana, Américo José Carvalho; Beloti, Lilian Luzia; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; Vincentz, Michel; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we demonstrate a rapid and efficient tool that focuses on specific genomic regions by combining a BAC library with transcriptomic data. This is the first BAC-based structural genomic study of the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum, and its findings provide new perspectives regarding the use of this species in biomass degradation processes. PMID:25836973

  11. Genome wide SNP discovery in flax through next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a significant fibre and oilseed crop. Current flax molecular markers, including isozymes, RAPDs, AFLPs and SSRs are of limited use in the construction of high density linkage maps and for association mapping applications due to factors such as low reproducibility, intense labour requirements and/or limited numbers. We report here on the use of a reduced representation library strategy combined with next generation Illumina sequencing for rapid and large scale discovery of SNPs in eight flax genotypes. SNP discovery was performed through in silico analysis of the sequencing data against the whole genome shotgun sequence assembly of flax genotype CDC Bethune. Genotyping-by-sequencing of an F6-derived recombinant inbred line population provided validation of the SNPs. Results Reduced representation libraries of eight flax genotypes were sequenced on the Illumina sequencing platform resulting in sequence coverage ranging from 4.33 to 15.64X (genome equivalents). Depending on the relatedness of the genotypes and the number and length of the reads, between 78% and 93% of the reads mapped onto the CDC Bethune whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. A total of 55,465 SNPs were discovered with the largest number of SNPs belonging to the genotypes with the highest mapping coverage percentage. Approximately 84% of the SNPs discovered were identified in a single genotype, 13% were shared between any two genotypes and the remaining 3% in three or more. Nearly a quarter of the SNPs were found in genic regions. A total of 4,706 out of 4,863 SNPs discovered in Macbeth were validated using genotyping-by-sequencing of 96 F6 individuals from a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between CDC Bethune and Macbeth, corresponding to a validation rate of 96.8%. Conclusions Next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries was successfully implemented for genome-wide SNP discovery from flax. The genotyping-by-sequencing approach proved to be efficient for validation. The SNP resources generated in this work will assist in generating high density maps of flax and facilitate QTL discovery, marker-assisted selection, phylogenetic analyses, association mapping and anchoring of the whole genome shotgun sequence. PMID:23216845

  12. Pulling out the 1%: Whole-Genome Capture for the Targeted Enrichment of Ancient DNA Sequencing Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Meredith L.; Buenrostro, Jason D.; Valdiosera, Cristina; Schroeder, Hannes; Allentoft, Morten E.; Sikora, Martin; Rasmussen, Morten; Gravel, Simon; Guillén, Sonia; Nekhrizov, Georgi; Leshtakov, Krasimir; Dimitrova, Diana; Theodossiev, Nikola; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Sandoval, Karla; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Greenleaf, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    Most ancient specimens contain very low levels of endogenous DNA, precluding the shotgun sequencing of many interesting samples because of cost. Ancient DNA (aDNA) libraries often contain <1% endogenous DNA, with the majority of sequencing capacity taken up by environmental DNA. Here we present a capture-based method for enriching the endogenous component of aDNA sequencing libraries. By using biotinylated RNA baits transcribed from genomic DNA libraries, we are able to capture DNA fragments from across the human genome. We demonstrate this method on libraries created from four Iron Age and Bronze Age human teeth from Bulgaria, as well as bone samples from seven Peruvian mummies and a Bronze Age hair sample from Denmark. Prior to capture, shotgun sequencing of these libraries yielded an average of 1.2% of reads mapping to the human genome (including duplicates). After capture, this fraction increased substantially, with up to 59% of reads mapped to human and enrichment ranging from 6- to 159-fold. Furthermore, we maintained coverage of the majority of regions sequenced in the precapture library. Intersection with the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel yielded an average of 50,723 SNPs (range 3,062–147,243) for the postcapture libraries sequenced with 1 million reads, compared with 13,280 SNPs (range 217–73,266) for the precapture libraries, increasing resolution in population genetic analyses. Our whole-genome capture approach makes it less costly to sequence aDNA from specimens containing very low levels of endogenous DNA, enabling the analysis of larger numbers of samples. PMID:24568772

  13. Pulling out the 1%: whole-genome capture for the targeted enrichment of ancient DNA sequencing libraries.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Meredith L; Buenrostro, Jason D; Valdiosera, Cristina; Schroeder, Hannes; Allentoft, Morten E; Sikora, Martin; Rasmussen, Morten; Gravel, Simon; Guillén, Sonia; Nekhrizov, Georgi; Leshtakov, Krasimir; Dimitrova, Diana; Theodossiev, Nikola; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Sandoval, Karla; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Greenleaf, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2013-11-01

    Most ancient specimens contain very low levels of endogenous DNA, precluding the shotgun sequencing of many interesting samples because of cost. Ancient DNA (aDNA) libraries often contain <1% endogenous DNA, with the majority of sequencing capacity taken up by environmental DNA. Here we present a capture-based method for enriching the endogenous component of aDNA sequencing libraries. By using biotinylated RNA baits transcribed from genomic DNA libraries, we are able to capture DNA fragments from across the human genome. We demonstrate this method on libraries created from four Iron Age and Bronze Age human teeth from Bulgaria, as well as bone samples from seven Peruvian mummies and a Bronze Age hair sample from Denmark. Prior to capture, shotgun sequencing of these libraries yielded an average of 1.2% of reads mapping to the human genome (including duplicates). After capture, this fraction increased substantially, with up to 59% of reads mapped to human and enrichment ranging from 6- to 159-fold. Furthermore, we maintained coverage of the majority of regions sequenced in the precapture library. Intersection with the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel yielded an average of 50,723 SNPs (range 3,062-147,243) for the postcapture libraries sequenced with 1 million reads, compared with 13,280 SNPs (range 217-73,266) for the precapture libraries, increasing resolution in population genetic analyses. Our whole-genome capture approach makes it less costly to sequence aDNA from specimens containing very low levels of endogenous DNA, enabling the analysis of larger numbers of samples. PMID:24568772

  14. Novel Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Vector pUvBBAC for Use in Studies of the Functional Genomics of Listeria spp.▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Hain, Torsten; Otten, Sonja; von Both, Ulrich; Chatterjee, Som S.; Technow, Ulrike; Billion, André; Ghai, Rohit; Mohamed, Walid; Domann, Eugen; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors are important tools for microbial genome research. We constructed a novel BAC vector, pUvBBAC, for replication in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial hosts. The pUvBBAC vector was used to generate a BAC library for the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. The library had insert sizes ranging from 68 to 178 kb. We identified two recombinant BACs from the L. monocytogenes pUvBBAC library that each contained the entire virulence gene cluster (vgc) of L. monocytogenes and transferred them to a nonpathogenic Listeria innocua strain. Recombinant L. innocua strains harboring pUvBBAC+vgc1 and pUvBBAC+vgc2 produced the vgc-specific listeriolysin (LLO) and actin assembly protein ActA and represent the first reported cloning of the vgc locus in its entirety. The use of the novel broad-host-range BAC vector pUvBBAC extends the versatility of this technology and provides a powerful platform for detailed functional genomics of gram-positive bacteria as well as its use in explorative functional metagenomics. PMID:18223114

  15. The piggyBac Transposon Displays Local and Distant Reintegration Preferences and Can Cause Mutations at Noncanonical Integration Sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng Amy; Pettitt, Stephen J.; Eckert, Sabine; Ning, Zemin; Rice, Stephen; Cadiñanos, Juan; Yusa, Kosuke; Conte, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The DNA transposon piggyBac is widely used as a tool in mammalian experimental systems for transgenesis, mutagenesis, and genome engineering. We have characterized genome-wide insertion site preferences of piggyBac by sequencing a large set of integration sites arising from transposition from two separate genomic loci and a plasmid donor in mouse embryonic stem cells. We found that piggyBac preferentially integrates locally to the excision site when mobilized from a chromosomal location and identified other nonlocal regions of the genome with elevated insertion frequencies. piggyBac insertions were associated with expressed genes and markers of open chromatin structure and were excluded from heterochromatin. At the nucleotide level, piggyBac prefers to insert into TA-rich regions within a broader GC-rich context. We also found that piggyBac can insert into sites other than its known TTAA insertion site at a low frequency (2%). Such insertions introduce mismatches that are repaired with signatures of host cell repair pathways. Transposons could be mobilized from plasmids with the observed noncanonical flanking regions, indicating that piggyBac could generate point mutations in the genome. PMID:23358416

  16. Identifying microbial fitness determinants by insertion sequencing using genome-wide transposon mutant libraries.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Goodman AL; Wu M; Gordon JI

    2011-12-01

    Insertion sequencing (INSeq) is a method for determining the insertion site and relative abundance of large numbers of transposon mutants in a mixed population of isogenic mutants of a sequenced microbial species. INSeq is based on a modified mariner transposon containing MmeI sites at its ends, allowing cleavage at chromosomal sites 16-17 bp from the inserted transposon. Genomic regions adjacent to the transposons are amplified by linear PCR with a biotinylated primer. Products are bound to magnetic beads, digested with MmeI and barcoded with sample-specific linkers appended to each restriction fragment. After limited PCR amplification, fragments are sequenced using a high-throughput instrument. The sequence of each read can be used to map the location of a transposon in the genome. Read count measures the relative abundance of that mutant in the population. Solid-phase library preparation makes this protocol rapid (18 h), easy to scale up, amenable to automation and useful for a variety of samples. A protocol for characterizing libraries of transposon mutant strains clonally arrayed in a multiwell format is provided.

  17. Identifying microbial fitness determinants by insertion sequencing using genome-wide transposon mutant libraries.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Andrew L; Wu, Meng; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2011-12-01

    Insertion sequencing (INSeq) is a method for determining the insertion site and relative abundance of large numbers of transposon mutants in a mixed population of isogenic mutants of a sequenced microbial species. INSeq is based on a modified mariner transposon containing MmeI sites at its ends, allowing cleavage at chromosomal sites 16-17 bp from the inserted transposon. Genomic regions adjacent to the transposons are amplified by linear PCR with a biotinylated primer. Products are bound to magnetic beads, digested with MmeI and barcoded with sample-specific linkers appended to each restriction fragment. After limited PCR amplification, fragments are sequenced using a high-throughput instrument. The sequence of each read can be used to map the location of a transposon in the genome. Read count measures the relative abundance of that mutant in the population. Solid-phase library preparation makes this protocol rapid (18 h), easy to scale up, amenable to automation and useful for a variety of samples. A protocol for characterizing libraries of transposon mutant strains clonally arrayed in a multiwell format is provided. PMID:22094732

  18. Identifying microbial fitness determinants by Insertion Sequencing (INSeq) using genome-wide transposon mutant libraries

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Andrew L.; Wu, Meng; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2012-01-01

    Insertion Sequencing (INSeq) is a method for determining the insertion site and relative abundance of large numbers of transposon mutants in a mixed population of isogenic mutants of a sequenced microbial species. INSeq is based on a modified mariner transposon containing MmeI sites at its ends, allowing cleavage at chromosomal sites 16–17bp from the inserted transposon. Genomic regions adjacent to the transposons are amplified by linear PCR with a biotinylated primer. Products are bound to magnetic beads, digested with MmeI, and barcoded with sample-specific linkers appended to each restriction fragment. After limited PCR amplification, fragments are sequenced using a high-throughput instrument. The sequence of each read can be used to map the location of a transposon in the genome. Read count measures the relative abundance of that mutant in the population. Solid-phase library preparation makes this protocol rapid (18h), easy to scale-up, amenable to automation, and useful for a variety of samples. A protocol for characterizing libraries of transposon mutant strains clonally arrayed in multi-well format is provided. PMID:22094732

  19. A local network for sharing resources and technical support: BACS/PHILNET.

    PubMed

    Thayer, C W; Ray, K P

    1988-10-01

    Within the framework of large regional and national networks, local libraries can benefit by working together. We report the establishment of an online health sciences library network to share resources and technical support in the greater St. Louis area. BACS/PHILNET has evolved beyond a local automated interlibrary loan network to pilot off-site integrated library and information management systems in hospitals. PMID:3224226

  20. Functional Screening of Metagenome and Genome Libraries for Detection of Novel Flavonoid-Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Rabausch, U.; Juergensen, J.; Ilmberger, N.; Böhnke, S.; Fischer, S.; Schubach, B.; Schulte, M.

    2013-01-01

    The functional detection of novel enzymes other than hydrolases from metagenomes is limited since only a very few reliable screening procedures are available that allow the rapid screening of large clone libraries. For the discovery of flavonoid-modifying enzymes in genome and metagenome clone libraries, we have developed a new screening system based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). This metagenome extract thin-layer chromatography analysis (META) allows the rapid detection of glycosyltransferase (GT) and also other flavonoid-modifying activities. The developed screening method is highly sensitive, and an amount of 4 ng of modified flavonoid molecules can be detected. This novel technology was validated against a control library of 1,920 fosmid clones generated from a single Bacillus cereus isolate and then used to analyze more than 38,000 clones derived from two different metagenomic preparations. Thereby we identified two novel UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes. The metagenome-derived gtfC gene encoded a 52-kDa protein, and the deduced amino acid sequence was weakly similar to sequences of putative UGTs from Fibrisoma and Dyadobacter. GtfC mediated the transfer of different hexose moieties and exhibited high activities on flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and stilbenes and also accepted isoflavones and chalcones. From the control library we identified a novel macroside glycosyltransferase (MGT) with a calculated molecular mass of 46 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly similar to sequences of MGTs from Bacillus thuringiensis. Recombinant MgtB transferred the sugar residue from UDP-glucose effectively to flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and flavanones. Moreover, MgtB exhibited high activity on larger flavonoid molecules such as tiliroside. PMID:23686272

  1. Ligation Bias in Illumina Next-Generation DNA Libraries: Implications for Sequencing Ancient Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel; Clary, Joel; Stagegaard, Julia; Alberdi, Maria T.; Prado, José Luis; Prieto, Alfredo; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of endogenous molecules and contaminant DNA templates, often originating from environmental microbes. These two populations of templates exhibit different chemical characteristics, with the former showing depurination and cytosine deamination by-products, resulting from post-mortem DNA damage. Such chemical modifications can interfere with the molecular tools used for building second-generation DNA libraries, and limit our ability to fully characterize the true complexity of ancient DNA extracts. In this study, we first use fresh DNA extracts to demonstrate that library preparation based on adapter ligation at AT-overhangs are biased against DNA templates starting with thymine residues, contrarily to blunt-end adapter ligation. We observe the same bias on fresh DNA extracts sheared on Bioruptor, Covaris and nebulizers. This contradicts previous reports suggesting that this bias could originate from the methods used for shearing DNA. This also suggests that AT-overhang adapter ligation efficiency is affected in a sequence-dependent manner and results in an uneven representation of different genomic contexts. We then show how this bias could affect the base composition of ancient DNA libraries prepared following AT-overhang ligation, mainly by limiting the ability to ligate DNA templates starting with thymines and therefore deaminated cytosines. This results in particular nucleotide misincorporation damage patterns, deviating from the signature generally expected for authenticating ancient sequence data. Consequently, we show that models adequate for estimating post-mortem DNA damage levels must be robust to the molecular tools used for building ancient DNA libraries. PMID:24205269

  2. A BAC POOLING STRATEGY: POWERFUL TOOL FOR THE MAIZE INTEGRATED GENETIC AND PHYSICAL MAP CONSTRUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of the maize genome (2500 Mbp) is the primary goal of our ongoing maize genome project. To accomplish this goal, we have used a BAC pooling strategy combined with a high-throughput PCR-based screening method to facilitate anchoring of the m...

  3. Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

  4. Isolation of rare recombinants without using selectable markers for one-step seamless BAC mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lyozin, George T.; Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Demarest, Bradley L.; Yost, H. Joseph; Kuehn, Michael R.; Brunelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Current laboratory methods to isolate rare (1:10,000 to 1:100,000) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombinants require selectable markers. Seamless BAC mutagenesis needs two steps: isolation of rare recombinants using selectable markers, followed by marker removal through counterselection. Here we illustrate founder principle-driven enrichment (FPE), a simple method developed to rapidly isolate rare recombinants without using selectable markers, allowing one-step seamless BAC mutagenesis. As proof-of-principle, we isolated 1:100,000 seamless fluorescent protein-modified Nodal BACs via FPE and confirmed BAC functionality by generating fluorescent reporter mice. We also isolated small indel P1-phage derived artificial chromosome (PAC) and BAC recombinants. Statistical analysis revealed that 1:100,000 recombinants can be isolated running <40 PCRs and we developed a web-based calculator to optimize FPE. By eliminating the need for selection-counterselection, this work highlights a straightforward and low-cost approach to BAC mutagenesis, providing a tool for seamless recombineering pipelines in functional genomics. PMID:25028895

  5. Construction of DNA libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Deaven, L.L.; McCormick, M.K.; Grady, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    We have constructed a series of DNA libraries from flow-sorted chromosomes. Small insert, complete digest libraries cloned into the EcoRI insertion site of Charon 21A are available from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD. Partial digest libraries cloned into cosmid (sCos1) or phage (Charon 40) vectors have been constructed for chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, X and Y. Purity estimates by in situ analysis of sorted chromosomes, flow karyotype analysis, and plaque or colony hybridization indicate that most of these libraries are 90-95% pure. Additional cosmid library constructions, 5-10X arrays of libraries into microtiter plates, and high density membrane arrays of libraries are in progress. Recently, we have completed YAC libraries for chromosomes 5, 9, 16, and 21. These libraries are made from complete DNA digests using the rare cutters Clal, SacII, EagI, or NotI/NheI. The average insert size is {similar_to}200 kb, and chimera frequencies are low (1-10%). Libraries have also been constructed using M13 or bluescript vectors (chromosomes 5, 7, 17) to generate STS markers for the selection of chromosome-specific inserts from total genomic AC libraries. Because of the advantages of insert size and stability associated with BAC and PAC cloning systems, we are currently attempting to adapt pBAC108L and pCYPAC1 vectors for use with flow-sorted chromosomal DNA.

  6. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus. PMID:20416060

  7. Conversion of BAC clones into binary BAC (BIBAC) vectors and their delivery into basidiomycete fungal cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shawkat; Bakkeren, Guus

    2015-01-01

    The genetic transformation of certain organisms, required for gene function analysis or complementation, is often not very efficient, especially when dealing with large gene constructs or genomic fragments. We have adapted the natural DNA transfer mechanism from the soil pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, to deliver intact large DNA constructs to basidiomycete fungi of the genus Ustilago where they stably integrated into their genome. To this end, Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones containing large fungal genomic DNA fragments were converted via a Lambda phage-based recombineering step to Agrobacterium transfer-competent binary vectors (BIBACs) with a Ustilago-specific selection marker. The fungal genomic DNA fragment was subsequently successfully delivered as T-DNA through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into Ustilago species where an intact copy stably integrated into the genome. By modifying the recombineering vector, this method can theoretically be adapted for many different fungi. PMID:25239747

  8. Cytogenetic Analysis of Populus trichocarpa - Ribosomal DNA, Telomere Repeat Sequence, and Marker-selected BACs

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald A; Gunter, Lee E; DiFazio, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    The 18S-28S rDNA and 5S rDNA loci in Populus trichocarpa were localized using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Two 18S-28S rDNA sites and one 5S rDNA site were identified and located at the ends of 3 different chromosomes. FISH signals from the Arabidopsis -type telomere repeat sequence were observed at the distal ends of each chromosome. Six BAC clones selected from 2 linkage groups based on genome sequence assembly (LG-I and LG-VI) were localized on 2 chromosomes, as expected. BACs from LG-I hybridized to the longest chromosome in the complement. All BAC positions were found to be concordant with sequence assembly positions. BAC-FISH will be useful for delineating each of the Populus trichocarpa chromosomes and improving the sequence assembly of this model angiosperm tree species.

  9. A Dense Genetic Linkage Map for Common Carp and Its Integration with a BAC-Based Physical Map

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zixia; Hou, Guangyuan; Huo, Linhe; Liu, Guiming; Li, Chao; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2013-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. Results The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. Conclusion We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for genetic improvement and modification. PMID:23704958

  10. Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci identified from a small insert genomic library for Peronospora tabacina.

    PubMed

    Trigiano, Robert N; Wadl, Phillip A; Dean, Deborah; Hadziabdic, Denita; Scheffler, Brian E; Runge, Fabian; Telle, Sabine; Thines, Marco; Ristaino, Jean; Spring, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci for the obligate biotrophic, oomycete pathogen of tobacco, Peronospora tabacina, were identified from a small insert genomic library enriched for GT motifs. Eighty-five percent of the 162 loci identified were composed of dinucleotide repeats, whereas only 4% and 11% were tri-and tetra-nucleotide repeats respectively. About 82% of all the microsatellites were perfect and within the library; only about 7% of the loci were duplicated. Primers were designed for 63 loci; 10 loci were polymorphic, 19 were monomorphic and 34 either failed to amplify or produced ambiguous/inconsistent results. The 10 polymorphic loci were characterized with 44 isolates of P. tabacina collected from tobacco plants growing in Europe, the Near East and North and South America. The number of alleles per locus was either three or four with a mean of 3.2, and the mean number of genotypes per locus was 3.6. Observed heterozygosity was 0.32-0.95, whereas expected heterozygosity was 0.44-0.69 for these loci. All loci except PT054 did not conform to the Hardy-Weinberg distribution. Polymorphic information content (PIC) for the loci was 0.35-0.69 with a mean of 0.50. These microsatellite loci provide a set of markers sufficient to perform genetic diversity and population studies of P. tabacina, and possibly other species of Peronospora. PMID:22241615

  11. High-density comparative BAC mapping in the black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons): molecular cytogenetic dissection of the origin of MCR 1p+4 in the X1X2Y1Y2Y3 sex chromosome system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Chi, Jianxiang; Wang, Jinhuan; Nie, Wenhui; Su, Weiting; Yang, Fengtang

    2006-05-01

    The black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons, 2n = 8[female symbol]/9[male symbol]) is a critically endangered mammalian species that is confined to a narrow region of southeastern China. Male black muntjacs have an astonishing X1X2Y1Y2Y3 sex chromosome system, unparalleled in eutherian mammals, involving approximately half of the entire genome. A high-resolution comparative map between the black muntjac (M. crinifrons) and the Chinese muntjac (M. reevesi, 2n = 46) has been constructed based on the chromosomal localization of 304 clones from a genomic BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) library of the Indian muntjac (M. muntjak vaginalis, 2n = 6[female symbol]/7[male symbol]). In addition to validating the chromosomal homologies between M. reevesi and M. crinifrons defined previously by chromosome painting, the comparative BAC map demonstrates that all tandem fusions that have occurred in the karyotypic evolution of M. crinifrons are centromere-telomere fusions. The map also allows for a more detailed reconstruction of the chromosomal rearrangements leading to this unique and complex sex chromosome system. Furthermore, we have identified 46 BAC clones that could be used to study the molecular evolution of the unique sex chromosomes of the male black muntjacs. PMID:16443346

  12. Library preparation methodology can influence genomic and functional predictions in human microbiome research.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marcus B; Highlander, Sarah K; Anderson, Ericka L; Li, Weizhong; Dayrit, Mark; Klitgord, Niels; Fabani, Martin M; Seguritan, Victor; Green, Jessica; Pride, David T; Yooseph, Shibu; Biggs, William; Nelson, Karen E; Venter, J Craig

    2015-11-10

    Observations from human microbiome studies are often conflicting or inconclusive. Many factors likely contribute to these issues including small cohort sizes, sample collection, and handling and processing differences. The field of microbiome research is moving from 16S rDNA gene sequencing to a more comprehensive genomic and functional representation through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of complete communities. Here we performed quantitative and qualitative analyses comparing WGS metagenomic data from human stool specimens using the Illumina Nextera XT and Illumina TruSeq DNA PCR-free kits, and the KAPA Biosystems Hyper Prep PCR and PCR-free systems. Significant differences in taxonomy are observed among the four different next-generation sequencing library preparations using a DNA mock community and a cell control of known concentration. We also revealed biases in error profiles, duplication rates, and loss of reads representing organisms that have a high %G+C content that can significantly impact results. As with all methods, the use of benchmarking controls has revealed critical differences among methods that impact sequencing results and later would impact study interpretation. We recommend that the community adopt PCR-free-based approaches to reduce PCR bias that affects calculations of abundance and to improve assemblies for accurate taxonomic assignment. Furthermore, the inclusion of a known-input cell spike-in control provides accurate quantitation of organisms in clinical samples. PMID:26512100

  13. Library preparation methodology can influence genomic and functional predictions in human microbiome research

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marcus B.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Anderson, Ericka L.; Li, Weizhong; Dayrit, Mark; Klitgord, Niels; Fabani, Martin M.; Seguritan, Victor; Green, Jessica; Pride, David T.; Yooseph, Shibu; Biggs, William; Nelson, Karen E.; Venter, J. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Observations from human microbiome studies are often conflicting or inconclusive. Many factors likely contribute to these issues including small cohort sizes, sample collection, and handling and processing differences. The field of microbiome research is moving from 16S rDNA gene sequencing to a more comprehensive genomic and functional representation through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of complete communities. Here we performed quantitative and qualitative analyses comparing WGS metagenomic data from human stool specimens using the Illumina Nextera XT and Illumina TruSeq DNA PCR-free kits, and the KAPA Biosystems Hyper Prep PCR and PCR-free systems. Significant differences in taxonomy are observed among the four different next-generation sequencing library preparations using a DNA mock community and a cell control of known concentration. We also revealed biases in error profiles, duplication rates, and loss of reads representing organisms that have a high %G+C content that can significantly impact results. As with all methods, the use of benchmarking controls has revealed critical differences among methods that impact sequencing results and later would impact study interpretation. We recommend that the community adopt PCR-free–based approaches to reduce PCR bias that affects calculations of abundance and to improve assemblies for accurate taxonomic assignment. Furthermore, the inclusion of a known-input cell spike-in control provides accurate quantitation of organisms in clinical samples. PMID:26512100

  14. An arrayed human genomic library constructed in the PAC shuttle vector pJCPAC-Mam2 for genome-wide association studies and gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fuesler, John; Nagahama, Yasunori; Szulewski, Joseph; Mundorff, Joshua; Bireley, Stephanie; Coren, Jonathon S.

    2012-01-01

    The various iterations of the HapMap Project and many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of potential genes involved in monogenic and multifactorial traits. We constructed an arrayed 115,000-member human genomic library in the PAC shuttle vector pJCPAC-Mam2 that can be propagated in both bacterial and human cells. The library appears to represent a two-fold coverage of the human genome. Transient transfection of a p53-containing PAC clone into p53-null Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells demonstrated that both p53 mRNA and protein were produced. Additionally, expression of the p53 protein triggered apoptosis in a subset of the Saos-2 cells. This library should serve as a valuable resource to validate potential disease genes identified by GWAS in human cell lines and in animal models. Also, individual library members could potentially be used for gene therapy trials for a variety of recessive disorders. PMID:22285925

  15. A first generation integrated map of the rainbow trout genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production efficiency traits justifies the continued development of genomics research resources. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for production and life-history traits in rainbow trout. An integrated physical and genetic map is needed to facilitate fine mapping of QTL and the selection of positional candidate genes for incorporation in marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs for improving rainbow trout aquaculture production. Results The first generation integrated map of the rainbow trout genome is composed of 238 BAC contigs anchored to chromosomes of the genetic map. It covers more than 10% of the genome across segments from all 29 chromosomes. Anchoring of 203 contigs to chromosomes of the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) genetic map was achieved through mapping of 288 genetic markers derived from BAC end sequences (BES), screening of the BAC library with previously mapped markers and matching of SNPs with BES reads. In addition, 35 contigs were anchored to linkage groups of the INRA (French National Institute of Agricultural Research) genetic map through markers that were not informative for linkage analysis in the NCCCWA mapping panel. The ratio of physical to genetic linkage distances varied substantially among chromosomes and BAC contigs with an average of 3,033 Kb/cM. Conclusions The integrated map described here provides a framework for a robust composite genome map for rainbow trout. This resource is needed for genomic analyses in this research model and economically important species and will facilitate comparative genome mapping with other salmonids and with model fish species. This resource will also facilitate efforts to assemble a whole-genome reference sequence for rainbow trout. PMID:21473775

  16. Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for the Hexaploid Wheat Line 92R137

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Shi, Xue; Zhuang, Hua; Wang, Zhonghua; Huang, Lili; Han, Dejun; Kang, Zhensheng

    2014-01-01

    For map-based cloning of genes conferring important traits in the hexaploid wheat line 92R137, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, including two sublibraries, was constructed using the genomic DNA of 92R137 digested with restriction enzymes HindIII and BamHI. The BAC library was composed of total 765,696 clones, of which 390,144 were from the HindIII digestion and 375,552 from the BamHI digestion. Through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 453 clones randomly selected from the HindIII sublibrary and 573 clones from the BamHI sublibrary, the average insert sizes were estimated as 129 and 113 kb, respectively. Thus, the HindIII sublibrary was estimated to have a 3.01-fold coverage and the BamHI sublibrary a 2.53-fold coverage based on the estimated hexaploid wheat genome size of 16,700 Mb. The 765,696 clones were arrayed in 1,994 384-well plates. All clones were also arranged into plate pools and further arranged into 5-dimensional (5D) pools. The probability of identifying a clone corresponding to any wheat DNA sequence (such as gene Yr26 for stripe rust resistance) from the library was estimated to be more than 99.6%. Through polymerase chain reaction screening the 5D pools with Xwe173, a marker tightly linked to Yr26, six BAC clones were successfully obtained. These results demonstrate that the BAC library is a valuable genomic resource for positional cloning of Yr26 and other genes of interest. PMID:24895618

  17. Post-integration silencing of piggyBac transposable elements in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Esnault, Caroline; O'Brochta, David A

    2013-01-01

    The piggyBac transposon, originating in the genome of the Lepidoptera Trichoplusia ni, has a broad host range, making it useful for the development of a number of transposon-based functional genomic technologies including gene vectors, enhancer-, gene- and protein-traps. While capable of being used as a vector for the creation of transgenic insects and insect cell lines, piggyBac has very limited mobility once integrated into the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. A transgenic Aedes aegypti cell line (AagPB8) was created containing three integrated piggyBac elements and the remobilization potential of the elements was tested. The integrated piggyBac elements in AagPB8 were transpositionally silent in the presence of functional transposase, which was shown to be capable of catalyzing the movement of plasmid-borne piggyBac elements in the same cells. The structural integrity of one of the integrated elements along with the quality of element-flanking DNA, which is known to influence transposition rates, were tested in D. melanogaster. The element was found to be structurally intact, capable of transposition and excision in the soma and germ-line of Drosophila melanogaster, and in a DNA sequence context highly conducive to element movement in Drosophila melanogaster. These data show that transpositional silencing of integrated piggyBac elements in the genome of Aedes aegypti appears to be a function of higher scale genome organization or perhaps epigenetic factors, and not due to structural defects or suboptimal integration sites. PMID:23861905

  18. Integrating cytogenetics and genomics in comparative evolutionary studies of cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The availability of a large number of recently sequenced vertebrate genomes opens new avenues to integrate cytogenetics and genomics in comparative and evolutionary studies. Cytogenetic mapping can offer alternative means to identify conserved synteny shared by distinct genomes and also to define genome regions that are still not fine characterized even after wide-ranging nucleotide sequence efforts. An efficient way to perform comparative cytogenetic mapping is based on BAC clones mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In this report, to address the knowledge gap on the genome evolution in cichlid fishes, BAC clones of an Oreochromis niloticus library covering the linkage groups (LG) 1, 3, 5, and 7 were mapped onto the chromosomes of 9 African cichlid species. The cytogenetic mapping data were also integrated with BAC-end sequences information of O. niloticus and comparatively analyzed against the genome of other fish species and vertebrates. Results The location of BACs from LG1, 3, 5, and 7 revealed a strong chromosomal conservation among the analyzed cichlid species genomes, which evidenced a synteny of the markers of each LG. Comparative in silico analysis also identified large genomic blocks that were conserved in distantly related fish groups and also in other vertebrates. Conclusions Although it has been suggested that fishes contain plastic genomes with high rates of chromosomal rearrangements and probably low rates of synteny conservation, our results evidence that large syntenic chromosome segments have been maintained conserved during evolution, at least for the considered markers. Additionally, our current cytogenetic mapping efforts integrated with genomic approaches conduct to a new perspective to address important questions involving chromosome evolution in fishes. PMID:22958299

  19. DNA sequences and composition from 12 BAC clones-derived MUSB SSR markers mapped to cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. x G. Barbadense L.)chromosomes 11 and 21

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To discover resistance (R) and/or pathogen-induced (PR) genes involved in disease response, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from cv. Acala Maxxa (G. hirsutum) were sequenced at the Clemson University, Genomics Institute, Clemson, SC. These BACs derived MUSB single sequence repeat (SS...

  20. Towards a Library of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for (meta)genomic annotation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Cochrane, Guy; Field, Dawn; Garrity, George; Gussman, Aaron; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Klimke, William; Kyrpides, Nikos; Madupu, Ramana; Markowitz, Victor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thomson, Nick; White, Owen

    2008-04-01

    Genome annotations describe the features of genomes and accompany sequences in genome databases. The methodologies used to generate genome annotation are diverse and typically vary amongst groups. Descriptions of the annotation procedure are helpful in interpreting genome annotation data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for genome annotation describe the processes that generate genome annotations. Some groups are currently documenting procedures but standards are lacking for structure and content of annotation SOPs. In addition, there is no central repository to store and disseminate procedures and protocols for genome annotation. We highlight the importance of SOPs for genome annotation and endorse a central online repository of SOPs.

  1. Integration of physical and genetic maps in apple confirms whole-genome and segmental duplications in the apple genome.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuepeng; Zheng, Danman; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Khan, Muhammad A; Beever, Jonathan E; Korban, Schuyler S

    2011-10-01

    A total of 355 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed, based on expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-end sequence databases, and successfully used to construct an SSR-based genetic linkage map of the apple. The consensus linkage map spanned 1143 cM, with an average density of 2.5 cM per marker. Newly developed SSR markers along with 279 SSR markers previously published by the HiDRAS project were further used to integrate physical and genetic maps of the apple using a PCR-based BAC library screening approach. A total of 470 contigs were unambiguously anchored onto all 17 linkage groups of the apple genome, and 158 contigs contained two or more molecular markers. The genetically mapped contigs spanned ∼421 Mb in cumulative physical length, representing 60.0% of the genome. The sizes of anchored contigs ranged from 97 kb to 4.0 Mb, with an average of 995 kb. The average physical length of anchored contigs on each linkage group was ∼24.8 Mb, ranging from 17.0 Mb to 37.73 Mb. Using BAC DNA as templates, PCR screening of the BAC library amplified fragments of highly homologous sequences from homoeologous chromosomes. Upon integrating physical and genetic maps of the apple, the presence of not only homoeologous chromosome pairs, but also of multiple locus markers mapped to adjacent sites on the same chromosome was detected. These findings demonstrated the presence of both genome-wide and segmental duplications in the apple genome and provided further insights into the complex polyploid ancestral origin of the apple. PMID:21743103

  2. Sequencing crop genomes: approaches and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant genome sequencing methodology parrallels the sequencing of the human genome. The first projects were slow and very expensive. BAC by BAC approaches were utilized first and whole-genome shotgun sequencing rapidly replaced that approach. So called 'next generation' technologies such as short rea...

