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Sample records for genotype affects outcome

  1. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Mills, Philippa B; Camuzeaux, Stephane S M; Footitt, Emma J; Mills, Kevin A; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B; Varadkar, Sophia M; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I; Livingston, John H; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W Kling; Pitt, Matthew; Clayton, Peter T

    2014-05-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin mononucleotide or

  2. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Philippa B.; Camuzeaux, Stephane S.M.; Footitt, Emma J.; Mills, Kevin A.; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B.; Varadkar, Sophia M.; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I.; Livingston, John H.; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F.; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W. Kling; Pitt, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin

  3. Association of FMR1 Genotypes with In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Outcomes Based on Ethnicity/Race

    PubMed Central

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Lee, Irene H.; Barad, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The FMR1 gene, mapping to an area of the X chromosome closely associated with autoimmunity also affects ovarian reserve, with specific genotypes associated with distinct ovarian aging patterns. They, therefore, could also be associated with differences of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, reported between races/ethnicities. We analyzed 339 consecutive IVF patients, 232 Caucasian, 59 African and 48 Asian, for FMR1 genotypes, and tested by multiple logistic regressions for associations between race/ethnicity, FMR1 genotype, autoimmunity and pregnancy chances with IVF. FMR1 genotypes were predictive of pregnancy (P = 0.046), het-norm/low most significantly and with decreasing chance in comparison to norm genotypes (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.23–0.85; P = 0.014). Race/ethnicity was, overall, independently associated (P = 0.03), African demonstrating decreased odds in comparison to Caucasian (OR 0.33. 95%CI 0.13–0.79; P = 0.014). Autoimmunity did not differ but interaction of autoimmunity with FMR1 genotype almost reached significance (P = 0.07). Logistic regression with race/ethnicity and interaction between FMR1 genotype and autoimmunity in the model, demonstrated 2.5-times the odds of being associated with autoimmune positivity (OR 2.5, 1.34–4.55; P = 0.004). FMR1 genotypes offer a possible explanation for differences in IVF outcomes between races/ethnicities. PMID:21526209

  4. Factors affecting outcomes in colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Selehi, Seema; Leung, Edmund; Wong, Ling

    2008-01-01

    There are many factors that influence successful outcomes in colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to evaluate these factors and determine ways to improve outcomes. All participants (N=229) who underwent planned colonoscopy between July and September 2004 were retrospectively included. Participants included 118 men and 111 women with a mean age of 59 years. Completion rate was 92%. Reasons of failure included poor bowel preparation (2.2%, p< .025), bowel looping (2.2%, p< .025), participant discomfort (1.3%), and obstructing lesion (1.3%). Mean midazolam dose was 3.8 mg. Three participants (1.3%) had midazolam alone, and all had complete colonoscopy. One hundred thirty-three participants (60.7%) had additional meperidine, with a completion rate of 94%. Eighty three participants (37.9%) had additional meperidine and Buscopan, with a completion rate reduced to 89.2%. There was no correlation between sedatives used and completion rate. Completion rate of colonoscopy in our unit was acceptable at 92%. A combination of midazolam and meperidine gave the best completion rates (94%). The two main reasons for incompletion were poor bowel preparation and excessive bowel looping. PMID:18300826

  5. Intracranial ependymoma: factors affecting outcome.

    PubMed

    Massimino, Maura; Buttarelli, Francesca R; Antonelli, Manila; Gandola, Lorenza; Modena, Piergiorgio; Giangaspero, Felice

    2009-03-01

    Ependymomas account for 2-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors, amounting to 6-12% of all intracranial tumors in children and up to 30% of those in children younger than 3 years. Recent findings provide evidence that intracranial and spinal ependymomas share similar molecular profiles with the radial glia of their corresponding locations. The management of intracranial ependymoma is still not optimal. The 5-year progression-free survival for children with ependymoma ranges between 30 and 50% with a worse prognosis for patients with residual disease after surgery. The prognostic relevance of most factors are still being debated. Recent studies, in which the current WHO classification criteria were applied, reported the relationship between histological grade and outcome. Biomolecular studies have identified that gain of 1q25 and EGFR overexpression correlate to poor prognosis, whereas low expression of nucleolin correlated with a favorable outcome. Ependymomas have been considered a 'surgical disease', where completeness of excision can be reached in approximately half of the cases. At present the standard treatment is radiation therapy for all patients after gross-total or near-total resection. For high-risk patients, with residual tumor, an interesting, although experimental, approach could be chemotherapy followed by secondary surgery and postoperative conformal irradiation. PMID:19284379

