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Sample records for genomic diversity reveal

  1. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster, and genes

  2. Nucleotide diversity maps reveal variation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: 20-75 CHARACTER LINES A strategy for a genome-wide assessment of nucleotide diversity in a polyploid species must minimize the inclusion of homoeologous sequences into diversity estimates and reliably allocate individual haplotypes into respective genomes. In this study, nucle...

  3. Diverse circovirus-like genome architectures revealed by environmental metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Duffy, Siobain; Breitbart, Mya

    2009-10-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses with circular genomes are the smallest viruses known to infect eukaryotes. The present study identified 10 novel genomes similar to ssDNA circoviruses through data-mining of public viral metagenomes. The metagenomic libraries included samples from reclaimed water and three different marine environments (Chesapeake Bay, British Columbia coastal waters and Sargasso Sea). All the genomes have similarities to the replication (Rep) protein of circoviruses; however, only half have genomic features consistent with known circoviruses. Some of the genomes exhibit a mixture of genomic features associated with different families of ssDNA viruses (i.e. circoviruses, geminiviruses and parvoviruses). Unique genome architectures and phylogenetic analysis of the Rep protein suggest that these viruses belong to novel genera and/or families. Investigating the complex community of ssDNA viruses in the environment can lead to the discovery of divergent species and help elucidate evolutionary links between ssDNA viruses. PMID:19570956

  4. Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Bowman, Charles A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Asai, David J; Cresawn, Steven G; Jacobs, William R; Hendrix, Roger W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hatfull, Graham F

    2015-01-01

    The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery. PMID:25919952

  5. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptomyces Species Reveals Their Adaptation to the Marine Environment and Their Diversity at the Genomic Level

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Zhewen; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Meili; Li, Jie; Chen, Fei; Yang, Jin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhang; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Changsheng; Long, Lijuan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 genomes of streptomycete strains that were isolated from various environments are available from the NCBI. However, little is known about the characteristics that are linked to marine adaptation in marine-derived streptomycetes. The particularity and complexity of the marine environment suggest that marine streptomycetes are genetically diverse. Here, we sequenced nine strains from the Streptomyces genus that were isolated from different longitudes, latitudes, and depths of the South China Sea. Then we compared these strains to 22 NCBI downloaded streptomycete strains. Thirty-one streptomycete strains are clearly grouped into a marine-derived subgroup and multiple source subgroup-based phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analyses have revealed the dynamic process underlying streptomycete genome evolution, and lateral gene transfer is an important driving force during the process. Pan-genomics analyses have revealed that streptomycetes have an open pan-genome, which reflects the diversity of these streptomycetes and guarantees the species a quick and economical response to diverse environments. Functional and comparative genomics analyses indicate that the marine-derived streptomycetes subgroup possesses some common characteristics of marine adaptation. Our findings have expanded our knowledge of how ocean isolates of streptomycete strains adapt to marine environments. The availability of streptomycete genomes from the South China Sea will be beneficial for further analysis on marine streptomycetes and will enrich the South China Sea’s genetic data sources. PMID:27446038

  6. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptomyces Species Reveals Their Adaptation to the Marine Environment and Their Diversity at the Genomic Level.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Zhewen; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Meili; Li, Jie; Chen, Fei; Yang, Jin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhang; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Changsheng; Long, Lijuan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 genomes of streptomycete strains that were isolated from various environments are available from the NCBI. However, little is known about the characteristics that are linked to marine adaptation in marine-derived streptomycetes. The particularity and complexity of the marine environment suggest that marine streptomycetes are genetically diverse. Here, we sequenced nine strains from the Streptomyces genus that were isolated from different longitudes, latitudes, and depths of the South China Sea. Then we compared these strains to 22 NCBI downloaded streptomycete strains. Thirty-one streptomycete strains are clearly grouped into a marine-derived subgroup and multiple source subgroup-based phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analyses have revealed the dynamic process underlying streptomycete genome evolution, and lateral gene transfer is an important driving force during the process. Pan-genomics analyses have revealed that streptomycetes have an open pan-genome, which reflects the diversity of these streptomycetes and guarantees the species a quick and economical response to diverse environments. Functional and comparative genomics analyses indicate that the marine-derived streptomycetes subgroup possesses some common characteristics of marine adaptation. Our findings have expanded our knowledge of how ocean isolates of streptomycete strains adapt to marine environments. The availability of streptomycete genomes from the South China Sea will be beneficial for further analysis on marine streptomycetes and will enrich the South China Sea's genetic data sources. PMID:27446038

  7. Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Welkin H; Bowman, Charles A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Asai, David J; Cresawn, Steven G; Jacobs, William R; Hendrix, Roger W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hatfull, Graham F; Abbazia, Patrick; Ababio, Amma; Adam, Naazneen

    2015-01-01

    The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06416.001 PMID:25919952

  8. Comparative Genomics Reveal Extensive Transposon-Mediated Genomic Plasticity and Diversity among Potential Effector Proteins within the Genus Coxiella▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Paul A.; Unsworth, Nathan; Andoh, Masako; Voth, Daniel E.; Omsland, Anders; Gilk, Stacey D.; Williams, Kelly P.; Sobral, Bruno W.; Kupko, John J.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Samuel, James E.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Genetically distinct isolates of Coxiella burnetii, the cause of human Q fever, display different phenotypes with respect to in vitro infectivity/cytopathology and pathogenicity for laboratory animals. Moreover, correlations between C. burnetii genomic groups and human disease presentation (acute versus chronic) have been described, suggesting that isolates have distinct virulence characteristics. To provide a more-complete understanding of C. burnetii's genetic diversity, evolution, and pathogenic potential, we deciphered the whole-genome sequences of the K (Q154) and G (Q212) human chronic endocarditis isolates and the naturally attenuated Dugway (5J108-111) rodent isolate. Cross-genome comparisons that included the previously sequenced Nine Mile (NM) reference isolate (RSA493) revealed both novel gene content and disparate collections of pseudogenes that may contribute to isolate virulence and other phenotypes. While C. burnetii genomes are highly syntenous, recombination between abundant insertion sequence (IS) elements has resulted in genome plasticity manifested as chromosomal rearrangement of syntenic blocks and DNA insertions/deletions. The numerous IS elements, genomic rearrangements, and pseudogenes of C. burnetii isolates are consistent with genome structures of other bacterial pathogens that have recently emerged from nonpathogens with expanded niches. The observation that the attenuated Dugway isolate has the largest genome with the fewest pseudogenes and IS elements suggests that this isolate's lineage is at an earlier stage of pathoadaptation than the NM, K, and G lineages. PMID:19047403

  9. Comparative Analysis of 35 Basidiomycete Genomes Reveals Diversity and Uniqueness of the Phylum

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Otillar, Robert; Fagnan, Kirsten; Boussau, Bastien; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Held, Benjamin; Nagy, Laszlo; Floudas, Dimitris; Morin, Emmanuelle; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Martin, Francis; Blanchette, Robert; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprobes including wood decaying fungi. To better understand the diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycete fungi including 6 newly sequenced genomes. The genomes of basidiomycetes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. A phylogenetic tree of Basidiomycota was generated using the Phyldog software, which uses all available protein sequence data to simultaneously infer gene and species trees. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) comprising proteins found in only one organism. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay among the members of Agaricomycotina subphylum. There is a correlation of the profile of certain gene families to nutritional mode in Agaricomycotina. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of such profiles, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has liginolytic class II fungal peroxidases. Furthermore, we find that both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics in growth assays. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the high value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  10. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the

  11. Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals Diverse Models of Structural Variations in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Caixia; Zhou, Yong; Li, Hongyi; Xiong, Teng; Li, Shuaicheng; Bi, Yanghui; Kong, Pengzhou; Wang, Fang; Cui, Heyang; Li, Yaoping; Fang, Xiaodong; Yan, Ting; Li, Yike; Wang, Juan; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Ling; Jia, Zhiwu; Song, Bin; Hu, Xiaoling; Yang, Jie; Qiu, Haile; Zhang, Gehong; Liu, Jing; Xu, Enwei; Shi, Ruyi; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Haiyan; He, Chanting; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Qian, Yu; Rong, Ruizhou; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yanlin; Luo, Wen; Wang, Jiaqian; Peng, Shaoliang; Yang, Xukui; Li, Xiangchun; Li, Lin; Fang, Hu; Liu, Xingmin; Ma, Li; Chen, Yunqing; Guo, Shiping; Chen, Xing; Xi, Yanfeng; Li, Guodong; Liang, Jianfang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Guo, Jiansheng; Jia, JunMei; Li, Qingshan; Cheng, Xiaolong; Zhan, Qimin; Cui, Yongping

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive identification of somatic structural variations (SVs) and understanding their mutational mechanisms in cancer might contribute to understanding biological differences and help to identify new therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, characterization of complex SVs across the whole genome and the mutational mechanisms underlying esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is largely unclear. To define a comprehensive catalog of somatic SVs, affected target genes, and their underlying mechanisms in ESCC, we re-analyzed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from 31 ESCCs using Meerkat algorithm to predict somatic SVs and Patchwork to determine copy-number changes. We found deletions and translocations with NHEJ and alt-EJ signature as the dominant SV types, and 16% of deletions were complex deletions. SVs frequently led to disruption of cancer-associated genes (e.g., CDKN2A and NOTCH1) with different mutational mechanisms. Moreover, chromothripsis, kataegis, and breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) were identified as contributing to locally mis-arranged chromosomes that occurred in 55% of ESCCs. These genomic catastrophes led to amplification of oncogene through chromothripsis-derived double-minute chromosome formation (e.g., FGFR1 and LETM2) or BFB-affected chromosomes (e.g., CCND1, EGFR, ERBB2, MMPs, and MYC), with approximately 30% of ESCCs harboring BFB-derived CCND1 amplification. Furthermore, analyses of copy-number alterations reveal high frequency of whole-genome duplication (WGD) and recurrent focal amplification of CDCA7 that might act as a potential oncogene in ESCC. Our findings reveal molecular defects such as chromothripsis and BFB in malignant transformation of ESCCs and demonstrate diverse models of SVs-derived target genes in ESCCs. These genome-wide SV profiles and their underlying mechanisms provide preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications for ESCCs. PMID:26833333

  12. Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals Diverse Models of Structural Variations in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Caixia; Zhou, Yong; Li, Hongyi; Xiong, Teng; Li, Shuaicheng; Bi, Yanghui; Kong, Pengzhou; Wang, Fang; Cui, Heyang; Li, Yaoping; Fang, Xiaodong; Yan, Ting; Li, Yike; Wang, Juan; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Ling; Jia, Zhiwu; Song, Bin; Hu, Xiaoling; Yang, Jie; Qiu, Haile; Zhang, Gehong; Liu, Jing; Xu, Enwei; Shi, Ruyi; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Haiyan; He, Chanting; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Qian, Yu; Rong, Ruizhou; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yanlin; Luo, Wen; Wang, Jiaqian; Peng, Shaoliang; Yang, Xukui; Li, Xiangchun; Li, Lin; Fang, Hu; Liu, Xingmin; Ma, Li; Chen, Yunqing; Guo, Shiping; Chen, Xing; Xi, Yanfeng; Li, Guodong; Liang, Jianfang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Guo, Jiansheng; Jia, JunMei; Li, Qingshan; Cheng, Xiaolong; Zhan, Qimin; Cui, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive identification of somatic structural variations (SVs) and understanding their mutational mechanisms in cancer might contribute to understanding biological differences and help to identify new therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, characterization of complex SVs across the whole genome and the mutational mechanisms underlying esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is largely unclear. To define a comprehensive catalog of somatic SVs, affected target genes, and their underlying mechanisms in ESCC, we re-analyzed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from 31 ESCCs using Meerkat algorithm to predict somatic SVs and Patchwork to determine copy-number changes. We found deletions and translocations with NHEJ and alt-EJ signature as the dominant SV types, and 16% of deletions were complex deletions. SVs frequently led to disruption of cancer-associated genes (e.g., CDKN2A and NOTCH1) with different mutational mechanisms. Moreover, chromothripsis, kataegis, and breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) were identified as contributing to locally mis-arranged chromosomes that occurred in 55% of ESCCs. These genomic catastrophes led to amplification of oncogene through chromothripsis-derived double-minute chromosome formation (e.g., FGFR1 and LETM2) or BFB-affected chromosomes (e.g., CCND1, EGFR, ERBB2, MMPs, and MYC), with approximately 30% of ESCCs harboring BFB-derived CCND1 amplification. Furthermore, analyses of copy-number alterations reveal high frequency of whole-genome duplication (WGD) and recurrent focal amplification of CDCA7 that might act as a potential oncogene in ESCC. Our findings reveal molecular defects such as chromothripsis and BFB in malignant transformation of ESCCs and demonstrate diverse models of SVs-derived target genes in ESCCs. These genome-wide SV profiles and their underlying mechanisms provide preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications for ESCCs. PMID:26833333

  13. Diversity through duplication: whole-genome sequencing reveals novel gene retrocopies in the human population.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Sandra R; Salvador-Palomeque, Carmen; Faulkner, Geoffrey J

    2014-05-01

    Gene retrocopies are generated by reverse transcription and genomic integration of mRNA. As such, retrocopies present an important exception to the central dogma of molecular biology, and have substantially impacted the functional landscape of the metazoan genome. While an estimated 8,000-17,000 retrocopies exist in the human genome reference sequence, the extent of variation between individuals in terms of retrocopy content has remained largely unexplored. Three recent studies by Abyzov et al., Ewing et al. and Schrider et al. have exploited 1,000 Genomes Project Consortium data, as well as other sources of whole-genome sequencing data, to uncover novel gene retrocopies. Here, we compare the methods and results of these three studies, highlight the impact of retrocopies in human diversity and genome evolution, and speculate on the potential for somatic gene retrocopies to impact cancer etiology and genetic diversity among individual neurons in the mammalian brain. PMID:24615986

  14. Nearly finished genomes produced using gel microdroplet culturing reveal substantial intraspecies genomic diversity within the human microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Michael S.; Novotny, Mark; Lo, Chien-Chi; Dichosa, Armand E.K.; Yee-Greenbaum, Joyclyn L.; Snook, Jeremy P.; Gu, Wei; Chertkov, Olga; Davenport, Karen W.; McMurry, Kim; Reitenga, Krista G.; Daughton, Ashlynn R.; He, Jian; Johnson, Shannon L.; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Wills, Patti L.; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Chain, Patrick S.; Detter, John C.; Lasken, Roger S.; Han, Cliff S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of microbial genomic diversity remains unexplored. This is largely due to our inability to culture most microorganisms in isolation, which is a prerequisite for traditional genome sequencing. Single-cell sequencing has allowed researchers to circumvent this limitation. DNA is amplified directly from a single cell using the whole-genome amplification technique of multiple displacement amplification (MDA). However, MDA from a single chromosome copy suffers from amplification bias and a large loss of specificity from even very small amounts of DNA contamination, which makes assembling a genome difficult and completely finishing a genome impossible except in extraordinary circumstances. Gel microdrop cultivation allows culturing of a diverse microbial community and provides hundreds to thousands of genetically identical cells as input for an MDA reaction. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by comparing sequencing results of gel microdroplets and single cells following MDA. Bias is reduced in the MDA reaction and genome sequencing, and assembly is greatly improved when using gel microdroplets. We acquired multiple near-complete genomes for two bacterial species from human oral and stool microbiome samples. A significant amount of genome diversity, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and genome recombination, is discovered. Gel microdroplets offer a powerful and high-throughput technology for assembling whole genomes from complex samples and for probing the pan-genome of naturally occurring populations. PMID:23493677

  15. Unprecedented genomic diversity of RNA viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ci-Xiu; Shi, Mang; Tian, Jun-Hua; Lin, Xian-Dan; Kang, Yan-Jun; Chen, Liang-Jun; Qin, Xin-Cheng; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear. Through RNA sequencing of 70 arthropod species we discovered 112 novel viruses that appear to be ancestral to much of the documented genetic diversity of negative-sense RNA viruses, a number of which are also present as endogenous genomic copies. With this greatly enriched diversity we revealed that arthropods contain viruses that fall basal to major virus groups, including the vertebrate-specific arenaviruses, filoviruses, hantaviruses, influenza viruses, lyssaviruses, and paramyxoviruses. We similarly documented a remarkable diversity of genome structures in arthropod viruses, including a putative circular form, that sheds new light on the evolution of genome organization. Hence, arthropods are a major reservoir of viral genetic diversity and have likely been central to viral evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05378.001 PMID:25633976

  16. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter concisus isolates reveals genetic diversity and provides insights into disease association

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of its association with gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, the isolation of Campylobacter concisus from both diseased and healthy individuals has led to controversy regarding its role as an intestinal pathogen. One proposed reason for this is the presence of high genetic diversity among the genomes of C. concisus strains. Results In this study the genomes of six C. concisus strains were sequenced, assembled and annotated including two strains isolated from Crohn’s disease patients (UNSW2 and UNSW3), three from gastroenteritis patients (UNSW1, UNSWCS and ATCC 51562) and one from a healthy individual (ATCC 51561). The genomes of C. concisus BAA-1457 and UNSWCD, available from NCBI, were included in subsequent comparative genomic analyses. The Pan and Core genomes for the sequenced C. concisus strains consisted of 3254 and 1556 protein coding genes, respectively. Conclusion Genes were identified with specific conservation in C. concisus strains grouped by phenotypes such as invasiveness, adherence, motility and diseased states. Phylogenetic trees based on ribosomal RNA sequences and concatenated host-related pathways for the eight C. concisus strains were generated using the neighbor-joining method, of which the 16S rRNA gene and peptidoglycan biosynthesis grouped the C. concisus strains according to their pathogenic phenotypes. Furthermore, 25 non-synonymous amino acid changes with 14 affecting functional domains, were identified within proteins of conserved host-related pathways, which had possible associations with the pathogenic potential of C. concisus strains. Finally, the genomes of the eight C. concisus strains were compared to the nine available genomes of the well-established pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, which identified several important differences in the respiration pathways of these two species. Our findings indicate that C. concisus strains are genetically diverse, and suggest the genomes of this bacterium contain

  17. Scanning the landscape of genome architecture of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae by whole genome mapping reveals extensive population genetic diversity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chapman, Carol; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Awosika, Joy; Briska, Adam; Ptashkin, Ryan N.; Wagner, Trevor; Rajanna, Chythanya; Tsang, Hsinyi; Johnson, Shannon L.; et al

    2015-03-20

    Historically, cholera outbreaks have been linked to V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains or its derivatives of the O37 and O139 serogroups. A genomic study on the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak strains highlighted the putative role of non O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in causing cholera and the lack of genomic sequences of such strains from around the world. Here we address these gaps by scanning a global collection of V. cholerae strains as a first step towards understanding the population genetic diversity and epidemic potential of non O1/non-O139 strains. Whole Genome Mapping (Optical Mapping) based bar coding produces a high resolution, orderedmore » restriction map, depicting a complete view of the unique chromosomal architecture of an organism. To assess the genomic diversity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, we applied a Whole Genome Mapping strategy on a well-defined and geographically and temporally diverse strain collection, the Sakazaki serogroup type strains. Whole Genome Map data on 91 of the 206 serogroup type strains support the hypothesis that V. cholerae has an unprecedented genetic and genomic structural diversity. Interestingly, we discovered chromosomal fusions in two unusual strains that possess a single chromosome instead of the two chromosomes usually found in V. cholerae. We also found pervasive chromosomal rearrangements such as duplications and indels in many strains. The majority of Vibrio genome sequences currently in public databases are unfinished draft sequences. The Whole Genome Mapping approach presented here enables rapid screening of large strain collections to capture genomic complexities that would not have been otherwise revealed by unfinished draft genome sequencing and thus aids in assembling and finishing draft sequences of complex genomes. Furthermore, Whole Genome Mapping allows for prediction of novel V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains that may have the potential to cause future cholera outbreaks.« less

  18. Scanning the Landscape of Genome Architecture of Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae by Whole Genome Mapping Reveals Extensive Population Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Awosika, Joy; Briska, Adam; Ptashkin, Ryan N.; Wagner, Trevor; Rajanna, Chythanya; Tsang, Hsinyi; Johnson, Shannon L.; Mokashi, Vishwesh P.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cholera outbreaks have been linked to V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains or its derivatives of the O37 and O139 serogroups. A genomic study on the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak strains highlighted the putative role of non O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in causing cholera and the lack of genomic sequences of such strains from around the world. Here we address these gaps by scanning a global collection of V. cholerae strains as a first step towards understanding the population genetic diversity and epidemic potential of non O1/non-O139 strains. Whole Genome Mapping (Optical Mapping) based bar coding produces a high resolution, ordered restriction map, depicting a complete view of the unique chromosomal architecture of an organism. To assess the genomic diversity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, we applied a Whole Genome Mapping strategy on a well-defined and geographically and temporally diverse strain collection, the Sakazaki serogroup type strains. Whole Genome Map data on 91 of the 206 serogroup type strains support the hypothesis that V. cholerae has an unprecedented genetic and genomic structural diversity. Interestingly, we discovered chromosomal fusions in two unusual strains that possess a single chromosome instead of the two chromosomes usually found in V. cholerae. We also found pervasive chromosomal rearrangements such as duplications and indels in many strains. The majority of Vibrio genome sequences currently in public databases are unfinished draft sequences. The Whole Genome Mapping approach presented here enables rapid screening of large strain collections to capture genomic complexities that would not have been otherwise revealed by unfinished draft genome sequencing and thus aids in assembling and finishing draft sequences of complex genomes. Furthermore, Whole Genome Mapping allows for prediction of novel V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains that may have the potential to cause future cholera outbreaks. PMID:25794000

  19. Genetic Diversity in Lens Species Revealed by EST and Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Harsh Kumar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Dharmendra; Aski, Muraleedhar Sidaram; Prakash, Prapti; Jain, Neelu; Meena, Suresh; Kumar, Shiv; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Low productivity of pilosae type lentils grown in South Asia is attributed to narrow genetic base of the released cultivars which results in susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. For enhancement of productivity and production, broadening of genetic base is essentially required. The genetic base of released cultivars can be broadened by using diverse types including bold seeded and early maturing lentils from Mediterranean region and related wild species. Genetic diversity in eighty six accessions of three species of genus Lens was assessed based on twelve genomic and thirty one EST-SSR markers. The evaluated set of genotypes included diverse lentil varieties and advanced breeding lines from Indian programme, two early maturing ICARDA lines and five related wild subspecies/species endemic to the Mediterranean region. Genomic SSRs exhibited higher polymorphism in comparison to EST SSRs. GLLC 598 produced 5 alleles with highest gene diversity value of 0.80. Among the studied subspecies/species 43 SSRs detected maximum number of alleles in L. orientalis. Based on Nei's genetic distance cultivated lentil L. culinaris subsp. culinaris was found to be close to its wild progenitor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The Prichard's structure of 86 genotypes distinguished different subspecies/species. Higher variability was recorded among individuals within population than among populations. PMID:26381889

  20. Genetic Diversity in Lens Species Revealed by EST and Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dikshit, Harsh Kumar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Dharmendra; Aski, Muraleedhar Sidaram; Prakash, Prapti; Jain, Neelu; Meena, Suresh; Kumar, Shiv; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Low productivity of pilosae type lentils grown in South Asia is attributed to narrow genetic base of the released cultivars which results in susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. For enhancement of productivity and production, broadening of genetic base is essentially required. The genetic base of released cultivars can be broadened by using diverse types including bold seeded and early maturing lentils from Mediterranean region and related wild species. Genetic diversity in eighty six accessions of three species of genus Lens was assessed based on twelve genomic and thirty one EST-SSR markers. The evaluated set of genotypes included diverse lentil varieties and advanced breeding lines from Indian programme, two early maturing ICARDA lines and five related wild subspecies/species endemic to the Mediterranean region. Genomic SSRs exhibited higher polymorphism in comparison to EST SSRs. GLLC 598 produced 5 alleles with highest gene diversity value of 0.80. Among the studied subspecies/species 43 SSRs detected maximum number of alleles in L. orientalis. Based on Nei’s genetic distance cultivated lentil L. culinaris subsp. culinaris was found to be close to its wild progenitor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The Prichard’s structure of 86 genotypes distinguished different subspecies/species. Higher variability was recorded among individuals within population than among populations. PMID:26381889

  1. Comparison of environmental and isolate Sulfobacillus genomes reveals diverse carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolisms

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, Nicholas B.; Norman, Anders; Brown, Christopher T.; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2014-12-15

    Bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus are found worldwide as members of microbial communities that accelerate sulfide mineral dissolution in acid mine drainage environments (AMD), acid-rock drainage environments (ARD), as well as in industrial bioleaching operations. Despite their frequent identification in these environments, their role in biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood. Here we report draft genomes of five species of the Sulfobacillus genus (AMDSBA1-5) reconstructed by cultivation-independent sequencing of biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, CA). Three of these species (AMDSBA2, AMDSBA3, and AMDSBA4) have no cultured representatives while AMDSBA1 is a strain of S. benefaciens, and AMDSBA5 a strain of S. thermosulfidooxidans. We analyzed the diversity of energy conservation and central carbon metabolisms for these genomes and previously published Sulfobacillus genomes. Pathways of sulfur oxidation vary considerably across the genus, including the number and type of subunits of putative heterodisulfide reductase complexes likely involved in sulfur oxidation. The number and type of nickel-iron hydrogenase proteins varied across the genus, as does the presence of different central carbon pathways. Only the AMDSBA3 genome encodes a dissimilatory nitrate reducatase and only the AMDSBA5 and S. thermosulfidooxidans genomes encode assimilatory nitrate reductases. Lastly, within the genus, AMDSBA4 is unusual in that its electron transport chain includes a cytochrome bc type complex, a unique cytochrome c oxidase, and two distinct succinate dehydrogenase complexes. Overall, the results significantly expand our understanding of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolism within the Sulfobacillus genus.

  2. Genomic analysis of the immune gene repertoire of amphioxus reveals extraordinary innate complexity and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengfeng; Yuan, Shaochun; Guo, Lei; Yu, Yanhong; Li, Jun; Wu, Tao; Liu, Tong; Yang, Manyi; Wu, Kui; Liu, Huiling; Ge, Jin; Yu, Yingcai; Huang, Huiqing; Dong, Meiling; Yu, Cuiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated that before vertebrates evolved somatic diversity-based adaptive immunity, the germline-encoded diversity of innate immunity may have been more developed. Amphioxus occupies the basal position of the chordate phylum and hence is an important reference to the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Here we report the first comprehensive genomic survey of the immune gene repertoire of the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae. It has been reported that the purple sea urchin has a vastly expanded innate receptor repertoire not previously seen in other species, which includes 222 toll-like receptors (TLRs), 203 NOD/NALP-like receptors (NLRs), and 218 scavenger receptors (SRs). We discovered that the amphioxus genome contains comparable expansion with 71 TLR gene models, 118 NLR models, and 270 SR models. Amphioxus also expands other receptor-like families, including 1215 C-type lectin models, 240 LRR and IGcam-containing models, 1363 other LRR-containing models, 75 C1q-like models, 98 ficolin-like models, and hundreds of models containing complement-related domains. The expansion is not restricted to receptors but is likely to extend to intermediate signal transducers because there are 58 TIR adapter-like models, 36 TRAF models, 44 initiator caspase models, and 541 death-fold domain-containing models in the genome. Amphioxus also has a sophisticated TNF system and a complicated complement system not previously seen in other invertebrates. Besides the increase of gene number, domain combinations of immune proteins are also increased. Altogether, this survey suggests that the amphioxus, a species without vertebrate-type adaptive immunity, holds extraordinary innate complexity and diversity. PMID:18562681

  3. Genomic analysis of the immune gene repertoire of amphioxus reveals extraordinary innate complexity and diversity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengfeng; Yuan, Shaochun; Guo, Lei; Yu, Yanhong; Li, Jun; Wu, Tao; Liu, Tong; Yang, Manyi; Wu, Kui; Liu, Huiling; Ge, Jin; Yu, Yingcai; Huang, Huiqing; Dong, Meiling; Yu, Cuiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2008-07-01

    It has been speculated that before vertebrates evolved somatic diversity-based adaptive immunity, the germline-encoded diversity of innate immunity may have been more developed. Amphioxus occupies the basal position of the chordate phylum and hence is an important reference to the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Here we report the first comprehensive genomic survey of the immune gene repertoire of the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae. It has been reported that the purple sea urchin has a vastly expanded innate receptor repertoire not previously seen in other species, which includes 222 toll-like receptors (TLRs), 203 NOD/NALP-like receptors (NLRs), and 218 scavenger receptors (SRs). We discovered that the amphioxus genome contains comparable expansion with 71 TLR gene models, 118 NLR models, and 270 SR models. Amphioxus also expands other receptor-like families, including 1215 C-type lectin models, 240 LRR and IGcam-containing models, 1363 other LRR-containing models, 75 C1q-like models, 98 ficolin-like models, and hundreds of models containing complement-related domains. The expansion is not restricted to receptors but is likely to extend to intermediate signal transducers because there are 58 TIR adapter-like models, 36 TRAF models, 44 initiator caspase models, and 541 death-fold domain-containing models in the genome. Amphioxus also has a sophisticated TNF system and a complicated complement system not previously seen in other invertebrates. Besides the increase of gene number, domain combinations of immune proteins are also increased. Altogether, this survey suggests that the amphioxus, a species without vertebrate-type adaptive immunity, holds extraordinary innate complexity and diversity. PMID:18562681

  4. Combining genomic sequencing methods to explore viral diversity and reveal potential virus-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Winget, Danielle M; White, Richard A; Hallam, Steven J; Suttle, Curtis A

    2015-01-01

    Viral diversity and virus-host interactions in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, also known as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), remain relatively unexplored. Microbial community metabolism in OMZs alters nutrient and energy flow through marine food webs, resulting in biological nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Thus, viruses infecting OMZ microbes have the potential to modulate community metabolism with resulting feedback on ecosystem function. Here, we describe viral communities inhabiting oxic surface (10 m) and oxygen-starved basin (200 m) waters of Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia using viral metagenomics and complete viral fosmid sequencing on samples collected between April 2007 and April 2010. Of 6459 open reading frames (ORFs) predicted across all 34 viral fosmids, 77.6% (n = 5010) had no homology to reference viral genomes. These fosmids recruited a higher proportion of viral metagenomic sequences from Saanich Inlet than from nearby northeastern subarctic Pacific Ocean (Line P) waters, indicating differences in the viral communities between coastal and open ocean locations. While functional annotations of fosmid ORFs were limited, recruitment to NCBI's non-redundant "nr" database and publicly available single-cell genomes identified putative viruses infecting marine thaumarchaeal and SUP05 proteobacteria to provide potential host linkages with relevance to coupled biogeochemical cycling processes in OMZ waters. Taken together, these results highlight the power of coupled analyses of multiple sequence data types, such as viral metagenomic and fosmid sequence data with prokaryotic single cell genomes, to chart viral diversity, elucidate genomic and ecological contexts for previously unclassifiable viral sequences, and identify novel host interactions in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:25914678

  5. Combining genomic sequencing methods to explore viral diversity and reveal potential virus-host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Winget, Danielle M.; White, Richard A.; Hallam, Steven J.; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2015-01-01

    Viral diversity and virus-host interactions in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, also known as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), remain relatively unexplored. Microbial community metabolism in OMZs alters nutrient and energy flow through marine food webs, resulting in biological nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Thus, viruses infecting OMZ microbes have the potential to modulate community metabolism with resulting feedback on ecosystem function. Here, we describe viral communities inhabiting oxic surface (10 m) and oxygen-starved basin (200 m) waters of Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia using viral metagenomics and complete viral fosmid sequencing on samples collected between April 2007 and April 2010. Of 6459 open reading frames (ORFs) predicted across all 34 viral fosmids, 77.6% (n = 5010) had no homology to reference viral genomes. These fosmids recruited a higher proportion of viral metagenomic sequences from Saanich Inlet than from nearby northeastern subarctic Pacific Ocean (Line P) waters, indicating differences in the viral communities between coastal and open ocean locations. While functional annotations of fosmid ORFs were limited, recruitment to NCBI's non-redundant “nr” database and publicly available single-cell genomes identified putative viruses infecting marine thaumarchaeal and SUP05 proteobacteria to provide potential host linkages with relevance to coupled biogeochemical cycling processes in OMZ waters. Taken together, these results highlight the power of coupled analyses of multiple sequence data types, such as viral metagenomic and fosmid sequence data with prokaryotic single cell genomes, to chart viral diversity, elucidate genomic and ecological contexts for previously unclassifiable viral sequences, and identify novel host interactions in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:25914678

  6. Comparison of 26 sphingomonad genomes reveals diverse environmental adaptations and biodegradative capabilities.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Frank O; McDonald, Bradon R; Adams, Sandra M; Valenzuela, Alejandra; Schmidt, Rebeccah A; Goodwin, Lynne A; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Poulsen, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Sphingomonads comprise a physiologically versatile group within the Alphaproteobacteria that includes strains of interest for biotechnology, human health, and environmental nutrient cycling. In this study, we compared 26 sphingomonad genome sequences to gain insight into their ecology, metabolic versatility, and environmental adaptations. Our multilocus phylogenetic and average amino acid identity (AAI) analyses confirm that Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Sphingopyxis, and Novosphingobium are well-resolved monophyletic groups with the exception of Sphingomonas sp. strain SKA58, which we propose belongs to the genus Sphingobium. Our pan-genomic analysis of sphingomonads reveals numerous species-specific open reading frames (ORFs) but few signatures of genus-specific cores. The organization and coding potential of the sphingomonad genomes appear to be highly variable, and plasmid-mediated gene transfer and chromosome-plasmid recombination, together with prophage- and transposon-mediated rearrangements, appear to play prominent roles in the genome evolution of this group. We find that many of the sphingomonad genomes encode numerous oxygenases and glycoside hydrolases, which are likely responsible for their ability to degrade various recalcitrant aromatic compounds and polysaccharides, respectively. Many of these enzymes are encoded on megaplasmids, suggesting that they may be readily transferred between species. We also identified enzymes putatively used for the catabolism of sulfonate and nitroaromatic compounds in many of the genomes, suggesting that plant-based compounds or chemical contaminants may be sources of nitrogen and sulfur. Many of these sphingomonads appear to be adapted to oligotrophic environments, but several contain genomic features indicative of host associations. Our work provides a basis for understanding the ecological strategies employed by sphingomonads and their role in environmental nutrient cycling. PMID:23563954

  7. Comparison of environmental and isolate Sulfobacillus genomes reveals diverse carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolisms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Justice, Nicholas B.; Norman, Anders; Brown, Christopher T.; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2014-12-15

    Bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus are found worldwide as members of microbial communities that accelerate sulfide mineral dissolution in acid mine drainage environments (AMD), acid-rock drainage environments (ARD), as well as in industrial bioleaching operations. Despite their frequent identification in these environments, their role in biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood. Here we report draft genomes of five species of the Sulfobacillus genus (AMDSBA1-5) reconstructed by cultivation-independent sequencing of biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, CA). Three of these species (AMDSBA2, AMDSBA3, and AMDSBA4) have no cultured representatives while AMDSBA1 is a strain of S. benefaciens, and AMDSBA5 amore » strain of S. thermosulfidooxidans. We analyzed the diversity of energy conservation and central carbon metabolisms for these genomes and previously published Sulfobacillus genomes. Pathways of sulfur oxidation vary considerably across the genus, including the number and type of subunits of putative heterodisulfide reductase complexes likely involved in sulfur oxidation. The number and type of nickel-iron hydrogenase proteins varied across the genus, as does the presence of different central carbon pathways. Only the AMDSBA3 genome encodes a dissimilatory nitrate reducatase and only the AMDSBA5 and S. thermosulfidooxidans genomes encode assimilatory nitrate reductases. Lastly, within the genus, AMDSBA4 is unusual in that its electron transport chain includes a cytochrome bc type complex, a unique cytochrome c oxidase, and two distinct succinate dehydrogenase complexes. Overall, the results significantly expand our understanding of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolism within the Sulfobacillus genus.« less

  8. Global genomic diversity of Oryza sativa varieties revealed by comparative physical mapping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Kudrna, David A; Pan, Yonglong; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lin; Lin, Haiyan; Zhang, Jianwei; Song, Xiang; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Zhang, Qifa; Luo, Meizhong

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical maps embedding a large number of BAC end sequences (BESs) were generated for Oryza sativa ssp. indica varieties Minghui 63 (MH63) and Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and were compared with the genome sequences of O. sativa spp. japonica cv. Nipponbare and O. sativa ssp. indica cv. 93-11. The comparisons exhibited substantial diversities in terms of large structural variations and small substitutions and indels. Genome-wide BAC-sized and contig-sized structural variations were detected, and the shared variations were analyzed. In the expansion regions of the Nipponbare reference sequence, in comparison to the MH63 and ZS97 physical maps, as well as to the previously constructed 93-11 physical map, the amounts and types of the repeat contents, and the outputs of gene ontology analysis, were significantly different from those of the whole genome. Using the physical maps of four wild Oryza species from OMAP (http://www.omap.org) as a control, we detected many conserved and divergent regions related to the evolution process of O. sativa. Between the BESs of MH63 and ZS97 and the two reference sequences, a total of 1532 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 71,383 SNPs, 1767 multiple nucleotide polymorphisms, 6340 insertions, and 9137 deletions were identified. This study provides independent whole-genome resources for intra- and intersubspecies comparisons and functional genomics studies in O. sativa. Both the comparative physical maps and the GBrowse, which integrated the QTL and molecular markers from GRAMENE (http://www.gramene.org) with our physical maps and analysis results, are open to the public through our Web site (http://gresource.hzau.edu.cn/resource/resource.html). PMID:24424778

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, David J.; Pacheco, M. Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F.; Schwartz, Rachel S.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America. PMID:26709695

  10. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Winter, David J; Pacheco, M Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F; Schwartz, Rachel S; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Cartwright, Reed A; Escalante, Ananias A

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America. PMID:26709695

  11. Staphylococcus epidermidis pan-genome sequence analysis reveals diversity of skin commensal and hospital infection-associated isolates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While Staphylococcus epidermidis is commonly isolated from healthy human skin, it is also the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections on indwelling medical devices. Despite its importance, few genome sequences existed and the most frequent hospital-associated lineage, ST2, had not been fully sequenced. Results We cultivated 71 commensal S. epidermidis isolates from 15 skin sites and compared them with 28 nosocomial isolates from venous catheters and blood cultures. We produced 21 commensal and 9 nosocomial draft genomes, and annotated and compared their gene content, phylogenetic relatedness and biochemical functions. The commensal strains had an open pan-genome with 80% core genes and 20% variable genes. The variable genome was characterized by an overabundance of transposable elements, transcription factors and transporters. Biochemical diversity, as assayed by antibiotic resistance and in vitro biofilm formation, demonstrated the varied phenotypic consequences of this genomic diversity. The nosocomial isolates exhibited both large-scale rearrangements and single-nucleotide variation. We showed that S. epidermidis genomes separate into two phylogenetic groups, one consisting only of commensals. The formate dehydrogenase gene, present only in commensals, is a discriminatory marker between the two groups. Conclusions Commensal skin S. epidermidis have an open pan-genome and show considerable diversity between isolates, even when derived from a single individual or body site. For ST2, the most common nosocomial lineage, we detect variation between three independent isolates sequenced. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed a previously unrecognized group of S. epidermidis strains characterized by reduced virulence and formate dehydrogenase, which we propose as a clinical molecular marker. PMID:22830599

  12. 'Candidatus Competibacter'-lineage genomes retrieved from metagenomes reveal functional metabolic diversity.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon J; Albertsen, Mads; Andresen, Eva K; Saunders, Aaron M; Kristiansen, Rikke; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Kåre L; Nielsen, Per H

    2014-03-01

    The glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) 'Candidatus Competibacter' (Competibacter) uses aerobically stored glycogen to enable anaerobic carbon uptake, which is subsequently stored as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). This biphasic metabolism is key for the Competibacter to survive under the cyclic anaerobic-'feast': aerobic-'famine' regime of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. As they do not contribute to phosphorus (P) removal, but compete for resources with the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), thought responsible for P removal, their proliferation theoretically reduces the EBPR capacity. In this study, two complete genomes from Competibacter were obtained from laboratory-scale enrichment reactors through metagenomics. Phylogenetic analysis identified the two genomes, 'Candidatus Competibacter denitrificans' and 'Candidatus Contendobacter odensis', as being affiliated with Competibacter-lineage subgroups 1 and 5, respectively. Both have genes for glycogen and PHA cycling and for the metabolism of volatile fatty acids. Marked differences were found in their potential for the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas and Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathways, as well as for denitrification, nitrogen fixation, fermentation, trehalose synthesis and utilisation of glucose and lactate. Genetic comparison of P metabolism pathways with sequenced PAOs revealed the absence of the Pit phosphate transporter in the Competibacter-lineage genomes--identifying a key metabolic difference with the PAO physiology. These genomes are the first from any GAO organism and provide new insights into the complex interaction and niche competition between PAOs and GAOs in EBPR systems. PMID:24173461

  13. Genetic and Genomic Diversity Studies of Acacia Symbionts in Senegal Reveal New Species of Mesorhizobium with a Putative Geographical Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species. PMID:25658650

  14. Genome-wide view of genetic diversity reveals paths of selection and cultivar differentiation in peach domestication.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Takashi; Hanada, Toshio; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Gradziel, Thomas M; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Domestication and cultivar differentiation are requisite processes for establishing cultivated crops. These processes inherently involve substantial changes in population structure, including those from artificial selection of key genes. In this study, accessions of peach (Prunus persica) and its wild relatives were analysed genome-wide to identify changes in genetic structures and gene selections associated with their differentiation. Analysis of genome-wide informative single-nucleotide polymorphism loci revealed distinct changes in genetic structures and delineations among domesticated peach and its wild relatives and among peach landraces and modern fruit (F) and modern ornamental (O-A) cultivars. Indications of distinct changes in linkage disequilibrium extension/decay and of strong population bottlenecks or inbreeding were identified. Site frequency spectrum- and extended haplotype homozygosity-based evaluation of genome-wide genetic diversities supported selective sweeps distinguishing the domesticated peach from its wild relatives and each F/O-A cluster from the landrace clusters. The regions with strong selective sweeps harboured promising candidates for genes subjected to selection. Further sequence-based evaluation further defined the candidates and revealed their characteristics. All results suggest opportunities for identifying critical genes associated with each differentiation by analysing genome-wide genetic diversity in currently established populations. This approach obviates the special development of genetic populations, which is particularly difficult for long-lived tree crops. PMID:27085183

  15. Genome-wide view of genetic diversity reveals paths of selection and cultivar differentiation in peach domestication

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Takashi; Hanada, Toshio; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-01-01

    Domestication and cultivar differentiation are requisite processes for establishing cultivated crops. These processes inherently involve substantial changes in population structure, including those from artificial selection of key genes. In this study, accessions of peach (Prunus persica) and its wild relatives were analysed genome-wide to identify changes in genetic structures and gene selections associated with their differentiation. Analysis of genome-wide informative single-nucleotide polymorphism loci revealed distinct changes in genetic structures and delineations among domesticated peach and its wild relatives and among peach landraces and modern fruit (F) and modern ornamental (O-A) cultivars. Indications of distinct changes in linkage disequilibrium extension/decay and of strong population bottlenecks or inbreeding were identified. Site frequency spectrum- and extended haplotype homozygosity-based evaluation of genome-wide genetic diversities supported selective sweeps distinguishing the domesticated peach from its wild relatives and each F/O-A cluster from the landrace clusters. The regions with strong selective sweeps harboured promising candidates for genes subjected to selection. Further sequence-based evaluation further defined the candidates and revealed their characteristics. All results suggest opportunities for identifying critical genes associated with each differentiation by analysing genome-wide genetic diversity in currently established populations. This approach obviates the special development of genetic populations, which is particularly difficult for long-lived tree crops. PMID:27085183

  16. Diversity and relationships of cocirculating modern human rotaviruses revealed using large-scale comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sarah M; McKell, Allison O; Rippinger, Christine M; McAllen, John K; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Payne, Daniel C; Edwards, Kathryn M; Chappell, James D; Patton, John T

    2012-09-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses and are primary causes of gastroenteritis in young children. Despite their medical relevance, the genetic diversity of modern human RVs is poorly understood, and the impact of vaccine use on circulating strains remains unknown. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence analysis of 58 RVs isolated from children with severe diarrhea and/or vomiting at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) in Nashville, TN, during the years spanning community vaccine implementation (2005 to 2009). The RVs analyzed include 36 G1P[8], 18 G3P[8], and 4 G12P[8] Wa-like genogroup 1 strains with VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6 genotype constellations of I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. By constructing phylogenetic trees, we identified 2 to 5 subgenotype alleles for each gene. The results show evidence of intragenogroup gene reassortment among the cocirculating strains. However, several isolates from different seasons maintained identical allele constellations, consistent with the notion that certain RV clades persisted in the community. By comparing the genes of VUMC RVs to those of other archival and contemporary RV strains for which sequences are available, we defined phylogenetic lineages and verified that the diversity of the strains analyzed in this study reflects that seen in other regions of the world. Importantly, the VP4 and VP7 proteins encoded by VUMC RVs and other contemporary strains show amino acid changes in or near neutralization domains, which might reflect antigenic drift of the virus. Thus, this large-scale, comparative genomic study of modern human RVs provides significant insight into how this pathogen evolves during its spread in the community. PMID:22696651

  17. Diversity and Relationships of Cocirculating Modern Human Rotaviruses Revealed Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    McKell, Allison O.; Rippinger, Christine M.; McAllen, John K.; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Payne, Daniel C.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Chappell, James D.; Patton, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses and are primary causes of gastroenteritis in young children. Despite their medical relevance, the genetic diversity of modern human RVs is poorly understood, and the impact of vaccine use on circulating strains remains unknown. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence analysis of 58 RVs isolated from children with severe diarrhea and/or vomiting at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) in Nashville, TN, during the years spanning community vaccine implementation (2005 to 2009). The RVs analyzed include 36 G1P[8], 18 G3P[8], and 4 G12P[8] Wa-like genogroup 1 strains with VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6 genotype constellations of I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. By constructing phylogenetic trees, we identified 2 to 5 subgenotype alleles for each gene. The results show evidence of intragenogroup gene reassortment among the cocirculating strains. However, several isolates from different seasons maintained identical allele constellations, consistent with the notion that certain RV clades persisted in the community. By comparing the genes of VUMC RVs to those of other archival and contemporary RV strains for which sequences are available, we defined phylogenetic lineages and verified that the diversity of the strains analyzed in this study reflects that seen in other regions of the world. Importantly, the VP4 and VP7 proteins encoded by VUMC RVs and other contemporary strains show amino acid changes in or near neutralization domains, which might reflect antigenic drift of the virus. Thus, this large-scale, comparative genomic study of modern human RVs provides significant insight into how this pathogen evolves during its spread in the community. PMID:22696651

  18. Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Zalloua, Pierre; Benammar Elgaaied, Amel; Comas, David

    2013-01-01

    The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete description of the region. In this study, we analyze uniparental and genome-wide markers examining similarities or contrasts in the results and consequently provide a comprehensive description of the evolutionary history of North Africa populations. Our results show that both males and females in North Africa underwent a similar admixture history with slight differences in the proportions of admixture components. Consequently, genome-wide diversity show similar patterns with admixture tests suggesting North Africans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to current Africans and Eurasians with more affinity towards the out-of-Africa populations than to sub-Saharan Africans. We estimate from the paternal lineages that most North Africans emerged ∼15,000 years ago during the last glacial warming and that population splits started after the desiccation of the Sahara. Although most North Africans share a common admixture history, the Tunisian Berbers show long periods of genetic isolation and appear to have diverged from surrounding populations without subsequent mixture. On the other hand, continuous gene flow from the Middle East made Egyptians genetically closer to Eurasians than to other North Africans. We show that genetic diversity of today's North Africans mostly captures patterns from migrations post Last Glacial Maximum and therefore may be insufficient to inform on the initial population of the region during the Middle Paleolithic period. PMID:24312208

  19. ‘Candidatus Competibacter'-lineage genomes retrieved from metagenomes reveal functional metabolic diversity

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon J; Albertsen, Mads; Andresen, Eva K; Saunders, Aaron M; Kristiansen, Rikke; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Kåre L; Nielsen, Per H

    2014-01-01

    The glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) ‘Candidatus Competibacter' (Competibacter) uses aerobically stored glycogen to enable anaerobic carbon uptake, which is subsequently stored as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). This biphasic metabolism is key for the Competibacter to survive under the cyclic anaerobic-‘feast': aerobic-‘famine' regime of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. As they do not contribute to phosphorus (P) removal, but compete for resources with the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), thought responsible for P removal, their proliferation theoretically reduces the EBPR capacity. In this study, two complete genomes from Competibacter were obtained from laboratory-scale enrichment reactors through metagenomics. Phylogenetic analysis identified the two genomes, ‘Candidatus Competibacter denitrificans' and ‘Candidatus Contendobacter odensis', as being affiliated with Competibacter-lineage subgroups 1 and 5, respectively. Both have genes for glycogen and PHA cycling and for the metabolism of volatile fatty acids. Marked differences were found in their potential for the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas and Entner–Doudoroff glycolytic pathways, as well as for denitrification, nitrogen fixation, fermentation, trehalose synthesis and utilisation of glucose and lactate. Genetic comparison of P metabolism pathways with sequenced PAOs revealed the absence of the Pit phosphate transporter in the Competibacter-lineage genomes—identifying a key metabolic difference with the PAO physiology. These genomes are the first from any GAO organism and provide new insights into the complex interaction and niche competition between PAOs and GAOs in EBPR systems. PMID:24173461

  20. Comparative Genomics Reveals the Origins and Diversity of Arthropod Immune Systems.

    PubMed

    Palmer, William J; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-08-01

    Insects are an important model for the study of innate immune systems, but remarkably little is known about the immune system of other arthropod groups despite their importance as disease vectors, pests, and components of biological diversity. Using comparative genomics, we have characterized the immune system of all the major groups of arthropods beyond insects for the first time--studying five chelicerates, a myriapod, and a crustacean. We found clear traces of an ancient origin of innate immunity, with some arthropods having Toll-like receptors and C3-complement factors that are more closely related in sequence or structure to vertebrates than other arthropods. Across the arthropods some components of the immune system, such as the Toll signaling pathway, are highly conserved. However, there is also remarkable diversity. The chelicerates apparently lack the Imd signaling pathway and beta-1,3 glucan binding proteins--a key class of pathogen recognition receptors. Many genes have large copy number variation across species, and this may sometimes be accompanied by changes in function. For example, we find that peptidoglycan recognition proteins have frequently lost their catalytic activity and switch between secreted and intracellular forms. We also find that there has been widespread and extensive duplication of the cellular immune receptor Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule), which may be an alternative way to generate the high diversity produced by alternative splicing in insects. In the antiviral short interfering RNAi pathway Argonaute 2 evolves rapidly and is frequently duplicated, with a highly variable copy number. Our results provide a detailed analysis of the immune systems of several important groups of animals for the first time and lay the foundations for functional work on these groups. PMID:25908671

  1. Comparative Genomics Reveals the Origins and Diversity of Arthropod Immune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, William J.; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2015-01-01

    Insects are an important model for the study of innate immune systems, but remarkably little is known about the immune system of other arthropod groups despite their importance as disease vectors, pests, and components of biological diversity. Using comparative genomics, we have characterized the immune system of all the major groups of arthropods beyond insects for the first time—studying five chelicerates, a myriapod, and a crustacean. We found clear traces of an ancient origin of innate immunity, with some arthropods having Toll-like receptors and C3-complement factors that are more closely related in sequence or structure to vertebrates than other arthropods. Across the arthropods some components of the immune system, such as the Toll signaling pathway, are highly conserved. However, there is also remarkable diversity. The chelicerates apparently lack the Imd signaling pathway and beta-1,3 glucan binding proteins—a key class of pathogen recognition receptors. Many genes have large copy number variation across species, and this may sometimes be accompanied by changes in function. For example, we find that peptidoglycan recognition proteins have frequently lost their catalytic activity and switch between secreted and intracellular forms. We also find that there has been widespread and extensive duplication of the cellular immune receptor Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule), which may be an alternative way to generate the high diversity produced by alternative splicing in insects. In the antiviral short interfering RNAi pathway Argonaute 2 evolves rapidly and is frequently duplicated, with a highly variable copy number. Our results provide a detailed analysis of the immune systems of several important groups of animals for the first time and lay the foundations for functional work on these groups. PMID:25908671

  2. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Diverse Repertoire of Genes Involved in Prokaryote-Eukaryote Interactions within the Pseudovibrio Genus

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Stefano; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antonio; Reen, F. Jerry; Glöckner, Frank O.; Crowley, Susan P.; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Adams, Claire; Dobson, Alan D. W.; O'Gara, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    Strains of the Pseudovibrio genus have been detected worldwide, mainly as part of bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates, particularly sponges. This recurrent association has been considered as an indication of a symbiotic relationship between these microbes and their host. Until recently, the availability of only two genomes, belonging to closely related strains, has limited the knowledge on the genomic and physiological features of the genus to a single phylogenetic lineage. Here we present 10 newly sequenced genomes of Pseudovibrio strains isolated from marine sponges from the west coast of Ireland, and including the other two publicly available genomes we performed an extensive comparative genomic analysis. Homogeneity was apparent in terms of both the orthologous genes and the metabolic features shared amongst the 12 strains. At the genomic level, a key physiological difference observed amongst the isolates was the presence only in strain P. axinellae AD2 of genes encoding proteins involved in assimilatory nitrate reduction, which was then proved experimentally. We then focused on studying those systems known to be involved in the interactions with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This analysis revealed that the genus harbors a large diversity of toxin-like proteins, secretion systems and their potential effectors. Their distribution in the genus was not always consistent with the phylogenetic relationship of the strains. Finally, our analyses identified new genomic islands encoding potential toxin-immunity systems, previously unknown in the genus. Our analyses shed new light on the Pseudovibrio genus, indicating a large diversity of both metabolic features and systems for interacting with the host. The diversity in both distribution and abundance of these systems amongst the strains underlines how metabolically and phylogenetically similar bacteria may use different strategies to interact with the host and find a niche within its

  3. Comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete genomes reveals diversity and uniqueness of the phylum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37% of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprobes including wood decaying fungi. To better understand the diversity of this ...

  4. Metabolic diversity and ecological niches of Achromatium populations revealed with single-cell genomic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Muammar; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Fantle, Matthew S.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Large, sulfur-cycling, calcite-precipitating bacteria in the genus Achromatium represent a significant proportion of bacterial communities near sediment-water interfaces at sites throughout the world. Our understanding of their potentially crucial roles in calcium, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and iron cycling is limited because they have not been cultured or sequenced using environmental genomics approaches to date. We utilized single-cell genomic sequencing to obtain one incomplete and two nearly complete draft genomes for Achromatium collected at Warm Mineral Springs (WMS), FL. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the three cells represent distinct and relatively distant Achromatium populations (91–92% identity). The draft genomes encode key genes involved in sulfur and hydrogen oxidation; oxygen, nitrogen and polysulfide respiration; carbon and nitrogen fixation; organic carbon assimilation and storage; chemotaxis; twitching motility; antibiotic resistance; and membrane transport. Known genes for iron and manganese energy metabolism were not detected. The presence of pyrophosphatase and vacuolar (V)-type ATPases, which are generally rare in bacterial genomes, suggests a role for these enzymes in calcium transport, proton pumping, and/or energy generation in the membranes of calcite-containing inclusions. PMID:26322031

  5. Comparative analysis of the Oenococcus oeni pan genome reveals genetic diversity in industrially-relevant pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oenococcus oeni, a member of the lactic acid bacteria, is one of a limited number of microorganisms that not only survive, but actively proliferate in wine. It is also unusual as, unlike the majority of bacteria present in wine, it is beneficial to wine quality rather than causing spoilage. These benefits are realised primarily through catalysing malolactic fermentation, but also through imparting other positive sensory properties. However, many of these industrially-important secondary attributes have been shown to be strain-dependent and their genetic basis it yet to be determined. Results In order to investigate the scale and scope of genetic variation in O. oeni, we have performed whole-genome sequencing on eleven strains of this bacterium, bringing the total number of strains for which genome sequences are available to fourteen. While any single strain of O. oeni was shown to contain around 1800 protein-coding genes, in-depth comparative annotation based on genomic synteny and protein orthology identified over 2800 orthologous open reading frames that comprise the pan genome of this species, and less than 1200 genes that make up the conserved genomic core present in all of the strains. The expansion of the pan genome relative to the coding potential of individual strains was shown to be due to the varied presence and location of multiple distinct bacteriophage sequences and also in various metabolic functions with potential impacts on the industrial performance of this species, including cell wall exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, sugar transport and utilisation and amino acid biosynthesis. Conclusions By providing a large cohort of sequenced strains, this study provides a broad insight into the genetic variation present within O. oeni. This data is vital to understanding and harnessing the phenotypic variation present in this economically-important species. PMID:22863143

  6. Whole-genome sequencing reveals the diversity of cattle copy number variations and multicopy genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural and functional impacts of copy number variations (CNVs) on livestock genomes are not yet well understood. We identified 1853 CNV regions using population-scale sequencing data generated from 75 cattle representing 8 breeds (Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, Romagnol...

  7. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  8. A Comparative Genomic Analysis of Diverse Clonal Types of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Reveals Pathovar-Specific Conservation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, Jason W.; Steinsland, Hans; Redman, Julia C.; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Nataro, James P.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Rasko, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal illness in children less than 5 years of age in low- and middle-income nations, whereas it is an emerging enteric pathogen in industrialized nations. Despite being an important cause of diarrhea, little is known about the genomic composition of ETEC. To address this, we sequenced the genomes of five ETEC isolates obtained from children in Guinea-Bissau with diarrhea. These five isolates represent distinct and globally dominant ETEC clonal groups. Comparative genomic analyses utilizing a gene-independent whole-genome alignment method demonstrated that sequenced ETEC strains share approximately 2.7 million bases of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of this “core genome” confirmed the diverse history of the ETEC pathovar and provides a finer resolution of the E. coli relationships than multilocus sequence typing. No identified genomic regions were conserved exclusively in all ETEC genomes; however, we identified more genomic content conserved among ETEC genomes than among non-ETEC E. coli genomes, suggesting that ETEC isolates share a genomic core. Comparisons of known virulence and of surface-exposed and colonization factor genes across all sequenced ETEC genomes not only identified variability but also indicated that some antigens are restricted to the ETEC pathovar. Overall, the generation of these five genome sequences, in addition to the two previously generated ETEC genomes, highlights the genomic diversity of ETEC. These studies increase our understanding of ETEC evolution, as well as provide insight into virulence factors and conserved proteins, which may be targets for vaccine development. PMID:21078854

  9. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  10. A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genes Associated with Fusarium Ear Rot Resistance in a Maize Core Diversity Panel

    PubMed Central

    Zila, Charles T.; Samayoa, L. Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0–100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

  11. A genome-wide association study reveals genes associated with fusarium ear rot resistance in a maize core diversity panel.