  3. Identification and BAC construction of Han, the first characterized HCMV clinical strain in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Shen, Zhang-Zhou; Liu, Zhong-Yang; Zeng, Wen-Bo; Cheng, Shuang; Ma, Yan-Ping; Rayner, Simon; Yang, Bo; Qiao, Guan-Hua; Jiang, Hai-Fei; Gao, Shuang; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Ruan, Qiang; Luo, Min-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading infectious cause of birth defects, and may lead to severe or lethal diseases in immunocompromised individuals. Several HCMV strains have been identified and widely applied in research, but no isolate from China has been characterized. In the present study, we isolated, characterized and sequenced the first Chinese HCMV clinical strain Han, and constructed the novel and functional HCMV infectious clone Han-BAC-2311. HCMV Han was isolated from the urine sample of a Chinese infant with multiple developmental disorders. It expresses HCMV specific proteins and contains a representative HCMV genome with minor differences compared to other strains. By homologous recombination using mini-F derived BAC vector pUS-F6, the infectious clone Han-BAC-2311 was constructed containing representative viral genes across the HCMV genome. The insertion site and orientation of BAC sequence were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and Southern blotting. The reconstituted recombinant virus HanBAC-2311 expresses typical viral proteins with the same pattern as that of wild-type Han, and also displayed a similar growth kinetics to wild-type Han. The identification of the first clinical HCMV strain in China and the construction of its infectious clone will greatly facilitate the pathogenesis studies and vaccine development in China. J. Med. Virol. 88:859-870, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26426373

  4. Construction of a genomic DNA library with a TA vector and its application in cloning of the phytoene synthase gene from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis M-135

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Hiroyuki, Kojima

    1998-03-01

    An efficient and simple method for constructing a genomic DNA library using a TA cloning vector is presented. It is based on the sonicative cleavage of genomic DNA and modification of fragment ends with Taq DNA polymerase, followed by ligation using a TA vector. This method was applied for cloning of the phytoene synthase gene crt B from Spirulina platensis. This method is useful when genomic DNA cannot be efficiently digested with restriction enzymes, a problem often encountered during the construction of a genomic DNA library of cyanobacteria.

  5. Sequence for BAC OSJNBA0082N40 from Rice Variety Nipponbare to Genbank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete DNA sequence of BAC OSJNBa0082N20 from chromosome 11 of rice variety Nipponbare was deposited in Genbank as part of the International Rice Sequencing Project. The DNA sequence of a syntenic (corresponding) region of the rice genome associated with disease resistance to rice blast has be...

  6. BacWGSTdb, a database for genotyping and source tracking bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zhi; Feng, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has become one of the routine methods in molecular epidemiological practice. In this study, we present BacWGSTdb (http://bacdb.org/BacWGSTdb), a bacterial whole genome sequence typing database which is designed for clinicians, clinical microbiologists and hospital epidemiologists. This database borrows the population structure from the current multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme and adopts a hierarchical data structure: species, clonal complex and isolates. When users upload the pre-assembled genome sequences to BacWGSTdb, it offers the functionality of bacterial genotyping at both traditional MLST and whole-genome levels. More importantly, users are told which isolates in the public database are phylogenetically close to the query isolate, along with their clinical information such as host, isolation source, disease, collection time and geographical location. In this way, BacWGSTdb offers a rapid and convenient platform for worldwide users to address a variety of clinical microbiological issues such as source tracking bacterial pathogens. PMID:26433226

  7. Sequence for BAC OSJNBa0044D15 from Rice Variety Nipponbare GenBank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete DNA sequence of BAC OSJNa0044D15 from chromosome 11 of rice variety Nipponbare was deposited in Genbank as part of the International Rice Sequencing Project. The DNA sequence with syntenic (corresponding) region of the rice genome associated with disease resistance to rice blast has be...

  8. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  9. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes. PMID:25634499

  10. Genomic Library Screens for Genes Involved in n-Butanol Tolerance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Luis H.; Almario, Maria P.; Kao, Katy C.

    2011-01-01

    Background n-Butanol is a promising emerging biofuel, and recent metabolic engineering efforts have demonstrated the use of several microbial hosts for its production. However, most organisms have very low tolerance to n-butanol (up to 2% (v/v)), limiting the economic viability of this biofuel. The rational engineering of more robust n-butanol production hosts relies upon understanding the mechanisms involved in tolerance. However, the existing knowledge of genes involved in n-butanol tolerance is limited. The goal of this study is therefore to identify E. coli genes that are involved in n-butanol tolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a genomic library enrichment strategy, we identified approximately 270 genes that were enriched or depleted in n-butanol challenge. The effects of these candidate genes on n-butanol tolerance were experimentally determined using overexpression or deletion libraries. Among the 55 enriched genes tested, 11 were experimentally shown to confer enhanced tolerance to n-butanol when overexpressed compared to the wild-type. Among the 84 depleted genes tested, three conferred increased n-butanol resistance when deleted. The overexpressed genes that conferred the largest increase in n-butanol tolerance were related to iron transport and metabolism, entC and feoA, which increased the n-butanol tolerance by 32.8±4.0% and 49.1±3.3%, respectively. The deleted gene that resulted in the largest increase in resistance to n-butanol was astE, which enhanced n-butanol tolerance by 48.7±6.3%. Conclusions/Significance We identified and experimentally verified 14 genes that decreased the inhibitory effect of n-butanol tolerance on E. coli. From the data, we were able to expand the current knowledge on the genes involved in n-butanol tolerance; the results suggest that an increased iron transport and metabolism and decreased acid resistance may enhance n-butanol tolerance. The genes and mechanisms identified in this study will be helpful in the rational engineering of more robust biofuel producers. PMID:21408113

  11. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ritschel, Patricia Silva; Lins, Tulio Cesar de Lima; Tristan, Rodrigo Lourenço; Buso, Gláucia Salles Cortopassi; Buso, José Amauri; Ferreira, Márcio Elias

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucurbit species. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis and breeding of melon, especially on the generation of marker saturated genetic maps and implementation of marker assisted breeding programs. Genomic microsatellite enriched libraries can be an efficient alternative for marker development in such species. Results Seven hundred clones containing microsatellite sequences from a Tsp-AG/TC microsatellite enriched library were identified and one-hundred and forty-four primer pairs designed and synthesized. When 67 microsatellite markers were tested on a panel of melon and other cucurbit accessions, 65 revealed DNA polymorphisms among the melon accessions. For some cucurbit species, such as Cucumis sativus, up to 50% of the melon microsatellite markers could be readily used for DNA polymophism assessment, representing a significant reduction of marker development costs. A random sample of 25 microsatellite markers was extracted from the new microsatellite marker set and characterized on 40 accessions of melon, generating an allelic frequency database for the species. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.52, varying from 0.45 to 0.70, indicating that a small set of selected markers should be sufficient to solve questions regarding genotype identity and variety protection. Genetic distances based on microsatellite polymorphism were congruent with data obtained from RAPD marker analysis. Mapping analysis was initiated with 55 newly developed markers and most primers showed segregation according to Mendelian expectations. Linkage analysis detected linkage between 56% of the markers, distributed in nine linkage groups. Conclusions Genomic library microsatellite enrichment is an efficient procedure for marker development in melon. One-hundred and forty-four new markers were developed from Tsp-AG/TC genomic library. This is the first reported attempt of successfully using enriched library for microsatellite marker development in the species. A sample of the microsatellite markers tested proved efficient for genetic analysis of melon, including genetic distance estimates and identity tests. Linkage analysis indicated that the markers developed are dispersed throughout the genome and should be very useful for genetic analysis of melon. PMID:15149552

  12. piggyBac transposon system modification of primary human T cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sunandan; Nakazawa, Yozo; Huye, Leslie E; Doherty, Joseph E; Galvan, Daniel L; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2012-01-01

    The piggyBac transposon system is naturally active, originally derived from the cabbage looper moth. This non-viral system is plasmid based, most commonly utilizing two plasmids with one expressing the piggyBac transposase enzyme and a transposon plasmid harboring the gene(s) of interest between inverted repeat elements which are required for gene transfer activity. PiggyBac mediates gene transfer through a "cut and paste" mechanism whereby the transposase integrates the transposon segment into the genome of the target cell(s) of interest. PiggyBac has demonstrated efficient gene delivery activity in a wide variety of insect, mammalian, and human cells6 including primary human T cells. Recently, a hyperactive piggyBac transposase was generated improving gene transfer efficiency. Human T lymphocytes are of clinical interest for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer. Of note, the first clinical trial involving transposon modification of human T cells using the Sleeping beauty transposon system has been approved. We have previously evaluated the utility of piggyBac as a non-viral methodology for genetic modification of human T cells. We found piggyBac to be efficient in genetic modification of human T cells with a reporter gene and a non-immunogenic inducible suicide gene. Analysis of genomic integration sites revealed a lack of preference for integration into or near known proto-oncogenes. We used piggyBac to gene-modify cytotoxic T lymphocytes to carry a chimeric antigen receptor directed against the tumor antigen HER2, and found that gene-modified T cells mediated targeted killing of HER2-positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model. We have also used piggyBac to generate human T cells resistant to rapamycin, which should be useful in cancer therapies where rapamycin is utilized. Herein, we describe a method for using piggyBac to genetically modify primary human T cells. This includes isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human blood followed by culture, gene modification, and activation of T cells. For the purpose of this report, T cells were modified with a reporter gene (eGFP) for analysis and quantification of gene expression by flow cytometry. PiggyBac can be used to modify human T cells with a variety of genes of interest. Although we have used piggyBac to direct T cells to tumor antigens, we have also used piggyBac to add an inducible safety switch in order to eliminate gene modified cells if needed. The large cargo capacity of piggyBac has also enabled gene transfer of a large rapamycin resistant mTOR molecule (15 kb). Therefore, we present a non-viral methodology for stable gene-modification of primary human T cells for a wide variety of purposes. PMID:23149543

  13. Pleiotropic drug-resistance attenuated genomic library improves elucidation of drug mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Namal V C; Matthews, James H; Bellows, David S; Atkinson, Paul H

    2015-11-01

    Identifying Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide gene deletion mutants that confer hypersensitivity to a xenobiotic aids the elucidation of its mechanism of action (MoA). However, the biological activities of many xenobiotics are masked by the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) network which effluxes xenobiotics that are PDR substrates. The PDR network in S. cerevisiae is almost entirely under the control of two functionally homologous transcription factors Pdr1p and Pdr3p. Herein we report the construction of a PDR-attenuated haploid non-essential DMA (PA-DMA), lacking PDR1 and PDR3, which permits the MoA elucidation of xenobiotics that are PDR substrates at low concentrations. The functionality of four key cellular processes commonly activated in response to xenobiotic stress: oxidative stress response, general stress response, unfolded stress response and calcium signalling pathways were assessed in the absence of PDR1 and PDR3 genes and were found to unaltered, therefore, these key chemogenomic signatures are not lost when using the PA-DMA. Efficacy of the PA-DMA was demonstrated using cycloheximide and latrunculin A at low nanomolar concentrations to attain chemical genetic profiles that were more specific to their known main mechanisms. We also found a two-fold increase in the number of compounds that are bioactive in the pdr1Δpdr3Δ compared to the wild type strain in screening the commercially available LOPAC(1280) library. The PA-DMA should be particularly applicable to mechanism determination of xenobiotics that have limited availability, such as natural products. PMID:26381459

  14. Alu repeats: Tools for mapping the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, M.A.; Hartman, A.; Ashworth, L.

    1994-09-01

    There are over 500,000 Alu repeats dispersed throughout the human genome in a semi-random manner. Alu elements serve as priming sites for the amplification of unique DNA sequences located between Alu repeats that reside in the relatively close proximity in a process termed inter-Alu PCR. Physical mapping of the human genome involves a variety of complex hybridization based procedures. Some of these procedures rely upon the ability to separate human clones derived from human/rodent hybrid cell lines from those that contain background rodent derived DNA sequences. The ability to block the repetitive element (Alu repeat) portion of inter-Alu PCR products derived from a variety of complex sources is also crucial for the isolation of unique DNA sequences. We have constructed a new consensus Alu repeat probe (pPD39) designed for these purposes. We have also employed inter-Alu repeat PCR for the rapid detection of overlap between a number of chromosome 19-specific large insert bacterial and P1-derived artificial chromosomes (BACs and PACs) isolated from the total genomic libraries as well as the generation of human-specific probes to identify overlapping cosmid clones. Using this approach we have generated a high resolution BAC, PAC, and cosmid contig spanning over 440 kb of chromosome 19q13.2 containing the human DNA repair gene XRCC1. The overlap between the BAC, PAC and cosmid clones from the contig has been confirmed using automated EcoRI restriction site mapping.

  15. Insertional Mutagenesis by a Hybrid PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty Transposon in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Furushima, Kenryo; Jang, Chuan-Wei; Chen, Diane W.; Xiao, Ningna; Overbeek, Paul A.; Behringer, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid piggyBac/Sleeping Beauty transposon-based insertional mutagenesis system that can be mobilized by simple breeding was established in the rat. These transposons were engineered to include gene trap sequences and a tyrosinase (Tyr) pigmentation reporter to rescue the albinism of the genetic background used in the mutagenesis strategy. Single-copy transposon insertions were transposed into the rat genome by co-injection of plasmids carrying the transposon and RNA encoding piggyBac transposase into zygotes. The levels of transgenic Tyr expression were influenced by chromosomal context, leading to transgenic rats with different pigmentation that enabled visual genotyping. Transgenic rats designed to ubiquitously express either piggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposase were generated by standard zygote injection also on an albino background. Bigenic rats carrying single-copy transposons at known loci and transposase transgenes exhibited coat color mosaicism, indicating somatic transposition. PiggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposase bigenic rats bred with wild-type albino rats yielded offspring with pigmentation distinct from the initial transposon insertions as a consequence of germline transposition to new loci. The germline transposition frequency for Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac was ∼10% or about one new insertion per litter. Approximately 50% of the insertions occurred in introns. Chimeric transcripts containing endogenous and gene trap sequences were identified in Gabrb1 mutant rats. This mutagenesis system based on simple crosses and visual genotyping can be used to generate a collection of single-gene mutations in the rat. PMID:23023007

  16. Recombinant expression library of Pyrococcus furiosus constructed by high-throughput cloning: a useful tool for functional and structural genomics

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Peng, Li; Han, Zhong; Xie, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xi-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus grows optimally near 100°C and is an important resource of many industrial and molecular biological enzymes. To study the structure and function of P. furiosus proteins at whole genome level, we constructed expression plasmids of each P. furiosus gene using a ligase-independent cloning method, which was based on amplifying target gene and vector by PCR using phosphorothioate-modified primers and digesting PCR products by λ exonuclease. Our cloning method had a positive clone percentage of ≥ 80% in 96-well plate cloning format. Small-scale expression experiment showed that 55 out of 80 genes were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli Strain Rosetta 2(DE3)pLysS. In summary, this recombinant expression library of P. furiosus provides a platform for functional and structural studies, as well as developing novel industrial enzymes. Our cloning scheme is adaptable to constructing recombinant expression library of other sequenced organisms. PMID:26441878

  17. Remobilizing deleted piggyBac vector post-integration for transgene stability in silkworm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Xu, Hanfu; Yuan, Lin; Ding, Huan; Ma, Sanyuan; Zhou, You; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-06-01

    Deletion of transposable elements post-genomic integration holds great promise for stability of the transgene in the host genome and has an essential role for the practical application of transgenic animals. In this study, a modified piggyBac vector that mediated deletion of the transposon sequence post-integration for transgene stability in the economically important silkworm Bombyx mori was constructed. The piggyBac vector architecture contains inversed terminal repeat sequences L1, L2 and R1, which can form L1/R1 and L2/R1 types of transposition cassettes. hsp70-PIG as the piggyBac transposase expression cassette for initial transposition, further remobilization and transgene stabilization test was transiently expressed in a helper vector or integrated into the modified vector to produce a transgenic silkworm. Shortening L2 increased the transformation frequency of L1/R1 into the silkworm genome compared to L2/R1. After the integration of L1/R1 into the genome, the remobilization of L2/R1 impaired the transposon structure and the resulting transgene linked with an impaired transposon was stable in the genome even in the presence of exogenously introduced transposase, whereas those flanked by the intact transposon were highly mobile in the genome. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of post-integration deletion of transposable elements to guarantee true transgene stabilization in silkworm. We suggest that the modified vector will be a useful resource for studies of transgenic silkworms and other piggyBac-transformed organisms. PMID:25589404

  18. piggyBac Transposon-Mediated Transgenesis in the Apicomplexan Parasite Eimeria tenella

    PubMed Central

    Su, Huali; Liu, Xianyong; Yan, Wenchao; Shi, Tuanyuan; Zhao, Xinxin; Blake, Damer P.; Tomley, Fiona M.; Suo, Xun

    2012-01-01

    piggyBac, a type II transposon that is useful for efficient transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis, has been used for effective and stable transfection in a wide variety of organisms. In this study we investigate the potential use of the piggyBac transposon system for forward genetics studies in the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria tenella. Using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) method, E. tenella sporozoites were electroporated with a donor plasmid containing the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) gene flanked by piggyBac inverted terminal repeats (ITRs), an Asc I-linearized helper plasmid containing the transposase gene and the restriction enzyme Asc I. Subsequently, electroporated sporozoites were inoculated into chickens via the cloacal route and transfected progeny oocysts expressing EYFP were sorted by flow cytometry. A transgenic E. tenella population was selected by successive in vivo passage. Southern-blotting analysis showed that exogenous DNA containing the EYFP gene was integrated into the parasite genome at a limited number of integration sites and that the inserted part of the donor plasmid was the fragment located between the 5′ and 3′ ITRs as indicated by primer-specific PCR screening. Genome walking revealed that the insertion sites were TTAA-specific, which is consistent with the transposition characteristics of piggyBac. PMID:22768223

  19. A physical map of a BAC clone contig covering the entire autosome insertion between ovine MHC Class IIa and IIb

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) harbors genes involved in overall resistance/susceptibility of the host to infectious diseases. Compared to human and mouse, the ovine MHC is interrupted by a large piece of autosome insertion via a hypothetical chromosome inversion that constitutes ~25% of ovine chromosome 20. The evolutionary consequence of such an inversion and an insertion (inversion/insertion) in relation to MHC function remains unknown. We previously constructed a BAC clone physical map for the ovine MHC exclusive of the insertion region. Here we report the construction of a high-density physical map covering the autosome insertion in order to address the question of what the inversion/insertion had to do with ruminants during the MHC evolution. Results A total of 119 pairs of comparative bovine oligo primers were utilized to screen an ovine BAC library for positive clones and the orders and overlapping relationships of the identified clones were determined by DNA fingerprinting, BAC-end sequencing, and sequence-specific PCR. A total of 368 positive BAC clones were identified and 108 of the effective clones were ordered into an overlapping BAC contig to cover the consensus region between ovine MHC class IIa and IIb. Therefore, a continuous physical map covering the entire ovine autosome inversion/insertion region was successfully constructed. The map confirmed the bovine sequence assembly for the same homologous region. The DNA sequences of 185 BAC-ends have been deposited into NCBI database with the access numbers HR309252 through HR309068, corresponding to dbGSS ID 30164010 through 30163826. Conclusions We have constructed a high-density BAC clone physical map for the ovine autosome inversion/insertion between the MHC class IIa and IIb. The entire ovine MHC region is now fully covered by a continuous BAC clone contig. The physical map we generated will facilitate MHC functional studies in the ovine, as well as the comparative MHC evolution in ruminants. PMID:22897909

  20. Validation and comparison of microsatellite markers derived from Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) genomic and expressed sequence tags libraries.

    PubMed

    Molina-Luzón, M J; López, J R; Navajas-Pérez, R; Robles, F; Ruiz-Rejón, C; De La Herrán, R

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we tested 100 potential new microsatellites (SSRs) equally derived from expressed sequence tag (EST) and enriched genomic-DNA libraries from Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup), a valuable cultured flatfish species. A final set of 69 new polymorphic microsatellites were validated after a population analysis, 37 of which corresponded to the first EST library constructed for Senegalese sole (EST-SSR). Although differences were not significant, EST sequences provided a higher proportion of quality markers (74%) than anonymous ones (64%). Most of the rejected anonymous SSRs (17 loci) were discarded because they did not generate PCR products; only one was monomorphic. On the contrary, all EST-SSRs gave PCR products, although monomorphism was more frequent (26%). Altogether, the number of alleles per locus was fairly similar in both SSR types, ranging from 2 to 19. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.105 to 1 and from 0.108 to 0.937, respectively. The main difference between the two sets was the percentage of annotated loci, being higher in EST-SSRs, as expected. Within the EST-SSRs, 46% of them showed flanking regions that significantly matched with EST sequences from other three flatfish species; however, the microsatellite itself was present only on half of these cases. These two new SSR sets constitute a suitable tool for fingerprinting, gene flow, genetic diversity, genome mapping studies and molecular-assisted breeding in this species. PMID:22734446

  1. Characteristics of Highly Polymorphic Segmental Copy-Number Variations Observed in Japanese by BAC-Array-CGH

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Norio; Satoh, Yasunari; Sasaki, Keiko; Shimoichi, Yuko; Sugita, Keiko; Katayama, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Segmental copy-number variations (CNVs) may contribute to genetic variation in humans. Reports of the existence and characteristics of CNVs in a large Japanese cohort are quite limited. We report the data from a large Japanese population. We conducted population screening for 213 unrelated Japanese individuals using comparative genomic hybridization based on a bacterial artificial chromosome microarray (BAC-aCGH). We summarize the data by focusing on highly polymorphic CNVs in ≥5.0% of the individual, since they may be informative for demonstrating the relationships between genotypes and their phenotypes. We found a total of 680 CNVs at 16 different BAC-regions in the genome. The majority of the polymorphic CNVs presented on BAC-clones that overlapped with regions of segmental duplication, and the majority of the polymorphic CNVs observed in this population had been previously reported in other publications. Some of the CNVs contained genes which might be related to phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals. PMID:21197411

  2. A BAC-based physical map of the major autosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, R A; Nelson, C R; Berman, B P; Laverty, T R; George, R A; Ciesiolka, L; Naeemuddin, M; Arenson, A D; Durbin, J; David, R G; Tabor, P E; Bailey, M R; DeShazo, D R; Catanese, J; Mammoser, A; Osoegawa, K; de Jong, P J; Celniker, S E; Gibbs, R A; Rubin, G M; Scherer, S E

    2000-03-24

    We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map of chromosomes 2 and 3 of Drosophila melanogaster, which constitute 81% of the genome. Sequence tagged site (STS) content, restriction fingerprinting, and polytene chromosome in situ hybridization approaches were integrated to produce a map spanning the euchromatin. Three of five remaining gaps are in repeat-rich regions near the centromeres. A tiling path of clones spanning this map and STS maps of chromosomes X and 4 was sequenced to low coverage; the maps and tiling path sequence were used to support and verify the whole-genome sequence assembly, and tiling path BACs were used as templates in sequence finishing. PMID:10731150

  3. Integrated physical, genetic and genome map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Thudi, Mahendar; Hu, Yuqin; Azam, Sarwar; Zhang, Yong; Jaganathan, Deepa; You, Frank M; Gao, Jinliang; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Luo, Ming-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Physical map of chickpea was developed for the reference chickpea genotype (ICC 4958) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries targeting 71,094 clones (~12× coverage). High information content fingerprinting (HICF) of these clones gave high-quality fingerprinting data for 67,483 clones, and 1,174 contigs comprising 46,112 clones and 3,256 singletons were defined. In brief, 574 Mb genome size was assembled in 1,174 contigs with an average of 0.49 Mb per contig and 3,256 singletons represent 407 Mb genome. The physical map was linked with two genetic maps with the help of 245 BAC-end sequence (BES)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This allowed locating some of the BACs in the vicinity of some important quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for drought tolerance and reistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight. In addition, fingerprinted contig (FPC) assembly was also integrated with the draft genome sequence of chickpea. As a result, ~965 BACs including 163 minimum tilling path (MTP) clones could be mapped on eight pseudo-molecules of chickpea forming 491 hypothetical contigs representing 54,013,992 bp (~54 Mb) of the draft genome. Comprehensive analysis of markers in abiotic and biotic stress tolerance QTL regions led to identification of 654, 306 and 23 genes in drought tolerance "QTL-hotspot" region, Ascochyta blight resistance QTL region and Fusarium wilt resistance QTL region, respectively. Integrated physical, genetic and genome map should provide a foundation for cloning and isolation of QTLs/genes for molecular dissection of traits as well as markers for molecular breeding for chickpea improvement. PMID:24610029

  4. Large Gap Size Paired-end Library Construction for Second Generation Sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Froula, Jeff; Ewing, Aren; Foster, Brian; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2010-05-28

    Fosmid or BAC end sequencing plays an important role in de novo assembly of large genomes like fungi and plants. However construction and Sanger sequencing of fosmid or BAC libraries are laborious and costly. The current 454 Paired-End (PE) Library and Illumina Jumping Library construction protocols are limited with the gap sizes of approximately 20 kb and 8 kb, respectively. In the attempt to understand the limitations of constructing PE libraries with greater than 30Kb gaps, we have purified 18, 28, 45, and 65Kb sheared DNA fragments from yeast and circularized the ends using the Cre-loxP approach described in the 454 PE Library protocol. With the increasing fragment sizes, we found a general trend of decreasing library quality in several areas. First, redundant reads and reads containing multiple loxP linkers increase when the average fragment size increases. Second, the contamination of short distance pairs (<10Kb) increases as the fragment size increases. Third, chimeric rate increases with the increasing fragment sizes. We have modified several steps to improve the quality of the long span PE libraries. The modification includes (1) the use of special PFGE program to reduce small fragment contamination; (2) the increase of DNA samples in the circularization step and prior to the PCR to reduce redundant reads; and (3) the decrease of fragment size in the double SPRI size selection to get a higher frequency of LoxP linker containing reads. With these modifications we have generated large gap size PE libraries with a much better quality.

  5. [Advanced Treatment of Incineration Leachate with O3-BAC and Double O3-BAC].

    PubMed

    Du, An-jing; Fan, Ju-hong; Liu, Rui; Qiu, Song-kai; Wen, Xiao-gang; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-11-01

    Ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process and double O3-BAC process were respectively used for advanced treatment of the biologically treated effluent of incineration leachate, and their pollutant removal performances were compared. The results showed that the double O3-BAC removed 75.9% ± 2.1% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 78.8% ± 2.9% of UV254 and 96.8% ± 0.9% of color at ozone dosage of 200 mg x L(-1). The treated effluent was with COD of below 100 mg x L(-1) and color of below 40 times, meeting the emission requirements of GB 16889-2008. At the same ozone dosage, however, the O3-BAC removed 68.2% ± 1.3% of COD, 69.7% ± 0.5% of UV254 and 92.5% ± 1.1% of color. The treated effluent was with COD of around 150 mg x L(-1) and color of about 60 times, failing to meet the emission requirements. Namely, ozone of 290 mg x L(-1) was required by O3-BAC in order to achieve similar pollutant removals as those in double O3-BAC at O3 dosage of 200 mg x L(-1). In double O3-BAC at ozone dosage of 200 mg x L(-1), total phosphorus was removed by 63.5% ± 4.4%, and the phosphorus concentration in the effluent was remained 1 mg x L(-1) or less, directly meeting the emission requirement of GB 16889-2008. PMID:26911003

  6. Mitogenome assembly from genomic multiplex libraries: comparison of strategies and novel mitogenomes for five species of frogs.

    PubMed

    Machado, D J; Lyra, M L; Grant, T

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing continues to revolutionize biodiversity studies by generating unprecedented amounts of DNA sequence data for comparative genomic analysis. However, these data are produced as millions or billions of short reads of variable quality that cannot be directly applied in comparative analyses, creating a demand for methods to facilitate assembly. We optimized an in silico strategy to efficiently reconstruct high-quality mitochondrial genomes directly from genomic reads. We tested this strategy using sequences from five species of frogs: Hylodes meridionalis (Hylodidae), Hyloxalus yasuni (Dendrobatidae), Pristimantis fenestratus (Craugastoridae), and Melanophryniscus simplex and Rhinella sp. (Bufonidae). These are the first mitogenomes published for these species, the genera Hylodes, Hyloxalus, Pristimantis, Melanophryniscus and Rhinella, and the families Craugastoridae and Hylodidae. Sequences were generated using only half of one lane of a standard Illumina HiqSeq 2000 flow cell, resulting in fewer than eight million reads. We analysed the reads of Hylodes meridionalis using three different assembly strategies: (1) reference-based (using bowtie2); (2) de novo (using abyss, soapdenovo2 and velvet); and (3) baiting and iterative mapping (using mira and mitobim). Mitogenomes were assembled exclusively with strategy 3, which we employed to assemble the remaining mitogenomes. Annotations were performed with mitos and confirmed by comparison with published amphibian mitochondria. In most cases, we recovered all 13 coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and two ribosomal subunit genes, with minor gene rearrangements. Our results show that few raw reads can be sufficient to generate high-quality scaffolds, making any Illumina machine run using genomic multiplex libraries a potential source of data for organelle assemblies as by-catch. PMID:26607054

  7. Chromosome evolution in Solanum traced by cross-species BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Szinay, Dóra; Wijnker, Erik; van den Berg, Ronald; Visser, Richard G F; de Jong, Hans; Bai, Yuling

    2012-08-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements are relatively rare evolutionary events and can be used as markers to study karyotype evolution. This research aims to use such rearrangements to study chromosome evolution in Solanum. Chromosomal rearrangements between Solanum crops and several related wild species were investigated using tomato and potato bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) in a multicolour fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The BACs selected are evenly distributed over seven chromosomal arms containing inversions described in previous studies. The presence/absence of these inversions among the studied Solanum species were determined and the order of the BAC-FISH signals was used to construct phylogenetic trees.Compared with earlier studies, data from this study provide support for the current grouping of species into different sections within Solanum; however, there are a few notable exceptions, such as the tree positions of S. etuberosum (closer to the tomato group than to the potato group) and S. lycopersicoides (sister to S. pennellii). These apparent contradictions might be explained by interspecific hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting. This cross-species BAC painting technique provides unique information on genome organization, evolution and phylogenetic relationships in a wide variety of species. Such information is very helpful for introgressive breeding. PMID:22686400

  8. Evolution of sex chromosomes ZW of Schistosoma mansoni inferred from chromosome paint and BAC mapping analyses.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; LoVerde, Philip T

    2012-12-01

    Chromosomes of schistosome parasites among digenetic flukes have a unique evolution because they exhibit the sex chromosomes ZW, which are not found in the other groups of flukes that are hermaphrodites. We conducted molecular cytogenetic analyses for investigating the sex chromosome evolution using chromosome paint analysis and BAC clones mapping. To carry this out, we developed a technique for making paint probes of genomic DNA from a single scraped chromosome segment using a chromosome microdissection system, and a FISH mapping technique for BAC clones. Paint probes clearly identified each of the 8 pairs of chromosomes by a different fluorochrome color. Combination analysis of chromosome paint analysis with Z/W probes and chromosome mapping with 93 BAC clones revealed that the W chromosome of Schistosoma mansoni has evolved by at least four inversion events and heterochromatinization. Nine of 93 BAC clones hybridized with both the Z and W chromosomes, but the locations were different between Z and W chromosomes. The homologous regions were estimated to have moved from the original Z chromosome to the differentiated W chromosome by three inversions events that occurred before W heterohcromatinization. An inversion that was observed in the heterochromatic region of the W chromosome likely occurred after W heterochromatinization. These inversions and heterochromatinization are hypothesized to be the key factors that promoted the evolution of the W chromosome of S. mansoni. PMID:22831897

  9. Microsatellite Discovery from BAC End Sequences and Genetic Mapping to Anchor the Soybean Physical and Genetic Maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical maps can be an invaluable resource for improving and assessing the quality of a whole-genome sequence assembly. Here we report the identification and screening of 3,290 microsatellites (SSRs) identified from BAC end sequences of clones comprising the physical map of the cultivar Williams 8...

  10. Final report. Human artificial episomal chromosome (HAEC) for building large genomic libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Michael H. Vos

    1999-12-09

    Collections of human DNA fragments are maintained for research purposes as clones in bacterial host cells. However for unknown reasons, some regions of the human genome appear to be unclonable or unstable in bacteria. Their team has developed a system using episomes (extrachromosomal, autonomously replication DNA) that maintains large DNA fragments in human cells. This human artificial episomal chromosomal (HAEC) system may prove useful for coverage of these especially difficult regions. In the broader biomedical community, the HAEC system also shows promise for use in functional genomics and gene therapy. Recent improvements to the HAEC system and its application to mapping, sequencing, and functionally studying human and mouse DNA are summarized. Mapping and sequencing the human genome and model organisms are only the first steps in determining the function of various genetic units critical for gene regulation, DNA replication, chromatin packaging, chromosomal stability, and chromatid segregation. Such studies will require the ability to transfer and manipulate entire functional units into mammalian cells.

  11. Screening a genome wide S. pombe deletion library identifies novel genes and pathways involved in the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Gaurang P.; Hayles, Jacqueline; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Park, Han-Oh; Hartsuiker, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of genome stability is essential for an organism to avoid cell death and cancer. Based on screens for mutant sensitivity against DNA damaging agents a large number of DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint genes have previously been identified in genetically amenable model organisms. These screens have however not been exhaustive and various genes have been, and remain to be, identified by other means. We therefore screened a genome wide Schizosaccharomyces pombe deletion library for mutants sensitive against various DNA damaging agents. Screening the library on different concentrations of these genotoxins allowed us to assign a semi-quantitative score to each mutant expressing the degree of sensitivity. We isolated a total of 229 mutants which show sensitivity to one or more of the DNA damaging agents used. This set of mutants was significantly enriched for processes involved in DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage checkpoint, response to UV, mating type switching, telomere length maintenance and meiosis, and also for processes involved in the establishment and maintenance of chromatin architecture (notably members of the SAGA complex), transcription (members of the CCr4-Not complex) and microtubule related processes (members of the DASH complex). We also identified 23 sensitive mutants which had previously been classified as “sequence orphan” or as “conserved hypothetical”. Among these, we identified genes showing extensive homology to CtIP, Stra13, Ybp1/Ybp2, Human Fragile X mental retardation interacting protein NUFIP1, and Aprataxin. The identification of these homologues will provide a basis for the further characterisation of the role of these conserved proteins in the genetically amenable model organism S. pombe. PMID:19264558

  12. SplinkBES - A Splinkerette-Based Method for Generating Long End Sequences From Large Insert DNA Libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the development of a novel splinkerette-based method for generating long end-sequences from large insert library clones, using a carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library as a model. The procedure involves digestion of the BAC DNA with a 6-bp restriction enzyme, followed by ligation of spli...