  6. APOE genotype affects the pre-synaptic compartment of glutamatergic nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Dumanis, Sonya B; DiBattista, Amanda M; Miessau, Matthew; Moussa, Charbel E H; Rebeck, G William

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype affects outcomes of Alzheimer's disease and other conditions of brain damage. Using APOE knock-in mice, we have previously shown that APOE-ε4 Targeted Replacement (TR) mice have fewer dendritic spines and reduced branching in cortical neurons. As dendritic spines are post-synaptic sites of excitatory neurotransmission, we used APOE TR mice to examine whether APOE genotype affected the various elements of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. We found that levels of glutamine synthetase and glutamate uptake transporters were unchanged among the APOE genotypes. However, compared with APOE-ε3 TR mice, APOE-ε4 TR mice had decreased glutaminase levels (18%, p < 0.05), suggesting decreased conversion of glutamine to glutamate. APOE-ε4 TR mice also had increased levels of the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (20%, p < 0.05), suggesting that APOE genotype affects pre-synaptic terminal composition. To address whether these changes affected normal neurotransmission, we examined the production and metabolism of glutamate and glutamine at 4-5 months and 1 year. Using high-frequency (13)C/(1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that APOE-ε4 TR mice have decreased production of glutamate and increased levels of glutamine. These factors may contribute to the increased risk of neurodegeneration associated with APOE-ε4, and also act as surrogate markers for Alzheimer's disease risk. PMID:22862561

  7. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  8. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  9. Motivated behavioral outcomes affect ratings of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Hardy, David J

    2014-12-01

    A relatively new theory of motivation posits that purposeful human behavior may be partly explained by multidimensional individual differences "traits of action" (motives). Its 15 motives can be characterized according to their purpose: individual integrity, competitiveness, and cooperativeness. Existing evidence supports the model on which the motives are based and the reliability and validity of strategies to assess them. This experiment tested whether the hypothetical results of consistent, motivated cooperative and competitive behavior could affect ratings of attractiveness. Male and female participants (N = 98; M age = 18.8, SD = 1.4) were shown 24 opposite-sex facial photos ranging in attractiveness. The photos were paired with one of three conditions representing theoretical outcomes that would result from low, control, and high levels of cooperative and competitive motives. As predicted, outcome descriptions representing high motive strength of six motives statistically significantly affected ratings of attractiveness. This result was independent of sex of participant and consistent with the theory. PMID:25457092

  10. Host genotype and tumor phenotype of chemokine decoy receptors integrally affect breast cancer relapse

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chemokines may play vital roles in breast cancer progression and metastasis. The primary members of chemokine decoy receptors (CDR), DARC and D6, are expressed in breast tumors and lymphatic/hematogenous vessels. CDRs sequestrate the pro-malignant chemokines. We hypothesized that breast cancer patients carrying different levels of CDR expression in tumor and/or in host might have differing clinical outcomes. Methods This prospective observational study measured both expression and germline genotype of DARC and D6 in 463 primary breast cancer patients enrolled between 2004 and 2006. The endpoint was breast cancer relapse-free survival (RFS). Results There was a significant association between the co-expression of CDR (immunohistochemical expression of both DARC and D6) with RFS (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19 to 0.54). Furthermore, the co-genotype of two non-synonymous polymorphisms (with two major alleles of DARC-rs12075 and D6-rs2228468 versus the others) significantly related to relapse. Mechanistically, the variant-alleles of these two polymorphisms significantly decreased by 20–30% of CCL2/CCL5 (CDR ligands) levels relative to their major counterparts. Multivariate analysis highlighted that the co-expression and co-genotype of CDR were independent predictors of RFS, with HR of 0.46 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.80) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.85), respectively. The addition of host CDR genetic information to tumor-based factors (including co-expression of CDR) improved the relapse prediction ability (P = 0.02 of AUC comparison). Conclusion The host genotype and tumor phenotype of CDR integrally affect breast cancer relapse. Host-related factors should be considered for individualized prediction of prognosis. PMID:26314842