    PubMed

    Zila, Charles T; Samayoa, L Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B

    2013-11-01

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0-100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

  12. The Mycobacterium DosR regulon structure and diversity revealed by comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; He, Liming; Deng, Wanyan; Xie, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which claims approximately two million people annually, remains a global health concern. The non-replicating or dormancy like state of this pathogen which is impervious to anti-tuberculosis drugs is widely recognized as the culprit for this scenario. The dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon, composed of 48 co-regulated genes, is held as essential for Mtb persistence. The DosR regulon is regulated by a two-component regulatory system consisting of two sensor kinases-DosS (Rv3132c) and DosT (Rv2027c), and a response regulator DosR (Rv3133c). The underlying regulatory mechanism of DosR regulon expression is very complex. Many factors are involved, particularly the oxygen tension. The DosR regulon enables the pathogen to persist during lengthy hypoxia. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the DosR regulon is widely distributed among the mycobacterial genomes, ranging from the pathogenic strains to the environmental strains. In-depth studies on the DosR response should provide insights into its role in TB latency in vivo and shape new measures to combat this exceeding recalcitrant pathogen. PMID:22833514

  13. Genome-Wide Diversity in the Levant Reveals Recent Structuring by Culture

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Marc; Gauguier, Dominique; Youhanna, Sonia; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Botigué, Laura R.; Platt, Daniel E.; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Wells, R. Spencer; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The Levant is a region in the Near East with an impressive record of continuous human existence and major cultural developments since the Paleolithic period. Genetic and archeological studies present solid evidence placing the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula as the first stepping-stone outside Africa. There is, however, little understanding of demographic changes in the Middle East, particularly the Levant, after the first Out-of-Africa expansion and how the Levantine peoples relate genetically to each other and to their neighbors. In this study we analyze more than 500,000 genome-wide SNPs in 1,341 new samples from the Levant and compare them to samples from 48 populations worldwide. Our results show recent genetic stratifications in the Levant are driven by the religious affiliations of the populations within the region. Cultural changes within the last two millennia appear to have facilitated/maintained admixture between culturally similar populations from the Levant, Arabian Peninsula, and Africa. The same cultural changes seem to have resulted in genetic isolation of other groups by limiting admixture with culturally different neighboring populations. Consequently, Levant populations today fall into two main groups: one sharing more genetic characteristics with modern-day Europeans and Central Asians, and the other with closer genetic affinities to other Middle Easterners and Africans. Finally, we identify a putative Levantine ancestral component that diverged from other Middle Easterners ∼23,700–15,500 years ago during the last glacial period, and diverged from Europeans ∼15,900–9,100 years ago between the last glacial warming and the start of the Neolithic. PMID:23468648

  14. Comparative Genomics Revealed Genetic Diversity and Species/Strain-Level Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Three Probiotic Bifidobacterial Species

    PubMed Central

    Odamaki, Toshitaka; Horigome, Ayako; Sugahara, Hirosuke; Hashikura, Nanami; Minami, Junichi; Xiao, Jin-zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium animalis are widely used as probiotics in the food industry. Although numerous studies have revealed the properties and functionality of these strains, it is uncertain whether these characteristics are species common or strain specific. To address this issue, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 49 strains belonging to these three bifidobacterial species to describe their genetic diversity and to evaluate species-level differences. There were 166 common clusters between strains of B. breve and B. longum, whereas there were nine common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. longum and four common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. breve. Further analysis focused on carbohydrate metabolism revealed the existence of certain strain-dependent genes, such as those encoding enzymes for host glycan utilisation or certain membrane transporters, and many genes commonly distributed at the species level, as was previously reported in studies with limited strains. As B. longum and B. breve are human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB), whereas B. animalis is a non-HRB species, several of the differences in these species' gene distributions might be the result of their adaptations to the nutrient environment. This information may aid both in selecting probiotic candidates and in understanding their potential function as probiotics. PMID:26236711

  15. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, however, genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to devel...

  16. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus from Zambian Kaposi's Sarcoma Biopsy Specimens Reveals Unique Viral Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Olp, Landon N.; Jeanniard, Adrien; Marimo, Clemence; West, John T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and KS are endemic in sub-Saharan Africa where approximately 84% of global KS cases occur. Nevertheless, whole-genome sequencing of KSHV has only been completed using isolates from Western countries—where KS is not endemic. The lack of whole-genome KSHV sequence data from the most clinically important geographical region, sub-Saharan Africa, represents an important gap since it remains unclear whether genomic diversity has a role on KSHV pathogenesis. We hypothesized that distinct KSHV genotypes might be present in sub-Saharan Africa compared to Western countries. Using a KSHV-targeted enrichment protocol followed by Illumina deep-sequencing, we generated and analyzed 16 unique Zambian, KS-derived, KSHV genomes. We enriched KSHV DNA over cellular DNA 1,851 to 18,235-fold. Enrichment provided coverage levels up to 24,740-fold; therefore, supporting highly confident polymorphism analysis. Multiple alignment of the 16 newly sequenced KSHV genomes showed low level variability across the entire central conserved region. This variability resulted in distinct phylogenetic clustering between Zambian KSHV genomic sequences and those derived from Western countries. Importantly, the phylogenetic segregation of Zambian from Western sequences occurred irrespective of inclusion of the highly variable genes K1 and K15. We also show that four genes within the more conserved region of the KSHV genome contained polymorphisms that partially, but not fully, contributed to the unique Zambian KSHV whole-genome phylogenetic structure. Taken together, our data suggest that the whole KSHV genome should be taken into consideration for accurate viral characterization. IMPORTANCE Our results represent the largest number of KSHV whole-genomic sequences published to date and the first time that multiple genomes have been sequenced from sub-Saharan Africa, a geographic area

  17. The genome of an Encephalitozoon cuniculi type III strain reveals insights into the genetic diversity and mode of reproduction of a ubiquitous vertebrate pathogen.

    PubMed

    Pelin, A; Moteshareie, H; Sak, B; Selman, M; Naor, A; Eyahpaise, M-È; Farinelli, L; Golshani, A; Kvac, M; Corradi, N

    2016-05-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a model microsporidian species with a mononucleate nucleus and a genome that has been extensively studied. To date, analyses of genome diversity have revealed the existence of four genotypes in E. cuniculi (EcI, II, III and IV). Genome sequences are available for EcI, II and III, and are all very divergent, possibly diploid and genetically homogeneous. The mechanisms that cause low genetic diversity in E. cuniculi (for example, selfing, inbreeding or a combination of both), as well as the degree of genetic variation in their natural populations, have been hard to assess because genome data have been so far gathered from laboratory-propagated strains. In this study, we aim to tackle this issue by analyzing the complete genome sequence of a natural strain of E. cuniculi isolated in 2013 from a steppe lemming. The strain belongs to the EcIII genotype and has been designated EcIII-L. The EcIII-L genome sequence harbors genomic features intermediate to known genomes of II and III lab strains, and we provide primers that differentiate the three E. cuniculi genotypes using a single PCR. Surprisingly, the EcIII-L genome is also highly homogeneous, harbors signatures of heterozygosity and also one strain-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that introduces a stop codon in a key meiosis gene, Spo11. Functional analyses using a heterologous system demonstrate that this SNP leads to a deficient meiosis in a model fungus. This indicates that EcIII-L meiotic machinery may be presently broken. Overall, our findings reveal previously unsuspected genome diversity in E. cuniculi, some of which appears to affect genes of primary importance for the biology of this pathogen. PMID:26837273

  18. Population genomic analysis reveals differential evolutionary histories and patterns of diversity across subgenomes and subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gazave, Elodie; Tassone, Erica E.; Ilut, Daniel C.; Wingerson, Megan; Datema, Erwin; Witsenboer, Hanneke M. A.; Davis, James B.; Grant, David; Dyer, John M.; Jenks, Matthew A.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Here, the allotetraploid species Brassica napus L. is a global crop of major economic importance, providing canola oil (seed) and vegetables for human consumption and fodder and meal for livestock feed. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this species. We used sequence-based genotyping to identify and genotype 30,881 SNPs in a diversity panel of 782 B. napus accessions, representing samples of winter and spring growth habits originating from 33 countries across Europe, Asia, and America. We detected strong population structure broadlymore » concordant with growth habit and geography, and identified three major genetic groups: spring (SP), winter Europe (WE), and winter Asia (WA). Subpopulation-specific polymorphism patterns suggest enriched genetic diversity within the WA group and a smaller effective breeding population for the SP group compared to WE. Interestingly, the two subgenomes of B. napus appear to have different geographic origins, with phylogenetic analysis placing WE and WA as basal clades for the other subpopulations in the C and A subgenomes, respectively. Finally, we identified 16 genomic regions where the patterns of diversity differed markedly from the genome-wide average, several of which are suggestive of genomic inversions. The results obtained in this study constitute a valuable resource for worldwide breeding efforts and the genetic dissection and prediction of complex B. napus traits.« less

  19. Population Genomic Analysis Reveals Differential Evolutionary Histories and Patterns of Diversity across Subgenomes and Subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Gazave, Elodie; Tassone, Erica E; Ilut, Daniel C; Wingerson, Megan; Datema, Erwin; Witsenboer, Hanneke M A; Davis, James B; Grant, David; Dyer, John M; Jenks, Matthew A; Brown, Jack; Gore, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The allotetraploid species Brassica napus L. is a global crop of major economic importance, providing canola oil (seed) and vegetables for human consumption and fodder and meal for livestock feed. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this species. We used sequence-based genotyping to identify and genotype 30,881 SNPs in a diversity panel of 782 B. napus accessions, representing samples of winter and spring growth habits originating from 33 countries across Europe, Asia, and America. We detected strong population structure broadly concordant with growth habit and geography, and identified three major genetic groups: spring (SP), winter Europe (WE), and winter Asia (WA). Subpopulation-specific polymorphism patterns suggest enriched genetic diversity within the WA group and a smaller effective breeding population for the SP group compared to WE. Interestingly, the two subgenomes of B. napus appear to have different geographic origins, with phylogenetic analysis placing WE and WA as basal clades for the other subpopulations in the C and A subgenomes, respectively. Finally, we identified 16 genomic regions where the patterns of diversity differed markedly from the genome-wide average, several of which are suggestive of genomic inversions. The results obtained in this study constitute a valuable resource for worldwide breeding efforts and the genetic dissection and prediction of complex B. napus traits. PMID:27148342

  20. Novel viral genomes identified from six metagenomes reveal wide distribution of archaeal viruses and high viral diversity in terrestrial hot springs.

    PubMed

    Gudbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Menzel, Peter; Krogh, Anders; Young, Mark; Peng, Xu

    2016-03-01

    Limited by culture-dependent methods the number of viruses identified from thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria is still very small. In this study we retrieved viral sequences from six hot spring metagenomes isolated worldwide, revealing a wide distribution of four archaeal viral families, Ampullaviridae, Bicaudaviridae, Lipothrixviridae and Rudiviridae. Importantly, we identified 10 complete or near complete viral genomes allowing, for the first time, an assessment of genome conservation and evolution of the Ampullaviridae family as well as Sulfolobus Monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1)-related viruses. Among the novel genomes, one belongs to a putative thermophilic virus infecting the bacterium Hydrogenobaculum, for which no virus has been reported in the literature. Moreover, a high viral diversity was observed in the metagenomes, especially among the Lipothrixviridae, as indicated by the large number of unique contigs and the lack of a completely assembled genome for this family. This is further supported by the large number of novel genes in the complete and partial genomes showing no sequence similarities to public databases. CRISPR analysis revealed hundreds of novel CRISPR loci and thousands of novel CRISPR spacers from each metagenome, reinforcing the notion of high viral diversity in the thermal environment. PMID:26439881

  1. Chromosomal Copy Number Variation, Selection and Uneven Rates of Recombination Reveal Cryptic Genome Diversity Linked to Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Rhys A.; Henk, Daniel A.; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Balloux, Francois; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi constitute a growing threat to both plant and animal species on a global scale. Despite a clonal mode of reproduction dominating the population genetic structure of many fungi, putatively asexual species are known to adapt rapidly when confronted by efforts to control their growth and transmission. However, the mechanisms by which adaptive diversity is generated across a clonal background are often poorly understood. We sequenced a global panel of the emergent amphibian pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), to high depth and characterized rapidly changing features of its genome that we believe hold the key to the worldwide success of this organism. Our analyses show three processes that contribute to the generation of de novo diversity. Firstly, we show that the majority of wild isolates manifest chromosomal copy number variation that changes over short timescales. Secondly, we show that cryptic recombination occurs within all lineages of Bd, leading to large regions of the genome being in linkage equilibrium, and is preferentially associated with classes of genes of known importance for virulence in other pathosystems. Finally, we show that these classes of genes are under directional selection, and that this has predominantly targeted the Global Panzootic Lineage (BdGPL). Our analyses show that Bd manifests an unusually dynamic genome that may have been shaped by its association with the amphibian host. The rates of variation that we document likely explain the high levels of phenotypic variability that have been reported for Bd, and suggests that the dynamic genome of this pathogen has contributed to its success across multiple biomes and host-species. PMID:23966879

  2. Genomic comparison of multi-drug resistant invasive and colonizing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from diverse human body sites reveals genomic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii has recently emerged as a significant global pathogen, with a surprisingly rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance and spread within hospitals and health care institutions. This study examines the genomic content of three A. baumannii strains isolated from distinct body sites. Isolates from blood, peri-anal, and wound sources were examined in an attempt to identify genetic features that could be correlated to each isolation source. Results Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multi-locus sequence typing and antibiotic resistance profiles demonstrated genotypic and phenotypic variation. Each isolate was sequenced to high-quality draft status, which allowed for comparative genomic analyses with existing A. baumannii genomes. A high resolution, whole genome alignment method detailed the phylogenetic relationships of sequenced A. baumannii and found no correlation between phylogeny and body site of isolation. This method identified genomic regions unique to both those isolates found on the surface of the skin or in wounds, termed colonization isolates, and those identified from body fluids, termed invasive isolates; these regions may play a role in the pathogenesis and spread of this important pathogen. A PCR-based screen of 74 A. baumanii isolates demonstrated that these unique genes are not exclusive to either phenotype or isolation source; however, a conserved genomic region exclusive to all sequenced A. baumannii was identified and verified. Conclusions The results of the comparative genome analysis and PCR assay show that A. baumannii is a diverse and genomically variable pathogen that appears to have the potential to cause a range of human disease regardless of the isolation source. PMID:21639920

  3. Evolutionary genomics of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses reveals cross-family horizontal gene transfer and evolution of diverse viral lineages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Double-stranded (ds) RNA fungal viruses are typically isometric single-shelled particles that are classified into three families, Totiviridae, Partitiviridae and Chrysoviridae, the members of which possess monopartite, bipartite and quadripartite genomes, respectively. Recent findings revealed that mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses are more diverse than previously recognized. Although an increasing number of viral complete genomic sequences have become available, the evolution of these diverse dsRNA viruses remains to be clarified. This is particularly so since there is little evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among dsRNA viruses. Results In this study, we report the molecular properties of two novel dsRNA mycoviruses that were isolated from a field strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sunf-M: one is a large monopartite virus representing a distinct evolutionary lineage of dsRNA viruses; the other is a new member of the family Partitiviridae. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and genome comparison revealed that there are at least ten monopartite, three bipartite, one tripartite and three quadripartite lineages in the known dsRNA mycoviruses and that the multipartite lineages have possibly evolved from different monopartite dsRNA viruses. Moreover, we found that homologs of the S7 Domain, characteristic of members of the genus phytoreovirus in family Reoviridae are widely distributed in diverse dsRNA viral lineages, including chrysoviruses, endornaviruses and some unclassified dsRNA mycoviruses. We further provided evidence that multiple HGT events may have occurred among these dsRNA viruses from different families. Conclusions Our study provides an insight into the phylogeny and evolution of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses and reveals that the occurrence of HGT between different virus species and the development of multipartite genomes during evolution are important macroevolutionary mechanisms in dsRNA viruses. PMID:22716092

  4. The genome of the Erwinia amylovora phage PhiEaH1 reveals greater diversity and broadens the applicability of phages for the treatment of fire blight.

    PubMed

    Meczker, Katalin; Dömötör, Dóra; Vass, János; Rákhely, Gábor; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight. This study presents the analysis of the complete genome of phage PhiEaH1, isolated from the soil surrounding an E. amylovora-infected apple tree in Hungary. Its genome is 218 kb in size, containing 244 ORFs. PhiEaH1 is the second E. amylovora infecting phage from the Siphoviridae family whose complete genome sequence was determined. Beside PhiEaH2, PhiEaH1 is the other active component of Erwiphage, the first bacteriophage-based pesticide on the market against E. amylovora. Comparative genome analysis in this study has revealed that PhiEaH1 not only differs from the 10 formerly sequenced E. amylovora bacteriophages belonging to other phage families, but also from PhiEaH2. Sequencing of more Siphoviridae phage genomes might reveal further diversity, providing opportunities for the development of even more effective biological control agents, phage cocktails against Erwinia fire blight disease of commercial fruit crops. PMID:24551880

  5. Diversity and Strain Specificity of Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes Revealed by the Draft Genome of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1

    PubMed Central

    Berg Miller, Margret E.; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Rincon, Marco T.; Band, Mark; Bari, Albert; Akraiko, Tatsiana; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Borovok, Ilya; Jindou, Sadanari; Lamed, Raphael; Flint, Harry J.; Bayer, Edward A.; White, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Ruminococcus flavefaciens is a predominant cellulolytic rumen bacterium, which forms a multi-enzyme cellulosome complex that could play an integral role in the ability of this bacterium to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. Identifying the major enzyme types involved in plant cell wall degradation is essential for gaining a better understanding of the cellulolytic capabilities of this organism as well as highlighting potential enzymes for application in improvement of livestock nutrition and for conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuels. Methodology/Principal Findings The R. flavefaciens FD-1 genome was sequenced to 29x-coverage, based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis estimates (4.4 Mb), and assembled into 119 contigs providing 4,576,399 bp of unique sequence. As much as 87.1% of the genome encodes ORFs, tRNA, rRNAs, or repeats. The GC content was calculated at 45%. A total of 4,339 ORFs was detected with an average gene length of 918 bp. The cellulosome model for R. flavefaciens was further refined by sequence analysis, with at least 225 dockerin-containing ORFs, including previously characterized cohesin-containing scaffoldin molecules. These dockerin-containing ORFs encode a variety of catalytic modules including glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases, and carbohydrate esterases. Additionally, 56 ORFs encode proteins that contain carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Functional microarray analysis of the genome revealed that 56 of the cellulosome-associated ORFs were up-regulated, 14 were down-regulated, 135 were unaffected, when R. flavefaciens FD-1 was grown on cellulose versus cellobiose. Three multi-modular xylanases (ORF01222, ORF03896, and ORF01315) exhibited the highest levels of up-regulation. Conclusions/Significance The genomic evidence indicates that R. flavefaciens FD-1 has the largest known number of fiber-degrading enzymes likely to be arranged in a cellulosome architecture. Functional analysis of the genome has

  6. The diversity of fungal genome.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    The genome size of an organism varies from species to species. The C-value paradox enigma is a very complex puzzle with regards to vast diversity in genome sizes in eukaryotes. Here we reported the detailed genomic information of 172 fungal species among different fungal genomes and found that fungal genomes are very diverse in nature. In fungi, the diversity of genomes varies from 8.97 Mb to 177.57 Mb. The average genome sizes of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi are 36.91 and 46.48 Mb respectively. But higher genome size is observed in Oomycota (74.85 Mb) species, a lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms. The average coding genes of Oomycota species are almost doubled than that of Acomycota and Basidiomycota fungus. PMID:25866485

  7. Cyanobacterial life at low O(2): community genomics and function reveal metabolic versatility and extremely low diversity in a Great Lakes sinkhole mat.

    PubMed

    Voorhies, A A; Biddanda, B A; Kendall, S T; Jain, S; Marcus, D N; Nold, S C; Sheldon, N D; Dick, G J

    2012-05-01

    Cyanobacteria are renowned as the mediators of Earth's oxygenation. However, little is known about the cyanobacterial communities that flourished under the low-O(2) conditions that characterized most of their evolutionary history. Microbial mats in the submerged Middle Island Sinkhole of Lake Huron provide opportunities to investigate cyanobacteria under such persistent low-O(2) conditions. Here, venting groundwater rich in sulfate and low in O(2) supports a unique benthic ecosystem of purple-colored cyanobacterial mats. Beneath the mat is a layer of carbonate that is enriched in calcite and to a lesser extent dolomite. In situ benthic metabolism chambers revealed that the mats are net sinks for O(2), suggesting primary production mechanisms other than oxygenic photosynthesis. Indeed, (14)C-bicarbonate uptake studies of autotrophic production show variable contributions from oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis and chemosynthesis, presumably because of supply of sulfide. These results suggest the presence of either facultatively anoxygenic cyanobacteria or a mix of oxygenic/anoxygenic types of cyanobacteria. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing revealed a remarkably low-diversity mat community dominated by just one genotype most closely related to the cyanobacterium Phormidium autumnale, for which an essentially complete genome was reconstructed. Also recovered were partial genomes from a second genotype of Phormidium and several Oscillatoria. Despite the taxonomic simplicity, diverse cyanobacterial genes putatively involved in sulfur oxidation were identified, suggesting a diversity of sulfide physiologies. The dominant Phormidium genome reflects versatile metabolism and physiology that is specialized for a communal lifestyle under fluctuating redox conditions and light availability. Overall, this study provides genomic and physiologic insights into low-O(2) cyanobacterial mat ecosystems that played crucial geobiological roles over long stretches of Earth history

  8. Diverse transcription factor binding features revealed by genome-wide ChIP-seq in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wei; Lu, Zhi John; Zhong, Mei; Sarov, Mihail; Murray, John I; Brdlik, Cathleen M; Janette, Judith; Chen, Chao; Alves, Pedro; Preston, Elicia; Slightham, Cindie; Jiang, Lixia; Hyman, Anthony A; Kim, Stuart K; Waterston, Robert H; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael; Reinke, Valerie

    2011-02-01

    Regulation of gene expression by sequence-specific transcription factors is central to developmental programs and depends on the binding of transcription factors with target sites in the genome. To date, most such analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans have focused on the interactions between a single transcription factor with one or a few select target genes. As part of the modENCODE Consortium, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) to determine the genome-wide binding sites of 22 transcription factors (ALR-1, BLMP-1, CEH-14, CEH-30, EGL-27, EGL-5, ELT-3, EOR-1, GEI-11, HLH-1, LIN-11, LIN-13, LIN-15B, LIN-39, MAB-5, MDL-1, MEP-1, PES-1, PHA-4, PQM-1, SKN-1, and UNC-130) at diverse developmental stages. For each factor we determined candidate gene targets, both coding and non-coding. The typical binding sites of almost all factors are within a few hundred nucleotides of the transcript start site. Most factors target a mixture of coding and non-coding target genes, although one factor preferentially binds to non-coding RNA genes. We built a regulatory network among the 22 factors to determine their functional relationships to each other and found that some factors appear to act preferentially as regulators and others as target genes. Examination of the binding targets of three related HOX factors--LIN-39, MAB-5, and EGL-5--indicates that these factors regulate genes involved in cellular migration, neuronal function, and vulval differentiation, consistent with their known roles in these developmental processes. Ultimately, the comprehensive mapping of transcription factor binding sites will identify features of transcriptional networks that regulate C. elegans developmental processes. PMID:21177963

  9. Diverse transcription factor binding features revealed by genome-wide ChIP-seq in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Wei; Lu, Zhi John; Zhong, Mei; Sarov, Mihail; Murray, John I.; Brdlik, Cathleen M.; Janette, Judith; Chen, Chao; Alves, Pedro; Preston, Elicia; Slightham, Cindie; Jiang, Lixia; Hyman, Anthony A.; Kim, Stuart K.; Waterston, Robert H.; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael; Reinke, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression by sequence-specific transcription factors is central to developmental programs and depends on the binding of transcription factors with target sites in the genome. To date, most such analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans have focused on the interactions between a single transcription factor with one or a few select target genes. As part of the modENCODE Consortium, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) to determine the genome-wide binding sites of 22 transcription factors (ALR-1, BLMP-1, CEH-14, CEH-30, EGL-27, EGL-5, ELT-3, EOR-1, GEI-11, HLH-1, LIN-11, LIN-13, LIN-15B, LIN-39, MAB-5, MDL-1, MEP-1, PES-1, PHA-4, PQM-1, SKN-1, and UNC-130) at diverse developmental stages. For each factor we determined candidate gene targets, both coding and non-coding. The typical binding sites of almost all factors are within a few hundred nucleotides of the transcript start site. Most factors target a mixture of coding and non-coding target genes, although one factor preferentially binds to non-coding RNA genes. We built a regulatory network among the 22 factors to determine their functional relationships to each other and found that some factors appear to act preferentially as regulators and others as target genes. Examination of the binding targets of three related HOX factors—LIN-39, MAB-5, and EGL-5—indicates that these factors regulate genes involved in cellular migration, neuronal function, and vulval differentiation, consistent with their known roles in these developmental processes. Ultimately, the comprehensive mapping of transcription factor binding sites will identify features of transcriptional networks that regulate C. elegans developmental processes. PMID:21177963

  10. Scanning the landscape of genome architecture of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae by whole genome mapping reveals extensive population genetic diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Carol; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Awosika, Joy; Briska, Adam; Ptashkin, Ryan N.; Wagner, Trevor; Rajanna, Chythanya; Tsang, Hsinyi; Johnson, Shannon L.; Mokashi, Vishwesh P.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2015-03-20

    Historically, cholera outbreaks have been linked to V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains or its derivatives of the O37 and O139 serogroups. A genomic study on the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak strains highlighted the putative role of non O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in causing cholera and the lack of genomic sequences of such strains from around the world. Here we address these gaps by scanning a global collection of V. cholerae strains as a first step towards understanding the population genetic diversity and epidemic potential of non O1/non-O139 strains. Whole Genome Mapping (Optical Mapping) based bar coding produces a high resolution, ordered restriction map, depicting a complete view of the unique chromosomal architecture of an organism. To assess the genomic diversity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, we applied a Whole Genome Mapping strategy on a well-defined and geographically and temporally diverse strain collection, the Sakazaki serogroup type strains. Whole Genome Map data on 91 of the 206 serogroup type strains support the hypothesis that V. cholerae has an unprecedented genetic and genomic structural diversity. Interestingly, we discovered chromosomal fusions in two unusual strains that possess a single chromosome instead of the two chromosomes usually found in V. cholerae. We also found pervasive chromosomal rearrangements such as duplications and indels in many strains. The majority of Vibrio genome sequences currently in public databases are unfinished draft sequences. The Whole Genome Mapping approach presented here enables rapid screening of large strain collections to capture genomic complexities that would not have been otherwise revealed by unfinished draft genome sequencing and thus aids in assembling and finishing draft sequences of complex genomes. Furthermore, Whole Genome Mapping allows for prediction of novel V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains that may have the potential to cause future cholera

  11. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L.; Bass, Hank W.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  12. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome.

    PubMed

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L; Bass, Hank W; Buckler, Edward S

    2016-05-31

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  13. Genome-wide analysis of Italian sheep diversity reveals a strong geographic pattern and cryptic relationships between breeds.

    PubMed

    Ciani, E; Crepaldi, P; Nicoloso, L; Lasagna, E; Sarti, F M; Moioli, B; Napolitano, F; Carta, A; Usai, G; D'Andrea, M; Marletta, D; Ciampolini, R; Riggio, V; Occidente, M; Matassino, D; Kompan, D; Modesto, P; Macciotta, N; Ajmone-Marsan, P; Pilla, F

    2014-04-01

    Italy counts several sheep breeds, arisen over centuries as a consequence of ancient and recent genetic and demographic events. To finely reconstruct genetic structure and relationships between Italian sheep, 496 subjects from 19 breeds were typed at 50K single nucleotide polymorphism loci. A subset of foreign breeds from the Sheep HapMap dataset was also included in the analyses. Genetic distances (as visualized either in a network or in a multidimensional scaling analysis of identical by state distances) closely reflected geographic proximity between breeds, with a clear north-south gradient, likely because of high levels of past gene flow and admixture all along the peninsula. Sardinian breeds diverged more from other breeds, a probable consequence of the combined effect of ancient sporadic introgression of feral mouflon and long-lasting genetic isolation from continental sheep populations. The study allowed the detection of previously undocumented episodes of recent introgression (Delle Langhe into the endangered Altamurana breed) as well as signatures of known, or claimed, historical introgression (Merino into Sopravissana and Gentile di Puglia; Bergamasca into Fabrianese, Appenninica and, to a lesser extent, Leccese). Arguments that would question, from a genomic point of view, the current breed classification of Bergamasca and Biellese into two separate breeds are presented. Finally, a role for traditional transhumance practices in shaping the genetic makeup of Alpine sheep breeds is proposed. The study represents the first exhaustive analysis of Italian sheep diversity in an European context, and it bridges the gap in the previous HapMap panel between Western Mediterranean and Swiss breeds. PMID:24303943

  14. Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of two Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal-specific Podoviruses to other N4-like phages reveal extensive genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal is the only serogroup other than O1 implicated in cholera epidemics. We describe the isolation and characterization of an O139 serogroup-specific phage, vB_VchP_VchO139-I (ϕVchO139-I) that has similar host range and virion morphology as phage vB_VchP_JA1 (ϕJA1) described previously. We aimed at a complete molecular characterization of both phages and elucidation of their genetic and structural differences and assessment of their genetic relatedness to the N4-like phage group. Methods Host-range analysis and plaque morphology screening were done for both ϕJA1 and ϕVchO139-I. Both phage genomes were sequenced by a 454 and Sanger hybrid approach. Genomes were annotated and protein homologies were determined by Blast and HHPred. Restriction profiles, PFGE patterns and data on the physical genome structure were acquired and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Results The host specificity of ϕJA1 has been attributed to the unique capsular O-antigen produced by O139 strains. Plaque morphologies of the two phages were different; ϕVchO139-I produced a larger halo around the plaques than ϕJA1. Restriction profiles of ϕJA1 and ϕVchO139-I genomes were also different. The genomes of ϕJA1 and ϕVchO139-I consisted of linear double-stranded DNA of 71,252 and 70,938 base pairs. The presence of direct terminal repeats of around 1974 base pairs was demonstrated. Whole genome comparison revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms, small insertions/deletions and differences in gene content. Both genomes had 79 predicted protein encoding sequences, of which only 59 were identical between the two closely related phages. They also encoded one tRNA-Arg gene, an intein within the large terminase gene, and four homing endonuclease genes. Whole genome phylogenetic analyses of ϕJA1 and ϕVchO139-I against other sequenced N4-like phages delineate three novel subgroups or clades within this phage family. Conclusions The closely related phages

  15. Human Genome Diversity workshop 1

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD) is an international interdisciplinary program whose goal is to reveal as much as possible about the current state of genetic diversity among humans and the processes that were responsible for that diversity. Classical premolecular techniques have already proved that a significant component of human genetic variability lies within populations rather than among them. New molecular techniques will permit a dramatic increase in the resolving power of genetic analysis at the population level. Recent social changes in many parts of the world threaten the identity of a number of populations that may be extremely important for understanding human evolutionary history. It is therefore urgent to conduct research on human variation in these areas, while there is still time. The plan is to identify the most representative descendants of ancestral human populations worldwide and then to preserve genetic records of these populations. This is a report of the Population Genetics Workshop (Workshop 1), the first of three to be held to plan HGD, which was focused on sampling strategies and analytic methods from population genetics. The topics discussed were sampling and population structure; analysis of populations; drift versus natural selection; modeling migration and population subdivision; and population structure and subdivision.

  16. Ancient population structure in Phoenix dactylifera revealed by genome-wide genotyping of geographically diverse date palm cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm was one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees and is intimately tied to the history of human migration. With no true known wild ancestor little is known about the genetic origins and the effect of human cultivation on the date palm. Recent genome projects have just begun to provide th...

  17. Ancient Population Structure in Phoenix dactylifera Revealed by Genome-Wide Genotyping of Geographically Diverse Date Palm Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm was one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees and is intimately tied to the history of human migration. With no true known wild ancestor little is known about the genetic origins and the effect of human cultivation on the date palm. Recent genome projects have just begun to provide th...

  18. Genomes of Salmonella with diverse patterns of antibiotic resistance (AR) revealed the dynamics of AR gene organization and detected resistance gene families found in Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced and assembled high quality draft genomes (~100X coverage) for 305 Salmonella from a diverse a group of over 100 serovars and diverse sources. Of these isolates, 119 were selected to capture a wide variety of different AR patterns. In our subsequent analyses we included 285 additional pub...

  19. Comparative Genomics of multiple Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus isolates reveals genetic diversity in Florida and provides clues to the evolution of the bacteria in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding genetic diversity of within and among the populations of an organism provides information about the potential diversity in pathogenicity and susceptibility to host defenses as well as sustainable effectiveness of control treatments. A near whole genome sequencing strategy was used to c...

  20. Population genomic analysis reveals differential evolutionary histories and patterns of diversity across subgenomes and subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica napus (L.) is a crop of major economic importance that produces canola oil (seed), vegetables, fodder and animal meal. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this s...

  1. Genome-Wide Association Mapping in the Global Diversity Set Reveals New QTL Controlling Root System and Related Shoot Variation in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Stephan; Kortz, Annika; Léon, Jens; Naz, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    The fibrous root system is a visible sign of ecological adaptation among barley natural populations. In the present study, we utilized rich barley diversity to dissect the genetic basis of root system variation and its link with shoot attributes under well-water and drought conditions. Genome-wide association mapping of phenotype data using a dense genetic map (5892 SNP markers) revealed 17 putative QTL for root and shoot traits. Among these, at 14 loci the preeminence of exotic QTL alleles resulted in trait improvements. The most promising QTL were quantified using haplotype analysis at local and global genome levels. The strongest QTL was found on chromosome 1H which accounted for root dry weight and tiller number simultaneously. Candidate gene analysis across the targeted region detected a crucial amino acid substitution mutation in the conserved domain of a WRKY29 transcription factor among genotypes bearing major and minor QTL alleles. Similarly, the drought inducible QTL QRdw.5H (5H, 95.0 cM) seems to underlie 37 amino acid deletion and substitution mutations in the conserved domain of two related genes CBF10B and CBF10A, respectively. The identification and further characterization of these candidate genes will be essential to decipher genetics behind developmental and natural adaptation mechanisms of barley. PMID:27486472

  2. Genome-Wide Association Mapping in the Global Diversity Set Reveals New QTL Controlling Root System and Related Shoot Variation in Barley.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Stephan; Kortz, Annika; Léon, Jens; Naz, Ali A

    2016-01-01

    The fibrous root system is a visible sign of ecological adaptation among barley natural populations. In the present study, we utilized rich barley diversity to dissect the genetic basis of root system variation and its link with shoot attributes under well-water and drought conditions. Genome-wide association mapping of phenotype data using a dense genetic map (5892 SNP markers) revealed 17 putative QTL for root and shoot traits. Among these, at 14 loci the preeminence of exotic QTL alleles resulted in trait improvements. The most promising QTL were quantified using haplotype analysis at local and global genome levels. The strongest QTL was found on chromosome 1H which accounted for root dry weight and tiller number simultaneously. Candidate gene analysis across the targeted region detected a crucial amino acid substitution mutation in the conserved domain of a WRKY29 transcription factor among genotypes bearing major and minor QTL alleles. Similarly, the drought inducible QTL QRdw.5H (5H, 95.0 cM) seems to underlie 37 amino acid deletion and substitution mutations in the conserved domain of two related genes CBF10B and CBF10A, respectively. The identification and further characterization of these candidate genes will be essential to decipher genetics behind developmental and natural adaptation mechanisms of barley. PMID:27486472

  3. Metabolic diversity among main microorganisms inside an arsenic-rich ecosystem revealed by meta- and proteo-genomics

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Philippe N; Heinrich-Salmeron, Audrey; Pelletier, Eric; Goulhen-Chollet, Florence; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Gallien, Sébastien; Lauga, Béatrice; Casiot, Corinne; Calteau, Alexandra; Vallenet, David; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Bruneel, Odile; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Cleiss-Arnold, Jessica; Duran, Robert; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise; Fonknechten, Nuria; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Halter, David; Koechler, Sandrine; Marchal, Marie; Mornico, Damien; Schaeffer, Christine; Smith, Adam Alexander Thil; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Weissenbach, Jean; Médigue, Claudine; Le Paslier, Denis

    2011-01-01

    By their metabolic activities, microorganisms have a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycles of elements. The complete understanding of these processes requires, however, the deciphering of both the structure and the function, including synecologic interactions, of microbial communities. Using a metagenomic approach, we demonstrated here that an acid mine drainage highly contaminated with arsenic is dominated by seven bacterial strains whose genomes were reconstructed. Five of them represent yet uncultivated bacteria and include two strains belonging to a novel bacterial phylum present in some similar ecosystems, and which was named ‘Candidatus Fodinabacter communificans.' Metaproteomic data unravelled several microbial capabilities expressed in situ, such as iron, sulfur and arsenic oxidation that are key mechanisms in biomineralization, or organic nutrient, amino acid and vitamin metabolism involved in synthrophic associations. A statistical analysis of genomic and proteomic data and reverse transcriptase–PCR experiments allowed us to build an integrated model of the metabolic interactions that may be of prime importance in the natural attenuation of such anthropized ecosystems. PMID:21562598

  4. Adaptation of Maize to Temperate Climates: Mid-Density Genome-Wide Association Genetics and Diversity Patterns Reveal Key Genomic Regions, with a Major Contribution of the Vgt2 (ZCN8) Locus

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sophie; Servin, Bertrand; Bertin, Pascal; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Valérie; Dumas, Fabrice; Brunel, Dominique; Laborde, Jacques; Charcosset, Alain; Nicolas, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The migration of maize from tropical to temperate climates was accompanied by a dramatic evolution in flowering time. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of this adaptive trait, we conducted a 50K SNP-based genome-wide association and diversity investigation on a panel of tropical and temperate American and European representatives. Eighteen genomic regions were associated with flowering time. The number of early alleles cumulated along these regions was highly correlated with flowering time. Polymorphism in the vicinity of the ZCN8 gene, which is the closest maize homologue to Arabidopsis major flowering time (FT) gene, had the strongest effect. This polymorphism is in the vicinity of the causal factor of Vgt2 QTL. Diversity was lower, whereas differentiation and LD were higher for associated loci compared to the rest of the genome, which is consistent with selection acting on flowering time during maize migration. Selection tests also revealed supplementary loci that were highly differentiated among groups and not associated with flowering time in our panel, whereas they were in other linkage-based studies. This suggests that allele fixation led to a lack of statistical power when structure and relatedness were taken into account in a linear mixed model. Complementary designs and analysis methods are necessary to unravel the architecture of complex traits. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) estimates corrected for population structure, we concluded that the number of SNPs genotyped should be at least doubled to capture all QTLs contributing to the genetic architecture of polygenic traits in this panel. These results show that maize flowering time is controlled by numerous QTLs of small additive effect and that strong polygenic selection occurred under cool climatic conditions. They should contribute to more efficient genomic predictions of flowering time and facilitate the dissemination of diverse maize genetic resources under a wide range of

  5. Genome diversity of Shigella boydii.

    PubMed

    Kania, Dane A; Hazen, Tracy H; Hossain, Anowar; Nataro, James P; Rasko, David A

    2016-06-01

    ITALIC! Shigella boydiiis one of the four ITALIC! Shigellaspecies that causes disease worldwide; however, there are few published studies that examine the genomic variation of this species. This study compares genomes of 72 total isolates; 28 ITALIC! S. boydiifrom Bangladesh and The Gambia that were recently isolated as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), 14 historical ITALIC! S. boydiigenomes in the public domain and 30 ITALIC! Escherichia coliand ITALIC! Shigellareference genomes that represent the genomic diversity of these pathogens. This comparative analysis of these 72 genomes identified that the ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates separate into three phylogenomic clades, each with specific gene content. Each of the clades contains ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates from geographic and temporally distant sources, indicating that the ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates from the GEMS are representative of ITALIC! S. boydii.This study describes the genome sequences of a collection of novel ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates and provides insight into the diversity of this species in comparison to the ITALIC! E. coliand other ITALIC! Shigellaspecies. PMID:27056949

  6. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  7. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J; Meredith, Robert W; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A; Green, Richard E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P; Edwards, Scott V; Braun, Edward L; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-12

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  8. Whole genome sequencing of diverse Shiga toxin-producing and non-producing Escherichia coli strains reveals a variety of virulence and novel antibiotic resistance plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomes of a diverse set of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains and the presence of 38 plasmids among all the isolates were determined. Among the novel plasmids found, there were eight that encoded resistance genes to antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, carbapenems, penicillins, cephalosp...

  9. Analysis of ATP6 sequence diversity in the Triticum-Aegilops group of species reveals the crucial role of rearrangement in mitochondrial genome evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutation and chromosomal rearrangements are the two main forces of increasing genetic diversity for natural selection to act upon, and ultimately drive the evolutionary process. Although genome evolution is a function of both forces, simultaneously, the ratio of each can be varied among different ge...

  10. Draft genome sequence of the male-killing Wolbachia strain wBol1 reveals recent horizontal gene transfers from diverse sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis causes diverse and sometimes dramatic phenotypes in its invertebrate hosts. Four Wolbachia strains sequenced to date indicate that the constitution of the genome is dynamic, but these strains are quite divergent and do not allow resolution of genome diversification over shorter time periods. We have sequenced the genome of the strain wBol1-b, found in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina, which kills the male offspring of infected hosts during embyronic development and is closely related to the non-male-killing strain wPip from Culex pipiens. Results The genomes of wBol1-b and wPip are similar in genomic organisation, sequence and gene content, but show substantial differences at some rapidly evolving regions of the genome, primarily associated with prophage and repetitive elements. We identified 44 genes in wBol1-b that do not have homologs in any previously sequenced strains, indicating that Wolbachia’s non-core genome diversifies rapidly. These wBol1-b specific genes include a number that have been recently horizontally transferred from phylogenetically distant bacterial taxa. We further report a second possible case of horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryote into Wolbachia. Conclusions Our analyses support the developing view that many endosymbiotic genomes are highly dynamic, and are exposed and receptive to exogenous genetic material from a wide range of sources. These data also suggest either that this bacterial species is particularly permissive for eukaryote-to-prokaryote gene transfers, or that these transfers may be more common than previously believed. The wBol1-b-specific genes we have identified provide candidates for further investigations of the genomic bases of phenotypic differences between closely-related Wolbachia strains. PMID:23324387

  11. The diversity of karyotypes and genomes within section Syllinum of the Genus Linum (Linaceae) revealed by molecular cytogenetic markers and RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Zelenin, Alexander V; Nosova, Inna V; Amosova, Alexandra V; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Melnikova, Nataliya V; Zelenina, Daria A; Volkov, Alexander A; Muravenko, Olga V

    2015-01-01

    The wide variation in chromosome number found in species of the genus Linum (2n = 16, 18, 20, 26, 28, 30, 32, 36, 42, 72, 84) indicates that chromosomal mutations have played an important role in the speciation of this taxon. To contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and species relationships in this genus, comparative studies of karyotypes and genomes of species within section Syllinum Griseb. (2n = 26, 28) were carried out. Elongated with 9-aminoacridine chromosomes of 10 species of section Syllinum were investigated by C- and DAPI/С-banding, CMA and Ag-NOR-staining, FISH with probes of rDNA and of telomere repeats. RAPD analysis was also performed. All the chromosome pairs in karyotypes of the studied species were identified. Chromosome DAPI/C-banding patterns of 28-chromosomal species were highly similar. Two of the species differed from the others in chromosomal location of rDNA sites. B chromosomes were revealed in all the 28-chromosomal species. Chromosomes of Linum nodiflorum L. (2n = 26) and the 28-chromosomal species were similar in DAPI/C-banding pattern and localization of several rDNA sites, but they differed in chromosomal size and number. The karyotype of L. nodiflorum was characterized by an intercalary site of telomere repeat, one additional 26S rDNA site and also by the absence of B chromosomes. Structural similarities between different chromosome pairs in karyotypes of the studied species were found indicating their tetraploid origin. RAPD analysis did not distinguish the species except L. nodiflorum. The species of section Syllinum probably originated from a common tetraploid ancestor. The 28-chromosomal species were closely related, but L. nodiflorum diverged significantly from the rest of the species probably due to chromosomal rearrangements occurring during evolution. PMID:25835524

  12. The Diversity of Karyotypes and Genomes within Section Syllinum of the Genus Linum (Linaceae) Revealed by Molecular Cytogenetic Markers and RAPD Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nosova, Inna V.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Yurkevich, Olga Yu.; Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Zelenina, Daria A.; Volkov, Alexander A.; Muravenko, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    The wide variation in chromosome number found in species of the genus Linum (2n = 16, 18, 20, 26, 28, 30, 32, 36, 42, 72, 84) indicates that chromosomal mutations have played an important role in the speciation of this taxon. To contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and species relationships in this genus, comparative studies of karyotypes and genomes of species within section Syllinum Griseb. (2n = 26, 28) were carried out. Elongated with 9-aminoacridine chromosomes of 10 species of section Syllinum were investigated by C- and DAPI/С-banding, CMA and Ag-NOR-staining, FISH with probes of rDNA and of telomere repeats. RAPD analysis was also performed. All the chromosome pairs in karyotypes of the studied species were identified. Chromosome DAPI/C-banding patterns of 28-chromosomal species were highly similar. Two of the species differed from the others in chromosomal location of rDNA sites. B chromosomes were revealed in all the 28-chromosomal species. Chromosomes of Linum nodiflorum L. (2n = 26) and the 28-chromosomal species were similar in DAPI/C-banding pattern and localization of several rDNA sites, but they differed in chromosomal size and number. The karyotype of L. nodiflorum was characterized by an intercalary site of telomere repeat, one additional 26S rDNA site and also by the absence of B chromosomes. Structural similarities between different chromosome pairs in karyotypes of the studied species were found indicating their tetraploid origin. RAPD analysis did not distinguish the species except L. nodiflorum. The species of section Syllinum probably originated from a common tetraploid ancestor. The 28-chromosomal species were closely related, but L. nodiflorum diverged significantly from the rest of the species probably due to chromosomal rearrangements occurring during evolution. PMID:25835524

  13. Analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pan-genome reveals a pool of copy number variants distributed in diverse yeast strains from differing industrial environments

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Barbara; Richter, Chandra; Kvitek, Daniel J.; Pugh, Tom; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Although the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably one of the most well-studied organisms on earth, the genome-wide variation within this species—i.e., its “pan-genome”—has been less explored. We created a multispecies microarray platform containing probes covering the genomes of several Saccharomyces species: S. cerevisiae, including regions not found in the standard laboratory S288c strain, as well as the mitochondrial and 2-μm circle genomes–plus S. paradoxus, S. mikatae, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. kluyveri, and S. castellii. We performed array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) on 83 different S. cerevisiae strains collected across a wide range of habitats; of these, 69 were commercial wine strains, while the remaining 14 were from a diverse set of other industrial and natural environments. We observed interspecific hybridization events, introgression events, and pervasive copy number variation (CNV) in all but a few of the strains. These CNVs were distributed throughout the strains such that they did not produce any clear phylogeny, suggesting extensive mating in both industrial and wild strains. To validate our results and to determine whether apparently similar introgressions and CNVs were identical by descent or recurrent, we also performed whole-genome sequencing on nine of these strains. These data may help pinpoint genomic regions involved in adaptation to different industrial milieus, as well as shed light on the course of domestication of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22369888

  14. Genome sequence reveals that Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 possesses a large and diverse array of systems for rhizosphere function and host interaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) isolated from the sugar-beet rhizosphere. This bacterium has been extensively studied as a model strain for genetic regulation of secondary metabolite production in P. fluorescens, as a candidate biocontrol agent against phytopathogens, and as a heterologous host for expression of genes with biotechnological application. The F113 genome sequence and annotation has been recently reported. Results Comparative analysis of 50 genome sequences of strains belonging to the P. fluorescens group has revealed the existence of five distinct subgroups. F113 belongs to subgroup I, which is mostly composed of strains classified as P. brassicacearum. The core genome of these five strains is highly conserved and represents approximately 76% of the protein-coding genes in any given genome. Despite this strong conservation, F113 also contains a large number of unique protein-coding genes that encode traits potentially involved in the rhizocompetence of this strain. These features include protein coding genes required for denitrification, diterpenoids catabolism, motility and chemotaxis, protein secretion and production of antimicrobial compounds and insect toxins. Conclusions The genome of P. fluorescens F113 is composed of numerous protein-coding genes, not usually found together in previously sequenced genomes, which are potentially decisive during the colonisation of the rhizosphere and/or interaction with other soil organisms. This includes genes encoding proteins involved in the production of a second flagellar apparatus, the use of abietic acid as a growth substrate, the complete denitrification pathway, the possible production of a macrolide antibiotic and the assembly of multiple protein secretion systems. PMID:23350846

  15. The Human Genome Diversity Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli-Sforza, L.

    1994-12-31

    The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD Project) is an international anthropology project that seeks to study the genetic richness of the entire human species. This kind of genetic information can add a unique thread to the tapestry knowledge of humanity. Culture, environment, history, and other factors are often more important, but humanity`s genetic heritage, when analyzed with recent technology, brings another type of evidence for understanding species` past and present. The Project will deepen the understanding of this genetic richness and show both humanity`s diversity and its deep and underlying unity. The HGD Project is still largely in its planning stages, seeking the best ways to reach its goals. The continuing discussions of the Project, throughout the world, should improve the plans for the Project and their implementation. The Project is as global as humanity itself; its implementation will require the kinds of partnerships among different nations and cultures that make the involvement of UNESCO and other international organizations particularly appropriate. The author will briefly discuss the Project`s history, describe the Project, set out the core principles of the Project, and demonstrate how the Project will help combat the scourge of racism.

  16. Genome size diversity in orchids: consequences and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, I. J.; Kahandawala, I.; Suda, J.; Hanson, L.; Ingrouille, M. J.; Chase, M. W.; Fay, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background The amount of DNA comprising the genome of an organism (its genome size) varies a remarkable 40 000-fold across eukaryotes, yet most groups are characterized by much narrower ranges (e.g. 14-fold in gymnosperms, 3- to 4-fold in mammals). Angiosperms stand out as one of the most variable groups with genome sizes varying nearly 2000-fold. Nevertheless within angiosperms the majority of families are characterized by genomes which are small and vary little. Species with large genomes are mostly restricted to a few monocots families including Orchidaceae. Scope A survey of the literature revealed that genome size data for Orchidaceae are comparatively rare representing just 327 species. Nevertheless they reveal that Orchidaceae are currently the most variable angiosperm family with genome sizes ranging 168-fold (1C = 0·33–55·4 pg). Analysing the data provided insights into the distribution, evolution and possible consequences to the plant of this genome size diversity. Conclusions Superimposing the data onto the increasingly robust phylogenetic tree of Orchidaceae revealed how different subfamilies were characterized by distinct genome size profiles. Epidendroideae possessed the greatest range of genome sizes, although the majority of species had small genomes. In contrast, the largest genomes were found in subfamilies Cypripedioideae and Vanilloideae. Genome size evolution within this subfamily was analysed as this is the only one with reasonable representation of data. This approach highlighted striking differences in genome size and karyotype evolution between the closely related Cypripedium, Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium. As to the consequences of genome size diversity, various studies revealed that this has both practical (e.g. application of genetic fingerprinting techniques) and biological consequences (e.g. affecting where and when an orchid may grow) and emphasizes the importance of obtaining further genome size data given the considerable

  17. Whole genome sequencing of diverse Shiga toxin-producing and non-producing Escherichia coli strains reveals a variety of virulence and novel antibiotic resistance plasmids.

    PubMed

    Losada, Liliana; DebRoy, Chitrita; Radune, Diana; Kim, Maria; Sanka, Ravi; Brinkac, Lauren; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Shelton, Daniel; Fratamico, Pina M; Kapur, Vivek; Feng, Peter C H

    2016-01-01

    The genomes of a diverse set of Escherichia coli, including many Shiga toxin-producing strains of various serotypes were determined. A total of 39 plasmids were identified among these strains, and many carried virulence or putative virulence genes of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains, virulence genes for other pathogenic E. coli groups, and some had combinations of these genes. Among the novel plasmids identified were eight that carried resistance genes to aminoglycosides, carbapenems, penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, sulfonamides, tetracyclines and resistance to heavy metals. Two of the plasmids carried six of these resistance genes and two novel IncHI2 plasmids were also identified. The results of this study showed that plasmids carrying diverse resistance and virulence genes of various pathogenic E. coli groups can be found in E. coli strains and serotypes regardless of the isolate's source and therefore, is consistent with the premise that these mobile elements carrying these traits may be broadly disseminated among E. coli. PMID:26746359

  18. Evidence of Bacillus thuringiensis intra-serovar diversity revealed by Bacillus cereus group-specific repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR genomic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Sauka, Diego H; Basile, Juan I; Benintende, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is classified into serovars on the basis of H-flagellar antigens. Several alternative typing methods have been described. Among them, a B. cereus group-specific repetitive extragenic palindromic (Rep)-PCR fingerprinting technique was shown to be discriminative and able to identify B. thuringiensis serovars. The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic diversity and relationship among B. thuringiensis strains collected from different Argentinean ecosystems. Thirty-seven B. thuringiensis reference strains and 131 Argentinean isolates were analyzed using a B. cereus group-specific Rep-PCR. Fourteen different patterns were identified among the Argentinean isolates. Eight could not be associated to any pattern obtained from a reference strain. The pattern identical to the serovar kurstaki HD-1 strain was the most frequently identified in 68 native isolates. The profiles allowed tracing a single dendrogram with two groups and eight main lineages. Some strains showed distinctive patterns despite belonging to the same serovar. An intraspecific diversity resulted from this analysis that was highlighted by this technique since strains from a given serovar showed distinct profiles. This study may help to establish a system of B. thuringiensis classification with a higher discrimination level than established by the H antigen serotyping. PMID:22286045

  19. Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas translucens Pathogenic on Wheat and Barley Reveals Cross-Kingdom Gene Transfer Events and Diverse Protein Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Donald M.; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas strains, but shares a type III secretion system (T3SS) with X. translucens pv. graminis and more distantly related xanthomonads. Assays with an adenylate cyclase reporter protein demonstrate that DAR61454's T3SS is functional in delivering proteins to wheat cells. X. translucens DAR61454 also encodes two type VI secretion systems with one most closely related to those found in some strains of the rice infecting strain X. oryzae pv. oryzae but not other xanthomonads. Comparative analysis of 18 different Xanthomonas isolates revealed 84 proteins unique to cereal (i.e. rice) infecting isolates and the wheat/barley infecting DAR61454. Genes encoding 60 of these proteins are found in gene clusters in the X. translucens DAR61454 genome, suggesting cereal-specific pathogenicity islands. However, none of the cereal pathogen specific proteins were homologous to known Xanthomonas spp. effectors. Comparative analysis outside of the bacterial kingdom revealed a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase encoding gene in DAR61454 also present in other bacteria as well as a number of pathogenic Fusarium species, suggesting that this gene may have been transmitted horizontally from bacteria to the Fusarium lineage of pathogenic fungi. This example further highlights the importance of horizontal gene acquisition from bacteria in the evolution of fungi. PMID:24416331

  20. Genes but Not Genomes Reveal Bacterial Domestication of Lactococcus Lactis

    PubMed Central

    Passerini, Delphine; Beltramo, Charlotte; Coddeville, Michele; Quentin, Yves; Ritzenthaler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background The population structure and diversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, a major industrial bacterium involved in milk fermentation, was determined at both gene and genome level. Seventy-six lactococcal isolates of various origins were studied by different genotyping methods and thirty-six strains displaying unique macrorestriction fingerprints were analyzed by a new multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. This gene-based analysis was compared to genomic characteristics determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Methodology/Principal Findings The MLST analysis revealed that L. lactis subsp. lactis is essentially clonal with infrequent intra- and intergenic recombination; also, despite its taxonomical classification as a subspecies, it displays a genetic diversity as substantial as that within several other bacterial species. Genome-based analysis revealed a genome size variability of 20%, a value typical of bacteria inhabiting different ecological niches, and that suggests a large pan-genome for this subspecies. However, the genomic characteristics (macrorestriction pattern, genome or chromosome size, plasmid content) did not correlate to the MLST-based phylogeny, with strains from the same sequence type (ST) differing by up to 230 kb in genome size. Conclusion/Significance The gene-based phylogeny was not fully consistent with the traditional classification into dairy and non-dairy strains but supported a new classification based on ecological separation between “environmental” strains, the main contributors to the genetic diversity within the subspecies, and “domesticated” strains, subject to recent genetic bottlenecks. Comparison between gene- and genome-based analyses revealed little relationship between core and dispensable genome phylogenies, indicating that clonal diversification and phenotypic variability of the “domesticated” strains essentially arose through substantial genomic flux within the dispensable genome

  1. The Genomic and Phenotypic Diversity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Jeffares, Daniel C.; Rallis, Charalampos; Rieux, Adrien; Speed, Doug; Převorovský, Martin; Mourier, Tobias; Marsellach, Francesc X.; Iqbal, Zamin; Lau, Winston; Cheng, Tammy M.K.; Pracana, Rodrigo; Mülleder, Michael; Lawson, Jonathan L.D.; Chessel, Anatole; Bala, Sendu; Hellenthal, Garrett; O’Fallon, Brendan; Keane, Thomas; Simpson, Jared T.; Bischof, Leanne; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Bitton, Danny A.; Sideri, Theodora; Codlin, Sandra; Hellberg, Josephine E.E.U.; van Trigt, Laurent; Jeffery, Linda; Li, Juan-Juan; Atkinson, Sophie; Thodberg, Malte; Febrer, Melanie; McLay, Kirsten; Drou, Nizar; Brown, William; Hayles, Jacqueline; Carazo Salas, Rafael E.; Ralser, Markus; Maniatis, Nikolas; Balding, David J.; Balloux, Francois; Durbin, Richard; Bähler, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Natural variation within species reveals aspects of genome evolution and function. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an important model for eukaryotic biology, but researchers typically use one standard laboratory strain. To extend the utility of this model, we surveyed the genomic and phenotypic variation in 161 natural isolates. We sequenced the genomes of all strains, revealing moderate genetic diversity (π = 3 ×10−3) and weak global population structure. We estimate that dispersal of S. pombe began within human antiquity (~340 BCE), and ancestors of these strains reached the Americas at ~1623 CE. We quantified 74 traits, revealing substantial heritable phenotypic diversity. We conducted 223 genome-wide association studies, with 89 traits showing at least one association. The most significant variant for each trait explained 22% of variance on average, with indels having higher effects than SNPs. This analysis presents a rich resource to examine genotype-phenotype relationships in a tractable model. PMID:25665008

  2. Genome sequence analysis of five Canadian isolates of strawberry mottle virus reveals extensive intra-species diversity and a longer RNA2 with increased coding capacity compared to a previously characterized European isolate.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas. PMID:26984225

  3. An analysis of Pseudomonas genomic diversity in take-all infected wheat fields reveals the lasting impact of wheat cultivars on the soil microbiota.