  13. Screening of Metagenomic and Genomic Libraries Reveals Three Classes of Bacterial Enzymes That Overcome the Toxicity of Acrylate

    PubMed Central

    Curson, Andrew R. J.; Burns, Oliver J.; Voget, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf; Todd, Jonathan D.; McInnis, Kathryn; Wexler, Margaret; Johnston, Andrew W. B.

    2014-01-01

    Acrylate is produced in significant quantities through the microbial cleavage of the highly abundant marine osmoprotectant dimethylsulfoniopropionate, an important process in the marine sulfur cycle. Acrylate can inhibit bacterial growth, likely through its conversion to the highly toxic molecule acrylyl-CoA. Previous work identified an acrylyl-CoA reductase, encoded by the gene acuI, as being important for conferring on bacteria the ability to grow in the presence of acrylate. However, some bacteria lack acuI, and, conversely, many bacteria that may not encounter acrylate in their regular environments do contain this gene. We therefore sought to identify new genes that might confer tolerance to acrylate. To do this, we used functional screening of metagenomic and genomic libraries to identify novel genes that corrected an E. coli mutant that was defective in acuI, and was therefore hyper-sensitive to acrylate. The metagenomic libraries yielded two types of genes that overcame this toxicity. The majority encoded enzymes resembling AcuI, but with significant sequence divergence among each other and previously ratified AcuI enzymes. One other metagenomic gene, arkA, had very close relatives in Bacillus and related bacteria, and is predicted to encode an enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, in the same family as FabK, which catalyses the final step in fatty-acid biosynthesis in some pathogenic Firmicute bacteria. A genomic library of Novosphingobium, a metabolically versatile alphaproteobacterium that lacks both acuI and arkA, yielded vutD and vutE, two genes that, together, conferred acrylate resistance. These encode sequential steps in the oxidative catabolism of valine in a pathway in which, significantly, methacrylyl-CoA is a toxic intermediate. These findings expand the range of bacteria for which the acuI gene encodes a functional acrylyl-CoA reductase, and also identify novel enzymes that can similarly function in conferring acrylate resistance, likely, again, through the removal of the toxic product acrylyl-CoA. PMID:24848004

  14. Signature-tagged mutagenesis to characterize genes through competitive selection of bar-coded genome libraries.

    PubMed

    Oh, Julia; Nislow, Corey

    2011-01-01

    The availability of collections of genome-wide deletion mutants greatly accelerates systematic analyses of gene function. However, each of the thousands of genes that comprise a genome must be phenotyped individually unless they can be assayed in parallel and subsequently deconvolved. To this end, unique molecular identifiers have been developed for a variety of microbes. Specifically, the addition of DNA "tags," or "bar codes," to each mutant allows all mutants in a collection to be pooled and phenotyped in parallel, greatly increasing experimental throughput. In this chapter, we provide an overview of current methodologies used to create such tagged mutant collections and outline how they can be applied to understand gene function, gene-gene interactions, and drug-gene interactions. Finally, we present a methodology that uses universal TagModules, capable of bar coding a wide range of microorganisms, and demonstrate its reduction to practice by creating tagged mutant collections in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. PMID:21815096

  15. Signature-tagged mutagenesis to characterize genes through competitive selection of bar-coded genome libraries.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Oh J; Nislow C

    2011-01-01

    The availability of collections of genome-wide deletion mutants greatly accelerates systematic analyses of gene function. However, each of the thousands of genes that comprise a genome must be phenotyped individually unless they can be assayed in parallel and subsequently deconvolved. To this end, unique molecular identifiers have been developed for a variety of microbes. Specifically, the addition of DNA "tags," or "bar codes," to each mutant allows all mutants in a collection to be pooled and phenotyped in parallel, greatly increasing experimental throughput. In this chapter, we provide an overview of current methodologies used to create such tagged mutant collections and outline how they can be applied to understand gene function, gene-gene interactions, and drug-gene interactions. Finally, we present a methodology that uses universal TagModules, capable of bar coding a wide range of microorganisms, and demonstrate its reduction to practice by creating tagged mutant collections in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

  16. BAC-pool sequencing and analysis of large segments of A12 and D12 homoeologous chromosomes in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kantety, Ramesh V; Yu, John Z; Xu, Zhanyou; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G; Macmil, Simone; Wiley, Graham B; Roe, Bruce A; Sharma, Govind C

    2013-01-01

    Although new and emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have reduced sequencing costs significantly, much work remains to implement them for de novo sequencing of complex and highly repetitive genomes such as the tetraploid genome of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Herein we report the results from implementing a novel, hybrid Sanger/454-based BAC-pool sequencing strategy using minimum tiling path (MTP) BACs from Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465, two large genomic segments in A12 and D12 homoeologous chromosomes (Ctg). To enable generation of longer contig sequences in assembly, we implemented a hybrid assembly method to process ~35x data from 454 technology and 2.8-3x data from Sanger method. Hybrid assemblies offered higher sequence coverage and better sequence assemblies. Homology studies revealed the presence of retrotransposon regions like Copia and Gypsy elements in these contigs and also helped in identifying new genomic SSRs. Unigenes were anchored to the sequences in Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465 to support the physical map. Gene density, gene structure and protein sequence information derived from protein prediction programs were used to obtain the functional annotation of these genes. Comparative analysis of both contigs with Arabidopsis genome exhibited synteny and microcollinearity with a conserved gene order in both genomes. This study provides insight about use of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing approach for sequencing complex polyploid genomes with limited constraints in generating better sequence assemblies to build reference scaffold sequences. Combining the utilities of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing with current longer and short read NGS technologies in multiplexed format would provide a new direction to cost-effectively and precisely sequence complex plant genomes. PMID:24116150

  17. BAC-Pool Sequencing and Analysis of Large Segments of A12 and D12 Homoeologous Chromosomes in Upland Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kantety, Ramesh V.; Yu, John Z.; Xu, Zhanyou; Kohel, Russell J.; Percy, Richard G.; Macmil, Simone; Wiley, Graham B.; Roe, Bruce A.; Sharma, Govind C.

    2013-01-01

    Although new and emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have reduced sequencing costs significantly, much work remains to implement them for de novo sequencing of complex and highly repetitive genomes such as the tetraploid genome of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Herein we report the results from implementing a novel, hybrid Sanger/454-based BAC-pool sequencing strategy using minimum tiling path (MTP) BACs from Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465, two large genomic segments in A12 and D12 homoeologous chromosomes (Ctg). To enable generation of longer contig sequences in assembly, we implemented a hybrid assembly method to process ~35x data from 454 technology and 2.8-3x data from Sanger method. Hybrid assemblies offered higher sequence coverage and better sequence assemblies. Homology studies revealed the presence of retrotransposon regions like Copia and Gypsy elements in these contigs and also helped in identifying new genomic SSRs. Unigenes were anchored to the sequences in Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465 to support the physical map. Gene density, gene structure and protein sequence information derived from protein prediction programs were used to obtain the functional annotation of these genes. Comparative analysis of both contigs with Arabidopsis genome exhibited synteny and microcollinearity with a conserved gene order in both genomes. This study provides insight about use of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing approach for sequencing complex polyploid genomes with limited constraints in generating better sequence assemblies to build reference scaffold sequences. Combining the utilities of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing with current longer and short read NGS technologies in multiplexed format would provide a new direction to cost-effectively and precisely sequence complex plant genomes. PMID:24116150

  18. Reevaluation of the Coding Potential and Proteomic Analysis of the BAC Derived Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Strain 68-1

    SciTech Connect

    Malouli, Daniel; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Camp, David G.; Chang, W. L.; Barry, Peter A.; Smith, Richard D.; Fruh, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are highly host restricted resulting in co-speciation with their hosts. As a natural pathogen of rhesus macaques (RM), Rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) has therefore emerged as a highly relevant experimental model for pathogenesis and vaccine development due to its close evolutionary relationship to human CMV (HCMV). To date, most in vivo experiments performed with RhCMV employed strain 68-1 cloned as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). However, the complete genome sequence of the 68-1 BAC has not been determined. Furthermore, the gene content of the RhCMV genome is unknown and previous open reading frame (ORF) predictions relied solely on uninterrupted ORFs with an arbitrary cutoff of 300bp. To obtain a more precise picture of the actual proteins encoded by the most commonly used molecular clone of RhCMV we re-evaluated the RhCMV 68-1 BAC-genome by whole genome shotgun sequencing and determined the protein content of the resulting RhCMV virions by proteomics. By additionally comparing the RhCMV genome to that of several closely related Old World Monkey (OWM) CMVs we were able to filter out many unlikely ORFs and obtain a simplified map of the RhCMV genome. This comparative genomics analysis eliminated many genes previously characterized as RhCMV-specific while consolidating a high conservation of ORFs among OWM-CMVs and between RhCMV and HCMV. Moreover, virion proteomics independently validated the revised ORF predictions since only proteins encoded by predicted ORFs could be detected. Taken together these data suggest a much higher conservation of genome and virion structure between CMVs of humans, apes and OWMs than previously assumed. Remarkably, BAC-derived RhCMV is able to establish and maintain persistent infection despite the lack of multiple genes homologous to HCMV genes involved in tissue tropism.

  19. Wheat Genomics: Present Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, P. K.; Mir, R. R.; Mohan, A.; Kumar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with a large genome (16000 Mb) and high proportion (∼80%) of repetitive sequences, has been a difficult crop for genomics research. However, the availability of extensive cytogenetics stocks has been an asset, which facilitated significant progress in wheat genomic research in recent years. For instance, fairly dense molecular maps (both genetic and physical maps) and a large set of ESTs allowed genome-wide identification of gene-rich and gene-poor regions as well as QTL including eQTL. The availability of markers associated with major economic traits also allowed development of major programs on marker-assisted selection (MAS) in some countries, and facilitated map-based cloning of a number of genes/QTL. Resources for functional genomics including TILLING and RNA interference (RNAi) along with some new approaches like epigenetics and association mapping are also being successfully used for wheat genomics research. BAC/BIBAC libraries for the subgenome D and some individual chromosomes have also been prepared to facilitate sequencing of gene space. In this brief review, we discuss all these advances in some detail, and also describe briefly the available resources, which can be used for future genomics research in this important crop. PMID:18528518

  20. Fungicidal mechanisms of the antimicrobial peptide Bac8c.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyoung; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-02-01

    Bac8c (RIWVIWRR-NH2) is an analogue peptide derived through complete substitution analysis of the linear bovine host defense peptide variant Bac2A. In the present study, the antifungal mechanism of Bac8c against pathogenic fungi was investigated, with a particular focus on the effects of Bac8c on the cytoplasmic membrane. We used bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol [DiBAC4(3)] staining and 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide [DiSC3(5)] assays to show that Bac8c induced disturbances in the membrane potential of Candida albicans. An increase in membrane permeability and suppression of cell wall regeneration were also observed in Bac8c-treated C. albicans. We studied the effects of Bac8c treatment on model membranes to elucidate its antifungal mechanism. Using calcein and FITC-labeled dextran leakage assays from Bac8c-treated large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), we found that Bac8c has a pore-forming action on fungal membranes, with an estimated pore radius of between 2.3 and 3.3 nm. A membrane-targeted mechanism of action was also supported by the observation of potassium release from the cytosol of Bac8c-treated C. albicans. These results indicate that Bac8c is considered as a potential candidate to develop a novel antimicrobial agent because of its low-cost production characteristics and high antimicrobial activity via its ability to induce membrane perturbations in fungi. PMID:25434926

  1. Genome Clone Libraries and Data from the Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression (I.M.A.G.E.) Consortium

    DOE Data Explorer

    The I.M.A.G.E. Consortium was initiated in 1993 by four academic groups on a collaborative basis after informal discussions led to a common vision of how to achieve an important goal in the study of the human genome: the Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression Consortium's primary goal is to create arrayed cDNA libraries and associated bioinformatics tools, and make them publicly available to the research community. The primary organisms of interest include intensively studied mammalian species, including human, mouse, rat and non-human primate species. The Consortium has also focused on several commonly studied model organisms; as part of this effort it has arrayed cDNAs from zebrafish, and Fugu (pufferfish) as well as Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis (frog). Utilizing high speed robotics, over nine million individual cDNA clones have been arrayed into 384-well microtiter plates, and sufficient replicas have been created to distribute copies both to sequencing centers and to a network of five distributors located worldwide. The I.M.A.G.E. Consortium represents the world's largest public cDNA collection, and works closely with the National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection(MGC) to help it achieve its goal of creating a full-length cDNA clone for every human and mouse gene. I.M.A.G.E. is also a member of the ORFeome Collaboration, working to generate a complete set of expression-ready open reading frame clones representing each human gene. Custom informatics tools have been developed in support of these projects to better allow the research community to select clones of interest and track and collect all data deposited into public databases about those clones and their related sequences. I.M.A.G.E. clones are publicly available, free of any royalties, and may be used by anyone agreeing with the Consortium's guidelines.

  2. From Human Monocytes to Genome-Wide Binding Sites - A Protocol for Small Amounts of Blood: Monocyte Isolation/ChIP-Protocol/Library Amplification/Genome Wide Computational Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weiterer, Sebastian; Uhle, Florian; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Weigand, Markus A.; Bartkuhn, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with a genome-wide analysis via high-throughput sequencing is the state of the art method to gain genome-wide representation of histone modification or transcription factor binding profiles. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in the context of human experimental samples is limited, especially in the case of blood cells. The typically extremely low yields of precipitated DNA are usually not compatible with library amplification for next generation sequencing. We developed a highly reproducible protocol to present a guideline from the first step of isolating monocytes from a blood sample to analyse the distribution of histone modifications in a genome-wide manner. Conclusion: The protocol describes the whole work flow from isolating monocytes from human blood samples followed by a high-sensitivity and small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with guidance for generating libraries compatible with next generation sequencing from small amounts of immunoprecipitated DNA. PMID:24732314

  3. The canine sarcoglycan delta gene: BAC clone contig assembly, chromosome assignment and interrogation as a candidate gene for dilated cardiomyopathy in Dobermann dogs.

    PubMed

    Stabej, P; Leegwater, P A J; Imholz, S; Versteeg, S A; Zijlstra, C; Stokhof, A A; Domanjko-Petriè, A; van Oost, B A

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common disease of the myocardium recognized in human, dog and experimental animals. Genetic factors are responsible for a large proportion of cases in humans, and 17 genes with DCM causing mutations have been identified. The genetic origin of DCM in the Dobermann dogs has been suggested, but no disease genes have been identified to date. In this paper, we describe the characterization and evaluation of the canine sarcoglycan delta (SGCD), a gene implicated in DCM in human and hamster. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing the canine SGCD gene were isolated with probes for exon 3 and exons 4-8 and were characterized by Southern blot analysis. BAC end sequences were obtained for four BACs. Three of the BACs overlapped and could be ordered relative to each other and the end sequences of all four BACs could be anchored on the preliminary assembly of the dog genome sequence (www. ensembl.org). One of the BACs of the partial contig was localized by fluorescent in situ hybridization to canine chromosome 4q22, in agreement with the dog genome sequence. Two highly informative polymorphic microsatellite markers in intron 7 of the SGCD gene were identified. In 25 DCM-affected and 13 non DCM-affected dogs seven different haplotypes could be distinguished. However, no association between any of the SGCD variants and the disease locus was apparent. PMID:16103655

  4. Partial Complementation of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacA Mutant Phenotypes by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis BacA Protein

    PubMed Central

    Haag, A. F.; Capewell, S.; Boshoff, H. I.; James, E. K.; McDonald, R.; Mair, I.; Mitchell, A. M.; Kerscher, B.; Mitchell, T. J.; Mergaert, P.; Barry, C. E.; Scocchi, M.; Zanda, M.; Campopiano, D. J.; Ferguson, G. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti BacA ABC transporter protein plays an important role in its nodulating symbiosis with the legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The Mycobacterium tuberculosis BacA homolog was found to be important for the maintenance of chronic murine infections, yet its in vivo function is unknown. In the legume plant as well as in the mammalian host, bacteria encounter host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). We found that the M. tuberculosis BacA protein was able to partially complement the symbiotic defect of an S. meliloti BacA-deficient mutant on alfalfa plants and to protect this mutant in vitro from the antimicrobial activity of a synthetic legume peptide, NCR247, and a recombinant human β-defensin 2 (HBD2). This finding was also confirmed using an M. tuberculosis insertion mutant. Furthermore, M. tuberculosis BacA-mediated protection of the legume symbiont S. meliloti against legume defensins as well as HBD2 is dependent on its attached ATPase domain. In addition, we show that M. tuberculosis BacA mediates peptide uptake of the truncated bovine AMP, Bac71-16. This process required a functional ATPase domain. We therefore suggest that M. tuberculosis BacA is important for the transport of peptides across the cytoplasmic membrane and is part of a complete ABC transporter. Hence, BacA-mediated protection against host AMPs might be important for the maintenance of latent infections. PMID:23161027

  5. The MICHR Genomic DNA BioLibrary: An Empirical Study of the Ethics of Biorepository Development

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Blake J.; Steneck, Nicholas H.; Powell, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on an effort to study the development and usefulness of a large, broad-use, opt-in biorepository for genomic research, focusing on three ethical issues: providing appropriate understanding, recruiting in ways that do not comprise autonomous decisions, and assessing costs vs. benefits. We conclude: 1) Understanding can be improved by separating the task of informing subjects from documenting informed consent (Common Rule) and permission to use personal health information and samples for research (HIPAA); however, regulations might have to be changed to accommodate this approach. 2) Changing recruiting methods increases efficiency but can interfere with subject autonomy. 3) Finally, we propose a framework for the objective evaluation of the utility of biorepositories and suggest that more attention needs to be paid to use and sustainability. PMID:25742665

  6. The MICHR Genomic DNA BioLibrary: An Empirical Study of the Ethics of Biorepository Development.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Blake J; Steneck, Nicholas H; Connally, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we report on an effort to study the development and usefulness of a large, broad-use, opt-in biorepository for genomic research, focusing on three ethical issues: providing appropriate understanding, recruiting in ways that do not comprise autonomous decisions, and assessing costs versus benefits. We conclude the following: (a) Understanding can be improved by separating the task of informing subjects from documenting informed consent (Common Rule) and permission to use personal health information and samples for research (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA]); however, regulations might have to be changed to accommodate this approach. (b) Changing recruiting methods increases efficiency but can interfere with subject autonomy. (c) Finally, we propose a framework for the objective evaluation of the utility of biorepositories and suggest that more attention needs to be paid to use and sustainability. PMID:25742665

  7. Direct cloning of specific genomic DNA sequences in plasmid libraries following fragment enrichment.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, R D; Hill, A V; Clegg, J B; Higgs, D R

    1985-01-01

    We describe a simple method to directly clone any DNA fragment for which a flanking restriction enzyme map is known. Genomic DNA is digested with multiple enzymes cutting outside the fragment to be cloned, selected by electroelution from an agarose gel, and cloned directly into a plasmid vector. It is only necessary to screen 10-1000 colonies and recombinant DNA is ready for immediate molecular analysis without further subcloning. The use of this technique is demonstrated for the cloning of a sequence from within the human alpha-globin complex that was previously shown to be "unclonable" in bacteriophage and cosmid vectors and which is a multiallelic general genetic marker, as well as both beta-globin alleles from an individual with beta-thalassaemia. Images PMID:2999697

  8. Functional Genomics with a Comprehensive Library of Transposon Mutants for the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20

    PubMed Central

    Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Price, Morgan N.; Ray, Jayashree; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Esquivel, Zuelma; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Nguyen, Michelle; Kuehn, Raquel; Davis, Ronald W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genomes of sulfate-reducing bacteria remain poorly characterized, largely due to a paucity of experimental data and genetic tools. To meet this challenge, we generated an archived library of 15,477 mapped transposon insertion mutants in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. To demonstrate the utility of the individual mutants, we profiled gene expression in mutants of six regulatory genes and used these data, together with 1,313 high-confidence transcription start sites identified by tiling microarrays and transcriptome sequencing (5′ RNA-Seq), to update the regulons of Fur and Rex and to confirm the predicted regulons of LysX, PhnF, PerR, and Dde_3000, a histidine kinase. In addition to enabling single mutant investigations, the D. alaskensis G20 transposon mutants also contain DNA bar codes, which enables the pooling and analysis of mutant fitness for thousands of strains simultaneously. Using two pools of mutants that represent insertions in 2,369 unique protein-coding genes, we demonstrate that the hypothetical gene Dde_3007 is required for methionine biosynthesis. Using comparative genomics, we propose that Dde_3007 performs a missing step in methionine biosynthesis by transferring a sulfur group to O-phosphohomoserine to form homocysteine. Additionally, we show that the entire choline utilization cluster is important for fitness in choline sulfate medium, which confirms that a functional microcompartment is required for choline oxidation. Finally, we demonstrate that Dde_3291, a MerR-like transcription factor, is a choline-dependent activator of the choline utilization cluster. Taken together, our data set and genetic resources provide a foundation for systems-level investigation of a poorly studied group of bacteria of environmental and industrial importance. PMID:24865553

  9. Single haplotype assembly of the human genome from a hydatidiform mole

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Schneider, Valerie A.; Graves-Lindsay, Tina A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Agarwala, Richa; Huddleston, John; Shiryev, Sergey A.; Morgulis, Aleksandr; Surti, Urvashi; Warren, Wesley C.; Church, Deanna M.; Eichler, Evan E.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    A complete reference assembly is essential for accurately interpreting individual genomes and associating variation with phenotypes. While the current human reference genome sequence is of very high quality, gaps and misassemblies remain due to biological and technical complexities. Large repetitive sequences and complex allelic diversity are the two main drivers of assembly error. Although increasing the length of sequence reads and library fragments can improve assembly, even the longest available reads do not resolve all regions. In order to overcome the issue of allelic diversity, we used genomic DNA from an essentially haploid hydatidiform mole, CHM1. We utilized several resources from this DNA including a set of end-sequenced and indexed BAC clones and 100 Illumina whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequence coverage. We used the WGS sequence and the GRCh37 reference assembly to create an assembly of the CHM1 genome. We subsequently incorporated 382 finished BAC clone sequences to generate a draft assembly, CHM1_1.1 (NCBI AssemblyDB GCA_000306695.2). Analysis of gene, repetitive element, and segmental duplication content show this assembly to be of excellent quality and contiguity. However, comparison to assembly-independent resources, such as BAC clone end sequences and PacBio long reads, indicate misassembled regions. Most of these regions are enriched for structural variation and segmental duplication, and can be resolved in the future. This publicly available assembly will be integrated into the Genome Reference Consortium curation framework for further improvement, with the ultimate goal being a completely finished gap-free assembly. PMID:25373144

  10. Development of a Genomic Microsatellite Library in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and its Use in Trait Mapping

    PubMed Central

    King, J.; Thorogood, D.; Edwards, K. J.; Armstead, I. P.; Roberts, L.; Skøt, K.; Hanley, Z.; King, I. P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is one of the key forage and amenity grasses throughout the world. In the UK it accounts for 70 % of all agricultural land use with an estimated farm gate value of £6 billion per annum. However, in terms of the genetic resources available, L. perenne has lagged behind other major crops in Poaceae. The aim of this project was therefore the construction of a microsatellite-enriched genomic library for L. perenne to increase the number of genetic markers available for both marker-assisted selection in breeding programmes and gene isolation. Methods Primers for 229 non-redundant microsatellite markers were designed and used to screen two L. perenne genotypes, one amenity and one forage. Of the 229 microsatellites, 95 were found to show polymorphism between amenity and forage genotypes. A selection of microsatellite primers was selected from these 95 and used to screen two mapping populations derived from intercrossing and backcrossing the two forage and amenity grass genotypes. Key Results and Conclusions The utility of the resulting genetic maps for analysis of the genetic control of target traits was demonstrated by the mapping of genes associated with heading date to linkage groups 4 and 7. PMID:18281692

  11. Construction of a genomic library of the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii and isolation of the beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase gene (ZbLEU2).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, F; Zeeman, A M; Alves, C; Sousa, M J; Steensma, H Y; Côrte-Real, M; Leão, C

    2001-04-01

    A genomic library of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii ISA 1307 was constructed in pRS316, a shuttle vector for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. The library has an average insert size of 6 kb and covers the genome more than 20 times assuming a genome size similar to that of S. cerevisiae. This new tool has been successfully used, by us and others, to isolate Z. bailii genes. One example is the beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase gene (ZbLEU2) of Z. bailii, which was cloned by complementation of a leu2 mutation in S. cerevisiae. An open reading frame encoding a protein with a molecular mass of 38.7 kDa was found. The nucleotide sequence of ZbLEU2 and the deduced amino acid sequence showed a significant degree of identity to those of beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenases from several other yeast species. The sequence of ZbLEU2 has been deposited in the EMBL data library under accession number AJ292544. PMID:12702464

  12. Assessing the feasibility of GS FLX Pyrosequencing for sequencing the Atlantic salmon genome

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Nicole L; Levenkova, Natasha; Chow, William; Bouffard, Pascal; Boroevich, Keith A; Knight, James R; Jarvie, Thomas P; Lubieniecki, Krzysztof P; Desany, Brian A; Koop, Ben F; Harkins, Timothy T; Davidson, William S

    2008-01-01

    Background With a whole genome duplication event and wealth of biological data, salmonids are excellent model organisms for studying evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. It is surprising therefore, that no salmonid genome has been sequenced. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a good representative salmonid for sequencing given its importance in aquaculture and the genomic resources available. However, the size and complexity of the genome combined with the lack of a sequenced reference genome from a closely related fish makes assembly challenging. Given the cost and time limitations of Sanger sequencing as well as recent improvements to next generation sequencing technologies, we examined the feasibility of using the Genome Sequencer (GS) FLX pyrosequencing system to obtain the sequence of a salmonid genome. Eight pooled BACs belonging to a minimum tiling path covering ~1 Mb of the Atlantic salmon genome were sequenced by GS FLX shotgun and Long Paired End sequencing and compared with a ninth BAC sequenced by Sanger sequencing of a shotgun library. Results An initial assembly using only GS FLX shotgun sequences (average read length 248.5 bp) with ~30× coverage allowed gene identification, but was incomplete even when 126 Sanger-generated BAC-end sequences (~0.09× coverage) were incorporated. The addition of paired end sequencing reads (additional ~26× coverage) produced a final assembly comprising 175 contigs assembled into four scaffolds with 171 gaps. Sanger sequencing of the ninth BAC (~10.5× coverage) produced nine contigs and two scaffolds. The number of scaffolds produced by the GS FLX assembly was comparable to Sanger-generated sequencing; however, the number of gaps was much higher in the GS FLX assembly. Conclusion These results represent the first use of GS FLX paired end reads for de novo sequence assembly. Our data demonstrated that this improved the GS FLX assemblies; however, with respect to de novo sequencing of complex genomes, the GS FLX technology is limited to gene mining and establishing a set of ordered sequence contigs. Currently, for a salmonid reference sequence, it appears that a substantial portion of sequencing should be done using Sanger technology. PMID:18755037

  13. A 178-kb BAC transgene imprints the mouse Gtl2 gene and localizes tissue-specific regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Yevtodiyenko, Aleksey; Steshina, Ekaterina Y; Farner, Scott C; Levorse, John M; Schmidt, Jennifer V

    2004-08-01

    The regulation of genomic imprinting, the allele-specific expression of an autosomal gene, is complex and poorly understood. Imprinted genes are organized in clusters, where cis-acting regulatory elements are believed to interact to control multiple genes. We have used BAC transgenesis in the mouse to begin to delineate the region of DNA required for proper expression and imprinting of the mouse Delta-like1 (Dlk1) and Gene-trap locus2 (Gtl2) imprinted genes. We demonstrate that the Gtl2 gene is expressed from a BAC transgene in mouse embryo and placenta only upon maternal inheritance, as is the endogenous Gtl2 gene. Gtl2 is therefore properly imprinted on the BAC in an ectopic chromosomal location and must carry with it all necessary imprinting regulatory elements. Furthermore, we show that the BAC Gtl2 gene is expressed at levels approaching those of the endogenous gene only in the brain of adult animals, not in other sites of endogenous expression such as the pituitary, adrenal, and skeletal muscle. These data localize the enhancer(s) for brain Gtl2 expression, but not those for other tissues, to the DNA contained within the BAC clone. As the Dlk1 gene is not expressed from the BAC in any tissues, it must require additional elements that are different from those necessary for Gtl2 expression. Our data refine the interval for future investigation of Gtl2 imprinting and provide evidence for distinct regulation of the linked Dlk1 and Gtl2 genes. PMID:15233992

  14. Generation of transgene-free induced pluripotent mouse stem cells by the piggyBac transposon

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Kosuke; Rad, Roland; Takeda, Junji; Bradley, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated from somatic cells by transgenic expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc. A major difficulty in the application of this technology for regenerative medicine, however, is the delivery of reprogramming factors. Whereas retroviral transduction increases the risk of tumorigenicity, transient expression methods have considerably lower reprogramming efficiencies. Here we show a highly efficient piggyBac transposon-based approach to generate integration-free iPSCs. Transposons carrying 2A peptide-linked reprogramming factors induced reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with equivalent efficiencies to retroviral transduction. Transposons were removed from these primary iPSCs by re-expressing transposase. Transgene-free iPSCs could be easily identified by HSVtk-FIAU selection. piggyBac excises without a footprint, leaving the iPSC genome without any genetic alteration. iPSCs fulfilled all criteria of pluripotency, such as expression of embryonic stem cell-specific markers, teratoma formation and contribution to chimeras. piggyBac transposon-based reprogramming may be used to generate therapeutically applicable iPSCs. PMID:19337237

  15. piggyBac as a high-capacity transgenesis and gene-therapy vector in human cells and mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongbo; Zhuang, Yuan; Han, Min; Xu, Tian; Wu, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The stable genomic integration and expression of a large transgene is a major hurdle in gene therapy. We show that the modified piggyBac (PB) transposon system can be used to introduce a 207 kb genomic DNA fragment containing the RORγ/γt locus into human cells and mice. PB-mediated transgenesis results in a single copy of a stably inherited and expressed transgene. These results indicate that PB could serve as an effective high-capacity vector for functional analysis of the mammalian genome and for gene therapy in human cells. PMID:23519027

  16. Olefin Isomerization Regiochemistries during Tandem Action of BacA and BacB on Prephenate in Bacilysin Biosynthesis†

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jared B.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    BacA and BacB, the first two enzymes of the bacilysin pathway, convert prephenate to an exocylic regioisomer of dihydrohydroxyphenylpyruvate (ex-H2HPP) on the way to the epoxycyclohexanone warhead in the dipeptide antibiotic, bacilysin. BacA decarboxylates prephenate without aromatization, converting the 1,4-diene in prephenate to the endocyclic 1,3 diene in Δ4Δ8-dihydrohydroxyphenylpyruvate (en-H2HPP). BacB then performs an allylic isomerization to bring the diene into conjugation with the 2-ketone in the product Δ3Δ5-dihydrohydroxyphenylpyruvate (ex-H2HPP). To prove that BacA acts regiospecifically on one of the two prochiral olefins in prephenate, we generated 1,5,8-[13C]-chorismate from bacterial fermentation of 5-[13C]-glucose and in turn produced 2,4,6-[13C]-prephenate via chorismate mutase. Tandem action of BacA and BacB gave 2,4,8-[13C]-7R-ex-H2HPP, showing that BacA isomerizes only the pro-R double bond in prephenate. Nonenzymatic isomerization of the BacA product into conjugation gives only the Δ3 E-geometric isomer of Δ3Δ5-ex-H2HPP. On the other hand, acceleration of the allylic isomerization by BacB gives a mixture of the E- and Z-geometric isomers of the 7R-product, indicating some rerouting of the flux, likely through dienolate geometric isomers. PMID:22483065

  17. Observing copepods through a genomic lens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Copepods outnumber every other multicellular animal group. They are critical components of the world's freshwater and marine ecosystems, sensitive indicators of local and global climate change, key ecosystem service providers, parasites and predators of economically important aquatic animals and potential vectors of waterborne disease. Copepods sustain the world fisheries that nourish and support human populations. Although genomic tools have transformed many areas of biological and biomedical research, their power to elucidate aspects of the biology, behavior and ecology of copepods has only recently begun to be exploited. Discussion The extraordinary biological and ecological diversity of the subclass Copepoda provides both unique advantages for addressing key problems in aquatic systems and formidable challenges for developing a focused genomics strategy. This article provides an overview of genomic studies of copepods and discusses strategies for using genomics tools to address key questions at levels extending from individuals to ecosystems. Genomics can, for instance, help to decipher patterns of genome evolution such as those that occur during transitions from free living to symbiotic and parasitic lifestyles and can assist in the identification of genetic mechanisms and accompanying physiological changes associated with adaptation to new or physiologically challenging environments. The adaptive significance of the diversity in genome size and unique mechanisms of genome reorganization during development could similarly be explored. Genome-wide and EST studies of parasitic copepods of salmon and large EST studies of selected free-living copepods have demonstrated the potential utility of modern genomics approaches for the study of copepods and have generated resources such as EST libraries, shotgun genome sequences, BAC libraries, genome maps and inbred lines that will be invaluable in assisting further efforts to provide genomics tools for copepods. Summary Genomics research on copepods is needed to extend our exploration and characterization of their fundamental biological traits, so that we can better understand how copepods function and interact in diverse environments. Availability of large scale genomics resources will also open doors to a wide range of systems biology type studies that view the organism as the fundamental system in which to address key questions in ecology and evolution. PMID:21933388

  18. Deductions about the Number, Organization, and Evolution of Genes in the Tomato Genome Based on Analysis of a Large Expressed Sequence Tag Collection and Selective Genomic Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hoeven, Rutger; Ronning, Catherine; Giovannoni, James; Martin, Gregory; Tanksley, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of a collection of 120,892 single-pass ESTs, derived from 26 different tomato cDNA libraries and reduced to a set of 27,274 unique consensus sequences (unigenes), revealed that 70% of the unigenes have identifiable homologs in the Arabidopsis genome. Genes corresponding to metabolism have remained most conserved between these two genomes, whereas genes encoding transcription factors are among the fastest evolving. The majority of the 10 largest conserved multigene families share similar copy numbers in tomato and Arabidopsis, suggesting that the multiplicity of these families may have occurred before the divergence of these two species. An exception to this multigene conservation was observed for the E8-like protein family, which is associated with fruit ripening and has higher copy number in tomato than in Arabidopsis. Finally, six BAC clones from different parts of the tomato genome were isolated, genetically mapped, sequenced, and annotated. The combined analysis of the EST database and these six sequenced BACs leads to the prediction that the tomato genome encodes ?35,000 genes, which are sequestered largely in euchromatic regions corresponding to less than one-quarter of the total DNA in the tomato nucleus. PMID:12119366