  11. PEPA-1* genotype affects return rate for hatchery steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Hayes, M.C.; Rubin, S.P.; Wetzel, L.A.; Baker, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Allozymes continue to be useful as genetic markers in a variety of studies; however, their utility often hinges on the selective neutrality of the allelic variation. Our study tested for neutrality between the two most common alleles (*100 and *110) at the cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase locus (PEPA-1*) in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. We tested for differential growth and survival among fish with the * 100/100, *100/ 110, and *110/110 genotypes rearing in a hatchery or a natural stream. We repeated the study for two year-classes, using heterozygous (*100/110) adults to make the experimental crosses. This design avoided differences in family contribution among genotypes because each cross produced all three genotypes. We divided the progeny from each family into two groups. One group was reared in a hatchery for 1 year and then released for migration to the sea and subsequent return to the hatchery as adults. The other group was released into a natural stream and monitored for 3 years. We found no significant differences in size or survival among PEPA-1* genotypes for either the naturally reared fish or the hatchery-reared fish immediately prior to release as smolts. For females, survival to returning adult also was similar among genotypes; however, hatchery-reared males with the *110/110 genotype returned at a higher rate than did males with the *100/ 100 genotype; heterozygous males were intermediate. These results indicate that selection occurs at the PEPA-1* locus or at one or more loci tightly linked to it. The finding of nearly equal frequencies for these two alleles in the source population suggests that selection differentials among genotypes reverse or vary from year to year; otherwise, steady directional selection would drive the *100 allele to low frequencies or extinction. Locus PEPA-1* seems inappropriate for genetic marks in studies of steelhead that span the full life cycle and probably should be avoided

  12. The relative importance of trait vs. genetic differentiation for the outcome of interactions among plant genotypes.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jessica M; Stachowicz, John J

    2016-01-01

    Functional trait differences and genetic distance are increasingly used as metrics to predict the. outcome of species interactions and the maintenance of diversity. We apply these ideas to intraspecific diversity for the seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass), by explicitly testing the influence of trait distance and genetic relatedness on the outcome of pairwise interactions among eelgrass genotypes. Increasing trait distance (but not relatedness) between eelgrass genotypes decreased the likelihood that both would persist over a year-long field experiment, contrary to our expectations based on niche partitioning. In plots in which one genotype excluded another, the biomass and growth of the remaining genotype increased with the trait distance and genetic relatedness of the initial pair, presumably due to a legacy of past interactions. Together these results suggest that sustained competition among functionally similar genotypes did not produce a clear winner, but rapid exclusion occurred among genotypes with distinct trait combinations. Borrowing from coexistence theory, we argue that fitness differences between genotypes with distinct traits overwhelmed any stabilizing effects of niche differentiation. Previously observed effects of eelgrass genetic diversity on performance may rely on nonadditive interactions among multiple genotypes or sufficient environmental heterogeneity to increase stabilizing forces and/or interactions. PMID:27008778

  13. Cropping history affects nodulation and symbiotic efficiency of distinct hairy vetch genotypes with resident soil rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of compatible rhizobia strains is essential for nodulation and BNF of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, HV). We evaluated how past HV cultivation affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation across host genotypes. Five groups of HV genotypes were inoculated with soil dilutions from six paired fields,...

  14. Southeast Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C: the impact of novel genotypes and race on treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Dev, Anouk T; McCaw, Rhonda; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Bowden, Scott; Sievert, William

    2002-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and other host and viral factors influence treatment outcome in chronic HCV infection. We evaluated the effect of race and genotype on interferon and ribavirin treatment outcome in 70 Southeast Asian (SEA) and 50 white patients. Genotype was based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) with a commonly used line probe assay (INNO-LiPA HCV II) that may mistype genotype 7, 8, or 9 as 1b. HCV core region sequencing resulted in reclassification of 8 genotype 1 and 25 genotype 1b SEA subjects as genotype 7, 8, or 9. Twenty-six SEA genotype 7, 8, and 9 (79%) and 10 SEA true genotype 1b (59%) patients achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR) compared with 15 (34%) white genotype 1b patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that SEA patients with genotype 7, 8, or 9 were more likely to achieve a SVR than white genotype 1b patients (OR 16.56; 95%CI 4.16, 65.91) as were SEA true genotype 1b patients compared with white genotype 1b patients (OR 4.63; 95%CI 1.19, 18.04). In conclusion, a proportion of SEA patients classified by INNO-LiPA as genotype 1b were in reality genotype 7, 8, or 9. In comparison with white genotype 1b patients, both SEA genotype 1b and SEA genotype 7, 8, and 9 patients showed a significantly greater SVR. HCV core sequencing was necessary to determine genotype accurately in persons potentially exposed to HCV genotypes 7, 8, or 9. This study also supports the concept that race and ethnicity are important determinants of treatment outcome in HCV infected patients. PMID:12395338