    PubMed

    Mauchline, T H; Chedom-Fotso, D; Chandra, G; Samuels, T; Greenaway, N; Backhaus, A; McMillan, V; Canning, G; Powers, S J; Hammond-Kosack, K E; Hirsch, P R; Clark, I M; Mehrabi, Z; Roworth, J; Burnell, J; Malone, J G

    2015-11-01

    Manipulation of the soil microbiota associated with crop plants has huge promise for the control of crop pathogens. However, to fully realize this potential we need a better understanding of the relationship between the soil environment and the genes and phenotypes that enable microbes to colonize plants and contribute to biocontrol. A recent 2 years of investigation into the effect of wheat variety on second year crop yield in the context of take-all fungal infection presented the opportunity to examine soil microbiomes under closely defined field conditions. Amplicon sequencing of second year soil samples showed that Pseudomonas spp. were particularly affected by the wheat cultivar grown in year one. Consequently, 318 rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were isolated and characterized across a variety of genetic and phenotypic traits. Again, the wheat variety grown in the first year of the study was shown to exert considerable selective pressure on both the extent and nature of Pseudomonas genomic diversity. Furthermore, multiple significant correlations were identified within the phenotypic/genetic structure of the Pseudomonas population, and between individual genotypes and the external wheat field environment. The approach outlined here has considerable future potential for our understanding of plant-microbe interactions, and for the broader analysis of complex microbial communities. PMID:26337499

  4. An analysis of P seudomonas genomic diversity in take‐all infected wheat fields reveals the lasting impact of wheat cultivars on the soil microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Chedom‐Fotso, D.; Chandra, G.; Samuels, T.; Greenaway, N.; Backhaus, A.; McMillan, V.; Canning, G.; Powers, S. J.; Hammond‐Kosack, K. E.; Hirsch, P. R.; Clark, I. M.; Mehrabi, Z.; Roworth, J.; Burnell, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Manipulation of the soil microbiota associated with crop plants has huge promise for the control of crop pathogens. However, to fully realize this potential we need a better understanding of the relationship between the soil environment and the genes and phenotypes that enable microbes to colonize plants and contribute to biocontrol. A recent 2 years of investigation into the effect of wheat variety on second year crop yield in the context of take‐all fungal infection presented the opportunity to examine soil microbiomes under closely defined field conditions. Amplicon sequencing of second year soil samples showed that P seudomonas spp. were particularly affected by the wheat cultivar grown in year one. Consequently, 318 rhizosphere‐associated P seudomonas fluorescens strains were isolated and characterized across a variety of genetic and phenotypic traits. Again, the wheat variety grown in the first year of the study was shown to exert considerable selective pressure on both the extent and nature of P seudomonas genomic diversity. Furthermore, multiple significant correlations were identified within the phenotypic/genetic structure of the Pseudomonas population, and between individual genotypes and the external wheat field environment. The approach outlined here has considerable future potential for our understanding of plant–microbe interactions, and for the broader analysis of complex microbial communities. PMID:26337499

  5. Genome-wide identification of BURP domain-containing genes in rice reveals a gene family with diverse structures and responses to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xipeng; Hou, Xin; Xie, Kabin; Xiong, Lizhong

    2009-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a gene family encoding proteins containing BURP domains have diverse functions in plants, but systematic characterization of this gene family have not been reported. In this study, 17 BURP family genes (OsBURP01-17) were identified and analyzed in rice (Oryza sativa L.). These genes have diverse exon-intron structures and distinct organization of putative motifs. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of BURP protein sequences from rice and other plant species, the BURP family was classified into seven subfamilies, including two subfamilies (BURP V and BURP VI) with members from rice only and one subfamily (BURP VII) with members from monocotyledons only. Two BURP gene clusters, belonging to BURP V and BURP VI, were located in the duplicated region on chromosome 5 and 6 of rice, respectively. Transcript level analysis of BURP genes of rice in various tissues and organs revealed different tempo-spatial expression patterns, suggesting that these genes may function at different stages of plant growth and development. Interestingly, all the genes of the BURP VII subfamily were predominantly expressed in flower organs. We also investigated the expression patterns of BURP genes of rice under different stress conditions. The results suggested that, except for two genes (OsBURP01 and OsBURP13), all other members were induced by at least one of the stresses including drought, salt, cold, and abscisic acid treatment. Two genes (OsBURP05 and OsBURP16) were responsive to all the stress treatments and most of the OsBURP genes were responsive to salt stress. Promoter sequence analysis revealed an over-abundance of stress-related cis-elements in the stress-responsive genes. The data presented here provide important clues for elucidating the functions of genes of this family. PMID:19363683

  6. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  7. Ultra-Deep Sequencing of HIV-1 near Full-Length and Partial Proviral Genomes Reveals High Genetic Diversity among Brazilian Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Loureiro, Paula; Esther Lopes, Maria; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B. F.; Sabino, Ester C; Busch, Michael P.; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2016-01-01

    Background Here, we aimed to gain a comprehensive picture of the HIV-1 diversity in the northeast and southeast part of Brazil. To this end, a high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis protocol and instrument were used to characterize the near full length (NFLG) and partial HIV-1 proviral genome in 259 HIV-1 infected blood donors at four major blood centers in Brazil: Pro-Sangue foundation (São Paulo state (SP), n 51), Hemominas foundation (Minas Gerais state (MG), n 41), Hemope foundation (Recife state (PE), n 96) and Hemorio blood bank (Rio de Janeiro (RJ), n 70). Materials and Methods A total of 259 blood samples were obtained from 195 donors with long-standing infections and 64 donors with a lack of stage information. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to amplify the HIV-1 NFLGs from five overlapping fragments. The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by Illumina paired-end protocol. Results Of the 259 samples studied, 208 (80%) NFLGs and 49 (18.8%) partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Of these 257 samples, 183 (71.2%) were pure subtypes consisting of clade B (n = 167, 65%), C (n = 10, 3.9%), F1 (n = 4, 1.5%), and D (n = 2, 0.7%). Recombinant viruses were detected in 74 (28.8%) samples and consist of unique BF1 (n = 41, 15.9%), BC (n = 7, 2.7%), BCF1 (n = 4, 1.5%), CF1 and CDK (n = 1, 0.4%, each), CRF70_BF1 (n = 4, 1.5%), CRF71_BF1 (n = 12, 4.7%), and CRF72_BF1 (n = 4, 1.5%). Evidence of dual infection was detected in four patients coinfected with the same subtype (n = 3) and distinct subtype (n = 1). Conclusion Based on this work, subtype B appears to be the prevalent subtype followed by a high proportion of intersubtype recombinants that appeared to be arising continually in this country. Our study represents the largest analysis of the viral NFLG ever undertaken worldwide and provides insights into the understanding the genesis of the HIV-1

  8. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  9. The cattle genome reveals its secrets

    PubMed Central

    Burt, David W

    2009-01-01

    The domesticated cow is the latest farm animal to have its genome sequenced and deciphered. The members of the Bovine Genome Consortium have published a series of papers on the assembly and what the sequence reveals so far about the biology of this ruminant and the consequences of its domestication. PMID:19439025

  10. Genomic architecture of human neuroanatomical diversity.

    PubMed

    Toro, R; Poline, J-B; Huguet, G; Loth, E; Frouin, V; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Bokde, A; Büchel, C; Carvalho, F M; Conrod, P; Fauth-Bühler, M; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Gowland, P; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Lawrence, C; Lemaître, H; Mann, K; Nees, F; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A; Schumann, G; Bourgeron, T

    2015-08-01

    Human brain anatomy is strikingly diverse and highly inheritable: genetic factors may explain up to 80% of its variability. Prior studies have tried to detect genetic variants with a large effect on neuroanatomical diversity, but those currently identified account for <5% of the variance. Here, based on our analyses of neuroimaging and whole-genome genotyping data from 1765 subjects, we show that up to 54% of this heritability is captured by large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of small-effect spread throughout the genome, especially within genes and close regulatory regions. The genetic bases of neuroanatomical diversity appear to be relatively independent of those of body size (height), but shared with those of verbal intelligence scores. The study of this genomic architecture should help us better understand brain evolution and disease. PMID:25224261

  11. Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Sanz, Daniel; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Göker, Markus; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael; Redondo-Nieto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex includes Pseudomonas strains that have been taxonomically assigned to more than fifty different species, many of which have been described as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with potential applications in biocontrol and biofertilization. So far the phylogeny of this complex has been analyzed according to phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA, MLSA and inferred by whole-genome analysis. However, since most of the type strains have not been fully sequenced and new species are frequently described, correlation between taxonomy and phylogenomic analysis is missing. In recent years, the genomes of a large number of strains have been sequenced, showing important genomic heterogeneity and providing information suitable for genomic studies that are important to understand the genomic and genetic diversity shown by strains of this complex. Based on MLSA and several whole-genome sequence-based analyses of 93 sequenced strains, we have divided the P. fluorescens complex into eight phylogenomic groups that agree with previous works based on type strains. Digital DDH (dDDH) identified 69 species and 75 subspecies within the 93 genomes. The eight groups corresponded to clustering with a threshold of 31.8% dDDH, in full agreement with our MLSA. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) approach showed inconsistencies regarding the assignment to species and to the eight groups. The small core genome of 1,334 CDSs and the large pan-genome of 30,848 CDSs, show the large diversity and genetic heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens complex. However, a low number of strains were enough to explain most of the CDSs diversity at core and strain-specific genomic fractions. Finally, the identification and analysis of group-specific genome and the screening for distinctive characters revealed a phylogenomic distribution of traits among the groups that provided insights into biocontrol and bioremediation applications as well as their role as PGPR. PMID:26915094

  12. Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Sanz, Daniel; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Göker, Markus; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael; Redondo-Nieto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex includes Pseudomonas strains that have been taxonomically assigned to more than fifty different species, many of which have been described as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with potential applications in biocontrol and biofertilization. So far the phylogeny of this complex has been analyzed according to phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA, MLSA and inferred by whole-genome analysis. However, since most of the type strains have not been fully sequenced and new species are frequently described, correlation between taxonomy and phylogenomic analysis is missing. In recent years, the genomes of a large number of strains have been sequenced, showing important genomic heterogeneity and providing information suitable for genomic studies that are important to understand the genomic and genetic diversity shown by strains of this complex. Based on MLSA and several whole-genome sequence-based analyses of 93 sequenced strains, we have divided the P. fluorescens complex into eight phylogenomic groups that agree with previous works based on type strains. Digital DDH (dDDH) identified 69 species and 75 subspecies within the 93 genomes. The eight groups corresponded to clustering with a threshold of 31.8% dDDH, in full agreement with our MLSA. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) approach showed inconsistencies regarding the assignment to species and to the eight groups. The small core genome of 1,334 CDSs and the large pan-genome of 30,848 CDSs, show the large diversity and genetic heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens complex. However, a low number of strains were enough to explain most of the CDSs diversity at core and strain-specific genomic fractions. Finally, the identification and analysis of group-specific genome and the screening for distinctive characters revealed a phylogenomic distribution of traits among the groups that provided insights into biocontrol and bioremediation applications as well as their role as PGPR. PMID:26915094

  13. Transposable element evolution in Heliconius suggests genome diversity within Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) have the potential to impact genome structure, function and evolution in profound ways. In order to understand the contribution of transposable elements (TEs) to Heliconius melpomene, we queried the H. melpomene draft sequence to identify repetitive sequences. Results We determined that TEs comprise ~25% of the genome. The predominant class of TEs (~12% of the genome) was the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons, including a novel SINE family. However, this was only slightly higher than content derived from DNA transposons, which are diverse, with several families having mobilized in the recent past. Compared to the only other well-studied lepidopteran genome, Bombyx mori, H. melpomene exhibits a higher DNA transposon content and a distinct repertoire of retrotransposons. We also found that H. melpomene exhibits a high rate of TE turnover with few older elements accumulating in the genome. Conclusions Our analysis represents the first complete, de novo characterization of TE content in a butterfly genome and suggests that, while TEs are able to invade and multiply, TEs have an overall deleterious effect and/or that maintaining a small genome is advantageous. Our results also hint that analysis of additional lepidopteran genomes will reveal substantial TE diversity within the group. PMID:24088337

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Hymenobacter sp. Strain IS2118, Isolated from a Freshwater Lake in Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica, Reveals Diverse Genes for Adaptation to Cold Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyunmin; Ptacek, Travis; Crowley, Michael; Swain, Ashit K; Osborne, John D; Bej, Asim K; Andersen, Dale T

    2014-01-01

    Hymenobacter sp. IS2118, isolated from a freshwater lake in Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica, produces extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and manifests tolerance to cold, UV radiation (UVR), and oxidative stress. We report the 5.26-Mb draft genome of strain IS2118, which will help us to understand its adaptation and survival mechanisms in Antarctic extreme ecosystems. PMID:25103756

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Hymenobacter sp. Strain IS2118, Isolated from a Freshwater Lake in Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica, Reveals Diverse Genes for Adaptation to Cold Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ptacek, Travis; Crowley, Michael; Swain, Ashit K.; Osborne, John D.; Bej, Asim K.; Andersen, Dale T.

    2014-01-01

    Hymenobacter sp. IS2118, isolated from a freshwater lake in Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica, produces extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and manifests tolerance to cold, UV radiation (UVR), and oxidative stress. We report the 5.26-Mb draft genome of strain IS2118, which will help us to understand its adaptation and survival mechanisms in Antarctic extreme ecosystems. PMID:25103756

  16. Genome-wide association study reveals a set of genes associated with resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides L.) in a maize diversity panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn borers are the primary maize pest in many environments; their feeding on the pith of the stem results in yield losses because stem damage interferes with assimilate movement to developing kernels. In this study, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with ...

  17. Consequences of genomic diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Coscolla, Mireia; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2014-12-01

    The causative agent of human tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), comprises seven phylogenetically distinct lineages associated with different geographical regions. Here we review the latest findings on the nature and amount of genomic diversity within and between MTBC lineages. We then review recent evidence for the effect of this genomic diversity on mycobacterial phenotypes measured experimentally and in clinical settings. We conclude that overall, the most geographically widespread Lineage 2 (includes Beijing) and Lineage 4 (also known as Euro-American) are more virulent than other lineages that are more geographically restricted. This increased virulence is associated with delayed or reduced pro-inflammatory host immune responses, greater severity of disease, and enhanced transmission. Future work should focus on the interaction between MTBC and human genetic diversity, as well as on the environmental factors that modulate these interactions. PMID:25453224

  18. Does M. tuberculosis genomic diversity explain disease diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Coscolla, Mireilla; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    The outcome of tuberculosis infection and disease is highly variable. This variation has been attributed primarily to host and environmental factors, but better understanding of the global genomic diversity in the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) suggests that bacterial factors could also be involved. Review of nearly 100 published reports shows that MTBC strains differ in their virulence and immunogenicity in experimental models, but whether this phenotypic variation plays a role in human disease remains unclear. Given the complex interactions between the host, the pathogen and the environment, linking MTBC genotypic diversity to experimental and clinical phenotypes requires an integrated systems epidemiology approach embedded in a robust evolutionary framework. PMID:21076640

  19. Population genomic analysis reveals highly conserved mitochondrial genomes in the yeast species Lachancea thermotolerans.

    PubMed

    Freel, Kelle C; Friedrich, Anne; Hou, Jing; Schacherer, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    The increasing availability of mitochondrial (mt) sequence data from various yeasts provides a tool to study genomic evolution within and between different species. While the genomes from a range of lineages are available, there is a lack of information concerning intraspecific mtDNA diversity. Here, we analyzed the mt genomes of 50 strains from Lachancea thermotolerans, a protoploid yeast species that has been isolated from several locations (Europe, Asia, Australia, South Africa, and North / South America) and ecological sources (fruit, tree exudate, plant material, and grape and agave fermentations). Protein-coding genes from the mtDNA were used to construct a phylogeny, which reflected a similar, yet less resolved topology than the phylogenetic tree of 50 nuclear genes. In comparison to its sister species Lachancea kluyveri, L. thermotolerans has a smaller mt genome. This is due to shorter intergenic regions and fewer introns, of which the latter are only found in COX1. We revealed that L. kluyveri and L. thermotolerans share similar levels of intraspecific divergence concerning the nuclear genomes. However, L. thermotolerans has a more highly conserved mt genome with the coding regions characterized by low rates of nonsynonymous substitution. Thus, in the mt genomes of L. thermotolerans, stronger purifying selection and lower mutation rates potentially shape genome diversity in contract to what was found for L. kluyveri, demonstrating that the factors driving mt genome evolution are different even between closely related species. PMID:25212859

  20. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species

    PubMed Central

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ebata, Toshinobu; Huang, Xuehui; Gong, Hao; Fujita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Feng, Qi; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Han, Bin; Kurata, Nori

    2016-01-01

    The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype–phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a text-based browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tab-delimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/. PMID:26578696

  1. Genomes to Life Diversity Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, Thomas

    2010-03-15

    This was a collaborative initiative between Western Carolina University, Furman University and the University of North Carolina-Asheville. At each of the institutions, funds from the grant award were used for the acquisition of mostly microscopy laboratory equipment, supporting supplies and necessary training as appropriate. The distribution of funds was: $495,000 Western Carolina University; $130,000 Furman University; $100,000 University of North Carolina-Asheville for a total of $725,000 total award from DOE. Western Carolina University purchased significant instrumentation with funds from this award that included among others, fermenters, a Confocal microscope, and an automated sequencer. The fermenters have been used in research and courses and to prepare biochemical materials for research and courses. The Confocal microscope has provided Western students and faculty with unique imaging opportunities not generally available except in medical schools. Unlike regular optical microscopy, confocal microscopy offers a three-dimensional image that can be viewed from different angles. In addition, the device has been set up to be controlled from remote locations, providing high school and institutions of higher education students across Western North Carolina with the opportunity to use state-of-the-art instrumentation from their location. One of the goals of this collaboration was to get more high school students interested in science. The automated sequencer has become a very significant instructional and research tool. It has been widely used for characterizing the oak genome, which has very significant implications for Western North Carolina. More recently, it has been used for groundbreaking forensic science research. This device has been used to create a database to identify unidentified persons. The instrument has also been used in several undergraduate and graduate courses, where students learn the principles and operation of this very important instrument

  2. Comparative and functional genomics reveals genetic diversity and determinants of host specificity among reference strains and a large collection of Chinese isolates of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Zhang, Zheng-Chun; Xu, Rong-Qi; Tang, Dong-Jie; Qin, Jing; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Xia; Liao, Jie; Cao, Jin-Ru; Zhang, Sui-Sheng; Wei, Mei-Liang; Liang, Xiao-Xia; Lu, Guang-Tao; Feng, Jia-Xun; Chen, Baoshan; Cheng, Jing; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Background Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc) is the causal agent of black rot disease of crucifers worldwide. The molecular genetic diversity and host specificity of Xcc are poorly understood. Results We constructed a microarray based on the complete genome sequence of Xcc strain 8004 and investigated the genetic diversity and host specificity of Xcc by array-based comparative genome hybridization analyses of 18 virulent strains. The results demonstrate that a genetic core comprising 3,405 of the 4,186 coding sequences (CDSs) spotted on the array are conserved and a flexible gene pool with 730 CDSs is absent/highly divergent (AHD). The results also revealed that 258 of the 304 proved/presumed pathogenicity genes are conserved and 46 are AHD. The conserved pathogenicity genes include mainly the genes involved in type I, II and III secretion systems, the quorum sensing system, extracellular enzymes and polysaccharide production, as well as many other proved pathogenicity genes, while the AHD CDSs contain the genes encoding type IV secretion system (T4SS) and type III-effectors. A Xcc T4SS-deletion mutant displayed the same virulence as wild type. Furthermore, three avirulence genes (avrXccC, avrXccE1 and avrBs1) were identified. avrXccC and avrXccE1 conferred avirulence on the hosts mustard cultivar Guangtou and Chinese cabbage cultivar Zhongbai-83, respectively, and avrBs1 conferred hypersensitive response on the nonhost pepper ECW10R. Conclusion About 80% of the Xcc CDSs, including 258 proved/presumed pathogenicity genes, is conserved in different strains. Xcc T4SS is not involved in pathogenicity. An efficient strategy to identify avr genes determining host specificity from the AHD genes was developed. PMID:17927820

  3. Comparative Analysis of Genome Diversity in Bullmastiff Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Mortlock, Sally-Anne; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Williamson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Management and preservation of genomic diversity in dog breeds is a major objective for maintaining health. The present study was undertaken to characterise genomic diversity in Bullmastiff dogs using both genealogical and molecular analysis. Genealogical analysis of diversity was conducted using a database consisting of 16,378 Bullmastiff pedigrees from year 1980 to 2013. Additionally, a total of 188 Bullmastiff dogs were genotyped using the 170,000 SNP Illumina CanineHD Beadchip. Genealogical parameters revealed a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.047; 142 total founders (f); an effective number of founders (fe) of 79; an effective number of ancestors (fa) of 62; and an effective population size of the reference population of 41. Genetic diversity and the degree of genome-wide homogeneity within the breed were also investigated using molecular data. Multiple-locus heterozygosity (MLH) was equal to 0.206; runs of homozygosity (ROH) as proportion of the genome, averaged 16.44%; effective population size was 29.1, with an average inbreeding coefficient of 0.035, all estimated using SNP Data. Fine-scale population structure was analysed using NETVIEW, a population analysis pipeline. Visualisation of the high definition network captured relationships among individuals within and between subpopulations. Effects of unequal founder use, and ancestral inbreeding and selection, were evident. While current levels of Bullmastiff heterozygosity, inbreeding and homozygosity are not unusual, a relatively small effective population size indicates that a breeding strategy to reduce the inbreeding rate may be beneficial. PMID:26824579

  4. Comparative Analysis of Genome Diversity in Bullmastiff Dogs.

    PubMed

    Mortlock, Sally-Anne; Khatkar, Mehar S; Williamson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Management and preservation of genomic diversity in dog breeds is a major objective for maintaining health. The present study was undertaken to characterise genomic diversity in Bullmastiff dogs using both genealogical and molecular analysis. Genealogical analysis of diversity was conducted using a database consisting of 16,378 Bullmastiff pedigrees from year 1980 to 2013. Additionally, a total of 188 Bullmastiff dogs were genotyped using the 170,000 SNP Illumina CanineHD Beadchip. Genealogical parameters revealed a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.047; 142 total founders (f); an effective number of founders (fe) of 79; an effective number of ancestors (fa) of 62; and an effective population size of the reference population of 41. Genetic diversity and the degree of genome-wide homogeneity within the breed were also investigated using molecular data. Multiple-locus heterozygosity (MLH) was equal to 0.206; runs of homozygosity (ROH) as proportion of the genome, averaged 16.44%; effective population size was 29.1, with an average inbreeding coefficient of 0.035, all estimated using SNP Data. Fine-scale population structure was analysed using NETVIEW, a population analysis pipeline. Visualisation of the high definition network captured relationships among individuals within and between subpopulations. Effects of unequal founder use, and ancestral inbreeding and selection, were evident. While current levels of Bullmastiff heterozygosity, inbreeding and homozygosity are not unusual, a relatively small effective population size indicates that a breeding strategy to reduce the inbreeding rate may be beneficial. PMID:26824579

  5. Genomic Diversity of Escherichia Isolates from Diverse Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Tiedje, James M.; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the Escherichia genus is heavily biased toward pathogenic or commensal isolates from human or animal hosts. Recent studies have recovered Escherichia isolates that persist, and even grow, outside these hosts. Although the environmental isolates are typically phylogenetically distinct, they are highly related to and phenotypically indistinguishable from their human counterparts, including for the coliform test. To gain insights into the genomic diversity of Escherichia isolates from diverse habitats, including freshwater, soil, animal, and human sources, we carried out comparative DNA-DNA hybridizations using a multi-genome E. coli DNA microarray. The microarray was validated based on hybridizations with selected strains whose genome sequences were available and used to assess the frequency of microarray false positive and negative signals. Our results showed that human fecal isolates share two sets of genes (n>90) that are rarely found among environmental isolates, including genes presumably important for evading host immune mechanisms (e.g., a multi-drug transporter for acids and antimicrobials) and adhering to epithelial cells (e.g., hemolysin E and fimbrial-like adhesin protein). These results imply that environmental isolates are characterized by decreased ability to colonize host cells relative to human isolates. Our study also provides gene markers that can distinguish human isolates from those of warm-blooded animal and environmental origins, and thus can be used to more reliably assess fecal contamination in natural ecosystems. PMID:23056556

  6. Galaxy tools to study genome diversity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intra-species genetic variation can be used to investigate population structure, selection, and gene flow in non-model vertebrates; and due to the plummeting costs for genome sequencing, it is now possible for small labs to obtain full-genome variation data from their species of interest. However, those labs may not have easy access to, and familiarity with, computational tools to analyze those data. Results We have created a suite of tools for the Galaxy web server aimed at handling nucleotide and amino-acid polymorphisms discovered by full-genome sequencing of several individuals of the same species, or using a SNP genotyping microarray. In addition to providing user-friendly tools, a main goal is to make published analyses reproducible. While most of the examples discussed in this paper deal with nuclear-genome diversity in non-human vertebrates, we also illustrate the application of the tools to fungal genomes, human biomedical data, and mitochondrial sequences. Conclusions This project illustrates that a small group can design, implement, test, document, and distribute a Galaxy tool collection to meet the needs of a particular community of biologists. PMID:24377391

  7. Remarkable Diversity of Endogenous Viruses in a Crustacean Genome

    PubMed Central

    Thézé, Julien; Leclercq, Sébastien; Moumen, Bouziane; Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in paleovirology have uncovered myriads of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) integrated in the genome of their eukaryotic hosts. These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance. So far, most studies have used a virus-centered approach, whereby endogenous copies of a particular group of viruses were searched in all available sequenced genomes. Here, we follow a host-centered approach whereby the genome of a given species is comprehensively screened for the presence of EVEs using all available complete viral genomes as queries. Our analyses revealed that 54 EVEs corresponding to 10 different viral lineages belonging to 5 viral families (Bunyaviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Totiviridae) and one viral order (Mononegavirales) became endogenized in the genome of the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa. Furthermore, 30 A. vulgare EVEs have uninterrupted open reading frames, suggesting they result from recent endogenization of viruses likely to be currently infecting isopod populations. Overall, our work shows that isopods have been and are still infected by a large variety of viruses. It also extends the host range of several families of viruses and brings new insights into their evolution. More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa. PMID:25084787

  8. Remarkable diversity of endogenous viruses in a crustacean genome.

    PubMed

    Thézé, Julien; Leclercq, Sébastien; Moumen, Bouziane; Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies in paleovirology have uncovered myriads of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) integrated in the genome of their eukaryotic hosts. These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance. So far, most studies have used a virus-centered approach, whereby endogenous copies of a particular group of viruses were searched in all available sequenced genomes. Here, we follow a host-centered approach whereby the genome of a given species is comprehensively screened for the presence of EVEs using all available complete viral genomes as queries. Our analyses revealed that 54 EVEs corresponding to 10 different viral lineages belonging to 5 viral families (Bunyaviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Totiviridae) and one viral order (Mononegavirales) became endogenized in the genome of the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa. Furthermore, 30 A. vulgare EVEs have uninterrupted open reading frames, suggesting they result from recent endogenization of viruses likely to be currently infecting isopod populations. Overall, our work shows that isopods have been and are still infected by a large variety of viruses. It also extends the host range of several families of viruses and brings new insights into their evolution. More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa. PMID:25084787

  9. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Jun; van der Does, H. Charlotte; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald M.; Goff, Stephen; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurélie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook-Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity, indicative of horizontal acquisition. Experimentally, we demonstrate the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, converting a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in F. oxysporum. These findings put the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective. PMID:20237561

  10. Comparative Whole-Genome Hybridization Reveals Genomic Islands in Brucella Species†

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekara, Gireesh; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Glover, David A.; Splitter, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    Brucella species are responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease causing abortion in domestic animals and Malta fever in humans. Based on host preference, the genus is divided into six species. Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis are pathogenic to humans, whereas B. ovis and B. neotomae are nonpathogenic to humans and B. canis human infections are rare. Limited genome diversity exists among Brucella species. Comparison of Brucella species whole genomes is, therefore, likely to identify factors responsible for differences in host preference and virulence restriction. To facilitate such studies, we used the complete genome sequence of B. melitensis 16M, the species highly pathogenic to humans, to construct a genomic microarray. Hybridization of labeled genomic DNA from Brucella species to this microarray revealed a total of 217 open reading frames (ORFs) altered in five Brucella species analyzed. These ORFs are often found in clusters (islands) in the 16M genome. Examination of the genomic context of these islands suggests that many are horizontally acquired. Deletions of genetic content identified in Brucella species are conserved in multiple strains of the same species, and genomic islands missing in a given species are often restricted to that particular species. These findings suggest that, whereas the loss or gain of genetic material may be related to the host range and virulence restriction of certain Brucella species for humans, independent mechanisms involving gene inactivation or altered expression of virulence determinants may also contribute to these differences. PMID:15262941

  11. The genomic and phenotypic diversity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Jeffares, Daniel C; Rallis, Charalampos; Rieux, Adrien; Speed, Doug; Převorovský, Martin; Mourier, Tobias; Marsellach, Francesc X; Iqbal, Zamin; Lau, Winston; Cheng, Tammy M K; Pracana, Rodrigo; Mülleder, Michael; Lawson, Jonathan L D; Chessel, Anatole; Bala, Sendu; Hellenthal, Garrett; O'Fallon, Brendan; Keane, Thomas; Simpson, Jared T; Bischof, Leanne; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Bitton, Danny A; Sideri, Theodora; Codlin, Sandra; Hellberg, Josephine E E U; van Trigt, Laurent; Jeffery, Linda; Li, Juan-Juan; Atkinson, Sophie; Thodberg, Malte; Febrer, Melanie; McLay, Kirsten; Drou, Nizar; Brown, William; Hayles, Jacqueline; Carazo Salas, Rafael E; Ralser, Markus; Maniatis, Nikolas; Balding, David J; Balloux, Francois; Durbin, Richard; Bähler, Jürg

    2015-03-01

    Natural variation within species reveals aspects of genome evolution and function. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an important model for eukaryotic biology, but researchers typically use one standard laboratory strain. To extend the usefulness of this model, we surveyed the genomic and phenotypic variation in 161 natural isolates. We sequenced the genomes of all strains, finding moderate genetic diversity (π = 3 × 10(-3) substitutions/site) and weak global population structure. We estimate that dispersal of S. pombe began during human antiquity (∼340 BCE), and ancestors of these strains reached the Americas at ∼1623 CE. We quantified 74 traits, finding substantial heritable phenotypic diversity. We conducted 223 genome-wide association studies, with 89 traits showing at least one association. The most significant variant for each trait explained 22% of the phenotypic variance on average, with indels having larger effects than SNPs. This analysis represents a rich resource to examine genotype-phenotype relationships in a tractable model. PMID:25665008

  12. Limits and patterns of cytomegalovirus genomic diversity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Renzette, Nicholas; Pokalyuk, Cornelia; Gibson, Laura; Bhattacharjee, Bornali; Schleiss, Mark R.; Hamprecht, Klaus; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y.; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Britt, William J.; Jensen, Jeffrey D.; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) exhibits surprisingly high genomic diversity during natural infection although little is known about the limits or patterns of HCMV diversity among humans. To address this deficiency, we analyzed genomic diversity among congenitally infected infants. We show that there is an upper limit to HCMV genomic diversity in these patient samples, with ∼25% of the genome being devoid of polymorphisms. These low diversity regions were distributed across 26 loci that were preferentially located in DNA-processing genes. Furthermore, by developing, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide mutation and recombination rate maps for HCMV, we show that genomic diversity is positively correlated with these two rates. In contrast, median levels of viral genomic diversity did not vary between putatively single or mixed strain infections. We also provide evidence that HCMV populations isolated from vascular compartments of hosts from different continents are genetically similar and that polymorphisms in glycoproteins and regulatory proteins are enriched in these viral populations. This analysis provides the most highly detailed map of HCMV genomic diversity in human hosts to date and informs our understanding of the distribution of HCMV genomic diversity within human hosts. PMID:26150505

  13. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Seile; Bekele, Endashaw

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01), the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144), and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66) are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided populations and

  14. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-18

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

  15. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2012 July 2012 (historical) Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma A ... out to see if a technology called whole genome sequencing would help them find other genetic risk ...

  16. Genome Diversity of Spore-Forming Firmicutes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Formation of heat-resistant endospores is a specific property of the members of the phylum Firmicutes (low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria). It is found in representatives of four different classes of Firmicutes: Bacilli, Clostridia, Erysipelotrichia, and Negativicutes, which all encode similar sets of core sporulation proteins. Each of these classes also includes non-spore-forming organisms that sometimes belong to the same genus or even species as their spore-forming relatives. This chapter reviews the diversity of the members of phylum Firmicutes, its current taxonomy, and the status of genome sequencing projects for various subgroups within the phylum. It also discusses the evolution of the Firmicutes from their apparently spore-forming common ancestor and the independent loss of sporulation genes in several different lineages (staphylococci, streptococci, listeria, lactobacilli, ruminococci) in the course of their adaptation to the saprophytic lifestyle in nutrient-rich environment. It argues that systematics of Firmicutes is a rapidly developing area of research that benefits from the evolutionary approaches to the ever-increasing amount of genomic and phenotypic data and allows arranging these data into a common framework. Later the Bacillus filaments begin to prepare for spore formation. In their homogenous contents strongly refracting bodies appear. From each of these bodies develops an oblong or shortly cylindrical, strongly refracting, dark-rimmed spore. Ferdinand Cohn. 1876. Untersuchungen über Bacterien. IV. Beiträge zur Biologie der Bacillen. Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen, vol. 2, pp. 249–276. (Studies on the biology of the bacilli. In: Milestones in Microbiology: 1546 to 1940. Translated and edited by Thomas D. Brock. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1961, pp. 49–56). PMID:26184964

  17. Microsporidian genome analysis reveals evolutionary strategies for obligate intracellular growth

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Christina A.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Bakowski, Malina A.; Goldberg, Jonathan; Ma, Amy T.; Becnel, James J.; Didier, Elizabeth S.; Fan, Lin; Heiman, David I.; Levin, Joshua Z.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Troemel, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    Microsporidia comprise a large phylum of obligate intracellular eukaryotes that are fungal-related parasites responsible for widespread disease, and here we address questions about microsporidia biology and evolution. We sequenced three microsporidian genomes from two species, Nematocida parisii and Nematocida sp1, which are natural pathogens of Caenorhabditis nematodes and provide model systems for studying microsporidian pathogenesis. We performed deep sequencing of transcripts from a time course of N. parisii infection. Examination of pathogen gene expression revealed compact transcripts and a dramatic takeover of host cells by Nematocida. We also performed phylogenomic analyses of Nematocida and other microsporidian genomes to refine microsporidian phylogeny and identify evolutionary events of gene loss, acquisition, and modification. In particular, we found that all microsporidia lost the tumor-suppressor gene retinoblastoma, which we speculate could accelerate the parasite cell cycle and increase the mutation rate. We also found that microsporidia acquired transporters that could import nucleosides to fuel rapid growth. In addition, microsporidian hexokinases gained secretion signal sequences, and in a functional assay these were sufficient to export proteins out of the cell; thus hexokinase may be targeted into the host cell to reprogram it toward biosynthesis. Similar molecular changes appear during formation of cancer cells and may be evolutionary strategies adopted independently by microsporidia to proliferate rapidly within host cells. Finally, analysis of genome polymorphisms revealed evidence for a sexual cycle that may provide genetic diversity to alleviate problems caused by clonal growth. Together these events may explain the emergence and success of these diverse intracellular parasites. PMID:22813931

  18. Microsporidian genome analysis reveals evolutionary strategies for obligate intracellular growth.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Christina A; Desjardins, Christopher A; Bakowski, Malina A; Goldberg, Jonathan; Ma, Amy T; Becnel, James J; Didier, Elizabeth S; Fan, Lin; Heiman, David I; Levin, Joshua Z; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Troemel, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Microsporidia comprise a large phylum of obligate intracellular eukaryotes that are fungal-related parasites responsible for widespread disease, and here we address questions about microsporidia biology and evolution. We sequenced three microsporidian genomes from two species, Nematocida parisii and Nematocida sp1, which are natural pathogens of Caenorhabditis nematodes and provide model systems for studying microsporidian pathogenesis. We performed deep sequencing of transcripts from a time course of N. parisii infection. Examination of pathogen gene expression revealed compact transcripts and a dramatic takeover of host cells by Nematocida. We also performed phylogenomic analyses of Nematocida and other microsporidian genomes to refine microsporidian phylogeny and identify evolutionary events of gene loss, acquisition, and modification. In particular, we found that all microsporidia lost the tumor-suppressor gene retinoblastoma, which we speculate could accelerate the parasite cell cycle and increase the mutation rate. We also found that microsporidia acquired transporters that could import nucleosides to fuel rapid growth. In addition, microsporidian hexokinases gained secretion signal sequences, and in a functional assay these were sufficient to export proteins out of the cell; thus hexokinase may be targeted into the host cell to reprogram it toward biosynthesis. Similar molecular changes appear during formation of cancer cells and may be evolutionary strategies adopted independently by microsporidia to proliferate rapidly within host cells. Finally, analysis of genome polymorphisms revealed evidence for a sexual cycle that may provide genetic diversity to alleviate problems caused by clonal growth. Together these events may explain the emergence and success of these diverse intracellular parasites. PMID:22813931

  19. Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Feng, Xue; Tao, Jiemeng; Ma, Liyuan; Xiao, Yunhua; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correlated with their geographic distribution as well as geochemical conditions. While these strains shared a large number of common genes, they displayed differences in gene content. Functional assignment indicated that the core genome was essential for microbial basic activities such as energy acquisition and uptake of nutrients, whereas the accessory genome was thought to be involved in niche adaptation. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted central metabolism revealed that few differences were observed among these strains. Further analyses showed evidences of relevance between environmental conditions and genomic diversification. Furthermore, a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences and genomic islands in all A. thiooxidans strains probably demonstrated the frequent genetic flow (such as lateral gene transfer) in the extremely acidic environments. From another perspective, these elements might endow A. thiooxidans species with capacities to withstand the chemical constraints of their natural habitats. Taken together, our findings bring some valuable data to better understand the genomic diversity and econiche adaptation within A. thiooxidans strains. PMID:27548157

  20. Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Feng, Xue; Tao, Jiemeng; Ma, Liyuan; Xiao, Yunhua; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correlated with their geographic distribution as well as geochemical conditions. While these strains shared a large number of common genes, they displayed differences in gene content. Functional assignment indicated that the core genome was essential for microbial basic activities such as energy acquisition and uptake of nutrients, whereas the accessory genome was thought to be involved in niche adaptation. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted central metabolism revealed that few differences were observed among these strains. Further analyses showed evidences of relevance between environmental conditions and genomic diversification. Furthermore, a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences and genomic islands in all A. thiooxidans strains probably demonstrated the frequent genetic flow (such as lateral gene transfer) in the extremely acidic environments. From another perspective, these elements might endow A. thiooxidans species with capacities to withstand the chemical constraints of their natural habitats. Taken together, our findings bring some valuable data to better understand the genomic diversity and econiche adaptation within A. thiooxidans strains. PMID:27548157

  1. Global Genomic Diversity of Human Papillomavirus 6 Based on 724 Isolates and 190 Complete Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jelen, Mateja M.; Chen, Zigui; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Burt, Felicity J.; Chan, Paul K. S.; Chouhy, Diego; Combrinck, Catharina E.; Coutlée, François; Estrade, Christine; Ferenczy, Alex; Fiander, Alison; Franco, Eduardo L.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Giri, Adriana A.; González, Joaquín Víctor; Gröning, Arndt; Heidrich, Kerstin; Hibbitts, Sam; Hošnjak, Lea; Luk, Tommy N. M.; Marinic, Karina; Matsukura, Toshihiko; Neumann, Anna; Oštrbenk, Anja; Picconi, Maria Alejandra; Richardson, Harriet; Sagadin, Martin; Sahli, Roland; Seedat, Riaz Y.; Seme, Katja; Severini, Alberto; Sinchi, Jessica L.; Smahelova, Jana; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Tachezy, Ruth; Tohme, Sarah; Uloza, Virgilijus; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Wong, Yong Wee; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV6) is the major etiological agent of anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomas and has been included in both the quadrivalent and nonavalent prophylactic HPV vaccines. This study investigated the global genomic diversity of HPV6, using 724 isolates and 190 complete genomes from six continents, and the association of HPV6 genomic variants with geographical location, anatomical site of infection/disease, and gender. Initially, a 2,800-bp E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment was sequenced from 492/530 (92.8%) HPV6-positive samples collected for this study. Among them, 130 exhibited at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), indel, or amino acid change in the E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment and were sequenced in full. A global alignment and maximum likelihood tree of 190 complete HPV6 genomes (130 fully sequenced in this study and 60 obtained from sequence repositories) revealed two variant lineages, A and B, and five B sublineages: B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5. HPV6 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs and a 960-bp representative region for whole-genome-based phylogenetic clustering within the L2 open reading frame were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lineage B predominated globally. Sublineage B3 was more common in Africa and North and South America, and lineage A was more common in Asia. Sublineages B1 and B3 were associated with anogenital infections, indicating a potential lesion-specific predilection of some HPV6 sublineages. Females had higher odds for infection with sublineage B3 than males. In conclusion, a global HPV6 phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two variant lineages and five sublineages, showing some degree of ethnogeographic, gender, and/or disease predilection in their distribution. IMPORTANCE This study established the largest database of globally circulating HPV6 genomic variants and contributed a total of 130 new, complete HPV6 genome sequences to available sequence repositories. Two HPV

  2. Genetics, Genomics and Evolution of Ergot Alkaloid Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Carolyn A.; Schardl, Christopher L.; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Moore, Neil; Webb, Jennifer S.; Jaromczyk, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The ergot alkaloid biosynthesis system has become an excellent model to study evolutionary diversification of specialized (secondary) metabolites. This is a very diverse class of alkaloids with various neurotropic activities, produced by fungi in several orders of the phylum Ascomycota, including plant pathogens and protective plant symbionts in the family Clavicipitaceae. Results of comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses reveal multiple examples of three evolutionary processes that have generated ergot-alkaloid diversity: gene gains, gene losses, and gene sequence changes that have led to altered substrates or product specificities of the enzymes that they encode (neofunctionalization). The chromosome ends appear to be particularly effective engines for gene gains, losses and rearrangements, but not necessarily for neofunctionalization. Changes in gene expression could lead to accumulation of various pathway intermediates and affect levels of different ergot alkaloids. Genetic alterations associated with interspecific hybrids of Epichloë species suggest that such variation is also selectively favored. The huge structural diversity of ergot alkaloids probably represents adaptations to a wide variety of ecological situations by affecting the biological spectra and mechanisms of defense against herbivores, as evidenced by the diverse pharmacological effects of ergot alkaloids used in medicine. PMID:25875294

  3. Genetics, genomics and evolution of ergot alkaloid diversity.

    PubMed

    Young, Carolyn A; Schardl, Christopher L; Panaccione, Daniel G; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E; Charlton, Nikki D; Moore, Neil; Webb, Jennifer S; Jaromczyk, Jolanta

    2015-04-01

    The ergot alkaloid biosynthesis system has become an excellent model to study evolutionary diversification of specialized (secondary) metabolites. This is a very diverse class of alkaloids with various neurotropic activities, produced by fungi in several orders of the phylum Ascomycota, including plant pathogens and protective plant symbionts in the family Clavicipitaceae. Results of comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses reveal multiple examples of three evolutionary processes that have generated ergot-alkaloid diversity: gene gains, gene losses, and gene sequence changes that have led to altered substrates or product specificities of the enzymes that they encode (neofunctionalization). The chromosome ends appear to be particularly effective engines for gene gains, losses and rearrangements, but not necessarily for neofunctionalization. Changes in gene expression could lead to accumulation of various pathway intermediates and affect levels of different ergot alkaloids. Genetic alterations associated with interspecific hybrids of Epichloë species suggest that such variation is also selectively favored. The huge structural diversity of ergot alkaloids probably represents adaptations to a wide variety of ecological situations by affecting the biological spectra and mechanisms of defense against herbivores, as evidenced by the diverse pharmacological effects of ergot alkaloids used in medicine. PMID:25875294

  4. Genomic patterns of species diversity and divergence in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Myburg, Alexander A; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E

    2015-06-01

    We examined genome-wide patterns of DNA sequence diversity and divergence among six species of the important tree genus Eucalyptus and investigated their relationship with genomic architecture. Using c. 90 range-wide individuals of each Eucalyptus species (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. globulus, E. nitens, E. dunnii and E. camaldulensis), genetic diversity and divergence were estimated from 2840 polymorphic diversity arrays technology markers covering the 11 chromosomes. Species differentiating markers (SDMs) identified in each of 15 pairwise species comparisons, along with species diversity (HHW ) and divergence (FST ), were projected onto the E. grandis reference genome. Across all species comparisons, SDMs totalled 1.1-5.3% of markers and were widely distributed throughout the genome. Marker divergence (FST and SDMs) and diversity differed among and within chromosomes. Patterns of diversity and divergence were broadly conserved across species and significantly associated with genomic features, including the proximity of markers to genes, the relative number of clusters of tandem duplications, and gene density within or among chromosomes. These results suggest that genomic architecture influences patterns of species diversity and divergence in the genus. This influence is evident across the six species, encompassing diverse phylogenetic lineages, geography and ecology. PMID:25678438

  5. Comparative Genomic Indexing Reveals the Phylogenomics of Escherichia coli Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Muna F.; Lucchini, Sacha; Thompson, Arthur; Hinton, Jay C. D.; Woodward, Martin J.

    2003-01-01

    The Escherichia coli O26 serogroup includes important food-borne pathogens associated with human and animal diarrheal disease. Current typing methods have revealed great genetic heterogeneity within the O26 group; the data are often inconsistent and focus only on verotoxin (VT)-positive O26 isolates. To improve current understanding of diversity within this serogroup, the genomic relatedness of VT-positive and -negative O26 strains was assessed by comparative genomic indexing. Our results clearly demonstrate that irrespective of virulence characteristics and pathotype designation, the O26 strains show greater genomic similarity to each other than to any other strain included in this study. Our data suggest that enteropathogenic and VT-expressing E. coli O26 strains represent the same clonal lineage and that VT-expressing E. coli O26 strains have gained additional virulence characteristics. Using this approach, we established the core genes which are central to the E. coli species and identified regions of variation from the E. coli K-12 chromosomal backbone. PMID:12874348

  6. Comparative assessment of genetic diversity in cytoplasmic and nuclear genome of upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Egamberdiev, Sharof S; Saha, Sukumar; Salakhutdinov, Ilkhom; Jenkins, Johnie N; Deng, Dewayne; Y Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim

    2016-06-01

    The importance of the cytoplasmic genome for many economically important traits is well documented in several crop species, including cotton. There is no report on application of cotton chloroplast specific SSR markers as a diagnostic tool to study genetic diversity among improved Upland cotton lines. The complete plastome sequence information in GenBank provided us an opportunity to report on 17 chloroplast specific SSR markers using a cost-effective data mining strategy. Here we report the comparative analysis of genetic diversity among a set of 42 improved Upland cotton lines using SSR markers specific to chloroplast and nuclear genome, respectively. Our results revealed that low to moderate level of genetic diversity existed in both nuclear and cytoplasm genome among this set of cotton lines. However, the specific estimation suggested that genetic diversity is lower in cytoplasmic genome compared to the nuclear genome among this set of Upland cotton lines. In summary, this research is important from several perspectives. We detected a set of cytoplasm genome specific SSR primer pairs by using a cost-effective data mining strategy. We reported for the first time the genetic diversity in the cytoplasmic genome within a set of improved Upland cotton accessions. Results revealed that the genetic diversity in cytoplasmic genome is narrow, compared to the nuclear genome within this set of Upland cotton accessions. Our results suggested that most of these polymorphic chloroplast SSRs would be a valuable complementary tool in addition to the nuclear SSR in the study of evolution, gene flow and genetic diversity in Upland cotton. PMID:27155886

  7. Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Sara R.; Miller, James H.; Abranches, Jacqueline; Zeng, Lin; Lefebure, Tristan; Richards, Vincent P.; Lemos, José A.; Stanhope, Michael J.; Burne, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    High coverage, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of 57 geographically- and genetically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans from individuals of known dental caries status was recently completed. Of the 57 sequenced strains, fifteen isolates, were selected based primarily on differences in gene content and phenotypic characteristics known to affect virulence and compared with the reference strain UA159. A high degree of variability in these properties was observed between strains, with a broad spectrum of sensitivities to low pH, oxidative stress (air and paraquat) and exposure to competence stimulating peptide (CSP). Significant differences in autolytic behavior and in biofilm development in glucose or sucrose were also observed. Natural genetic competence varied among isolates, and this was correlated to the presence or absence of competence genes, comCDE and comX, and to bacteriocins. In general strains that lacked the ability to become competent possessed fewer genes for bacteriocins and immunity proteins or contained polymorphic variants of these genes. WGS sequence analysis of the pan-genome revealed, for the first time, components of a Type VII secretion system in several S. mutans strains, as well as two putative ORFs that encode possible collagen binding proteins located upstream of the cnm gene, which is associated with host cell invasiveness. The virulence of these particular strains was assessed in a wax-worm model. This is the first study to combine a comprehensive analysis of key virulence-related phenotypes with extensive genomic analysis of a pathogen that evolved closely with humans. Our analysis highlights the phenotypic diversity of S. mutans isolates and indicates that the species has evolved a variety of adaptive strategies to persist in the human oral cavity and, when conditions are favorable, to initiate disease. PMID:23613838

  8. Phenotypic heterogeneity of genomically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sara R; Miller, James H; Abranches, Jacqueline; Zeng, Lin; Lefebure, Tristan; Richards, Vincent P; Lemos, José A; Stanhope, Michael J; Burne, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    High coverage, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of 57 geographically- and genetically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans from individuals of known dental caries status was recently completed. Of the 57 sequenced strains, fifteen isolates, were selected based primarily on differences in gene content and phenotypic characteristics known to affect virulence and compared with the reference strain UA159. A high degree of variability in these properties was observed between strains, with a broad spectrum of sensitivities to low pH, oxidative stress (air and paraquat) and exposure to competence stimulating peptide (CSP). Significant differences in autolytic behavior and in biofilm development in glucose or sucrose were also observed. Natural genetic competence varied among isolates, and this was correlated to the presence or absence of competence genes, comCDE and comX, and to bacteriocins. In general strains that lacked the ability to become competent possessed fewer genes for bacteriocins and immunity proteins or contained polymorphic variants of these genes. WGS sequence analysis of the pan-genome revealed, for the first time, components of a Type VII secretion system in several S. mutans strains, as well as two putative ORFs that encode possible collagen binding proteins located upstream of the cnm gene, which is associated with host cell invasiveness. The virulence of these particular strains was assessed in a wax-worm model. This is the first study to combine a comprehensive analysis of key virulence-related phenotypes with extensive genomic analysis of a pathogen that evolved closely with humans. Our analysis highlights the phenotypic diversity of S. mutans isolates and indicates that the species has evolved a variety of adaptive strategies to persist in the human oral cavity and, when conditions are favorable, to initiate disease. PMID:23613838

  9. The B73maize genome: complexity, diversity, dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the nucleotide sequence of the maize (Zea mays cv. B73) genome, the largest and most structurally diverse of plants to be sequenced. ~32,540 genes are predicted, 99.8% of which are placed on chromosomes assembled from integrated physical, genetic and optical maps. Nearly 85% of the genome...

  10. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Human NPHP1 Locus Reveal Complex Genomic Architecture and Its Regional Evolution in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bo; Liu, Pengfei; Gupta, Aditya; Beck, Christine R.; Tejomurtula, Anusha; Campbell, Ian M.; Gambin, Tomasz; Simmons, Alexandra D.; Withers, Marjorie A.; Harris, R. Alan; Rogers, Jeffrey; Schwartz, David C.; Lupski, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Many loci in the human genome harbor complex genomic structures that can result in susceptibility to genomic rearrangements leading to various genomic disorders. Nephronophthisis 1 (NPHP1, MIM# 256100) is an autosomal recessive disorder that can be caused by defects of NPHP1; the gene maps within the human 2q13 region where low copy repeats (LCRs) are abundant. Loss of function of NPHP1 is responsible for approximately 85% of the NPHP1 cases—about 80% of such individuals carry a large recurrent homozygous NPHP1 deletion that occurs via nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between two flanking directly oriented ~45 kb LCRs. Published data revealed a non-pathogenic inversion polymorphism involving the NPHP1 gene flanked by two inverted ~358 kb LCRs. Using optical mapping and array-comparative genomic hybridization, we identified three potential novel structural variant (SV) haplotypes at the NPHP1 locus that may protect a haploid genome from the NPHP1 deletion. Inter-species comparative genomic analyses among primate genomes revealed massive genomic changes during evolution. The aggregated data suggest that dynamic genomic rearrangements occurred historically within the NPHP1 locus and generated SV haplotypes observed in the human population today, which may confer differential susceptibility to genomic instability and the NPHP1 deletion within a personal genome. Our study documents diverse SV haplotypes at a complex LCR-laden human genomic region. Comparative analyses provide a model for how this complex region arose during primate evolution, and studies among humans suggest that intra-species polymorphism may potentially modulate an individual’s susceptibility to acquiring disease-associated alleles. PMID:26641089

  11. Genetic investigation within Lactococcus garvieae revealed two genomic lineages.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Chiara; Ricci, Giovanni; Borgo, Francesca; Rollando, Alessandro; Fortina, Maria Grazia

    2012-07-01

    The diversity of a collection of 49 Lactococcus garvieae strains, including isolates of dairy, fish, meat, vegetable and cereal origin, was explored using a molecular polyphasic approach comprising PCR-ribotyping, REP and RAPD-PCR analyses and a multilocus restriction typing (MLRT) carried out on six partial genes (atpA, tuf, dltA, als, gapC, and galP). This approach allowed high-resolution cluster analysis in which two major groups were distinguishable: one group included dairy isolates, the other group meat isolates. Unexpectedly, of the 12 strains coming from fish, four grouped with dairy isolates, whereas the others with meat isolates. Likewise, strains isolated from vegetables allocated between the two main groups. These findings revealed high variability within the species at both gene and genome levels. The observed genetic heterogeneity among L. garvieae strains was not entirely coherent with the ecological niche of origin of the strains, but rather supports the idea of an early separation of L. garvieae population into two independent genomic lineages. PMID:22568590

  12. Genomic investigation reveals evolution and lifestyle adaptation of endophytic Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Patil, Prabhu B.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major human associated bacterium and also an emerging nosocomial pathogen. There are reports of its association to rodents, sheep and plants. However, comparative and evolutionary studies of ecologically diverse strains of S. epidermidis are lacking. Here, we report the whole genome sequences of four S. epidermidis strains isolated from surface sterilized rice seeds along with genome sequence of type strain. Phylogenomic analysis of rice endophytic S. epidermidis (RESE) with “type strain” unequivocally established their species identity. Whole genome based tree of 93 strains of S. epidermidis revealed RESE as distinct sub-lineage which is more related to rodent sub-lineage than to majority of human lineage strains. Furthermore, comparative genomics revealed 20% variable gene-pool in S. epidermidis, suggesting that genomes of ecologically diverse strains are under flux. Interestingly, we were also able to map several genomic regions that are under flux and gave rise to RESE strains. The largest of these genomic regions encodes a cluster of genes unique to RESE that are known to be required for survival and stress tolerance, apart from those required for adaptation to plant habitat. The genomes and genes of RESE represent distinct ecological resource/sequences and provided first evolutionary insights into adaptation of S. epidermidis to plants. PMID:26758912

  13. Genomics reveals new landscapes for crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The sequencing of large and complex genomes of crop species, facilitated by new sequencing technologies and bioinformatic approaches, has provided new opportunities for crop improvement. Current challenges include understanding how genetic variation translates into phenotypic performance in the field. PMID:23796126

  14. Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Barrela, Ricardo M; Bergès, Hélène; Marques, Cristina; Loureiro, João; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Paiva, Jorge A P

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus. PMID:27148332

  15. Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Barrela, Ricardo M.; Bergès, Hélène; Marques, Cristina; Loureiro, João; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Paiva, Jorge A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus. PMID:27148332

  16. Global biogeography of Prochlorococcus genome diversity in the surface ocean.

    PubMed

    Kent, Alyssa G; Dupont, Chris L; Yooseph, Shibu; Martiny, Adam C

    2016-08-01

    Prochlorococcus, the smallest known photosynthetic bacterium, is abundant in the ocean's surface layer despite large variation in environmental conditions. There are several genetically divergent lineages within Prochlorococcus and superimposed on this phylogenetic diversity is extensive gene gain and loss. The environmental role in shaping the global ocean distribution of genome diversity in Prochlorococcus is largely unknown, particularly in a framework that considers the vertical and lateral mechanisms of evolution. Here we show that Prochlorococcus field populations from a global circumnavigation harbor extensive genome diversity across the surface ocean, but this diversity is not randomly distributed. We observed a significant correspondence between phylogenetic and gene content diversity, including regional differences in both phylogenetic composition and gene content that were related to environmental factors. Several gene families were strongly associated with specific regions and environmental factors, including the identification of a set of genes related to lower nutrient and temperature regions. Metagenomic assemblies of natural Prochlorococcus genomes reinforced this association by providing linkage of genes across genomic backbones. Overall, our results show that the phylogeography in Prochlorococcus taxonomy is echoed in its genome content. Thus environmental variation shapes the functional capabilities and associated ecosystem role of the globally abundant Prochlorococcus. PMID:26836261

  17. Retrotransposon evolution in diverse plant genomes.

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, T; Seago, C; Mende, M; Leggett, M; Thomas, H; Forster, J W; Jones, R N; Jenkins, G

    2000-01-01

    Retrotransposon or retrotransposon-like sequences have been reported to be conserved components of cereal centromeres. Here we show that the published sequences are derived from a single conventional Ty3-gypsy family or a nonautonomous derivative. Both autonomous and nonautonomous elements are likely to have colonized Poaceae centromeres at the time of a common ancestor but have been maintained since by active retrotransposition. The retrotransposon family is also present at a lower copy number in the Arabidopsis genome, where it shows less pronounced localization. The history of the family in the two types of genome provides an interesting contrast between "boom and bust" and persistent evolutionary patterns. PMID:10978295

  18. Microsporidian Genomes Harbor a Diverse Array of Transposable Elements that Demonstrate an Ancestry of Horizontal Exchange with Metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Gasc, Cyrielle; Polonais, Valérie; Belkorchia, Abdel; Panek, Johan; El Alaoui, Hicham; Biron, David G.; Brasset, Émilie; Vaury, Chantal; Peyret, Pierre; Corradi, Nicolas; Peyretaillade, Éric; Lerat, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidian genomes are the leading models to understand the streamlining in response to a pathogenic lifestyle; they are gene-poor and often possess small genomes. In this study, we show a feature of microsporidian genomes that contrasts this pattern of genome reduction. Specifically, genome investigations targeted at Anncaliia algerae, a human pathogen with a genome size of 23 Mb, revealed the presence of a hitherto undetected diversity in transposable elements (TEs). A total of 240 TE families per genome were identified, exceeding that found in many free-living fungi, and searches of microsporidian species revealed that these mobile elements represent a significant portion of their coding repertoire. Their phylogenetic analysis revealed that many cases of ancestry involve recent and bidirectional horizontal transfers with metazoans. The abundance and horizontal transfer origin of microsporidian TEs highlight a novel dimension of genome evolution in these intracellular pathogens, demonstrating that factors beyond reduction are at play in their diversification. PMID:25172905

  19. Microsporidian genomes harbor a diverse array of transposable elements that demonstrate an ancestry of horizontal exchange with metazoans.