  19. Microsatellite discovery from BAC end sequences and genetic mapping to anchor the soybean physical and genetic maps.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Randy C; Grant, David; Olson, Terry; Warren, Wesley C; Wing, Rod; Yu, Yeisoo; Kim, HyeRan; Cregan, Perry; Joseph, Bindu; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Nelson, Will; Davito, Jon; Walker, Jason; Wallis, John; Kremitski, Colin; Scheer, Debbie; Clifton, Sandra W; Graves, Tina; Nguyen, Henry; Wu, Xiaolei; Luo, Mingcheng; Dvorak, Jan; Nelson, Rex; Cannon, Steven; Tomkins, Jeff; Schmutz, Jeremy; Stacey, Gary; Jackson, Scott

    2008-04-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Williams 82') has made it important to integrate its physical and genetic maps. To facilitate this integration of maps, we screened 3290 microsatellites (SSRs) identified from BAC end sequences of clones comprising the 'Williams 82' physical map. SSRs were screened against 3 mapping populations. We found the AAT and ACT motifs produced the greatest frequency of length polymorphisms, ranging from 17.2% to 32.3% and from 11.8% to 33.3%, respectively. Other useful motifs include the dinucleotide repeats AG, AT, and AG, with frequency of length polymorphisms ranging from 11.2% to 18.4% (AT), 12.4% to 20.6% (AG), and 11.3% to 16.4% (GT). Repeat lengths less than 16 bp were generally less useful than repeat lengths of 40-60 bp. Two hundred and sixty-five SSRs were genetically mapped in at least one population. Of the 265 mapped SSRs, 60 came from BAC singletons not yet placed into contigs of the physical map. One hundred and ten originated in BACs located in contigs for which no genetic map location was previously known. Ninety-five SSRs came from BACs within contigs for which one or more other BACs had already been mapped. For these fingerprinted contigs (FPC) a high percentage of the mapped markers showed inconsistent map locations. A strategy is introduced by which physical and genetic map inconsistencies can be resolved using the preliminary 4x assembly of the whole genome sequence of soybean. PMID:18356965

  20. Paired-end sequencing of Fosmid libraries by Illumina

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Louise J.S.; Tabbaa, Diana G.; Li, Na; Berlin, Aaron M.; Shea, Terrance P.; MacCallum, Iain; Lawrence, Michael S.; Drier, Yotam; Getz, Gad; Young, Sarah K.; Jaffe, David B.; Nusbaum, Chad; Gnirke, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating the bacterial cloning step has been a major factor in the vastly improved efficiency of massively parallel sequencing approaches. However, this also has made it a technical challenge to produce the modern equivalent of the Fosmid- or BAC-end sequences that were crucial for assembling and analyzing complex genomes during the Sanger-based sequencing era. To close this technology gap, we developed Fosill, a method for converting Fosmids to Illumina-compatible jumping libraries. We constructed Fosmid libraries in vectors with Illumina primer sequences and specific nicking sites flanking the cloning site. Our family of pFosill vectors allows multiplex Fosmid cloning of end-tagged genomic fragments without physical size selection and is compatible with standard and multiplex paired-end Illumina sequencing. To excise the bulk of each cloned insert, we introduced two nicks in the vector, translated them into the inserts, and cleaved them. Recircularization of the vector via coligation of insert termini followed by inverse PCR generates a jumping library for paired-end sequencing with 101-base reads. The yield of unique Fosmid-sized jumps is sufficiently high, and the background of short, incorrectly spaced and chimeric artifacts sufficiently low, to enable applications such as mapping of structural variation and scaffolding of de novo assemblies. We demonstrate the power of Fosill to map genome rearrangements in a cancer cell line and identified three fusion genes that were corroborated by RNA-seq data. Our Fosill-powered assembly of the mouse genome has an N50 scaffold length of 17.0 Mb, rivaling the connectivity (16.9 Mb) of the Sanger-sequencing based draft assembly. PMID:22800726

  1. Illuminating choices for library prep: a comparison of library preparation methods for whole genome sequencing of Cryptococcus neoformans using Illumina HiSeq.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Johanna; Beale, Mathew A; Fisher, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    The industry of next-generation sequencing is constantly evolving, with novel library preparation methods and new sequencing machines being released by the major sequencing technology companies annually. The Illumina TruSeq v2 library preparation method was the most widely used kit and the market leader; however, it has now been discontinued, and in 2013 was replaced by the TruSeq Nano and TruSeq PCR-free methods, leaving a gap in knowledge regarding which is the most appropriate library preparation method to use. Here, we used isolates from the pathogenic fungi Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and sequenced them using the existing TruSeq DNA v2 kit (Illumina), along with two new kits: the TruSeq Nano DNA kit (Illumina) and the NEBNext Ultra DNA kit (New England Biolabs) to provide a comparison. Compared to the original TruSeq DNA v2 kit, both newer kits gave equivalent or better sequencing data, with increased coverage. When comparing the two newer kits, we found little difference in cost and workflow, with the NEBNext Ultra both slightly cheaper and faster than the TruSeq Nano. However, the quality of data generated using the TruSeq Nano DNA kit was superior due to higher coverage at regions of low GC content, and more SNPs identified. Researchers should therefore evaluate their resources and the type of application (and hence data quality) being considered when ultimately deciding on which library prep method to use. PMID:25409295

  2. Illuminating Choices for Library Prep: A Comparison of Library Preparation Methods for Whole Genome Sequencing of Cryptococcus neoformans Using Illumina HiSeq

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Johanna; Beale, Mathew A.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The industry of next-generation sequencing is constantly evolving, with novel library preparation methods and new sequencing machines being released by the major sequencing technology companies annually. The Illumina TruSeq v2 library preparation method was the most widely used kit and the market leader; however, it has now been discontinued, and in 2013 was replaced by the TruSeq Nano and TruSeq PCR-free methods, leaving a gap in knowledge regarding which is the most appropriate library preparation method to use. Here, we used isolates from the pathogenic fungi Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and sequenced them using the existing TruSeq DNA v2 kit (Illumina), along with two new kits: the TruSeq Nano DNA kit (Illumina) and the NEBNext Ultra DNA kit (New England Biolabs) to provide a comparison. Compared to the original TruSeq DNA v2 kit, both newer kits gave equivalent or better sequencing data, with increased coverage. When comparing the two newer kits, we found little difference in cost and workflow, with the NEBNext Ultra both slightly cheaper and faster than the TruSeq Nano. However, the quality of data generated using the TruSeq Nano DNA kit was superior due to higher coverage at regions of low GC content, and more SNPs identified. Researchers should therefore evaluate their resources and the type of application (and hence data quality) being considered when ultimately deciding on which library prep method to use. PMID:25409295

  3. Rapid genomic DNA changes in allotetraploid fish hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Ye, L H; Liu, Q Z; Peng, L Y; Liu, W; Yi, X G; Wang, Y D; Xiao, J; Xu, K; Hu, F Z; Ren, L; Tao, M; Zhang, C; Liu, Y; Hong, Y H; Liu, S J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid genomic change has been demonstrated in several allopolyploid plant systems; however, few studies focused on animals. We addressed this issue using an allotetraploid lineage (4nAT) of freshwater fish originally derived from the interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n=100) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂, 2n=100). We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from allotetraploid hybrids in the 20th generation (F20) and sequenced 14 BAC clones representing a total of 592.126 kb, identified 11 functional genes and estimated the guanine–cytosine content (37.10%) and the proportion of repetitive elements (17.46%). The analysis of intron evolution using nine orthologous genes across a number of selected fish species detected a gain of 39 introns and a loss of 30 introns in the 4nAT lineage. A comparative study based on seven functional genes among 4nAT, diploid F1 hybrids (2nF1) (first generation of hybrids) and their original parents revealed that both hybrid types (2nF1 and 4nAT) not only inherited genomic DNA from their parents, but also demonstrated rapid genomic DNA changes (homoeologous recombination, parental DNA fragments loss and formation of novel genes). However, 4nAT presented more genomic variations compared with their parents than 2nF1. Interestingly, novel gene fragments were found for the iqca1 gene in both hybrid types. This study provided a preliminary genomic characterization of allotetraploid F20 hybrids and revealed evolutionary and functional genomic significance of allopolyploid animals. PMID:25669608

  4. GENE DUPLICATION AND PALEOPOLYPLOIDY IN SOYBEAN AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR WHOLE GENOME SEQUENCING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventeen BACs representing ~ 2.03 Mb were sequenced as representative homeologous regions from the paleopolyploid soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genome. Sequence identity comparisons between homeologous BACs shows that the soybean genome is a mosaic of retained paleopolyploid regions. some havin...

  5. PiggyBac:A flexible and highly active transposon as compared to Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, and Mos1 in mammalian cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A non-viral vector for highly efficient site-specific integration would be desirable for many applications in transgenesis, including gene therapy. In this study, we directly compared the genomic integration efficiencies of piggyBac, hyperactive Sleeping Beauty(SB11), Tol2, and Mos1 in four mammalia...

  6. A Nucleolus-Predominant piggyBac Transposase, NP-mPB, Mediates Elevated Transposition Efficiency in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Amy T.; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3–4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells. PMID:24586748

  7. Identification of a Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase Affecting Cardiotoxicity of Sunitinib Using a Genome-Wide Screening on S. pombe Deletion Library.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Hanna; Yeon, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hee; Park, Han-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a key issue for drug R&D, a fundamental challenge of which is to screen for the targets genome-wide. The anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is known to induce cardiotoxicity. Here, to understand the molecular insights of cardiotoxicity by sunitinib at the genome level, we used a genome-wide drug target screening technology (GPScreen) that measures drug-induced haploinsufficiency (DIH) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome-wide deletion library and found a mitochondrial DNA polymerase (POG1). In the results, sunitinib induced more severe cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in POG1-deleted heterozygous mutants compared to wild type (WT) of S. pombe. Furthermore, knockdown of the human ortholog POLG of S. pombe POG1 in human cells significantly increased the cytotoxicity of sunitinib. Notably, sunitinib dramatically decreased the levels of POLG mRNAs and proteins, of which downregulation was already known to induce mitochondrial damage of cardiomyocytes, causing cardiotoxicity. These results indicate that POLG might play a crucial role in mitochondrial damage as a gene of which expressional pathway is targeted by sunitinib for cardiotoxicity, and that genome-wide drug target screening with GPScreen can be applied to drug toxicity target discovery to understand the molecular insights regarding drug toxicity. PMID:26385865

  8. An improved approach for construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries.

    PubMed

    Osoegawa, K; Woon, P Y; Zhao, B; Frengen, E; Tateno, M; Catanese, J J; de Jong, P J

    1998-08-15

    Presented here are improved methodologies that enable the generation of highly redundant bacterial artificial chromosome/P1-derived artificial chromosome libraries, with larger and relatively uniform insert sizes. Improvements in vector preparation and enhanced ligation conditions reduce the number of background nonrecombinant clones. Preelectrophoresis of immobilized high-molecular-weight DNA removes inhibitors of the cloning process, while sizing DNA fragments twice within a single gel effectively eliminates small restriction fragments, thus increasing the average insert size of the clones. The size-fractionated DNA fragments are recovered by electroelution rather than the more common melting of gel slices with subsequent beta-agarase treatment. Concentration of the ligation products yields a 6- to 12-fold reduction in the number of electroporations required in preparing a library of desirable size. These improved methods have been applied to prepare PAC and BAC libraries from the human, murine, rat, canine, and baboon genomes with average insert sizes ranging between 160 and 235 kb. PMID:9740665

  9. Poultry Genome Sequences: Progress and Outstanding Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first build of the chicken genome sequence appeared in March 2004 – the first genome sequence of any animal agriculture species. That sequence was done primarily by whole genome shotgun Sanger sequencing, along with the use of an extensive BAC contig-based physical map to assemble the sequence ...

  10. Construction of an infectious clone of canine herpesvirus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Arii, Jun; Hushur, Orkash; Kato, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Tohya, Yukinobu; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2006-04-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is an attractive candidate not only for use as a recombinant vaccine to protect dogs from a variety of canine pathogens but also as a viral vector for gene therapy in domestic animals. However, developments in this area have been impeded by the complicated techniques used for eukaryotic homologous recombination. To overcome these problems, we used bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to generate infectious BACs. Our findings may be summarized as follows: (i) the CHV genome (pCHV/BAC), in which a BAC flanked by loxP sites was inserted into the thymidine kinase gene, was maintained in Escherichia coli; (ii) transfection of pCHV/BAC into A-72 cells resulted in the production of infectious virus; (iii) the BAC vector sequence was almost perfectly excisable from the genome of the reconstituted virus CHV/BAC by co-infection with CHV/BAC and a recombinant adenovirus that expressed the Cre recombinase; and (iv) a recombinant virus in which the glycoprotein C gene was deleted was generated by lambda recombination followed by Flp recombination, which resulted in a reduction in viral titer compared with that of the wild-type virus. The infectious clone pCHV/BAC is useful for the modification of the CHV genome using bacterial genetics, and CHV/BAC should have multiple applications in the rapid generation of genetically engineered CHV recombinants and the development of CHV vectors for vaccination and gene therapy in domestic animals. PMID:16515874

  11. Second-Generation Genetic Linkage Map of Catfish and Its Integration with the BAC-Based Physical Map

    PubMed Central

    Ninwichian, Parichart; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Liu, Shikai; Li, Ping; Jiang, Yanliang; Sha, Zhenxia; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Abernathy, Jason W.; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Wong, Lilian; Wang, Shaolin; Lu, Jianguo; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2012-01-01

    Construction of high-density genetic linkage maps is crucially important for quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies, and they are more useful when integrated with physical maps. Such integrated maps are valuable genome resources for fine mapping of QTL, comparative genomics, and accurate and efficient whole-genome assembly. Previously, we established both linkage maps and a physical map for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, the dominant aquaculture species in the United States. Here we added 2030 BAC end sequence (BES)-derived microsatellites from 1481 physical map contigs, as well as markers from singleton BES, ESTs, anonymous microsatellites, and SNPs, to construct a second-generation linkage map. Average marker density across the 29 linkage groups reached 1.4 cM/marker. The increased marker density highlighted variations in recombination rates within and among catfish chromosomes. This work effectively anchored 44.8% of the catfish BAC physical map contigs, covering ∼52.8% of the genome. The genome size was estimated to be 2546 cM on the linkage map, and the calculated physical distance per centimorgan was 393 Kb. This integrated map should enable comparative studies with teleost model species as well as provide a framework for ordering and assembling whole-genome scaffolds. PMID:23050234

  12. Expression of Functional Recombinant Human Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) Using the Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Yaghoub; Azari, Shahram; Kalhor, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a unique multifunctional enzyme. The enzyme possesses enzymatic activities such as transamidation/crosslinking and non-enzymatic functions such as cell migration and signal transduction. TG2 has been shown to be involved in molecular mechanisms of cancers and several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. The present study aimed at cloning and expression of full length human TG2 in Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system and evaluation of its activity. Methods: pFastBac HTA donor vector containing coding sequence of human TG2 was constructed. The construct was transformed to DH10Bac for generating recombinant bacmid. The verified bacmid was transfected to insect cell line (Sf9). Expression of recombinant TG2 was examined by RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. Functional analysis was evaluated by fluorometric assay and gel electrophoresis. Results: Recombinant bacmid was verified by amplification of a band near to 4500 bp. Expression analysis showed that the enzyme was expressed as a protein with a molecular weight near 80 kDa. Western blot confirmed the presence of TG2 and the activity assays including flurometric assay indicated that the recombinant TG2 was functional. The electrophoresis assay conformed that the expressed TG2 was the indeed capable of crosslinking in the presence of physiological concentration calcium ions. Conclusion: Human TG2 was expressed efficiently in the active biological form in the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The expressed enzyme could be used for medical diagnostic, or studies which aim at finding novel inhibitors of the enzymes . To best of our knowledge, this is probably the first report of expression of full length human tissue transglutaminase (TG2) using the Bac-to-Bac expression system. PMID:27123417

  13. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for 'Jefferson' hazelnut and identification of clones associated with eastern filbert blight resistance and pollen-stigma incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar R; Mehlenbacher, Shawn A

    2011-10-01

    European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is the only economically important nut crop in the family Betulaceae. Because of its small genome size (~385 Mb / 1C), relatively short life cycle, availability of a dense linkage map, and amenability to transformation by Agrobacterium, the European hazelnut could serve as a model plant for the Betulaceae. Here we report the construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for 'Jefferson' hazelnut using the cloning enzyme MboI and the vector pECBAC1 (BamHI site). The library consists of 39,936 clones arrayed in 104,384-well microtitre plates with a mean insert size of 117 kb. The genomic coverage of the library is estimated to be about 12 genome equivalents. This library provides a valuable resource for the map-based cloning of two important genes, the resistance gene from 'Gasaway' that confers resistance to eastern filbert blight caused by the fungus Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller and the S locus that controls pollen-stigma incompatibility. Fine-resolution mapping near the two loci was carried out using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Fine mapping at the disease resistance locus showed that markers W07-375 and X01-825 flanked the resistance locus at distances of 0.06 and 0.05 cM, respectively. The S locus is flanked by markers 204-950 and KG819-200 at distances of 0.14 and 0.24 cM, respectively. Assuming that 1 cM corresponds to a physical distance of 430 kb, it will take approximately two to three chromosome walks to assemble BAC contigs that span both loci. PMID:21936690

  14. Optimization of the PiggyBac Transposon System for the Sustained Genetic Modification of Human T-Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Y; Huye, LE; Dotti, G; Foster, AE; Vera, JF; Manuri, PR; June, CH; Rooney, CM; Wilson, MH

    2009-01-01

    Optimal implementation of adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer will likely require multiple and maintained genetic modifications of the infused T-cells and their progeny so that they home to and recognize tumor cells, overcome tumor immune evasion strategies and remain safe. Retroviral vectors readily transduce T-cells and integrate into the host cell genome, but have a limited capacity for multigene insertion and co-transduction and are prohibitively expensive to produce at clinical grade. Genetic modification of T-cells using transposons as integrating plasmids is an attractive alternative due to the increased simplicity and cost of production. Of available transposons, piggyBac has the higher transposase activity and larger cargo capacity, and we now evaluate piggyBac for potential adoptive therapies with primary T cells. PiggyBac transposons mediated stable gene expression in ~20% of primary T-cells without selection. Treatment and maintenance of T-cells with IL-15 increased stable transgene expression up to ~40% and expression was sustained through multiple logs of expansion for over 9 weeks in culture. We demonstrate simultaneous integration of two independent transposons in 20% of T-cells, a frequency that could be increased to over 85% by selection of a transgenic surface marker (truncated CD19). PiggyBac could also deliver of transposons of up to 13 kb with 10,000 fold expansion of transduced T-cells in culture and finally we demonstrate delivery of a functional suicide gene (iCasp9). PiggyBac transposons may thus be used to express the multiple integrated transgenes that will likely be necessary for the broader success of T-cell therapy. PMID:19752751

  15. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Fa-Ten

    1992-08-01

    During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

  16. Increased Body Weight of the BAC HD Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease Accounts for Some but Not All of the Observed HD-like Motor Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Kudwa, Andrea E.; Menalled, Liliana B.; Oakeshott, Stephen; Murphy, Carol; Mushlin, Richard; Fitzpatrick, John; Miller, Sam F.; McConnell, Kristi; Port, Russell; Torello, Justin; Howland, David; Ramboz, Sylvie; Brunner, Dani

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse model of Huntington’s Disease (BAC HD) contains the 170 kb human HTT locus modified by the addition of exon 1 with 97 mixed CAA-CAG repeats. BAC HD mice present robust behavioral deficits in both the open field and the accelerating rotarod tests, two standard behavioral assays of motor function. BAC HD mice, however, also typically present significantly increased body weights relative to wildtype littermate controls (WT) which potentially confounds the interpretation of any motor deficits associated directly with the effects of mutant huntingtin. In order to evaluate this possible confound of body weight, we directly compared the performance of BAC HD and WT female mice under food restricted versus free feeding conditions in both the open field and rotarod tasks to test the hypothesis that some of the motor deficits observed in this HTT-transgenic mouse line results solely from increased body weight. Our results suggest that the rotarod deficit exhibited by BAC HD mice is modulated by both body weight and non-body weight factors resulting from overexpression of full length mutant Htt. When body weights of WT and BAC HD transgenic mice were normalized using restricted feeding, the deficits exhibited by BAC HD mice on the rotarod task were less marked, but were still significant. Since the rotarod deficit between WT and BAC HD mice is attenuated when body weight is normalized by food restriction, utilization of this task in BAC HD mice during pre-clinical evaluation must be powered accordingly and results carefully considered as therapeutic benefit can result from decreased overall body weight and or motoric improvement that may not be related to body mass. Furthermore, after controlling for body weight differences, the hypoactive phenotype displayed by ad libitum fed BAC HD mice in the open field assay was not observed in the BAC HD mice undergoing food restriction. These findings suggest that assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity, as measured in the open field test, may not be the appropriate behavioral endpoint to evaluate the BAC HD mouse during preclinical evaluation since it appears that the apparent hypoactive phenotype in this model is driven primarily by body weight differences. PMID:24042107

  17. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.): Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries.

    PubMed

    Saski, Christopher A; Bhattacharjee, Ranjana; Scheffler, Brian E; Asiedu, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST)-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L.) genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310) was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using different approaches in generating genomic resources provides a non-biased glimpse into the publicly available EST-sequences, yam genome, and GBS profiles with affirmation that the genomic complexity can be methodically unraveled and constitute a critical foundation for future studies in linkage mapping, germplasm analysis, and predictive breeding. PMID:26222616

  18. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.): Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Saski, Christopher A.; Bhattacharjee, Ranjana; Scheffler, Brian E.; Asiedu, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST)-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L.) genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310) was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using different approaches in generating genomic resources provides a non-biased glimpse into the publicly available EST-sequences, yam genome, and GBS profiles with affirmation that the genomic complexity can be methodically unraveled and constitute a critical foundation for future studies in linkage mapping, germplasm analysis, and predictive breeding. PMID:26222616

  19. Narrowing down the apricot Plum pox virus resistance locus and comparative analysis with the peach genome syntenic region.

    PubMed

    Vera Ruiz, Elsa María; Soriano, José Miguel; Romero, Carlos; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Terol, Javier; Zuriaga, Elena; Llácer, Gerardo; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Badenes, María Luisa

    2011-08-01

    Sharka disease, caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV), is one of the main limiting factors for stone fruit crops worldwide. Only a few resistance sources have been found in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), and most studies have located a major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) on linkage group 1 (LG1). However, the mapping accuracy was not sufficiently reliable and PPVres was predicted within a low confidence interval. In this study, we have constructed two high-density simple sequence repeat (SSR) improved maps with 0.70 and 0.68 markers/cm, corresponding to LG1 of 'Lito' and 'Goldrich' PPV-resistant cultivars, respectively. Using these maps, and excluding genotype-phenotype incongruent individuals, a new binary trait locus (BTL) analysis for PPV resistance was performed, narrowing down the PPVres support intervals to 7.3 and 5.9 cm in 'Lito' and 'Goldrich', respectively. Subsequently, 71 overlapping oligonucleotides (overgo) probes were hybridized against an apricot bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, identifying 870 single BACs from which 340 were anchored onto a map region of approximately 30-40 cm encompassing PPVres. Partial BAC contigs assigned to the two allelic haplotypes (resistant/susceptible) of the PPVres locus were built by high-information content fingerprinting (HICF). In addition, a total of 300 BAC-derived sequences were obtained, and 257 showed significant homology with the peach genome scaffold_1 corresponding to LG1. According to the peach syntenic genome sequence, PPVres was predicted within a region of 2.16 Mb in which a few candidate resistance genes were identified. PMID:21722293

  20. Framework for a physical map of the human 22q13 region using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, H.; Kim, Ung-Jin; Slepak, T.

    1996-04-01

    Detailed physical maps of entire chromosomes based on combined genetic, cytogenetic, and structural information are essential components for positional cloning and genomic sequencing. Despite the wealth of genetic information of the known diseases in the chromosome 22q13 region, the construction of a detailed physical map of the terminal region is difficult due to the sparsity of the genetic markers. We present here a map of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs that cover a number of genetic loci in the 22q13 region. One hundred thirty-six BACs with an average insert size of 140 kb are assembled into 35 contigs defined by 64 markers in 22q13-qter. Twenty-three anonymous markers are now linked to the previously mapped genetic anchor points. 55 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum

    PubMed Central

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W. Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Neto, Adhemar Zerlotini; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A.; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes, which hampers sequencing of their genome by standard methods such as WGS. Large tracts of methylated repeats occur at plant genomes interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene enrichment strategies based on methylation profile offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration (MF) with McrBC digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions of sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of MF and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using MF and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The MF allowed the achievement of a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5 times more scaffolds and 1.7 times more assembled Mb compared to unfiltered scaffolds. The coverage of sorghum CDS by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134X the coverage of genic regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds covering all genes at sugarcane BACs, 97.2% of sugarcane ESTs, 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds encoding enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 SNPs in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes were also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop. PMID:24773339

  2. BacDive - The Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase in 2016.

    PubMed

    Söhngen, Carola; Podstawka, Adam; Bunk, Boyke; Gleim, Dorothea; Vetcininova, Anna; Reimer, Lorenz Christian; Ebeling, Christian; Pendarovski, Cezar; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    BacDive-the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (http://bacdive.dsmz.de) provides strain-linked information about bacterial and archaeal biodiversity. The range of data encompasses taxonomy, morphology, physiology, sampling and concomitant environmental conditions as well as molecular biology. The majority of data is manually annotated and curated. Currently (with release 9/2015), BacDive covers 53 978 strains. Newly implemented RESTful web services provide instant access to the content in machine-readable XML and JSON format. Besides an overall increase of data content, BacDive offers new data fields and features, e.g. the search for gene names, plasmids or 16S rRNA in the advanced search, as well as improved linkage of entries to external life science web resources. PMID:26424852

  3. A genomic-scale artificial microRNA library as a tool to investigate the functionally redundant gene space in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Felix; Chen, Wenxiao; Deinlein, Ulrich; Chang, Kenneth; Ossowski, Stephan; Fitz, Joffrey; Hannon, Gregory J; Schroeder, Julian I

    2013-08-01

    Traditional forward genetic screens are limited in the identification of homologous genes with overlapping functions. Here, we report the analyses and assembly of genome-wide protein family definitions that comprise the largest estimate for the potentially redundant gene space in Arabidopsis thaliana. On this basis, a computational design of genome-wide family-specific artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) was performed using high-performance computing resources. The amiRNA designs are searchable online (http://phantomdb.ucsd.edu). A computationally derived library of 22,000 amiRNAs was synthesized in 10 sublibraries of 1505 to 4082 amiRNAs, each targeting defined functional protein classes. For example, 2964 amiRNAs target annotated DNA and RNA binding protein families and 1777 target transporter proteins, and another sublibrary targets proteins of unknown function. To evaluate the potential of an amiRNA-based screen, we tested 122 amiRNAs targeting transcription factor, protein kinase, and protein phosphatase families. Several amiRNA lines showed morphological phenotypes, either comparable to known phenotypes of single and double/triple mutants or caused by overexpression of microRNAs. Moreover, novel morphological and abscisic acid-insensitive seed germination mutants were identified for amiRNAs targeting zinc finger homeodomain transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases, respectively. These resources provide an approach for genome-wide genetic screens of the functionally redundant gene space in Arabidopsis. PMID:23956262

  4. A Genomic-Scale Artificial MicroRNA Library as a Tool to Investigate the Functionally Redundant Gene Space in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Felix; Chen, Wenxiao; Deinlein, Ulrich; Chang, Kenneth; Ossowski, Stephan; Fitz, Joffrey; Hannon, Gregory J.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional forward genetic screens are limited in the identification of homologous genes with overlapping functions. Here, we report the analyses and assembly of genome-wide protein family definitions that comprise the largest estimate for the potentially redundant gene space in Arabidopsis thaliana. On this basis, a computational design of genome-wide family-specific artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) was performed using high-performance computing resources. The amiRNA designs are searchable online (http://phantomdb.ucsd.edu). A computationally derived library of 22,000 amiRNAs was synthesized in 10 sublibraries of 1505 to 4082 amiRNAs, each targeting defined functional protein classes. For example, 2964 amiRNAs target annotated DNA and RNA binding protein families and 1777 target transporter proteins, and another sublibrary targets proteins of unknown function. To evaluate the potential of an amiRNA-based screen, we tested 122 amiRNAs targeting transcription factor, protein kinase, and protein phosphatase families. Several amiRNA lines showed morphological phenotypes, either comparable to known phenotypes of single and double/triple mutants or caused by overexpression of microRNAs. Moreover, novel morphological and abscisic acid–insensitive seed germination mutants were identified for amiRNAs targeting zinc finger homeodomain transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases, respectively. These resources provide an approach for genome-wide genetic screens of the functionally redundant gene space in Arabidopsis. PMID:23956262

  5. BacHbpred: Support Vector Machine Methods for the Prediction of Bacterial Hemoglobin-Like Proteins.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, MuthuKrishnan; Puri, Munish; Dikshit, Kanak L; Lefevre, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The recent upsurge in microbial genome data has revealed that hemoglobin-like (HbL) proteins may be widely distributed among bacteria and that some organisms may carry more than one HbL encoding gene. However, the discovery of HbL proteins has been limited to a small number of bacteria only. This study describes the prediction of HbL proteins and their domain classification using a machine learning approach. Support vector machine (SVM) models were developed for predicting HbL proteins based upon amino acid composition (AC), dipeptide composition (DC), hybrid method (AC + DC), and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). In addition, we introduce for the first time a new prediction method based on max to min amino acid residue (MM) profiles. The average accuracy, standard deviation (SD), false positive rate (FPR), confusion matrix, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were analyzed. We also compared the performance of our proposed models in homology detection databases. The performance of the different approaches was estimated using fivefold cross-validation techniques. Prediction accuracy was further investigated through confusion matrix and ROC curve analysis. All experimental results indicate that the proposed BacHbpred can be a perspective predictor for determination of HbL related proteins. BacHbpred, a web tool, has been developed for HbL prediction. PMID:27034664

  6. BacHbpred: Support Vector Machine Methods for the Prediction of Bacterial Hemoglobin-Like Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, MuthuKrishnan; Puri, Munish; Dikshit, Kanak L.; Lefevre, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The recent upsurge in microbial genome data has revealed that hemoglobin-like (HbL) proteins may be widely distributed among bacteria and that some organisms may carry more than one HbL encoding gene. However, the discovery of HbL proteins has been limited to a small number of bacteria only. This study describes the prediction of HbL proteins and their domain classification using a machine learning approach. Support vector machine (SVM) models were developed for predicting HbL proteins based upon amino acid composition (AC), dipeptide composition (DC), hybrid method (AC + DC), and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). In addition, we introduce for the first time a new prediction method based on max to min amino acid residue (MM) profiles. The average accuracy, standard deviation (SD), false positive rate (FPR), confusion matrix, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were analyzed. We also compared the performance of our proposed models in homology detection databases. The performance of the different approaches was estimated using fivefold cross-validation techniques. Prediction accuracy was further investigated through confusion matrix and ROC curve analysis. All experimental results indicate that the proposed BacHbpred can be a perspective predictor for determination of HbL related proteins. BacHbpred, a web tool, has been developed for HbL prediction. PMID:27034664

  7. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment Past Issues / ... of Contents For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content (BAC) is used to define intoxication and ...

  8. Characterizing a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 for potential biological control application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Identify and characterize a bacterial strain from suppressive soil, BAC03, evaluate its antimicrobial activity against Streptomyces scabies and other microorganisms, and characterize an antimicrobial substance produced by this strain. Methods and Results: Bacterial strain BAC03 (isolated from ...

  9. Action and Timing of BacC and BacD in the Late Stages of Biosynthesis of the Dipeptide Antibiotic Bacilysin

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jared B.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin, encoded by the seven B. subtilis genes bacA-G, involves diversion of flux from prephenate to the noncognate amino acid anticapsin. The anticapsin warhead is then ligated to the C-terminus of l-alanine to produce mature bacilysin. We have previously noted the formation of two diastereomers of tetrahydrotyrosine (4S- and 4R-H4Tyr) by tandem action of the four purified enzymes BacABGF. BacC (oxidase) and BacD (ligase) have been hypothesized to be remaining late stage enzymes in bacilysin biosynthesis. Using a combination of BacCD in vitro studies, B. subtilis deletion mutants, and isotopic feeding studies, we were able to determine that the H4Tyr diastereomers are actually shunt products that are not on-pathway to bacilysin biosynthesis. Dihydroanticapsin and dihydrobacilysin accumulate in extracts of a ΔbacC strain and are processed to anticapsin and then bacilysin on addition of BacC and BacD, respectively. These results suggest the epoxide group in bacilysin is installed in an earlier step of bacilysin biosynthesis, while BacC oxidation of the C7-hydroxyl followed by BacD ligation of anticapsin to l-Ala are the penultimate and ultimate steps of bacilysin biosynthesis. PMID:23317005

  10. The Genome of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with high heterozygosity of the genome. The genome encodes about 23,300 genes, including many previously thought to be vertebrate innovations or known only outside the deuterostomes. This echinoderm genome provides an evolutionary outgroup for the chordates and yields insights into the evolution of deuterostomes. PMID:17095691

  11. Development and validation of a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri DNA microarray platform (XACarray) generated from the shotgun libraries previously used in the sequencing of this bacterial genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background From shotgun libraries used for the genomic sequencing of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (XAC), clones that were representative of the largest possible number of coding sequences (CDSs) were selected to create a DNA microarray platform on glass slides (XACarray). The creation of the XACarray allowed for the establishment of a tool that is capable of providing data for the analysis of global genome expression in this organism. Findings The inserts from the selected clones were amplified by PCR with the universal oligonucleotide primers M13R and M13F. The obtained products were purified and fixed in duplicate on glass slides specific for use in DNA microarrays. The number of spots on the microarray totaled 6,144 and included 768 positive controls and 624 negative controls per slide. Validation of the platform was performed through hybridization of total DNA probes from XAC labeled with different fluorophores, Cy3 and Cy5. In this validation assay, 86% of all PCR products fixed on the glass slides were confirmed to present a hybridization signal greater than twice the standard deviation of the deviation of the global median signal-to-noise ration. Conclusions Our validation of the XACArray platform using DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that it can be used to evaluate the expression of 2,365 individual CDSs from all major functional categories, which corresponds to 52.7% of the annotated CDSs of the XAC genome. As a proof of concept, we used this platform in a previously work to verify the absence of genomic regions that could not be detected by sequencing in related strains of Xanthomonas. PMID:20507617

  12. Characterization of genome-wide ordered sequence-tagged Mycobacterium mutant libraries by Cartesian Pooling-Coordinate Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Kristof; Festjens, Nele; Plets, Evelyn; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Saeys, Yvan; Callewaert, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Reverse genetics research approaches require the availability of methods to rapidly generate specific mutants. Alternatively, where these methods are lacking, the construction of pre-characterized libraries of mutants can be extremely valuable. However, this can be complex, expensive and time consuming. Here, we describe a robust, easy to implement parallel sequencing-based method (Cartesian Pooling-Coordinate Sequencing or CP-CSeq) that reports both on the identity as well as on the location of sequence-tagged biological entities in well-plate archived clone collections. We demonstrate this approach using a transposon insertion mutant library of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain, providing the largest resource of mutants in any strain of the M. tuberculosis complex. The method is applicable to any entity for which sequence-tagged identification is possible. PMID:25960123

  13. A nanobuffer reporter library for fine-scale imaging and perturbation of endocytic organelles | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Endosomes, lysosomes and related catabolic organelles are a dynamic continuum of vacuolar structures that impact a number of cell physiological processes such as protein/lipid metabolism, nutrient sensing and cell survival. Here we develop a library of ultra-pH-sensitive fluorescent nanoparticles with chemical properties that allow fine-scale, multiplexed, spatio-temporal perturbation and quantification of catabolic organelle maturation at single organelle resolution to support quantitative investigation of these processes in living cells.