  15. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Patients With Genotype 3 Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ra Ri; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Chang Min; Ji, Sung Bok; Jung, Hee Cheul; Cho, Hyun Chin; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Hong Jun; Ha, Chang Yoon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 infection is very rare in high-income Asia Pacific. The aim of our retrospective observational study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical features, and treatment outcomes of patients with a genotype 3 HCV infection in the Gyeongnam Province of Korea. Ninety-eight consecutive patients diagnosed with a genotype 3 HCV infection at Gyeongsang National University Hospital, between January 2005 and December 2014, were enrolled into the study. Relevant characteristics of the study group included: 80.6% men, mean age of 41.8 years, and including 69 patients with chronic hepatitis, 25 with liver cirrhosis, and 4 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Risk factors for HCV infection, sustained virologic response rate, development of HCC, and mortality in patients with genotype 3 were retrospectively analyzed. Among all patients diagnosed with a HCV infection during the study period, the prevalence of genotype 3 was 7.3%. The incidence of genotype 3 was higher in young patients with a risk factor of IVDU (54.0%) and tattooing (62.3%). Among 45 treatment-naive genotype 3 patients, sustained virologic response was achieved with a combination of pegylated-interferon alpha and ribavirin in 75.6%. The cumulative 5-year incidence of HCC was 13.6%, and 8.9% for overall mortality. Liver cirrhosis at enrollment was an independent risk factor for HCC development. This is the first study to elucidate the clinical features and outcomes among the patients with HCV genotype 3 infection in Korea. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate transmission routes and outcomes for HCV genotype 3 infections. PMID:26871824

  16. Association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regenerative therapy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Koidou, Vasiliki-Petros

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this review is to systematically investigate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis with the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods Based on a focused question, an electronic search identified 155 unique citations. Three journals (Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and Journal of Periodontal Research), references of relevant studies and review articles were hand-searched. Two independent reviewers implementing eligibility inclusion criteria selected the studies. Results Of the 155, four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All studies were published between 2000 and 2004 and the samples’ size was 40 to 86 patients. Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene were included in all. Three out of four studies failed to identify an association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration, while one found an association. The heterogeneity and small number of studies included prevented the conduct of a meta-analysis. No studies were identified evaluating the effect of other genotypes and as a result only IL-1 genotype studies were included. Conclusions Within the limits of the present review, no direct conclusion for the effect of a susceptible IL-1 genotype status to the clinical outcome after periodontal regeneration could be drawn. The need of more qualitative studies to explore a possible association emerges. Key words:Periodontitis, genotype, periodontal therapy, regeneration, susceptibility, systematic review. PMID:26946210

  17. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  18. Serotonin Transporter Genotype Linked to Adolescent Substance Use Treatment Outcome through Externalizing Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tammy; Cornelius, Jack R; Martin, Christopher S; Ferrell, Robert; Maisto, Stephen A; Clark, Duncan B

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) short (S) allele, relative to the long (L) allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n = 142) who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA), assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA), and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p < 0.05) and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity) effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG) 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes. PMID:25072039

  19. GALNT14 Genotype Predicts Postoperative Outcome of Stage III Colorectal Cancer With Oxaliplatin as Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wey-Ran; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Liang, Kung-Hao; Lim, Siew-Na; Lai, Ming-Wei; Tsou, Yung-Kuan; Hsieh, Tzu-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Kai; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is widely used for stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) after curative surgery. CRC is a molecularly heterogeneous disease, and our current knowledge of therapeutic response-related genetic factors remains limited. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 14 (GALNT14)-rs9679162 genotype is a prognostic predictor for chemotherapy response in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we investigated whether this genotype was related to the therapeutic outcome of stage III CRC. A cohort of 300 stage III CRC patients receiving curative resection followed by oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was retrospectively recruited. GALNT14 genotypes and the clinicopathological factors were correlated with posttherapeutic prognosis. Of these patients, 18% patients had GALNT14-rs9679162 “TT” and 82% had the “GT” + “GG” genotypes. The analysis showed that the “TT” genotype was associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS, P = 0.009) but not with recurrence-free survival (RFS, P = 0.700). The subgroup analysis showed that the “TT” genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in the following subgroups: age ≤65 years, men, left side CRC, N2 stage, carcinoembryonic antigen >5 ng/mL, and mucinous histology (P = 0.012, 0.011, 0.009, 0.025, 0.013, and 0.007, respectively). Within the latter 2 subgroups, the “TT” genotype was the only independent predictor for OS. Finally, the “TT” genotype was associated with the T4 tumor stage (P = 0.017) and in patients with T4 tumors, the “TT” genotype was the only independent predictor for unfavorable RFS (P = 0.007). GALNT14 “TT” genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in stage III CRC patients receiving curative surgery and adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:27124048