    PubMed

    Parisot, Nicolas; Pelin, Adrian; Gasc, Cyrielle; Polonais, Valérie; Belkorchia, Abdel; Panek, Johan; El Alaoui, Hicham; Biron, David G; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal; Peyret, Pierre; Corradi, Nicolas; Peyretaillade, Éric; Lerat, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Microsporidian genomes are the leading models to understand the streamlining in response to a pathogenic lifestyle; they are gene-poor and often possess small genomes. In this study, we show a feature of microsporidian genomes that contrasts this pattern of genome reduction. Specifically, genome investigations targeted at Anncaliia algerae, a human pathogen with a genome size of 23 Mb, revealed the presence of a hitherto undetected diversity in transposable elements (TEs). A total of 240 TE families per genome were identified, exceeding that found in many free-living fungi, and searches of microsporidian species revealed that these mobile elements represent a significant portion of their coding repertoire. Their phylogenetic analysis revealed that many cases of ancestry involve recent and bidirectional horizontal transfers with metazoans. The abundance and horizontal transfer origin of microsporidian TEs highlight a novel dimension of genome evolution in these intracellular pathogens, demonstrating that factors beyond reduction are at play in their diversification. PMID:25172905

  20. Whole-genome sequencing reveals small genomic regions of introgression in an introduced crater lake population of threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kohta; Miyagi, Ryutaro; Mori, Seiichi; Takahashi, Aya; Makino, Takashi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kitano, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species pose a major threat to biological diversity. Although introduced populations often experience population bottlenecks, some invasive species are thought to be originated from hybridization between multiple populations or species, which can contribute to the maintenance of high genetic diversity. Recent advances in genome sequencing enable us to trace the evolutionary history of invasive species even at whole-genome level and may help to identify the history of past hybridization that may be overlooked by traditional marker-based analysis. Here, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of eight threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) individuals, four from a recently introduced crater lake population and four of the putative source population. We found that both populations have several small genomic regions with high genetic diversity, which resulted from introgression from a closely related species (Gasterosteus nipponicus). The sizes of the regions were too small to be detected with traditional marker-based analysis or even some reduced-representation sequencing methods. Further amplicon sequencing revealed linkage disequilibrium around an introgression site, which suggests the possibility of selective sweep at the introgression site. Thus, interspecies introgression might predate introduction and increase genetic variation in the source population. Whole-genome sequencing of even a small number of individuals can therefore provide higher resolution inference of history of introduced populations. PMID:27069575

  1. The Capsaspora genome reveals a complex unicellular prehistory of animals

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Hiroshi; Chen, Zehua; de Mendoza, Alex; Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Brown, Matthew W.; Kramer, Eric; Carr, Martin; Kerner, Pierre; Vervoort, Michel; Sánchez-Pons, Núria; Torruella, Guifré; Derelle, Romain; Manning, Gerard; Lang, B. Franz; Russ, Carsten; Haas, Brian J.; Roger, Andrew J.; Nusbaum, Chad; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    To reconstruct the evolutionary origin of multicellular animals from their unicellular ancestors, the genome sequences of diverse unicellular relatives are essential. However, only the genome of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis has been reported to date. Here we completely sequence the genome of the filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, the closest known unicellular relative of metazoans besides choanoflagellates. Analyses of this genome alter our understanding of the molecular complexity of metazoans’ unicellular ancestors showing that they had a richer repertoire of proteins involved in cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation than previously inferred only with the choanoflagellate genome. Some of these proteins were secondarily lost in choanoflagellates. In contrast, most intercellular signalling systems controlling development evolved later concomitant with the emergence of the first metazoans. We propose that the acquisition of these metazoan-specific developmental systems and the co-option of pre-existing genes drove the evolutionary transition from unicellular protists to metazoans. PMID:23942320

  2. Genomic diversity of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus strains.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi-Peng; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xi, Yu; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2013-07-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a baculovirus that selectively infects the domestic silkworm. In this study, six BmNPV strains were compared at the whole genome level. We found that the number of bro genes and the composition of the homologous regions (hrs) are the two primary areas of divergence within these genomes. When we compared the ORFs of these BmNPV variants, we noticed a high degree of sequence divergence in the ORFs that are not baculovirus core genes. This result is consistent with the results derived from phylogenetic trees and evolutionary pressure analyses of these ORFs, indicating that ORFs that are not core genes likely play important roles in the evolution of BmNPV strains. The evolutionary relationships of these BmNPV strains might be explained by their geographic origins or those of their hosts. In addition, the total number of hr palindromes seems to affect viral DNA replication in Bm5 cells. PMID:23639478

  3. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  4. Genetic Diversity of A-Genome Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is known to have relatively low levels of genetic diversity or variation in genetic makeup among individuals, a better understanding of this variation and relationships among possible sources of novel genes would be valuable. Therefore, analysis of genetic...

  5. Genomic Diversity within the Enterobacter cloacae Complex

    PubMed Central

    Paauw, Armand; Caspers, Martien P. M.; Schuren, Frank H. J.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A.; Delétoile, Alexis; Montijn, Roy C.; Verhoef, Jan; Fluit, Ad C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex have been increasingly isolated as nosocomial pathogens, but phenotypic identification of the E. cloacae complex is unreliable and irreproducible. Identification of species based on currently available genotyping tools is already superior to phenotypic identification, but the taxonomy of isolates belonging to this complex is cumbersome. Methodology/Principal Findings This study shows that multilocus sequence analysis and comparative genomic hybridization based on a mixed genome array is a powerful method for studying species assignment within the E. cloacae complex. The E. cloacae complex is shown to be evolutionarily divided into two clades that are genetically distinct from each other. The younger first clade is genetically more homogenous, contains the Enterobacter hormaechei species and is the most frequently cultured Enterobacter species in hospitals. The second and older clade consists of several (sub)species that are genetically more heterogonous. Genetic markers were identified that could discriminate between the two clades and cluster 1. Conclusions/Significance Based on genomic differences it is concluded that some previously defined (clonal and heterogenic) (sub)species of the E. cloacae complex have to be redefined because of disagreements with known or proposed nomenclature. However, further improved identification of the redefined species will be possible based on novel markers presented here. PMID:18716657

  6. Low genome content diversity of marine planktonic Thaumarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiwei; Sun, Ying; Hollibaugh, James T; Moran, Mary Ann

    2016-08-01

    Members of Thaumarchaeota are responsible for much of the ammonia oxidation occurring in the ocean. Recent studies showed that marine Thaumarchaeota have versatile metabolic capabilities, but sequencing additional genomes has not significantly increased the gene content ascribed to this group. We used the assembly-free dN pipeline software in combination with phylogenetic analyses to interrogate shotgun metagenomic data sets to gain a better understanding of the genomic diversity of Thaumarchaeota populations. The program confidently assigned ∼3,000 paired-end reads to Thaumarchaeota, independent of homologies to any known Thaumarchaeota genome sequence. Only 2% of these reads potentially harbor new genes that were absent from the genome of 'Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus' str. SCM1, even though this strain was isolated from a marine aquarium rather than directly from the ocean. One of these novel genes encode proteins associated with the CRISPR/Cas system, Cas1, suggesting that phage defense through CRISPR may be also present in planktonic Thaumarchaeota lineages. Our results suggest that marine Thaumarchaeota populations have very low diversity in genome content, which is corroborated using computer simulation analyses of two bacterial lineages with known genome content diversity. PMID:27120311

  7. Decelerated genome evolution in modern vertebrates revealed by analysis of multiple lancelet genomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Yan, Xinyu; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guangrui; Yan, Qingyu; Pontarotti, Pierre Antoine; Zhao, Hongchen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tao, Xin; Deng, Ting; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiujin; Zhou, Sisi; You, Leiming; Yuan, Shaochun; Fu, Yonggui; Wu, Fenfang; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement and domain shuffling and that these rates greatly slowed down after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. Compared with lancelets, modern vertebrates retain, at least relatively, less protein diversity, fewer nucleotide polymorphisms, domain combinations and conserved non-coding elements (CNE). Modern vertebrates also lost substantial transposable element (TE) diversity, whereas lancelets preserve high TE diversity that includes even the long-sought RAG transposon. Lancelets also exhibit rapid gene turnover, pervasive transcription, fastest exon shuffling in metazoans and substantial TE methylation not observed in other invertebrates. These new lancelet genome sequences provide new insights into the chordate ancestral state and the vertebrate evolution. PMID:25523484

  8. Decelerated genome evolution in modern vertebrates revealed by analysis of multiple lancelet genomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Yan, Xinyu; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guangrui; Yan, Qingyu; Pontarotti, Pierre Antoine; Zhao, Hongchen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tao, Xin; Deng, Ting; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiujin; Zhou, Sisi; You, Leiming; Yuan, Shaochun; Fu, Yonggui; Wu, Fenfang; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement and domain shuffling and that these rates greatly slowed down after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. Compared with lancelets, modern vertebrates retain, at least relatively, less protein diversity, fewer nucleotide polymorphisms, domain combinations and conserved non-coding elements (CNE). Modern vertebrates also lost substantial transposable element (TE) diversity, whereas lancelets preserve high TE diversity that includes even the long-sought RAG transposon. Lancelets also exhibit rapid gene turnover, pervasive transcription, fastest exon shuffling in metazoans and substantial TE methylation not observed in other invertebrates. These new lancelet genome sequences provide new insights into the chordate ancestral state and the vertebrate evolution. PMID:25523484

  9. Toxin Diversity Revealed by a Transcriptomic Study of Ornithoctonus huwena

    PubMed Central

    He, Quanze; Liu, Jinyan; Luo, Ji; Zhu, Li; Lu, Shanshan; Huang, Pengfei; Chen, Xinyi; Zeng, Xiongzhi; Liang, Songping

    2014-01-01

    Spider venom comprises a mixture of compounds with diverse biological activities, which are used to capture prey and defend against predators. The peptide components bind a broad range of cellular targets with high affinity and selectivity, and appear to have remarkable structural diversity. Although spider venoms have been intensively investigated over the past few decades, venomic strategies to date have generally focused on high-abundance peptides. In addition, the lack of complete spider genomes or representative cDNA libraries has presented significant limitations for researchers interested in molecular diversity and understanding the genetic mechanisms of toxin evolution. In the present study, second-generation sequencing technologies, combined with proteomic analysis, were applied to determine the diverse peptide toxins in venom of the Chinese bird spider Ornithoctonus huwena. In total, 626 toxin precursor sequences were retrieved from transcriptomic data. All toxin precursors clustered into 16 gene superfamilies, which included six novel superfamilies and six novel cysteine patterns. A surprisingly high number of hypermutations and fragment insertions/deletions were detected, which accounted for the majority of toxin gene sequences with low-level expression. These mutations contribute to the formation of diverse cysteine patterns and highly variable isoforms. Furthermore, intraspecific venom variability, in combination with variable transcripts and peptide processing, contributes to the hypervariability of toxins in venoms, and associated rapid and adaptive evolution of toxins for prey capture and defense. PMID:24949878

  10. Whole genome sequencing and analysis reveal insights into the genetic structure, diversity and evolutionary relatedness of luxI and luxR homologs in bacteria belonging to the Sphingomonadaceae family

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Han Ming; Gan, Huan You; Ahmad, Nurul H.; Aziz, Nazrin A.; Hudson, André O.; Savka, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the draft genomes and annotation of four N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-producing members from the family Sphingomonadaceae. Comparative genomic analyses of 62 Sphingomonadaceae genomes were performed to gain insights into the distribution of the canonical luxI/R-type quorum sensing (QS) network within this family. Forty genomes contained at least one luxR homolog while the genome of Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 contained seven Open Reading Frames (ORFs) that have significant homology to that of luxR. Thirty-three genomes contained at least one luxI homolog while the genomes of Sphingobium sp. SYK6, Sphingobium japonicum, and Sphingobium lactosutens contained four luxI. Using phylogenetic analysis, the sphingomonad LuxR homologs formed five distinct clades with two minor clades located near the plant associated bacteria (PAB) LuxR solo clade. This work for the first time shows that 13 Sphingobium and one Sphingomonas genome(s) contain three convergently oriented genes composed of two tandem luxR genes proximal to one luxI (luxR-luxR-luxI). Interestingly, luxI solos were identified in two Sphingobium species and may represent species that contribute to AHL-based QS system by contributing AHL molecules but are unable to perceive AHLs as signals. This work provides the most comprehensive description of the luxI/R circuitry and genome-based taxonomical description of the available sphingomonad genomes to date indicating that the presence of luxR solos and luxI solos are not an uncommon feature in members of the Sphingomonadaceae family. PMID:25621282

  11. Lampreys as Diverse Model Organisms in the Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, David W.; Docker, Margaret F.; Whyard, Steve; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of ancient vertebrates, have become important models for study in diverse fields of biology. Lampreys (of which there are approximately 40 species) are being studied, for example, (a) to control pest sea lamprey in the North American Great Lakes and to restore declining populations of native species elsewhere; (b) in biomedical research, focusing particularly on the regenerative capability of lampreys; and (c) by developmental biologists studying the evolution of key vertebrate characters. Although a lack of genetic resources has hindered research on the mechanisms regulating many aspects of lamprey life history and development, formerly intractable questions are now amenable to investigation following the recent publication of the sea lamprey genome. Here, we provide an overview of the ways in which genomic tools are currently being deployed to tackle diverse research questions and suggest several areas that may benefit from the availability of the sea lamprey genome. PMID:26951616

  12. Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample.

    PubMed

    Stoljarova, Monika; King, Jonathan L; Takahashi, Maiko; Aaspõllu, Anu; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is a useful marker for population studies, human identification, and forensic analysis. Commonly used hypervariable regions I and II (HVI/HVII) were reported to contain as little as 25% of mitochondrial DNA variants and therefore the majority of power of discrimination of mitochondrial DNA resides in the coding region. Massively parallel sequencing technology enables entire mitochondrial genome sequencing. In this study, buccal swabs were collected from 114 unrelated Estonians and whole mitochondrial genome sequences were generated using the Illumina MiSeq system. The results are concordant with previous mtDNA control region reports of high haplogroup HV and U frequencies (47.4 and 23.7% in this study, respectively) in the Estonian population. One sample with the Northern Asian haplogroup D was detected. The genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample was estimated to be 99.67 and 95.85%, for mtGenome and HVI/HVII data, respectively. The random match probability for mtGenome data was 1.20 versus 4.99% for HVI/HVII. The nucleotide mean pairwise difference was 27 ± 11 for mtGenome and 7 ± 3 for HVI/HVII data. These data describe the genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample and emphasize the power of discrimination of the entire mitochondrial genome over the hypervariable regions. PMID:26289416

  13. Nannochloropsis Genomes Reveal Evolution of Microalgal Oleaginous Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianqiang; Han, Danxiang; Wang, Hui; Zeng, Xiaowei; Jing, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Qian; Su, Xiaoquan; Chang, Xingzhi; Wang, Anhui; Wang, Wei; Jia, Jing; Wei, Li; Xin, Yi; Qiao, Yinghe; Huang, Ranran; Chen, Jie; Han, Bo; Yoon, Kangsup; Hill, Russell T.; Zohar, Yonathan; Chen, Feng; Hu, Qiang; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Oleaginous microalgae are promising feedstock for biofuels, yet the genetic diversity, origin and evolution of oleaginous traits remain largely unknown. Here we present a detailed phylogenomic analysis of five oleaginous Nannochloropsis species (a total of six strains) and one time-series transcriptome dataset for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis on one representative strain. Despite small genome sizes, high coding potential and relative paucity of mobile elements, the genomes feature small cores of ca. 2,700 protein-coding genes and a large pan-genome of >38,000 genes. The six genomes share key oleaginous traits, such as the enrichment of selected lipid biosynthesis genes and certain glycoside hydrolase genes that potentially shift carbon flux from chrysolaminaran to TAG synthesis. The eleven type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes (DGAT-2) in every strain, each expressed during TAG synthesis, likely originated from three ancient genomes, including the secondary endosymbiosis host and the engulfed green and red algae. Horizontal gene transfers were inferred in most lipid synthesis nodes with expanded gene doses and many glycoside hydrolase genes. Thus multiple genome pooling and horizontal genetic exchange, together with selective inheritance of lipid synthesis genes and species-specific gene loss, have led to the enormous genetic apparatus for oleaginousness and the wide genomic divergence among present-day Nannochloropsis. These findings have important implications in the screening and genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels. PMID:24415958

  14. Hybridization Reveals the Evolving Genomic Architecture of Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Kronforst, Marcus R.; Hansen, Matthew E.B.; Crawford, Nicholas G.; Gallant, Jason R.; Zhang, Wei; Kulathinal, Rob J.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Mullen, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The rate at which genomes diverge during speciation is unknown, as are the physical dynamics of the process. Here, we compare full genome sequences of 32 butterflies, representing five species from a hybridizing Heliconius butterfly community, to examine genome-wide patterns of introgression and infer how divergence evolves during the speciation process. Our analyses reveal that initial divergence is restricted to a small fraction of the genome, largely clustered around known wing-patterning genes. Over time, divergence evolves rapidly, due primarily to the origin of new divergent regions. Furthermore, divergent genomic regions display signatures of both selection and adaptive introgression, demonstrating the link between microevolutionary processes acting within species and the origin of species across macroevolutionary timescales. Our results provide a uniquely comprehensive portrait of the evolving species boundary due to the role that hybridization plays in reducing the background accumulation of divergence at neutral sites. PMID:24183670

  15. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Clark, Richard M.; Rombauts, Stephane; Rouzé, Pierre; Grbić, Vojislava; Osborne, Edward J.; Dermauw, Wannes; Ngoc, Phuong Cao Thi; Ortego, Félix; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel; Navajas, Maria; Sucena, Élio; Magalhães, Sara; Nagy, Lisa; Pace, Ryan M.; Djuranović, Sergej; Smagghe, Guy; Iga, Masatoshi; Christiaens, Olivier; Veenstra, Jan A.; Ewer, John; Villalobos, Rodrigo Mancilla; Hutter, Jeffrey L.; Hudson, Stephen D.; Velez, Marisela; Yi, Soojin V.; Zeng, Jia; Pires-daSilva, Andre; Roch, Fernando; Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Zhurov, Vladimir; Acevedo, Gustavo; Bjelica, Anica; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Bonnet, Eric; Martens, Cindy; Baele, Guy; Wissler, Lothar; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Aminael; Tirry, Luc; Blais, Catherine; Demeestere, Kristof; Henz, Stefan R.; Gregory, T. Ryan; Mathieu, Johannes; Verdon, Lou; Farinelli, Laurent; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lindquist, Erika; Feyereisen, René; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T. urticae has the smallest sequenced arthropod genome. Compared with other arthropods, the spider mite genome shows unique changes in the hormonal environment and organization of the Hox complex, and also reveals evolutionary innovation of silk production. We find strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer. Deep transcriptome analysis of mites feeding on different plants shows how this pest responds to a changing host environment. The T. urticae genome thus offers new insights into arthropod evolution and plant–herbivore interactions, and provides unique opportunities for developing novel plant protection strategies. PMID:22113690

  16. Visualization of Genome Diversity in German Shepherd Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Mortlock, Sally-Anne; Booth, Rachel; Mazrier, Hamutal; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Williamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A loss of genetic diversity may lead to increased disease risks in subpopulations of dogs. The canine breed structure has contributed to relatively small effective population size in many breeds and can limit the options for selective breeding strategies to maintain diversity. With the completion of the canine genome sequencing project, and the subsequent reduction in the cost of genotyping on a genomic scale, evaluating diversity in dogs has become much more accurate and accessible. This provides a potential tool for advising dog breeders and developing breeding programs within a breed. A challenge in doing this is to present complex relationship data in a form that can be readily utilized. Here, we demonstrate the use of a pipeline, known as NetView, to visualize the network of relationships in a subpopulation of German Shepherd Dogs. PMID:26884680

  17. Functional metagenomic screen reveals new and diverse microbial rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Pushkarev, Alina; Béjà, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Ion-translocating retinylidene rhodopsins are widely distributed among marine and freshwater microbes. The translocation is light-driven, contributing to the production of biochemical energy in diverse microbes. Until today, most microbial rhodopsins had been detected using bioinformatics based on homology to other rhodopsins. In the past decade, there has been increased interest in microbial rhodopsins in the field of optogenetics since microbial rhodopsins were found to be most useful in vertebrate neuronal systems. Here we report on a functional metagenomic assay for detecting microbial rhodopsins. Using an array of narrow pH electrodes and light-emitting diode illumination, we were able to screen a metagenomic fosmid library to detect diverse marine proteorhodopsins and an actinorhodopsin based solely on proton-pumping activity. Our assay therefore provides a rather simple phenotypic means to enrich our understanding of microbial rhodopsins without any prior knowledge of the genomic content of the environmental entities screened. PMID:26894445

  18. Functional metagenomic screen reveals new and diverse microbial rhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Pushkarev, Alina; Béjà, Oded

    2016-09-01

    Ion-translocating retinylidene rhodopsins are widely distributed among marine and freshwater microbes. The translocation is light-driven, contributing to the production of biochemical energy in diverse microbes. Until today, most microbial rhodopsins had been detected using bioinformatics based on homology to other rhodopsins. In the past decade, there has been increased interest in microbial rhodopsins in the field of optogenetics since microbial rhodopsins were found to be most useful in vertebrate neuronal systems. Here we report on a functional metagenomic assay for detecting microbial rhodopsins. Using an array of narrow pH electrodes and light-emitting diode illumination, we were able to screen a metagenomic fosmid library to detect diverse marine proteorhodopsins and an actinorhodopsin based solely on proton-pumping activity. Our assay therefore provides a rather simple phenotypic means to enrich our understanding of microbial rhodopsins without any prior knowledge of the genomic content of the environmental entities screened. PMID:26894445

  19. Report of the second Human Genome Diversity workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The Second Human Genome Diversity Workshop was successfully held at Penn State University from October 29--31, 1992. The Workshop was essentially organized around 7 groups, each comprising approximately 10 participants, representing the sampling issues in different regions of the world. These groups worked independently, using a common format provided by the organizers; this was adjusted as needed by the individual groups. The Workshop began with a presentation of the mandate to the participants, and of the procedures to be followed during the workshop. Dr. Feldman presented a summary of the results from the First Workshop. He and the other organizers also presented brief comments giving their perspective on the objectives of the Second Workshop. Dr. Julia Bodmer discussed the study of European genetic diversity, especially in the context of the HLA experience there, and of plans to extend such studies in the coming years. She also discussed surveys of world HLA laboratories in regard to resources related to Human Genome Diversity. Dr. Mark Weiss discussed the relevance of nonhuman primate studies for understanding how demographic processes, such as mate exchange between local groups, affected the local dispersion of genetic variation. Primate population geneticists have some relevant experience in interpreting variation at this local level, in particular, with various DNA fingerprinting methods. This experience may be relevant to the Human Genome Diversity Project, in terms of practical and statistical issues.

  20. Gekko japonicus genome reveals evolution of adhesive toe pads and tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Yongjun; Luo, Longhai; Yang, Jian; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Mei; Li, Yingrui; Qian, Tianmei; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Meiyuan; Li, Jiang; Gu, Yun; Han, Zujing; Xu, Man; Wang, Yingjie; Zhu, Changlai; Yu, Bin; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei; Jiang, Jianping; Yang, Huanming; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Reptiles are the most morphologically and physiologically diverse tetrapods, and have undergone 300 million years of adaptive evolution. Within the reptilian tetrapods, geckos possess several interesting features, including the ability to regenerate autotomized tails and to climb on smooth surfaces. Here we sequence the genome of Gekko japonicus (Schlegel's Japanese Gecko) and investigate genetic elements related to its physiology. We obtain a draft G. japonicus genome sequence of 2.55 Gb and annotated 22,487 genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals specific gene family expansions or reductions that are associated with the formation of adhesive setae, nocturnal vision and tail regeneration, as well as the diversification of olfactory sensation. The obtained genomic data provide robust genetic evidence of adaptive evolution in reptiles. PMID:26598231

  1. Gekko japonicus genome reveals evolution of adhesive toe pads and tail regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Yongjun; Luo, Longhai; Yang, Jian; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Mei; Li, Yingrui; Qian, Tianmei; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Meiyuan; Li, Jiang; Gu, Yun; Han, Zujing; Xu, Man; Wang, Yingjie; Zhu, Changlai; Yu, Bin; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei; Jiang, Jianping; Yang, Huanming; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Reptiles are the most morphologically and physiologically diverse tetrapods, and have undergone 300 million years of adaptive evolution. Within the reptilian tetrapods, geckos possess several interesting features, including the ability to regenerate autotomized tails and to climb on smooth surfaces. Here we sequence the genome of Gekko japonicus (Schlegel's Japanese Gecko) and investigate genetic elements related to its physiology. We obtain a draft G. japonicus genome sequence of 2.55 Gb and annotated 22,487 genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals specific gene family expansions or reductions that are associated with the formation of adhesive setae, nocturnal vision and tail regeneration, as well as the diversification of olfactory sensation. The obtained genomic data provide robust genetic evidence of adaptive evolution in reptiles. PMID:26598231

  2. Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Rowena F.; Horak, Ales; Andrew, Rose L.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Andersen, Robert A.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Jameson, Ian; Hoppenrath, Mona; Véron, Benoît; Kasai, Fumai; Brand, Jerry; James, Erick R.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known “species”, as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean), including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species. Conclusions/Significance COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of

  3. Comparative genomics of wild type yeast strains unveils important genome diversity

    PubMed Central

    Carreto, Laura; Eiriz, Maria F; Gomes, Ana C; Pereira, Patrícia M; Schuller, Dorit; Santos, Manuel AS

    2008-01-01

    Background Genome variability generates phenotypic heterogeneity and is of relevance for adaptation to environmental change, but the extent of such variability in natural populations is still poorly understood. For example, selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are variable at the ploidy level, have gene amplifications, changes in chromosome copy number, and gross chromosomal rearrangements. This suggests that genome plasticity provides important genetic diversity upon which natural selection mechanisms can operate. Results In this study, we have used wild-type S. cerevisiae (yeast) strains to investigate genome variation in natural and artificial environments. We have used comparative genome hybridization on array (aCGH) to characterize the genome variability of 16 yeast strains, of laboratory and commercial origin, isolated from vineyards and wine cellars, and from opportunistic human infections. Interestingly, sub-telomeric instability was associated with the clinical phenotype, while Ty element insertion regions determined genomic differences of natural wine fermentation strains. Copy number depletion of ASP3 and YRF1 genes was found in all wild-type strains. Other gene families involved in transmembrane transport, sugar and alcohol metabolism or drug resistance had copy number changes, which also distinguished wine from clinical isolates. Conclusion We have isolated and genotyped more than 1000 yeast strains from natural environments and carried out an aCGH analysis of 16 strains representative of distinct genotype clusters. Important genomic variability was identified between these strains, in particular in sub-telomeric regions and in Ty-element insertion sites, suggesting that this type of genome variability is the main source of genetic diversity in natural populations of yeast. The data highlights the usefulness of yeast as a model system to unravel intraspecific natural genome diversity and to elucidate how natural selection shapes the yeast genome

  4. Culture Independent Genomic Comparisons Reveal Environmental Adaptations for Altiarchaeales

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brett J.; Probst, Alexander J.; Podar, Mircea; Lloyd, Karen G.

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed candidatus order Altiarchaeales remains an uncultured archaeal lineage composed of genetically diverse, globally widespread organisms frequently observed in anoxic subsurface environments. In spite of 15 years of studies on the psychrophilic biofilm-producing Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum and its close relatives, very little is known about the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the widespread free-living marine members of this taxon. From methanogenic sediments in the White Oak River Estuary, NC, USA, we sequenced a single cell amplified genome (SAG), WOR_SM1_SCG, and used it to identify and refine two high-quality genomes from metagenomes, WOR_SM1_79 and WOR_SM1_86-2, from the same site. These three genomic reconstructions form a monophyletic group, which also includes three previously published genomes from metagenomes from terrestrial springs and a SAG from Sakinaw Lake in a group previously designated as pMC2A384. A synapomorphic mutation in the Altiarchaeales tRNA synthetase β subunit, pheT, caused the protein to be encoded as two subunits at non-adjacent loci. Consistent with the terrestrial spring clades, our estuarine genomes contained a near-complete autotrophic metabolism, H2 or CO as potential electron donors, a reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation, and methylotroph-like NADP(H)-dependent dehydrogenase. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA genes and concatenated conserved proteins identified two distinct sub-clades of Altiarchaeales, Alti-1 populated by organisms from actively flowing springs, and Alti-2 which was more widespread, diverse, and not associated with visible mats. The core Alti-1 genome suggested Alti-1 is adapted for the stream environment with lipopolysaccharide production capacity and extracellular hami structures. The core Alti-2 genome suggested members of this clade are free-living with distinct mechanisms for energy maintenance, motility, osmoregulation, and sulfur redox reactions. These data

  5. Culture Independent Genomic Comparisons Reveal Environmental Adaptations for Altiarchaeales.

    PubMed

    Bird, Jordan T; Baker, Brett J; Probst, Alexander J; Podar, Mircea; Lloyd, Karen G

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed candidatus order Altiarchaeales remains an uncultured archaeal lineage composed of genetically diverse, globally widespread organisms frequently observed in anoxic subsurface environments. In spite of 15 years of studies on the psychrophilic biofilm-producing Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum and its close relatives, very little is known about the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the widespread free-living marine members of this taxon. From methanogenic sediments in the White Oak River Estuary, NC, USA, we sequenced a single cell amplified genome (SAG), WOR_SM1_SCG, and used it to identify and refine two high-quality genomes from metagenomes, WOR_SM1_79 and WOR_SM1_86-2, from the same site. These three genomic reconstructions form a monophyletic group, which also includes three previously published genomes from metagenomes from terrestrial springs and a SAG from Sakinaw Lake in a group previously designated as pMC2A384. A synapomorphic mutation in the Altiarchaeales tRNA synthetase β subunit, pheT, caused the protein to be encoded as two subunits at non-adjacent loci. Consistent with the terrestrial spring clades, our estuarine genomes contained a near-complete autotrophic metabolism, H2 or CO as potential electron donors, a reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation, and methylotroph-like NADP(H)-dependent dehydrogenase. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA genes and concatenated conserved proteins identified two distinct sub-clades of Altiarchaeales, Alti-1 populated by organisms from actively flowing springs, and Alti-2 which was more widespread, diverse, and not associated with visible mats. The core Alti-1 genome suggested Alti-1 is adapted for the stream environment with lipopolysaccharide production capacity and extracellular hami structures. The core Alti-2 genome suggested members of this clade are free-living with distinct mechanisms for energy maintenance, motility, osmoregulation, and sulfur redox reactions. These data

  6. Genetic variability of mutans streptococci revealed by wide whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutans streptococci are a group of bacteria significantly contributing to tooth decay. Their genetic variability is however still not well understood. Results Genomes of 6 clinical S. mutans isolates of different origins, one isolate of S. sobrinus (DSM 20742) and one isolate of S. ratti (DSM 20564) were sequenced and comparatively analyzed. Genome alignment revealed a mosaic-like structure of genome arrangement. Genes related to pathogenicity are found to have high variations among the strains, whereas genes for oxidative stress resistance are well conserved, indicating the importance of this trait in the dental biofilm community. Analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks revealed significant differences in 42 pathways. A striking dissimilarity is the unique presence of two lactate oxidases in S. sobrinus DSM 20742, probably indicating an unusual capability of this strain in producing H2O2 and expanding its ecological niche. In addition, lactate oxidases may form with other enzymes a novel energetic pathway in S. sobrinus DSM 20742 that can remedy its deficiency in citrate utilization pathway. Using 67 S. mutans genomes currently available including the strains sequenced in this study, we estimates the theoretical core genome size of S. mutans, and performed modeling of S. mutans pan-genome by applying different fitting models. An “open” pan-genome was inferred. Conclusions The comparative genome analyses revealed diversities in the mutans streptococci group, especially with respect to the virulence related genes and metabolic pathways. The results are helpful for better understanding the evolution and adaptive mechanisms of these oral pathogen microorganisms and for combating them. PMID:23805886

  7. Genome-wide association studies in diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Noah A; Huang, Lucy; Jewett, Ethan M; Szpiech, Zachary A; Jankovic, Ivana; Boehnke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease phenotypes. As most GWA studies have been performed primarily in populations of European descent, this review examines the issues involved in extending consideration of GWA studies to diverse worldwide populations. Although challenges exist with such issues as imputation, admixture, and replication, investigation of diverse populations in GWA studies has significant potential to advance the project of mapping the genetic determinants of complex diseases for the human population as a whole. PMID:20395969

  8. Comprehensive Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter Genus Reveals Some Underlying Mechanisms for its Genomic Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yizhuang; Bu, Lijing; Guo, Min; Zhou, Chengran; Wang, Yongdong; Chen, Liyu; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species.are phenotypically diverse in many aspects including host habitats and pathogenicities, which demands comprehensive characterization of the entire Campylobacter genus to study their underlying genetic diversification. Up to now, 34 Campylobacter strains have been sequenced and published in public databases, providing good opportunity to systemically analyze their genomic diversities. In this study, we first conducted genomic characterization, which includes genome-wide alignments, pan-genome analysis, and phylogenetic identification, to depict the genetic diversity of Campylobacter genus. Afterward, we improved the tetranucleotide usage pattern-based naïve Bayesian classifier to identify the abnormal composition fragments (ACFs, fragments with significantly different tetranucleotide frequency profiles from its genomic tetranucleotide frequency profiles) including horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) to explore the mechanisms for the genetic diversity of this organism. Finally, we analyzed the HGTs transferred via bacteriophage transductions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use single nucleotide polymorphism information to construct liable microevolution phylogeny of 21 Campylobacter jejuni strains. Combined with the phylogeny of all the collected Campylobacter species based on genome-wide core gene information, comprehensive phylogenetic inference of all 34 Campylobacter organisms was determined. It was found that C. jejuni harbors a high fraction of ACFs possibly through intraspecies recombination, whereas other Campylobacter members possess numerous ACFs possibly via intragenus recombination. Furthermore, some Campylobacter strains have undergone significant ancient viral integration during their evolution process. The improved method is a powerful tool for bacterial genomic analysis. Moreover, the findings would provide useful information for future research on Campylobacter genus. PMID:23940551

  9. Genomic diversity of colorectal cancer: Changing landscape and emerging targets.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Daniel H; Ciombor, Kristen K; Mikhail, Sameh; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios

    2016-07-01

    Improvements in screening and preventive measures have led to an increased detection of early stage colorectal cancers (CRC) where patients undergo treatment with a curative intent. Despite these efforts, a high proportion of patients are diagnosed with advanced stage disease that is associated with poor outcomes, as CRC remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the world. The development of next generation sequencing and collaborative multi-institutional efforts to characterize the cancer genome has afforded us with a comprehensive assessment of the genomic makeup present in CRC. This knowledge has translated into understanding the prognostic role of various tumor somatic variants in this disease. Additionally, the awareness of the genomic alterations present in CRC has resulted in an improvement in patient outcomes, largely due to better selection of personalized therapies based on an individual's tumor genomic makeup. The benefit of various treatments is often limited, where recent studies assessing the genomic diversity in CRC have identified the development of secondary tumor somatic variants that likely contribute to acquired treatment resistance. These studies have begun to alter the landscape of treatment for CRC that include investigating novel targeted therapies, assessing the role of immunotherapy and prospective, dynamic assessment of changes in tumor genomic alterations that occur during the treatment of CRC. PMID:27433082

  10. Genomic diversity of colorectal cancer: Changing landscape and emerging targets

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Daniel H; Ciombor, Kristen K; Mikhail, Sameh; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in screening and preventive measures have led to an increased detection of early stage colorectal cancers (CRC) where patients undergo treatment with a curative intent. Despite these efforts, a high proportion of patients are diagnosed with advanced stage disease that is associated with poor outcomes, as CRC remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the world. The development of next generation sequencing and collaborative multi-institutional efforts to characterize the cancer genome has afforded us with a comprehensive assessment of the genomic makeup present in CRC. This knowledge has translated into understanding the prognostic role of various tumor somatic variants in this disease. Additionally, the awareness of the genomic alterations present in CRC has resulted in an improvement in patient outcomes, largely due to better selection of personalized therapies based on an individual’s tumor genomic makeup. The benefit of various treatments is often limited, where recent studies assessing the genomic diversity in CRC have identified the development of secondary tumor somatic variants that likely contribute to acquired treatment resistance. These studies have begun to alter the landscape of treatment for CRC that include investigating novel targeted therapies, assessing the role of immunotherapy and prospective, dynamic assessment of changes in tumor genomic alterations that occur during the treatment of CRC. PMID:27433082

  11. Evolution and Diversity of the Human Hepatitis D Virus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Ruei; Lo, Szecheng J.

    2010-01-01

    Human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the smallest RNA virus in genome. HDV genome is divided into a viroid-like sequence and a protein-coding sequence which could have originated from different resources and the HDV genome was eventually constituted through RNA recombination. The genome subsequently diversified through accumulation of mutations selected by interactions between the mutated RNA and proteins with host factors to successfully form the infectious virions. Therefore, we propose that the conservation of HDV nucleotide sequence is highly related with its functionality. Genome analysis of known HDV isolates shows that the C-terminal coding sequences of large delta antigen (LDAg) are the highest diversity than other regions of protein-coding sequences but they still retain biological functionality to interact with the heavy chain of clathrin can be selected and maintained. Since viruses interact with many host factors, including escaping the host immune response, how to design a program to predict RNA genome evolution is a great challenging work. PMID:20204073

  12. Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation provides a powerful opportunity to study the genetic basis of biological traits. Brachypodium distachyon is a broadly distributed diploid model grass with a small genome and a large collection of diverse inbred lines. As a step towards understanding the genetic basis of the natura...

  13. Close Encounters of the Third Domain: The Emerging Genomic View of Archaeal Diversity and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spang, Anja; Saw, Jimmy H.; Lind, Anders E.; Ettema, Thijs J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea represent the so-called Third Domain of life, which has evolved in parallel with the Bacteria and which is implicated to have played a pivotal role in the emergence of the eukaryotic domain of life. Recent progress in genomic sequencing technologies and cultivation-independent methods has started to unearth a plethora of data of novel, uncultivated archaeal lineages. Here, we review how the availability of such genomic data has revealed several important insights into the diversity, ecological relevance, metabolic capacity, and the origin and evolution of the archaeal domain of life. PMID:24348093

  14. Genomes, diversity and resistance gene analogues in Musa species.

    PubMed

    Azhar, M; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2008-01-01

    Resistance genes (R genes) in plants are abundant and may represent more than 1% of all the genes. Their diversity is critical to the recognition and response to attack from diverse pathogens. Like many other crops, banana and plantain face attacks from potentially devastating fungal and bacterial diseases, increased by a combination of worldwide spread of pathogens, exploitation of a small number of varieties, new pathogen mutations, and the lack of effective, benign and cheap chemical control. The challenge for plant breeders is to identify and exploit genetic resistances to diseases, which is particularly difficult in banana and plantain where the valuable cultivars are sterile, parthenocarpic and mostly triploid so conventional genetic analysis and breeding is impossible. In this paper, we review the nature of R genes and the key motifs, particularly in the Nucleotide Binding Sites (NBS), Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR) gene class. We present data about identity, nature and evolutionary diversity of the NBS domains of Musa R genes in diploid wild species with the Musa acuminata (A), M. balbisiana (B), M. schizocarpa (S), M. textilis (T), M. velutina and M. ornata genomes, and from various cultivated hybrid and triploid accessions, using PCR primers to isolate the domains from genomic DNA. Of 135 new sequences, 75% of the sequenced clones had uninterrupted open reading frames (ORFs), and phylogenetic UPGMA tree construction showed four clusters, one from Musa ornata, one largely from the B and T genomes, one from A and M. velutina, and the largest with A, B, T and S genomes. Only genes of the coiled-coil (non-TIR) class were found, typical of the grasses and presumably monocotyledons. The analysis of R genes in cultivated banana and plantain, and their wild relatives, has implications for identification and selection of resistance genes within the genus which may be useful for plant selection and breeding and also for defining relationships and genome evolution

  15. Discovery of biological networks from diverse functional genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Chad L; Robson, Drew; Wible, Adam; Hibbs, Matthew A; Chiriac, Camelia; Theesfeld, Chandra L; Dolinski, Kara; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a general probabilistic system for query-based discovery of pathway-specific networks through integration of diverse genome-wide data. This framework was validated by accurately recovering known networks for 31 biological processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally verifying predictions for the process of chromosomal segregation. Our system, bioPIXIE, a public, comprehensive system for integration, analysis, and visualization of biological network predictions for S. cerevisiae, is freely accessible over the worldwide web. PMID:16420673

  16. Genomic basis for natural product biosynthetic diversity in the actinomycetes†

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Markus; Ikeda, Haruo; Moore, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria hosts diverse high G + C, Gram-positive bacteria that have evolved a complex chemical language of natural product chemistry to help navigate their fascinatingly varied lifestyles. To date, 71 Actinobacteria genomes have been completed and annotated, with the vast majority representing the Actinomycetales, which are the source of numerous antibiotics and other drugs from genera such as Streptomyces, Saccharopolyspora and Salinispora. These genomic analyses have illuminated the secondary metabolic proficiency of these microbes – underappreciated for years based on conventional isolation programs – and have helped set the foundation for a new natural product discovery paradigm based on genome mining. Trends in the secondary metabolomes of natural product-rich actinomycetes are highlighted in this review article, which contains 199 references. PMID:19844637

  17. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Capra, María L.; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M.; Labrie, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105

  18. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei.

    PubMed

    Mercanti, Diego J; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Capra, María L; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M; Labrie, Simon J; Moineau, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105

  19. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics of honey bee microsporidia, Nosema apis reveal novel insights into host-parasite interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsporidia parasite Nosema contributes to the steep global decline of honey bees that are critical pollinators of food crops. There are two species of Nosema that have been found to infect honey bees, Nosema apis and N. ceranae. Genome sequencing of N. apis and comparative genome analysis with N. ceranae, a fully sequenced microsporidia species, reveal novel insights into host-parasite interactions underlying the parasite infections. Results We applied the whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach to sequence and assemble the genome of N. apis which has an estimated size of 8.5 Mbp. We predicted 2,771 protein- coding genes and predicted the function of each putative protein using the Gene Ontology. The comparative genomic analysis led to identification of 1,356 orthologs that are conserved between the two Nosema species and genes that are unique characteristics of the individual species, thereby providing a list of virulence factors and new genetic tools for studying host-parasite interactions. We also identified a highly abundant motif in the upstream promoter regions of N. apis genes. This motif is also conserved in N. ceranae and other microsporidia species and likely plays a role in gene regulation across the microsporidia. Conclusions The availability of the N. apis genome sequence is a significant addition to the rapidly expanding body of microsprodian genomic data which has been improving our understanding of eukaryotic genome diversity and evolution in a broad sense. The predicted virulent genes and transcriptional regulatory elements are potential targets for innovative therapeutics to break down the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:23829473

  20. Genomes of three tomato pathogens within the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex reveal significant evolutionary divergence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes thousands of strains pathogenic to an unusually wide range of plant species. These globally dispersed and heterogeneous strains cause bacterial wilt diseases, which have major socio-economic impacts. Pathogenicity is an ancestral trait in R. solanacearum and strains with high genetic variation can be subdivided into four phylotypes, correlating to isolates from Asia (phylotype I), the Americas (phylotype IIA and IIB), Africa (phylotype III) and Indonesia (phylotype IV). Comparison of genome sequences strains representative of this phylogenetic diversity can help determine which traits allow this bacterium to be such a pathogen of so many different plant species and how the bacteria survive in many different habitats. Results The genomes of three tomato bacterial wilt pathogens, CFBP2957 (phy. IIA), CMR15 (phy. III) and PSI07 (phy. IV) were sequenced and manually annotated. These genomes were compared with those of three previously sequenced R. solanacearum strains: GMI1000 (tomato, phy. I), IPO1609 (potato, phy. IIB), and Molk2 (banana, phy. IIB). The major genomic features (size, G+C content, number of genes) were conserved across all of the six sequenced strains. Despite relatively high genetic distances (calculated from average nucleotide identity) and many genomic rearrangements, more than 60% of the genes of the megaplasmid and 70% of those on the chromosome are syntenic. The three new genomic sequences revealed the presence of several previously unknown traits, probably acquired by horizontal transfers, within the genomes of R. solanacearum, including a type IV secretion system, a rhi-type anti-mitotic toxin and two small plasmids. Genes involved in virulence appear to be evolving at a faster rate than the genome as a whole. Conclusions Comparative analysis of genome sequences and gene content confirmed the differentiation of R. solanacearum species complex strains into four phylotypes. Genetic

  1. Genome Sequencing Reveals a Phage in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Lehours, Philippe; Vale, Filipa F.; Bjursell, Magnus K.; Melefors, Ojar; Advani, Reza; Glavas, Steve; Guegueniat, Julia; Gontier, Etienne; Lacomme, Sabrina; Alves Matos, António; Menard, Armelle; Mégraud, Francis; Engstrand, Lars; Andersson, Anders F.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori chronically infects the gastric mucosa in more than half of the human population; in a subset of this population, its presence is associated with development of severe disease, such as gastric cancer. Genomic analysis of several strains has revealed an extensive H. pylori pan-genome, likely to grow as more genomes are sampled. Here we describe the draft genome sequence (63 contigs; 26× mean coverage) of H. pylori strain B45, isolated from a patient with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The major finding was a 24.6-kb prophage integrated in the bacterial genome. The prophage shares most of its genes (22/27) with prophage region II of Helicobacter acinonychis strain Sheeba. After UV treatment of liquid cultures, circular DNA carrying the prophage integrase gene could be detected, and intracellular tailed phage-like particles were observed in H. pylori cells by transmission electron microscopy, indicating that phage production can be induced from the prophage. PCR amplification and sequencing of the integrase gene from 341 H. pylori strains from different geographic regions revealed a high prevalence of the prophage (21.4%). Phylogenetic reconstruction showed four distinct clusters in the integrase gene, three of which tended to be specific for geographic regions. Our study implies that phages may play important roles in the ecology and evolution of H. pylori. PMID:22086490

  2. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments. PMID:25333821

  3. Genomic diversity of 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak strains.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nur A; Choi, Seon Young; Eppinger, Mark; Clark, Philip W; Chen, Arlene; Alam, Munirul; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Hine, Erin; Su, Qi; Tallon, Luke J; Prosper, Joseph B; Furth, Keziah; Hoq, M M; Li, Huai; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Cravioto, Alejandro; Huq, Anwar; Ravel, Jacques; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R

    2012-07-17

    The millions of deaths from cholera during the past 200 y, coupled with the morbidity and mortality of cholera in Haiti since October 2010, are grim reminders that Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, remains a scourge. We report the isolation of both V. cholerae O1 and non-O1/O139 early in the Haiti cholera epidemic from samples collected from victims in 18 towns across eight Arrondissements of Haiti. The results showed two distinct populations of V. cholerae coexisted in Haiti early in the epidemic. As non-O1/O139 V. cholerae was the sole pathogen isolated from 21% of the clinical specimens, its role in this epidemic, either alone or in concert with V. cholerae O1, cannot be dismissed. A genomic approach was used to examine similarities and differences among the Haitian V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains. A total of 47 V. cholerae O1 and 29 V. cholerae non-O1/O139 isolates from patients and the environment were sequenced. Comparative genome analyses of the 76 genomes and eight reference strains of V. cholerae isolated in concurrent epidemics outside Haiti and 27 V. cholerae genomes available in the public database demonstrated substantial diversity of V. cholerae and ongoing flux within its genome. PMID:22711841

  4. The complex hybrid origins of the root knot nematodes revealed through comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sujai; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Root knot nematodes (RKN) can infect most of the world’s agricultural crop species and are among the most important of all plant pathogens. As yet however we have little understanding of their origins or the genomic basis of their extreme polyphagy. The most damaging pathogens reproduce by obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis and it has been suggested that these species originated from interspecific hybridizations between unknown parental taxa. We have sequenced the genome of the diploid meiotic parthenogen Meloidogyne floridensis, and use a comparative genomic approach to test the hypothesis that this species was involved in the hybrid origin of the tropical mitotic parthenogen Meloidogyne incognita. Phylogenomic analysis of gene families from M. floridensis, M. incognita and an outgroup species Meloidogyne hapla was carried out to trace the evolutionary history of these species’ genomes, and we demonstrate that M. floridensis was one of the parental species in the hybrid origins of M. incognita. Analysis of the M. floridensis genome itself revealed many gene loci present in divergent copies, as they are in M. incognita, indicating that it too had a hybrid origin. The triploid M. incognita is shown to be a complex double-hybrid between M. floridensis and a third, unidentified, parent. The agriculturally important RKN have very complex origins involving the mixing of several parental genomes by hybridization and their extreme polyphagy and success in agricultural environments may be related to this hybridization, producing transgressive variation on which natural selection can act. It is now clear that studying RKN variation via individual marker loci may fail due to the species’ convoluted origins, and multi-species population genomics is essential to understand the hybrid diversity and adaptive variation of this important species complex. This comparative genomic analysis provides a compelling example of the importance and complexity of hybridization in

  5. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): developing community resources to study diverse invertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Mónica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W; Ryan, Joseph F; Schulze, Anja; Wörheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E; Diaz, M Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-François; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, François; Moroz, Leonid L; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rhodes, Adelaide; Santos, Scott R; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the "invertebrates," but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a "Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance" (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

  6. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

  7. Joint assembly and genetic mapping of the Atlantic horseshoe crab genome reveals ancient whole genome duplication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Horseshoe crabs are marine arthropods with a fossil record extending back approximately 450 million years. They exhibit remarkable morphological stability over their long evolutionary history, retaining a number of ancestral arthropod traits, and are often cited as examples of “living fossils.” As arthropods, they belong to the Ecdysozoa, an ancient super-phylum whose sequenced genomes (including insects and nematodes) have thus far shown more divergence from the ancestral pattern of eumetazoan genome organization than cnidarians, deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. However, much of ecdysozoan diversity remains unrepresented in comparative genomic analyses. Results Here we apply a new strategy of combined de novo assembly and genetic mapping to examine the chromosome-scale genome organization of the Atlantic horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. We constructed a genetic linkage map of this 2.7 Gbp genome by sequencing the nuclear DNA of 34 wild-collected, full-sibling embryos and their parents at a mean redundancy of 1.1x per sample. The map includes 84,307 sequence markers grouped into 1,876 distinct genetic intervals and 5,775 candidate conserved protein coding genes. Conclusions Comparison with other metazoan genomes shows that the L. polyphemus genome preserves ancestral bilaterian linkage groups, and that a common ancestor of modern horseshoe crabs underwent one or more ancient whole genome duplications 300 million years ago, followed by extensive chromosome fusion. These results provide a counter-example to the often noted correlation between whole genome duplication and evolutionary radiations. The new, low-cost genetic mapping method for obtaining a chromosome-scale view of non-model organism genomes that we demonstrate here does not require laboratory culture, and is potentially applicable to a broad range of other species. PMID:24987520

  8. Expanding our view of genomic diversity in Candidatus Accumulibacter clades.

    PubMed

    Skennerton, Connor T; Barr, Jeremy J; Slater, Frances R; Bond, Philip L; Tyson, Gene W

    2015-05-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is an important industrial wastewater treatment process mediated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs). Members of the genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are one of the most extensively studied PAO as they are commonly enriched in lab-scale EBPR reactors. Members of different Accumulibacter clades are often enriched through changes in reactor process conditions; however, the two currently sequenced Accumulibacter genomes show extensive metabolic similarity. Here, we expand our understanding of Accumulibacter genomic diversity through recovery of eight population genomes using deep metagenomics, including seven from phylogenetic clades with no previously sequenced representative. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a core of shared genes involved primarily in carbon and phosphorus metabolism; however, each Accumulibacter genome also encoded a substantial number of unique genes (> 700 genes). A major difference between the Accumulibacter clades was the type of nitrate reductase encoded and the capacity to perform subsequent steps in denitrification. The Accumulibacter clade IIF genomes also contained acetaldehyde dehydrogenase that may allow ethanol to be used as carbon source. These differences in metabolism between Accumulibacter genomes provide a molecular basis for niche differentiation observed in lab-scale reactors and may offer new opportunities for process optimization. PMID:25088527

  9. African Relapsing Fever Borreliae Genomospecies Revealed by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Pontarotti, Pierre; Yoosuf, Niyaz; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relapsing fever borreliae are vector-borne bacteria responsible for febrile infection in humans in North America, Africa, Asia, and in the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Relapsing fever borreliae are phylogenetically closely related, yet they differ in pathogenicity and vectors. Their long-term taxonomy, based on geography and vector grouping, needs to be re-apprised in a genomic context. We therefore embarked into genomic analyses of relapsing fever borreliae, focusing on species found in Africa. Results: Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses group Old World Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia hispanica, B. duttonii, and B. recurrentis in one clade, and New World Borrelia turicatae and Borrelia hermsii in a second clade. Accordingly, average nucleotide identity is 99% among B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, and B. crocidurae and 96% between latter borreliae and B. hispanica while the similarity is 86% between Old World and New World borreliae. Comparative genomics indicates that the Old World relapsing fever B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, B. crocidurae, and B. hispanica have a 2,514-gene pan genome and a 933-gene core genome that includes 788 chromosomal and 145 plasmidic genes. Analyzing the role that natural selection has played in the evolution of Old World borreliae species revealed that 55 loci were under positive diversifying selection, including loci coding for membrane, flagellar, and chemotaxis proteins, three categories associated with adaption to specific niches. Conclusion: Genomic analyses led to a reappraisal of the taxonomy of relapsing fever borreliae in Africa. These analyses suggest that B. crocidurae, B. duttonii, and B. recurrentis are ecotypes of a unique genomospecies, while B. hispanica is a distinct species. PMID:25229054

  10. Phylogenetic and genomic diversity in isolates from the globally distributed Acinetobacter baumannii ST25 lineage

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, Jason W.; Del Franco, Mariateresa; Pournaras, Spyros; Colman, Rebecca E.; Karah, Nabil; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Zarrilli, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a globally distributed nosocomial pathogen that has gained interest due to its resistance to most currently used antimicrobials. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and phylogenetics has begun to reveal the global genetic diversity of this pathogen. The evolution of A. baumannii has largely been defined by recombination, punctuated by the emergence and proliferation of defined clonal lineages. In this study we sequenced seven genomes from the sequence type (ST)25 lineage and compared them to 12 ST25 genomes deposited in public databases. A recombination analysis identified multiple genomic regions that are homoplasious in the ST25 phylogeny, indicating active or historical recombination. Genes associated with antimicrobial resistance were differentially distributed between ST25 genomes, which matched our laboratory-based antimicrobial susceptibility typing. Differences were also observed in biofilm formation between ST25 isolates, which were demonstrated to produce significantly more extensive biofilm than an isolate from the ST1 clonal lineage. These results demonstrate that within A. baumannii, even a fairly recently derived monophyletic lineage can still exhibit significant genotypic and phenotypic diversity. These results have implications for associating outbreaks with sequence typing as well as understanding mechanisms behind the global propagation of successful A. baumannii lineages. PMID:26462752

  11. A genome-wide map of diversity in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Volkman, Sarah K; Sabeti, Pardis C; DeCaprio, David; Neafsey, Daniel E; Schaffner, Stephen F; Milner, Danny A; Daily, Johanna P; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndiaye, Daouda; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Soulyemane; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Lukens, Amanda; Derr, Alan; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Waggoner, Skye; Onofrio, Robert; Ziaugra, Liuda; Mauceli, Evan; Gnerre, Sante; Jaffe, David B; Zainoun, Joanne; Wiegand, Roger C; Birren, Bruce W; Hartl, Daniel L; Galagan, James E; Lander, Eric S; Wirth, Dyann F

    2007-01-01

    Genetic variation allows the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to overcome chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines and vector control strategies and remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Here we describe an initial survey of genetic variation across the P. falciparum genome. We performed extensive sequencing of 16 geographically diverse parasites and identified 46,937 SNPs, demonstrating rich diversity among P. falciparum parasites (pi = 1.16 x 10(-3)) and strong correlation with gene function. We identified multiple regions with signatures of selective sweeps in drug-resistant parasites, including a previously unidentified 160-kb region with extremely low polymorphism in pyrimethamine-resistant parasites. We further characterized 54 worldwide isolates by genotyping SNPs across 20 genomic regions. These data begin to define population structure among African, Asian and American groups and illustrate the degree of linkage disequilibrium, which extends over relatively short distances in African parasites but over longer distances in Asian parasites. We provide an initial map of genetic diversity in P. falciparum and demonstrate its potential utility in identifying genes subject to recent natural selection and in understanding the population genetics of this parasite. PMID:17159979

  12. Diversity and Evolution in the Genome of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Daniel R.; Elliott, Briony; Chang, Barbara J.; Perkins, Timothy T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antimicrobial and health care-associated diarrhea in humans, presenting a significant burden to global health care systems. In the last 2 decades, PCR- and sequence-based techniques, particularly whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have significantly furthered our knowledge of the genetic diversity, evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenicity of this once enigmatic pathogen. C. difficile is taxonomically distinct from many other well-known clostridia, with a diverse population structure comprising hundreds of strain types spread across at least 6 phylogenetic clades. The C. difficile species is defined by a large diverse pangenome with extreme levels of evolutionary plasticity that has been shaped over long time periods by gene flux and recombination, often between divergent lineages. These evolutionary events are in response to environmental and anthropogenic activities and have led to the rapid emergence and worldwide dissemination of virulent clonal lineages. Moreover, genome analysis of large clinically relevant data sets has improved our understanding of CDI outbreaks, transmission, and recurrence. The epidemiology of CDI has changed dramatically over the last 15 years, and CDI may have a foodborne or zoonotic etiology. The WGS era promises to continue to redefine our view of this significant pathogen. PMID:26085550

  13. Diversity and evolution of centromere repeats in the maize genome.

    PubMed

    Bilinski, Paul; Distor, Kevin; Gutierrez-Lopez, Jose; Mendoza, Gabriela Mendoza; Shi, Jinghua; Dawe, R Kelly; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Centromere repeats are found in most eukaryotes and play a critical role in kinetochore formation. Though centromere repeats exhibit considerable diversity both within and among species, little is understood about the mechanisms that drive centromere repeat evolution. Here, we use maize as a model to investigate how a complex history involving polyploidy, fractionation, and recent domestication has impacted the diversity of the maize centromeric repeat CentC. We first validate the existence of long tandem arrays of repeats in maize and other taxa in the genus Zea. Although we find considerable sequence diversity among CentC copies genome-wide, genetic similarity among repeats is highest within these arrays, suggesting that tandem duplications are the primary mechanism for the generation of new copies. Nonetheless, clustering analyses identify similar sequences among distant repeats, and simulations suggest that this pattern may be due to homoplasious mutation. Although the two ancestral subgenomes of maize have contributed nearly equal numbers of centromeres, our analysis shows that the majority of all CentC repeats derive from one of the parental genomes, with an even stronger bias when examining the largest assembled contiguous clusters. Finally, by comparing maize with its wild progenitor teosinte, we find that the abundance of CentC likely decreased after domestication, while the pericentromeric repeat Cent4 has drastically increased. PMID:25190528