  14. Genomic resources for water yam (Dioscorea alata L.): analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo sequencing and GBS libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources such as SSRs, SNPs and InDels in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) i...

  15. Sequencing and comparative genomics analysis in Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. Ex D. Don, based on full-length cDNA library

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Gang; Ping, Junjiao; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Delin

    2014-01-01

    Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, an important antibacterial source of Chinese traditional medicine, has a widespread distribution in a few ecological habitats of China. We generated a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) library from a sample of elite individuals with superior antibacterial properties, with satisfactory parameters such as library storage (4.30 × 106 CFU), efficiency of titre (1.30 × 106 CFU/mL), transformation efficiency (96.35%), full-length ratio (64.00%) and redundancy ratio (3.28%). The BLASTN search revealed the facile formation of counterparts between the experimental sample and Arabidopsis thaliana in view of high-homology cDNA sequence (90.79%) with e-values <1e – 50. Sequence similarities to known proteins indicate that the entire sequences of the full-length cDNA clones consist of the major of functional genes identified by a large set of microarray data from the present experimental material. For other Compositae species, a large set of full-length cDNA clones reported in the present article will serve as a useful resource to facilitate further research on the transferability of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) development, comparative genomics and novel transcript profiles. PMID:26740776

  16. A genomic-library based discovery of a novel, possibly synthetic, acid-tolerance mechanismin Clostridium acetobutylicum involving non-coding RNAs and ribosomal RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Borden, Jacob R.; Jones, Shawn W.; Indurthi, Dinesh; Chen, Yili; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios Terry

    2010-01-01

    We generated a genomic library from sheared Clostridium acetobutylicum 824 DNA, whereby inserts can be expressed in both directions from the thiolase promoter, Pthl. Serial transfer of library-bearing C. acetobutylicum cultures exposed to increasing butyrate concentrations enriched for inserts containing fragments of rRNA genetic loci. The selected library inserts were placed so that antisense (to the rRNAs) non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) would be transcribed from Pthl. Different enriched inserts imparted similar butyrate-tolerance characteristics. A minimal tolerance fragment (RDNA7) was identified as the 16S-rRNA promoter region. Expressed on plasmid pRD7 off Pthl, RDNA7 can produce putative ncRNAs termed ncRNARD7. C. acetobutylicum 824(pRD7) showed superior resistance to butyrate and other carboxylic acids. Transcriptional analysis of butyrate stress identified 120 differentially expressed genes between 824(pRD7) and 824(pSOS95del). The few upregulated genes included the ffh gene of the putative signal recognition particle (SRP) system. Northern analysis of ncRNARD7 and corresponding antisense RNAs demonstrated multiple ncRNARD7 molecules in 824(pRD7). Several corresponding antisense RNA molecules were identified both in 824(pRD7) and 824(pSOS95del), but at much higher levels in 824(pRD7). Northern analysis of 16S rRNA expression suggested complex RDNA7-dependent rRNA processing. Our data suggest that by hybridizing against unprocessed rRNA precursors, ncRNARD7 alters rRNA processing, and these alterations result in acid tolerance, possibly through a mechanism involving the Ffh protein. PMID:20060060

  17. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  18. Losing Libraries, Saving Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This summer, as public libraries continued to get budget hit after budget hit across the country, several readers asked for a comprehensive picture of the ravages of the recession on library service. In partnership with 2010 Movers & Shakers Laura Solomon and Mandy Knapp, Ohio librarians who bought the Losing Libraries domain name, "LJ" launched…

  19. PiggyBac transposon vectors: the tools of the human gene encoding

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang; Jiang, Enze; Chen, Shuangshuang; Gu, Yuan; Shangguan, Anna Junjie; Lv, Tangfeng

    2016-01-01

    A transposon is a DNA segment, which is able to change its relative position within the entire genome of a cell. The piggyBac (PB) transposon is a movable genetic element that efficiently transposes between vectors and chromosomes through a “cut-and-paste” mechanism. During transposition, the PB transposase recognizes transposon-specific inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) sequences located on both ends of the transposon vector and eight efficiently moves the contents from its original positions and efficiently integrates them into TTAA chromosomal sites. PB has drawn much attention because of its transposition efficiency, safety and stability. Due to its priorities, PB can be used as a new genetic vehicle, a new tool for oncogene screening and a new method for gene therapy. PB has created a new outlook for human gene encoding. PMID:26958506

  20. Efficient transposition of the piggyBac (PB) transposon in mammalian cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Sheng; Wu, Xiaohui; Li, Gang; Han, Min; Zhuang, Yuan; Xu, Tian

    2005-08-12

    Transposable elements have been routinely used for genetic manipulation in lower organisms, including generating transgenic animals and insertional mutagenesis. In contrast, the usage of transposons in mice and other vertebrate systems is still limited due to the lack of an efficient transposition system. We have tested the ability of piggyBac (PB), a DNA transposon from the cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni, to transpose in mammalian systems. We show that PB elements carrying multiple genes can efficiently transpose in human and mouse cell lines and also in mice. PB permits the expression of the marker genes it carried. During germline transposition, PB could excise precisely from original insertion sites and transpose into the mouse genome at diverse locations, preferably transcription units. These data provide a first and critical step toward a highly efficient transposon system for a variety of genetic manipulations including transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in mice and other vertebrates. PMID:16096065

  1. Construction and Characterization of a Repetitive DNA Library in Parodontidae (Actinopterygii: Characiformes): A Genomic and Evolutionary Approach to the Degeneration of the W Sex Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jordana Inácio Nascimento; Nogaroto, Viviane; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Repetitive DNA sequences, including tandem and dispersed repeats, comprise a large portion of eukaryotic genomes and are important for gene regulation, sex chromosome differentiation, and karyotype evolution. In Parodontidae, only the repetitive DNAs WAp and pPh2004 and rDNAs were previously studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This study aimed to build a library of repetitive DNA in Parodontidae. We isolated 40 clones using Cot-1; 17 of these clones exhibited similarity to repetitive DNA sequences, including satellites, minisatellites, microsatellites, and class I and class II transposable elements (TEs), from Danio rerio and other organisms. The physical mapping of the clones to chromosomes revealed the presence of a satellite DNA, a Helitron element, and degenerate short interspersed element (SINE), long interspersed element (LINE), and tc1-mariner elements on the sex chromosomes. Some clones exhibited dispersed signals; other sequences were not detected. The 5S rDNA was detected on an autosomal pair. These elements likely function in the molecular degeneration of the W chromosome in Parodontidae. Thus, the location of these elements on the chromosomes is important for understanding the function of these repetitive DNAs and for integrative studies with genome sequencing. The presented data demonstrate that an intensive invasion of TEs occurred during W sex chromosome differentiation in the Parodontidae. PMID:25122415

  2. Construction and characterization of a repetitive DNA library in Parodontidae (Atinopterygii:Characiformes): a genomic and evolutionary approach to the degeneration of the w sex cromosome.

    PubMed

    Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Oliveira, Jordana Inácio Nascimento; Nogaroto, Viviane; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences, including tandem and dispersed repeats, comprise a large portion of eukaryotic genomes and are important for gene regulation, sex chromosome differentiation, and karyotype evolution. In Parodontidae, only the repetitive DNAs WAp and pPh2004 and rDNAs were previously studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This study aimed to build a library of repetitive DNA in Parodontidae. We isolated 40 clones using Cot-1; 17 of these clones exhibited similarity to repetitive DNA sequences, including satellites, minisatellites, microsatellites, and class I and class II transposable elements (TEs), from Danio rerio and other organisms. The physical mapping of the clones to chromosomes revealed the presence of a satellite DNA, a Helitron element, and degenerate short interspersed element (SINE), long interspersed element (LINE), and tc1-mariner elements on the sex chromosomes. Some clones exhibited dispersed signals; other sequences were not detected. The 5S rDNA was detected on an autosomal pair. These elements likely function in the molecular degeneration of the W chromosome in Parodontidae. Thus, the location of these elements on the chromosomes is important for understanding the function of these repetitive DNAs and for integrative studies with genome sequencing. The presented data demonstrate that an intensive invasion of TEs occurred during W sex chromosome differentiation in the Parodontidae. PMID:25122415

  3. A whole-genome, radiation hybrid map of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generating a reference sequence of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a challenging task because of its large, highly repetitive and allopolyploid genome. Ordering of BAC- and NGS-based contigs in ongoing wheat genome-sequencing projects primarily uses recombination and comparative genomics-base...

  4. Elucidation of the Photorhabdus temperata Genome and Generation of a Transposon Mutant Library To Identify Motility Mutants Altered in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Sheldon; Rowedder, Holli; Michaels, Brandye; Bullock, Hannah; Jackobeck, Ryan; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Durakovic, Umjia; Gately, Jon; Janicki, Erik

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora forms a specific mutualistic association with its bacterial partner Photorhabdus temperata. The microbial symbiont is required for nematode growth and development, and symbiont recognition is strain specific. The aim of this study was to sequence the genome of P. temperata and identify genes that plays a role in the pathogenesis of the Photorhabdus-Heterorhabditis symbiosis. A draft genome sequence of P. temperata strain NC19 was generated. The 5.2-Mb genome was organized into 17 scaffolds and contained 4,808 coding sequences (CDS). A genetic approach was also pursued to identify mutants with altered motility. A bank of 10,000 P. temperata transposon mutants was generated and screened for altered motility patterns. Five classes of motility mutants were identified: (i) nonmotile mutants, (ii) mutants with defective or aberrant swimming motility, (iii) mutant swimmers that do not require NaCl or KCl, (iv) hyperswimmer mutants that swim at an accelerated rate, and (v) hyperswarmer mutants that are able to swarm on the surface of 1.25% agar. The transposon insertion sites for these mutants were identified and used to investigate other physiological properties, including insect pathogenesis. The motility-defective mutant P13-7 had an insertion in the RNase II gene and showed reduced virulence and production of extracellular factors. Genetic complementation of this mutant restored wild-type activity. These results demonstrate a role for RNA turnover in insect pathogenesis and other physiological functions. IMPORTANCE The relationship between Photorhabdus and entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis represents a well-known mutualistic system that has potential as a biological control agent. The elucidation of the genome of the bacterial partner and role that RNase II plays in its life cycle has provided a greater understanding of Photorhabdus as both an insect pathogen and a nematode symbiont. PMID:25917908

  5. Genomic Instability of the Sex-Determining Locus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Lubieniecki, Krzysztof P.; Lin, Song; Cabana, Emily I.; Li, Jieying; Lai, Yvonne Y. Y.; Davidson, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, like other members of the subfamily Salmoninae, are gonochoristic with male heterogamety. The finding that sex-linked genetic markers varied between species suggested that the sex-determining gene differs among salmonid species, or that there is one sex-determining gene that has the capacity to move around the genome. The discovery of sdY, the sex-determining gene in rainbow trout, and its presence in many male salmonids gave support to the latter. Additional evidence for a salmonid-specific, sex-determining jumping gene came from the mapping of the sex-determining locus to three different chromosomes in Tasmanian male Atlantic salmon lineages. To characterize the sex-determining region, we isolated three sdY containing BACs from an Atlantic salmon male library. Sequencing of these BACs yielded two contigs, one of which contained the sdY gene. Sequence analysis of the borders of male-specific and female/male common regions revealed highly repetitive sequences associated with mobile elements, which may allow an sdY cassette to jump around the genome. FISH analysis using a BAC or a plasmid containing the sdY gene showed that the sdY gene did indeed localize to the chromosomes where SEX had been mapped in different Tasmanian Atlantic salmon families. Moreover, the plasmid sdY gene probe hybridized primarily to one of the sex chromosomes as would be expected of a male-specific gene. Our results suggest that a common salmonid sex-determining gene (sdY) can move between three specific loci on chromosomes 2, 3, and 6, giving the impression that there are multiple SEX loci both within and between salmonid species. PMID:26401030

  6. bac genes for recombinant bacilysin and anticapsin production in Bacillus host strains.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, Gerhard; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Hofemeister, Jürgen

    2005-02-01

    The genes encoding the biosynthesis of the dipeptide bacilysin and its antibiotic constituent anticapsin were isolated from several strains of Bacillus subtilis as well as B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus. The ywfBCDEF genes of B. subtilis 168 were shown to carry the biosynthetic core functions and were renamed bacABCDE. Mutation of the bacD gene or transformation of the bacABC genes into a B. subtilis Delta (ywfA-bacABCDE) deletion mutant led to the accumulation of anticapsin, which was fourfold higher after transformation of the bacABC genes into a bacD mutant. The genes bacD and bacE proved to encode the functions of amino acid ligation and self-protection to bacilysin, respectively. Amplification of the bacABCDE gene cluster in a bacAB gene-deficient host strain of B. amyloliquefaciens resulted in a tenfold bacilysin overproduction. Some host strains required distinct glucosamine and yeast extract supplements in order to prevent suicidal effects of the recombinant antibiotic production. The bac genes from different Bacillus species revealed the same arrangement and 72.6-88.6% of sequence identity. PMID:15609023

  7. Effects of enhanced sanctions for high-BAC DWI offenders on case dispositions and rates of recidivism.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Northrup, Veronika Shabanova

    2004-09-01

    Implemented January 1, 1998, Minnesota's high-BAC law mandates more severe administrative pre-conviction penalties and more severe post-conviction penalties for offenses with BACs > or = 0.20%. Most notably, the law provides for the administrative impoundment of the license plate of first-time DWI offenders with BACs > or = 0.20. During the three years after the law took effect, a large majority of first-time and repeat offenders with BACs > or = 0.20% did, in fact, receive high-BAC administrative dispositions and/or high-BAC court convictions, which carried more severe penalties. For example, in 1998 85.6% of first offenders with BACs > or = 0.20% received a high-BAC administrative disposition and/or a high-BAC court conviction; 65.0% received both high-BAC administrative and high-BAC court dispositions. The proportion of high-BAC first-time offenders who received the statutory high-BAC dispositions declined from 1998 to 1999 and 2000. Based on survival analysis, the one-year recidivism rate among first offenders arrested in 1998 with BACs > or = 0.20% was significantly lower than for offenders with BACs 0.17-0.19% (who also had relatively high BACs but were not subject to enhanced sanctions), after controlling for age and gender. There were similar, but not significant, results for first offenders arrested in 1999. PMID:15276928

  8. PiggyBac as a novel vector in cancer gene therapy: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H; Sahebkar, A; Jaafari, M R; Hadjati, J; Javanmard, S H; Mirzaei, H R; Salehi, R

    2016-02-01

    Selection of suitable delivery system is one of the crucial aspects in gene therapy that determines the efficiency of gene therapy. The past two decades have witnessed extensive efforts for finding safe and efficient vectors to overcome the limitations of viral vectors. The utilization of DNA transposon-based vectors for gene therapy has emerged as a promising non-viral alternative. DNA 'cut-and-paste' is one of the main mechanisms of genome engineering by transposon elements. However, the lack of an efficient transposition system has limited the utilization of transposon vectors in mice and mammalian systems. PiggyBac (PB) is known as a highly efficient DNA transposon originally isolated from Trichoplusia ni as an alternative to Sleeping Beauty (SB). It has been shown that PB can be functional in various species including mammalian systems. This vector could overcome some limitations of other vectors in cancer gene therapy. Some advantages of PB include the capacity for integration into the genome and providing a stable expression, capacity to harbor 10 and 9.1 kb of foreign DNA into the host genome, without a significant reduction in their transposition activity and display non-overlapping targeting preferences. However, to advance PB to clinical applications, some obstacles still require to be overcome to improve its safety and efficiency. Hence, it seems that this vector could open new horizons in gene and cancer therapy. PMID:26742580

  9. Genome Improvement at JGI-HAGSC

    SciTech Connect

    Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy J.; Myers, Richard M.

    2012-03-03

    Since the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has rapidly expanded its scientific goals in several DOE mission-relevant areas. At the JGI-HAGSC, we have kept pace with this rapid expansion of projects with our focus on assessing, assembling, improving and finishing eukaryotic whole genome shotgun (WGS) projects for which the shotgun sequence is generated at the Production Genomic Facility (JGI-PGF). We follow this by combining the draft WGS with genomic resources generated at JGI-HAGSC or in collaborator laboratories (including BAC end sequences, genetic maps and FLcDNA sequences) to produce an improved draft sequence. For eukaryotic genomes important to the DOE mission, we then add further information from directed experiments to produce reference genomic sequences that are publicly available for any scientific researcher. Also, we have continued our program for producing BAC-based finished sequence, both for adding information to JGI genome projects and for small BAC-based sequencing projects proposed through any of the JGI sequencing programs. We have now built our computational expertise in WGS assembly and analysis and have moved eukaryotic genome assembly from the JGI-PGF to JGI-HAGSC. We have concentrated our assembly development work on large plant genomes and complex fungal and algal genomes.

  10. High efficiency application of a mate-paired library from next-generation sequencing to postlight sequencing: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis as a case study for microbial de novo genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Barbosa, Silvanira; Varuzza, Leonardo; Orabona, Guilherme; Tauch, Andreas; Azevedo, Vasco; Schneider, Maria Paula; Silva, Artur

    2013-12-01

    With the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms, there has been a reduction in the cost and time of sequencing. With these advantages, new challenges have emerged, such as the handling of large amounts of data, quality assessment, and the assembly of short reads. Currently, benchtop high-throughput sequencers enable the genomes of prokaryotic organisms to be sequenced within two hours with a reduction in coverage compared with the SOLiD, Illumina and 454 FLX Titanium platforms, making it necessary to evaluate the efficiency of less expensive benchtop instruments for prokaryotic genomics. In the present work, we evaluate and propose a methodology for the use of the Ion Torrent PGM platform for decoding the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, for which 15 complete genome sequences have already been deposited based on fragment and mate-paired libraries with a 3-kb insert size. Despite the low coverage, a single sequencing run using a mate-paired library generated 39 scaffolds after de novo assembly without data curation. This result is superior to that obtained by sequencing using libraries generated from fragments marketed by the equipment's manufacturer, as well as that observed for mate-pairs sequenced by SOLiD. The generated sequence added an extra 91kb to the genome available at NCBI. PMID:23792707

  11. The BepiColombo Archive Core System (BACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Osuna, P.; Pérez-López, F.; Vallejo, J. C.; Martinez, S.; Arviset, C.; Casale, M.

    2015-09-01

    BepiColombo is an interdisciplinary ESA mission to explore the planet Mercury in cooperation with JAXA. The mission consists of two separate orbiters: ESA's Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and JAXA's Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), which are dedicated to the detailed study of the planet and its magnetosphere. The MPO scientific payload comprises 11 instruments covering different scientific disciplines developed by several European teams. The MPO science operations will be prepared by the MPO Science Ground Segment (SGS) located at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) in Madrid. The BepiColombo Archive Core System (BACS) will be the central archive in which all mission operational data will be stored and is being developed by the Science Archives and Virtual Observatory Team (SAT) also at ESAC. The BACS will act as one of the modular subsystems within the BepiColombo Science Operations Control System (BSCS), (Vallejo 2014; Pérez-López 2014) which is under the responsibility of the SGS, with the purpose of facilitating the information exchange of data and metadata between the other subsystems of the BSCS as well as with the MPO Instrument Teams. This paper gives an overview of the concept and design of the BACS and how it integrates into the science ground segment workflow.

  12. Progress in the characterization of a human genomic YAC library selected on the basis of homology to T{sub 2}AG{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Vocero-Akbani, A.; Sanjurjo, H.; Fair, K.

    1994-09-01

    Using a combination of physical and genetic mapping methods we have characterized more than 190 YAC clones originally isolated on the basis of hybridization to the human telomere regions by FISH (using Alu-PCR products or YAC subclones individually or pooled as probes). Thirty-seven of the YACs mapped to single telomeres while 16 mapped to more than one telomere, or to interstitial regions, including centromeres. Subclone libraries were constructed for a subset of YACs, genetic markers developed, and the loci incorporated into genetic maps for chromosomes 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14 and 20. Altogether 28 different telomeres are now defined by chromosomally mapped STSs which were derived from YACs that were FISH mapped to the termini of 1p, 2p{sup *}, 2q{sup +}, 3p, 3q, 4q, 5q, 6q{sup *}, 7p, 7q{sup *+}, 8p{sup +}, 9q, 10p{sup *}, 10q, 11q, 12p{sup *}, 13q{sup *+}, 14q{sup *+}, 16p, 16q, 17p, 17q, 18p, 18q, 20p, 21q, and 22q ({sup *} microsatellite marker, {sup +}RFLP). Development of microsatellite genetic markers for the five additional telomeres is currently in progress [7p (50 b), 10q (275 kb). 17p (100 kb), 17q (175 kb), and 18p (225 kb)]. For YACs that have been localized to telomeres by FISH and to chromosomes by STS mapping to a rodent/human somatic cell hybrid chromosome panel, five genome equivalent bacteriophage lamda subclone libraries have been constructed and screened for the presence of human DNA and CA{sub n} dinucleotide repeats by plaque filter hybridization. A number of CA positive clones have been sequenced revealing simple repeats of 12 or more CAs per clone. STS development and testing for polymorphism using the CEPH pedigree resource is in progress.

  13. Library Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Patricia; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes nine articles that discuss cooperative library networking in Illinois. Highlights include library systems as cooperative agencies; PALI (Private Academic Libraries of Illinois); rural school and public library development; systemwide users; regional medical libraries; virtual libraries and the Coalition for Networked Information; a…

  14. Inducible Transgene Expression in Human iPS Cells Using Versatile All-in-One piggyBac Transposons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Il; Oceguera-Yanez, Fabian; Sakurai, Chiho; Nakagawa, Masato; Yamanaka, Shinya; Woltjen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Transgenics is a mainstay of functional genomics. Conditionally overexpressing genes of interest (GOIs) helps to reveal their roles in the control of complex biological processes. Complemented by findings in classic animal model systems, recent advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) differentiation have led to sophisticated in vitro models of human development and disease. Yet, as transgenic elements encoding inducible systems must be introduced de novo into each genetically unique human stem cell line, robust and straightforward solutions to gene delivery are required. Transposons are a family of mobile DNA elements that have been adapted as experimental tools for stable genomic integration of transgenes. The piggyBac (PB) transposon from Trichoplusia ni presents a number of benefits over classic viral or BAC transgenesis: ease of application, simple integration-site mapping, and the unique capacity for traceless excision. Moreover, their large capacity permits the consolidation of multiple transgene components in a single vector system. In this chapter, we outline the features of a panel of "All-in-One" PB transposons designed for drug-inducible gene expression and provide guidelines to establish and validate populations or clones of transgenic hiPSCs. PMID:26025620

  15. Comparative BAC end sequence analysis of tomato and potato reveals overrepresentation of specific gene families in potato

    PubMed Central

    Datema, Erwin; Mueller, Lukas A; Buels, Robert; Giovannoni, James J; Visser, Richard GF; Stiekema, Willem J; van Ham, Roeland CHJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) and potato (S. tuberosum) are two economically important crop species, the genomes of which are currently being sequenced. This study presents a first genome-wide analysis of these two species, based on two large collections of BAC end sequences representing approximately 19% of the tomato genome and 10% of the potato genome. Results The tomato genome has a higher repeat content than the potato genome, primarily due to a higher number of retrotransposon insertions in the tomato genome. On the other hand, simple sequence repeats are more abundant in potato than in tomato. The two genomes also differ in the frequency distribution of SSR motifs. Based on EST and protein alignments, potato appears to contain up to 6,400 more putative coding regions than tomato. Major gene families such as cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases and serine-threonine protein kinases are significantly overrepresented in potato, compared to tomato. Moreover, the P450 superfamily appears to have expanded spectacularly in both species compared to Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting an expanded network of secondary metabolic pathways in the Solanaceae. Both tomato and potato appear to have a low level of microsynteny with A. thaliana. A higher degree of synteny was observed with Populus trichocarpa, specifically in the region between 15.2 and 19.4 Mb on P. trichocarpa chromosome 10. Conclusion The findings in this paper present a first glimpse into the evolution of Solanaceous genomes, both within the family and relative to other plant species. When the complete genome sequences of these species become available, whole-genome comparisons and protein- or repeat-family specific studies may shed more light on the observations made here. PMID:18405374

  16. An Abundant Evolutionarily Conserved CSB-PiggyBac Fusion Protein Expressed in Cockayne Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John C.; Bailey, Arnold D.; Fan, Hua-Ying; Pavelitz, Thomas; Weiner, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a devastating progeria most often caused by mutations in the CSB gene encoding a SWI/SNF family chromatin remodeling protein. Although all CSB mutations that cause CS are recessive, the complete absence of CSB protein does not cause CS. In addition, most CSB mutations are located beyond exon 5 and are thought to generate only C-terminally truncated protein fragments. We now show that a domesticated PiggyBac-like transposon PGBD3, residing within intron 5 of the CSB gene, functions as an alternative 3′ terminal exon. The alternatively spliced mRNA encodes a novel chimeric protein in which CSB exons 1–5 are joined in frame to the PiggyBac transposase. The resulting CSB-transposase fusion protein is as abundant as CSB protein itself in a variety of human cell lines, and continues to be expressed by primary CS cells in which functional CSB is lost due to mutations beyond exon 5. The CSB-transposase fusion protein has been highly conserved for at least 43 Myr since the divergence of humans and marmoset, and appears to be subject to selective pressure. The human genome contains over 600 nonautonomous PGBD3-related MER85 elements that were dispersed when the PGBD3 transposase was last active at least 37 Mya. Many of these MER85 elements are associated with genes which are involved in neuronal development, and are known to be regulated by CSB. We speculate that the CSB-transposase fusion protein has been conserved for host antitransposon defense, or to modulate gene regulation by MER85 elements, but may cause CS in the absence of functional CSB protein. PMID:18369450

  17. The repetitive component of the A genome of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its role in remodelling intergenic sequence space since its evolutionary divergence from the B genome

    PubMed Central

    Bertioli, David J.; Vidigal, Bruna; Nielen, Stephan; Ratnaparkhe, Milind B.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Kim, Changsoo; Guimarães, Patricia M.; Seijo, Guillermo; Schwarzacher, Trude; Paterson, Andrew H.; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Araujo, Ana C. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid (AABB-type genome) of recent origin, with a genome of about 2·8 Gb and a high repetitive content. This study reports an analysis of the repetitive component of the peanut A genome using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from A. duranensis, the most probable A genome donor, and the probable consequences of the activity of these elements since the divergence of the peanut A and B genomes. Methods The repetitive content of the A genome was analysed by using A. duranensis BAC clones as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH), and by sequencing and characterization of 12 genomic regions. For the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics, two A genome regions are compared with their B genome homeologues. Key Results BAC-FISH using 27 A. duranensis BAC clones as probes gave dispersed and repetitive DNA characteristic signals, predominantly in interstitial regions of the peanut A chromosomes. The sequences of 14 BAC clones showed complete and truncated copies of ten abundant long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, characterized here. Almost all dateable transposition events occurred <3·5 million years ago, the estimated date of the divergence of A and B genomes. The most abundant retrotransposon is Feral, apparently parasitic on the retrotransposon FIDEL, followed by Pipa, also non-autonomous and probably parasitic on a retrotransposon we named Pipoka. The comparison of the A and B genome homeologous regions showed conserved segments of high sequence identity, punctuated by predominantly indel regions without significant similarity. Conclusions A substantial proportion of the highly repetitive component of the peanut A genome appears to be accounted for by relatively few LTR retrotransposons and their truncated copies or solo LTRs. The most abundant of the retrotransposons are non-autonomous. The activity of these retrotransposons has been a very significant driver of genome evolution since the evolutionary divergence of the A and B genomes. PMID:23828319

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a newly isolated pyrethroid-degrading esterase gene from a genomic library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhiyong; Zhai, Yi; Song, Jinlong; Shi, Yanhua; Li, Kang; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Yanchun

    2013-01-01

    A novel pyrethroid-degrading esterase gene pytY was isolated from the genomic library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1. It possesses an open reading frame (ORF) of 897 bp. Blast search showed that its deduced amino acid sequence shares moderate identities (30% to 46%) with most homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PytY is a member of the esterase VI family. pytY showed very low sequence similarity compared with reported pyrethroid-degrading genes. PytY was expressed, purified, and characterized. Enzyme assay revealed that PytY is a broad-spectrum degrading enzyme that can degrade various pyrethroids. It is a new pyrethroid-degrading gene and enriches genetic resource. Kinetic constants of Km and Vmax were 2.34 mmol·L(-1) and 56.33 nmol min(-1), respectively, with lambda-cyhalothrin as substrate. PytY displayed good degrading ability and stability over a broad range of temperature and pH. The optimal temperature and pH were of 35°C and 7.5. No cofactors were required for enzyme activity. The results highlighted the potential use of PytY in the elimination of pyrethroid residuals from contaminated environments. PMID:24155944

  19. Highly recombinogenic regions at seed storage protein loci on chromosome 1DS of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Spielmeyer, W; Moullet, O; Laroche, A; Lagudah, E S

    2000-01-01

    A detailed RFLP map was constructed of the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 1D of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid D-genome donor species of hexaploid wheat. Ae. tauschii was used to overcome some of the limitations commonly associated with molecular studies of wheat such as low levels of DNA polymorphism. Detection of multiple loci by most RFLP probes suggests that gene duplication events have occurred throughout this chromosomal region. Large DNA fragments isolated from a BAC library of Ae. tauschii were used to determine the relationship between physical and genetic distance at seed storage protein loci located at the distal end of chromosome 1DS. Highly recombinogenic regions were identified where the ratio of physical to genetic distance was estimated to be <20 kb/cM. These results are discussed in relation to the genome-wide estimate of the relationship between physical and genetic distance. PMID:10790409

  20. Chromosomal transposition of PiggyBac in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Chengyi; Lu, Dong; Ning, Zeming; Cox, Tony; Melvin, David; Wang, Xiaozhong; Bradley, Allan; Liu, Pentao

    2008-01-01

    Transposon systems are widely used for generating mutations in various model organisms. PiggyBac (PB) has recently been shown to transpose efficiently in the mouse germ line and other mammalian cell lines. To facilitate PB's application in mammalian genetics, we characterized the properties of the PB transposon in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We first measured the transposition efficiencies of PB transposon in mouse embryonic stem cells. We next constructed a PB/SB hybrid transposon to compare PB and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems and demonstrated that PB transposition was inhibited by DNA methylation. The excision and reintegration rates of a single PB from two independent genomic loci were measured and its ability to mutate genes with gene trap cassettes was tested. We examined PB's integration site distribution in the mouse genome and found that PB transposition exhibited local hopping. The comprehensive information from this study should facilitate further exploration of the potential of PB and SB DNA transposons in mammalian genetics. PMID:18579772

  1. The piggyBac Transposon as a Platform Technology for Somatic Cell Reprogramming Studies in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Woltjen, Knut; Kim, Shin-Il; Nagy, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Somatic cell reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a revolutionary technology, with repercussions affecting modern functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Still, relatively little is known about the processes underlying this dramatic cellular and molecular metamorphosis. Reprogramming technology based on the implementation of piggyBac (PB) transposons has enabled studies of iPSC reprogramming mechanisms, shedding an increasing light on these processes. Unique characteristics of PB transposons such as efficient genomic integration, unlimited cargo capacity, robust gene expression, and even seamless excision highlight the importance of this transgenic tool in advancing stem cell biology. In this chapter, we provide a detailed overview of versatile primary iPSC generation from mouse somatic cells using PB transposons, and the subsequent establishment of robust secondary reprogramming systems. These protocols are highlighted with examples from recent studies as to how PB has been, and continues to be, conducive to the dissection of reprogramming processes at the cellular and molecular levels. PMID:26126450

  2. A Domesticated PiggyBac Transposase Interacts with Heterochromatin and Catalyzes Reproducible DNA Elimination in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Alexander; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2013-01-01

    The somatic genome of the ciliated protist Tetrahymena undergoes DNA elimination of defined sequences called internal eliminated sequences (IESs), which account for ?30% of the germline genome. During DNA elimination, IES regions are heterochromatinized and assembled into heterochromatin bodies in the developing somatic nucleus. The domesticated piggyBac transposase Tpb2p is essential for the formation of heterochromatin bodies and DNA elimination. In this study, we demonstrate that the activities of Tpb2p involved in forming heterochromatin bodies and executing DNA elimination are genetically separable. The cysteine-rich domain of Tpb2p, which interacts with the heterochromatin-specific histone modifications, is necessary for both heterochromatin body formation and DNA elimination, whereas the endonuclease activity of Tpb2p is only necessary for DNA elimination. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the endonuclease activity of Tpb2p in vitro and the endonuclease activity that executes DNA elimination in vivo have similar substrate sequence preferences. These results strongly indicate that Tpb2p is the endonuclease that directly catalyzes the excision of IESs and that the boundaries of IESs are at least partially determined by the combination of Tpb2p-heterochromatin interaction and relaxed sequence preference of the endonuclease activity of Tpb2p. PMID:24348275

  3. [Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22 using Pace electrophoresis and large fragment cloning]. Annual report, October 1, 1991--July 1, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.I.

    1994-12-31

    In the past two years, the authors have made a great deal of progress in establishing Fosmid and BAC libraries and in using large BAC libraries for gene mapping. In addition, they initiated work on the application of BAC clones to long range genome sequencing. They continue to increase the ability to rapidly generate large BAC libraries and to efficiently apply these libraries to genome mapping. The BACs provide a very effective means of developing physical maps. The current work suggests that BAC contigs will be extremely useful as source material for genome sequencing.

  4. Suicidal Autointegration of Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac Transposons in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Anatharam; Singh, Manvendra; Jimenez Orgaz, Ana; Chen, Jia-Xuan; Selbach, Matthias; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Transposons are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes across the tree of life. ‘Cut and paste’ DNA transposition involves excision from a donor locus and reintegration into a new locus in the genome. We studied molecular events following the excision steps of two eukaryotic DNA transposons, Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) that are widely used for genome manipulation in vertebrate species. SB originates from fish and PB from insects; thus, by introducing these transposons to human cells we aimed to monitor the process of establishing a transposon-host relationship in a naïve cellular environment. Similarly to retroviruses, neither SB nor PB is capable of self-avoidance because a significant portion of the excised transposons integrated back into its own genome in a suicidal process called autointegration. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BANF1), a cellular co-factor of certain retroviruses, inhibited transposon autointegration, and was detected in higher-order protein complexes containing the SB transposase. Increasing size sensitized transposition for autointegration, consistent with elevated vulnerability of larger transposons. Both SB and PB were affected similarly by the size of the transposon in three different assays: excision, autointegration and productive transposition. Prior to reintegration, SB is completely separated from the donor molecule and followed an unbiased autointegration pattern, not associated with local hopping. Self-disruptive autointegration occurred at similar frequency for both transposons, while aberrant, pseudo-transposition events were more frequently observed for PB. PMID:24625543

  5. Efficient conditional knockout targeting vector construction using co-selection BAC recombineering (CoSBR)

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Robert J.; Roose-Girma, Merone; Warming, Sren

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient strategy for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) recombineering based on co-selection is described. We show that it is possible to efficiently modify two positions of a BAC simultaneously by co-transformation of a single-stranded DNA oligo and a double-stranded selection cassette. The use of co-selection BAC recombineering reduces the DNA manipulation needed to make a conditional knockout gene targeting vector to only two steps: a single round of BAC modification followed by a retrieval step. PMID:26089387

  6. Radiation hybrid maps of D-genome of Aegilops tauschii and their application in sequence assembly of large and complex plant genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The large and complex genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., ~17 Gb) requires high-resolution genome maps saturated with ordered markers to assist in anchoring and orienting BAC contigs/ sequence scaffolds for whole genome sequence assembly. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping has proven to be an e...

  7. The value of avian genomics to the conservation of wildlife

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Genomic studies in non-domestic avian models, such as the California condor and white-throated sparrow, can lead to more comprehensive conservation plans and provide clues for understanding mechanisms affecting genetic variation, adaptation and evolution. Developing genomic tools and resources including genomic libraries and a genetic map of the California condor is a prerequisite for identification of candidate loci for a heritable embryonic lethal condition. The white-throated sparrow exhibits a stable genetic polymorphism (i.e. chromosomal rearrangements) associated with variation in morphology, physiology, and behavior (e.g., aggression, social behavior, sexual behavior, parental care). In this paper we outline the utility of these species as well as report on recent advances in the study of their genomes. Results Genotyping of the condor resource population at 17 microsatellite loci provided a better assessment of the current population's genetic variation. Specific New World vulture repeats were found in the condor genome. Using condor BAC library and clones, chicken-condor comparative maps were generated. A condor fibroblast cell line transcriptome was characterized using the 454 sequencing technology. Our karyotypic analyses of the sparrow in combination with other studies indicate that the rearrangements in both chromosomes 2m and 3a are complex and likely involve multiple inversions, interchromosomal linkage, and pleiotropy. At least a portion of the rearrangement in chromosome 2m existed in the common ancestor of the four North American species of Zonotrichia, but not in the one South American species, and that the 2m form, originally thought to be the derived condition, might actually be the ancestral one. Conclusion Mining and characterization of candidate loci in the California condor using molecular genetic and genomic techniques as well as linkage and comparative genomic mapping will eventually enable the identification of carriers of the chondrodystrophy allele, resulting in improved genetic management of this disease. In the white-throated sparrow, genomic studies, combined with ecological data, will help elucidate the basis of genic selection in a natural population. Morphs of the sparrow provide us with a unique opportunity to study intraspecific genomic differences, which have resulted from two separate yet linked evolutionary trajectories. Such results can transform our understanding of evolutionary and conservation biology. PMID:19607652

  8. PBmice: an integrated database system of piggyBac (PB) insertional mutations and their characterizations in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ling V.; Jin, Ke; Liu, Yiming; Yang, Wenwei; Xie, Xing; Ye, Lin; Wang, Li; Zhu, Lin; Ding, Sheng; Su, Yi; Zhou, Jie; Han, Min; Zhuang, Yuan; Xu, Tian; Wu, Xiaohui; Gu, Ning; Zhong, Yang

    2008-01-01

    DNA transposon piggyBac (PB) is a newly established mutagen for large-scale mutagenesis in mice. We have designed and implemented an integrated database system called PBmice (PB Mutagenesis Information CEnter) for storing, retrieving and displaying the information derived from PB insertions (INSERTs) in the mouse genome. This system is centered on INSERTs with information including their genomic locations and flanking genomic sequences, the expression levels of the hit genes, and the expression patterns of the trapped genes if a trapping vector was used. It also archives mouse phenotyping data linked to INSERTs, and allows users to conduct quick and advanced searches for genotypic and phenotypic information relevant to a particular or a set of INSERT(s). Sequence-based information can be cross-referenced with other genomic databases such as Ensembl, BLAST and GBrowse tools used in PBmice offer enhanced search and display for additional information relevant to INSERTs. The total number and genomic distribution of PB INSERTs, as well as the availability of each PB insertional LINE can also be viewed with user-friendly interfaces. PBmice is freely available at http://www.idmshanghai.cn/PBmice or http://www.scbit.org/PBmice/. PMID:17932058

  9. Purification of Plasmid and BAC Transgenic DNA Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengyu; Du, Yubin; Xie, Wen; Gui, Changyun

    2013-01-01

    Pronuclear microinjection is the most used method for generating transgenic mice. The quality of DNA to be microinjected is a key determinant of the success rate of this method. DNA purity is a critical factor because trace amounts of many substances, when microinjected into the pronucleus of the fertilized egg, can kill or prevent the further development of the embryo. Avoiding all contaminants is not a trivial issue, because most transgenic fragments need to be purified from agarose gels. Small particles and viscous materials in the DNA solution can also dramatically reduce the efficiency of microinjection because they tend to clog the injection needles. DNA shearing or breakage during purification and microinjection is also a potential problem, particularly when linearized bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) DNAs are used. The overall quantity and the final DNA concentration are also important considerations, because egg pronuclei are very sensitive to the amount of foreign DNA. In this chapter, we first discuss the general guidelines and cautions for preparing microinjection-quality DNA, and then describe in detail two protocols, one for gel purification of transgenic fragments from plasmid vectors and the other for isolating high-quality BAC DNA from bacteria. PMID:23912988

  10. NaChBac: The Long Lost Sodium Channel Ancestor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In excitable cells, the main mediators of sodium conductance across membranes are voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs). Eukaryotic NaVs are essential elements in neuronal signaling and muscular contraction and in humans have been causally related to a variety of neurological and cardiovascular channelopathies. They are complex heavily glycosylated intrinsic membrane proteins present in only trace quantities that have proven to be challenging objects of study. However, in recent years, a number of simpler prokaryotic sodium channels have been identified, with NaChBac from Bacillus halodurans being the most well-characterized to date. The availability of a bacterial NaV that is amenable to heterologous expression and functional characterization in both bacterial and mammalian systems has provided new opportunities for structure–function studies. This review describes features of NaChBac as an exemplar of this class of bacterial channels, compares prokaryotic and eukaryotic NaVs with respect to their structural organization, pharmacological profiling, and functional kinetics, and discusses how voltage-gated ion channels may have evolved to deal with the complex functional demands of higher organisms. PMID:21770445

  11. A physical map for the Amborella trichopoda genome sheds light on the evolution of angiosperm genome structure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome. Results Analysis of Amborella BAC ends sequenced from each contig suggests that the density of long terminal repeat retrotransposons is negatively correlated with that of protein coding genes. Syntenic, presumably ancestral, gene blocks were identified in comparisons of the Amborella BAC contigs and the sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa genomes. Parsimony mapping of the loss of synteny corroborates previous analyses suggesting that the rate of structural change has been more rapid on lineages leading to Arabidopsis and Oryza compared with lineages leading to Populus and Vitis. The gamma paleohexiploidy event identified in the Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis genomes is shown to have occurred after the divergence of all other known angiosperms from the lineage leading to Amborella. Conclusions When placed in the context of a physical map, BAC end sequences representing just 5.4% of the Amborella genome have facilitated reconstruction of gene blocks that existed in the last common ancestor of all flowering plants. The Amborella genome is an invaluable reference for inferences concerning the ancestral angiosperm and subsequent genome evolution. PMID:21619600

  12. A non-autonomous insect piggyBac trasposable element is mobile in tobacco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The piggyBac transposable element, originally isolated from a virus in an insect cell line, is a valuable molecular tool for transgenesis and mutagenesis of invertebrates. For heterologous transgenesis in a variety of mammals, transfer of the piggyBac transposable element from an ectopic plasmid onl...

  13. Sperm-mediated transgenesis in chicken using a PiggyBac transposon system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Towards development of transgenic chickens without the use of viral vectors, factors affecting sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) using a piggyBac vector are being studied. The piggyBac pPBCAG-LacZ contains 13bp terminal inverted repeats flanking a LacZ gene driven by the CAG promoter. A helper pla...

  14. Protective efficacy of a recombinant BAC clone of Marek's disease virus containing REV-LTR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long-terminal repeat (LTR) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV), Md5 (Kim et al, 2011) rendered the resultant recombinant virus termed rMd5 REV-LTR BAC fully attenuated at passa...

  15. Excision of the piggyBac transposable element in maize cells is a precise event

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The piggyBac transposable element (TE) from the moth Trichoplusia ni encodes a ‘cut and paste’ DNA transposase that has been used to transform a number of insects, as well as planaria, mammalian cells, and mice. The wild type and a mutated piggyBac TE excised from a DNA vector in transient assays u...

  16. BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Conejero, José Antonio; Serra, Vicente; Olmo, Inés; Lara, Coral; Simón, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF) or chorionic villus (CV) samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding) of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples. PMID:24795887

  17. The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a major step toward understanding the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to ~7x coverage using a combined whole genome shotgun and BAC skim approach. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs found in seven mammalian...

  18. A comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Perelman, Polina; Das, Pranab J; Pontius, Joan; Chowdhary, Renuka; Owens, Elaine; Johnson, Warren E; Merriwether, David A; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis of the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) has progressed slowly compared to other domestic species. Here, we report the development of the first comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and CHORI-246 BAC library clones. The map is comprised of 230 linearly ordered markers distributed among all 36 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes. For the first time, markers were assigned to LPA14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. Additionally, 86 genes from 15 alpaca chromosomes were mapped in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius, CDR), demonstrating exceptional synteny and linkage conservation between the 2 camelid genomes. Cytogenetic mapping of 191 protein-coding genes improved and refined the known Zoo-FISH homologies between camelids and humans: we discovered new homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) corresponding to HSA1-LPA/CDR11, HSA4-LPA/CDR31 and HSA7-LPA/CDR36, and revised the location of breakpoints for others. Overall, gene mapping was in good agreement with the Zoo-FISH and revealed remarkable evolutionary conservation of gene order within many human-camelid HSBs. Most importantly, 91 FISH-mapped markers effectively integrated the alpaca whole-genome sequence and the radiation hybrid maps with physical chromosomes, thus facilitating the improvement of the sequence assembly and the discovery of genes of biological importance. PMID:25662411

  19. Sex Chromosome Evolution in Amniotes: Applications for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Daniel E.; Valenzuela, Nicole; Ezaz, Tariq; Amemiya, Chris; Edwards, Scott V.

    2011-01-01

    Variability among sex chromosome pairs in amniotes denotes a dynamic history. Since amniotes diverged from a common ancestor, their sex chromosome pairs and, more broadly, sex-determining mechanisms have changed reversibly and frequently. These changes have been studied and characterized through the use of many tools and experimental approaches but perhaps most effectively through applications for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Individual BAC clones carry 100–200 kb of sequence from one individual of a target species that can be isolated by screening, mapped onto karyotypes, and sequenced. With these techniques, researchers have identified differences and similarities in sex chromosome content and organization across amniotes and have addressed hypotheses regarding the frequency and direction of past changes. Here, we review studies of sex chromosome evolution in amniotes and the ways in which the field of research has been affected by the advent of BAC libraries. PMID:20981143

  20. CONSTRUCTION OF A COTTON BAC LIBRARY AND ITS APPLICATION TO GENE ISOLATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a leading natural fiber crop. This crop is also an excellent source of the oil and protein that are stored in its seed. As a major crop species in the world, cotton has a potentially broad genetic base, reflected in the collections of Gossypium species. Cotton breeders wou...

  1. Library 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    In fall 1984, the Georgia Institute of Technology administration and library staff began planning for Library 2000, a project aimed at creating a showcase library to demonstrate the application of the latest information technology in an academic and research environment. The purposes of Library 2000 include: increasing awareness of students,…

  2. Rapid recombinant protein production from piggyBac transposon-mediated stable CHO cell pools.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Matasci, Mattia; Kadlecova, Zuzana; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2015-04-20

    Heterogeneous populations of stably transfected cells (cell pools) can serve for the rapid production of moderate amounts of recombinant proteins. Here, we propose the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to improve the productivity and long-term stability of cell pools derived from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. PB is a naturally occurring genetic element that has been engineered to facilitate the integration of a transgene into the genome of the host cell. In this report PB-derived cell pools were generated after 10 days of selection with puromycin. The resulting cell pools had volumetric productivities that were 3-4 times higher than those achieved with cell pools generated by conventional plasmid transfection even though the number of integrated transgene copies per cell was similar in the two populations. In 14-day batch cultures, protein levels up to 600 and 800 mg/L were obtained for an Fc-fusion protein and a monoclonal antibody, respectively, at volumetric scales up to 1L. In general, the volumetric protein yield from cell pools remained constant for up to 3 months in the absence of selection. In conclusion, transfection of CHO cells with the PB transposon system is a simple, efficient, and reproducible approach to the generation of cell pools for the rapid production of recombinant proteins. PMID:25758242

  3. DNA transposition by protein transduction of the piggyBac transposase from lentiviral Gag precursors

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yujia; Bak, Rasmus O.; Krogh, Louise Bechmann; Staunstrup, Nicklas H.; Moldt, Brian; Corydon, Thomas J.; Schrøder, Lisbeth Dahl; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2014-01-01

    DNA transposon-based vectors have emerged as gene vehicles with a wide biomedical and therapeutic potential. So far, genomic insertion of such vectors has relied on the co-delivery of genetic material encoding the gene-inserting transposase protein, raising concerns related to persistent expression, insertional mutagenesis and cytotoxicity. This report describes potent DNA transposition achieved by direct delivery of transposase protein. By adapting integrase-deficient lentiviral particles (LPs) as carriers of the hyperactive piggyBac transposase protein (hyPBase), we demonstrate rates of DNA transposition that are comparable with the efficiency of a conventional plasmid-based strategy. Embedded in the Gag polypeptide, hyPBase is robustly incorporated into LPs and liberated from the viral proteins by the viral protease during particle maturation. We demonstrate lentiviral co-delivery of the transposase protein and vector RNA carrying the transposon sequence, allowing robust DNA transposition in a variety of cell types. Importantly, this novel delivery method facilitates a balanced cellular uptake of hyPBase, as shown by confocal microscopy, and allows high-efficiency production of clones harboring a single transposon insertion. Our findings establish engineered LPs as a new tool for transposase delivery. We believe that protein transduction methods will increase applicability and safety of DNA transposon-based vector technologies. PMID:24270790

  4. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, 10 BAC clone sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. We used labeled DNA probes from the coding reg...

  5. Superconductivity in the Graphite Intercalation Compound BaC(6).

    PubMed

    Heguri, Satoshi; Kawade, Naoya; Fujisawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Sumiyama, Akihiko; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Mototada

    2015-06-19

    Among many two-dimensional (2D) high T(C) superconductors, graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are the most famous intercalation family, which are classified as typical electron-phonon mediated superconductors. We show unambiguous experimental facts that BaC(6), the superconductivity of which has been missing for many years so far among various alkaline earth metal (Ca, Sr, and Ba) intercalted GICs, exhibits superconductivity at T(C)=65  mK. By adding this finding as the additional experimental point, a complete figure displaying the relationship between T(C) and interlayer distance (d) for GICs is now provided, and their possible superconducting mechanisms raised so far are revisited. The present study settles a long-running debate between theories and experiments on the superconductivity in the first stage GICs. PMID:26197001

  6. Superconductivity in the Graphite Intercalation Compound BaC 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heguri, Satoshi; Kawade, Naoya; Fujisawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Sumiyama, Akihiko; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Mototada

    2015-06-01

    Among many two-dimensional (2D) high TC superconductors, graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are the most famous intercalation family, which are classified as typical electron-phonon mediated superconductors. We show unambiguous experimental facts that BaC 6 , the superconductivity of which has been missing for many years so far among various alkaline earth metal (Ca, Sr, and Ba) intercalted GICs, exhibits superconductivity at TC=65 mK . By adding this finding as the additional experimental point, a complete figure displaying the relationship between TC and interlayer distance (d ) for GICs is now provided, and their possible superconducting mechanisms raised so far are revisited. The present study settles a long-running debate between theories and experiments on the superconductivity in the first stage GICs.

  7. Facile Recovery of Individual High-Molecular-Weight, Low-Copy-Number Natural Plasmids for Genomic Sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.E.; Detter, C,; Barrie, K.; Lapidus, A.; Summers, A.O.

    2006-06-01

    Sequencing of the large (>50 kb), low-copy-number (<5 per cell) plasmids that mediate horizontal gene transfer has been hindered by the difficulty and expense of isolating DNA from individual plasmids of this class. We report here that a kit method previously devised for purification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) can be adapted for effective preparation of individual plasmids up to 220 kb from wild gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Individual plasmid DNA recovered from less than 10 ml of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium cultures was of sufficient quantity and quality for construction of highcoverage libraries, as shown by sequencing five native plasmids ranging in size from 30 kb to 94 kb. We also report recommendations for vector screening to optimize plasmid sequence assembly, preliminary annotation of novel plasmid genomes, and insights on mobile genetic element biology derived from these sequences. Adaptation of this BAC method for large plasmid isolation removes one major technical hurdle to expanding our knowledge of the natural plasmid gene pool.

  8. A new genomic tool, ultra-frequently cleaving TaqII/sinefungin endonuclease with a combined 2.9-bp recognition site, applied to the construction of horse DNA libraries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomics and metagenomics are currently leading research areas, with DNA sequences accumulating at an exponential rate. Although enormous advances in DNA sequencing technologies are taking place, progress is frequently limited by factors such as genomic contig assembly and generation of representative libraries. A number of DNA fragmentation methods, such as hydrodynamic sharing, sonication or DNase I fragmentation, have various drawbacks, including DNA damage, poor fragmentation control, irreproducibility and non-overlapping DNA segment representation. Improvements in these limited DNA scission methods are consequently needed. An alternative method for obtaining higher quality DNA fragments involves partial digestion with restriction endonucleases (REases). We have shown previously that class-IIS/IIC/IIG TspGWI REase, the prototype member of the Thermus sp. enzyme family, can be chemically relaxed by a cofactor analogue, allowing it to recognize very short DNA sequences of 3-bp combined frequency. Such frequently cleaving REases are extremely rare, with CviJI/CviJI*, SetI and FaiI the only other ones found in nature. Their unusual features make them very useful molecular tools for the development of representative DNA libraries. Results We constructed a horse genomic library and a deletion derivative library of the butyrylcholinesterase cDNA coding region using a novel method, based on TaqII, Thermus sp. family bifunctional enzyme exhibiting cofactor analogue specificity relaxation. We used sinefungin (SIN) – an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) analogue with reversed charge pattern, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), to convert the 6-bp recognition site TaqII (5′-GACCGA-3′ [11/9]) into a theoretical 2.9-bp REase, with 70 shortened variants of the canonical recognition sequence detected. Because partial DNA cleavage is an inherent feature of the Thermus sp. enzyme family, this modified TaqII is uniquely suited to quasi-random library generation. Conclusions In the presence of SIN/DMSO, TaqII REase is transformed from cleaving every 4096 bp on average to cleaving every 58 bp. TaqII SIN/DMSO thus extends the palette of available REase prototype specificities. This phenomenon, employed under partial digestion conditions, was applied to quasi-random DNA fragmentation. Further applications include high sensitivity probe generation and metagenomic DNA amplification. PMID:23724933

  9. Genetic Analysis of the Sinorhizobium meliloti BacA Protein: Differential Effects of Mutations on Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    LeVier, Kristin; Walker, Graham C.

    2001-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti strains lacking BacA function are impaired in symbiosis with alfalfa host plants and display altered sensitivities to a number of compounds relative to wild-type strains. With the goal of finding clues to the currently unknown biological function(s) of BacA, we carried out a genetic analysis to determine which amino acids are critical for protein function and to attempt to ascertain whether the multiple phenotypes that result from a bacA-null allele were the result of a common cause or whether BacA has multiple functions. We have created a set of 20 site-directed mutants in which selected individual amino acids in bacA were replaced with glycine residues. The resulting mutants were characterized to determine how the various amino acid changes affected a number of phenotypes associated with loss of BacA function. Mutants H165G, W182G, D198G, and R284G had null phenotypes for all functions assayed, while mutants W57G, S83G, S231G, and K350G were indistinguishable from wild-type strains. The remaining 12 site-directed mutants demonstrate mixed phenotypic characteristics and fall into a number of distinctly different groups. These observations may be consistent with a role for BacA in multiple, nonoverlapping functions. PMID:11591690

  10. BacPP: a web-based tool for Gram-negative bacterial promoter prediction.

    PubMed

    de Avila E Silva, S; Notari, D L; Neis, F A; Ribeiro, H G; Echeverrigaray, S

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial Promoter Prediction (BacPP) is a tool used to predict given sequences as promoters of Gram-negative bacteria according to the σ factor that recognizes it. The first version of BacPP was implemented in Python language in a desktop version without a friendly interface. For this reason, a web version of BacPP is now available with the purpose of improving its usability and availability. The present paper describes the implementation of the web version of this tool, focusing on its software architecture and user functionalities. The software is available at www.bacpp.bioinfoucs.com/home. PMID:27173187

  11. BAC: A computer program for calculating shielding in buildings against initial radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G.

    1980-10-01

    Calculation methodology and transmission data for BAC in the event of a nuclear explosion are considered. The shielding factor is the rate between the radiation dose at one point in the building and the dose in open air. It is separately calculated for neutrons, gamma rays from fission products, and secondary gamma rays. For this calculation, BAC uses data for radiation transmission in concrete. This program is utilized for fallout shelters and other buildings where walls and floors/roofs are mostly made of concrete and bricks. Instructions for the program are given, and BAC results and values are in certain cases compared with those obtained with the Monte Carlo method.

  12. Library Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minudri, Regina; Coats, Reed

    1969-01-01

    A proposal to extend the traditional library services to media which work through machines--such as, television, film and filmstrip projectors, phonographs, radio, and tape recorders. The emphasis is on library services to the young. (RM)

  13. Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavendel, Giuliana

    1977-01-01

    Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)

  14. National Libraries: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Godfrey

    1973-01-01

    The title National Library'' means different things in different countries. It can encompass parliamentary libraries, public libraries, special interest libraries (museums, etc.), and reference and lending libraries. (DH)

  15. High-Throughput SNP Discovery through Deep Resequencing of a Reduced Representation Library to Anchor and Orient Scaffolds in the Soybean Whole Genome Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean Consensus Map 4.0 facilitated the anchoring of 95.6% of the soybean whole genome sequence developed by the Joint Genome Institute, Department of Energy but only properly oriented 66% of the sequence scaffolds. To find additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for additiona...

  16. 23 CFR 1225.4 - Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se law. 1225.4 Section 1225.4... TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY INTOXICATED PERSONS 1225.4 Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se... committed a per se offense of driving while intoxicated or an equivalent per se offense. The law must:...

  17. 23 CFR 1225.4 - Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se law. 1225.4 Section 1225.4... TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY INTOXICATED PERSONS 1225.4 Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se... committed a per se offense of driving while intoxicated or an equivalent per se offense. The law must:...

  18. 23 CFR 1225.4 - Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se law. 1225.4 Section 1225.4... TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY INTOXICATED PERSONS 1225.4 Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se... committed a per se offense of driving while intoxicated or an equivalent per se offense. The law must:...

  19. 23 CFR 1225.4 - Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se law. 1225.4 Section 1225.4... TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY INTOXICATED PERSONS 1225.4 Adoption of 0.08 BAC per se... committed a per se offense of driving while intoxicated or an equivalent per se offense. The law must:...

  20. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Foolad, Majid R.

    2007-01-01

    The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1 cM and an average of 750 kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ∼214 000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

  1. Chicken genomics resource: sequencing and annotation of 35,407 ESTs from single and multiple tissue cDNA libraries and CAP3 assembly of a chicken gene index.

    PubMed

    Carre, Wilfrid; Wang, Xiaofei; Porter, Tom E; Nys, Yves; Tang, Jianshan; Bernberg, Erin; Morgan, Robin; Burnside, Joan; Aggrey, Samuel E; Simon, Jean; Cogburn, Larry A

    2006-05-16

    Its accessibility, unique evolutionary position, and recently assembled genome sequence have advanced the chicken to the forefront of comparative genomics and developmental biology research as a model organism. Several chicken expressed sequence tag (EST) projects have placed the chicken in 10th place for accrued ESTs among all organisms in GenBank. We have completed the single-pass 5'-end sequencing of 37,557 chicken cDNA clones from several single and multiple tissue cDNA libraries and have entered 35,407 EST sequences into GenBank. Our chicken EST sequences and those found in public databases (on July 1, 2004) provided a total of 517,727 public chicken ESTs and mRNAs. These sequences were used in the CAP3 assembly of a chicken gene index composed of 40,850 contigs and 79,192 unassembled singlets. The CAP3 contigs show a 96.7% match to the chicken genome sequence. The University of Delaware (UD) EST collection (43,928 clones) was assembled into 19,237 nonredundant sequences (13,495 contigs and 5,742 unassembled singlets). The UD collection contains 6,223 unique sequences that are not found in other public EST collections but show a 76% match to the chicken genome sequence. Our chicken contig and singlet sequences were annotated according to the highest BlastX and/or BlastN hits. The UD CAP3 contig assemblies and singlets are searchable by nucleotide sequence or key word (http://cogburn.dbi.udel.edu), and the cDNA clones are readily available for distribution from the chick EST website and clone repository (http://www.chickest.udel.edu). The present paper describes the construction and normalization of single and multiple tissue chicken cDNA libraries, high-throughput EST sequencing from these libraries, the CAP3 assembly of a chicken gene index from all public ESTs, and the identification of several nonredundant chicken gene sets for production of custom DNA microarrays. PMID:16554550

  2. Expression Analysis of CB2-GFP BAC Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schrage, Hanna; Beins, Eva; Krämer, Alexandra; Zimmer, Till; Limmer, Andreas; Zimmer, Andreas; Otte, David-Marian

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a retrograde messenger system, consisting of lipid signaling molecules that bind to at least two G-protein-coupled receptors, Cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 (CB1 and 2). As CB2 is primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and microglia, it is of great interest how CB2 contributes to immune cell development and function in health and disease. Here, understanding the mechanisms of CB2 involvement in immune-cell function as well as the trafficking and regulation of CB2 expressing cells are crucial issues. Up to now, CB2 antibodies produce unclear results, especially those targeting the murine protein. Therefore, we have generated BAC transgenic GFP reporter mice (CB2-GFPTg) to trace CB2 expression in vitro and in situ. Those mice express GFP under the CB2 promoter and display GFP expression paralleling CB2 expression on the transcript level in spleen, thymus and brain tissue. Furthermore, by using fluorescence techniques we show that the major sources for GFP-CB2 expression are B cells in spleen and blood and microglia in the brain. This novel CB2-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource to study CB2 expression in different cell types. Furthermore, it could be used for analyzing CB2-mediated mobilization and trafficking of immune cells as well as studying the fate of recruited immune cells in models of acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:26406232

  3. Measurement Properties of the Low Back Activity Confidence Scale (LoBACS).

    PubMed

    Davenport, Todd E; Cleland, Joshua A; Yamada, Kimiko A; Kulig, Kornelia

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the measurement properties of the Low Back Activity Confidence Scale (LoBACS) in individuals with post-acute low back pain (LBP) receiving nonsurgical intervention, including construct validity, factorial validity, and internal consistency reliability. Data were analyzed from an existing randomized clinical trial involving 112 patients with LBP. Evidence for convergent validity was observed through significant correlations between LoBACS subscale scores and other function, pain, and psychobehavioral measures. LoBACS subscales accounted for 36% of the unique variance in dependent variable measurements, suggesting a satisfactory level of statistical divergence between the LoBACS and other psychobehavioral measurements in this study. Cronbach's α ranged from .88 to .92 for LoBACS subscales, and item-total correlations exceeded .6, indicating high internal consistency reliability. Principal axis factoring confirmed the hypothesized three-subscale structure by correctly classifying 14 of the 15 items. These findings indicate the LoBACS is valid and internally consistent to measure domain-specific self-efficacy beliefs. PMID:24686745

  4. BacA, an ABC Transporter Involved in Maintenance of Chronic Murine Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Domenech, Pilar; Kobayashi, Hajime; LeVier, Kristin; Walker, Graham C.; Barry, Clifton E.

    2009-01-01

    BacA is an inner membrane protein associated with maintenance of chronic infections in several diverse host-pathogen interactions. To understand the function of the bacA gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv1819c), we insertionally inactivated this gene and analyzed the resulting mutant for a variety of phenotypes. BacA deficiency in M. tuberculosis did not affect sensitivity to detergents, acidic pH, and zinc, indicating that there was no global compromise in membrane integrity, and a comprehensive evaluation of the major lipid constituents of the cell envelope failed to reveal any significant differences. Infection of mice with this mutant revealed no impact on establishment of infection but a profound effect on maintenance of extended chronic infection and ultimate outcome. As in alphaproteobacteria, deletion of BacA in M. tuberculosis led to increased bleomycin resistance, and heterologous expression of the M. tuberculosis BacA homolog in Escherichia coli conferred sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides. These results suggest a striking conservation of function for BacA-related proteins in transport of a critical molecule that determines the outcome of the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:18996991

  5. Design and validation of a pericentromeric BAC clone set aimed at improving diagnosis and phenotype prediction of supernumerary marker chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) are additional, structurally abnormal chromosomes, generally smaller than chromosome 20 of the same metaphase spread. Due to their small size, they are difficult to characterize by conventional cytogenetics alone. In regard to their clinical effects, sSMCs are a heterogeneous group: in particular, sSMCs containing pericentromeric euchromatin are likely to be associated with abnormal outcomes, although exceptions have been reported. To improve characterization of the genetic content of sSMCs, several approaches might be applied based on different molecular and molecular-cytogenetic assays, e.g., fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). To provide a complementary tool for the characterization of sSMCs, we constructed and validated a new, FISH-based, pericentromeric Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clone set that with a high resolution spans the most proximal euchromatic sequences of all human chromosome arms, excluding the acrocentric short arms. Results By FISH analysis, we assayed 561 pericentromeric BAC probes and excluded 75 that showed a wrong chromosomal localization. The remaining 486 probes were used to establish 43 BAC-based pericentromeric panels. Each panel consists of a core, which with a high resolution covers the most proximal euchromatic ~0.7 Mb (on average) of each chromosome arm and generally bridges the heterochromatin/euchromatin junction, as well as clones located proximally and distally to the core. The pericentromeric clone set was subsequently validated by the characterization of 19 sSMCs. Using the core probes, we could rapidly distinguish between heterochromatic (1/19) and euchromatic (11/19) sSMCs, and estimate the euchromatic DNA content, which ranged from approximately 0.13 to more than 10 Mb. The characterization was not completed for seven sSMCs due to a lack of information about the covered region in the reference sequence (1/19) or sample insufficiency (6/19). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this pericentromeric clone set is useful as an alternative tool for sSMC characterization, primarily in cases of very small SMCs that contain either heterochromatin exclusively or a tiny amount of euchromatic sequence, and also in cases of low-level or cryptic mosaicism. The resulting data will foster knowledge of human proximal euchromatic regions involved in chromosomal imbalances, thereby improving genotype–phenotype correlations. PMID:24171812

  6. The Genome Sequence of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium virguliforme That Causes Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Subodh K.; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Brar, Hargeet K.; Fakhoury, Ahmad M.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium virguliforme causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, a disease of serious concern throughout most of the soybean producing regions of the world. Despite the global importance, little is known about the pathogenesis mechanisms of F. virguliforme. Thus, we applied Next-Generation DNA Sequencing to reveal the draft F. virguliforme genome sequence and identified putative pathogenicity genes to facilitate discovering the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We have generated the draft genome sequence of F. virguliforme by conducting whole-genome shotgun sequencing on a 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Initially, single-end reads of a 400-bp shotgun library were assembled using the PCAP program. Paired end sequences from 3 and 20 Kb DNA fragments and approximately 100 Kb inserts of 1,400 BAC clones were used to generate the assembled genome. The assembled genome sequence was 51 Mb. The N50 scaffold number was 11 with an N50 Scaffold length of 1,263 Kb. The AUGUSTUS gene prediction program predicted 14,845 putative genes, which were annotated with Pfam and GO databases. Gene distributions were uniform in all but one of the major scaffolds. Phylogenic analyses revealed that F. virguliforme was closely related to the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca. Of the 14,845 F. virguliforme genes, 11,043 were conserved among five Fusarium species: F. virguliforme, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum and N. haematococca; and 1,332 F. virguliforme-specific genes, which may include pathogenicity genes. Additionally, searches for candidate F. virguliforme pathogenicity genes using gene sequences of the pathogen-host interaction database identified 358 genes. Conclusions The F. virguliforme genome sequence and putative pathogenicity genes presented here will facilitate identification of pathogenicity mechanisms involved in SDS development. Together, these resources will expedite our efforts towards discovering pathogenicity mechanisms in F. virguliforme. This will ultimately lead to improvement of SDS resistance in soybean. PMID:24454689

  7. Helper-independent piggyBac plasmids for gene delivery approaches: Strategies for avoiding potential genotoxic effects

    PubMed Central

    Urschitz, Johann; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Owens, Jesse; Morozumi, Kazuto; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Stoytchev, Ilko; Marh, Joel; Dee, James A.; Kawamoto, Kris; Coates, Craig J.; Kaminski, Joseph M.; Pelczar, Pawel; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Moisyadi, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Efficient integration of functional genes is an essential prerequisite for successful gene delivery such as cell transfection, animal transgenesis, and gene therapy. Gene delivery strategies based on viral vectors are currently the most efficient. However, limited cargo capacity, host immune response, and the risk of insertional mutagenesis are limiting factors and of concern. Recently, several groups have used transposon-based approaches to deliver genes to a variety of cells. The piggyBac (pB) transposase in particular has been shown to be well suited for cell transfection and gene therapy approaches because of its flexibility for molecular modification, large cargo capacity, and high transposition activity. However, safety considerations regarding transposase gene insertions into host genomes have rarely been addressed. Here we report our results on engineering helper-independent pB plasmids. The single-plasmid gene delivery system carries both the piggyBac transposase (pBt) expression cassette as well as the transposon cargo flanked by terminal repeat element sequences. Improvements to the helper-independent structure were achieved by developing new plasmids in which the pBt gene is rendered inactive after excision of the transposon from the plasmid. As a consequence, potentially negative effects that may develop by the persistence of an active pBt gene posttransposition are eliminated. The results presented herein demonstrate that our helper-independent plasmids represent an important step in the development of safe and efficient gene delivery methods that should prove valuable in gene therapy and transgenic approaches. PMID:20404201