  14. Distinctive Genome Reduction Rates Revealed by Genomic Analyses of Two Coxiella-Like Endosymbionts in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Yuval; Lalzar, Itai; Klasson, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome reduction is a hallmark of symbiotic genomes, and the rate and patterns of gene loss associated with this process have been investigated in several different symbiotic systems. However, in long-term host-associated coevolving symbiont clades, the genome size differences between strains are normally quite small and hence patterns of large-scale genome reduction can only be inferred from distant relatives. Here we present the complete genome of a Coxiella-like symbiont from Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks (CRt), and compare it with other genomes from the genus Coxiella in order to investigate the process of genome reduction in a genus consisting of intracellular host-associated bacteria with variable genome sizes. The 1.7-Mb CRt genome is larger than the genomes of most obligate mutualists but has a very low protein-coding content (48.5%) and an extremely high number of identifiable pseudogenes, indicating that it is currently undergoing genome reduction. Analysis of encoded functions suggests that CRt is an obligate tick mutualist, as indicated by the possible provisioning of the tick with biotin (B7), riboflavin (B2) and other cofactors, and by the loss of most genes involved in host cell interactions, such as secretion systems. Comparative analyses between CRt and the 2.5 times smaller genome of Coxiella from the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum (CLEAA) show that many of the same gene functions are lost and suggest that the large size difference might be due to a higher rate of genome evolution in CLEAA generated by the loss of the mismatch repair genes mutSL. Finally, sequence polymorphisms in the CRt population sampled from field collected ticks reveal up to one distinct strain variant per tick, and analyses of mutational patterns within the population suggest that selection might be acting on synonymous sites. The CRt genome is an extreme example of a symbiont genome caught in the act of genome reduction, and the comparison between CLEAA and CRt

  15. Genome Evolution in the Eremothecium Clade of the Saccharomyces Complex Revealed by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, Jürgen; Walther, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We used comparative genomics to elucidate the genome evolution within the pre–whole-genome duplication genus Eremothecium. To this end, we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of Eremothecium cymbalariae, a filamentous ascomycete representing the Eremothecium type strain. Genome annotation indicated 4712 gene models and 143 tRNAs. We compared the E. cymbalariae genome with that of its relative, the riboflavin overproducer Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii, and the reconstructed yeast ancestor. Decisive changes in the Eremothecium lineage leading to the evolution of the A. gossypii genome include the reduction from eight to seven chromosomes, the downsizing of the genome by removal of 10% or 900 kb of DNA, mostly in intergenic regions, the loss of a TY3-Gypsy–type transposable element, the re-arrangement of mating-type loci, and a massive increase of its GC content. Key species-specific events are the loss of MNN1-family of mannosyltransferases required to add the terminal fourth and fifth α-1,3-linked mannose residue to O-linked glycans and genes of the Ehrlich pathway in E. cymbalariae and the loss of ZMM-family of meiosis-specific proteins and acquisition of riboflavin overproduction in A. gossypii. This reveals that within the Saccharomyces complex genome, evolution is not only based on genome duplication with subsequent gene deletions and chromosomal rearrangements but also on fungi associated with specific environments (e.g. involving fungal-insect interactions as in Eremothecium), which have encountered challenges that may be reflected both in genome streamlining and their biosynthetic potential. PMID:22384365

  16. Genome evolution in the eremothecium clade of the Saccharomyces complex revealed by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Jürgen; Walther, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    We used comparative genomics to elucidate the genome evolution within the pre-whole-genome duplication genus Eremothecium. To this end, we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of Eremothecium cymbalariae, a filamentous ascomycete representing the Eremothecium type strain. Genome annotation indicated 4712 gene models and 143 tRNAs. We compared the E. cymbalariae genome with that of its relative, the riboflavin overproducer Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii, and the reconstructed yeast ancestor. Decisive changes in the Eremothecium lineage leading to the evolution of the A. gossypii genome include the reduction from eight to seven chromosomes, the downsizing of the genome by removal of 10% or 900 kb of DNA, mostly in intergenic regions, the loss of a TY3-Gypsy-type transposable element, the re-arrangement of mating-type loci, and a massive increase of its GC content. Key species-specific events are the loss of MNN1-family of mannosyltransferases required to add the terminal fourth and fifth α-1,3-linked mannose residue to O-linked glycans and genes of the Ehrlich pathway in E. cymbalariae and the loss of ZMM-family of meiosis-specific proteins and acquisition of riboflavin overproduction in A. gossypii. This reveals that within the Saccharomyces complex genome, evolution is not only based on genome duplication with subsequent gene deletions and chromosomal rearrangements but also on fungi associated with specific environments (e.g. involving fungal-insect interactions as in Eremothecium), which have encountered challenges that may be reflected both in genome streamlining and their biosynthetic potential. PMID:22384365

  17. Plasmodium knowlesi Genome Sequences from Clinical Isolates Reveal Extensive Genomic Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Scott B.; Sanderson, Theo; Otto, Thomas D.; Lu, Woon Chan; Krishna, Sanjeev; Rayner, Julian C.; Cox-Singh, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a newly described zoonosis that causes malaria in the human population that can be severe and fatal. The study of P. knowlesi parasites from human clinical isolates is relatively new and, in order to obtain maximum information from patient sample collections, we explored the possibility of generating P. knowlesi genome sequences from archived clinical isolates. Our patient sample collection consisted of frozen whole blood samples that contained excessive human DNA contamination and, in that form, were not suitable for parasite genome sequencing. We developed a method to reduce the amount of human DNA in the thawed blood samples in preparation for high throughput parasite genome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq sequencing platforms. Seven of fifteen samples processed had sufficiently pure P. knowlesi DNA for whole genome sequencing. The reads were mapped to the P. knowlesi H strain reference genome and an average mapping of 90% was obtained. Genes with low coverage were removed leaving 4623 genes for subsequent analyses. Previously we identified a DNA sequence dimorphism on a small fragment of the P. knowlesi normocyte binding protein xa gene on chromosome 14. We used the genome data to assemble full-length Pknbpxa sequences and discovered that the dimorphism extended along the gene. An in-house algorithm was developed to detect SNP sites co-associating with the dimorphism. More than half of the P. knowlesi genome was dimorphic, involving genes on all chromosomes and suggesting that two distinct types of P. knowlesi infect the human population in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We use P. knowlesi clinical samples to demonstrate that Plasmodium DNA from archived patient samples can produce high quality genome data. We show that analyses, of even small numbers of difficult clinical malaria isolates, can generate comprehensive genomic information that will improve our understanding of malaria parasite diversity and pathobiology. PMID:25830531

  18. Genomic Diversity of Enterotoxigenic Strains of Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Jessica V.; Bernstein, Harris D.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic (ETBF) strains of Bacteroides fragilis are the subset of strains that secrete a toxin called fragilysin (Bft). Although ETBF strains are known to cause diarrheal disease and have recently been associated with colorectal cancer, they have not been well characterized. By sequencing the complete genome of four ETBF strains, we found that these strains exhibit considerable variation at the genomic level. Only a small number of genes that are located primarily in the Bft pathogenicity island (BFT PAI) and the flanking CTn86 conjugative transposon are conserved in all four strains and a fifth strain whose genome was previously sequenced. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests that the BFT PAI was acquired by non-toxigenic (NTBF) strains multiple times during the course of evolution. At the phenotypic level, we found that the ETBF strains were less fit than the NTBF strain NCTC 9343 and were susceptible to a growth-inhibitory protein that it produces. The ETBF strains also showed a greater tendency to form biofilms, which may promote tumor formation, than NTBF strains. Although the genomic diversity of ETBF strains raises the possibility that they vary in their pathogenicity, our experimental results also suggest that they share common properties that are conferred by different combinations of non-universal genetic elements. PMID:27348220

  19. Genomic Diversity of Enterotoxigenic Strains of Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jessica V; Bernstein, Harris D

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic (ETBF) strains of Bacteroides fragilis are the subset of strains that secrete a toxin called fragilysin (Bft). Although ETBF strains are known to cause diarrheal disease and have recently been associated with colorectal cancer, they have not been well characterized. By sequencing the complete genome of four ETBF strains, we found that these strains exhibit considerable variation at the genomic level. Only a small number of genes that are located primarily in the Bft pathogenicity island (BFT PAI) and the flanking CTn86 conjugative transposon are conserved in all four strains and a fifth strain whose genome was previously sequenced. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests that the BFT PAI was acquired by non-toxigenic (NTBF) strains multiple times during the course of evolution. At the phenotypic level, we found that the ETBF strains were less fit than the NTBF strain NCTC 9343 and were susceptible to a growth-inhibitory protein that it produces. The ETBF strains also showed a greater tendency to form biofilms, which may promote tumor formation, than NTBF strains. Although the genomic diversity of ETBF strains raises the possibility that they vary in their pathogenicity, our experimental results also suggest that they share common properties that are conferred by different combinations of non-universal genetic elements. PMID:27348220

  20. Multiple genome sequences reveal adaptations of a phototrophic bacterium to sediment microenvironments.

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Yasuhiro; Larimer, Frank W; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Shin, Maria V; Vergez, Lisa; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Braatsch, Stephan; Beatty, Thomas; Pelletier, Dale A; Schaefer, Amy L; Harwood, Caroline S

    2008-11-01

    The bacterial genus Rhodopseudomonas is comprised of photosynthetic bacteria found widely distributed in aquatic sediments. Members of the genus catalyze hydrogen gas production, carbon dioxide sequestration, and biomass turnover. The genome sequence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 revealed a surprising richness of metabolic versatility that would seem to explain its ability to live in a heterogeneous environment like sediment. However, there is considerable genotypic diversity among Rhodopseudomonas isolates. Here we report the complete genome sequences of four additional members of the genus isolated from a restricted geographical area. The sequences confirm that the isolates belong to a coherent taxonomic unit, but they also have significant differences. Whole genome alignments show that the circular chromosomes of the isolates consist of a collinear backbone with a moderate number of genomic rearrangements that impact local gene order and orientation. There are 3,319 genes, 70% of the genes in each genome, shared by four or more strains. Between 10% and 18% of the genes in each genome are strain specific. Some of these genes suggest specialized physiological traits, which we verified experimentally, that include expanded light harvesting, oxygen respiration, and nitrogen fixation capabilities, as well as anaerobic fermentation. Strain-specific adaptations include traits that may be useful in bioenergy applications. This work suggests that against a backdrop of metabolic versatility that is a defining characteristic of Rhodopseudomonas, different ecotypes have evolved to take advantage of physical and chemical conditions in sediment microenvironments that are too small for human observation.

  1. Population Genomics Reveals Chromosome-Scale Heterogeneous Evolution in a Protoploid Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Anne; Jung, Paul; Reisser, Cyrielle; Fischer, Gilles; Schacherer, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Yeast species represent an ideal model system for population genomic studies but large-scale polymorphism surveys have only been reported for species of the Saccharomyces genus so far. Hence, little is known about intraspecific diversity and evolution in yeast. To obtain a new insight into the evolutionary forces shaping natural populations, we sequenced the genomes of an expansive worldwide collection of isolates from a species distantly related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Lachancea kluyveri (formerly S. kluyveri). We identified 6.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and showed that a large introgression event of 1 Mb of GC-rich sequence in the chromosomal arm probably occurred in the last common ancestor of all L. kluyveri strains. Our population genomic data clearly revealed that this 1-Mb region underwent a molecular evolution pattern very different from the rest of the genome. It is characterized by a higher recombination rate, with a dramatically elevated A:T → G:C substitution rate, which is the signature of an increased GC-biased gene conversion. In addition, the predicted base composition at equilibrium demonstrates that the chromosome-scale compositional heterogeneity will persist after the genome has reached mutational equilibrium. Altogether, the data presented herein clearly show that distinct recombination and substitution regimes can coexist and lead to different evolutionary patterns within a single genome. PMID:25349286

  2. Population genomics reveals chromosome-scale heterogeneous evolution in a protoploid yeast.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Anne; Jung, Paul; Reisser, Cyrielle; Fischer, Gilles; Schacherer, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Yeast species represent an ideal model system for population genomic studies but large-scale polymorphism surveys have only been reported for species of the Saccharomyces genus so far. Hence, little is known about intraspecific diversity and evolution in yeast. To obtain a new insight into the evolutionary forces shaping natural populations, we sequenced the genomes of an expansive worldwide collection of isolates from a species distantly related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Lachancea kluyveri (formerly S. kluyveri). We identified 6.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and showed that a large introgression event of 1 Mb of GC-rich sequence in the chromosomal arm probably occurred in the last common ancestor of all L. kluyveri strains. Our population genomic data clearly revealed that this 1-Mb region underwent a molecular evolution pattern very different from the rest of the genome. It is characterized by a higher recombination rate, with a dramatically elevated A:T → G:C substitution rate, which is the signature of an increased GC-biased gene conversion. In addition, the predicted base composition at equilibrium demonstrates that the chromosome-scale compositional heterogeneity will persist after the genome has reached mutational equilibrium. Altogether, the data presented herein clearly show that distinct recombination and substitution regimes can coexist and lead to different evolutionary patterns within a single genome. PMID:25349286

  3. Genetic diversity of cultivated and wild tomatoes revealed by morphological traits and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, R; Wu, Z; Cao, X; Jiang, F L

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, morphological traits and molecular markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 29 cultivated tomatoes, 14 wild tomatoes and seven introgression lines. The three components of the principal component analysis (PCA) explained 78.54% of the total morphological variation in the 50 tomato genotypes assessed. Based on these morphological traits, a three-dimensional PCA plot separated the 50 genotypes into distinct groups, and a dendrogram divided them into six clusters. Fifteen polymorphic genomic simple- sequence repeat (genomic-SSR) and 13 polymorphic expressed sequence tag-derived SSR (EST-SSR) markers amplified 1115 and 780 clear fragments, respectively. Genomic-SSRs detected a total of 64 alleles, with a mean of 4 alleles per primer, while EST-SSRs detected 52 alleles, with a mean of 4 alleles per primer. The polymorphism information content was slightly higher in genomic-SSRs (0.49) than in EST-SSRs (0.45). The mean similarity coefficient among the wild tomatoes was lower than the mean similarity coefficient among the cultivated tomatoes. The dendrogram based on genetic distance divided the 50 tomato genotypes into eight clusters. The Mantel test between genomic-SSR and EST-SSR matrices revealed a good correlation, whereas the morphological matrices and the molecular matrices were weakly correlated. We confirm the applicability of EST-SSRs in analyzing genetic diversity among cultivated and wild tomatoes. High variability of the 50 tomato genotypes was observed at the morphological and molecular level, indicating valuable tomato germplasm, especially in the wild tomatoes, which could be used for further genetic studies. PMID:26535702

  4. Ethiopian Genetic Diversity Reveals Linguistic Stratification and Complex Influences on the Ethiopian Gene Pool

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Luca; Kivisild, Toomas; Tarekegn, Ayele; Ekong, Rosemary; Plaster, Chris; Gallego Romero, Irene; Ayub, Qasim; Mehdi, S. Qasim; Thomas, Mark G.; Luiselli, Donata; Bekele, Endashaw; Bradman, Neil; Balding, David J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Humans and their ancestors have traversed the Ethiopian landscape for millions of years, and present-day Ethiopians show great cultural, linguistic, and historical diversity, which makes them essential for understanding African variability and human origins. We genotyped 235 individuals from ten Ethiopian and two neighboring (South Sudanese and Somali) populations on an Illumina Omni 1M chip. Genotypes were compared with published data from several African and non-African populations. Principal-component and STRUCTURE-like analyses confirmed substantial genetic diversity both within and between populations, and revealed a match between genetic data and linguistic affiliation. Using comparisons with African and non-African reference samples in 40-SNP genomic windows, we identified “African” and “non-African” haplotypic components for each Ethiopian individual. The non-African component, which includes the SLC24A5 allele associated with light skin pigmentation in Europeans, may represent gene flow into Africa, which we estimate to have occurred ∼3 thousand years ago (kya). The non-African component was found to be more similar to populations inhabiting the Levant rather than the Arabian Peninsula, but the principal route for the expansion out of Africa ∼60 kya remains unresolved. Linkage-disequilibrium decay with genomic distance was less rapid in both the whole genome and the African component than in southern African samples, suggesting a less ancient history for Ethiopian populations. PMID:22726845

  5. Next Generation Sequencing Reveals the Hidden Diversity of Zooplankton Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Rachel A.; Somerfield, Paul J.; Atkinson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    Background Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. Methodology/Principle Findings Plankton net hauls (200 µm) were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. Conclusions Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may become increasingly

  6. Genome Sequencing of Mycobacterium abscessus Isolates from Patients in the United States and Comparisons to Globally Diverse Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Rebecca M.; Hasan, Nabeeh A.; Reynolds, Paul R.; Totten, Sarah; Garcia, Benjamin; Levin, Adrah; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Heifets, Leonid; Daley, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus are responsible for a range of disease manifestations from pulmonary to skin infections and are notoriously difficult to treat, due to innate resistance to many antibiotics. Previous population studies of clinical M. abscessus isolates utilized multilocus sequence typing or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but high-resolution examinations of genetic diversity at the whole-genome level have not been well characterized, particularly among clinical isolates derived in the United States. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 11 clinical M. abscessus isolates derived from eight U.S. patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, compared them to 30 globally diverse clinical isolates, and investigated intrapatient genomic diversity and evolution. Phylogenomic analyses revealed a cluster of closely related U.S. and Western European M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates that are genetically distinct from other European isolates and all Asian isolates. Large-scale variation analyses suggested genome content differences of 0.3 to 8.3%, relative to the reference strain ATCC 19977T. Longitudinally sampled isolates showed very few single-nucleotide polymorphisms and correlated genomic deletion patterns, suggesting homogeneous infection populations. Our study explores the genomic diversity of clinical M. abscessus strains from multiple continents and provides insight into the genome plasticity of an opportunistic pathogen. PMID:25056330

  7. Integrons in Xanthomonas: A source of species genome diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gillings, Michael R.; Holley, Marita P.; Stokes, H. W.; Holmes, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    Integrons are best known for assembling antibiotic resistance genes in clinical bacteria. They capture genes by using integrase-mediated site-specific recombination of mobile gene cassettes. Integrons also occur in the chromosomes of many bacteria, notably β- and γ-Proteobacteria. In a survey of Xanthomonas, integrons were found in all 32 strains representing 12 pathovars of two species. Their chromosomal location was downstream from the acid dehydratase gene, ilvD, suggesting that an integron was present at this site in the ancestral xanthomonad. There was considerable sequence and structural diversity among the extant integrons. The majority of integrase genes were predicted to be inactivated by frameshifts, stop codons, or large deletions, suggesting that the associated gene cassettes can no longer be mobilized. In support, groups of strains with the same deletions or stop codons/frameshifts in their integrase gene usually contained identical arrays of gene cassettes. In general, strains within individual pathovars had identical cassettes, and these exhibited no similarity to cassettes detected in other pathovars. The variety and characteristics of contemporary gene cassettes suggests that the ancestral integron had access to a diverse pool of these mobile elements, and that their genes originated outside the Xanthomonas genome. Subsequent inactivation of the integrase gene in particular lineages has largely fixed the gene cassette arrays in particular pathovars during their differentiation and specialization into ecological niches. The acquisition of diverse gene cassettes by different lineages within Xanthomonas has contributed to the species-genome diversity of the genus. The role of gene cassettes in survival on plant surfaces is currently unknown. PMID:15755815

  8. Limitations and benefits of ARISA intra-genomic diversity fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Popa, Radu; Popa, Rodica; Mashall, Matthew J; Nguyen, Hien; Tebo, Bradley M; Brauer, Suzanna

    2009-08-01

    Monitoring diversity changes and contamination in mixed cultures and simple microcosms is challenged by fast community structure dynamics, and the need for means allowing fast, cost-efficient and accurate identification of microorganisms at high phylogenetic resolution. The method we explored is a variant of Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis based on Intra-Genomic Diversity Fingerprinting (ARISA-IGDF), and identifies phylotypes with multiple 16S-23S rRNA gene Intergenic Transcribed Spacers. We verified the effect of PCR conditions (annealing temperature, duration of final extension, number of cycles, group-specific primers and formamide) on ARISA-IGD fingerprints of 44 strains of Shewanella. We present a digitization algorithm and data analysis procedures needed to determine confidence in strain identification. Though using stringent PCR conditions and group-specific primers allow reasonably accurate identification of strains with three ARISA-IGD amplicons within the 82-1000 bp size range, ARISA-IGDF is best for phylotypes with >or=4 unambiguously different amplicons. This method allows monitoring the occurrence of culturable microbes and can be implemented in applications requiring high phylogenetic resolution, reproducibility, low cost and high throughput such as identifying contamination and monitoring the evolution of diversity in mixed cultures and low diversity microcosms and periodic screening of small microbial culture libraries. PMID:19538993

  9. Genomic signatures reveal new evidences for selection of important traits in domestic cattle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyang; Bickhart, Derek M; Cole, John B; Schroeder, Steven G; Song, Jiuzhou; Tassell, Curtis P Van; Sonstegard, Tad S; Liu, George E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated diverse genomic selections using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data of five distinct cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-known genes such as KIT, MC1R, ASIP, GHR, LCORL, NCAPG, WIF1, and ABCA12, we found evidence for a variety of novel and less-known genes under selection in cattle, such as LAP3, SAR1B, LRIG3, FGF5, and NUDCD3. Selective sweeps near LAP3 were then validated by next-generation sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis involving 26,362 Holsteins confirmed that LAP3 and SAR1B were related to milk production traits, suggesting that our candidate regions were likely functional. In addition, haplotype network analyses further revealed distinct selective pressures and evolution patterns across these five cattle breeds. Our results provided a glimpse into diverse genomic selection during cattle domestication, breed formation, and recent genetic improvement. These findings will facilitate genome-assisted breeding to improve animal production and health. PMID:25431480

  10. Genomic Signatures Reveal New Evidences for Selection of Important Traits in Domestic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyang; Bickhart, Derek M.; Cole, John B.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Song, Jiuzhou; Tassell, Curtis P. Van; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Liu, George E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated diverse genomic selections using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data of five distinct cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-known genes such as KIT, MC1R, ASIP, GHR, LCORL, NCAPG, WIF1, and ABCA12, we found evidence for a variety of novel and less-known genes under selection in cattle, such as LAP3, SAR1B, LRIG3, FGF5, and NUDCD3. Selective sweeps near LAP3 were then validated by next-generation sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis involving 26,362 Holsteins confirmed that LAP3 and SAR1B were related to milk production traits, suggesting that our candidate regions were likely functional. In addition, haplotype network analyses further revealed distinct selective pressures and evolution patterns across these five cattle breeds. Our results provided a glimpse into diverse genomic selection during cattle domestication, breed formation, and recent genetic improvement. These findings will facilitate genome-assisted breeding to improve animal production and health. PMID:25431480

  11. Comparative Genomics of Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) Reveals Shared Genomic Features of Ecto- and Endoparastic Neodermata

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Christoph; Fromm, Bastian; Bachmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The ectoparasitic Monogenea comprise a major part of the obligate parasitic flatworm diversity. Although genomic adaptations to parasitism have been studied in the endoparasitic tapeworms (Cestoda) and flukes (Trematoda), no representative of the Monogenea has been investigated yet. We present the high-quality draft genome of Gyrodactylus salaris, an economically important monogenean ectoparasite of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A total of 15,488 gene models were identified, of which 7,102 were functionally annotated. The controversial phylogenetic relationships within the obligate parasitic Neodermata were resolved in a phylogenomic analysis using 1,719 gene models (alignment length of >500,000 amino acids) for a set of 16 metazoan taxa. The Monogenea were found basal to the Cestoda and Trematoda, which implies ectoparasitism being plesiomorphic within the Neodermata and strongly supports a common origin of complex life cycles. Comparative analysis of seven parasitic flatworm genomes identified shared genomic features for the ecto- and endoparasitic lineages, such as a substantial reduction of the core bilaterian gene complement, including the homeodomain-containing genes, and a loss of the piwi and vasa genes, which are considered essential for animal development. Furthermore, the shared loss of functional fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and the absence of peroxisomes, the latter organelles presumed ubiquitous in eukaryotes except for parasitic protozoans, were inferred. The draft genome of G. salaris opens for future in-depth analyses of pathogenicity and host specificity of poorly characterized G. salaris strains, and will enhance studies addressing the genomics of host–parasite interactions and speciation in the highly diverse monogenean flatworms. PMID:24732282

  12. Babesia canis: evidence for genetic diversity among isolates revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Citard, T; Mähl, P; Boulouis, H J; Chavigny, C; Druilhe, P

    1995-09-01

    The genetic diversity of B. canis was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. For this purpose, we identified a Babesia canis specific DNA probe named pS8. This 1.2 kbp probe can detect as low as 20 pg of B. canis DNA. Results suggest that the pS8 probe is distributed in multiple copies throughout the genome though is probably not itself internally repetitious, i.e. not structured into blocks of tandem units. This probe reveals discrete hybridizing fragments in B. canis enzyme-digested genomic DNA. RFLP patterns obtained with the pS8 probe revealed a large genetic diversity between various isolates and led us to distinguish several clones derived from a single isolate. Results suggest that for a single isolate, the fingerprints obtained reflect those of a few quantitatively dominant clones. This technique can now be routinely applied and provides a convenient tool for the characterization and the identification of B. canis isolates, strains and clones. PMID:8533020

  13. Complete genomes reveal signatures of demographic and genetic declines in the woolly mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Enk, Jacob; Rohland, Nadin; Li, Heng; Omrak, Ayça; Vartanyan, Sergey; Poinar, Hendrik; Götherström, Anders; Reich, David; Dalén, Love

    2015-01-01

    Summary The processes leading up to species extinctions are typically characterized by prolonged declines in population size and geographic distribution, followed by a phase in which populations are very small and may be subject to intrinsic threats, including loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding [1]. However, whether such genetic factors have had an impact on species prior to their extinction is unclear [2, 3]; examining this would require a detailed reconstruction of a species’ demographic history as well as changes in genome-wide diversity leading up to its extinction. Here, we present high-quality complete genome sequences from two woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). The first mammoth was sequenced at 17.1-fold coverage, and dates to ~4,300 years before present, constituting one of the last surviving individuals on Wrangel Island. The second mammoth, sequenced at 11.2-fold coverage, was obtained from a ~44,800 year old specimen from the Late Pleistocene population in northeastern Siberia. The demographic trajectories inferred from the two genomes are qualitatively similar and reveal a population bottleneck during the Middle or Early Pleistocene, and a more recent severe decline in the ancestors of the Wrangel mammoth at the end of the last glaciation. A comparison of the two genomes shows that the Wrangel mammoth has a 20% reduction in heterozygosity as well as a 28-fold increase in the fraction of the genome that is comprised of runs of homozygosity. We conclude that the population on Wrangel Island, which was the last surviving woolly mammoth population, was subject to reduced genetic diversity shortly before it became extinct. PMID:25913407

  14. Complete genomes reveal signatures of demographic and genetic declines in the woolly mammoth.

    PubMed

    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Enk, Jacob; Rohland, Nadin; Li, Heng; Omrak, Ayça; Vartanyan, Sergey; Poinar, Hendrik; Götherström, Anders; Reich, David; Dalén, Love

    2015-05-18

    The processes leading up to species extinctions are typically characterized by prolonged declines in population size and geographic distribution, followed by a phase in which populations are very small and may be subject to intrinsic threats, including loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding. However, whether such genetic factors have had an impact on species prior to their extinction is unclear; examining this would require a detailed reconstruction of a species' demographic history as well as changes in genome-wide diversity leading up to its extinction. Here, we present high-quality complete genome sequences from two woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). The first mammoth was sequenced at 17.1-fold coverage and dates to ∼4,300 years before present, representing one of the last surviving individuals on Wrangel Island. The second mammoth, sequenced at 11.2-fold coverage, was obtained from an ∼44,800-year-old specimen from the Late Pleistocene population in northeastern Siberia. The demographic trajectories inferred from the two genomes are qualitatively similar and reveal a population bottleneck during the Middle or Early Pleistocene, and a more recent severe decline in the ancestors of the Wrangel mammoth at the end of the last glaciation. A comparison of the two genomes shows that the Wrangel mammoth has a 20% reduction in heterozygosity as well as a 28-fold increase in the fraction of the genome that comprises runs of homozygosity. We conclude that the population on Wrangel Island, which was the last surviving woolly mammoth population, was subject to reduced genetic diversity shortly before it became extinct. PMID:25913407

  15. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  16. Exploring the diversity of Arcobacter spp. in cattle in the UK using MLST and whole genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arcobacter butzleri is considered to be an emerging human foodborne pathogen. The completion of an A. butzleri genome sequence along with microarray analysis of 13 isolates in 2007 revealed a surprising amount of diversity amongst A. butzleri isolates from humans, animals and food. In order to furth...

  17. Linkage disequilibrium and diversity for three genomic regions in Azoreans and mainland Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Studies on linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome and populations have been used in recent years with the main objective of improving gene mapping of complex traits. Here, we characterize the patterns of genetic diversity of HLA loci and evaluate LD (D') extent in three genomic regions: Xq13.3, NRY and HLA. In addition, we examine the distribution of DXS1225-DXS8082 haplotype diversity in Azoreans and mainland Portuguese. Allele distribution has demonstrated that the São Miguel population is genetically very diverse; haplotype analysis revealed 100% discriminatory power for X- and Y-markers and 94.3% for HLA markers. Standardized multiallelic D' in these three genomic regions shows values lower than 0.33, thereby suggesting there is no extensive LD in the São Miguel population. Data regarding the distribution of DXS1225-DXS8082 haplotypes indicate that there are no significant differences among all the populations studied, (Azorean geographical groups, the Azores archipelago and mainland Portugal). Moreover, in these as well as in other European populations, the most frequent DXS1225-DXS8082 haplotype is 210-219. Even though São Miguel islanders and Azoreans do not constitute isolated populations and show LD for only very short physical distances, certain characteristics, such as the absence of genetic structure, the same environment and the possibility of constructing extensive pedigrees through church and civil records, offer an opportunity for dissecting the genetic background of complex diseases in these populations. PMID:21637671

  18. Genomic Analysis of 15 Human Coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43s) Circulating in France from 2001 to 2013 Reveals a High Intra-Specific Diversity with New Recombinant Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kin, Nathalie; Miszczak, Fabien; Lin, Wei; Ar Gouilh, Meriadeg; Vabret, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is one of five currently circulating human coronaviruses responsible for respiratory infections. Like all coronaviruses, it is characterized by its genome’s high plasticity. The objectives of the current study were to detect genetically distinct genotypes and eventually recombinant genotypes in samples collected in Lower Normandy between 2001 and 2013. To this end, we sequenced complete nsp12, S, and N genes of 15 molecular isolates of HCoV-OC43 from clinical samples and compared them to available data from the USA, Belgium, and Hong-Kong. A new cluster E was invariably detected from nsp12, S, and N data while the analysis of nsp12 and N genes revealed the existence of new F and G clusters respectively. The association of these different clusters of genes in our specimens led to the description of thirteen genetically distinct genotypes, among which eight recombinant viruses were discovered. Identification of these recombinant viruses, together with temporal analysis and tMRCA estimation, provides important information for understanding the dynamics of the evolution of these epidemic coronaviruses. PMID:26008694

  19. Genomic and physiological analysis reveals versatile metabolic capacity of deep-sea Photobacterium phosphoreum ANT-2200.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-Da; Santini, Claire-Lise; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Barbe, Valérie; Mangenot, Sophie; Guyomar, Charlotte; Garel, Marc; Chen, Hai-Tao; Li, Xue-Gong; Yin, Qun-Jian; Zhao, Yuan; Armengaud, Jean; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Martini, Séverine; Pradel, Nathalie; Vidaud, Claude; Alberto, François; Médigue, Claudine; Tamburini, Christian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria of the genus Photobacterium thrive worldwide in oceans and show substantial eco-physiological diversity including free-living, symbiotic and piezophilic life styles. Genomic characteristics underlying this variability across species are poorly understood. Here we carried out genomic and physiological analysis of Photobacterium phosphoreum strain ANT-2200, the first deep-sea luminous bacterium of which the genome has been sequenced. Using optical mapping we updated the genomic data and reassembled it into two chromosomes and a large plasmid. Genomic analysis revealed a versatile energy metabolic potential and physiological analysis confirmed its growth capacity by deriving energy from fermentation of glucose or maltose, by respiration with formate as electron donor and trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO), nitrate or fumarate as electron acceptors, or by chemo-organo-heterotrophic growth in rich media. Despite that it was isolated at a site with saturated dissolved oxygen, the ANT-2200 strain possesses four gene clusters coding for typical anaerobic enzymes, the TMAO reductases. Elevated hydrostatic pressure enhances the TMAO reductase activity, mainly due to the increase of isoenzyme TorA1. The high copy number of the TMAO reductase isoenzymes and pressure-enhanced activity might imply a strategy developed by bacteria to adapt to deep-sea habitats where the instant TMAO availability may increase with depth. PMID:27039108

  20. Genomic affinities revealed by GISH suggests intergenomic restructuring between parental genomes of the paleopolyploid genus Zea.

    PubMed

    González, Graciela Esther; Poggio, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    The present work compares the molecular affinities, revealed by GISH, with the analysis of meiotic pairing in intra- and interspecific hybrids between species of Zea obtained in previous works. The joint analysis of these data provided evidence about the evolutionary relationships among the species from the paleopolyploid genus Zea (maize and teosintes). GISH and meiotic pairing of intraspecific hybrids revealed high genomic affinity between maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) and both Zea mays subsp. parviglumis and Zea mays subsp. mexicana. On the other hand, when Zea mays subsp. huehuetenanguensis DNA was probed on maize chromosomes, a lower affinity was detected, and the pattern of hybridization suggested intergenomical restructuring between the parental genomes of maize. When DNA from Zea luxurians was used as probe, homogeneous hybridization signals were observed through all maize chromosomes. Lower genomic affinity was observed when DNA from Zea diploperennis was probed on maize chromosomes, especially at knob regions. Maize chromosomes hybridized with Zea perennis DNA showed hybridization signals on four chromosome pairs: two chromosome pairs presented hybridization signal in only one chromosomal arm, whereas four chromosome pairs did not show any hybridization. These results are in agreement with previous GISH studies, which have identified the genomic source of the chromosomes involved in the meiotic configurations of Z. perennis × maize hybrids. These findings allow postulating that maize has a parental genome not shared with Z. perennis, and the existence of intergenomic restructuring between the parental genomes of maize. Moreover, the absence of hybridization signals in all maize knobs indicate that these heterochromatic regions were lost during the Z. perennis genome evolution. PMID:26506040

  1. In Depth Characterization of Repetitive DNA in 23 Plant Genomes Reveals Sources of Genome Size Variation in the Legume Tribe Fabeae

    PubMed Central

    Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Pellicer, Jaume; Čížková, Jana; Koblížková, Andrea; Neumann, Pavel; Fuková, Iva; Doležel, Jaroslav; Kelly, Laura J.; Leitch, Ilia J.

    2015-01-01

    The differential accumulation and elimination of repetitive DNA are key drivers of genome size variation in flowering plants, yet there have been few studies which have analysed how different types of repeats in related species contribute to genome size evolution within a phylogenetic context. This question is addressed here by conducting large-scale comparative analysis of repeats in 23 species from four genera of the monophyletic legume tribe Fabeae, representing a 7.6-fold variation in genome size. Phylogenetic analysis and genome size reconstruction revealed that this diversity arose from genome size expansions and contractions in different lineages during the evolution of Fabeae. Employing a combination of low-pass genome sequencing with novel bioinformatic approaches resulted in identification and quantification of repeats making up 55–83% of the investigated genomes. In turn, this enabled an analysis of how each major repeat type contributed to the genome size variation encountered. Differential accumulation of repetitive DNA was found to account for 85% of the genome size differences between the species, and most (57%) of this variation was found to be driven by a single lineage of Ty3/gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, the Ogre elements. Although the amounts of several other lineages of LTR-retrotransposons and the total amount of satellite DNA were also positively correlated with genome size, their contributions to genome size variation were much smaller (up to 6%). Repeat analysis within a phylogenetic framework also revealed profound differences in the extent of sequence conservation between different repeat types across Fabeae. In addition to these findings, the study has provided a proof of concept for the approach combining recent developments in sequencing and bioinformatics to perform comparative analyses of repetitive DNAs in a large number of non-model species without the need to assemble their genomes. PMID:26606051

  2. Mitochondrial Genome Sequences Effectively Reveal the Phylogeny of Hylobates Gibbons

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yi-Chiao; Roos, Christian; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Inoue, Eiji; Shih, Chih-Chin; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Vigilant, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background Uniquely among hominoids, gibbons exist as multiple geographically contiguous taxa exhibiting distinctive behavioral, morphological, and karyotypic characteristics. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships of the various gibbons, especially among Hylobates species, is still limited because previous studies used limited taxon sampling or short mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. Here we use mtDNA genome sequences to reconstruct gibbon phylogenetic relationships and reveal the pattern and timing of divergence events in gibbon evolutionary history. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of 51 individuals representing 11 species belonging to three genera (Hylobates, Nomascus and Symphalangus) using the high-throughput 454 sequencing system with the parallel tagged sequencing approach. Three phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, Bayesian analysis and neighbor-joining) depicted the gibbon phylogenetic relationships congruently and with strong support values. Most notably, we recover a well-supported phylogeny of the Hylobates gibbons. The estimation of divergence times using Bayesian analysis with relaxed clock model suggests a much more rapid speciation process in Hylobates than in Nomascus. Conclusions/Significance Use of more than 15 kb sequences of the mitochondrial genome provided more informative and robust data than previous studies of short mitochondrial segments (e.g., control region or cytochrome b) as shown by the reliable reconstruction of divergence patterns among Hylobates gibbons. Moreover, molecular dating of the mitogenomic divergence times implied that biogeographic change during the last five million years may be a factor promoting the speciation of Sundaland animals, including Hylobates species. PMID:21203450

  3. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Li, Fagen; Zhou, Changpin; Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10-56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa. PMID:26695430

  4. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10–56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa. PMID:26695430

  5. Genomes of cryptic chimpanzee Plasmodium species reveal key evolutionary events leading to human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Liu, Weimin; Loy, Dorothy E.; Learn, Gerald H.; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Speede, Sheri; Shaw, George M.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Brisson, Dustin; Rayner, Julian C.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2016-01-01

    African apes harbour at least six Plasmodium species of the subgenus Laverania, one of which gave rise to human Plasmodium falciparum. Here we use a selective amplification strategy to sequence the genome of chimpanzee parasites classified as Plasmodium reichenowi and Plasmodium gaboni based on the subgenomic fragments. Genome-wide analyses show that these parasites indeed represent distinct species, with no evidence of cross-species mating. Both P. reichenowi and P. gaboni are 10-fold more diverse than P. falciparum, indicating a very recent origin of the human parasite. We also find a remarkable Laverania-specific expansion of a multigene family involved in erythrocyte remodelling, and show that a short region on chromosome 4, which encodes two essential invasion genes, was horizontally transferred into a recent P. falciparum ancestor. Our results validate the selective amplification strategy for characterizing cryptic pathogen species, and reveal evolutionary events that likely predisposed the precursor of P. falciparum to colonize humans. PMID:27002652

  6. Genome mining of ascomycetous fungi reveals their genetic potential for ergot alkaloid production.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nina; Matuschek, Marco; Wallwey, Christiane; Li, Shu-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Ergot alkaloids are important as mycotoxins or as drugs. Naturally occurring ergot alkaloids as well as their semisynthetic derivatives have been used as pharmaceuticals in modern medicine for decades. We identified 196 putative ergot alkaloid biosynthetic genes belonging to at least 31 putative gene clusters in 31 fungal species by genome mining of the 360 available genome sequences of ascomycetous fungi with known proteins. Detailed analysis showed that these fungi belong to the families Aspergillaceae, Clavicipitaceae, Arthrodermataceae, Helotiaceae and Thermoascaceae. Within the identified families, only a small number of taxa are represented. Literature search revealed a large diversity of ergot alkaloid structures in different fungi of the phylum Ascomycota. However, ergot alkaloid accumulation was only observed in 15 of the sequenced species. Therefore, this study provides genetic basis for further study on ergot alkaloid production in the sequenced strains. PMID:25796201

  7. Genomes of cryptic chimpanzee Plasmodium species reveal key evolutionary events leading to human malaria.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, Sesh A; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Liu, Weimin; Loy, Dorothy E; Learn, Gerald H; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Speede, Sheri; Shaw, George M; Bushman, Frederic D; Brisson, Dustin; Rayner, Julian C; Sharp, Paul M; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2016-01-01

    African apes harbour at least six Plasmodium species of the subgenus Laverania, one of which gave rise to human Plasmodium falciparum. Here we use a selective amplification strategy to sequence the genome of chimpanzee parasites classified as Plasmodium reichenowi and Plasmodium gaboni based on the subgenomic fragments. Genome-wide analyses show that these parasites indeed represent distinct species, with no evidence of cross-species mating. Both P. reichenowi and P. gaboni are 10-fold more diverse than P. falciparum, indicating a very recent origin of the human parasite. We also find a remarkable Laverania-specific expansion of a multigene family involved in erythrocyte remodelling, and show that a short region on chromosome 4, which encodes two essential invasion genes, was horizontally transferred into a recent P. falciparum ancestor. Our results validate the selective amplification strategy for characterizing cryptic pathogen species, and reveal evolutionary events that likely predisposed the precursor of P. falciparum to colonize humans. PMID:27002652

  8. Genetic diversity in cultured and wild marine cyanomyoviruses reveals phosphorus stress as a strong selective agent.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Libusha; Ding, Huiming; Huang, Katherine H; Osburne, Marcia S; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2013-09-01

    Viruses that infect marine cyanobacteria-cyanophages-often carry genes with orthologs in their cyanobacterial hosts, and the frequency of these genes can vary with habitat. To explore habitat-influenced genomic diversity more deeply, we used the genomes of 28 cultured cyanomyoviruses as references to identify phage genes in three ocean habitats. Only about 6-11% of genes were consistently observed in the wild, revealing high gene-content variability in these populations. Numerous shared phage/host genes differed in relative frequency between environments, including genes related to phosphorous acquisition, photorespiration, photosynthesis and the pentose phosphate pathway, possibly reflecting environmental selection for these genes in cyanomyovirus genomes. The strongest emergent signal was related to phosphorous availability; a higher fraction of genomes from relatively low-phosphorus environments-the Sargasso and Mediterranean Sea-contained host-like phosphorus assimilation genes compared with those from the N. Pacific Gyre. These genes are known to be upregulated when the host is phosphorous starved, a response mediated by pho box motifs in phage genomes that bind a host regulatory protein. Eleven cyanomyoviruses have predicted pho boxes upstream of the phosphate-acquisition genes pstS and phoA; eight of these have a conserved cyanophage-specific gene (PhCOG173) between the pho box and pstS. PhCOG173 is also found upstream of other shared phage/host genes, suggesting a unique regulatory role. Pho boxes are found upstream of high light-inducible (hli) genes in cyanomyoviruses, suggesting that this motif may have a broader role than regulating phosphorous-stress responses in infected hosts or that these hlis are involved in the phosphorous-stress response. PMID:23657361

  9. Whole genomic DNA sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of Arthrospira platensis: high genome plasticity and genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Teng; Qin, Song; Hu, Yongwu; Song, Zhijian; Ying, Jianchao; Li, Peizhen; Dong, Wei; Zhao, Fangqing; Yang, Huanming; Bao, Qiyu

    2016-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a multi-cellular and filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the nearly complete genome sequence of A. platensis YZ. A. platensis YZ genome is a single, circular chromosome of 6.62 Mb in size. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed that A. platensis YZ was more closely related to A. platensis NIES-39 than Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 and A. platensis C1. Broad gene gains were identified between A. platensis YZ and three other Arthrospira speices, some of which have been previously demonstrated that can be laterally transferred among different species, such as restriction-modification systems-coding genes. Moreover, unprecedented extensive chromosomal rearrangements among different strains were observed. The chromosomal rearrangements, particularly the chromosomal inversions, were analysed and estimated to be closely related to palindromes that involved long inverted repeat sequences and the extensively distributed type IIR restriction enzyme in the Arthrospira genome. In addition, species from genus Arthrospira unanimously contained the highest rate of repetitive sequence compared with the other species of order Oscillatoriales, suggested that sequence duplication significantly contributed to Arthrospira genome phylogeny. These results provided in-depth views into the genomic phylogeny and structural variation of A. platensis, as well as provide a valuable resource for functional genomics studies. PMID:27330141

  10. Whole genomic DNA sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of Arthrospira platensis: high genome plasticity and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Teng; Qin, Song; Hu, Yongwu; Song, Zhijian; Ying, Jianchao; Li, Peizhen; Dong, Wei; Zhao, Fangqing; Yang, Huanming; Bao, Qiyu

    2016-08-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a multi-cellular and filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the nearly complete genome sequence of A. platensis YZ. A. platensis YZ genome is a single, circular chromosome of 6.62 Mb in size. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed that A. platensis YZ was more closely related to A. platensis NIES-39 than Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 and A. platensis C1. Broad gene gains were identified between A. platensis YZ and three other Arthrospira speices, some of which have been previously demonstrated that can be laterally transferred among different species, such as restriction-modification systems-coding genes. Moreover, unprecedented extensive chromosomal rearrangements among different strains were observed. The chromosomal rearrangements, particularly the chromosomal inversions, were analysed and estimated to be closely related to palindromes that involved long inverted repeat sequences and the extensively distributed type IIR restriction enzyme in the Arthrospira genome. In addition, species from genus Arthrospira unanimously contained the highest rate of repetitive sequence compared with the other species of order Oscillatoriales, suggested that sequence duplication significantly contributed to Arthrospira genome phylogeny. These results provided in-depth views into the genomic phylogeny and structural variation of A. platensis, as well as provide a valuable resource for functional genomics studies. PMID:27330141

  11. Extensive Genomic Diversity among Bovine-Adapted Staphylococcus aureus: Evidence for a Genomic Rearrangement within CC97

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Kathleen E.; McCoy, Finola; Monecke, Stefan; Cormican, Paul; Mitchell, Jennifer; Keane, Orla M.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen associated with both human and veterinary disease and is a common cause of bovine mastitis. Genomic heterogeneity exists between S. aureus strains and has been implicated in the adaptation of specific strains to colonise particular mammalian hosts. Knowledge of the factors required for host specificity and virulence is important for understanding the pathogenesis and management of S. aureus mastitis. In this study, a panel of mastitis-associated S. aureus isolates (n = 126) was tested for resistance to antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis. Over half of the isolates (52%) demonstrated resistance to penicillin and ampicillin but all were susceptible to the other antibiotics tested. S. aureus isolates were further examined for their clonal diversity by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). In total, 18 different sequence types (STs) were identified and eBURST analysis demonstrated that the majority of isolates grouped into clonal complexes CC97, CC151 or sequence type (ST) 136. Analysis of the role of recombination events in determining S. aureus population structure determined that ST diversification through nucleotide substitutions were more likely to be due to recombination compared to point mutation, with regions of the genome possibly acting as recombination hotspots. DNA microarray analysis revealed a large number of differences amongst S. aureus STs in their variable genome content, including genes associated with capsule and biofilm formation and adhesion factors. Finally, evidence for a genomic arrangement was observed within isolates from CC97 with the ST71-like subgroup showing evidence of an IS431 insertion element having replaced approximately 30 kb of DNA including the ica operon and histidine biosynthesis genes, resulting in histidine auxotrophy. This genomic rearrangement may be responsible for the diversification of ST71 into an emerging bovine adapted subgroup. PMID:26317849

  12. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ximing; Ford, Susan E

    2016-03-01

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. PMID:26880838

  13. Analysis of virus genomes from glacial environments reveals novel virus groups with unusual host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, Christopher M.; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in glacial ecosystems are diverse, active, and subjected to strong viral pressures and infection rates. In this study we analyse putative virus genomes assembled from three dsDNA viromes from cryoconite hole ecosystems of Svalbard and the Greenland Ice Sheet to assess the potential hosts and functional role viruses play in these habitats. We assembled 208 million reads from the virus-size fraction and developed a procedure to select genuine virus scaffolds from cellular contamination. Our curated virus library contained 546 scaffolds up to 230 Kb in length, 54 of which were circular virus consensus genomes. Analysis of virus marker genes revealed a wide range of viruses had been assembled, including bacteriophages, cyanophages, nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses and a virophage, with putative hosts identified as Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, eukaryotic algae and amoebae. Whole genome comparisons revealed the majority of circular genome scaffolds (CGS) formed 12 novel groups, two of which contained multiple phage members with plasmid-like properties, including a group of phage-plasmids possessing plasmid-like partition genes and toxin-antitoxin addiction modules to ensure their replication and a satellite phage-plasmid group. Surprisingly we also assembled a phage that not only encoded plasmid partition genes, but a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas adaptive bacterial immune system. One of the spacers was an exact match for another phage in our virome, indicating that in a novel use of the system, the lysogen was potentially capable of conferring immunity on its bacterial host against other phage. Together these results suggest that highly novel and diverse groups of viruses are present in glacial environments, some of which utilize very unusual life strategies and genes to control their replication and maintain a long-term relationship with their hosts

  14. Population-based 3D genome structure analysis reveals driving forces in spatial genome organization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenyuan; Kalhor, Reza; Dai, Chao; Hao, Shengli; Gong, Ke; Zhou, Yonggang; Li, Haochen; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Le Gros, Mark A.; Larabell, Carolyn A.; Chen, Lin; Alber, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Conformation capture technologies (e.g., Hi-C) chart physical interactions between chromatin regions on a genome-wide scale. However, the structural variability of the genome between cells poses a great challenge to interpreting ensemble-averaged Hi-C data, particularly for long-range and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we present a probabilistic approach for deconvoluting Hi-C data into a model population of distinct diploid 3D genome structures, which facilitates the detection of chromatin interactions likely to co-occur in individual cells. Our approach incorporates the stochastic nature of chromosome conformations and allows a detailed analysis of alternative chromatin structure states. For example, we predict and experimentally confirm the presence of large centromere clusters with distinct chromosome compositions varying between individual cells. The stability of these clusters varies greatly with their chromosome identities. We show that these chromosome-specific clusters can play a key role in the overall chromosome positioning in the nucleus and stabilizing specific chromatin interactions. By explicitly considering genome structural variability, our population-based method provides an important tool for revealing novel insights into the key factors shaping the spatial genome organization. PMID:26951677

  15. The Human Genome Diversity (HGD) Project. Summary document

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    In 1991 a group of human geneticists and molecular biologists proposed to the scientific community that a world wide survey be undertaken of variation in the human genome. To aid their considerations, the committee therefore decided to hold a small series of international workshops to explore the major scientific issues involved. The intention was to define a framework for the project which could provide a basis for much wider and more detailed discussion and planning--it was recognized that the successful implementation of the proposed project, which has come to be known as the Human Genome Diversity (HGD) Project, would not only involve scientists but also various national and international non-scientific groups all of which should contribute to the project`s development. The international HGD workshop held in Sardinia in September 1993 was the last in the initial series of planning workshops. As such it not only explored new ground but also pulled together into a more coherent form much of the formal and informal discussion that had taken place in the preceding two years. This report presents the deliberations of the Sardinia workshop within a consideration of the overall development of the HGD Project to date.

  16. New study reveals relatively few mutations in AML genomes - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators for The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have detailed and broadly classified the genomic alterations that frequently underlie the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

  17. The genome diversity and karyotype evolution of mammals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of genome sequencing and mapping in evolutionary diverse species. While full genome sequencing of mammals is rapidly progressing, the ability to assemble and align orthologous whole chromosome regions from more than a few species is still not possible. The intense focus on building of comparative maps for companion (dog and cat), laboratory (mice and rat) and agricultural (cattle, pig, and horse) animals has traditionally been used as a means to understand the underlying basis of disease-related or economically important phenotypes. However, these maps also provide an unprecedented opportunity to use multispecies analysis as a tool for inferring karyotype evolution. Comparative chromosome painting and related techniques are now considered to be the most powerful approaches in comparative genome studies. Homologies can be identified with high accuracy using molecularly defined DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on chromosomes of different species. Chromosome painting data are now available for members of nearly all mammalian orders. In most orders, there are species with rates of chromosome evolution that can be considered as 'default' rates. The number of rearrangements that have become fixed in evolutionary history seems comparatively low, bearing in mind the 180 million years of the mammalian radiation. Comparative chromosome maps record the history of karyotype changes that have occurred during evolution. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of these recent advances in our endeavor to decipher the karyotype evolution of mammals by integrating the published results together with some of our latest unpublished results. PMID:21992653

  18. The HLA genomic loci map: expression, interaction, diversity and disease.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Takashi; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K

    2009-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) super-locus is a genomic region in the chromosomal position 6p21 that encodes the six classical transplantation HLA genes and at least 132 protein coding genes that have important roles in the regulation of the immune system as well as some other fundamental molecular and cellular processes. This small segment of the human genome has been associated with more than 100 different diseases, including common diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, asthma and various other autoimmune disorders. The first complete and continuous HLA 3.6 Mb genomic sequence was reported in 1999 with the annotation of 224 gene loci, including coding and non-coding genes that were reviewed extensively in 2004. In this review, we present (1) an updated list of all the HLA gene symbols, gene names, expression status, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) numbers, including new genes, and latest changes to gene names and symbols, (2) a regional analysis of the extended class I, class I, class III, class II and extended class II subregions, (3) a summary of the interspersed repeats (retrotransposons and transposons), (4) examples of the sequence diversity between different HLA haplotypes, (5) intra- and extra-HLA gene interactions and (6) some of the HLA gene expression profiles and HLA genes associated with autoimmune and infectious diseases. Overall, the degrees and types of HLA super-locus coordinated gene expression profiles and gene variations have yet to be fully elucidated, integrated and defined for the processes involved with normal cellular and tissue physiology, inflammatory and immune responses, and autoimmune and infectious diseases. PMID:19158813

  19. Experimental evolution reveals hidden diversity in evolutionary pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Peter A; Farr, Andrew D; Rainey, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Replicate populations of natural and experimental organisms often show evidence of parallel genetic evolution, but the causes are unclear. The wrinkly spreader morph of Pseudomonas fluorescens arises repeatedly during experimental evolution. The mutational causes reside exclusively within three pathways. By eliminating these, 13 new mutational pathways were discovered with the newly arising WS types having fitnesses similar to those arising from the commonly passaged routes. Our findings show that parallel genetic evolution is strongly biased by constraints and we reveal the genetic bases. From such knowledge, and in instances where new phenotypes arise via gene activation, we suggest a set of principles: evolution proceeds firstly via pathways subject to negative regulation, then via promoter mutations and gene fusions, and finally via activation by intragenic gain-of-function mutations. These principles inform evolutionary forecasting and have relevance to interpreting the diverse array of mutations associated with clinically identical instances of disease in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07074.001 PMID:25806684

  20. Diversity-generating Retroelements in Phage and Bacterial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huatao; Arambula, Diego; Ghosh, Partho; Miller, Jeff F

    2014-12-01

    Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are DNA diversification machines found in diverse bacterial and bacteriophage genomes that accelerate the evolution of ligand-receptor interactions. Diversification results from a unidirectional transfer of sequence information from an invariant template repeat (TR) to a variable repeat (VR) located in a protein-encoding gene. Information transfer is coupled to site-specific mutagenesis in a process called mutagenic homing, which occurs through an RNA intermediate and is catalyzed by a unique, DGR-encoded reverse transcriptase that converts adenine residues in the TR into random nucleotides in the VR. In the prototype DGR found in the Bordetella bacteriophage BPP-1, the variable protein Mtd is responsible for phage receptor recognition. VR diversification enables progeny phage to switch tropism, accelerating their adaptation to changes in sequence or availability of host cell-surface molecules for infection. Since their discovery, hundreds of DGRs have been identified, and their functions are just beginning to be understood. VR-encoded residues of many DGR-diversified proteins are displayed in the context of a C-type lectin fold, although other scaffolds, including the immunoglobulin fold, may also be used. DGR homing is postulated to occur through a specialized target DNA-primed reverse transcription mechanism that allows repeated rounds of diversification and selection, and the ability to engineer DGRs to target heterologous genes suggests applications for bioengineering. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of our current understanding of this newly discovered family of beneficial retroelements. PMID:26104433

  1. Pan-genome analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas caviae indicates phylogenomic diversity and greater pathogenic potential for Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Sandeep; Blom, Jochen; Das, Samir; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Puro, Kekungu; Mawlong, Michael; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Sen, Arnab; Goesmann, Alexander; Kumar, Ashok; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Aeromonas species are important pathogens of fishes and aquatic animals capable of infecting humans and other animals via food. Due to the paucity of pan-genomic studies on aeromonads, the present study was undertaken to analyse the pan-genome of three clinically important Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae). Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all three species with pan-genome sizes of 9181, 7214 and 6884 genes for A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae, respectively. Core-genome: pan-genome ratio (RCP) indicated greater genomic diversity for A. hydrophila and interestingly RCP emerged as an effective indicator to gauge genomic diversity which could possibly be extended to other organisms too. Phylogenomic network analysis highlighted the influence of homologous recombination and lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Aeromonas spp. Prediction of virulence factors indicated no significant difference among the three species though analysis of pathogenic potential and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes revealed greater hazards from A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the usefulness of whole genome analyses to infer evolutionary cues for Aeromonas species which indicated considerable phylogenomic diversity for A. hydrophila and hitherto unknown genomic evidence for pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila compared to A. veronii and A. caviae. PMID:27075453

  2. Impact of marker ascertainment bias on genomic selection accuracy and estimates of genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide molecular markers are readily being applied to evaluate genetic diversity in germplasm collections and for making genomic selections in breeding programs. To accurately predict phenotypes and assay genetic diversity, molecular markers should assay a representative sample of the polymorp...