  8. Expression of green fluorescent protein in the chicken using in vivo transfection of the piggyBac transposon.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Brian J; Vogel, Seth; Stark, Michael R; Beckstead, Robert B

    2014-03-10

    The chicken is a well-established model system for studying developmental biology and is recognized as one of the top food production animals in the world. For this reason the chicken is an excellent candidate for transgenic applications, as the technology can be applied to both areas of research. Transgenic technology has not been broadly utilized in the chicken model, however, primarily due to difficulties in targeting germ cells and establishing germ line transmission. Transgenic technologies using non-replicating viral particles have been used in the chick, but are unsuitable for many applications because of size and sequence restraints and low efficiency. To create a more versatile method to target chick germ line stem cells, we utilized the transposable element system piggyBac paired with an in vivo transfection reagent, JetPEI. piggyBac has been previously shown to be highly active in mammalian cells and will transpose into the chicken genome. Here, we show that JetPEI can transfect multiple chick cell types, most notably germline stem cells. We also show that pairing these two reagents is a viable and reproducible method for long-term expression of a transgene in the chicken. Stable expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene was seen in multiple tissue types including heart, brain, liver, intestine, kidney and gonad. Combining an in vivo transfection strategy with the PB system provides a simple and flexible method for efficiently producing stable chimeric birds and could be used for production of germ line transgenics. PMID:24452099

  9. Ataxin-2 regulates RGS8 translation in a new BAC-SCA2 transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Dansithong, Warunee; Paul, Sharan; Figueroa, Karla P; Rinehart, Marc D; Wiest, Shaina; Pflieger, Lance T; Scoles, Daniel R; Pulst, Stefan M

    2015-04-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder with progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) and other neurons caused by expansion of a glutamine (Q) tract in the ATXN2 protein. We generated BAC transgenic lines in which the full-length human ATXN2 gene was transcribed using its endogenous regulatory machinery. Mice with the ATXN2 BAC transgene with an expanded CAG repeat (BAC-Q72) developed a progressive cellular and motor phenotype, whereas BAC mice expressing wild-type human ATXN2 (BAC-Q22) were indistinguishable from control mice. Expression analysis of laser-capture microdissected (LCM) fractions and regional expression confirmed that the BAC transgene was expressed in PCs and in other neuronal groups such as granule cells (GCs) and neurons in deep cerebellar nuclei as well as in spinal cord. Transcriptome analysis by deep RNA-sequencing revealed that BAC-Q72 mice had progressive changes in steady-state levels of specific mRNAs including Rgs8, one of the earliest down-regulated transcripts in the Pcp2-ATXN2[Q127] mouse line. Consistent with LCM analysis, transcriptome changes analyzed by deep RNA-sequencing were not restricted to PCs, but were also seen in transcripts enriched in GCs such as Neurod1. BAC-Q72, but not BAC-Q22 mice had reduced Rgs8 mRNA levels and even more severely reduced steady-state protein levels. Using RNA immunoprecipitation we showed that ATXN2 interacted selectively with RGS8 mRNA. This interaction was impaired when ATXN2 harbored an expanded polyglutamine. Mutant ATXN2 also reduced RGS8 expression in an in vitro coupled translation assay when compared with equal expression of wild-type ATXN2-Q22. Reduced abundance of Rgs8 in Pcp2-ATXN2[Q127] and BAC-Q72 mice supports our observations of a hyper-excitable mGluR1-ITPR1 signaling axis in SCA2, as RGS proteins are linked to attenuating mGluR1 signaling. PMID:25902068

  10. Ataxin-2 Regulates RGS8 Translation in a New BAC-SCA2 Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Karla P.; Rinehart, Marc D.; Wiest, Shaina; Pflieger, Lance T.; Scoles, Daniel R.; Pulst, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder with progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) and other neurons caused by expansion of a glutamine (Q) tract in the ATXN2 protein. We generated BAC transgenic lines in which the full-length human ATXN2 gene was transcribed using its endogenous regulatory machinery. Mice with the ATXN2 BAC transgene with an expanded CAG repeat (BAC-Q72) developed a progressive cellular and motor phenotype, whereas BAC mice expressing wild-type human ATXN2 (BAC-Q22) were indistinguishable from control mice. Expression analysis of laser-capture microdissected (LCM) fractions and regional expression confirmed that the BAC transgene was expressed in PCs and in other neuronal groups such as granule cells (GCs) and neurons in deep cerebellar nuclei as well as in spinal cord. Transcriptome analysis by deep RNA-sequencing revealed that BAC-Q72 mice had progressive changes in steady-state levels of specific mRNAs including Rgs8, one of the earliest down-regulated transcripts in the Pcp2-ATXN2[Q127] mouse line. Consistent with LCM analysis, transcriptome changes analyzed by deep RNA-sequencing were not restricted to PCs, but were also seen in transcripts enriched in GCs such as Neurod1. BAC-Q72, but not BAC-Q22 mice had reduced Rgs8 mRNA levels and even more severely reduced steady-state protein levels. Using RNA immunoprecipitation we showed that ATXN2 interacted selectively with RGS8 mRNA. This interaction was impaired when ATXN2 harbored an expanded polyglutamine. Mutant ATXN2 also reduced RGS8 expression in an in vitro coupled translation assay when compared with equal expression of wild-type ATXN2-Q22. Reduced abundance of Rgs8 in Pcp2-ATXN2[Q127] and BAC-Q72 mice supports our observations of a hyper-excitable mGluR1-ITPR1 signaling axis in SCA2, as RGS proteins are linked to attenuating mGluR1 signaling. PMID:25902068

  11. Survey of 42,000 Gossypium hirsutum cv. Maxxa BAC-End Sequences and Frequency, Type, and Annotation of BAC-derived SSRs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quest for more molecular markers is a major initiative in cotton, which lags behind crops such as soybean, maize, and rice in this type of research. In an effort to increase the number of microsatellite markers in Gossypium, BAC-end sequences from a publicly available Gossypium hirsutum cv. Maxx...

  12. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  13. A physical map of the highly heterozygous Populus genome: integration with the genome sequence and genetic map and analysis of haplotype variation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Colin; Chiu, Readman; Shin, Heesun; Bosdet, Ian; Krywinski, Martin; Fjell, Chris; Wilkin, Jennifer; Yin, Tongming; DiFazio, Stephen P; Ali, Johar; Asano, Jennifer; Chan, Susanna; Cloutier, Alison; Girn, Noreen; Leach, Stephen; Lee, Darlene; Mathewson, Carrie; Olson, Teika; O'Connor, Katie; Prabhu, Anna-Liisa; Smailus, Duane; Stott, Jeffery; Tsai, Miranda; Wye, Natasaja; Yang, George; Zhuang, Jun; Holt, Robert A.; Putnam, Nicholas; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Tuskan, Gerald A; Bohlmann, J.; Ellis, Brian; Ritland, Kermit; Douglas, Carl; Schein, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    As part of a larger project to sequence the Populus genome and generate genomic resources for this emerging model tree, we constructed a physical map of the Populus genome, representing one of the first maps of an undomesticated, highly heterozygous plant species. The physical map, consisting of 2,802 contigs, was constructed from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The map represents approximately 9.4-fold coverage of the 485+10 Mb Populus genome, as estimated from the genome sequence assembly. BAC ends were sequenced to aid in long-range assembly of whole genome shotgun sequence scaffolds and to anchor the physical map to the genome sequence. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers were derived from the end sequences and used to initiate integration of the BAC and genetic maps. 2,411 physical map contigs, representing 97% of all clones assigned to contigs, were aligned to the sequence assembly (JGI Populus trichocarpa v1.0). These alignments represent a total coverage of 384 Mb (79%) of the entire poplar sequence assembly and 295 Mb (96%) of linkage group sequence assemblies. A striking result of the physical map contig alignments to the sequence assembly was the co-localization of multiple contigs across numerous regions of the 19 linkage groups. Targeted sequencing of BAC clones and genetic analysis in a small number of representative regions showed that these co-aligning contigs represent distinct haplotypes in the heterozygous individual sequenced, and revealed the nature of these haplotype sequence differences.

  14. Libraries program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

  15. Tomorrow's library.

    PubMed

    Penniman, W D

    1994-09-01

    The buildings in which we house libraries are like other special purpose structures; the needs they fill are significantly influenced by technology. A prime function of the library building is to house collections (of people, material, and systems) as well as collections of collections (networks). Electronic formats for library material offer new approaches to information service delivery. An example, the information access station, typifies how traditional functions can be reconfigured with respect to space. Flexible design can help ensure that tomorrow's libraries meet the users' needs, but we need to question all our assumptions about building design including those driven by our understanding of the browsing process. PMID:7842657

  16. The medicago genome provides insight into evolution of rhizobial symbiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medicago truncatula is an excellent model for the study of legume-specific biology, especially endosymbiotic interactions with bacteria and fungi. This paper describes the sequence of the euchromatic portion of the M. truncatula genome based on a recently completed BAC-based assembly supplemented by...

  17. Constructing a Cytogenetic Map of the Maize Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are developing a pachytene cytogenetic FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridization) map of the maize (Zea mays L.) genome using maize marker-selected sorghum BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) as described by Koumbaris and Bass (2003, Plant J. 35:647). The two main projects are the production of...

  18. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  19. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,

  20. Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nancy Kirkpatrick

    This workbook, designed for a Library Research course at Yavapai College, provides 15 lessons in advanced library reference skills. Each lesson provides explanatory text and reinforcement exercises. After Lesson I introduces specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias (e.g., for foreign languages, medicine, music, economics, social sciences, and…

  1. Macintoshed Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J., Ed.; John, Nancy R., Ed.

    Contributed by librarians from public, academic, school, and special libraries, the 17 essays in this collection describe ways in which the Apple Macintosh is used in their libraries: (1) "Workstations and the Apple Macintosh" (Edward J. Valauskas); (2) "The Macintosh Experience at Chesapeake College" (Liz Cooper); (3) "ANSEL Character Set for the…

  2. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

  3. Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nancy Kirkpatrick

    This workbook, designed for a Library Research course at Yavapai College, provides 15 lessons in advanced library reference skills. Each lesson provides explanatory text and reinforcement exercises. After Lesson I introduces specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias (e.g., for foreign languages, medicine, music, economics, social sciences, and

  4. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation

  5. Library Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Keyes D.

    Chapter I provides a background and explains pertinent library lighting problems such as quality, function, aesthetics, intensity, and costs. Emphasis is on the quality and function of lighting for library users. Chapter II deals with the comments and answers to questions by persons who have a special interest and competence in the field of…

  6. Status and opportunities for genomics research with rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorgaard, G.H.; Bailey, G.S.; Williams, D.; Buhler, D.R.; Kaattari, S.L.; Ristow, S.S.; Hansen, J.D.; Winton, J.R.; Bartholomew, J.L.; Nagler, J.J.; Walsh, P.J.; Vijayan, M.M.; Devlin, R.H.; Hardy, R.W.; Overturf, K.E.; Young, W.P.; Robison, B.D.; Rexroad, C.; Palti, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely studied of model fish species. Extensive basic biological information has been collected for this species, which because of their large size relative to other model fish species are particularly suitable for studies requiring ample quantities of specific cells and tissue types. Rainbow trout have been widely utilized for research in carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. They are distinctive in having evolved from a relatively recent tetraploid event, resulting in a high incidence of duplicated genes. Natural populations are available and have been well characterized for chromosomal, protein, molecular and quantitative genetic variation. Their ease of culture, and experimental and aquacultural significance has led to the development of clonal lines and the widespread application of transgenic technology to this species. Numerous microsatellites have been isolated and two relatively detailed genetic maps have been developed. Extensive sequencing of expressed sequence tags has begun and four BAC libraries have been developed. The development and analysis of additional genomic sequence data will provide distinctive opportunities to address problems in areas such as evolution of the immune system and duplicate genes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Status and opportunities for genomics research with rainbow trout.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Thorgaard GH; Bailey GS; Williams D; Buhler DR; Kaattari SL; Ristow SS; Hansen JD; Winton JR; Bartholomew JL; Nagler JJ; Walsh PJ; Vijayan MM; Devlin RH; Hardy RW; Overturf KE; Young WP; Robison BD; Rexroad C; Palti Y

    2002-12-01

    The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely studied of model fish species. Extensive basic biological information has been collected for this species, which because of their large size relative to other model fish species are particularly suitable for studies requiring ample quantities of specific cells and tissue types. Rainbow trout have been widely utilized for research in carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. They are distinctive in having evolved from a relatively recent tetraploid event, resulting in a high incidence of duplicated genes. Natural populations are available and have been well characterized for chromosomal, protein, molecular and quantitative genetic variation. Their ease of culture, and experimental and aquacultural significance has led to the development of clonal lines and the widespread application of transgenic technology to this species. Numerous microsatellites have been isolated and two relatively detailed genetic maps have been developed. Extensive sequencing of expressed sequence tags has begun and four BAC libraries have been developed. The development and analysis of additional genomic sequence data will provide distinctive opportunities to address problems in areas such as evolution of the immune system and duplicate genes.

  8. Status and opportunities for genomics research with rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Thorgaard, Gary H; Bailey, George S; Williams, David; Buhler, Donald R; Kaattari, Stephen L; Ristow, Sandra S; Hansen, John D; Winton, James R; Bartholomew, Jerri L; Nagler, James J; Walsh, Patrick J; Vijayan, Matt M; Devlin, Robert H; Hardy, Ronald W; Overturf, Kenneth E; Young, William P; Robison, Barrie D; Rexroad, Caird; Palti, Yniv

    2002-12-01

    The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely studied of model fish species. Extensive basic biological information has been collected for this species, which because of their large size relative to other model fish species are particularly suitable for studies requiring ample quantities of specific cells and tissue types. Rainbow trout have been widely utilized for research in carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. They are distinctive in having evolved from a relatively recent tetraploid event, resulting in a high incidence of duplicated genes. Natural populations are available and have been well characterized for chromosomal, protein, molecular and quantitative genetic variation. Their ease of culture, and experimental and aquacultural significance has led to the development of clonal lines and the widespread application of transgenic technology to this species. Numerous microsatellites have been isolated and two relatively detailed genetic maps have been developed. Extensive sequencing of expressed sequence tags has begun and four BAC libraries have been developed. The development and analysis of additional genomic sequence data will provide distinctive opportunities to address problems in areas such as evolution of the immune system and duplicate genes. PMID:12470823

  9. Development and characterization of BAC-end sequence derived SSRs, and their incorporation into a new higher density genetic map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop worldwide, valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. It has a very narrow genetic base that may well derive from a relatively recent single polyploidization event. Accordingly molecular markers have low levels of polymorphism and the number of polymorphic molecular markers available for cultivated peanut is still limiting. Results Here, we report a large set of BAC-end sequences (BES), use them for developing SSR (BES-SSR) markers, and apply them in genetic linkage mapping. The majority of BESs had no detectable homology to known genes (49.5%) followed by sequences with similarity to known genes (44.3%), and miscellaneous sequences (6.2%) such as transposable element, retroelement, and organelle sequences. A total of 1,424 SSRs were identified from 36,435 BESs. Among these identified SSRs, dinucleotide (47.4%) and trinucleotide (37.1%) SSRs were predominant. The new set of 1,152 SSRs as well as about 4,000 published or unpublished SSRs were screened against two parents of a mapping population, generating 385 polymorphic loci. A genetic linkage map was constructed, consisting of 318 loci onto 21 linkage groups and covering a total of 1,674.4 cM, with an average distance of 5.3 cM between adjacent loci. Two markers related to resistance gene homologs (RGH) were mapped to two different groups, thus anchoring 1 RGH-BAC contig and 1 singleton. Conclusions The SSRs mined from BESs will be of use in further molecular analysis of the peanut genome, providing a novel set of markers, genetically anchoring BAC clones, and incorporating gene sequences into a linkage map. This will aid in the identification of markers linked to genes of interest and map-based cloning. PMID:22260238

  10. PiggyBac Transgene Insertion Site GIZA Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically modified New World screwworms were analyzed by inverse PCR and several sequences of genomic DNA flanking the transposon insertion sites were obtained. One transgenic strain, designated GIZA, exhibited the properties of a lethal genetic mutation. Classic genetic crosses of these insects r...

  11. Application of the BacT/ALERTR 3D system for sterility testing of injectable products.

    PubMed

    Bugno, Adriana; Lira, Rodolfo Santos; Oliveira, Wesley Anderson; Almodovar, Adriana Aparecida Buzzo; Saes, Deborah Pita Sanches; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli

    2015-01-01

    Sterility testing as described in the pharmacopoeia compendia requires a 14-day incubation period to obtain an analytical result. Alternative methods that could be applied to evaluating product sterility are especially interesting due to the possibility of reducing this incubation period and thus the associated costs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of the BacT/ALERT(R) 3D system in detecting microorganisms in large-volume parenteral solutions that were intentionally contaminated and to compare this system to pharmacopoeia sterility testing using the membrane filtration method. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the methods regarding the ability to detect microbial contamination; however, detection with the BacT/ALERT(R) 3D system was faster compared to the pharmacopoeia method. Therefore, the BacT/ALERT(R) 3D system is a viable alternative for assessing the sterility of injectable products. PMID:26413055

  12. Application of the BacT/ALERTR 3D system for sterility testing of injectable products

    PubMed Central

    Bugno, Adriana; Lira, Rodolfo Santos; Oliveira, Wesley Anderson; Almodovar, Adriana Aparecida Buzzo; Saes, Deborah Pita Sanches; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    Sterility testing as described in the pharmacopoeia compendia requires a 14-day incubation period to obtain an analytical result. Alternative methods that could be applied to evaluating product sterility are especially interesting due to the possibility of reducing this incubation period and thus the associated costs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of the BacT/ALERTR 3D system in detecting microorganisms in large-volume parenteral solutions that were intentionally contaminated and to compare this system to pharmacopoeia sterility testing using the membrane filtration method. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the methods regarding the ability to detect microbial contamination; however, detection with the BacT/ALERTR 3D system was faster compared to the pharmacopoeia method. Therefore, the BacT/ALERTR 3D system is a viable alternative for assessing the sterility of injectable products. PMID:26413055

  13. Absence of superconductivity down to 80 mK in graphite intercalated BaC 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamae, S.; Gauzzi, A.; Ladieu, F.; L'Hôte, D.; Eméry, N.; Hérold, C.; Marêché, J. F.; Lagrange, P.; Loupias, G.

    2008-03-01

    Following recent theoretical and experimental investigations of superconductivity in the graphite intercalated compounds CaC 6 and SrC 6, we report on a very low temperature magnetisation study on BaC 6 down to 80 mK. The data show no trace of superconductivity even at fields as low as 0.7 Oe. Using a McMillan parametrisation of the BCS parameters, we conclude that the Coulomb pseudopotential is expected to be as large as 0.19 in both BaC 6 and SrC 6, i.e. 40% larger than in CaC 6. As an alternative scenario, we argue that extrinsic effects such as intercalant disorder may depress superconductivity in both BaC 6 and SrC 6, as in the case of CaC 6.

  14. BacDive – The Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase in 2016

    PubMed Central

    Söhngen, Carola; Podstawka, Adam; Bunk, Boyke; Gleim, Dorothea; Vetcininova, Anna; Reimer, Lorenz Christian; Ebeling, Christian; Pendarovski, Cezar; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    BacDive–the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (http://bacdive.dsmz.de) provides strain-linked information about bacterial and archaeal biodiversity. The range of data encompasses taxonomy, morphology, physiology, sampling and concomitant environmental conditions as well as molecular biology. The majority of data is manually annotated and curated. Currently (with release 9/2015), BacDive covers 53 978 strains. Newly implemented RESTful web services provide instant access to the content in machine-readable XML and JSON format. Besides an overall increase of data content, BacDive offers new data fields and features, e.g. the search for gene names, plasmids or 16S rRNA in the advanced search, as well as improved linkage of entries to external life science web resources. PMID:26424852

  15. Genomic instability of human aberrant crypt foci measured by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR and array-CGH.

    PubMed

    Alrawi, Sadir J; Carroll, Robert E; Hill, Hank C; Gibbs, John F; Tan, Dongfeng; Brenner, Bruce M; Nowak, Norma J; Swede, Helen; Stoler, Daniel L; Anderson, Garth R

    2006-10-10

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are the earliest identifiable neoplastic lesions in the colon. Thirty-two ACFs were examined for genomic instability in forms detectable either by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR or by array comparative genomic hybridization [array-CGH]. One-fourth of ACFs revealed moderate instability by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR; none showed amplifications or deletions on array-CGH. The absence of genomic events detectible by BAC array-CGH indicates early events in colorectal tumor progression are typically smaller than the approximate 150 kb size of a BAC clone insert. PMID:16806294

  16. Construction and Characterization of New piggyBac Vectors for Constitutive or Inducible Expression of Heterologous Gene Pairs and the Identification of a Previously Unrecognized Activator Sequence in piggyBac

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The piggyBac transposable element was first identified when it inserted itself into baculovirus genes during infection, causing a mutant plaque morphology phenotype. Since then, piggyBac has been developed into a germline tranformation vector usable with a wide variety of organisms. In this study...

  17. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the Rainbow trout genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production effici...

  18. ALPHABET SOUP FOR BEETS: STATUS OF ESTS, BACS, RILS, AND OTHER GENOMIC SUNDRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dogma holds that phenotype = genotype + environment; DNA makes RNA makes protein; and form follows function. What does this mean? The beet's work is accomplished in large part by proteins, these proteins (i.e. gene products) are inherited from the parents, and expression of genes is influenced by ...

  19. Making Your Own Gene Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Ortin, Jose E.; Li Del Olmo, Marcel; Matallana, Emilia; Tordera, Vicente

    1997-01-01

    Presents an experiment aimed at constructing a genomic library that can be carried out over a week. Helps students learn concepts such as donor and vector DNAs, construction of recombinant DNA, host strain, and experiments in gene cloning more clearly. (PVD)

  20. Rapid cloning of metK encoding methionine adenosyltransferase from Corynebacterium glutamicum by screening a genomic library on a high density colony-array.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, K; Herbster, K; Mack, M

    2000-12-01

    The genes SAM1 and SAM2 encoding the two different methionine adenosyltransferases (EC 2.5.1.6) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as templates to generate specific DNA-probes. This heterologous mixture of DNA-probes was hybridized under low stringency hybridization conditions to a Corynebacterium glutamicum colony-array representing the complete genome. Subsequently, one genomic fragment was isolated which contained the C. glutamicum methionine adenosyltransferase gene metK (1.224 kb). When overproduced in Escherichia coli, MetK (44.2 kDa) of C. glutamicum had methionine adenosyltransferase activity. In addition, overexpression of metK in C. glutamicum led to an increased intracellular S-adenosylmethionine concentration. The metK transcript was detected by reverse transcription PCR in C. glutamicum cells in the exponential growth phase but not in the stationary phase. PMID:11094286

  1. Comparative genomic analysis links karyotypic evolution with genomic evolution in the Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Huang, Ling; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhao, Xiangyi; Zhang, Qingpeng; Song, Fei; Chi, Jianxiang; Yang, Fengtang; Wang, Wen

    2006-12-01

    The karyotype of Indian muntjacs (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis) has been greatly shaped by chromosomal fusion, which leads to its lowest diploid number among the extant known mammals. We present, here, comparative results based on draft sequences of 37 bacterial artificial clones (BAC) clones selected by chromosome painting for this special muntjac species. Sequence comparison on these BAC clones uncovered sequence syntenic relationships between the muntjac genome and those of other mammals. We found that the muntjac genome has peculiar features with respect to intron size and evolutionary rates of genes. Inspection of more than 80 pairs of orthologous introns from 15 genes reveals a significant reduction in intron size in the Indian muntjac compared to that of human, mouse, and dog. Evolutionary analysis using 19 genes indicates that the muntjac genes have evolved rapidly compared to other mammals. In addition, we identified and characterized sequence composition of the first BAC clone containing a chromosomal fusion site. Our results shed new light on the genome architecture of the Indian muntjac and suggest that chromosomal rearrangements have been accompanied by other salient genomic changes. PMID:16791631

  2. BacM, an N-terminally processed bactofilin of Myxococcus xanthus, is crucial for proper cell shape

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Matthias K.; McHugh, Colleen A.; Hoiczyk, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Summary Bactofilins are fibre-forming bacterial cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we report the structural and biochemical characterization of MXAN_7475 (BacM), one of the four bactofilins of Myxococcus xanthus. Absence of BacM leads to a characteristic ‘crooked’ cell morphology and an increased sensitivity to antibiotics targeting cell wall biosynthesis. The absence of the other three bactofilins MXAN_4637–4635 (BacN-P) has no obvious phenotype. In M. xanthus, BacM exists as a 150-amino-acid full-length version and as a version cleaved before Ser28. In the cell, native BacM forms 3 nm wide fibres, which assemble into bundles forming helix-like cytoplasmic cables throughout the cell, and in a subset of cells additionally a polarly arranged lateral rod-like structure. Isolated fibres consist almost completely of the N-terminally truncated version, suggesting that the proteolytic cleavage occurs before or during fibre formation. Fusion of BacM to mCherry perturbs BacM function and cellular fibre arrangement, resulting for example in the formation of one prominent polar corkscrew-like structure per cell. Immunofluorescence staining of BacM and MreB shows that their cellular distributions are not matching. Taken together, these data suggest that rod-shaped bacteria like M. xanthus use bactofilin fibres to achieve and maintain their characteristic cell morphology and cell wall stability. PMID:21414039

  3. Suppression of the toxicity of Bac7 (1-35), a bovine peptide antibiotic, and its production in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yojiro; Inouye, Masayori

    2016-12-01

    Bac7 (1-35) is an Arg- and Pro-rich peptide antibiotic, produced in bovine cells to protect them from microbial infection. It has been demonstrated to inhibit the protein synthesis in E. coli, leading to cell death. Because of its toxicity, no cost effective methods have been developed for Bac7 production in Escherichia coli for its potential clinical use. Here, we found a method to suppress Bac7 (1-35) toxicity in E. coli to establish its high expression system, in which Bac7 (1-35) was fused to the C-terminal end of protein S, a major spore-coat protein from Myxococcus xanthus, using a linker containing a Factor Xa cleavage site. The resulting His6-PrS2-Bac7 (1-35) (PrS2 is consisted of two N-terminal half domains of protein S connected in tandem) was well expressed using the Single-Protein Production (SPP) system at low temperature and subsequently purified in a single step by using a Ni column. The combination of protein S fusion and its expression in the SPP system at low temperature appeared to suppress Bac7 (1-35) toxicity. Both the purified His6-PrS2-Bac7 (1-35) and His6-PrS2-Bac7 (1-35) treated by Factor Xa were proven to be a potent inhibitor for cell-free protein synthesis. PMID:26936849

  4. Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;…

  5. Callpath Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-11-09

    The "Callpath Library" is a software abstraction layer over a number of stack tracing utilities. It allows tool develoopers to conveniently represent and mNipulate call paths gathered fro U. Wisconsin's Stackwalker API and GNU Backtrace.

  6. Genetic Transformation of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted construct results in identification o...

  7. ANCHORING 9371 MAIZE EST UNIGENES TO THE BAC CONTIG MAP BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL OVERGO HYBRIDIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To construct a robust physical map that can be comprehensively integrated with the genetic map, we have used a two-dimensional 24 x 24 overgo pooling strategy to anchor maize EST unigenes to BACs on high-density filters. A set of 70,716 maize ESTs has been used to derive 10,723 "cornsensus" EST uni...

  8. BAC and Beer: Operationalizing Drunk Driving Laws in a Research Methods Course Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ralph B.; McConnell, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on an exercise utilized in a research methods class and based on social problems that invites student interest. Explains the exercise has students determine their blood alcohol level (BAC) by asking them to estimate the number of beers it would take to have them just reach driving under the influence (DUI) status. (CMK)

  9. PiggyBac Mediated Multiplex Gene Transfer in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xibin; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac system has been shown to have a high efficiency to mediate gene transfer. However, there are no reports on its efficiency to mediate multiplex transgenes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Here we first established an immortalized feeder cell line by introducing four antibiotic resistance genes simultaneously into the original SNL 76/7 feeder cell line utilizing the PiggyBac system. This is the feeder cell line with the most diverse types of antibiotic resistance genes reported so far, which will enable researchers to perform simultaneous multiplex gene transfer or gene targeting experiments in ES cells. With such feeder cell line, we were able to quantitatively characterize the transposition efficiency of PiggyBac system in mouse ES cells using five transposons carrying different inducible fluorescence proteins and antibiotic resistance genes, and the efficiency ranged from about 2% for one transposon to 0.5% for five transposons. The highly efficient multiplex gene transfer mediated by PiggyBac will no doubt provide researchers with more choices in biomedical research and development. PMID:25517991

  10. Sperm-mediated transgenesis in chicken using a PiggyBac transposon system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sperm-mediated transgenesis in chicken using a PiggyBac transposon system Emmanuel Quansah1,2, Julie Long2, David Donovan2, Stephen Becker2, Bhanu Telugu2, Juli Frey2, Nigel Urwin1 1,Charles Sturt University, Graham Center of Agricultural Innovation, Wagga Wagga. Australia and 2Beltsville Agricultu...

  11. Insect transformation with piggyBac: getting the number of injections just right.

    PubMed

    Gregory, M; Alphey, L; Morrison, N I; Shimeld, S M

    2016-06-01

    The insertion of exogenous genetic cargo into insects using transposable elements is a powerful research tool with potential applications in meeting food security and public health challenges facing humanity. piggyBac is the transposable element most commonly utilized for insect germline transformation. The described efficiency of this process is variable in the published literature, and a comprehensive review of transformation efficiency in insects is lacking. This study compared and contrasted all available published data with a comprehensive data set provided by a biotechnology group specializing in insect transformation. Based on analysis of these data, with particular focus on the more complete observational data from the biotechnology group, we designed a decision tool to aid researchers' decision-making when using piggyBac to transform insects by microinjection. A combination of statistical techniques was used to define appropriate summary statistics of piggyBac transformation efficiency by species and insect order. Publication bias was assessed by comparing the data sets. The bias was assessed using strategies co-opted from the medical literature. The work culminated in building the Goldilocks decision tool, a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo simulation operated via a graphical interface and providing guidance on best practice for those seeking to transform insects using piggyBac. PMID:27027400

  12. Genetic transformation mediated by piggyBac in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is a serious pest of corn, sorghum and cotton in China and other Asian countries. The present study is the first attempt to establish the transgenic line in O. furnacalis using a piggyBac transposon, which will shed light on the future genetic control of O....

  13. A physical map of the highly heterozygous Populus genome: integration with the genome sequence and genetic map

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Colin; CHIU, Dr. R.; Shin, Dr. H.; Krywinski, Martin; Fjell, Chris; Wilkin, Jennifer; Yin, Tongming; Difazio, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a larger project to sequence the Populus genome and generate genomic resources for this emerging model tree, we constructed a physical map of the Populus genome, representing one of the few such maps of an undomesticated, highly heterozygous plant species. The physical map, consisting of 2802 contigs, was constructed from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The map represents approximately 9.4-fold coverage of the Populus genome, which has been estimated from the genome sequence assembly to be 485 {+-} 10 Mb in size. BAC ends were sequenced to assist long-range assembly of whole-genome shotgun sequence scaffolds and to anchor the physical map to the genome sequence. Simple sequence repeat-based markers were derived from the end sequences and used to initiate integration of the BAC and genetic maps. A total of 2411 physical map contigs, representing 97% of all clones assigned to contigs, were aligned to the sequence assembly (JGI Populus trichocarpa, version 1.0). These alignments represent a total coverage of 384 Mb (79%) of the entire poplar sequence assembly and 295 Mb (96%) of linkage group sequence assemblies. A striking result of the physical map contig alignments to the sequence assembly was the co-localization of multiple contigs across numerous regions of the 19 linkage groups. Targeted sequencing of BAC clones and genetic analysis in a small number of representative regions showed that these co-aligning contigs represent distinct haplotypes in the heterozygous individual sequenced, and revealed the nature of these haplotype sequence differences.

  14. Membrane Topology and Biochemical Characterization of the Escherichia coli BacA Undecaprenyl-Pyrophosphate Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Manat, Guillaume; El Ghachi, Meriem; Auger, Rodolphe; Baouche, Karima; Olatunji, Samir; Kerff, Frédéric; Touzé, Thierry; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Bouhss, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Several integral membrane proteins exhibiting undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate (C55-PP) phosphatase activity were previously identified in Escherichia coli that belonged to two distinct protein families: the BacA protein, which accounts for 75% of the C55-PP phosphatase activity detected in E. coli cell membranes, and three members of the PAP2 phosphatidic acid phosphatase family, namely PgpB, YbjG and LpxT. This dephosphorylation step is required to provide the C55-P carrier lipid which plays a central role in the biosynthesis of various cell wall polymers. We here report detailed investigations of the biochemical properties and membrane topology of the BacA protein. Optimal activity conditions were determined and a narrow-range substrate specificity with a clear preference for C55-PP was observed for this enzyme. Alignments of BacA protein sequences revealed two particularly well-conserved regions and several invariant residues whose role in enzyme activity was questioned by using a site-directed mutagenesis approach and complementary in vitro and in vivo activity assays. Three essential residues Glu21, Ser27, and Arg174 were identified, allowing us to propose a catalytic mechanism for this enzyme. The membrane topology of the BacA protein determined here experimentally did not validate previous program-based predicted models. It comprises seven transmembrane segments and contains in particular two large periplasmic loops carrying the highly-conserved active site residues. Our data thus provide evidence that all the different E. coli C55-PP phosphatases identified to date (BacA and PAP2) catalyze the dephosphorylation of C55-PP molecules on the same (outer) side of the plasma membrane. PMID:26560897

  15. A Domesticated piggyBac Transposase Plays Key Roles in Heterochromatin Dynamics and DNA Cleavage during Programmed DNA Deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chao-Yin; Vogt, Alexander; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Transposons comprise large fractions of eukaryotic genomes and provide genetic reservoirs for the evolution of new cellular functions. We identified TPB2, a homolog of the piggyBac transposase gene that is required for programmed DNA deletion in Tetrahymena. TPB2 was expressed exclusively during the time of DNA excision, and its encoded protein Tpb2p was localized in DNA elimination heterochromatin structures. Notably, silencing of TPB2 by RNAi disrupts the final assembly of these heterochromatin structures and prevents DNA deletion to occur. In vitro studies revealed that Tpb2p is an endonuclease that produces double-strand breaks with four-base 5′ protruding ends, similar to the ends generated during DNA deletion. These findings suggest that Tpb2p plays a key role in the assembly of specialized DNA elimination chromatin architectures and is likely responsible for the DNA cleavage step of programmed DNA deletion. PMID:20357003

  16. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  17. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve

  18. Sustained high level transgene expression in mammalian cells mediated by the optimized piggyBac transposon system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Cui, Jing; Yan, Zhengjian; Zhang, Hongmei; Chen, Xian; Wang, Ning; Shah, Palak; Deng, Fang; Zhao, Chen; Geng, Nisha; Li, Melissa; Denduluri, Sahitya K.; Haydon, Rex C.; Luu, Hue H.; Reid, Russell R.; He, Tong-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Sustained, high level transgene expression in mammalian cells, especially stem cells, may be desired in many cases for studying gene functions. Traditionally, stable transgene expression has been accomplished by using retroviral or lentiviral vectors. However, such viral vector-mediated transgene expression is often at low levels and can be reduced over time due to low copy numbers and/or chromatin remodeling repression. The piggyBac transposon has emerged as a promising non-viral vector system for efficient gene transfer into mammalian cells. Despite its inherent advantages over lentiviral and retroviral systems, piggyBac system has not been widely used, at least in part due to the limited availability of piggyBac vectors with manipulation flexibilities. Here, we seek to optimize piggyBac-mediated transgene expression and generate a more efficient, user-friendly piggyBac system. By engineering a panel of versatile piggyBac vectors and constructing recombinant adenoviruses expressing piggyBac transposase (PBase), we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated PBase expression significantly enhances the integration efficiency and expression level of transgenes in mesenchymal stem cells and osteosarcoma cells, compared to that obtained from co-transfection of the CMV-PBase plasmid. We further determine the drug selection timeline to achieve optimal stable transgene expression. Moreover, we demonstrate that the transgene copy number of piggyBac-mediated integration is approximately 10 times higher than that mediated by retroviral vectors. Using the engineered tandem expression vector, we show that three transgenes can be simultaneously expressed in a single vector with high efficiency. Thus, these results strongly suggest that the optimized piggyBac system is a valuable tool for making stable cell lines with sustained, high transgene expression. PMID:25815368

  19. Library Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special section includes two articles that review products and services for the automated library environment. Highlights include ergonomic products; products for visually, hearing-, and speech-impaired users; analog film recorders; computer filters; document imaging systems; electric filing systems; and printers. A list of vendors is…

  20. Library Venturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, H. Donald

    1986-01-01

    There is opportunity for service and profit to imaginative libraries organizing to provide new forms of knowledge. Librarians as entrepreneurs must learn venture management and finance. Available assistance includes growing entrepreneural understanding in large institutions; family and friends; private wealth-seeking investment; new business

  1. Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husby, Ole

    1990-01-01

    The challenges and potential benefits of automating university libraries are reviewed, with special attention given to cooperative systems. Aspects discussed include database size, the role of the university computer center, storage modes, multi-institutional systems, resource sharing, cooperative system management, networking, and intelligent…

  2. Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Building data is given for the following public libraries: New York, New York; Blue Island, Illinois; Corte Madera, California; Muskogee, Oklahoma: Charlotte, North Carolina; Washington, D.C.; Houston, Texas; Albermarle, North Carolina; Spokane, Washington; and Hemet, California. (Author/NH)

  3. Pharmacological Screening Using an FXN-EGFP Cellular Genomic Reporter Assay for the Therapy of Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingli; Voullaire, Lucille; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Pook, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy. The presence of a GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of the FXN gene results in the inhibition of gene expression and an insufficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. There is a correlation between expansion length, the amount of residual frataxin and the severity of disease. As the coding sequence is unaltered, pharmacological up-regulation of FXN expression may restore frataxin to therapeutic levels. To facilitate screening of compounds that modulate FXN expression in a physiologically relevant manner, we established a cellular genomic reporter assay consisting of a stable human cell line containing an FXN-EGFP fusion construct, in which the EGFP gene is fused in-frame with the entire normal human FXN gene present on a BAC clone. The cell line was used to establish a fluorometric cellular assay for use in high throughput screening (HTS) procedures. A small chemical library containing FDA-approved compounds and natural extracts was screened and analyzed. Compound hits identified by HTS were further evaluated by flow cytometry in the cellular genomic reporter assay. The effects on FXN mRNA and frataxin protein levels were measured in lymphoblast and fibroblast cell lines derived from individuals with FRDA and in a humanized GAA repeat expansion mouse model of FRDA. Compounds that were established to increase FXN gene expression and frataxin levels included several anti-cancer agents, the iron-chelator deferiprone and the phytoalexin resveratrol. PMID:23418481

  4. Development of novel simple sequence repeat markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through enriched genomic libraries and their utilization in analysis of genetic diversity and cross-species transferability.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Swati; Singh, Archana; Archak, Sunil; Behera, Tushar K; John, Joseph K; Meshram, Sudhir U; Gaikwad, Ambika B

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are the preferred markers for genetic analyses of crop plants. The availability of a limited number of such markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) necessitates the development and characterization of more SSR markers. These were developed from genomic libraries enriched for three dinucleotide, five trinucleotide, and two tetranucleotide core repeat motifs. Employing the strategy of polymerase chain reaction-based screening, the number of clones to be sequenced was reduced by 81 % and 93.7 % of the sequenced clones contained in microsatellite repeats. Unique primer-pairs were designed for 160 microsatellite loci, and amplicons of expected length were obtained for 151 loci (94.4 %). Evaluation of diversity in 54 bitter gourd accessions at 51 loci indicated that 20 % of the loci were polymorphic with the polymorphic information content values ranging from 0.13 to 0.77. Fifteen Indian varieties were clearly distinguished indicative of the usefulness of the developed markers. Markers at 40 loci (78.4 %) were transferable to six species, viz. Momordica cymbalaria, Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera, Momordica balsamina, Momordica dioca, Momordica cochinchinesis, and Momordica sahyadrica. The microsatellite markers reported will be useful in various genetic and molecular genetic studies in bitter gourd, a cucurbit of immense nutritive, medicinal, and economic importance. PMID:25240849

  5. The map-based genome sequence of Spirodela polyrhiza aligned with its chromosomes, a reference for karyotype evolution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hieu Xuan; Vu, Giang Thi Ha; Wang, Wenqin; Appenroth, Klaus J; Messing, Joachim; Schubert, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Duckweeds are aquatic monocotyledonous plants of potential economic interest with fast vegetative propagation, comprising 37 species with variable genome sizes (0.158-1.88 Gbp). The genomic sequence of Spirodela polyrhiza, the smallest and the most ancient duckweed genome, needs to be aligned to its chromosomes as a reference and prerequisite to study the genome and karyotype evolution of other duckweed species. We selected physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing Spirodela DNA inserts with little or no repetitive elements as probes for multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mcFISH), using an optimized BAC pooling strategy, to validate its physical map and correlate it with its chromosome complement. By consecutive mcFISH analyses, we assigned the originally assembled 32 pseudomolecules (supercontigs) of the genomic sequences to the 20 chromosomes of S. polyrhiza. A Spirodela cytogenetic map containing 96 BAC markers with an average distance of 0.89 Mbp was constructed. Using a cocktail of 41 BACs in three colors, all chromosome pairs could be individualized simultaneously. Seven ancestral blocks emerged from duplicated chromosome segments of 19 Spirodela chromosomes. The chromosomally integrated genome of S. polyrhiza and the established prerequisites for comparative chromosome painting enable future studies on the chromosome homoeology and karyotype evolution of duckweed species. PMID:26305472

  6. Culture-independent Community Genomics Study of Microogranisms Associated with Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, G. W.; Hugenholtz, P.; Detter, C.; Richardson, P. M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem that occurs when pyrite (FeS2)-rich rocks are exposed to air, water, and oxidizing agents. Pyrite dissolution is exothermic, yielding hot, metal-rich, extremely acidic solutions. Despite the hostile nature of AMD environments, microbial communities thrive, and are believed to control the rates of pyrite dissolution and acid generation. Previous studies of microbial communities within the Richmond Mine at Iron Mt., Redding, CA, revealed low species-level diversity and established close connections between metabolism and geochemistry. Thus, these communities are ideal candidates for culture-independent genomics-enabled analyses. Samples collected from the Richmond Mine in March 2002 were screened using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization to choose the most suitable target community for a genomics-enabled ecological study. The community selected (a pink subaerial biofilm) has low species complexity but high phylogenetic diversity, containing ~75% Leptospirillum group II (closely related to Leptospirillum ferriphilum), ~10% Leptospirillum group III, and ~10% archaea that fall into three distinct groups within the Thermoplasmatales order (Ferroplasma sp., for which genome data is already available, A-plasma and D-plasma). High throughput sequencing of four 16S rDNA clone libraries confirmed the low species-level diversity in this community and suggested that the extent of microheterogeneity within each of the five populations was limited. 17 unique Leptospirillum group II 16S rDNA phylotypes (defined by one or more base change) were resolved, with ~85% belonging to one phylotype. The remaining ~15% were very similar in sequence identity, only diverging by 1.2% in total. Similarly, 14 unique Leptospirillum group III phylotypes formed a tight cluster with < 0.8% sequence divergence. The limited inter-species, and significant intra-species variation in the populations should allow determination of the gene content and metabolic pathways of the majority of community members (especially Leptospirillum spp.), permit evaluation of the genomic heterogeneity within each species population, and potentially enable reconstruction of genome fragments and whole genomes. We have constructed small (3-4 Kb; shotgun) and large-insert (>40 Kb; fosmid, BAC) libraries from community DNA. We will use sequencing results from the small insert library to determine whether it will be possible to reassemble parts of genomes using shotgun data. The large insert libraries will ensure links between genes and host organisms and provide information about gene order. Using the first 2 Mb of small insert library data we have established reasonable coverage of the major microbial groups but more data is required before the overall sequencing strategy can be established. Organism-resolved metabolic pathway information will be used to develop methods to monitor microbial activity in the environment. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a predictive analytical ecological model that resolves the linkages, feedbacks, and controlling variables that underpin acid mine drainage generation.

  7. Models of the Structure and Gating Mechanisms of the Pore Domain of the NaChBac Ion Channel

    PubMed Central

    Shafrir, Yinon; Durell, Stewart R.; Guy, H. Robert

    2008-01-01

    The NaChBac prokaryotic sodium channel appears to be a descendent of an evolutionary link between voltage-gated KV and CaV channels. Like KV channels, four identical six-transmembrane subunits comprise the NaChBac channel, but its selectivity filter possesses a signature sequence of eukaryotic CaV channels. We developed structural models of the NaChBac channel in closed and open conformations, using K+-channel crystal structures as initial templates. Our models were also consistent with numerous experimental results and modeling criteria. This study concerns the pore domain. The major differences between our models and K+ crystal structures involve the latter portion of the selectivity filter and the bend region in S6 of the open conformation. These NaChBac models may serve as a stepping stone between K+ channels of known structure and NaV, CaV, and TRP channels of unknown structure. PMID:18641075

  8. MultiBac: multigene baculovirus-based eukaryotic protein complex production.

    PubMed

    Bieniossek, Christoph; Richmond, Timothy J; Berger, Imre

    2008-02-01

    Multiprotein complexes are an emerging focus in current biology, resulting in a demand for advanced heterologous expression systems. This unit provides protocols for the expression of eukaryotic multiprotein complexes using multigene expression vectors. Homologous and site-specific recombinases facilitate their assembly. Thus, modification of individual subunits for revised expression studies is achieved with comparative ease. The strategy outlined here employs the MultiBac baculoviral expression system for multiprotein complexes as an example. Baculoviral expression does not require particular safety precautions due to the replication incompetence of baculovirus in mammalian hosts. The MultiBac system provides for improved protein production due to deletion of specific viral genes (V-cath, chiA). Most of the steps described in this unit are tailored for high-throughput approaches. The general strategy of rapidly combining encoding DNAs by recombination into multigene expression vectors for protein complex expression can also be applied to other prokaryotic or mammalian expression systems. PMID:18429060

  9. Symposium on Presidential Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss presidential libraries. Highlights include an overview of the development of the federal presidential library system; the Ronald Reagan library; the Richard Nixon library archives; access at the Gerald Ford library; and computerizing the Jimmy Carter library. (LRW)

  10. Turkish Libraries: Historical Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakin, Irfan

    1984-01-01

    Summary of the development of libraries in Turkey highlights the existence of libraries in the ninth century, the Shamssaddin Altunaba Medrese library in Konya, libraries established during the Ottoman era, reports to reform libraries (1869-70, 1909), and reports and library developments attributed to the Republican Era beginning in 1923. (EJS)

  11. Library Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jo; St. Lifer, Evan; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee; Miller, Marilyn L.; Shontz, Marilyn L.

    2001-01-01

    These nine articles discuss research and statistics on libraries and librarianship, including libraries in the United States, Canada, and Mexico; acquisition expenditures in public, academic, special, and government libraries; price indexes; state rankings of public library data; library buildings; expenditures in school library media centers; and

  12. POLYMORPHISMS IN THE GENOMES OF ONCOGENIC AND ATTENUATED PATHOTYPES OF MAREK'S DISEASE VIRUS SEROTYPE 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete DNA sequence of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) vaccine strain CVI988 was determined. The genome consists of 178,311 base pairs, with an overall G/C content of 44%, and represents the largest among the MDV strains sequenced so fa...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Spohn, Michael; Indenbirken, Daniela; Brune, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 (variant ATCC) cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (AD169-BAC, also known as HB15 or pHB15) was determined. The viral genome has a length of 230,290 bp and shows 52 nucleotide differences compared to a previously sequenced AD169varATCC clone. PMID:27034483

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Border Disease Virus Genotype 3 Strain Gifhorn

    PubMed Central

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Höper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Beer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the genotype 3 border disease virus strain Gifhorn has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from pigs. This represents the consensus sequence for the virus used to produce the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cDNA clone pBeloGif3, which yields a virus that is severely attenuated in cell culture. PMID:24435861

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Spohn, Michael; Indenbirken, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 (variant ATCC) cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (AD169-BAC, also known as HB15 or pHB15) was determined. The viral genome has a length of 230,290 bp and shows 52 nucleotide differences compared to a previously sequenced AD169varATCC clone. PMID:27034483

  16. GENOME-WIDE PHYSICAL MAPPING OF PATHOGEN-RESPONSE GENES IN BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes involved in resistance to pathogens are an intricated network of cell signaling events. A genome-wide search was undertaken to identify gene-rich BAC clones from barley that contained defense-related genes. HarvEST Triticeae (http://harvest.ucr.edu/) was utilized to identify ESTs uniquely asso...

  17. Hyperactive piggyBac Gene Transfer in Human Cells and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joseph E.; Huye, Leslie E.; Yusa, Kosuke; Zhou, Liqin; Craig, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We characterized a recently developed hyperactive piggyBac (pB) transposase enzyme [containing seven mutations (7pB)] for gene transfer in human cells in vitro and to somatic cells in mice in vivo. Despite a protein level expression similar to that of native pB, 7pB significantly increased the gene transfer efficiency of a neomycin resistance cassette transposon in both HEK293 and HeLa cultured human cells. Native pB and SB100X, the most active transposase of the Sleeping Beauty transposon system, exhibited similar transposition efficiency in cultured human cell lines. When delivered to primary human T cells ex vivo, 7pB increased gene delivery two- to threefold compared with piggyBac and SB100X. The activity of hyperactive 7pB transposase was not affected by the addition of a 24-kDa N-terminal tag, whereas SB100X manifested a 50% reduction in transposition. Hyperactive 7pB was compared with native pB and SB100X in vivo in mice using hydrodynamic tail-vein injection of a limiting dose of transposase DNA combined with luciferase reporter transposons. We followed transgene expression for up to 6 months and observed approximately 10-fold greater long-term gene expression in mice injected with a codon-optimized version of 7pB compared with mice injected with native pB or SB100X. We conclude that hyperactive piggyBac elements can increase gene transfer in human cells and in vivo and should enable improved gene delivery using the piggyBac transposon system in a variety of cell and gene-therapy applications. PMID:21992617

  18. GENSAT BAC Cre-recombinase driver lines to study the functional organization of cerebral cortical and basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Gerfen, Charles R.; Paletzki, Ronald; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent development of molecular genetic techniques are rapidly advancing understanding of the functional role of brain circuits in behavior. Critical to this approach is the ability to target specific neuron populations and circuits. The collection of over 250 BAC Cre-recombinase driver lines produced by the GENSAT project provides a resource for such studies. Here we provide characterization of GENSAT BAC-Cre driver lines with expression in specific neuroanatomical pathways within the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. PMID:24360541

  19. Enforcement following 0.08% BAC law change: Sex-specific consequences of changing arrest practices?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Davaran, Ardavan

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated effects of stricter 0.08% BAC drunken driving law on changes in sex-specific DUI arrest rates, controlling for increased law enforcement resources and shifts in DUI-related behaviors. Another main purpose, the study assessed female/male differences in arrest increases due to broader enforcement standards and efforts. Panel data was assembled for 24 states over 1990–2007 on DUI arrests, alcohol policy, law enforcement resources, drinking and drunken driving prevalence. Two-way fixed-effects seemingly unrelated regression models predicted female versus male changes in DUI arrests following implementation of lower legal limits of intoxication, net controls. Findings suggest, first, a broader legal definition of drunken driving intending to officially sanction less serious offenders (0.08% vs. 0.10% BAC) was associated with increased DUI arrests for both sexes. Second, growth in specialized DUI-enforcement units also was related to increased arrests. Whereas male and female arrest trends were equally affected by the direct net-widening effects of 0.08% BAC alcohol-policy, specialized DUI-enforcement efforts to dig deeper into the offender-pool had stronger arrest-producing effects on females, particularly prior to law change. Specifying how changes in law and enforcement resources affect arrest outcomes is an important precursor to alcohol-policy analyses of effectiveness. A potential unintended consequence, effects of law and enforcement may differ across population segments. PMID:23773958

  20. Impact of BAC limit reduction on different population segments: a Poisson fixed effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2007-11-01

    Over the past few decades, several countries enacted the reduction of the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit, often alongside the administrative license revocation or suspension, to battle drinking-and-driving behavior. Several researchers investigated the effectiveness of these policies by applying different analysis procedures, while assuming population homogeneity in responding to these laws. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of BAC limit reduction on different population segments. Poisson regression models, adapted to account for possible observation dependence over time and state specific effects, are estimated to measure the reduction of the number of alcohol-related accidents and fatalities for single-vehicle accidents in 22 U.S. jurisdictions over a period of 15 years starting in 1990. Model estimates demonstrate that, for alcohol-related single-vehicle crashes, (i) BAC laws are more effective in terms of reduction of number of casualties rather than number of accidents, (ii) women and elderly population exhibit higher law compliance with respect to men and to young adult and adult population, respectively, and (iii) the presence of passengers in the vehicle enhances the sense of responsibility of the driver. PMID:17920837

  1. A Tie2-driven BAC-TRAP transgenic line for in vivo endothelial gene profiling.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Devi; Huang, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Recent technological innovations including bacterial artificial chromosome-based translating ribosome affinity purification (BAC-TRAP) have greatly facilitated analysis of cell type-specific gene expression in vivo, especially in the nervous system. To better study endothelial gene expression in vivo, we have generated a BAC-TRAP transgenic mouse line where the L10a ribosomal subunit is tagged with EGFP and placed under the control of the endothelium-specific Tie2 (Tek) promoter. We show that transgene expression in this line is widely, but specifically, detected in endothelial cells in several brain regions throughout pre- and postnatal development, as well as in other organs. We also show that this line results in highly significant enrichment of endothelium-specific mRNAs from brain tissues at different stages. This BAC-TRAP line therefore provides a useful genetic tool for in vivo endothelial gene profiling under various developmental, physiological, and pathological conditions. genesis 54:136-145, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26817747

  2. Enforcement following 0.08% BAC law change: sex-specific consequences of changing arrest practices?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Davaran, Ardavan

    2013-10-01

    This research evaluated effects of stricter 0.08% BAC drunken driving law on changes in sex-specific DUI arrest rates, controlling for increased law enforcement resources and shifts in DUI-related behaviors. Another main purpose, the study assessed female/male differences in arrest increases due to broader enforcement standards and efforts. Panel data was assembled for 24 states over 1990-2007 on DUI arrests, alcohol policy, law enforcement resources, drinking and drunken driving prevalence. Two-way fixed-effects seemingly unrelated regression models predicted female versus male changes in DUI arrests following implementation of lower legal limits of intoxication, net controls. Findings suggest, first, that a broader legal definition of drunken driving intending to officially sanction less serious offenders (0.08% vs. 0.10% BAC) was associated with increased DUI arrests for both sexes. Second, growth in specialized DUI-enforcement units also was related to increased arrests. Whereas male and female arrest trends were equally affected by the direct net-widening effects of 0.08% BAC alcohol-policy, specialized DUI-enforcement efforts to dig deeper into the offender-pool had stronger arrest-producing effects on females, particularly prior to law change. Specifying how changes in law and enforcement resources affect arrest outcomes is an important pre-cursor to alcohol-policy analyses of effectiveness. A potential unintended consequence, effects of law and enforcement may differ across population segments. PMID:23773958

  3. Impact of lowering the legal BAC limit to .03 on teenage drinking and driving related crashes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Desapriya, Ediriweera B R; Shimizu, Shinji; Pike, Ian; Smith, Dorry

    2006-12-01

    In June of 2002, a revision to part of the Road Traffic Act drastically increased the penalties for drinking and driving offences. Most notably, the legal BAC limit for driving lowered from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. The rationale for the new lower BAC limit in Japan was predicated on the assumption that drinking drivers will comply with the new lower limit by reducing the amount of alcohol they consume prior to driving, thereby lowering their risk of crash involvement. This, in turn, would lead to fewer alcohol-related crashes, deaths and injuries. The chief objective of this research is to quantify the extent to which lowering the legal limit of BAC has reduced teenager involved motor vehicle injuries and fatalities in Japan since 2002. Most notably, the introduction of reduced BAC limit legislation resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the number of alcohol impaired young drivers on the road in Japan, indicating responsiveness to the legal change among this group. Since the introduction of the 0.03 BAC law, statistically significant decreases were observed in alcohol-related crashes, alcohol related injuries and single vehicle night time crashes among 16-19 year old drivers, as we hypothesized. In comparison, the rates of total crashes, injuries and pedestrian fatalities showed no statistically significant decline or increase in the period following the introduction of the BAC law. PMID:17313057

  4. Strengthening State Library Administrative Agency (Territorial Library).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieves M. Flores Memorial Library, Agana, Guam.

    This document describes the Basic State Plan Amendments for the Library Services and Construction Act in Guam and the regulations promulgated thereunder. The major projects described under the plan are: Strengthening State Library Administrative Agency; Staff Development; Library Collections, Extention Services, Institutional Libraries; and…

  5. Genome sequence of cultivated Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum TM-1) provides insights into genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuguang; Fan, Guangyi; Lu, Cairui; Xiao, Guanghui; Zou, Changsong; Kohel, Russell J; Ma, Zhiying; Shang, Haihong; Ma, Xiongfeng; Wu, Jianyong; Liang, Xinming; Huang, Gai; Percy, Richard G; Liu, Kun; Yang, Weihua; Chen, Wenbin; Du, Xiongming; Shi, Chengcheng; Yuan, Youlu; Ye, Wuwei; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Xueyan; Liu, Weiqing; Wei, Hengling; Wei, Shoujun; Huang, Guodong; Zhang, Xianlong; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhang, He; Sun, Fengming; Wang, Xingfen; Liang, Jie; Wang, Jiahao; He, Qiang; Huang, Leihuan; Wang, Jun; Cui, Jinjie; Song, Guoli; Wang, Kunbo; Xu, Xun; Yu, John Z; Zhu, Yuxian; Yu, Shuxun

    2015-05-01

    Gossypium hirsutum has proven difficult to sequence owing to its complex allotetraploid (AtDt) genome. Here we produce a draft genome using 181-fold paired-end sequences assisted by fivefold BAC-to-BAC sequences and a high-resolution genetic map. In our assembly 88.5% of the 2,173-Mb scaffolds, which cover 89.6%∼96.7% of the AtDt genome, are anchored and oriented to 26 pseudochromosomes. Comparison of this G. hirsutum AtDt genome with the already sequenced diploid Gossypium arboreum (AA) and Gossypium raimondii (DD) genomes revealed conserved gene order. Repeated sequences account for 67.2% of the AtDt genome, and transposable elements (TEs) originating from Dt seem more active than from At. Reduction in the AtDt genome size occurred after allopolyploidization. The A or At genome may have undergone positive selection for fiber traits. Concerted evolution of different regulatory mechanisms for Cellulose synthase (CesA) and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase1 and 3 (ACO1,3) may be important for enhanced fiber production in G. hirsutum. PMID:25893780

  6. Databases and information integration for the Medicago truncatula genome and transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Steven B; Crow, John A; Heuer, Michael L; Wang, Xiaohong; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Dwan, Christopher; Lamblin, Anne-Francoise; Vasdewani, Jayprakash; Mudge, Joann; Cook, Andrew; Gish, John; Cheung, Foo; Kenton, Steve; Kunau, Timothy M; Brown, Douglas; May, Gregory D; Kim, Dongjin; Cook, Douglas R; Roe, Bruce A; Town, Chris D; Young, Nevin D; Retzel, Ernest F

    2005-05-01

    An international consortium is sequencing the euchromatic genespace of Medicago truncatula. Extensive bioinformatic and database resources support the marker-anchored bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing strategy. Existing physical and genetic maps and deep BAC-end sequencing help to guide the sequencing effort, while EST databases provide essential resources for genome annotation as well as transcriptome characterization and microarray design. Finished BAC sequences are joined into overlapping sequence assemblies and undergo an automated annotation process that integrates ab initio predictions with EST, protein, and other recognizable features. Because of the sequencing project's international and collaborative nature, data production, storage, and visualization tools are broadly distributed. This paper describes databases and Web resources for the project, which provide support for physical and genetic maps, genome sequence assembly, gene prediction, and integration of EST data. A central project Web site at medicago.org/genome provides access to genome viewers and other resources project-wide, including an Ensembl implementation at medicago.org, physical map and marker resources at mtgenome.ucdavis.edu, and genome viewers at the University of Oklahoma (www.genome.ou.edu), the Institute for Genomic Research (www.tigr.org), and Munich Information for Protein Sequences Center (mips.gsf.de). PMID:15888676

  7. Databases and Information Integration for the Medicago truncatula Genome and Transcriptome1

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; Crow, John A.; Heuer, Michael L.; Wang, Xiaohong; Cannon, Ethalinda K.S.; Dwan, Christopher; Lamblin, Anne-Francoise; Vasdewani, Jayprakash; Mudge, Joann; Cook, Andrew; Gish, John; Cheung, Foo; Kenton, Steve; Kunau, Timothy M.; Brown, Douglas; May, Gregory D.; Kim, Dongjin; Cook, Douglas R.; Roe, Bruce A.; Town, Chris D.; Young, Nevin D.; Retzel, Ernest F.

    2005-01-01

    An international consortium is sequencing the euchromatic genespace of Medicago truncatula. Extensive bioinformatic and database resources support the marker-anchored bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing strategy. Existing physical and genetic maps and deep BAC-end sequencing help to guide the sequencing effort, while EST databases provide essential resources for genome annotation as well as transcriptome characterization and microarray design. Finished BAC sequences are joined into overlapping sequence assemblies and undergo an automated annotation process that integrates ab initio predictions with EST, protein, and other recognizable features. Because of the sequencing project's international and collaborative nature, data production, storage, and visualization tools are broadly distributed. This paper describes databases and Web resources for the project, which provide support for physical and genetic maps, genome sequence assembly, gene prediction, and integration of EST data. A central project Web site at medicago.org/genome provides access to genome viewers and other resources project-wide, including an Ensembl implementation at medicago.org, physical map and marker resources at mtgenome.ucdavis.edu, and genome viewers at the University of Oklahoma (www.genome.ou.edu), the Institute for Genomic Research (www.tigr.org), and Munich Information for Protein Sequences Center (mips.gsf.de). PMID:15888676

  8. Construction of a Rye BAC Library for Utilization in Physical Mapping of an Aluminum Tolerance Gene Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium, the most abundant metal on earth, is highly toxic to plant growth and is found in about 2.5 billion hectares of acid soils, including more than 130 million hectares in the United States. Many of the world’s farmers are living on marginal soils that offer a stressful environment for plant ...

  9. CONSTRUCTION OF A RYE CV. BLANCO BAC LIBRARY, AND PROGRESS TOWARDS CLONING THE RYE ALT3 ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being an important cereal crop, rye (Secale cereale L.) provides valuable traits for other crops, as a parent of the amphidiploid triticale, and as a donor of translocated chromosome segments in wheat. Rye possesses excellent tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses that could p...

  10. Cell Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA contract led to the development of faster and more energy efficient semiconductor materials for digital integrated circuits. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) conducts electrons 4-6 times faster than silicon and uses less power at frequencies above 100-150 megahertz. However, the material is expensive, brittle, fragile and has lacked computer automated engineering tools to solve this problem. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) developed a series of GaAs cell libraries for cell layout, design rule checking, logic synthesis, placement and routing, simulation and chip assembly. The system is marketed by Compare Design Automation.

  11. [Construction of a general piggyBac transposon inducible cell immortalization vector and verification of its basic properties].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Hu, Guangdong; Kang, Jian; Qing, Suzhu; Zhang, Yong

    2014-08-01

    In order to construct generally efficient cell immortalization vector, pTP-hTERT, we modified the traditional piggyBac (PB) transposon using artificial synthesis, PCR and enzyme digestion. The modified vector contained the necessary transposon elements, a PB transposase expression cassette, a co-expression selectable element and a human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression cassette. The co-expression selectable element had two markers, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and puromycin-resistance (Puro) gene, linked by porcine teschovirus-1 2A peptide (P2A). To validate the functionality of vector elements, we transfected pTP-hTERT into HEK293 cell, selected the positive cell clones and then conducted RT-PCR, Western blotting (WB) and Tail-PCR, methylene blue staining and statistic analysis on selected cells. The results of sequencing and cell culture show that the pTP-hTERT was constructed successfully and the positive cell could be selected by puromycin. The WB results, P2A cutting EGFP and Puro fusion protein with high efficiency, reflected the selectable element worked. The sequencing result of Tail-PCR confirmed the vector integrated into the genome through transposition. The results of methylene blue staining and statistic analysis indicated the clone of positive cells triggered by pTP-hTERT significantly increased (P < 0.01) compared with control group. The construction of pTP-hTERT provides an efficient tool for establishing immortalized cell lines and a demonstration for building other eukaryotic plasmids. PMID:25507471

  12. [Construction of a general piggyBac transposon inducible cell immortalization vector and verification of its basic properties].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Hu, Guangdong; Kang, Jian; Qing, Suzhu; Zhang, Yong

    2014-08-01

    In order to construct generally efficient cell immortalization vector, pTP-hTERT, we modified the traditional piggyBac (PB) transposon using artificial synthesis, PCR and enzyme digestion. The modified vector contained the necessary transposon elements, a PB transposase expression cassette, a co-expression selectable element and a human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression cassette. The co-expression selectable element had two markers, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and puromycin-resistance (Puro) gene, linked by porcine teschovirus-1 2A peptide (P2A). To validate the functionality of vector elements, we transfected pTP-hTERT into HEK293 cell, selected the positive cell clones and then conducted RT-PCR, Western blotting (WB) and Tail-PCR, methylene blue staining and statistic analysis on selected cells. The results of sequencing and cell culture show that the pTP-hTERT was constructed successfully and the positive cell could be selected by puromycin. The WB results, P2A cutting EGFP and Puro fusion protein with high efficiency, reflected the selectable element worked. The sequencing result of Tail-PCR confirmed the vector integrated into the genome through transposition. The results of methylene blue staining and statistic analysis indicated the clone of positive cells triggered by pTP-hTERT significantly increased (P < 0.01) compared with control group. The construction of pTP-hTERT provides an efficient tool for establishing immortalized cell lines and a demonstration for building other eukaryotic plasmids. PMID:25423748

  13. Construction and characterization of new piggyBac vectors for constitutive or inducible expression of heterologous gene pairs and the identification of a previously unrecognized activator sequence in piggyBac

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xianzong; Harrison, Robert L; Hollister, Jason R; Mohammed, Ahmed; Fraser, Malcolm J; Jarvis, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    Background We constructed and characterized several new piggyBac vectors to provide transposition of constitutively- or inducibly-expressible heterologous gene pairs. The dual constitutive control element consists of back-to-back copies of a baculovirus immediate early (ie1) promoter separated by a baculovirus enhancer (hr5). The dual inducible control element consists of back-to-back copies of a minimal cytomegalovirus (CMVmin) promoter separated by a synthetic operator (TetO7), which drives transcription in the presence of a mutant transcriptional repressor plus tetracycline. Results Characterization of these vectors revealed an unexpected position effect, in which heterologous genes adjacent to the 3'- terminal region ("rightward" genes) were consistently expressed at higher levels than those adjacent to the 5'-terminal region ("leftward" genes) of the piggyBac element. This position effect was observed with all six heterologous genes examined and with both transcriptional control elements. Further analysis demonstrated that this position effect resulted from stimulation of rightward gene expression by the internal domain sequence of the 3'-terminal region of piggyBac. Inserting a copy of this sequence into the 5'- terminal repeat region of our new piggyBac vectors in either orientation stimulated leftward gene expression. Representative piggyBac vectors designed for constitutive or inducible expression of heterologous gene pairs were shown to be functional as insect transformation vectors. Conclusion This study is significant because (a) it demonstrates the utility of a strategy for the construction of piggyBac vectors that can provide constitutive or inducible heterologous gene pair expression and (b) it reveals the presence of a previously unrecognized transcriptional activator in piggyBac, which is an important and increasingly utilized transposable element. PMID:17233894

  14. Soybean Comparative Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) has developed into a reference species complete with a full set of genomic resources. Several Bacterial Artificial Chromosome libraries have been produced and physical maps have been assembled in genotypes representing both Northern and Southern germplasm. High th...

  15. Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2008-05-22

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

  16. Community Libraries in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Lucy

    1993-01-01

    Examines alternatives to traditional library services being developed in Zimbabwe. Highlights include home libraries connected with literacy groups; the Rural Libraries and Resources Development Programme that develops community libraries, oral archives, and training manuals; mobile library services; culture houses; problems with donated books;…

  17. State Virtual Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

  18. Marketing the Virtual Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2009-01-01

    Far more people are familiar with their local public or college library facility than their library's website and online resources. In fact, according to a recent survey, 96% of Americans said they had visited a library in person, but less than one-third have visited their online library. Since everyone agrees that online library resources are

  19. Marketing the Virtual Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2009-01-01

    Far more people are familiar with their local public or college library facility than their library's website and online resources. In fact, according to a recent survey, 96% of Americans said they had visited a library in person, but less than one-third have visited their online library. Since everyone agrees that online library resources are…

  20. Productivity, Profit, and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estabrook, Leigh

    1981-01-01

    Economic pressures on the information industry and on libraries are significantly affecting the nature of services and the organization of work within libraries. These effects are illustrated by three phenomena: emphasis on productivity in libraries, marketing of online database searches through libraries, and the repackaging of library services…