  3. Correction: Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The version of this article published in BMC Genomics 2013, 14: 274, contains 9 unpublished genomes (Botryobasidium botryosum, Gymnopus luxurians, Hypholoma sublateritium, Jaapia argillacea, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Laccaria amethystina, Paxillus involutus, and P. rubicundulus) downloaded from JGI website. In this correction, we removed these genomes after discussion with editors and data producers whom we should have contacted before downloading these genomes. Removing these data did not alter the principle results and conclusions of our original work. The relevant Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; and Table 1 have been revised. Additional files 1, 3, 4, and 5 were also revised. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused. Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 94 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed

  4. Anaplasma marginale: Diversity, Virulence, and Vaccine Landscape through a Genomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela; Amaro-Estrada, Itzel; Rodríguez-Camarillo, Sergio Darío

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic diversity of A. marginale, several efforts have been made around the world. This rickettsia affects a significant number of ruminants, causing bovine anaplasmosis, so the interest in its virulence and how it is transmitted have drawn interest not only from a molecular point of view but also, recently, some genomics research have been performed to elucidate genes and proteins with potential as antigens. Unfortunately, so far, we still do not have a recombinant anaplasmosis vaccine. In this review, we present a landscape of the multiple approaches carried out from the genomic perspective to generate valuable information that could be used in a holistic way to finally develop an anaplasmosis vaccine. These approaches include the analysis of the genetic diversity of A. marginale and how this affects control measures for the disease. Anaplasmosis vaccine development is also reviewed from the conventional vaccinomics to genome-base vaccinology approach based on proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics analyses reported. The use of these new omics approaches will undoubtedly reveal new targets of interest in the near future, comprising information of potential antigens and the immunogenic effect of A. marginale proteins. PMID:27610385

  5. Anaplasma marginale: Diversity, Virulence, and Vaccine Landscape through a Genomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Amaro-Estrada, Itzel; Rodríguez-Camarillo, Sergio Darío

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic diversity of A. marginale, several efforts have been made around the world. This rickettsia affects a significant number of ruminants, causing bovine anaplasmosis, so the interest in its virulence and how it is transmitted have drawn interest not only from a molecular point of view but also, recently, some genomics research have been performed to elucidate genes and proteins with potential as antigens. Unfortunately, so far, we still do not have a recombinant anaplasmosis vaccine. In this review, we present a landscape of the multiple approaches carried out from the genomic perspective to generate valuable information that could be used in a holistic way to finally develop an anaplasmosis vaccine. These approaches include the analysis of the genetic diversity of A. marginale and how this affects control measures for the disease. Anaplasmosis vaccine development is also reviewed from the conventional vaccinomics to genome-base vaccinology approach based on proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics analyses reported. The use of these new omics approaches will undoubtedly reveal new targets of interest in the near future, comprising information of potential antigens and the immunogenic effect of A. marginale proteins. PMID:27610385

  6. A map of rice genome variation reveals the origin of cultivated rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuehui; Kurata, Nori; Wei, Xinghua; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Wang, Ahong; Zhao, Qiang; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Kunyan; Lu, Hengyun; Li, Wenjun; Guo, Yunli; Lu, Yiqi; Zhou, Congcong; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yongchun; Feng, Lei; Furuumi, Hiroyasu; Kubo, Takahiko; Miyabayashi, Toshie; Yuan, Xiaoping; Xu, Qun; Dong, Guojun; Zhan, Qilin; Li, Canyang; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Lu, Tingting; Feng, Qi; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Han, Bin

    2012-10-25

    Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently developed from crosses between japonica rice and local wild rice as the initial cultivars spread into South East and South Asia. The domestication-associated traits are analysed through high-resolution genetic mapping. This study provides an important resource for rice breeding and an effective genomics approach for crop domestication research. PMID:23034647

  7. Single Nucleus Genome Sequencing Reveals High Similarity among Nuclei of an Endomycorrhizal Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Ivanov, Sergey; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Mu, Desheng; Pang, Erli; Cao, Huifen; Cha, Hwangho; Lin, Tao; Zhou, Qian; Shang, Yi; Li, Ying; Sharma, Trupti; van Velzen, Robin; de Ruijter, Norbert; Aanen, Duur K.; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi have been described as highly diverse due to their asexual nature and absence of a single cell stage with only one nucleus. This has raised fundamental questions concerning speciation, selection and transmission of the genetic make-up to next generations. Although this concept has become textbook knowledge, it is only based on studying a few loci, including 45S rDNA. To provide a more comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi, we applied de novo genome sequencing of individual nuclei of Rhizophagus irregularis. This revealed a surprisingly low level of polymorphism between nuclei. In contrast, within a nucleus, the 45S rDNA repeat unit turned out to be highly diverged. This finding demystifies a long-lasting hypothesis on the complex genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi. Subsequent genome assembly resulted in the first draft reference genome sequence of an arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungus. Its length is 141 Mbps, representing over 27,000 protein-coding gene models. We used the genomic sequence to reinvestigate the phylogenetic relationships of Rhizophagus irregularis with other fungal phyla. This unambiguously demonstrated that Glomeromycota are more closely related to Mucoromycotina than to its postulated sister Dikarya. PMID:24415955

  8. Comparative Genomics Reveals Biomarkers to Identify Lactobacillus Species.

    PubMed

    Koul, Shikha; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria possessing multiple copies of 16S rRNA (rrs) gene demonstrate high intragenomic heterogeneity. It hinders clear distinction at species level and even leads to overestimation of the bacterial diversity. Fifty completely sequenced genomes belonging to 19 species of Lactobacillus species were found to possess 4-9 copies of rrs each. Multiple sequence alignment of 268 rrs genes from all the 19 species could be classified into 20 groups. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis TMW 1.1304 was the only species where all the 7 copies of rrs were exactly similar and thus formed a distinct group. In order to circumvent the problem of high heterogeneity arising due to multiple copies of rrs, 19 additional genes (732-3645 nucleotides in size) common to Lactobacillus genomes, were selected and digested with 10 Type II restriction endonucleases (RE), under in silico conditions. The following unique gene-RE combinations: recA (1098 nts)-HpyCH4 V, CviAII, BfuCI and RsaI were found to be useful in identifying 29 strains representing 17 species. Digestion patterns of genes-ruvB (1020 nts), dnaA (1368 nts), purA (1290 nts), dnaJ (1140 nts), and gyrB (1944 nts) in combination with REs-AluI, BfuCI, CviAI, Taq1, and Tru9I allowed clear identification of an additional 14 strains belonging to 8 species. Digestion pattern of genes recA, ruvB, dnaA, purA, dnaJ and gyrB can be used as biomarkers for identifying different species of Lactobacillus. PMID:27407290

  9. Single-Cell (Meta-)Genomics of a Dimorphic Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii Reveals Genomic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Beverly E.; Fliss, Palmer; Jones, Daniel S.; Dick, Gregory J.; Jain, Sunit; Kaster, Anne-Kristin; Winkel, Matthias; Mußmann, Marc; Bailey, Jake

    2016-01-01

    The genus Thiomargarita includes the world's largest bacteria. But as uncultured organisms, their physiology, metabolism, and basis for their gigantism are not well understood. Thus, a genomics approach, applied to a single Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii cell was employed to explore the genetic potential of one of these enigmatic giant bacteria. The Thiomargarita cell was obtained from an assemblage of budding Ca. T. nelsonii attached to a provannid gastropod shell from Hydrate Ridge, a methane seep offshore of Oregon, USA. Here we present a manually curated genome of Bud S10 resulting from a hybrid assembly of long Pacific Biosciences and short Illumina sequencing reads. With respect to inorganic carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways, the Ca. T. nelsonii Hydrate Ridge Bud S10 genome was similar to marine sister taxa within the family Beggiatoaceae. However, the Bud S10 genome contains genes suggestive of the genetic potential for lithotrophic growth on arsenite and perhaps hydrogen. The genome also revealed that Bud S10 likely respires nitrate via two pathways: a complete denitrification pathway and a dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia pathway. Both pathways have been predicted, but not previously fully elucidated, in the genomes of other large, vacuolated, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Surprisingly, the genome also had a high number of unusual features for a bacterium to include the largest number of metacaspases and introns ever reported in a bacterium. Also present, are a large number of other mobile genetic elements, such as insertion sequence (IS) transposable elements and miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs). In some cases, mobile genetic elements disrupted key genes in metabolic pathways. For example, a MITE interrupts hupL, which encodes the large subunit of the hydrogenase in hydrogen oxidation. Moreover, we detected a group I intron in one of the most critical genes in the sulfur oxidation pathway, dsrA. The dsrA group

  10. Genomic analysis reveals extensive gene duplication within the bovine TRB locus

    PubMed Central

    Connelley, Timothy; Aerts, Jan; Law, Andy; Morrison, W Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Background Diverse TR and IG repertoires are generated by V(D)J somatic recombination. Genomic studies have been pivotal in cataloguing the V, D, J and C genes present in the various TR/IG loci and describing how duplication events have expanded the number of these genes. Such studies have also provided insights into the evolution of these loci and the complex mechanisms that regulate TR/IG expression. In this study we analyze the sequence of the third bovine genome assembly to characterize the germline repertoire of bovine TRB genes and compare the organization, evolution and regulatory structure of the bovine TRB locus with that of humans and mice. Results The TRB locus in the third bovine genome assembly is distributed over 5 scaffolds, extending to ~730 Kb. The available sequence contains 134 TRBV genes, assigned to 24 subgroups, and 3 clusters of DJC genes, each comprising a single TRBD gene, 5–7 TRBJ genes and a single TRBC gene. Seventy-nine of the TRBV genes are predicted to be functional. Comparison with the human and murine TRB loci shows that the gene order, as well as the sequences of non-coding elements that regulate TRB expression, are highly conserved in the bovine. Dot-plot analyses demonstrate that expansion of the genomic TRBV repertoire has occurred via a complex and extensive series of duplications, predominantly involving DNA blocks containing multiple genes. These duplication events have resulted in massive expansion of several TRBV subgroups, most notably TRBV6, 9 and 21 which contain 40, 35 and 16 members respectively. Similarly, duplication has lead to the generation of a third DJC cluster. Analyses of cDNA data confirms the diversity of the TRBV genes and, in addition, identifies a substantial number of TRBV genes, predominantly from the larger subgroups, which are still absent from the genome assembly. The observed gene duplication within the bovine TRB locus has created a repertoire of phylogenetically diverse functional TRBV genes

  11. Algal genomes reveal evolutionary mosaicism and the fate of nucleomorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Bruce A.; Tanifuji, Goro; Burki, Fabien; Gruber, Ansgar; Irimia, Manuuel; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Arias, Maria C.; Ball, Steven G.; Gile, Gillian H.; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hopkins, Julia F.; Kuo, Alan; Rensing, Stefan A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Elias, Marek; Eveleigh, Robert J. M.; Herman, Emily K.; Klute, Mary J.; Nakayama, Takuro; Obornik, Miroslav; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Aves, Stephen J.; Beiko, Robert G.; Coutinho, Pedro; Dacks, Joel B.; Durnford, Dion G.; Fast, Naomi M.; Green, Beverley R.; Grisdale, Cameron J.; Hempel, Franziska; Henrissat, Bernard; Hoppner, Marc P.; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Eunsoo; Koreny, Ludek; Kroth, Peter G.; Liu, Yuan; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Maier, Uwe G.; McRose, Darcy; Mock, Thomas; Neilson, Jonathan A. D.; Onodera, Naoko T.; Poole, Anthony M.; Pritham, Ellen J.; Richards, Thomas A.; Rocap, Gabrielle; Roy, Scott W.; Sarai, Chihiro; Schaack, Sarah; Shirato, Shu; Slamovits, Claudio H.; Spencer, Davie F.; Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Zauner, Stefan; Barry, Kerrie; Bell, Callum; Bharti, Arvind K.; Crow, John A.; Grimwood, Jane; Kramer, Robin; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Lane, Christopher E.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Gray, Michael W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Archibald, John M.

    2012-08-10

    Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have 21,000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host- and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph.

  12. Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

  13. Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-09-16

    The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

  14. Genomic analysis of primordial dwarfism reveals novel disease genes.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Ansari, Shinu; Abdel-Salam, Ghada; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Shidi, Tarfa; Alomar, Rana; Sogaty, Sameera; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2014-02-01

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is a disease in which severely impaired fetal growth persists throughout postnatal development and results in stunted adult size. The condition is highly heterogeneous clinically, but the use of certain phenotypic aspects such as head circumference and facial appearance has proven helpful in defining clinical subgroups. In this study, we present the results of clinical and genomic characterization of 16 new patients in whom a broad definition of PD was used (e.g., 3M syndrome was included). We report a novel PD syndrome with distinct facies in two unrelated patients, each with a different homozygous truncating mutation in CRIPT. Our analysis also reveals, in addition to mutations in known PD disease genes, the first instance of biallelic truncating BRCA2 mutation causing PD with normal bone marrow analysis. In addition, we have identified a novel locus for Seckel syndrome based on a consanguineous multiplex family and identified a homozygous truncating mutation in DNA2 as the likely cause. An additional novel PD disease candidate gene XRCC4 was identified by autozygome/exome analysis, and the knockout mouse phenotype is highly compatible with PD. Thus, we add a number of novel genes to the growing list of PD-linked genes, including one which we show to be linked to a novel PD syndrome with a distinct facial appearance. PD is extremely heterogeneous genetically and clinically, and genomic tools are often required to reach a molecular diagnosis. PMID:24389050

  15. Mitogenomes reveal diversity of the European Lyme borreliosis vector Ixodes ricinus in Italy.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Giovanna; Kitchen, Andrew; Kim, Hie Lim; Ratan, Aakrosh; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; McGraw, John J; Kazimirova, Maria; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-08-01

    In Europe, the Ixodes ricinus tick is the most important vector of the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis and several other emerging tick-borne diseases. Because tick-borne pathogens are dependent on their vectors for transmission, understanding the vector population structure is crucial to inform public health research of pathogen dynamics and spread. However, the population structure and dynamics of this important vector species are not well understood as most genetic studies utilize short mitochondrial and nuclear sequences with little diversity. Herein we obtained and analyzed complete mitochondrial genome (hereafter "mitogenome") sequences to better understand the genetic diversity and the population structure of I. ricinus from two long-standing tick-borne disease foci in northern Italy. Complete mitogenomes of 23 I. ricinus ticks were sequenced at high coverage. Out of 23 mitogenome sequences we identified 17 unique haplotypes composed of 244 segregating sites. Phylogenetic reconstruction using 18 complete mitogenome sequences revealed the coexistence of four highly divergent I. ricinus maternal lineages despite the narrow spatial scale over which these samples were obtained (100km). Notably, the estimated coalescence time of the 18 mitogenome haplotypes is ∼427 thousand years ago (95% HPD 330, 540). This divergence between I. ricinus lineages is consistent with the mitochondrial diversity of other arthropod vector species and indicates that long-term I. ricinus populations may have been less structured and larger than previously thought. Thus, this study suggests that a rapid and accurate retrieval of full mitochondrial genomes from this disease vector enables fine-resolution studies of tick intraspecies genetic relationships, population differentiation, and demographic history. PMID:27165938

  16. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals 2-Oxoacid Dehydrogenase Complex Lipoylation Correlation with Aerobiosis in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Borziak, Kirill; Posner, Mareike G.; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Danson, Michael J.; Bagby, Stefan; Dorus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    , the extension of comparative genomic pathway profiling to broader metabolic and homeostasis networks should be useful in revealing characteristics from metagenomic datasets related to adaptations to diverse environments. PMID:24489835

  17. Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Unexpected Subgenomic Diversity of Magnetotactic Bacteria within the Phylum Nitrospirae ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei; Jogler, Christian; Schüler, Dirk; Pan, Yongxin

    2011-01-01

    A targeted metagenomic approach was applied to investigate magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) within the phylum Nitrospirae in Lake Miyun near Beijing, China. Five fosmids containing rRNA operons were identified. Comparative sequence analysis of a total of 172 kb provided new insights into their genome organization and revealed unexpected subgenomic diversity of uncultivated MTB in the phylum Nitrospirae. In addition, affiliation of two novel MTB with the phylum Nitrospirae was verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. One of them was morphologically similar to “Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum,” but the other differed substantially in cell shape and magnetosome organization from all previously described “Ca. Magnetobacterium bavaricum”-like bacteria. PMID:21057016

  18. Genome Sequence of a Diverse Goose Circovirus Recovered from Greylag Goose

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Farkas, Kata

    2015-01-01

    A diverse goose circovirus (GoCV) genome was recovered from a wild hunted greylag goose (Anser anser) in Poland. The genome shares 83% pairwise identity with other GoCV genomes recovered from various geese from China, Germany, and Taiwan. PMID:26227589

  19. Genome sequence surveys of Brachiola algerae and Edhazardia aedis reveal microsporidia with low gene densities

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryony AP; Lee, Renny CH; Becnel, James J; Weiss, Louis M; Fast, Naomi M; Keeling, Patrick J

    2008-01-01

    Background Microsporidia are well known models of extreme nuclear genome reduction and compaction. The smallest microsporidian genomes have received the most attention, but genomes of different species range in size from 2.3 Mb to 19.5 Mb and the nature of the larger genomes remains unknown. Results Here we have undertaken genome sequence surveys of two diverse microsporidia, Brachiola algerae and Edhazardia aedis. In both species we find very large intergenic regions, many transposable elements, and a low gene-density, all in contrast to the small, model microsporidian genomes. We also find no recognizable genes that are not also found in other surveyed or sequenced microsporidian genomes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that microsporidian genome architecture varies greatly between microsporidia. Much of the genome size difference could be accounted for by non-coding material, such as intergenic spaces and retrotransposons, and this suggests that the forces dictating genome size may vary across the phylum. PMID:18445287

  20. Reconstruction of the lipid metabolism for the microalga Monoraphidium neglectum from its genome sequence reveals characteristics suitable for biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microalgae are gaining importance as sustainable production hosts in the fields of biotechnology and bioenergy. A robust biomass accumulating strain of the genus Monoraphidium (SAG 48.87) was investigated in this work as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. The genome was sequenced, annotated, and key enzymes for triacylglycerol formation were elucidated. Results Monoraphidium neglectum was identified as an oleaginous species with favourable growth characteristics as well as a high potential for crude oil production, based on neutral lipid contents of approximately 21% (dry weight) under nitrogen starvation, composed of predominantly C18:1 and C16:0 fatty acids. Further characterization revealed growth in a relatively wide pH range and salt concentrations of up to 1.0% NaCl, in which the cells exhibited larger structures. This first full genome sequencing of a member of the Selenastraceae revealed a diploid, approximately 68 Mbp genome with a G + C content of 64.7%. The circular chloroplast genome was assembled to a 135,362 bp single contig, containing 67 protein-coding genes. The assembly of the mitochondrial genome resulted in two contigs with an approximate total size of 94 kb, the largest known mitochondrial genome within algae. 16,761 protein-coding genes were assigned to the nuclear genome. Comparison of gene sets with respect to functional categories revealed a higher gene number assigned to the category “carbohydrate metabolic process” and in “fatty acid biosynthetic process” in M. neglectum when compared to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Nannochloropsis gaditana, indicating a higher metabolic diversity for applications in carbohydrate conversions of biotechnological relevance. Conclusions The genome of M. neglectum, as well as the metabolic reconstruction of crucial lipid pathways, provides new insights into the diversity of the lipid metabolism in microalgae. The results of this work provide a platform to encourage the

  1. Genomic and Metabolic Diversity of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota in the Mesopelagic of Two Subtropical Gyres

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Brandon K.; Chaffin, Mark D.; Martinez-Garcia, Manuel; Morrison, Hilary G.; Field, Erin K.; Poulton, Nicole J.; Masland, E. Dashiell P.; Harris, Christopher C.; Sczyrba, Alexander; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Koren, Sergey; Woyke, Tanja; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2014-01-01

    Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota are one of the most abundant and cosmopolitan chemoautotrophs within the global dark ocean. To date, no representatives of this archaeal group retrieved from the dark ocean have been successfully cultured. We used single cell genomics to investigate the genomic and metabolic diversity of thaumarchaea within the mesopelagic of the subtropical North Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic and metagenomic recruitment analysis revealed that MGI single amplified genomes (SAGs) are genetically and biogeographically distinct from existing thaumarchaea cultures obtained from surface waters. Confirming prior studies, we found genes encoding proteins for aerobic ammonia oxidation and the hydrolysis of urea, which may be used for energy production, as well as genes involved in 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate and oxidative tricarboxylic acid pathways. A large proportion of protein sequences identified in MGI SAGs were absent in the marine cultures Cenarchaeum symbiosum and Nitrosopumilus maritimus, thus expanding the predicted protein space for this archaeal group. Identifiable genes located on genomic islands with low metagenome recruitment capacity were enriched in cellular defense functions, likely in response to viral infections or grazing. We show that MGI Thaumarchaeota in the dark ocean may have more flexibility in potential energy sources and adaptations to biotic interactions than the existing, surface-ocean cultures. PMID:24743558

  2. Genome structure and primitive sex chromosome revealed in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald A; Yin, Tongming; Gunter, Lee E; Blaudez, D

    2008-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive genetic map for Populus and ordered 332 Mb of sequence scaffolds along the 19 haploid chromosomes in order to compare chromosomal regions among diverse members of the genus. These efforts lead us to conclude that chromosome XIX in Populus is evolving into a sex chromosome. Consistent segregation distortion in favor of the sub-genera Tacamahaca alleles provided evidence of divergent selection among species, particularly at the proximal end of chromosome XIX. A large microsatellite marker (SSR) cluster was detected in the distorted region even though the genome-wide distribute SSR sites was uniform across the physical map. The differences between the genetic map and physical sequence data suggested recombination suppression was occurring in the distorted region. A gender-determination locus and an overabundance of NBS-LRR genes were also co-located to the distorted region and were put forth as the cause for divergent selection and recombination suppression. This hypothesis was verified by using fine-scale mapping of an integrated scaffold in the vicinity of the gender-determination locus. As such it appears that chromosome XIX in Populus is in the process of evolving from an autosome into a sex chromosome and that NBS-LRR genes may play important role in the chromosomal diversification process in Populus.

  3. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  4. Genomic analysis of regulatory network dynamics reveals large topological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Madan Babu, M.; Yu, Haiyuan; Snyder, Michael; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Gerstein, Mark

    2004-09-01

    Network analysis has been applied widely, providing a unifying language to describe disparate systems ranging from social interactions to power grids. It has recently been used in molecular biology, but so far the resulting networks have only been analysed statically. Here we present the dynamics of a biological network on a genomic scale, by integrating transcriptional regulatory information and gene-expression data for multiple conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We develop an approach for the statistical analysis of network dynamics, called SANDY, combining well-known global topological measures, local motifs and newly derived statistics. We uncover large changes in underlying network architecture that are unexpected given current viewpoints and random simulations. In response to diverse stimuli, transcription factors alter their interactions to varying degrees, thereby rewiring the network. A few transcription factors serve as permanent hubs, but most act transiently only during certain conditions. By studying sub-network structures, we show that environmental responses facilitate fast signal propagation (for example, with short regulatory cascades), whereas the cell cycle and sporulation direct temporal progression through multiple stages (for example, with highly inter-connected transcription factors). Indeed, to drive the latter processes forward, phase-specific transcription factors inter-regulate serially, and ubiquitously active transcription factors layer above them in a two-tiered hierarchy. We anticipate that many of the concepts presented here-particularly the large-scale topological changes and hub transience-will apply to other biological networks, including complex sub-systems in higher eukaryotes.

  5. Assessing genetic diversity among Brettanomyces yeasts by DNA fingerprinting and whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Crauwels, Sam; Zhu, Bo; Steensels, Jan; Busschaert, Pieter; De Samblanx, Gorik; Marchal, Kathleen; Willems, Kris A; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Lievens, Bart

    2014-07-01

    Brettanomyces yeasts, with the species Brettanomyces (Dekkera) bruxellensis being the most important one, are generally reported to be spoilage yeasts in the beer and wine industry due to the production of phenolic off flavors. However, B. bruxellensis is also known to be a beneficial contributor in certain fermentation processes, such as the production of certain specialty beers. Nevertheless, despite its economic importance, Brettanomyces yeasts remain poorly understood at the genetic and genomic levels. In this study, the genetic relationship between more than 50 Brettanomyces strains from all presently known species and from several sources was studied using a combination of DNA fingerprinting techniques. This revealed an intriguing correlation between the B. bruxellensis fingerprints and the respective isolation source. To further explore this relationship, we sequenced a (beneficial) beer isolate of B. bruxellensis (VIB X9085; ST05.12/22) and compared its genome sequence with the genome sequences of two wine spoilage strains (AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499). ST05.12/22 was found to be substantially different from both wine strains, especially at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, there were major differences in the genome structures between the strains investigated, including the presence of large duplications and deletions. Gene content analysis revealed the presence of 20 genes which were present in both wine strains but absent in the beer strain, including many genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and vice versa, no genes that were missing in both AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499 were found in ST05.12/22. Together, this study provides tools to discriminate Brettanomyces strains and provides a first glimpse at the genetic diversity and genome plasticity of B. bruxellensis. PMID:24814796

  6. Assessing Genetic Diversity among Brettanomyces Yeasts by DNA Fingerprinting and Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Crauwels, Sam; Zhu, Bo; Steensels, Jan; Busschaert, Pieter; De Samblanx, Gorik; Marchal, Kathleen; Willems, Kris A.

    2014-01-01

    Brettanomyces yeasts, with the species Brettanomyces (Dekkera) bruxellensis being the most important one, are generally reported to be spoilage yeasts in the beer and wine industry due to the production of phenolic off flavors. However, B. bruxellensis is also known to be a beneficial contributor in certain fermentation processes, such as the production of certain specialty beers. Nevertheless, despite its economic importance, Brettanomyces yeasts remain poorly understood at the genetic and genomic levels. In this study, the genetic relationship between more than 50 Brettanomyces strains from all presently known species and from several sources was studied using a combination of DNA fingerprinting techniques. This revealed an intriguing correlation between the B. bruxellensis fingerprints and the respective isolation source. To further explore this relationship, we sequenced a (beneficial) beer isolate of B. bruxellensis (VIB X9085; ST05.12/22) and compared its genome sequence with the genome sequences of two wine spoilage strains (AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499). ST05.12/22 was found to be substantially different from both wine strains, especially at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, there were major differences in the genome structures between the strains investigated, including the presence of large duplications and deletions. Gene content analysis revealed the presence of 20 genes which were present in both wine strains but absent in the beer strain, including many genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and vice versa, no genes that were missing in both AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499 were found in ST05.12/22. Together, this study provides tools to discriminate Brettanomyces strains and provides a first glimpse at the genetic diversity and genome plasticity of B. bruxellensis. PMID:24814796

  7. Genome sequence of Thermofilum pendens reveals an exceptional loss of biosynthetic pathways without genome reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Anderson, Iain; Rodriguez, Jason; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Reich, Claudia; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kim, Edwin; Thompson, Linda S.; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Detter, Chris; Zhulin, Igor B.; Olsen, Gary J.; Whitman, William; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Thermofilum pendens, a deep-branching, hyperthermophilic member of the order Thermoproteales within the archaeal kingdom Crenarchaeota. T. pendens is a sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a solfatara in Iceland. It is an extracellular commensal, requiring an extract of Thermoproteus tenax for growth, and the genome sequence reveals that biosynthetic pathways for purines, most amino acids, and most cofactors are absent. In fact T. pendens has fewer biosynthetic enzymes than obligate intracellular parasites, although it does not display other features common among obligate parasites and thus does not appear to be in the process of becoming a parasite. It appears that T. pendens has adapted to life in an environment rich in nutrients. T. pendens was known to utilize peptides as an energy source, but the genome reveals substantial ability to grow on carbohydrates. T. pendens is the first crenarchaeote and only the second archaeon found to have a transporter of the phosphotransferase system. In addition to fermentation, T. pendens may gain energy from sulfur reduction with hydrogen and formate as electron donors. It may also be capable of sulfur-independent growth on formate with formate hydrogenlyase. Additional novel features are the presence of a monomethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase, the first time this enzyme has been found outside of Methanosarcinales, and a presenilin-related protein. Predicted highly expressed proteins do not include housekeeping genes, and instead include ABC transporters for carbohydrates and peptides, and CRISPR-associated proteins.

  8. Genome Sequence of Thermofilum pendens Reveals an Exceptional Loss of Biosynthetic Pathways without Genome Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Rodriquez, Jason; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Reich, Claudia; Ulrich, Luke; Elkins, James G; Mavromatis, K; Lykidis, A; Kim, Edwin; Thompson, Linda S; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Detter, J C; Zhulin, Igor B; Olsen, Gary; Whitman, W. B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2008-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Thermofilum pendens, a deep-branching member of class Thermoproteales of Crenarchaeota. T. pendens is a sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a solfatara in Iceland. It was known to utilize peptides as an energy source, but the genome reveals substantial ability to grow on carbohydrates. T. pendens is the first Crenarchaeote and only the second archaeon found to have transporters of the phosphotransferase system. T. pendens is known to require an extract of Thermoproteus tenax for growth, and the genome sequence reveals that biosynthetic pathways for purines, most amino acids, and most cofactors are absent. T. pendens has fewer biosynthetic enzymes than any other free-living organism. In addition to heterotrophy, T. pendens may gain energy from sulfur reduction with hydrogen and formate as electron donors. It may also be capable of sulfur-independent growth on formate with formate hydrogenlyase. Additional novel features are the presence of a monomethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase, the first time this enzyme has been found outside of Methanosarcinales, and a presenilin-related protein from a new subfamily. Predicted highly expressed proteins include ABC transporters for carbohydrates and peptides, and CRISPR-associated proteins, suggesting that defense against viruses is a high priority.

  9. Fingerprinting the Asterid Species Using Subtracted Diversity Array Reveals Novel Species-Specific Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Nitin; Olarte, Alexandra; Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie; Pang, Edwin C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asterids is one of the major plant clades comprising of many commercially important medicinal species. One of the major concerns in medicinal plant industry is adulteration/contamination resulting from misidentification of herbal plants. This study reports the construction and validation of a microarray capable of fingerprinting medicinally important species from the Asterids clade. Methodology/Principal Findings Pooled genomic DNA of 104 non-asterid angiosperm and non-angiosperm species was subtracted from pooled genomic DNA of 67 asterid species. Subsequently, 283 subtracted DNA fragments were used to construct an Asterid-specific array. The validation of Asterid-specific array revealed a high (99.5%) subtraction efficiency. Twenty-five Asterid species (mostly medicinal) representing 20 families and 9 orders within the clade were hybridized onto the array to reveal its level of species discrimination. All these species could be successfully differentiated using their hybridization patterns. A number of species-specific probes were identified for commercially important species like tea, coffee, dandelion, yarrow, motherwort, Japanese honeysuckle, valerian, wild celery, and yerba mate. Thirty-seven polymorphic probes were characterized by sequencing. A large number of probes were novel species-specific probes whilst some of them were from chloroplast region including genes like atpB, rpoB, and ndh that have extensively been used for fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of plants. Conclusions/Significance Subtracted Diversity Array technique is highly efficient in fingerprinting species with little or no genomic information. The Asterid-specific array could fingerprint all 25 species assessed including three species that were not used in constructing the array. This study validates the use of chloroplast genes for bar-coding (fingerprinting) plant species. In addition, this method allowed detection of several new loci that can be explored to solve

  10. Genomic instability in B-cells and diversity of recombinations that activate c-myc.

    PubMed

    Janz, S; Jones, G M; Müller, J R; Potter, M

    1995-01-01

    Genetic rearrangements activating the proto-oncogene c-myc comprise a mandatory oncogenic step in plasma cell tumor development in BALB/cAnPt mice. In the majority of plasmacytomas, c-myc activating rearrangements take the form of reciprocal chromosomal translocations t(12;15) that juxtapose c-myc to the immunoglobulin heavy chain alpha locus (IgH alpha) in particular the switch alpha region (S alpha). The genetic basis for the prevalence of S alpha/c-myc recombinations in BALB/cAnPt plasmacytomas is not known but may be related to a hypothetical regional genomic instability of the c-myc and IgH alpha loci in BALB/cAnPt mice. We wished to test whether the genomic instability of both loci might be revealed by the diversity of genetic recombinations that can be observed in IgH alpha and c-myc. We employed PCR methods to detect new recombinations of c-myc and IgH alpha in the preneoplastic stage of plasma cell tumor development and found that c-myc can be joined to more genes or genomic regions than known before. This is indicative but does not formally prove a particular genomic instability of c-myc and IgH alpha in BALB/cAnPt B cells. Since defective DNA repair provides a mechanistic explanation for genomic instability, we measured the efficiency of repair in IgH alpha and c-myc using an assay that quantitates the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers within specific genomic regions. We used plasmacytoma XRPC 24 as a model system and found that both IgH alpha and c-myc were poorly repaired, whereas c-abl, a proto-oncogene not related to conventional pristane-induced plasmacytoma-genesis, was efficiently repaired. PMID:7895512

  11. 454-Pyrosequencing Reveals Variable Fungal Diversity Across Farming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kazeeroni, Elham A.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Oasis farming system is common in some parts of the world, especially in the Arabian Peninsula and several African countries. In Oman, the farming system in the majority of farms follows a semi-oasis farming (SOF) system, which is characterized by growing multiple crops mainly for home consumption, but also for local market. This study was conducted to investigate fungal diversity using pyrosequencing approach in soils from a farm utilizing a SOF system which is cultivated with date palms, acid limes and cucumbers. Fungal diversity from this farm was compared to that from an organic farm (OR) growing cucumbers and tomatoes. Fungal diversity was found to be variable among different crops in the same farm. The observed OTUs, Chao1 richness estimates and Shannon diversity values indicated that soils from date palms and acid limes have higher fungal diversity compared to soil from cucumbers (SOF). In addition, they also indicated that the level of fungal diversity is higher in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in OR compared to SOF. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum in most of the samples from the OR and SOF farms. Other dominant phyla are Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, and Basidiomycota. The differential level of fungal diversity within the SOF could be related to the variation in the cultural practices employed for each crop. PMID:27014331

  12. 454-Pyrosequencing Reveals Variable Fungal Diversity Across Farming Systems.

    PubMed

    Kazeeroni, Elham A; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Oasis farming system is common in some parts of the world, especially in the Arabian Peninsula and several African countries. In Oman, the farming system in the majority of farms follows a semi-oasis farming (SOF) system, which is characterized by growing multiple crops mainly for home consumption, but also for local market. This study was conducted to investigate fungal diversity using pyrosequencing approach in soils from a farm utilizing a SOF system which is cultivated with date palms, acid limes and cucumbers. Fungal diversity from this farm was compared to that from an organic farm (OR) growing cucumbers and tomatoes. Fungal diversity was found to be variable among different crops in the same farm. The observed OTUs, Chao1 richness estimates and Shannon diversity values indicated that soils from date palms and acid limes have higher fungal diversity compared to soil from cucumbers (SOF). In addition, they also indicated that the level of fungal diversity is higher in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in OR compared to SOF. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum in most of the samples from the OR and SOF farms. Other dominant phyla are Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, and Basidiomycota. The differential level of fungal diversity within the SOF could be related to the variation in the cultural practices employed for each crop. PMID:27014331

  13. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues.

    PubMed

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K; Rivas, Manuel A; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S; Kukurba, Kim R; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Burchard, Esteban G; Seibold, Max A; MacArthur, Daniel G; Montgomery, Stephen B; Zaitlen, Noah A; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-07-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  14. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S.; Kukurba, Kim R.; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Seibold, Max A.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  15. Genome-wide association analyses reveal complex genetic architecture underlying natural variation for flowering time in canola.

    PubMed

    Raman, H; Raman, R; Coombes, N; Song, J; Prangnell, R; Bandaranayake, C; Tahira, R; Sundaramoorthi, V; Killian, A; Meng, J; Dennis, E S; Balasubramanian, S

    2016-06-01

    Optimum flowering time is the key to maximize canola production in order to meet global demand of vegetable oil, biodiesel and canola-meal. We reveal extensive variation in flowering time across diverse genotypes of canola under field, glasshouse and controlled environmental conditions. We conduct a genome-wide association study and identify 69 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with flowering time, which are repeatedly detected across experiments. Several associated SNPs occur in clusters across the canola genome; seven of them were detected within 20 Kb regions of a priori candidate genes; FLOWERING LOCUS T, FRUITFUL, FLOWERING LOCUS C, CONSTANS, FRIGIDA, PHYTOCHROME B and an additional five SNPs were localized within 14 Kb of a previously identified quantitative trait loci for flowering time. Expression analyses showed that among FLC paralogs, BnFLC.A2 accounts for ~23% of natural variation in diverse accessions. Genome-wide association analysis for FLC expression levels mapped not only BnFLC.C2 but also other loci that contribute to variation in FLC expression. In addition to revealing the complex genetic architecture of flowering time variation, we demonstrate that the identified SNPs can be modelled to predict flowering time in diverse canola germplasm accurately and hence are suitable for genomic selection of adaptative traits in canola improvement programmes. PMID:26428711

  16. Genomic and Metagenomic Analysis of Diversity-Generating Retroelements Associated with Treponema denticola

    PubMed Central

    Nimkulrat, Sutichot; Lee, Heewook; Doak, Thomas G.; Ye, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are genetic cassettes that can produce massive protein sequence variation in prokaryotes. Presumably DGRs confer selective advantages to their hosts (bacteria or viruses) by generating variants of target genes—typically resulting in target proteins with altered ligand-binding specificity—through a specialized error-prone reverse transcription process. The only extensively studied DGR system is from the Bordetella phage BPP-1, although DGRs are predicted to exist in other species. Using bioinformatics analysis, we discovered that the DGR system associated with the Treponema denticola species (a human oral-associated periopathogen) is dynamic (with gains/losses of the system found in the isolates) and diverse (with multiple types found in isolated genomes and the human microbiota). The T. denticola DGR is found in only nine of the 17 sequenced T. denticola strains. Analysis of the DGR-associated template regions and reverse transcriptase gene sequences revealed two types of DGR systems in T. denticola: the ATCC35405-type shared by seven isolates including ATCC35405; and the SP32-type shared by two isolates (SP32 and SP33), suggesting multiple DGR acquisitions. We detected additional variants of the T. denticola DGR systems in the human microbiomes, and found that the SP32-type DGR is more abundant than the ATCC35405-type in the healthy human oral microbiome, although the latter is found in more sequenced isolates. This is the first comprehensive study to characterize the DGRs associated with T. denticola in individual genomes as well as human microbiomes, demonstrating the importance of utilizing both individual genomes and metagenomes for characterizing the elements, and for analyzing their diversity and distribution in human populations. PMID:27375574

  17. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  18. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  19. Flow cytometry reveals that the rust fungus, Uromyces bidentis (Pucciniales), possesses the largest fungal genome reported--2489 Mbp.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Ana Paula; Tavares, Sílvia; Tavares, Daniela; Silva, Maria Do Céu; Loureiro, João; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Among the Eukaryotes, Fungi have relatively small genomes (average of 44.2 Mbp across 1850 species). The order Pucciniales (Basidiomycota) has the largest average genome size among fungi (305 Mbp), and includes the two largest fungal genomes reported so far (Puccinia chrysanthemi and Gymnosporangium confusum, with 806.5 and 893.2 Mbp, respectively). In this work, flow cytometry was employed to determine the genome size of the Bidens pilosa rust pathogen, Uromyces bidentis. The results obtained revealed that U. bidentis presents a surprisingly large haploid genome size of 2489 Mbp. This value is almost three times larger than the previous largest fungal genome reported and over 50 times larger than the average fungal genome size. Microscopic examination of U. bidentis nuclei also showed that they are not as different in size from the B. pilosa nuclei when compared with the differences between other rusts and their host plants. This result further reinforces the position of the Pucciniales as the fungal group with the largest genomes, prompting studies addressing the role of repetitive elements and polyploidy in the evolution, pathological specialization and diversity of fungal species. PMID:25784533

  20. Comparative Whole-Genome Analysis of Clinical Isolates Reveals Characteristic Architecture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pangenome

    PubMed Central

    Periwal, Vinita; Patowary, Ashok; Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Gupta, Anju; Singh, Meghna; Mittal, Ashish; Jeyapaul, Shamini; Chauhan, Rajendra Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Garg, Parul; Katoch, Viswa Mohan; Katoch, Kiran; Chauhan, Devendra Singh; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Scaria, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    The tubercle complex consists of closely related mycobacterium species which appear to be variants of a single species. Comparative genome analysis of different strains could provide useful clues and insights into the genetic diversity of the species. We integrated genome assemblies of 96 strains from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which included 8 Indian clinical isolates sequenced and assembled in this study, to understand its pangenome architecture. We predicted genes for all the 96 strains and clustered their respective CDSs into homologous gene clusters (HGCs) to reveal a hard-core, soft-core and accessory genome component of MTBC. The hard-core (HGCs shared amongst 100% of the strains) was comprised of 2,066 gene clusters whereas the soft-core (HGCs shared amongst at least 95% of the strains) comprised of 3,374 gene clusters. The change in the core and accessory genome components when observed as a function of their size revealed that MTBC has an open pangenome. We identified 74 HGCs that were absent from reference strains H37Rv and H37Ra but were present in most of clinical isolates. We report PCR validation on 9 candidate genes depicting 7 genes completely absent from H37Rv and H37Ra whereas 2 genes shared partial homology with them accounting to probable insertion and deletion events. The pangenome approach is a promising tool for studying strain specific genetic differences occurring within species. We also suggest that since selecting appropriate target genes for typing purposes requires the expected target gene be present in all isolates being typed, therefore estimating the core-component of the species becomes a subject of prime importance. PMID:25853708

  1. Genomic View of Bipolar Disorder Revealed by Whole Genome Sequencing in a Genetic Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Georgi, Benjamin; Craig, David; Kember, Rachel L.; Liu, Wencheng; Lindquist, Ingrid; Nasser, Sara; Brown, Christopher; Egeland, Janice A.; Paul, Steven M.; Bućan, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, heritable mental illness characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Despite considerable effort to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of bipolar disorder, causative genetic risk factors remain elusive. We conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of bipolar disorder in a large Old Order Amish pedigree. Microsatellite genotypes and high-density SNP-array genotypes of 388 family members were combined with whole genome sequence data for 50 of these subjects, comprising 18 parent-child trios. This study design permitted evaluation of candidate variants within the context of haplotype structure by resolving the phase in sequenced parent-child trios and by imputation of variants into multiple unsequenced siblings. Non-parametric and parametric linkage analysis of the entire pedigree as well as on smaller clusters of families identified several nominally significant linkage peaks, each of which included dozens of predicted deleterious variants. Close inspection of exonic and regulatory variants in genes under the linkage peaks using family-based association tests revealed additional credible candidate genes for functional studies and further replication in population-based cohorts. However, despite the in-depth genomic characterization of this unique, large and multigenerational pedigree from a genetic isolate, there was no convergence of evidence implicating a particular set of risk loci or common pathways. The striking haplotype and locus heterogeneity we observed has profound implications for the design of studies of bipolar and other related disorders. PMID:24625924

  2. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-01

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called “Qingke” in Chinese and “Ne” in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

  3. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

  4. Genome-wide Selective Sweeps in Natural Bacterial Populations Revealed by Time-series Metagenomics

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Leong-Keat; Bendall, Matthew L.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Schwientek, Patrick; Tremblay, Julien; Schackwitz, Wendy; Martin, Joel; Pati, Amrita; Bushnell, Brian; Foster, Brian; Kang, Dongwan; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Moran, Mary Ann; Shade, Ashley; Newton, Ryan J.; Stevens, Sarah; McMahon, Katherine D.; Malmstrom, Rex R.

    2014-06-18

    Multiple evolutionary models have been proposed to explain the formation of genetically and ecologically distinct bacterial groups. Time-series metagenomics enables direct observation of evolutionary processes in natural populations, and if applied over a sufficiently long time frame, this approach could capture events such as gene-specific or genome-wide selective sweeps. Direct observations of either process could help resolve how distinct groups form in natural microbial assemblages. Here, from a three-year metagenomic study of a freshwater lake, we explore changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies and patterns of gene gain and loss in populations of Chlorobiaceae and Methylophilaceae. SNP analyses revealed substantial genetic heterogeneity within these populations, although the degree of heterogeneity varied considerably among closely related, co-occurring Methylophilaceae populations. SNP allele frequencies, as well as the relative abundance of certain genes, changed dramatically over time in each population. Interestingly, SNP diversity was purged at nearly every genome position in one of the Chlorobiaceae populations over the course of three years, while at the same time multiple genes either swept through or were swept from this population. These patterns were consistent with a genome-wide selective sweep, a process predicted by the ‘ecotype model’ of diversification, but not previously observed in natural populations.

  5. Genome-wide Selective Sweeps in Natural Bacterial Populations Revealed by Time-series Metagenomics

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Leong-Keat; Bendall, Matthew L.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Schwientek, Patrick; Tremblay, Julien; Schackwitz, Wendy; Martin, Joel; Pati, Amrita; Bushnell, Brian; Foster, Brian; Kang, Dongwan; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Moran, Mary Ann; Shade, Ashley; Newton, Ryan J.; Stevens, Sarah; McMcahon, Katherine D.; Mamlstrom, Rex R.

    2014-05-12

    Multiple evolutionary models have been proposed to explain the formation of genetically and ecologically distinct bacterial groups. Time-series metagenomics enables direct observation of evolutionary processes in natural populations, and if applied over a sufficiently long time frame, this approach could capture events such as gene-specific or genome-wide selective sweeps. Direct observations of either process could help resolve how distinct groups form in natural microbial assemblages. Here, from a three-year metagenomic study of a freshwater lake, we explore changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies and patterns of gene gain and loss in populations of Chlorobiaceae and Methylophilaceae. SNP analyses revealed substantial genetic heterogeneity within these populations, although the degree of heterogeneity varied considerably among closely related, co-occurring Methylophilaceae populations. SNP allele frequencies, as well as the relative abundance of certain genes, changed dramatically over time in each population. Interestingly, SNP diversity was purged at nearly every genome position in one of the Chlorobiaceae populations over the course of three years, while at the same time multiple genes either swept through or were swept from this population. These patterns were consistent with a genome-wide selective sweep, a process predicted by the ecotype model? of diversification, but not previously observed in natural populations.

  6. The genome sequencing of an albino Western lowland gorilla reveals inbreeding in the wild

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The only known albino gorilla, named Snowflake, was a male wild born individual from Equatorial Guinea who lived at the Barcelona Zoo for almost 40 years. He was diagnosed with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism, i.e. white hair, light eyes, pink skin, photophobia and reduced visual acuity. Despite previous efforts to explain the genetic cause, this is still unknown. Here, we study the genetic cause of his albinism and making use of whole genome sequencing data we find a higher inbreeding coefficient compared to other gorillas. Results We successfully identified the causal genetic variant for Snowflake’s albinism, a non-synonymous single nucleotide variant located in a transmembrane region of SLC45A2. This transporter is known to be involved in oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) in humans. We provide experimental evidence that shows that this amino acid replacement alters the membrane spanning capability of this transmembrane region. Finally, we provide a comprehensive study of genome-wide patterns of autozygogosity revealing that Snowflake’s parents were related, being this the first report of inbreeding in a wild born Western lowland gorilla. Conclusions In this study we demonstrate how the use of whole genome sequencing can be extended to link genotype and phenotype in non-model organisms and it can be a powerful tool in conservation genetics (e.g., inbreeding and genetic diversity) with the expected decrease in sequencing cost. PMID:23721540

  7. Dissecting genomic diversity, one cell at a time

    PubMed Central

    Blainey, Paul C; Quake, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Emerging technologies are bringing single-cell genome sequencing into the mainstream; this field has already yielded insights into the genetic architecture and variability between cells that highlight the dynamic nature of the genome. PMID:24524132

  8. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    PubMed Central

    Renaut, Sébastien; Grassa, Christopher J.; Moyers, Brook T.; Kane, Nolan C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs) in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis), with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha) and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio) and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi). We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the determinants

  9. Employing genome-wide SNP discovery and genotyping strategy to extrapolate the natural allelic diversity and domestication patterns in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Kujur, Alice; Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Das, Shouvik; Ranjan, Rajeev; Shree, Tanima; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C. L. L.; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    The genome-wide discovery and high-throughput genotyping of SNPs in chickpea natural germplasm lines is indispensable to extrapolate their natural allelic diversity, domestication, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns leading to the genetic enhancement of this vital legume crop. We discovered 44,844 high-quality SNPs by sequencing of 93 diverse cultivated desi, kabuli, and wild chickpea accessions using reference genome- and de novo-based GBS (genotyping-by-sequencing) assays that were physically mapped across eight chromosomes of desi and kabuli. Of these, 22,542 SNPs were structurally annotated in different coding and non-coding sequence components of genes. Genes with 3296 non-synonymous and 269 regulatory SNPs could functionally differentiate accessions based on their contrasting agronomic traits. A high experimental validation success rate (92%) and reproducibility (100%) along with strong sensitivity (93–96%) and specificity (99%) of GBS-based SNPs was observed. This infers the robustness of GBS as a high-throughput assay for rapid large-scale mining and genotyping of genome-wide SNPs in chickpea with sub-optimal use of resources. With 23,798 genome-wide SNPs, a relatively high intra-specific polymorphic potential (49.5%) and broader molecular diversity (13–89%)/functional allelic diversity (18–77%) was apparent among 93 chickpea accessions, suggesting their tremendous applicability in rapid selection of desirable diverse accessions/inter-specific hybrids in chickpea crossbred varietal improvement program. The genome-wide SNPs revealed complex admixed domestication pattern, extensive LD estimates (0.54–0.68) and extended LD decay (400–500 kb) in a structured population inclusive of 93 accessions. These findings reflect the utility of our identified SNPs for subsequent genome-wide association study (GWAS) and selective sweep-based domestication trait dissection analysis to identify potential genomic loci (gene-associated targets) specifically

  10. Bacterial origin of a diverse family of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in the Tetranychus urticae genome.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seung-Joon; Dermauw, Wannes; Wybouw, Nicky; Heckel, David G; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the conjugation of a variety of small lipophilic molecules with uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars, altering them into more water-soluble metabolites. Thereby, UGTs play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the regulation of endobiotics. Recently, the genome sequence was reported for the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a polyphagous herbivore damaging a number of agricultural crops. Although various gene families implicated in xenobiotic metabolism have been documented in T. urticae, UGTs so far have not. We identified 80 UGT genes in the T. urticae genome, the largest number of UGT genes in a metazoan species reported so far. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that lineage-specific gene expansions increased the diversity of the T. urticae UGT repertoire. Genomic distribution, intron-exon structure and structural motifs in the T. urticae UGTs were also described. In addition, expression profiling after host-plant shifts and in acaricide resistant lines supported an important role for UGT genes in xenobiotic metabolism. Expanded searches of UGTs in other arachnid species (Subphylum Chelicerata), including a spider, a scorpion, two ticks and two predatory mites, unexpectedly revealed the complete absence of UGT genes. However, a centipede (Subphylum Myriapoda) and a water flea and a crayfish (Subphylum Crustacea) contain UGT genes in their genomes similar to insect UGTs, suggesting that the UGT gene family might have been lost early in the Chelicerata lineage and subsequently re-gained in the tetranychid mites. Sequence similarity of T. urticae UGTs and bacterial UGTs and their phylogenetic reconstruction suggest that spider mites acquired UGT genes from bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Our findings show a unique evolutionary history of the T. urticae UGT gene family among other arthropods and provide important clues to its functions in relation to detoxification and thereby host

  11. Interior Layered Deposits in Tithonium Chasma Reveal Diverse Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    image planes, and reveals diversity in the mineral content of this light-colored material. Some areas have no signature in the data, indicating dust-like spectral properties, while other areas have signatures of monohydrated or polyhydrated sulfate. This signifies a variety of compositions within these layered deposits.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  12. Bovine Genetic Diversity Revealed By mtDNA Sequence Variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were used to determine genetic distance, nucleotide diversity, construction of haplotypes, estimation of information contents, and phylogenic relationships in bovine HapMap breeds. The Bovine International HapMap panel consists of 720 anima...

  13. Phylum-wide comparative genomics unravel the diversity of secondary metabolism in Cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Calteau, Alexandra; Fewer, David P.; Latifi, Amel; Coursin, Thérèse; Laurent, Thierry; Jokela, Jouni; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Piel, Jörn; Gugger, Muriel

    2014-11-18

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of photosynthetic bacteria from which hundreds of natural products have been described, including many notorious toxins but also potent natural products of interest to the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Many of these compounds are the products of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways. However, current understanding of the diversification of these pathways is largely based on the chemical structure of the bioactive compounds, while the evolutionary forces driving their remarkable chemical diversity are poorly understood. We carried out a phylum-wide investigation of genetic diversification of the cyanobacterial NRPS and PKS pathways for the production of bioactive compounds. 452 NRPS and PKS gene clusters were identified from 89 cyanobacterial genomes, revealing a clear burst in late-branching lineages. Our genomic analysis further grouped the clusters into 286 highly diversified cluster families (CF) of pathways. Some CFs appeared vertically inherited, while others presented a more complex evolutionary history. Only a few horizontal gene transfers were evidenced amongst strongly conserved CFs in the phylum, while several others have undergone drastic gene shuffling events, which could result in the observed diversification of the pathways. In addition to toxin production, several NRPS and PKS gene clusters are devoted to important cellular processes of these bacteria such as nitrogen fixation and iron uptake. The majority of the biosynthetic clusters identified here have unknown end products, highlighting the power of genome mining for the discovery of new natural products.

  14. Phylum-wide comparative genomics unravel the diversity of secondary metabolism in Cyanobacteria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Calteau, Alexandra; Fewer, David P.; Latifi, Amel; Coursin, Thérèse; Laurent, Thierry; Jokela, Jouni; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Piel, Jörn; Gugger, Muriel

    2014-11-18

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of photosynthetic bacteria from which hundreds of natural products have been described, including many notorious toxins but also potent natural products of interest to the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Many of these compounds are the products of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways. However, current understanding of the diversification of these pathways is largely based on the chemical structure of the bioactive compounds, while the evolutionary forces driving their remarkable chemical diversity are poorly understood. We carried out a phylum-wide investigation of genetic diversification of the cyanobacterial NRPS and PKS pathways formore » the production of bioactive compounds. 452 NRPS and PKS gene clusters were identified from 89 cyanobacterial genomes, revealing a clear burst in late-branching lineages. Our genomic analysis further grouped the clusters into 286 highly diversified cluster families (CF) of pathways. Some CFs appeared vertically inherited, while others presented a more complex evolutionary history. Only a few horizontal gene transfers were evidenced amongst strongly conserved CFs in the phylum, while several others have undergone drastic gene shuffling events, which could result in the observed diversification of the pathways. In addition to toxin production, several NRPS and PKS gene clusters are devoted to important cellular processes of these bacteria such as nitrogen fixation and iron uptake. The majority of the biosynthetic clusters identified here have unknown end products, highlighting the power of genome mining for the discovery of new natural products.« less

  15. Genomic and Secretomic Analyses Reveal Unique Features of the Lignocellulolytic Enzyme System of Penicillium decumbens

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuqi; Ma, Liang; Li, Jie; Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Shengyue; Wang, Chengshu; Xun, Luying; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    Many Penicillium species could produce extracellular enzyme systems with good lignocellulose hydrolysis performance. However, these species and their enzyme systems are still poorly understood and explored due to the lacking of genetic information. Here, we present the genomic and secretomic analyses of Penicillium decumbens that has been used in industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in China for more than fifteen years. Comparative genomics analysis with the phylogenetically most similar species Penicillium chrysogenum revealed that P. decumbens has evolved with more genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, but fewer genes in cellular metabolism and regulation. Compared with the widely used cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei, P. decumbens has a lignocellulolytic enzyme system with more diverse components, particularly for cellulose binding domain-containing proteins and hemicellulases. Further, proteomic analysis of secretomes revealed that P. decumbens produced significantly more lignocellulolytic enzymes in the medium with cellulose-wheat bran as the carbon source than with glucose. The results expand our knowledge on the genetic information of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems in Penicillium species, and will facilitate rational strain improvement for the production of highly efficient enzyme systems used in lignocellulose utilization from Penicillium species. PMID:23383313

  16. Genomic and secretomic analyses reveal unique features of the lignocellulolytic enzyme system of Penicillium decumbens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Xiaomin; Zou, Gen; Qin, Yuqi; Ma, Liang; Li, Jie; Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Shengyue; Wang, Chengshu; Xun, Luying; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    Many Penicillium species could produce extracellular enzyme systems with good lignocellulose hydrolysis performance. However, these species and their enzyme systems are still poorly understood and explored due to the lacking of genetic information. Here, we present the genomic and secretomic analyses of Penicillium decumbens that has been used in industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in China for more than fifteen years. Comparative genomics analysis with the phylogenetically most similar species Penicillium chrysogenum revealed that P. decumbens has evolved with more genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, but fewer genes in cellular metabolism and regulation. Compared with the widely used cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei, P. decumbens has a lignocellulolytic enzyme system with more diverse components, particularly for cellulose binding domain-containing proteins and hemicellulases. Further, proteomic analysis of secretomes revealed that P. decumbens produced significantly more lignocellulolytic enzymes in the medium with cellulose-wheat bran as the carbon source than with glucose. The results expand our knowledge on the genetic information of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems in Penicillium species, and will facilitate rational strain improvement for the production of highly efficient enzyme systems used in lignocellulose utilization from Penicillium species. PMID:23383313

  17. Understanding and utilizing crop genome diversity via high-resolution genotyping.

    PubMed

    Voss-Fels, Kai; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution genome analysis technologies provide an unprecedented level of insight into structural diversity across crop genomes. Low-cost discovery of sequence variation has become accessible for all crops since the development of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, using diverse methods ranging from genome-scale resequencing or skim sequencing, reduced-representation genotyping-by-sequencing, transcriptome sequencing or sequence capture approaches. High-density, high-throughput genotyping arrays generated using the resulting sequence data are today available for the assessment of genomewide single nucleotide polymorphisms in all major crop species. Besides their application in genetic mapping or genomewide association studies for dissection of complex agronomic traits, high-density genotyping arrays are highly suitable for genomic selection strategies. They also enable description of crop diversity at an unprecedented chromosome-scale resolution. Application of population genetics parameters to genomewide diversity data sets enables dissection of linkage disequilibrium to characterize loci underlying selective sweeps. High-throughput genotyping platforms simultaneously open the way for targeted diversity enrichment, allowing rejuvenation of low-diversity chromosome regions in strongly selected breeding pools to potentially reverse the influence of linkage drag. Numerous recent examples are presented which demonstrate the power of next-generation genomics for high-resolution analysis of crop diversity on a subgenomic and chromosomal scale. Such studies give deep insight into the history of crop evolution and selection, while simultaneously identifying novel diversity to improve yield and heterosis. PMID:27003869

  18. Evolution of Darwin's finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lamichhaney, Sangeet; Berglund, Jonas; Almén, Markus Sällman; Maqbool, Khurram; Grabherr, Manfred; Martinez-Barrio, Alvaro; Promerová, Marta; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Wang, Chao; Zamani, Neda; Grant, B Rosemary; Grant, Peter R; Webster, Matthew T; Andersson, Leif

    2015-02-19

    Darwin's finches, inhabiting the Galápagos archipelago and Cocos Island, constitute an iconic model for studies of speciation and adaptive evolution. Here we report the results of whole-genome re-sequencing of 120 individuals representing all of the Darwin's finch species and two close relatives. Phylogenetic analysis reveals important discrepancies with the phenotype-based taxonomy. We find extensive evidence for interspecific gene flow throughout the radiation. Hybridization has given rise to species of mixed ancestry. A 240 kilobase haplotype encompassing the ALX1 gene that encodes a transcription factor affecting craniofacial development is strongly associated with beak shape diversity across Darwin's finch species as well as within the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis), a species that has undergone rapid evolution of beak shape in response to environmental changes. The ALX1 haplotype has contributed to diversification of beak shapes among the Darwin's finches and, thereby, to an expanded utilization of food resources. PMID:25686609

  19. Genomic diversity and versatility of Lactobacillus plantarum, a natural metabolic engineer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade it has become clear that the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum occupies a diverse range of environmental niches and has an enormous diversity in phenotypic properties, metabolic capacity and industrial applications. In this review, we describe how genome sequencing, comparative genome hybridization and comparative genomics has provided insight into the underlying genomic diversity and versatility of L. plantarum. One of the main features appears to be genomic life-style islands consisting of numerous functional gene cassettes, in particular for carbohydrates utilization, which can be acquired, shuffled, substituted or deleted in response to niche requirements. In this sense, L. plantarum can be considered a “natural metabolic engineer”. PMID:21995294

  20. Nile Tilapia Infectivity by Genomically Diverse Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), is recognized for causing cattle mastitis, human neonatal meningitis, and fish meningo-encephalitis. We investigated the genomic diversity of GBS isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regions using serological t...

  1. Gorilla genome structural variation reveals evolutionary parallelisms with chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Mario; Catacchio, Claudia R; Alkan, Can; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Sajjadian, Saba; Graves, Tina A; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Navarro, Arcadi; Malig, Maika; Baker, Carl; Lee, Choli; Turner, Emily H; Chen, Lin; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Shendure, Jay; Wilson, Richard K; Eichler, Evan E

    2011-10-01

    Structural variation has played an important role in the evolutionary restructuring of human and great ape genomes. Recent analyses have suggested that the genomes of chimpanzee and human have been particularly enriched for this form of genetic variation. Here, we set out to assess the extent of structural variation in the gorilla lineage by generating 10-fold genomic sequence coverage from a western lowland gorilla and integrating these data into a physical and cytogenetic framework of structural variation. We discovered and validated over 7665 structural changes within the gorilla lineage, including sequence resolution of inversions, deletions, duplications, and mobile element insertions. A comparison with human and other ape genomes shows that the gorilla genome has been subjected to the highest rate of segmental duplication. We show that both the gorilla and chimpanzee genomes have experienced independent yet convergent patterns of structural mutation that have not occurred in humans, including the formation of subtelomeric heterochromatic caps, the hyperexpansion of segmental duplications, and bursts of retroviral integrations. Our analysis suggests that the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes are structurally more derived than either orangutan or human genomes. PMID:21685127

  2. Genome Comparisons Reveal a Dominant Mechanism of Chromosome Number Reduction in Grasses and Accelerated Genome Evolution in Triticeae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphism was employed in the construction of a high-resolution, expressed sequence tag (EST) map of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. Comparison of the map with the rice and sorghum genome sequences revealed 50 inversions and translocations; 2, 8, and...

  3. Metagenomics of petroleum muck: revealing microbial diversity and depicting microbial syntrophy.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Madhvi N; Dhebar, Shivangi V; Dhebar, Shivani V; Bhargava, Poonam; Pandit, Aanal; Patel, Riddhi P; Saxena, Akshay; Bagatharia, Snehal B

    2014-08-01

    Present study attempts in revealing taxonomic and functional diversity of microorganism from petroleum muck using metagenomics approach. Using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, total of 249 Mb raw data were obtained which was analysed using MG-RAST platform. The taxonomic analysis revealed predominance of Proteobacteria with Gammaproteobacteria as major class and Pseudomonas stutzeri as most abundant organism. Several enzymes involved in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation through both aerobic and anaerobic routes and proteins related to stress response were also present. Comparison of our metagenome with the existing metagenomes from oil-contaminated sites and wastewater treatment plant indicated uniqueness of this metagenome taxonomically and functionally. Based on these results a hypothetical community model showing survival and syntrophy of microorganisms in hydrocarbon-rich environment is proposed. Validation of the metagenome data was done in three tiers by validating major OTUs by isolating oil-degrading microbes, confirmation of key genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation by Sanger sequencing and studying functional dynamics for degradation of the hydrocarbons by the muck meta-community using GC-MS. PMID:24838250

  4. Genome and Transcriptome Sequences Reveal the Specific Parasitism of the Nematophagous Purpureocillium lilacinum 36-1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Xiao, Xueqiong; Peng, Deliang; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum is a promising nematophagous ascomycete able to adapt diverse environments and it is also an opportunistic fungus that infects humans. A microbial inoculant of P. lilacinum has been registered to control plant parasitic nematodes. However, the molecular mechanism of the toxicological processes is still unclear because of the relatively few reports on the subject. In this study, using Illumina paired-end sequencing, the draft genome sequence and the transcriptome of P. lilacinum strain 36-1 infecting nematode-eggs were determined. Whole genome alignment indicated that P. lilacinum 36-1 possessed a more dynamic genome in comparison with P. lilacinum India strain. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the P. lilacinum 36-1 had a closer relation to entomophagous fungi. The protein-coding genes in P. lilacinum 36-1 occurred much more frequently than they did in other fungi, which was a result of the depletion of repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). Comparative genome and transcriptome analyses revealed the genes that were involved in pathogenicity, particularly in the recognition, adhesion of nematode-eggs, downstream signal transduction pathways and hydrolase genes. By contrast, certain numbers of cellulose and xylan degradation genes and a lack of polysaccharide lyase genes showed the potential of P. lilacinum 36-1 as an endophyte. Notably, the expression of appressorium-formation and antioxidants-related genes exhibited similar infection patterns in P. lilacinum strain 36-1 to those of the model entomophagous fungi Metarhizium spp. These results uncovered the specific parasitism of P. lilacinum and presented the genes responsible for the infection of nematode-eggs. PMID:27486440

  5. Single-cell genomics reveal low recombination frequencies in freshwater bacteria of the SAR11 clade

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The SAR11 group of Alphaproteobacteria is highly abundant in the oceans. It contains a recently diverged freshwater clade, which offers the opportunity to compare adaptations to salt- and freshwaters in a monophyletic bacterial group. However, there are no cultivated members of the freshwater SAR11 group and no genomes have been sequenced yet. Results We isolated ten single SAR11 cells from three freshwater lakes and sequenced and assembled their genomes. A phylogeny based on 57 proteins indicates that the cells are organized into distinct microclusters. We show that the freshwater genomes have evolved primarily by the accumulation of nucleotide substitutions and that they have among the lowest ratio of recombination to mutation estimated for bacteria. In contrast, members of the marine SAR11 clade have one of the highest ratios. Additional metagenome reads from six lakes confirm low recombination frequencies for the genome overall and reveal lake-specific variations in microcluster abundances. We identify hypervariable regions with gene contents broadly similar to those in the hypervariable regions of the marine isolates, containing genes putatively coding for cell surface molecules. Conclusions We conclude that recombination rates differ dramatically in phylogenetic sister groups of the SAR11 clade adapted to freshwater and marine ecosystems. The results suggest that the transition from marine to freshwater systems has purged diversity and resulted in reduced opportunities for recombination with divergent members of the clade. The low recombination frequencies of the LD12 clade resemble the low genetic divergence of host-restricted pathogens that have recently shifted to a new host. PMID:24286338

  6. Genome and Transcriptome Sequences Reveal the Specific Parasitism of the Nematophagous Purpureocillium lilacinum 36-1.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Xiao, Xueqiong; Peng, Deliang; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum is a promising nematophagous ascomycete able to adapt diverse environments and it is also an opportunistic fungus that infects humans. A microbial inoculant of P. lilacinum has been registered to control plant parasitic nematodes. However, the molecular mechanism of the toxicological processes is still unclear because of the relatively few reports on the subject. In this study, using Illumina paired-end sequencing, the draft genome sequence and the transcriptome of P. lilacinum strain 36-1 infecting nematode-eggs were determined. Whole genome alignment indicated that P. lilacinum 36-1 possessed a more dynamic genome in comparison with P. lilacinum India strain. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the P. lilacinum 36-1 had a closer relation to entomophagous fungi. The protein-coding genes in P. lilacinum 36-1 occurred much more frequently than they did in other fungi, which was a result of the depletion of repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). Comparative genome and transcriptome analyses revealed the genes that were involved in pathogenicity, particularly in the recognition, adhesion of nematode-eggs, downstream signal transduction pathways and hydrolase genes. By contrast, certain numbers of cellulose and xylan degradation genes and a lack of polysaccharide lyase genes showed the potential of P. lilacinum 36-1 as an endophyte. Notably, the expression of appressorium-formation and antioxidants-related genes exhibited similar infection patterns in P. lilacinum strain 36-1 to those of the model entomophagous fungi Metarhizium spp. These results uncovered the specific parasitism of P. lilacinum and presented the genes responsible for the infection of nematode-eggs. PMID:27486440

  7. Whole genome sequencing of Ethiopian highlanders reveals conserved hypoxia tolerance genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although it has long been proposed that genetic factors contribute to adaptation to high altitude, such factors remain largely unverified. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have made it feasible to analyze genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in human populations. Since traditionally such studies surveyed only a small fraction of the genome, interpretation of the results was limited. Results We report here the results of the first whole genome resequencing-based analysis identifying genes that likely modulate high altitude adaptation in native Ethiopians residing at 3,500 m above sea level on Bale Plateau or Chennek field in Ethiopia. Using cross-population tests of selection, we identify regions with a significant loss of diversity, indicative of a selective sweep. We focus on a 208 kbp gene-rich region on chromosome 19, which is significant in both of the Ethiopian subpopulations sampled. This region contains eight protein-coding genes and spans 135 SNPs. To elucidate its potential role in hypoxia tolerance, we experimentally tested whether individual genes from the region affect hypoxia tolerance in Drosophila. Three genes significantly impact survival rates in low oxygen: cic, an ortholog of human CIC, Hsl, an ortholog of human LIPE, and Paf-AHα, an ortholog of human PAFAH1B3. Conclusions Our study reveals evolutionarily conserved genes that modulate hypoxia tolerance. In addition, we show that many of our results would likely be unattainable using data from exome sequencing or microarray studies. This highlights the importance of whole genome sequencing for investigating adaptation by natural selection. PMID:24555826

  8. Diverse Lifestyles and Strategies of Plant Pathogenesis Encoded in the Genomes of Eighteen Doethideomycetes Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Schoch, Conrad L.; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Condon, Bradford J.; Copeland, Alex C.; Dhillon, Braham; Glaser, Fabien; Hesse, Cedar N.; Kosti, Idit; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda; Hamelin, Richard C.; Kema, Gert H. J.; Lawrence, Christopher; Scott, James A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zhong, Shaobin; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2012-03-13

    The class of Dothideomycetes is one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related species can have very diverse host plants. Eighteen genomes of Dothideomycetes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. Here we describe the results of comparative analyses of the fungi in this group.

  9. Diverse Lifestyles and Strategies of Plant Pathogenesis Encoded in the Genomes of Eighteen Dothideomycetes

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Schoch, Conrad L.; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Condon, Bradford J.; Copeland, Alex C.; Dhillon, Braham; Glaser, Fabian; Hesse, Cedar N.; Kosti, Idit; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda; Hamelin, Richard C.; Kema, Gert H. J.; Lawrence, Christopher; Scott, James A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zhong, Shaobin; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-05

    The class of Dothideomycetes is one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops that are grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host plant, and related species can have very diverse hosts. Eighteen genomes of Dothideomycetes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. Here we describe the results of comparative analyses of the fungi in this group.

  10. Functional Genomics Reveals Linkers Critical for Influenza Virus Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lulan; Wu, Aiping; Wang, Yao E.; Quanquin, Natalie; Li, Chunfeng; Wang, Jingfeng; Chen, Hsiang-Wen; Liu, Suyang; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Hong; Qin, F. Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza virus mRNA synthesis by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase involves binding and cleavage of capped cellular mRNA by the PB2 and PA subunits, respectively, and extension of viral mRNA by PB1. However, the mechanism for such a dynamic process is unclear. Using high-throughput mutagenesis and sequencing analysis, we have not only generated a comprehensive functional map for the microdomains of individual subunits but also have revealed the PA linker to be critical for polymerase activity. This PA linker binds to PB1 and also forms ionic interactions with the PA C-terminal channel. Nearly all mutants with five-amino-acid insertions in the linker were nonviable. Our model further suggests that the PA linker plays an important role in the conformational changes that occur between stages that favor capped mRNA binding and cleavage and those associated with viral mRNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza virus consists of the PB1, PB2, and PA subunits. By combining genome-wide mutagenesis analysis with the recently discovered crystal structure of the influenza polymerase heterotrimer, we generated a comprehensive functional map of the entire influenza polymerase complex. We identified the microdomains of individual subunits, including the catalytic domains, the interaction interfaces between subunits, and nine linkers interconnecting different domains. Interestingly, we found that mutants with five-amino-acid insertions in individual linkers were nonviable, suggesting the critical roles these linkers play in coordinating spatial relationships between the subunits. We further identified an extended PA linker that binds to PB1 and also forms ionic interactions with the PA C-terminal channel. PMID:26719244

  11. Comparative genomic and functional analysis reveal conservation of plant growth promoting traits in Paenibacillus polymyxa and its closely related species

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jianbo; Shi, Haowen; Du, Zhenglin; Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Sanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa has widely been studied as a model of plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Here, the genome sequences of 9 P. polymyxa strains, together with 26 other sequenced Paenibacillus spp., were comparatively studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated 244 single-copy core genes suggests that the 9 P. polymyxa strains and 5 other Paenibacillus spp., isolated from diverse geographic regions and ecological niches, formed a closely related clade (here it is called Poly-clade). Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reveals local diversification of the 14 Poly-clade genomes. SNPs were not evenly distributed throughout the 14 genomes and the regions with high SNP density contain the genes related to secondary metabolism, including genes coding for polyketide. Recombination played an important role in the genetic diversity of this clade, although the rate of recombination was clearly lower than mutation. Some genes relevant to plant-growth promoting traits, i.e. phosphate solubilization and IAA production, are well conserved, while some genes relevant to nitrogen fixation and antibiotics synthesis are evolved with diversity in this Poly-clade. This study reveals that both P. polymyxa and its closely related species have plant growth promoting traits and they have great potential uses in agriculture and horticulture as PGPR. PMID:26856413

  12. Comparative genomic and functional analysis reveal conservation of plant growth promoting traits in Paenibacillus polymyxa and its closely related species.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianbo; Shi, Haowen; Du, Zhenglin; Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Sanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa has widely been studied as a model of plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Here, the genome sequences of 9 P. polymyxa strains, together with 26 other sequenced Paenibacillus spp., were comparatively studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated 244 single-copy core genes suggests that the 9 P. polymyxa strains and 5 other Paenibacillus spp., isolated from diverse geographic regions and ecological niches, formed a closely related clade (here it is called Poly-clade). Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reveals local diversification of the 14 Poly-clade genomes. SNPs were not evenly distributed throughout the 14 genomes and the regions with high SNP density contain the genes related to secondary metabolism, including genes coding for polyketide. Recombination played an important role in the genetic diversity of this clade, although the rate of recombination was clearly lower than mutation. Some genes relevant to plant-growth promoting traits, i.e. phosphate solubilization and IAA production, are well conserved, while some genes relevant to nitrogen fixation and antibiotics synthesis are evolved with diversity in this Poly-clade. This study reveals that both P. polymyxa and its closely related species have plant growth promoting traits and they have great potential uses in agriculture and horticulture as PGPR. PMID:26856413

  13. Population genomic variation reveals roles of history, adaptation, and ploidy in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversity within a species is shaped by many processes, including mutation, migration, and natural selection. These processes leave signatures in geographic and genomic patterns of variation, and characterizing the patterns provides insight into the roles of different factors in shaping diversity. W...

  14. Diverse lifestyles and strategies of plant pathogenesis encoded in the genomes of eighteen Dothideomycetes fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The class Dothideomycetes is one of the largest groups of fungi with a high level of ecological diversity including many plant pathogens infecting a broad range of hosts. Here for the first time we compare the sequenced genomes of 18 Dothideomycetes to analyze their evolution, genome organization, a...

  15. Analysis of genotype diversity and evolution of Dengue virus serotype 2 using complete genomes

    PubMed Central

    Waman, Vaishali P.; Kolekar, Pandurang; Ramtirthkar, Mukund R.; Kale, Mohan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is one of the most common arboviral diseases prevalent worldwide and is caused by Dengue viruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae). There are four serotypes of Dengue Virus (DENV-1 to DENV-4), each of which is further subdivided into distinct genotypes. DENV-2 is frequently associated with severe dengue infections and epidemics. DENV-2 consists of six genotypes such as Asian/American, Asian I, Asian II, Cosmopolitan, American and sylvatic. Comparative genomic study was carried out to infer population structure of DENV-2 and to analyze the role of evolutionary and spatiotemporal factors in emergence of diversifying lineages. Methods Complete genome sequences of 990 strains of DENV-2 were analyzed using Bayesian-based population genetics and phylogenetic approaches to infer genetically distinct lineages. The role of spatiotemporal factors, genetic recombination and selection pressure in the evolution of DENV-2 is examined using the sequence-based bioinformatics approaches. Results DENV-2 genetic structure is complex and consists of fifteen subpopulations/lineages. The Asian/American genotype is observed to be diversified into seven lineages. The Asian I, Cosmopolitan and sylvatic genotypes were found to be subdivided into two lineages, each. The populations of American and Asian II genotypes were observed to be homogeneous. Significant evidence of episodic positive selection was observed in all the genes, except NS4A. Positive selection operational on a few codons in envelope gene confers antigenic and lineage diversity in the American strains of Asian/American genotype. Selection on codons of non-structural genes was observed to impact diversification of lineages in Asian I, cosmopolitan and sylvatic genotypes. Evidence of intra/inter-genotype recombination was obtained and the uncertainty in classification of recombinant strains was resolved using the population genetics approach. Discussion Complete genome-based analysis revealed that the

  16. Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also

  17. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D.; Díaz-Balzac, Roberto J.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2016-01-01

    The Echinodermata comprise an interesting branch in the phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Their radial symmetry which is reflected in their nervous system anatomy makes them a target of interest in the study of nervous system evolution. Until recently, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has been hindered by a shortage of neuronal markers. However, in recent years several markers of neuronal and fiber subpopulations have been described. These have been used to identify subpopulations of neurons and fibers, but an integrative study of the anatomical relationship of these subpopulations is wanting. We have now used eight commercial antibodies, together with three antibodies produced by our group to provide a comprehensive and integrated description and new details of the echinoderm neuroanatomy using the holothurian Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) as our model system. Immunoreactivity of the markers used showed: (1) specific labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles. (3) Similar to other deuterostomes (mainly vertebrates), their enteric nervous system is composed of a large and diverse repertoire of neurons and fiber phenotypes. Our results provide a first blueprint of the anatomical organization of cells and fibers that form the holothurian neural circuitry, and highlight the fact that the echinoderm nervous system shows unexpected diversity in cell and fiber types and their distribution in both central and peripheral nervous components. PMID:26987052

  18. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D; Díaz-Balzac, Roberto J; García-Arrarás, José E

    2016-01-01

    The Echinodermata comprise an interesting branch in the phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Their radial symmetry which is reflected in their nervous system anatomy makes them a target of interest in the study of nervous system evolution. Until recently, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has been hindered by a shortage of neuronal markers. However, in recent years several markers of neuronal and fiber subpopulations have been described. These have been used to identify subpopulations of neurons and fibers, but an integrative study of the anatomical relationship of these subpopulations is wanting. We have now used eight commercial antibodies, together with three antibodies produced by our group to provide a comprehensive and integrated description and new details of the echinoderm neuroanatomy using the holothurian Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) as our model system. Immunoreactivity of the markers used showed: (1) specific labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles. (3) Similar to other deuterostomes (mainly vertebrates), their enteric nervous system is composed of a large and diverse repertoire of neurons and fiber phenotypes. Our results provide a first blueprint of the anatomical organization of cells and fibers that form the holothurian neural circuitry, and highlight the fact that the echinoderm nervous system shows unexpected diversity in cell and fiber types and their distribution in both central and peripheral nervous components. PMID:26987052

  19. The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Gross, Joshua B.; Aken, Bronwen; Blin, Maryline; Borowsky, Richard; Chalopin, Domitille; Hinaux, Hélène; Jeffery, William R.; Keene, Alex; Ma, Li; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Daniel; O’Quin, Kelly E.; Rétaux, Sylvie; Rohner, Nicolas; Searle, Steve M. J.; Stahl, Bethany A.; Tabin, Cliff; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Yoshizawa, Masato; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations subjected to strong environmental selection pressures offer a window into the genetic underpinnings of evolutionary change. Cavefish populations, Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characiphysi), exhibit repeated, independent evolution for a variety of traits including eye degeneration, pigment loss, increased size and number of taste buds and mechanosensory organs, and shifts in many behavioural traits. Surface and cave forms are interfertile making this system amenable to genetic interrogation; however, lack of a reference genome has hampered efforts to identify genes responsible for changes in cave forms of A. mexicanus. Here we present the first de novo genome assembly for Astyanax mexicanus cavefish, contrast repeat elements to other teleost genomes, identify candidate genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL), and assay these candidate genes for potential functional and expression differences. We expect the cavefish genome to advance understanding of the evolutionary process, as well as, analogous human disease including retinal dysfunction. PMID:25329095

  20. Genomic Mining Reveals Deep Evolutionary Relationships between Bornaviruses and Bats

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Bats globally harbor viruses in order Mononegavirales, such as lyssaviruses and henipaviruses; however, little is known about their relationships with bornaviruses. Previous studies showed that viral fossils of bornaviral origin are embedded in the genomes of several mammalian species such as primates, indicative of an ancient origin of exogenous bornaviruses. In this study, we mined the available 10 bat genomes and recreated a clear evolutionary relationship of endogenous bornaviral elements and bats. Comparative genomics showed that endogenization of bornaviral elements frequently occurred in vesper bats, harboring EBLLs (endogenous bornavirus-like L elements) in their genomes. Molecular dating uncovered a continuous bornavirus-bat interaction spanning 70 million years. We conclude that better understanding of modern exogenous bornaviral circulation in bat populations is warranted. PMID:26569285

  1. Microsporidian genome analysis reveals evolutionary strategies for obligate intracellular growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia comprise a large phylum of obligate intracellular eukaryotes that are fungalrelated parasites responsible for widespread disease, and here we address questions about microsporidia biology and evolution. We sequenced three microsporidian genomes from two species, Nematocida parisii and...

  2. The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Suzanne E; Gross, Joshua B; Aken, Bronwen; Blin, Maryline; Borowsky, Richard; Chalopin, Domitille; Hinaux, Hélène; Jeffery, William R; Keene, Alex; Ma, Li; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Daniel; O'Quin, Kelly E; Rétaux, Sylvie; Rohner, Nicolas; Searle, Steve M J; Stahl, Bethany A; Tabin, Cliff; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Yoshizawa, Masato; Warren, Wesley C

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations subjected to strong environmental selection pressures offer a window into the genetic underpinnings of evolutionary change. Cavefish populations, Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characiphysi), exhibit repeated, independent evolution for a variety of traits including eye degeneration, pigment loss, increased size and number of taste buds and mechanosensory organs, and shifts in many behavioural traits. Surface and cave forms are interfertile making this system amenable to genetic interrogation; however, lack of a reference genome has hampered efforts to identify genes responsible for changes in cave forms of A. mexicanus. Here we present the first de novo genome assembly for Astyanax mexicanus cavefish, contrast repeat elements to other teleost genomes, identify candidate genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL), and assay these candidate genes for potential functional and expression differences. We expect the cavefish genome to advance understanding of the evolutionary process, as well as, analogous human disease including retinal dysfunction. PMID:25329095

  3. Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species

    PubMed Central

    Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Walters, James R.; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Davey, John W.; Whibley, Annabel; Nadeau, Nicola J.; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Martin, Simon H.; Salazar, Camilo; Lewis, James J.; Adler, Sebastian; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Baker, Dean A.; Baxter, Simon W.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Chauhan, Ritika; Counterman, Brian A.; Dalmay, Tamas; Gilbert, Lawrence E.; Gordon, Karl; Heckel, David G.; Hines, Heather M.; Hoff, Katharina J.; Holland, Peter W.H.; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Robert T.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Kersey, Paul; Lamas, Gerardo; Lawson, Daniel; Mapleson, Daniel; Maroja, Luana S.; Martin, Arnaud; Moxon, Simon; Palmer, William J.; Papa, Riccardo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Pauchet, Yannick; Ray, David A.; Rosser, Neil; Salzberg, Steven L.; Supple, Megan A.; Surridge, Alison; Tenger-Trolander, Ayse; Vogel, Heiko; Wilkinson, Paul A.; Wilson, Derek; Yorke, James A.; Yuan, Furong; Balmuth, Alexi L.; Eland, Cathlene; Gharbi, Karim; Thomson, Marian; Gibbs, Richard A.; Han, Yi; Jayaseelan, Joy C.; Kovar, Christie; Mathew, Tittu; Muzny, Donna M.; Ongeri, Fiona; Pu, Ling-Ling; Qu, Jiaxin; Thornton, Rebecca L.; Worley, Kim C.; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Linares, Mauricio; Blaxter, Mark L.; Constant, Richard H. ffrench; Joron, Mathieu; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.; Reed, Robert D.; Scherer, Steven E.; Richards, Stephen; Mallet, James; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated1. We used genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation2-5 . We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,657 predicted genes for Heliconius, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organisation has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous, when butterflies split from the silkmoth lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, H. melpomene, H. timareta, and H. elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. Closely related Heliconius species clearly exchange protective colour pattern genes promiscuously, implying a major role for hybridization in adaptive radiation. PMID:22722851

  4. Comparative genomic and functional analyses: unearthing the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in Pseudomonas putida strain 1A00316

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Jing, Xueping; Peng, Wen-Lei; Nie, Qiyu; Zhai, Yile; Shao, Zongze; Zheng, Longyu; Cai, Minmin; Li, Guangyu; Zuo, Huaiyu; Zhang, Zhitao; Wang, Rui-Ru; Huang, Dian; Cheng, Wanli; Yu, Ziniu; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    We isolated Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) strain 1A00316 from Antarctica. This bacterium has a high efficiency against Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The complete genome of P. putida 1A00316 was sequenced using PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. A comparative genomic analysis of 16 Pseudomonas strains revealed that although P. putida 1A00316 belonged to P. putida, it was phenotypically more similar to nematicidal Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) strains. We characterized the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida 1A00316 with comparative genomics and functional analysis, and found that P. putida 1A00316 has diverse nematicidal factors including protein alkaline metalloproteinase AprA and two secondary metabolites, hydrogen cyanide and cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline). We show for the first time that cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline) exhibit nematicidal activity in P. putida. Interestingly, our study had not detected common nematicidal factors such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and pyrrolnitrin in P. putida 1A00316. The results of the present study reveal the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida strain 1A00316. PMID:27384076

  5. Comparative genomic and functional analyses: unearthing the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in Pseudomonas putida strain 1A00316.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Jing, Xueping; Peng, Wen-Lei; Nie, Qiyu; Zhai, Yile; Shao, Zongze; Zheng, Longyu; Cai, Minmin; Li, Guangyu; Zuo, Huaiyu; Zhang, Zhitao; Wang, Rui-Ru; Huang, Dian; Cheng, Wanli; Yu, Ziniu; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    We isolated Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) strain 1A00316 from Antarctica. This bacterium has a high efficiency against Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The complete genome of P. putida 1A00316 was sequenced using PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. A comparative genomic analysis of 16 Pseudomonas strains revealed that although P. putida 1A00316 belonged to P. putida, it was phenotypically more similar to nematicidal Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) strains. We characterized the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida 1A00316 with comparative genomics and functional analysis, and found that P. putida 1A00316 has diverse nematicidal factors including protein alkaline metalloproteinase AprA and two secondary metabolites, hydrogen cyanide and cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline). We show for the first time that cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline) exhibit nematicidal activity in P. putida. Interestingly, our study had not detected common nematicidal factors such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and pyrrolnitrin in P. putida 1A00316. The results of the present study reveal the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida strain 1A00316. PMID:27384076

  6. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Armstrong, Joel; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Vandewege, Michael W; St John, John A; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Castoe, Todd A; Kern, Colin; Fujita, Matthew K; Opazo, Juan C; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Hubley, Robert M; Smit, Arian F; Platt, Roy N; Lavoie, Christine A; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Finger, John W; Suh, Alexander; Isberg, Sally R; Miles, Lee; Chong, Amanda Y; Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Christopher; Iriarte, Andrés; McCormack, John; Burgess, Shane C; Edwards, Scott V; Lyons, Eric; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Howard, Jason T; Gresham, Cathy R; Peterson, Daniel G; Schmitz, Jürgen; Pollock, David D; Haussler, David; Triplett, Eric W; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki; Jarvis, Erich D; Brochu, Christopher A; Schmidt, Carl J; McCarthy, Fiona M; Faircloth, Brant C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Glenn, Travis C; Gabaldón, Toni; Paten, Benedict; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    To provide context for the diversifications of archosaurs, the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs and birds, we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians, Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the relatively rapid evolution of bird genomes represents an autapomorphy within that clade. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these new data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs. PMID:25504731

  7. Genomic Diversity of Biocontrol Strains of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Aerial or Root Surfaces of Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The striking ecological, metabolic, and biochemical diversity of Pseudomonas has intrigued microbiologists for many decades. To explore the genomic diversity of biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas spp., we derived high quality draft sequences of seven strains known to suppress plant disease. The str...

  8. Genomic diversity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from aerial or root surfaces of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the diverse strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas chlororaphis inhabiting plant surfaces are those that protect plants from infection by pathogens. To explore the diversity of these bacteria, we derived genomic sequences of seven strains that suppress plant disease. Along with t...

  9. Whole genome sequencing revealed host adaptation-focused genomic plasticity of pathogenic Leptospira

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yinghua; Zhu, Yongzhang; Wang, Yuezhu; Chang, Yung-Fu; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Xiugao; Zhuang, Xuran; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jinlong; Zeng, Lingbing; Yang, Minjun; Li, Shijun; Wang, Shengyue; Ye, Qiang; Xin, Xiaofang; Zhao, Guoping; Zheng, Huajun; Guo, Xiaokui; Wang, Junzhi

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease worldwide. Despite its severity and global importance, knowledge about the molecular pathogenesis and virulence evolution of Leptospira spp. remains limited. Here we sequenced and analyzed 102 isolates representing global sources. A high genomic variability were observed among different Leptospira species, which was attributed to massive gene gain and loss events allowing for adaptation to specific niche conditions and changing host environments. Horizontal gene transfer and gene duplication allowed the stepwise acquisition of virulence factors in pathogenic Leptospira evolved from a recent common ancestor. More importantly, the abundant expansion of specific virulence-related protein families, such as metalloproteases-associated paralogs, were exclusively identified in pathogenic species, reflecting the importance of these protein families in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis. Our observations also indicated that positive selection played a crucial role on this bacteria adaptation to hosts. These novel findings may lead to greater understanding of the global diversity and virulence evolution of Leptospira spp. PMID:26833181

  10. Whole genome sequencing revealed host adaptation-focused genomic plasticity of pathogenic Leptospira.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yinghua; Zhu, Yongzhang; Wang, Yuezhu; Chang, Yung-Fu; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Xiugao; Zhuang, Xuran; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jinlong; Zeng, Lingbing; Yang, Minjun; Li, Shijun; Wang, Shengyue; Ye, Qiang; Xin, Xiaofang; Zhao, Guoping; Zheng, Huajun; Guo, Xiaokui; Wang, Junzhi

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease worldwide. Despite its severity and global importance, knowledge about the molecular pathogenesis and virulence evolution of Leptospira spp. remains limited. Here we sequenced and analyzed 102 isolates representing global sources. A high genomic variability were observed among different Leptospira species, which was attributed to massive gene gain and loss events allowing for adaptation to specific niche conditions and changing host environments. Horizontal gene transfer and gene duplication allowed the stepwise acquisition of virulence factors in pathogenic Leptospira evolved from a recent common ancestor. More importantly, the abundant expansion of specific virulence-related protein families, such as metalloproteases-associated paralogs, were exclusively identified in pathogenic species, reflecting the importance of these protein families in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis. Our observations also indicated that positive selection played a crucial role on this bacteria adaptation to hosts. These novel findings may lead to greater understanding of the global diversity and virulence evolution of Leptospira spp. PMID:26833181

  11. Probing the diversity of chloromethane-degrading bacteria by comparative genomics and isotopic fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Nadalig, Thierry; Greule, Markus; Bringel, Françoise; Keppler, Frank; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Chloromethane (CH3Cl) is produced on earth by a variety of abiotic and biological processes. It is the most important halogenated trace gas in the atmosphere, where it contributes to ozone destruction. Current estimates of the global CH3Cl budget are uncertain and suggest that microorganisms might play a more important role in degrading atmospheric CH3Cl than previously thought. Its degradation by bacteria has been demonstrated in marine, terrestrial, and phyllospheric environments. Improving our knowledge of these degradation processes and their magnitude is thus highly relevant for a better understanding of the global budget of CH3Cl. The cmu pathway, for chloromethane utilisation, is the only microbial pathway for CH3Cl degradation elucidated so far, and was characterized in detail in aerobic methylotrophic Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we reveal the potential of using a two-pronged approach involving a combination of comparative genomics and isotopic fractionation during CH3Cl degradation to newly address the question of the diversity of chloromethane-degrading bacteria in the environment. Analysis of available bacterial genome sequences reveals that several bacteria not yet known to degrade CH3Cl contain part or all of the complement of cmu genes required for CH3Cl degradation. These organisms, unlike bacteria shown to grow with CH3Cl using the cmu pathway, are obligate anaerobes. On the other hand, analysis of the complete genome of the chloromethane-degrading bacterium Leisingera methylohalidivorans MB2 showed that this bacterium does not contain cmu genes. Isotope fractionation experiments with L. methylohalidivorans MB2 suggest that the unknown pathway used by this bacterium for growth with CH3Cl can be differentiated from the cmu pathway. This result opens the prospect that contributions from bacteria with the cmu and Leisingera-type pathways to the atmospheric CH3Cl budget may be teased apart in the future. PMID:25360131

  12. Characterization of shed medicinal leech mucus reveals a diverse microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brittany M.; Rickards, Allen; Gehrke, Lauren; Rio, Rita V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial transmission through mucosal-mediated mechanisms is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. One example of this occurs with Hirudo verbana, the medicinal leech, where host attraction to shed conspecific mucus facilitates horizontal transmission of a predominant gut symbiont, the Gammaproteobacterium Aeromonas veronii. However, whether this mucus may harbor other bacteria has not been examined. Here, we characterize the microbiota of shed leech mucus through Illumina deep sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) typing with subsequent Sanger Sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene clone library provided qualitative confirmation of the microbial composition. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length 16S rRNA sequences were performed to examine microbial taxonomic distribution. Analyses using both technologies indicate the dominance of the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla within the mucus microbiota. We determined the presence of other previously described leech symbionts, in addition to a number of putative novel leech-associated bacteria. A second predominant gut symbiont, the Rikenella-like bacteria, was also identified within mucus and exhibited similar population dynamics to A. veronii, suggesting persistence in syntrophy beyond the gut. Interestingly, the most abundant bacterial genus belonged to Pedobacter, which includes members capable of producing heparinase, an enzyme that degrades the anticoagulant, heparin. Additionally, bacteria associated with denitrification and sulfate cycling were observed, indicating an abundance of these anions within mucus, likely originating from the leech excretory system. A diverse microbiota harbored within shed mucus has significant potential implications for the evolution of microbiomes, including opportunities for gene transfer and utility in host capture of a diverse group of symbionts. PMID:25620963

  13. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 Reveals New Insight into Antifungal Compounds Involved in Biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Claudia E; Ramos, Cayo; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 is a rhizobacterium that has biocontrol activity against many soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. The whole genome sequence of this strain was obtained using the Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform and was assembled using SOAP denovo software. The resulting 6.66-Mb complete sequence of the PCL1606 genome was further analyzed. A comparative genomic analysis using 10 plant-associated strains within the fluorescent Pseudomonas group, including the complete genome of P. chlororaphis PCL1606, revealed a diverse spectrum of traits involved in multitrophic interactions with plants and microbes as well as biological control. Phylogenetic analysis of these strains using eight housekeeping genes clearly placed strain PCL1606 into the P. chlororaphis group. The genome sequence of P. chlororaphis PCL1606 revealed the presence of sequences that were homologous to biosynthetic genes for the antifungal compounds 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR), hydrogen cyanide, and pyrrolnitrin; this is the first report of pyrrolnitrin encoding genes in this P. chlororaphis strain. Single-, double-, and triple-insertional mutants in the biosynthetic genes of each antifungal compound were used to test their roles in the production of these antifungal compounds and in antagonism and biocontrol of two fungal pathogens. The results confirmed the function of HPR in the antagonistic phenotype and in the biocontrol activity of P. chlororaphis PCL1606. PMID:25679537

  14. Metabolic characteristics of a glycogen-accumulating organism in Defluviicoccus cluster II revealed by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiping; Guo, Feng; Mao, Yanping; Xia, Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) may compete with phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) for short-chain fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis, but no consequently aerobic polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, thus deteriorating the EBPR process. They are detected frequently in the deteriorated EBPR process, but their metabolisms are still far from our comprehensions for there is seldom pure culture. In this study, a nearly complete draft genome of a GAOs in Defluviicoccus cluster II, GAO-HK, is recruited from the metagenome of activated sludge in a full-scale industrial anoxic/aerobic wastewater plant. Comparative genomics reveal similar metabolisms of PHA and glycogen in GAOs of GAO-HK, Defluviicoccus tetraformis TFO71 (TFO71) and Competibacter phosphatis clade IIA (CPIIA), and PAOs of Accumulibacter clade IIA UW-1 (UW-1) and Tetrasphaera elongata Lp2 (Lp2). Although there are similar gene cassettes related with polyphosphate metabolism in these GAOs and PAOs, especially for Defluviicoccus-relative bacteria and UW-1, ppk1 in GAOs are diverse from those in the identified PAOs, implying the difference of polyphosphate metabolism in GAOs and PAOs. Additionally, genes related to the dissimilatory denitrification are absent in TFO71 and GAO-HK, implying that additional nitrate or nitrite may favor PAOs over Defluviicoccus-relative GAOs. Therefore, PAOs suffering from competition of Defluviicoccus-relative GAOs might be rescued with the additional nitrate/nitrite, which is important to improve the stability of EBPR processes. PMID:24889288

  15. Single-cell genomics reveal metabolic strategies for microbial growth and survival in an oligotrophic aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Kennedy, David W.; Castelle, Cindy; Field, Erin; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan

    2014-02-09

    Bacteria from the genus Pedobacter are a major component of microbial assemblages at Hanford Site and have been shown to significantly change in abundance in response to the subsurface intrusion of Columbia River water. Here we employed single cell genomics techniques to shed light on the physiological niche of these microorganisms. Analysis of four Pedobacter single amplified genomes (SAGs) from Hanford Site sediments revealed a chemoheterotrophic lifestyle, with the potential to exist under both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions via expression of both aa3­-type and cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases. These SAGs encoded a wide-range of both intra-and extra­-cellular carbohydrate-active enzymes, potentially enabling the degradation of recalcitrant substrates such as xylan and chitin, and the utilization of more labile sugars such as mannose and fucose. Coupled to these enzymes, a diversity of transporters and sugar-binding molecules were involved in the uptake of carbon from the extracellular local environment. The SAGs were enriched in TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs), which play a key role in uptake of substrates resulting from degradation of recalcitrant carbon. CRISPR-Cas mechanisms for resisting viral infections were identified in all SAGs. These data demonstrate the potential mechanisms utilized for persistence by heterotrophic microorganisms in a carbon-limited aquifer, and hint at potential linkages between observed Pedobacter abundance shifts within the 300 Area subsurface and biogeochemical shifts associated with Columbia River water intrusion.

  16. Genomic Analysis Reveals the Molecular Basis for Capsule Loss in the Group B Streptococcus Population

    PubMed Central

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B. Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl trasferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity. PMID:25946017

  17. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    PubMed

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity. PMID:25946017

  18. Prokaryotic Caspase Homologs: Phylogenetic Patterns and Functional Characteristics Reveal Considerable Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; Bergman, Birgitta; Larsson, John

    2012-01-01

    Caspases accomplish initiation and execution of apoptosis, a programmed cell death process specific to metazoans. The existence of prokaryotic caspase homologs, termed metacaspases, has been known for slightly more than a decade. Despite their potential connection to the evolution of programmed cell death in eukaryotes, the phylogenetic distribution and functions of these prokaryotic metacaspase sequences are largely uncharted, while a few experiments imply involvement in programmed cell death. Aiming at providing a more detailed picture of prokaryotic caspase homologs, we applied a computational approach based on Hidden Markov Model search profiles to identify and functionally characterize putative metacaspases in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Out of the total of 1463 analyzed genomes, merely 267 (18%) were identified to contain putative metacaspases, but their taxonomic distribution included most prokaryotic phyla and a few archaea (Euryarchaeota). Metacaspases were particularly abundant in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, which harbor many morphologically and developmentally complex organisms, and a distinct correlation was found between abundance and phenotypic complexity in Cyanobacteria. Notably, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, known to undergo genetically regulated autolysis, lacked metacaspases. Pfam domain architecture analysis combined with operon identification revealed rich and varied configurations among the metacaspase sequences. These imply roles in programmed cell death, but also e.g. in signaling, various enzymatic activities and protein modification. Together our data show a wide and scattered distribution of caspase homologs in prokaryotes with structurally and functionally diverse sub-groups, and with a potentially intriguing evolutionary role. These features will help delineate future characterizations of death pathways in prokaryotes. PMID:23185476

  19. Transferable Antibiotic Resistance Elements in Haemophilus influenzae Share a Common Evolutionary Origin with a Diverse Family of Syntenic Genomic Islands

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Zain, Zaini; Turner, Sarah L.; Cerdeño-Tárraga, Ana M.; Lilley, Andrew K.; Inzana, Thomas J.; Duncan, A. Jane; Harding, Rosalind M.; Hood, Derek W.; Peto, Timothy E.; Crook, Derrick W.

    2004-01-01

    Transferable antibiotic resistance in Haemophilus influenzae was first detected in the early 1970s. After this, resistance spread rapidly worldwide and was shown to be transferred by a large 40- to 60-kb conjugative element. Bioinformatics analysis of the complete sequence of a typical H. influenzae conjugative resistance element, ICEHin1056, revealed the shared evolutionary origin of this element. ICEHin1056 has homology to 20 contiguous sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Systematic comparison of these homologous sequences resulted in identification of a conserved syntenic genomic island consisting of up to 33 core genes in 16 β- and γ-Proteobacteria. These diverse genomic islands shared a common evolutionary origin, insert into tRNA genes, and have diverged widely, with G+C contents ranging from 40 to 70% and amino acid homologies as low as 20 to 25% for shared core genes. These core genes are likely to account for the conjugative transfer of the genomic islands and may even encode autonomous replication. Accessory gene clusters were nestled among the core genes and encode the following diverse major attributes: antibiotic, metal, and antiseptic resistance; degradation of chemicals; type IV secretion systems; two-component signaling systems; Vi antigen capsule synthesis; toxin production; and a wide range of metabolic functions. These related genomic islands include the following well-characterized structures: SPI-7, found in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi; PAP1 or pKLC102, found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and the clc element, found in Pseudomonas sp. strain B13. This is the first report of a diverse family of related syntenic genomic islands with a deep evolutionary origin, and our findings challenge the view that genomic islands consist only of independently evolving modules. PMID:15547285

  20. Signatures of selection in tilapia revealed by whole genome resequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hong Xia, Jun; Bai, Zhiyi; Meng, Zining; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Le; Liu, Feng; Jing, Wu; Yi Wan, Zi; Li, Jiale; Lin, Haoran; Hua Yue, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection and selective breeding for genetic improvement have left detectable signatures within the genome of a species. Identification of selection signatures is important in evolutionary biology and for detecting genes that facilitate to accelerate genetic improvement. However, selection signatures, including artificial selection and natural selection, have only been identified at the whole genome level in several genetically improved fish species. Tilapia is one of the most important genetically improved fish species in the world. Using next-generation sequencing, we sequenced the genomes of 47 tilapia individuals. We identified a total of 1.43 million high-quality SNPs and found that the LD block sizes ranged from 10–100 kb in tilapia. We detected over a hundred putative selective sweep regions in each line of tilapia. Most selection signatures were located in non-coding regions of the tilapia genome. The Wnt signaling, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor and integrin signaling pathways were under positive selection in all improved tilapia lines. Our study provides a genome-wide map of genetic variation and selection footprints in tilapia, which could be important for genetic studies and accelerating genetic improvement of tilapia. PMID:26373374

  1. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Armstrong, Joel; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Vandewege, Michael W; St John, John A; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Castoe, Todd A; Kern, Colin; Fujita, Matthew K; Opazo, Juan C; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Hubley, Robert M; Smit, Arian F; Platt, Roy N; Lavoie, Christine A; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Finger, John W; Suh, Alexander; Isberg, Sally R; Miles, Lee; Chong, Amanda Y; Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Christopher; Iriarte, Andrés; McCormack, John; Burgess, Shane C; Edwards, Scott V; Lyons, Eric; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Howard, Jason T; Gresham, Cathy R; Peterson, Daniel G; Schmitz, Jürgen; Pollock, David D; Haussler, David; Triplett, Eric W; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki; Jarvis, Erich D; Brochu, Christopher A; Schmidt, Carl J; McCarthy, Fiona M; Faircloth, Brant C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Glenn, Travis C; Gabaldón, Toni; Paten, Benedict; Ray, David A

    2014-12-12

    To provide context for the diversification of archosaurs--the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds--we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the comparatively rapid evolution is derived in birds. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs, thereby providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs. PMID:25504731

  2. The Architecture of a Scrambled Genome Reveals Massive Levels of Genomic Rearrangement during Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Bracht, John R.; Goldman, Aaron David; Dolzhenko, Egor; Clay, Derek M.; Swart, Estienne C.; Perlman, David H.; Doak, Thomas G.; Stuart, Andrew; Amemiya, Chris T.; Sebra, Robert P.; Landweber, Laura F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Programmed DNA rearrangements in the single-celled eukaryote Oxytricha trifallax completely rewire its germline into a somatic nucleus during development. This elaborate, RNA-mediated pathway eliminates noncoding DNA sequences that interrupt gene loci and reorganizes the remaining fragments by inversions and permutations to produce functional genes. Here, we report the Oxytricha germline genome and compare it to the somatic genome to present a global view of its massive scale of genome rearrangements. The remarkably encrypted genome architecture contains >3,500 scrambled genes, as well as >800 predicted germline-limited genes expressed, and some posttranslationally modified, during genome rearrangements. Gene segments for different somatic loci often interweave with each other. Single gene segments can contribute to multiple, distinct somatic loci. Terminal precursor segments from neighboring somatic loci map extremely close to each other, often overlapping. This genome assembly provides a draft of a scrambled genome and a powerful model for studies of genome rearrangement. PMID:25171416

  3. Whole genome sequences of the USMARC sheep diversity panel v 2.4 aligned to the ovine reference genome assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes from 96 rams from 9 US sheep breeds was created. The nine pure breeds were selected to represent genetic diversity for traits such as fertility, prolificacy, maternal ability, growth rate, carcass leanness, wool quality, mature weight, and lo...

  4. Revealing latitudinal patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity in Chileans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Moreno, Fabián; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Martinón-Torres, Federico; García-Magariños, Manuel; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Aguirre-Morales, Eugenia; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a+195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework. PMID:26517175

  5. Genotyping of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains reveals historic genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Romy; Roberts, Charlotte A.; Brown, Terence A.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) has previously been studied by analysis of sequence diversity in extant strains, but not addressed by direct examination of strain genotypes in archaeological remains. Here, we use ancient DNA sequencing to type 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms and two large sequence polymorphisms in the MTBC strains present in 10 archaeological samples from skeletons from Britain and Europe dating to the second–nineteenth centuries AD. The results enable us to assign the strains to groupings and lineages recognized in the extant MTBC. We show that at least during the eighteenth–nineteenth centuries AD, strains of M. tuberculosis belonging to different genetic groups were present in Britain at the same time, possibly even at a single location, and we present evidence for a mixed infection in at least one individual. Our study shows that ancient DNA typing applied to multiple samples can provide sufficiently detailed information to contribute to both archaeological and evolutionary knowledge of the history of tuberculosis. PMID:24573854

  6. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution.

    PubMed

    Warren, Wesley C; Hillier, LaDeana W; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R; Eichler, Evan E; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Wakefield, Matthew J; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A; Smit, Arian F A; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Konkel, Miriam K; Harris, Robert S; Whittington, Camilla M; Wong, Emily S W; Gemmell, Neil J; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Sharp, Julie A; Nicholas, Kevin R; Ray, David A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N; Pohl, Craig S; Smith, Scott M; Hou, Shunfeng; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J; Renfree, Marilyn B; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K

    2008-05-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. PMID:18464734

  7. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Wesley C.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P.; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P.; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D.; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S.; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Eichler, Evan E.; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E.; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Harris, Robert S.; Whittington, Camilla M.; Wong, Emily S. W.; Gemmell, Neil J.; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J.; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Sharp, Julie A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Ray, David A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H.; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C.; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N.; Pohl, Craig S.; Smith, Scott M.; Hou, Shunfeng; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. PMID:18464734

  8. Klebsormidium flaccidum genome reveals primary factors for plant terrestrial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hori, Koichi; Maruyama, Fumito; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Togashi, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Seo, Mitsunori; Sato, Syusei; Yamada, Takuji; Mori, Hiroshi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Moriyama, Takashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mai; Wada, Hajime; Kobayashi, Koichi; Saito, Masakazu; Masuda, Tatsuru; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Awai, Koichiro; Shimojima, Mie; Masuda, Shinji; Iwai, Masako; Nobusawa, Takashi; Narise, Takafumi; Kondo, Satoshi; Saito, Hikaru; Sato, Ryoichi; Murakawa, Masato; Ihara, Yuta; Oshima-Yamada, Yui; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Satoh, Masanori; Sonobe, Kohei; Ishii, Midori; Ohtani, Ryosuke; Kanamori-Sato, Miyu; Honoki, Rina; Miyazaki, Daichi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Umetsu, Jumpei; Higashi, Kouichi; Shibata, Daisuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Sato, Naoki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Ken; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments. PMID:24865297

  9. Klebsormidium flaccidum genome reveals primary factors for plant terrestrial adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Koichi; Maruyama, Fumito; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Togashi, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Seo, Mitsunori; Sato, Syusei; Yamada, Takuji; Mori, Hiroshi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Moriyama, Takashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mai; Wada, Hajime; Kobayashi, Koichi; Saito, Masakazu; Masuda, Tatsuru; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Awai, Koichiro; Shimojima, Mie; Masuda, Shinji; Iwai, Masako; Nobusawa, Takashi; Narise, Takafumi; Kondo, Satoshi; Saito, Hikaru; Sato, Ryoichi; Murakawa, Masato; Ihara, Yuta; Oshima-Yamada, Yui; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Satoh, Masanori; Sonobe, Kohei; Ishii, Midori; Ohtani, Ryosuke; Kanamori-Sato, Miyu; Honoki, Rina; Miyazaki, Daichi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Umetsu, Jumpei; Higashi, Kouichi; Shibata, Daisuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Sato, Naoki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Ken; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments. PMID:24865297

  10. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L.; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J.; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W. H.; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S.; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D.; Laclette, Juan P.; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tapeworms cause debilitating neglected diseases that can be deadly and often require surgery due to ineffective drugs. Here we present the first analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115-141 megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens; specialised detoxification pathways, and metabolism finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts. We identify new potential drug targets, including those on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

  11. Plastic architecture of bacterial genome revealed by comparative genomics of Photorhabdus variants

    PubMed Central

    Gaudriault, Sophie; Pages, Sylvie; Lanois, Anne; Laroui, Christine; Teyssier, Corinne; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Givaudan, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Background The phenotypic consequences of large genomic architecture modifications within a clonal bacterial population are rarely evaluated because of the difficulties associated with using molecular approaches in a mixed population. Bacterial variants frequently arise among Photorhabdus luminescens, a nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacterium. We therefore studied genome plasticity within Photorhabdus variants. Results We used a combination of macrorestriction and DNA microarray experiments to perform a comparative genomic study of different P. luminescens TT01 variants. Prolonged culturing of TT01 strain and a genomic variant, collected from the laboratory-maintained symbiotic nematode, generated bacterial lineages composed of primary and secondary phenotypic variants and colonial variants. The primary phenotypic variants exhibit several characteristics that are absent from the secondary forms. We identify substantial plasticity of the genome architecture of some variants, mediated mainly by deletions in the 'flexible' gene pool of the TT01 reference genome and also by genomic amplification. We show that the primary or secondary phenotypic variant status is independent from global genomic architecture and that the bacterial lineages are genomic lineages. We focused on two unusual genomic changes: a deletion at a new recombination hotspot composed of long approximate repeats; and a 275 kilobase single block duplication belonging to a new class of genomic duplications. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that major genomic variations occur in Photorhabdus clonal populations. The phenotypic consequences of these genomic changes are cryptic. This study provides insight into the field of bacterial genome architecture and further elucidates the role played by clonal genomic variation in bacterial genome evolution. PMID:18647395

  12. Genomics Reveals the Worldwide Distribution of Multidrug-Resistant Serotype 6E Pneumococci

    PubMed Central

    van Tonder, Andries J.; Bray, James E.; Roalfe, Lucy; White, Rebecca; Zancolli, Marta; Quirk, Sigríður J.; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Goldblatt, David

    2015-01-01

    The pneumococcus is a leading pathogen infecting children and adults. Safe, effective vaccines exist, and they work by inducing antibodies to the polysaccharide capsule (unique for each serotype) that surrounds the cell; however, current vaccines are limited by the fact that only a few of the nearly 100 antigenically distinct serotypes are included in the formulations. Within the serotypes, serogroup 6 pneumococci are a frequent cause of serious disease and common colonizers of the nasopharynx in children. Serotype 6E was first reported in 2004 but was thought to be rare; however, we and others have detected serotype 6E among recent pneumococcal collections. Therefore, we analyzed a diverse data set of ∼1,000 serogroup 6 genomes, assessed the prevalence and distribution of serotype 6E, analyzed the genetic diversity among serogroup 6 pneumococci, and investigated whether pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-induced serotype 6A and 6B antibodies mediate the killing of serotype 6E pneumococci. We found that 43% of all genomes were of serotype 6E, and they were recovered worldwide from healthy children and patients of all ages with pneumococcal disease. Four genetic lineages, three of which were multidrug resistant, described ∼90% of the serotype 6E pneumococci. Serological assays demonstrated that vaccine-induced serotype 6B antibodies were able to elicit killing of serotype 6E pneumococci. We also revealed three major genetic clusters of serotype 6A capsular sequences, discovered a new hybrid 6C/6E serotype, and identified 44 examples of serotype switching. Therefore, while vaccines appear to offer protection against serotype 6E, genetic variants may reduce vaccine efficacy in the longer term because of the emergence of serotypes that can evade vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:25972423

  13. Genomic reconstruction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism reveals previously uncharacterized machinery for lactate utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Collart, Frank R.; Scott, J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2009-02-24

    The ability to utilize lactate as a sole source of carbon and energy is one of the key metabolic signatures of Shewanellae, a diverse group of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria commonly found in aquatic and sedimentary environments. Nonetheless, homology searches failed to recognize orthologs of previously described bacterial D- or L-lactate oxidizing enzymes (Escherichia coli genes dld and lldD) in any of the 13 analyzed genomes of Shewanella spp. Using comparative genomic techniques, we identified a conserved chromosomal gene cluster in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (locus tag: SO1522-SO1518) containing lactate permease and candidate genes for both D- and L-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The predicted D-LDH gene (dldD, SO1521) is a distant homolog of FAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from yeast, whereas the predicted L-LDH is encoded by three genes with previously unknown functions (lldEGF, SO1520-19-18). Through a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we experimentally confirmed the predicted physiological role of these novel genes in S. oneidensis MR-1 and carried out successful functional validation studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We conclusively showed that dldD and lldEFG encode fully functional D-and L-LDH enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of the respective lactate stereoisomers to pyruvate. Notably, the S. oneidensis MR-1 LldEFG enzyme is the first described example of a multi-subunit lactate oxidase. Comparative analysis of >400 bacterial species revealed the presence of LldEFG and Dld in a broad range of diverse species accentuating the potential importance of these previously unknown proteins in microbial metabolism.

  14. Genomics Reveals the Worldwide Distribution of Multidrug-Resistant Serotype 6E Pneumococci.

    PubMed

    van Tonder, Andries J; Bray, James E; Roalfe, Lucy; White, Rebecca; Zancolli, Marta; Quirk, Sigríður J; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J; Bentley, Stephen D; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Kristinsson, Karl G; Goldblatt, David; Brueggemann, Angela B

    2015-07-01

    The pneumococcus is a leading pathogen infecting children and adults. Safe, effective vaccines exist, and they work by inducing antibodies to the polysaccharide capsule (unique for each serotype) that surrounds the cell; however, current vaccines are limited by the fact that only a few of the nearly 100 antigenically distinct serotypes are included in the formulations. Within the serotypes, serogroup 6 pneumococci are a frequent cause of serious disease and common colonizers of the nasopharynx in children. Serotype 6E was first reported in 2004 but was thought to be rare; however, we and others have detected serotype 6E among recent pneumococcal collections. Therefore, we analyzed a diverse data set of ∼1,000 serogroup 6 genomes, assessed the prevalence and distribution of serotype 6E, analyzed the genetic diversity among serogroup 6 pneumococci, and investigated whether pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-induced serotype 6A and 6B antibodies mediate the killing of serotype 6E pneumococci. We found that 43% of all genomes were of serotype 6E, and they were recovered worldwide from healthy children and patients of all ages with pneumococcal disease. Four genetic lineages, three of which were multidrug resistant, described ∼90% of the serotype 6E pneumococci. Serological assays demonstrated that vaccine-induced serotype 6B antibodies were able to elicit killing of serotype 6E pneumococci. We also revealed three major genetic clusters of serotype 6A capsular sequences, discovered a new hybrid 6C/6E serotype, and identified 44 examples of serotype switching. Therefore, while vaccines appear to offer protection against serotype 6E, genetic variants may reduce vaccine efficacy in the longer term because of the emergence of serotypes that can evade vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:25972423

  15. Genomic complexity of urothelial bladder cancer revealed in urinary cfDNA.

    PubMed

    Togneri, Fiona S; Ward, Douglas G; Foster, Joseph M; Devall, Adam J; Wojtowicz, Paula; Alyas, Sofia; Vasques, Fabiana Ramos; Oumie, Assa; James, Nicholas D; Cheng, K K; Zeegers, Maurice P; Deshmukh, Nayneeta; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Taniere, Philippe; Spink, Karen G; McMullan, Dominic J; Griffiths, Mike; Bryan, Richard T

    2016-08-01

    Urothelial bladder cancers (UBCs) have heterogeneous clinical characteristics that are mirrored in their diverse genomic profiles. Genomic profiling of UBCs has the potential to benefit routine clinical practice by providing prognostic utility above and beyond conventional clinicopathological factors, and allowing for prediction and surveillance of treatment responses. Urinary DNAs representative of the tumour genome provide a promising resource as a liquid biopsy for non-invasive genomic profiling of UBCs. We compared the genomic profiles of urinary cellular DNA and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from the urine with matched diagnostic formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour DNAs for 23 well-characterised UBC patients. Our data show urinary DNAs to be highly representative of patient tumours, allowing for detection of recurrent clinically actionable genomic aberrations. Furthermore, a greater aberrant load (indicative of tumour genome) was observed in cfDNA over cellular DNA (P<0.001), resulting in a higher analytical sensitivity for detection of clinically actionable genomic aberrations (P<0.04) when using cfDNA. Thus, cfDNA extracted from the urine of UBC patients has a higher tumour genome burden and allows greater detection of key genomic biomarkers (90%) than cellular DNA from urine (61%) and provides a promising resource for robust whole-genome tumour profiling of UBC with potential to influence clinical decisions without invasive patient interventions. PMID:26757983

  16. A genome-wide survey reveals abundant rice blast R genes in resistant cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Sihai; Wang, Jiao; Jia, Yanxiao; Huang, Ju; Tan, Shengjun; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Ling; Gu, Longjiang; Chen, Jian-Qun; Pan, Qinghua; Bergelson, Joy; Tian, Dacheng

    2015-10-01

    Plant resistance genes (R genes) harbor tremendous allelic diversity, constituting a robust immune system effective against microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, few functional R genes have been identified for even the best-studied pathosystems. Does this limited repertoire reflect specificity, with most R genes having been defeated by former pests, or do plants harbor a rich diversity of functional R genes, the composite behavior of which is yet to be characterized? Here, we survey 332 NBS-LRR genes cloned from five resistant Oryza sativa (rice) cultivars for their ability to confer recognition of 12 rice blast isolates when transformed into susceptible cultivars. Our survey reveals that 48.5% of the 132 NBS-LRR loci tested contain functional rice blast R genes, with most R genes deriving from multi-copy clades containing especially diversified loci. Each R gene recognized, on average, 2.42 of the 12 isolates screened. The abundant R genes identified in resistant genomes provide extraordinary redundancy in the ability of host genotypes to recognize particular isolates. If the same is true for other pathogens, many extant NBS-LRR genes retain functionality. Our success at identifying rice blast R genes also validates a highly efficient cloning and screening strategy. PMID:26248689

  17. Functional Genomics of Novel Secondary Metabolites from Diverse Cyanobacteria Using Untargeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Richard; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Jose, Nick; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Gugger, Muriel; Northen, Trent R.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has become a powerful tool for the detection of metabolites in complex biological systems and for the identification of novel metabolites. We previously identified a number of unexpected metabolites in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, such as histidine betaine, its derivatives and several unusual oligosaccharides. To test for the presence of these compounds and to assess the diversity of small polar metabolites in other cyanobacteria, we profiled cell extracts of nine strains representing much of the morphological and evolutionary diversification of this phylum. Spectral features in raw metabolite profiles obtained by normal phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) were manually curated so that chemical formulae of metabolites could be assigned. For putative identification, retention times and MS/MS spectra were cross-referenced with those of standards or available sprectral library records. Overall, we detected 264 distinct metabolites. These included indeed different betaines, oligosaccharides as well as additional unidentified metabolites with chemical formulae not present in databases of metabolism. Some of these metabolites were detected only in a single strain, but some were present in more than one. Genomic interrogation of the strains revealed that generally, presence of a given metabolite corresponded well with the presence of its biosynthetic genes, if known. Our results show the potential of combining metabolite profiling and genomics for the identification of novel biosynthetic genes. PMID:24084783

  18. Genomic Variants Revealed by Invariably Missing Genotypes in Nelore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Luiz Otávio Campos; Cintra, Leandro Carrijo; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza

    2015-01-01

    High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus) samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production. PMID:26305794

  19. Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated. Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation. We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,669 predicted genes, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organization has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous period, when butterflies split from the Bombyx (silkmoth) lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, Heliconius melpomene, Heliconius timareta and Heliconius elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. We infer that closely related Heliconius species exchange protective colour-pattern genes promiscuously, implying that hybridization has an important role in adaptive radiation. PMID:22722851

  20. Metagenomics Reveals Pervasive Bacterial Populations and Reduced Community Diversity across the Alaska Tundra Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Eric R; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Luo, Chengwei; Yuan, Mengting M; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Schuur, Edward A G; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M; Zhou, Jizhong; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2016-01-01

    How soil microbial communities contrast with respect to taxonomic and functional composition within and between ecosystems remains an unresolved question that is central to predicting how global anthropogenic change will affect soil functioning and services. In particular, it remains unclear how small-scale observations of soil communities based on the typical volume sampled (1-2 g) are generalizable to ecosystem-scale responses and processes. This is especially relevant for remote, northern latitude soils, which are challenging to sample and are also thought to be more vulnerable to climate change compared to temperate soils. Here, we employed well-replicated shotgun metagenome and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to characterize community composition and metabolic potential in Alaskan tundra soils, combining our own datasets with those publically available from distant tundra and temperate grassland and agriculture habitats. We found that the abundance of many taxa and metabolic functions differed substantially between tundra soil metagenomes relative to those from temperate soils, and that a high degree of OTU-sharing exists between tundra locations. Tundra soils were an order of magnitude less complex than their temperate counterparts, allowing for near-complete coverage of microbial community richness (~92% breadth) by sequencing, and the recovery of 27 high-quality, almost complete (>80% completeness) population bins. These population bins, collectively, made up to ~10% of the metagenomic datasets, and represented diverse taxonomic groups and metabolic lifestyles tuned toward sulfur cycling, hydrogen metabolism, methanotrophy, and organic matter oxidation. Several population bins, including members of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria, were also present in geographically distant (~100-530 km apart) tundra habitats (full genome representation and up to 99.6% genome-derived average nucleotide identity). Collectively, our results revealed that

  1. Metagenomics Reveals Pervasive Bacterial Populations and Reduced Community Diversity across the Alaska Tundra Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Eric R.; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Luo, Chengwei; Yuan, Mengting M.; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2016-01-01

    How soil microbial communities contrast with respect to taxonomic and functional composition within and between ecosystems remains an unresolved question that is central to predicting how global anthropogenic change will affect soil functioning and services. In particular, it remains unclear how small-scale observations of soil communities based on the typical volume sampled (1–2 g) are generalizable to ecosystem-scale responses and processes. This is especially relevant for remote, northern latitude soils, which are challenging to sample and are also thought to be more vulnerable to climate change compared to temperate soils. Here, we employed well-replicated shotgun metagenome and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to characterize community composition and metabolic potential in Alaskan tundra soils, combining our own datasets with those publically available from distant tundra and temperate grassland and agriculture habitats. We found that the abundance of many taxa and metabolic functions differed substantially between tundra soil metagenomes relative to those from temperate soils, and that a high degree of OTU-sharing exists between tundra locations. Tundra soils were an order of magnitude less complex than their temperate counterparts, allowing for near-complete coverage of microbial community richness (~92% breadth) by sequencing, and the recovery of 27 high-quality, almost complete (>80% completeness) population bins. These population bins, collectively, made up to ~10% of the metagenomic datasets, and represented diverse taxonomic groups and metabolic lifestyles tuned toward sulfur cycling, hydrogen metabolism, methanotrophy, and organic matter oxidation. Several population bins, including members of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria, were also present in geographically distant (~100–530 km apart) tundra habitats (full genome representation and up to 99.6% genome-derived average nucleotide identity). Collectively, our results revealed

  2. Landscape of genomic diversity and trait discovery in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Valliyodan, Babu; Dan Qiu; Patil, Gunvant; Zeng, Peng; Huang, Jiaying; Dai, Lu; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Joshi, Trupti; Song, Li; Vuong, Tri D.; Musket, Theresa A.; Xu, Dong; Shannon, J. Grover; Shifeng, Cheng; Liu, Xin; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a primary source of vegetable oil and protein. We report a landscape analysis of genome-wide genetic variation and an association study of major domestication and agronomic traits in soybean. A total of 106 soybean genomes representing wild, landraces, and elite lines were re-sequenced at an average of 17x depth with a 97.5% coverage. Over 10 million high-quality SNPs were discovered, and 35.34% of these have not been previously reported. Additionally, 159 putative domestication sweeps were identified, which includes 54.34 Mbp (4.9%) and 4,414 genes; 146 regions were involved in artificial selection during domestication. A genome-wide association study of major traits including oil and protein content, salinity, and domestication traits resulted in the discovery of novel alleles. Genomic information from this study provides a valuable resource for understanding soybean genome structure and evolution, and can also facilitate trait dissection leading to sequencing-based molecular breeding. PMID:27029319

  3. Landscape of genomic diversity and trait discovery in soybean.

    PubMed

    Valliyodan, Babu; Dan Qiu; Patil, Gunvant; Zeng, Peng; Huang, Jiaying; Dai, Lu; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Joshi, Trupti; Song, Li; Vuong, Tri D; Musket, Theresa A; Xu, Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Shifeng, Cheng; Liu, Xin; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a primary source of vegetable oil and protein. We report a landscape analysis of genome-wide genetic variation and an association study of major domestication and agronomic traits in soybean. A total of 106 soybean genomes representing wild, landraces, and elite lines were re-sequenced at an average of 17x depth with a 97.5% coverage. Over 10 million high-quality SNPs were discovered, and 35.34% of these have not been previously reported. Additionally, 159 putative domestication sweeps were identified, which includes 54.34 Mbp (4.9%) and 4,414 genes; 146 regions were involved in artificial selection during domestication. A genome-wide association study of major traits including oil and protein content, salinity, and domestication traits resulted in the discovery of novel alleles. Genomic information from this study provides a valuable resource for understanding soybean genome structure and evolution, and can also facilitate trait dissection leading to sequencing-based molecular breeding. PMID:27029319

  4. Small Traditional Human Communities Sustain Genomic Diversity over Microgeographic Scales despite Linguistic Isolation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Murray P; Hudjashov, Georgi; Sim, Andre; Savina, Olga; Karafet, Tatiana M; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen

    2016-09-01

    At least since the Neolithic, humans have largely lived in networks of small, traditional communities. Often socially isolated, these groups evolved distinct languages and cultures over microgeographic scales of just tens of kilometers. Population genetic theory tells us that genetic drift should act quickly in such isolated groups, thus raising the question: do networks of small human communities maintain levels of genetic diversity over microgeographic scales? This question can no longer be asked in most parts of the world, which have been heavily impacted by historical events that make traditional society structures the exception. However, such studies remain possible in parts of Island Southeast Asia and Oceania, where traditional ways of life are still practiced. We captured genome-wide genetic data, together with linguistic records, for a case-study system-eight villages distributed across Sumba, a small, remote island in eastern Indonesia. More than 4,000 years after these communities were established during the Neolithic period, most speak different languages and can be distinguished genetically. Yet their nuclear diversity is not reduced, instead being comparable to other, even much larger, regional groups. Modeling reveals a separation of time scales: while languages and culture can evolve quickly, creating social barriers, sporadic migration averaged over many generations is sufficient to keep villages linked genetically. This loosely-connected network structure, once the global norm and still extant on Sumba today, provides a living proxy to explore fine-scale genome dynamics in the sort of small traditional communities within which the most recent episodes of human evolution occurred. PMID:27274003

  5. Small Traditional Human Communities Sustain Genomic Diversity over Microgeographic Scales despite Linguistic Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Murray P.; Hudjashov, Georgi; Sim, Andre; Savina, Olga; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    At least since the Neolithic, humans have largely lived in networks of small, traditional communities. Often socially isolated, these groups evolved distinct languages and cultures over microgeographic scales of just tens of kilometers. Population genetic theory tells us that genetic drift should act quickly in such isolated groups, thus raising the question: do networks of small human communities maintain levels of genetic diversity over microgeographic scales? This question can no longer be asked in most parts of the world, which have been heavily impacted by historical events that make traditional society structures the exception. However, such studies remain possible in parts of Island Southeast Asia and Oceania, where traditional ways of life are still practiced. We captured genome-wide genetic data, together with linguistic records, for a case–study system—eight villages distributed across Sumba, a small, remote island in eastern Indonesia. More than 4,000 years after these communities were established during the Neolithic period, most speak different languages and can be distinguished genetically. Yet their nuclear diversity is not reduced, instead being comparable to other, even much larger, regional groups. Modeling reveals a separation of time scales: while languages and culture can evolve quickly, creating social barriers, sporadic migration averaged over many generations is sufficient to keep villages linked genetically. This loosely-connected network structure, once the global norm and still extant on Sumba today, provides a living proxy to explore fine-scale genome dynamics in the sort of small traditional communities within which the most recent episodes of human evolution occurred. PMID:27274003

  6. Genomic reconstruction of the history of extant populations of India reveals five distinct ancestral components and a complex structure

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Analabha; Sarkar-Roy, Neeta; Majumder, Partha P.

    2016-01-01

    India, occupying the center stage of Paleolithic and Neolithic migrations, has been underrepresented in genome-wide studies of variation. Systematic analysis of genome-wide data, using multiple robust statistical methods, on (i) 367 unrelated individuals drawn from 18 mainland and 2 island (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) populations selected to represent geographic, linguistic, and ethnic diversities, and (ii) individuals from populations represented in the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP), reveal four major ancestries in mainland India. This contrasts with an earlier inference of two ancestries based on limited population sampling. A distinct ancestry of the populations of Andaman archipelago was identified and found to be coancestral to Oceanic populations. Analysis of ancestral haplotype blocks revealed that extant mainland populations (i) admixed widely irrespective of ancestry, although admixtures between populations was not always symmetric, and (ii) this practice was rapidly replaced by endogamy about 70 generations ago, among upper castes and Indo-European speakers predominantly. This estimated time coincides with the historical period of formulation and adoption of sociocultural norms restricting intermarriage in large social strata. A similar replacement observed among tribal populations was temporally less uniform. PMID:26811443

  7. Genomic reconstruction of the history of extant populations of India reveals five distinct ancestral components and a complex structure.

    PubMed

    Basu, Analabha; Sarkar-Roy, Neeta; Majumder, Partha P

    2016-02-01

    India, occupying the center stage of Paleolithic and Neolithic migrations, has been underrepresented in genome-wide studies of variation. Systematic analysis of genome-wide data, using multiple robust statistical methods, on (i) 367 unrelated individuals drawn from 18 mainland and 2 island (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) populations selected to represent geographic, linguistic, and ethnic diversities, and (ii) individuals from populations represented in the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP), reveal four major ancestries in mainland India. This contrasts with an earlier inference of two ancestries based on limited population sampling. A distinct ancestry of the populations of Andaman archipelago was identified and found to be coancestral to Oceanic populations. Analysis of ancestral haplotype blocks revealed that extant mainland populations (i) admixed widely irrespective of ancestry, although admixtures between populations was not always symmetric, and (ii) this practice was rapidly replaced by endogamy about 70 generations ago, among upper castes and Indo-European speakers predominantly. This estimated time coincides with the historical period of formulation and adoption of sociocultural norms restricting intermarriage in large social strata. A similar replacement observed among tribal populations was temporally less uniform. PMID:26811443

  8. The mitochondrial genomes of Amphiascoides atopus and Schizopera knabeni (Harpacticoida: Miraciidae) reveal similarities between the copepod orders Harpacticoida and Poecilostomatoida.

    PubMed

    Easton, Erin E; Darrow, Emily M; Spears, Trisha; Thistle, David

    2014-03-15

    Members of subclass Copepoda are abundant, diverse, and-as a result of their variety of ecological roles in marine and freshwater environments-important, but their phylogenetic interrelationships are unclear. Recent studies of arthropods have used gene arrangements in the mitochondrial (mt) genome to infer phylogenies, but for copepods, only seven complete mt genomes have been published. These data revealed several within-order and few among-order similarities. To increase the data available for comparisons, we sequenced the complete mt genome (13,831base pairs) of Amphiascoides atopus and 10,649base pairs of the mt genome of Schizopera knabeni (both in the family Miraciidae of the order Harpacticoida). Comparison of our data to those for Tigriopus japonicus (family Harpacticidae, order Harpacticoida) revealed similarities in gene arrangement among these three species that were consistent with those found within and among families of other copepod orders. Comparison of the mt genomes of our species with those known from other copepod orders revealed the arrangement of mt genes of our Harpacticoida species to be more similar to that of Sinergasilus polycolpus (order Poecilostomatoida) than to that of T. japonicus. The similarities between S. polycolpus and our species are the first to be noted across the boundaries of copepod orders and support the possibility that mt-gene arrangement might be used to infer copepod phylogenies. We also found that our two species had extremely truncated transfer RNAs and that gene overlaps occurred much more frequently than has been reported for other copepod mt genomes. PMID:24389499

  9. Genotyping by sequencing reveals the genetic diversity of the USDA pisum diversity collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA expanded Pisum Single Plant (PSP) core collection is a unique resource that represents the breadth of the genetic diversity of the genus in an inbred format that facilitates genetic study. The collection includes inbred accessions from the refined pea core collection, parent lines of USDA r...

  10. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population.

    PubMed

    Iacolina, L; Scandura, M; Goedbloed, D J; Alexandri, P; Crooijmans, R P M A; Larson, G; Archibald, A; Apollonio, M; Schook, L B; Groenen, M A M; Megens, H-J

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly managed since prehistoric times. We examined genomic diversity at 49 803 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 99 Sardinian WBs and compared them with 196 wild specimens from mainland Europe and 105 domestic pigs (DP; 11 breeds). High levels of genetic variation were observed in Sardinia (80.9% of the total number of polymorphisms), which can be only in part associated to recent genetic introgression. Both Principal Component Analysis and Bayesian clustering approach revealed that the Sardinian WB population is highly differentiated from the other European populations (FST=0.126-0.138), and from DP (FST=0.169). Such evidences were mostly unaffected by an uneven sample size, although clustering results in reference populations changed when the number of individuals was standardized. Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) pattern and distribution in Sardinian WB are consistent with a past expansion following a bottleneck (small ROHs) and recent population substructuring (highly homozygous individuals). The observed effect of a non-random selection of Sardinian individuals on diversity, FST and ROH estimates, stressed the importance of sampling design in the study of structured or introgressed populations. Our results support the heterogeneity and distinctiveness of the Sardinian population and prompt further investigations on its origins and conservation status. PMID:26243137

  11. Comparative Genomics Provides Insight into the Diversity of the Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli Virulence Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Tracy H.; Kaper, James B.; Nataro, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains are a genomically diverse group of diarrheagenic E. coli strains that are characterized by the presence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genomic island, which encodes a type III secretion system that is essential to virulence. AEEC strains can be further classified as either enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), typical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), or atypical EPEC, depending on the presence or absence of the Shiga toxin genes or bundle-forming pilus (BFP) genes. Recent AEEC genomic studies have focused on the diversity of the core genome, and less is known regarding the genetic diversity and relatedness of AEEC plasmids. Comparative genomic analyses in this study demonstrated genetic similarity among AEEC plasmid genes involved in plasmid replication conjugative transfer and maintenance, while the remainder of the plasmids had sequence variability. Investigation of the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) plasmids, which carry the BFP genes, demonstrated significant plasmid diversity even among isolates within the same phylogenomic lineage, suggesting that these EAF-like plasmids have undergone genetic modifications or have been lost and acquired multiple times. Global transcriptional analyses of the EPEC prototype isolate E2348/69 and two EAF plasmid mutants of this isolate demonstrated that the plasmid genes influence the expression of a number of chromosomal genes in addition to the LEE. This suggests that the genetic diversity of the EAF plasmids could contribute to differences in the global virulence regulons of EPEC isolates. PMID:26238712

  12. Multifaceted diversity-area relationships reveal global hotspots of mammalian species, trait and lineage diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Florent; Guilhaumon, François; Mouquet, Nicolas; Devictor, Vincent; Gravel, Dominique; Renaud, Julien; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Loyola, Rafael Dias; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Aim To define biome-scale hotspots of phylogenetic and functional mammalian biodiversity (PD and FD, respectively) and compare them to ‘classical’ hotspots based on species richness (SR) only. Location Global Methods SR, PD & FD were computed for 782 terrestrial ecoregions using distribution ranges of 4616 mammalian species. We used a set of comprehensive diversity indices unified by a recent framework that incorporates the species relative coverage in each ecoregion. We build large-scale multifaceted diversity-area relationships to rank ecoregions according to their levels of biodiversity while accounting for the effect of area on each diversity facet. Finally we defined hotspots as the top-ranked ecoregions. Results While ignoring species relative coverage led to a relative good congruence between biome top ranked SR, PD and FD hotspots, ecoregions harboring a rich and abundantly represented evolutionary history and functional diversity did not match with top ranked ecoregions defined by species richness. More importantly PD and FD hotspots showed important spatial mismatches. We also found that FD and PD generally reached their maximum values faster than species richness as a function of area. Main conclusions The fact that PD/FD reach faster their maximal value than SR may suggest that the two former facets might be less vulnerable to habitat loss than the latter. While this point is expected, it is the first time that it is quantified at global scale and should have important consequences in conservation. Incorporating species relative coverage into the delineation of multifaceted hotspots of diversity lead to weak congruence between SR, PD and FD hotspots. This means that maximizing species number may fail at preserving those nodes (in the phylogenetic or functional tree) that are relatively abundant in the ecoregion. As a consequence it may be of prime importance to adopt a multifaceted biodiversity perspective to inform conservation strategies at global

  13. Diversity of Genome Structure in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Populations†

    PubMed Central

    Kothapalli, Sushma; Nair, Satheesh; Alokam, Suneetha; Pang, Tikki; Khakhria, Rasik; Woodward, David; Johnson, Wendy; Stocker, Bruce A. D.; Sanderson, Kenneth E.; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The genomes of most strains of Salmonella and Escherichia coli are highly conserved. In contrast, all 136 wild-type strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi analyzed by partial digestion with I-CeuI (an endonuclease which cuts within the rrn operons) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and by PCR have rearrangements due to homologous recombination between the rrn operons leading to inversions and translocations. Recombination between rrn operons in culture is known to be equally frequent in S. enterica serovar Typhi and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium; thus, the recombinants in S. enterica serovar Typhi, but not those in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, are able to survive in nature. However, even in S. enterica serovar Typhi the need for genome balance and the need for gene dosage impose limits on rearrangements. Of 100 strains of genome types 1 to 6, 72 were only 25.5 kb off genome balance (the relative lengths of the replichores during bidirectional replication from oriC to the termination of replication [Ter]), while 28 strains were less balanced (41 kb off balance), indicating that the survival of the best-balanced strains was greater. In addition, the need for appropriate gene dosage apparently selected against rearrangements which moved genes from their accustomed distance from oriC. Although rearrangements involving the seven rrn operons are very common in S. enterica serovar Typhi, other duplicated regions, such as the 25 IS200 elements, are very rarely involved in rearrangements. Large deletions and insertions in the genome are uncommon, except for deletions of Salmonella pathogenicity island 7 (usually 134 kb) from fragment I-CeuI-G and 40-kb insertions, possibly a prophage, in fragment I-CeuI-E. The phage types were determined, and the origins of the phage types appeared to be independent of the origins of the genome types. PMID:15805510

  14. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae. PMID:22475018

  15. The Human Milk Metabolome Reveals Diverse Oligosaccharide Profiles123

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; O’Sullivan, Aifric; Barile, Daniela; German, J. Bruce; Lönnerdal, Bo; Slupsky, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk delivers nutrition and protection to the developing infant. There has been considerable research on the high-molecular-weight milk components; however, low-molecular-weight metabolites have received less attention. To determine the effect of maternal phenotype and diet on the human milk metabolome, milk collected at day 90 postpartum from 52 healthy women was analyzed by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty-five milk metabolites were quantified (mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides; amino acids and derivatives; energy metabolites; fatty acids and associated metabolites; vitamins, nucleotides, and derivatives; and others). The biological variation, represented as the percentage CV of each metabolite, varied widely (4–120%), with several metabolites having low variation (<20%), including lactose, urea, glutamate, myo-inositol, and creatinine. Principal components analysis identified 2 clear groups of participants who were differentiable on the basis of milk oligosaccharide concentration and who were classified as secretors or nonsecretors of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene products according to the concentration of 2′-fucosyllactose, lactodifucotetraose, and lacto-N-fucopentaose I. Exploration of the interrelations between the milk sugars by using Spearman rank correlations revealed significant positive and negative associations, including positive correlations between fucose and products of the FUT2 gene and negative correlations between fucose and products of the fucosyltransferase 3 (FUT3) gene. The total concentration of milk oligosaccharides was conserved among participants (%CV = 18%), suggesting tight regulation of total oligosaccharide production; however, concentrations of specific oligosaccharides varied widely between participants (%CV = 30.4–84.3%). The variability in certain milk metabolites suggests possible roles in infant or infant gut microbial development. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  16. Diverse patterns of genomic targeting by transcriptional regulators in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Matthew; Ma, Lijia; Spokony, Rebecca F.; Arthur, Robert K.; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kundaje, Anshul; Nègre, Nicolas; Crofts, Alex; Ptashkin, Ryan; Zieba, Jennifer; Ostapenko, Alexander; Suchy, Sarah; Victorsen, Alec; Jameel, Nader; Grundstad, A. Jason; Gao, Wenxuan; Moran, Jennifer R.; Rehm, E. Jay; Grossman, Robert L.; Kellis, Manolis; White, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Annotation of regulatory elements and identification of the transcription-related factors (TRFs) targeting these elements are key steps in understanding how cells interpret their genetic blueprint and their environment during development, and how that process goes awry in the case of disease. One goal of the modENCODE (model organism ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements) Project is to survey a diverse sampling of TRFs, both DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding factors, to provide a framework for the subsequent study of the mechanisms by which transcriptional regulators target the genome. Here we provide an updated map of the Drosophila melanogaster regulatory genome based on the location of 84 TRFs at various stages of development. This regulatory map reveals a variety of genomic targeting patterns, including factors with strong preferences toward proximal promoter binding, factors that target intergenic and intronic DNA, and factors with distinct chromatin state preferences. The data also highlight the stringency of the Polycomb regulatory network, and show association of the Trithorax-like (Trl) protein with hotspots of DNA binding throughout development. Furthermore, the data identify more than 5800 instances in which TRFs target DNA regions with demonstrated enhancer activity. Regions of high TRF co-occupancy are more likely to be associated with open enhancers used across cell types, while lower TRF occupancy regions are associated with complex enhancers that are also regulated at the epigenetic level. Together these data serve as a resource for the research community in the continued effort to dissect transcriptional regulatory mechanisms directing Drosophila development. PMID:24985916

  17. Diversity of Pneumocystis jirovecii during Infection Revealed by Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Alanio, Alexandre; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Mercier-Delarue, Séverine; Dromer, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is an uncultivable fungal pathogen responsible for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients, the physiopathology of which is only partially understood. The diversity of the Pneumocystis strains associated with acute infection has mainly been studied by Sanger sequencing techniques precluding any identification of rare genetic events (< 20% frequency). We used next-generation sequencing to detect minority variants causing infection, and analyzed the complexity of the genomes of infection-causing P. jirovecii. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) of PCR amplicons of two nuclear target region [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)] and one mitochondrial DNA target region [the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA large subunit gene (mtLSU)] was performed on 31 samples from 25 patients. UDPS revealed that almost all patients (n = 23/25, 92%) were infected with mixtures of strains. An analysis of repeated samples from six patients showed that the proportion of each variant change significantly (by up to 30%) over time on treatment in three of these patients. A comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear UDPS data revealed heteroplasmy in P. jirovecii. The recognition site for the homing endonuclease I-SceI was recovered from the mtLSU gene, whereas its two conserved motifs of the enzyme were not. This suggests that heteroplasmy may result from recombination induced by unidentified homing endonucleases. This study sheds new light on the biology of P. jirovecii during infection. PCP results from infection not with a single microorganism, but with a complex mixture of different genotypes, the proportions of which change over time due to intricate selection and reinfection mechanisms that may differ between patients, treatments, and predisposing diseases. PMID:27252684

  18. Diversity of Pneumocystis jirovecii during Infection Revealed by Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Alanio, Alexandre; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Mercier-Delarue, Séverine; Dromer, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is an uncultivable fungal pathogen responsible for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients, the physiopathology of which is only partially understood. The diversity of the Pneumocystis strains associated with acute infection has mainly been studied by Sanger sequencing techniques precluding any identification of rare genetic events (< 20% frequency). We used next-generation sequencing to detect minority variants causing infection, and analyzed the complexity of the genomes of infection-causing P. jirovecii. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) of PCR amplicons of two nuclear target region [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)] and one mitochondrial DNA target region [the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA large subunit gene (mtLSU)] was performed on 31 samples from 25 patients. UDPS revealed that almost all patients (n = 23/25, 92%) were infected with mixtures of strains. An analysis of repeated samples from six patients showed that the proportion of each variant change significantly (by up to 30%) over time on treatment in three of these patients. A comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear UDPS data revealed heteroplasmy in P. jirovecii. The recognition site for the homing endonuclease I-SceI was recovered from the mtLSU gene, whereas its two conserved motifs of the enzyme were not. This suggests that heteroplasmy may result from recombination induced by unidentified homing endonucleases. This study sheds new light on the biology of P. jirovecii during infection. PCP results from infection not with a single microorganism, but with a complex mixture of different genotypes, the proportions of which change over time due to intricate selection and reinfection mechanisms that may differ between patients, treatments, and predisposing diseases. PMID:27252684

  19. High-Resolution Genetic Map for Understanding the Effect of Genome-Wide Recombination Rate on Nucleotide Diversity in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Umesh K.; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan. R.; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C.; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima’s D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. PMID:25227227

  20. Genomic signatures reveal geographic adaption and human selection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated geographic adaptation and human selection using high-density SNP data of five diverse cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-k...

  1. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eppie R; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Connell, Sarah; Siska, Veronika; Eriksson, Anders; Martiniano, Rui; McLaughlin, Russell L; Gallego Llorente, Marcos; Cassidy, Lara M; Gamba, Cristina; Meshveliani, Tengiz; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Müller, Werner; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Matskevich, Zinovi; Jakeli, Nino; Higham, Thomas F G; Currat, Mathias; Lordkipanidze, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Manica, Andrea; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic-Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ∼45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ∼25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ∼3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages. PMID:26567969

  2. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Eppie R.; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Connell, Sarah; Siska, Veronika; Eriksson, Anders; Martiniano, Rui; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Gallego Llorente, Marcos; Cassidy, Lara M.; Gamba, Cristina; Meshveliani, Tengiz; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Müller, Werner; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Matskevich, Zinovi; Jakeli, Nino; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Currat, Mathias; Lordkipanidze, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Manica, Andrea; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ∼45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ∼25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ∼3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages. PMID:26567969

  3. Genomic diversity of human papillomavirus genotype 53 in an ethnogeographically closed cohort of white European women.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, Bostjan J; Seme, Katja; Mocilnik, Tina; Jancar, Nina; Vrtacnik-Bokal, Eda; Poljak, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype 53 is classified taxonomically in alpha HPV genus-species 6, together with HPV-30, HPV-56, and HPV-66 and is considered to be one of three "probable high-risk" HPV genotypes. Recent worldwide comparison of 44 isolates of HPV-53 showed the existence of nine long control region (LCR) genomic variants, which formed a phylogenetic tree with two deep dichotomic branches. In order to investigate further the genomic diversity of HPV-53, a total of 94 isolates of HPV-53 obtained from an ethnogeographically closed cohort of 70 white European women was analyzed. The identification and characterization of HPV-53 genomic variants was based on analysis of three different HPV genomic regions: LCR, E6 and E7. A higher genomic diversity of HPV-53 was identified in the ethnogeographically closed cohort of white European women than has been reported previously on isolates collected worldwide. Altogether, 19 HPV-53 genomic variants, composed of 13 LCR, 13 E6, and 5 E7 genomic variants, were identified. Eleven out of 13 LCR, all E6, and four out of five E7 genomic variants were described for the first time. The present study confirmed dichotomic phylogeny of HPV-53 described previously and, in addition, showed for the first time that after a dichotomic split, both groups of HPV-53 genomic variants formed star-like phylogenetic clusters. In women with persistent HPV-53 infection, HPV-53 genomic variants remained unchanged for up to 51 months. In rare cases, infection with multiple HPV-53 genomic variants is possible. Taking into account the results of this and previous studies, at least 26 different HPV-53 genomic variants exist today. PMID:17311338

  4. New Assembly, Reannotation and Analysis of the Entamoeba histolytica Genome Reveal New Genomic Features and Protein Content Information

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Hernan A.; Puiu, Daniela; Miller, Jason R.; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Amedeo, Paolo; Hall, Neil; Caler, Elisabet V.

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to maintain genome information accurately and relevantly, original genome annotations need to be updated and evaluated regularly. Manual reannotation of genomes is important as it can significantly reduce the propagation of errors and consequently diminishes the time spent on mistaken research. For this reason, after five years from the initial submission of the Entamoeba histolytica draft genome publication, we have re-examined the original 23 Mb assembly and the annotation of the predicted genes. Principal Findings The evaluation of the genomic sequence led to the identification of more than one hundred artifactual tandem duplications that were eliminated by re-assembling the genome. The reannotation was done using a combination of manual and automated genome analysis. The new 20 Mb assembly contains 1,496 scaffolds and 8,201 predicted genes, of which 60% are identical to the initial annotation and the remaining 40% underwent structural changes. Functional classification of 60% of the genes was modified based on recent sequence comparisons and new experimental data. We have assigned putative function to 3,788 proteins (46% of the predicted proteome) based on the annotation of predicted gene families, and have identified 58 protein families of five or more members that share no homology with known proteins and thus could be entamoeba specific. Genome analysis also revealed new features such as the presence of segmental duplications of up to 16 kb flanked by inverted repeats, and the tight association of some gene families with transposable elements. Significance This new genome annotation and analysis represents a more refined and accurate blueprint of the pathogen genome, and provides an upgraded tool as reference for the study of many important aspects of E. histolytica biology, such as genome evolution and pathogenesis. PMID:20559563

  5. Comparative Genomic and Phylogenomic Analyses Reveal a Conserved Core Genome Shared by Estuarine and Oceanic Cyanopodoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sijun; Zhang, Si; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Podoviruses are among the major viral groups that infect marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Here, we reported the genome sequences of five Synechococcus podoviruses isolated from the estuarine environment, and performed comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses based on a total of 20 cyanopodovirus genomes. The genomes of all the known marine cyanopodoviruses are highly syntenic. A pan-genome of 349 clustered orthologous groups was determined, among which 15 were core genes. These core genes make up nearly half of each genome in length, reflecting the high level of genome conservation among this cyanophage type. The whole genome phylogenies based on concatenated core genes and gene content were highly consistent and confirmed the separation of two discrete marine cyanopodovirus clusters MPP-A and MPP-B. The genomes within cluster MPP-B grouped into subclusters mainly corresponding to Prochlorococcus or Synechococcus host types. Auxiliary metabolic genes tend to occur in a specific phylogenetic group of these cyanopodoviruses. All the MPP-B phages analyzed here encode the photosynthesis gene psbA, which are absent in all the MPP-A genomes thus far. Interestingly, all the MPP-B and two MPP-A Synechococcus podoviruses encode the thymidylate synthase gene thyX, while at the same genome locus all the MPP-B Prochlorococcus podoviruses encode the transaldolase gene talC. Both genes are hypothesized to have the potential to facilitate the biosynthesis of deoxynucleotide for phage replication. Inheritance of specific functional genes could be important to the evolution and ecological fitness of certain cyanophage genotypes. Our analyses demonstrate that cyanopodoviruses of estuarine and oceanic origins share a conserved core genome and suggest that accessory genes may be related to environmental adaptation. PMID:26569403

  6. Novel oligonucleotide primers reveal a high diversity of microbes which drive phosphorous turnover in soil.

    PubMed

    Bergkemper, Fabian; Kublik, Susanne; Lang, Friederike; Krüger, Jaane; Vestergaard, Gisle; Schloter, Michael; Schulz, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) is of central importance for cellular life but likewise a limiting macronutrient in numerous environments. Certainly microorganisms have proven their ability to increase the phosphorus bioavailability by mineralization of organic-P and solubilization of inorganic-P. On the other hand they efficiently take up P and compete with other biota for phosphorus. However the actual microbial community that is associated to the turnover of this crucial macronutrient in different ecosystems remains largely anonymous especially taking effects of seasonality and spatial heterogeneity into account. In this study seven oligonucleotide primers are presented which target genes coding for microbial acid and alkaline phosphatases (phoN, phoD), phytases (appA), phosphonatases (phnX) as well as the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (gcd) and different P transporters (pitA, pstS). Illumina amplicon sequencing of soil genomic DNA underlined the high rate of primer specificity towards the respective target gene which usually ranged between 98% and 100% (phoN: 87%). As expected the primers amplified genes from a broad diversity of distinct microorganisms. Using DNA from a beech dominated forest soil, the highest microbial diversity was detected for the alkaline phosphatase (phoD) gene which was amplified from 15 distinct phyla respectively 81 families. Noteworthy the primers also allowed amplification of phoD from 6 fungal orders. The genes coding for acid phosphatase (phoN) and the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (gcd) were amplified from 20 respectively 17 different microbial orders. In comparison the phytase and phosphonatase (appA, phnX) primers covered 13 bacterial orders from 2 different phyla respectively. Although the amplified microbial diversity was apparently limited both primers reliably detected all orders that contributed to the P turnover in the investigated soil as revealed by a previous metagenomic approach. Genes that code for microbial P transporter

  7. Experimentally revealed diversity of outgassing styles controlling subsequent eruptions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, A.; Kagoshima, T.; Kanno, Y.

    2013-12-01

    It has been widely recognized that the distribution of volcanic gasses inside a conduit determines eruption styles. Magmas with less bubbles erupt as a lava flow, large gas slugs surrounded by melts cause pulsative-explosive expansions, and magmas with substantial amount of small bubbles under a rapid decompression can cause sustained explosive eruption. Since nucleation of bubbles in a magma is rather spatially homogeneous, bubbles should relocate, coalesce, reshape, and segregate to change the distribution of volcanic gas in a conduit. We call this sequence as 'outgassing'. In this presentation, we review the experimentally revealed various styles of outgassing. Permeable flow: The idea, outgassing determines the eruption styles, is suggested by Eichelberger et al., (1986), and permeable flow has been considered as its mechanism. Extensive measurements of permeability of solidified magmas have been conducted. However, different form the solidified magma, bubbles in a molten magma are surrounding by melt films which reduces permeability (Namiki and Manga, 2008; Takeuchi et al., 2009). In order to make the bubbly magma permeable, film rupturing is needed. Shear induced outgassing: Bubbles in ascending magmas are deformed by shear stress at a conduit wall. Shear deformation elongates the melt film to rupture, such that interconnected structure develops. If the viscosity is low enough, the partially interconnected bubbles are unstable and turn into a larger bubble. Such a large bubble may ascend as a slug causing Strombolian eruptions (Namiki, 2012). For a more viscous magma, interconnected structure can exist longer, so that the volume of bubbly magma shrinks by compaction (Okumura 2010). Shear induced outgassing occurs when strain becomes large enough (>1~10), and is efficient for a narrow width conduit (< 10 m). The ascent rate of the magma does not have significant effect. Expansion induced outgassing: When bubbly magmas ascend in a sufficiently wide conduit, the

  8. The streamlined genome of Phytomonas spp. relative to human pathogenic kinetoplastids reveals a parasite tailored for plants.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Betina M; Denoeud, France; Opperdoes, Fred; Noel, Benjamin; Madoui, Mohammed-Amine; Hammarton, Tansy C; Field, Mark C; Da Silva, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Poulain, Julie; Katinka, Michael; Jabbari, Kamel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Campbell, David A; Cintron, Roxana; Dickens, Nicholas J; Docampo, Roberto; Sturm, Nancy R; Koumandou, V Lila; Fabre, Sandrine; Flegontov, Pavel; Lukeš, Julius; Michaeli, Shulamit; Mottram, Jeremy C; Szöőr, Balázs; Zilberstein, Dan; Bringaud, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Dollet, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Members of the family Trypanosomatidae infect many organisms, including animals, plants and humans. Plant-infecting trypanosomes are grouped under the single genus Phytomonas, failing to reflect the wide biological and pathological diversity of these protists. While some Phytomonas spp. multiply in the latex of plants, or in fruit or seeds without apparent pathogenicity, others colonize the phloem sap and afflict plants of substantial economic value, including the coffee tree, coconut and oil palms. Plant trypanosomes have not been studied extensively at the genome level, a major gap in understanding and controlling pathogenesis. We describe the genome sequences of two plant trypanosomatids, one pathogenic isolate from a Guianan coconut and one non-symptomatic isolate from Euphorbia collected in France. Although these parasites have extremely distinct pathogenic impacts, very few genes are unique to either, with the vast majority of genes shared by both isolates. Significantly, both Phytomonas spp. genomes consist essentially of single copy genes for the bulk of their metabolic enzymes, whereas other trypanosomatids e.g. Leishmania and Trypanosoma possess multiple paralogous genes or families. Indeed, comparison with other trypanosomatid genomes revealed a highly streamlined genome, encoding for a minimized metabolic system while conserving the major pathways, and with retention of a full complement of endomembrane organelles, but with no evidence for functional complexity. Identification of the metabolic genes of Phytomonas provides opportunities for establishing in vitro culturing of these fastidious parasites and new tools for the control of agricultural plant disease. PMID:24516393

  9. The genome of Bacillus coahuilensis reveals adaptations essential for survival in the relic of an ancient marine environment.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Luis David; Olmedo, Gabriela; Bonilla, Germán; Cerritos, René; Hernández, Gustavo; Cruz, Alfredo; Ramírez, Enrique; Putonti, Catherine; Jiménez, Beatriz; Martínez, Eva; López, Varinia; Arvizu, Jacqueline L; Ayala, Francisco; Razo, Francisco; Caballero, Juan; Siefert, Janet; Eguiarte, Luis; Vielle, Jean-Philippe; Martínez, Octavio; Souza, Valeria; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2008-04-15

    The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) in the central part of the Chihuahan desert (Coahuila, Mexico) hosts a wide diversity of microorganisms contained within springs thought to be geomorphological relics of an ancient sea. A major question remaining to be answered is whether bacteria from CCB are ancient marine bacteria that adapted to an oligotrophic system poor in NaCl, rich in sulfates, and with extremely low phosphorus levels (<0.3 microM). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Bacillus coahuilensis, a sporulating bacterium isolated from the water column of a desiccation lagoon in CCB. At 3.35 Megabases this is the smallest genome sequenced to date of a Bacillus species and provides insights into the origin, evolution, and adaptation of B. coahuilensis to the CCB environment. We propose that the size and complexity of the B. coahuilensis genome reflects the adaptation of an ancient marine bacterium to a novel environment, providing support to a "marine isolation origin hypothesis" that is consistent with the geology of CCB. This genomic adaptation includes the acquisition through horizontal gene transfer of genes involved in phosphorous utilization efficiency and adaptation to high-light environments. The B. coahuilensis genome sequence also revealed important ecological features of the bacterial community in CCB and offers opportunities for a unique glimpse of a microbe-dominated world last seen in the Precambrian. PMID:18408155

  10. The genome of Bacillus coahuilensis reveals adaptations essential for survival in the relic of an ancient marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, Luis David; Olmedo, Gabriela; Bonilla, Germán; Cerritos, René; Hernández, Gustavo; Cruz, Alfredo; Ramírez, Enrique; Putonti, Catherine; Jiménez, Beatriz; Martínez, Eva; López, Varinia; Arvizu, Jacqueline L.; Ayala, Francisco; Razo, Francisco; Caballero, Juan; Siefert, Janet; Eguiarte, Luis; Vielle, Jean-Philippe; Martínez, Octavio; Souza, Valeria; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) in the central part of the Chihuahan desert (Coahuila, Mexico) hosts a wide diversity of microorganisms contained within springs thought to be geomorphological relics of an ancient sea. A major question remaining to be answered is whether bacteria from CCB are ancient marine bacteria that adapted to an oligotrophic system poor in NaCl, rich in sulfates, and with extremely low phosphorus levels (<0.3 μM). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Bacillus coahuilensis, a sporulating bacterium isolated from the water column of a desiccation lagoon in CCB. At 3.35 Megabases this is the smallest genome sequenced to date of a Bacillus species and provides insights into the origin, evolution, and adaptation of B. coahuilensis to the CCB environment. We propose that the size and complexity of the B. coahuilensis genome reflects the adaptation of an ancient marine bacterium to a novel environment, providing support to a “marine isolation origin hypothesis” that is consistent with the geology of CCB. This genomic adaptation includes the acquisition through horizontal gene transfer of genes involved in phosphorous utilization efficiency and adaptation to high-light environments. The B. coahuilensis genome sequence also revealed important ecological features of the bacterial community in CCB and offers opportunities for a unique glimpse of a microbe-dominated world last seen in the Precambrian. PMID:18408155

  11. Functional genomic and advanced genetic studies reveal novel insights into the metabolism, regulation, and biology of Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The genome sequence of Haloferax volcanii is available and several comparative genomic in silico studies were performed that yielded novel insight for example into protein export, RNA modifications, small non-coding RNAs, and ubiquitin-like Small Archaeal Modifier Proteins. The full range of functional genomic methods has been established and results from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies are discussed. Notably, Hfx. volcanii is together with Halobacterium salinarum the only prokaryotic species for which a translatome analysis has been performed. The results revealed that the fraction of translationally-regulated genes in haloarchaea is as high as in eukaryotes. A highly efficient genetic system has been established that enables the application of libraries as well as the parallel generation of genomic deletion mutants. Facile mutant generation is complemented by the possibility to culture Hfx. volcanii in microtiter plates, allowing the phenotyping of mutant collections. Genetic approaches are currently used to study diverse biological questions-from replication to posttranslational modification-and selected results are discussed. Taken together, the wealth of functional genomic and genetic tools make Hfx. volcanii a bona fide archaeal model species, which has enabled the generation of important results in recent years and will most likely generate further breakthroughs in the future. PMID:22190865

  12. Analysis of Complete Genomes of Propionibacterium acnes Reveals a Novel Plasmid and Increased Pseudogenes in an Acne Associated Strain

    PubMed Central

    Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying

    2013-01-01

    The human skin harbors a diverse community of bacteria, including the Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. P. acnes has historically been linked to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, a common skin disease affecting over 80% of all adolescents in the US. To gain insight into potential P. acnes pathogenic mechanisms, we previously sequenced the complete genome of a P. acnes strain HL096PA1 that is highly associated with acne. In this study, we compared its genome to the first published complete genome KPA171202. HL096PA1 harbors a linear plasmid, pIMPLE-HL096PA1. This is the first described P. acnes plasmid. We also observed a five-fold increase of pseudogenes in HL096PA1, several of which encode proteins in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In addition, our analysis revealed a few island-like genomic regions that are unique to HL096PA1 and a large genomic inversion spanning the ribosomal operons. Together, these findings offer a basis for understanding P. acnes virulent properties, host adaptation mechanisms, and its potential role in acne pathogenesis at the strain level. Furthermore, the plasmid identified in HL096PA1 may potentially provide a new opportunity for P. acnes genetic manipulation and targeted therapy against specific disease-associated strains. PMID:23762865

  13. The Streamlined Genome of Phytomonas spp. Relative to Human Pathogenic Kinetoplastids Reveals a Parasite Tailored for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Porcel, Betina M.; Denoeud, France; Opperdoes, Fred; Noel, Benjamin; Madoui, Mohammed-Amine; Hammarton, Tansy C.; Field, Mark C.; Da Silva, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Poulain, Julie; Katinka, Michael; Jabbari, Kamel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Campbell, David A.; Cintron, Roxana; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Docampo, Roberto; Sturm, Nancy R.; Koumandou, V. Lila; Fabre, Sandrine; Flegontov, Pavel; Lukeš, Julius; Michaeli, Shulamit; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Szöőr, Balázs; Zilberstein, Dan; Bringaud, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Dollet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Members of the family Trypanosomatidae infect many organisms, including animals, plants and humans. Plant-infecting trypanosomes are grouped under the single genus Phytomonas, failing to reflect the wide biological and pathological diversity of these protists. While some Phytomonas spp. multiply in the latex of plants, or in fruit or seeds without apparent pathogenicity, others colonize the phloem sap and afflict plants of substantial economic value, including the coffee tree, coconut and oil palms. Plant trypanosomes have not been studied extensively at the genome level, a major gap in understanding and controlling pathogenesis. We describe the genome sequences of two plant trypanosomatids, one pathogenic isolate from a Guianan coconut and one non-symptomatic isolate from Euphorbia collected in France. Although these parasites have extremely distinct pathogenic impacts, very few genes are unique to either, with the vast majority of genes shared by both isolates. Significantly, both Phytomonas spp. genomes consist essentially of single copy genes for the bulk of their metabolic enzymes, whereas other trypanosomatids e.g. Leishmania and Trypanosoma possess multiple paralogous genes or families. Indeed, comparison with other trypanosomatid genomes revealed a highly streamlined genome, encoding for a minimized metabolic system while conserving the major pathways, and with retention of a full complement of endomembrane organelles, but with no evidence for functional complexity. Identification of the metabolic genes of Phytomonas provides opportunities for establishing in vitro culturing of these fastidious parasites and new tools for the control of agricultural plant disease. PMID:24516393

  14. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Haiping; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengli; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding. PMID:25901573

  15. High Resolution Genetic Mapping by Genome Sequencing Reveals Genome Duplication and Tetraploid Genetic Structure of the Diploid Miscanthus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Jensen, Elaine; Alexandrov, Nickolai; Troukhan, Maxim; Zhang, Liping; Thomas-Jones, Sian; Farrar, Kerrie; Clifton-Brown, John; Donnison, Iain; Swaller, Timothy; Flavell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We have created a high-resolution linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), identifying all 19 linkage groups for the first time. The result is technically significant since Miscanthus has a very large and highly heterozygous genome, but has no or limited genomics information to date. The composite linkage map containing markers from both parental linkage maps is composed of 3,745 SNP markers spanning 2,396 cM on 19 linkage groups with a 0.64 cM average resolution. Comparative genomics analyses of the M. sinensis composite linkage map to the genomes of sorghum, maize, rice, and Brachypodium distachyon indicate that sorghum has the closest syntenic relationship to Miscanthus compared to other species. The comparative results revealed that each pair of the 19 M. sinensis linkages aligned to one sorghum chromosome, except for LG8, which mapped to two sorghum chromosomes (4 and 7), presumably due to a chromosome fusion event after genome duplication. The data also revealed several other chromosome rearrangements relative to sorghum, including two telomere-centromere inversions of the sorghum syntenic chromosome 7 in LG8 of M. sinensis and two paracentric inversions of sorghum syntenic chromosome 4 in LG7 and LG8 of M. sinensis. The results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that the diploid M. sinensis is tetraploid origin consisting of two sub-genomes. This complete and high resolution composite linkage map will not only serve as a useful resource for novel QTL discoveries, but also enable informed deployment of the wealth of existing genomics resources of other species to the improvement of Miscanthus as a high biomass energy crop. In addition, it has utility as a reference for genome sequence assembly for the forthcoming whole genome sequencing of the Miscanthus genus. PMID:22439001

  16. High resolution genetic mapping by genome sequencing reveals genome duplication and tetraploid genetic structure of the diploid Miscanthus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Jensen, Elaine; Alexandrov, Nickolai; Troukhan, Maxim; Zhang, Liping; Thomas-Jones, Sian; Farrar, Kerrie; Clifton-Brown, John; Donnison, Iain; Swaller, Timothy; Flavell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We have created a high-resolution linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), identifying all 19 linkage groups for the first time. The result is technically significant since Miscanthus has a very large and highly heterozygous genome, but has no or limited genomics information to date. The composite linkage map containing markers from both parental linkage maps is composed of 3,745 SNP markers spanning 2,396 cM on 19 linkage groups with a 0.64 cM average resolution. Comparative genomics analyses of the M. sinensis composite linkage map to the genomes of sorghum, maize, rice, and Brachypodium distachyon indicate that sorghum has the closest syntenic relationship to Miscanthus compared to other species. The comparative results revealed that each pair of the 19 M. sinensis linkages aligned to one sorghum chromosome, except for LG8, which mapped to two sorghum chromosomes (4 and 7), presumably due to a chromosome fusion event after genome duplication. The data also revealed several other chromosome rearrangements relative to sorghum, including two telomere-centromere inversions of the sorghum syntenic chromosome 7 in LG8 of M. sinensis and two paracentric inversions of sorghum syntenic chromosome 4 in LG7 and LG8 of M. sinensis. The results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that the diploid M. sinensis is tetraploid origin consisting of two sub-genomes. This complete and high resolution composite linkage map will not only serve as a useful resource for novel QTL discoveries, but also enable informed deployment of the wealth of existing genomics resources of other species to the improvement of Miscanthus as a high biomass energy crop. In addition, it has utility as a reference for genome sequence assembly for the forthcoming whole genome sequencing of the Miscanthus genus. PMID:22439001

  17. The Laccaria and Tuber Genomes Reveal Unique Signatures of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Steve

    2010-03-24

    Francis Martin from the French agricultural research institute INRA talks on how "The Laccaria and Tuber genomes reveal unique signatures of mycorrhizal symbiosis evolution" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  18. Recombination is a key driver of genomic and phenotypic diversity in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa population during cystic fibrosis infection.

    PubMed

    Darch, Sophie E; McNally, Alan; Harrison, Freya; Corander, Jukka; Barr, Helen L; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Holden, Stephen; Fogarty, Andrew; Crusz, Shanika A; Diggle, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung harbors a complex, polymicrobial ecosystem, in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of sustaining chronic infections, which are highly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Here, we investigate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of 44 morphologically identical P. aeruginosa isolates taken from a single CF patient sputum sample. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of isolates revealed large variances and trade-offs in growth, virulence factors and quorum sensing (QS) signals. Whole genome analysis of 22 isolates revealed high levels of intra-isolate diversity ranging from 5 to 64 SNPs and that recombination and not spontaneous mutation was the dominant driver of diversity in this population. Furthermore, phenotypic differences between isolates were not linked to mutations in known genes but were statistically associated with distinct recombination events. We also assessed antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates. Resistance to antibiotics significantly increased when multiple isolates were mixed together. Our results highlight the significant role of recombination in generating phenotypic and genetic diversification during in vivo chronic CF infection. We also discuss (i) how these findings could influence how patient-to-patient transmission studies are performed using whole genome sequencing, and (ii) the need to refine antibiotic susceptibility testing in sputum samples taken from patients with CF. PMID:25578031

  19. Recombination is a key driver of genomic and phenotypic diversity in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa population during cystic fibrosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Darch, Sophie E.; McNally, Alan; Harrison, Freya; Corander, Jukka; Barr, Helen L.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Holden, Stephen; Fogarty, Andrew; Crusz, Shanika A.; Diggle, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung harbors a complex, polymicrobial ecosystem, in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of sustaining chronic infections, which are highly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Here, we investigate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of 44 morphologically identical P. aeruginosa isolates taken from a single CF patient sputum sample. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of isolates revealed large variances and trade-offs in growth, virulence factors and quorum sensing (QS) signals. Whole genome analysis of 22 isolates revealed high levels of intra-isolate diversity ranging from 5 to 64 SNPs and that recombination and not spontaneous mutation was the dominant driver of diversity in this population. Furthermore, phenotypic differences between isolates were not linked to mutations in known genes but were statistically associated with distinct recombination events. We also assessed antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates. Resistance to antibiotics significantly increased when multiple isolates were mixed together. Our results highlight the significant role of recombination in generating phenotypic and genetic diversification during in vivo chronic CF infection. We also discuss (i) how these findings could influence how patient-to-patient transmission studies are performed using whole genome sequencing, and (ii) the need to refine antibiotic susceptibility testing in sputum samples taken from patients with CF. PMID:25578031

  20. Comparative genomics reveals conserved positioning of essential genomic clusters in highly rearranged Thermococcales chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Cossu, Matteo; Da Cunha, Violette; Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Forterre, Patrick; Oberto, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The genomes of the 21 completely sequenced Thermococcales display a characteristic high level of rearrangements. As a result, the prediction of their origin and termination of replication on the sole basis of chromosomal DNA composition or skew is inoperative. Using a different approach based on biologically relevant sequences, we were able to determine oriC position in all 21 genomes. The position of dif, the site where chromosome dimers are resolved before DNA segregation could be predicted in 19 genomes. Computation of the core genome uncovered a number of essential gene clusters with a remarkably stable chromosomal position across species, in sharp contrast with the scrambled nature of their genomes. The active chromosomal reorganization of numerous genes acquired by horizontal transfer, mainly from mobile elements, could explain this phenomenon. PMID:26166067

  1. Whole-Genome Yersinia sp. Assemblies from 10 Diverse Strains.

    PubMed

    Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Minogue, T D; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Frey, K G; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Lo, C-C; Munk, C; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Rosenzweig, C N; Scholz, M B; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia spp. are animal pathogens, some of which cause human disease. We sequenced 10 Yersinia isolates (from six species: Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. fredericksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. ruckeri) to high-quality draft or complete status. The genomes range in size from 3.77 to 4.94 Mbp. PMID:25342679

  2. Whole-Genome Yersinia sp. Assemblies from 10 Diverse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Lo, C.-C.; Munk, C.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Scholz, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia spp. are animal pathogens, some of which cause human disease. We sequenced 10 Yersinia isolates (from six species: Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. fredericksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. ruckeri) to high-quality draft or complete status. The genomes range in size from 3.77 to 4.94 Mbp. PMID:25342679

  3. Genome diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 laboratory strains.

    PubMed

    Klockgether, Jens; Munder, Antje; Neugebauer, Jens; Davenport, Colin F; Stanke, Frauke; Larbig, Karen D; Heeb, Stephan; Schöck, Ulrike; Pohl, Thomas M; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is the most commonly used strain for research on this ubiquitous and metabolically versatile opportunistic pathogen. Strain PAO1, a derivative of the original Australian PAO isolate, has been distributed worldwide to laboratories and strain collections. Over decades discordant phenotypes of PAO1 sublines have emerged. Taking the existing PAO1-UW genome sequence (named after the University of Washington, which led the sequencing project) as a blueprint, the genome sequences of reference strains MPAO1 and PAO1-DSM (stored at the German Collection for Microorganisms and Cell Cultures [DSMZ]) were resolved by physical mapping and deep short read sequencing-by-synthesis. MPAO1 has been the source of near-saturation libraries of transposon insertion mutants, and PAO1-DSM is identical in its SpeI-DpnI restriction map with the original isolate. The major genomic differences of MPAO1 and PAO1-DSM in comparison to PAO1-UW are the lack of a large inversion, a duplication of a mobile 12-kb prophage region carrying a distinct integrase and protein phosphatases or kinases, deletions of 3 to 1,006 bp in size, and at least 39 single-nucleotide substitutions, 17 of which affect protein sequences. The PAO1 sublines differed in their ability to cope with nutrient limitation and their virulence in an acute murine airway infection model. Subline PAO1-DSM outnumbered the two other sublines in late stationary growth phase. In conclusion, P. aeruginosa PAO1 shows an ongoing microevolution of genotype and phenotype that jeopardizes the reproducibility of research. High-throughput genome resequencing will resolve more cases and could become a proper quality control for strain collections. PMID:20023018

  4. Verticillium comparative genomics--understanding pathogenicity and diversity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium dahliae is the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilt that causes billions of dollars in annual losses worldwide. This soil-borne fungal pathogen exhibits extraordinary genetic plasticity, capable of colonizing a broad range of hosts in diverse ecological niches. Moreover, V. dahlia...

  5. First genomic survey of human skin fungal diversity

    Cancer.gov

    Fungal infections of the skin affect 29 million people in the United States. In the first study of human fungal skin diversity, National Institutes of Health researchers sequenced the DNA of fungi that thrive at different skin sites of healthy adults to d

  6. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Hooper, Sean; Lykidis, A; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla L.; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  7. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  8. Comparative Analysis of Chlamydia psittaci Genomes Reveals the Recent Emergence of a Pathogenic Lineage with a Broad Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Read, Timothy D.; Joseph, Sandeep J.; Didelot, Xavier; Liang, Brooke; Patel, Lisa; Dean, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium. Interest in Chlamydia stems from its high degree of virulence as an intestinal and pulmonary pathogen across a broad range of animals, including humans. C. psittaci human pulmonary infections, referred to as psittacosis, can be life-threatening, which is why the organism was developed as a bioweapon in the 20th century and is listed as a CDC biothreat agent. One remarkable recent result from comparative genomics is the finding of frequent homologous recombination across the genome of the sexually transmitted and trachoma pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. We sought to determine if similar evolutionary dynamics occurred in C. psittaci. We analyzed 20 C. psittaci genomes from diverse strains representing the nine known serotypes of the organism as well as infections in a range of birds and mammals, including humans. Genome annotation revealed a core genome in all strains of 911 genes. Our analyses showed that C. psittaci has a history of frequently switching hosts and undergoing recombination more often than C. trachomatis. Evolutionary history reconstructions showed genome-wide homologous recombination and evidence of whole-plasmid exchange. Tracking the origins of recombinant segments revealed that s