  20. Genotypic variation in tomatoes affecting processing and antioxidant attributes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Dhua, R S

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment (hp) tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status. PMID:24279355

  1. Demotivation: Affective States and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph; Elwood, James; Hood, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Demotivation can negatively influence the learner's attitudes and behaviors, degrade classroom group dynamics and teacher's motivation, and result in long-term and widespread negative learning outcomes. 900 university EFL learners were surveyed to investigate the demotivating factors in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in Japan, and…

  2. AB128. Neonatal diabetes mellitus: genotype, phenotype and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Vu, Dung Chi; Bui, Thao Phuong; Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Flanagan, Sarah; Ellard, Sian; Craig, Maria; Nguyen, Dat Phu; Nguyen, Hoan Thi

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare (1:300,000-400,000 newborns) but potentially devastating metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia combined with low levels of insulin. Two main groups have been recognized on clinical grounds, transient NDM (TNDM) and permanent NDM (PNDM). This article aims to describe clinical features and laboratory manifestations of patient with NDM and evaluate outcome of management. Methods and materials Clinical features, biochemical finding, mutation analysis and management outcome of 24 cases 24 unrelated families were study. All exon of KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS genes were amplified from genomic DNA and directly sequenced. If the mutation of KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS has failed to detect, methylation—specific PCR will be done to detect the loss of methylated region on chromosome 6q24. Results Twenty-four cases (11 girls and 13 boys) onset at 67.3±44 days of age with gestation age of 38.79±2.2 weeks and birth weight of 2,720.8±571.7 g. 9/24 cases admitted with the feature of polydipsia, polyuria and 17 cases with diabetes keton acidosis with pH of 7.13±0.18, blood glucose of 34.8±10.0 mmoL/L, HbA1C of 7.9%±2.9%. Mutation analysis showed six patients with heterozygous for a KCNJ11 missense mutation, seven patients with ABCC8 mutations, four patients with abnormal of chromosom 6, six patients with INS mutation, one patient with EIF2AK3 mutation. The patients have been followed up during 54.4±46.6 months (4 months to 14 years). Five patients with TNDM stop insulin at 8.25±5.8 months of diagnosis: four cases have abnormal of 6q24, one case has ABCC8 mutation. Now all cases have normoglycemic (blood glucose: 5.0 and 5.9 mmoL/L), one patient has mild development delay and four patients has normal development. Nineteen patients with PNDM: 13 cases successfully transferred onto sulfonylureas and did not need insulin injections, six cases require insulin. In there, two cases with DEND syndrome have

  3. Affective Outcomes of a World Geography Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Alfred S., Jr.; Maier, Joan N.

    2006-01-01

    Affective goals and objectives, rarely stated in geographic education standards, textbooks or course syllabi, include improving students' attitudes toward other people. World geography courses expose students to other parts of the world and to people different from themselves. Although affective goals may not be stated for such courses, could it…

  4. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  5. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genotype Predicts Greater Aggression Through Impulsive Reactivity to Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J.; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R.; Lynam, Donald R.; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype’s established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect. PMID:25637908

  6. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. PMID:25332404

  7. Rockford, Ill.: Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Thomas F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the operational tests of the two-way interactive cable television system using a firefighter training series administered to the Rockford (Illinois) fire department. Cognitive and affective measurement instruments described indicate a significant difference favoring two-way systems of in-service training programs. (JMF)

  8. Do gravidity and age affect pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Santow, G; Bracher, M

    1989-01-01

    Fetal loss has generally been found to vary with gravidity, previous experience of fetal loss, and maternal age, but the literature is divided on the reasons for these associations. In this paper we examine pregnancy histories obtained retrospectively from a nationally representative one-in-one-thousand sample of women in Australia aged 20 to 59 years. The relations of fetal loss ratios with both gravidity and previous outcome are consistent with heterogeneity of risk over the study population and a stopping rule, whereby high-risk women undertake more pregnancies than low-risk women to achieve the same number of live births. Evidence is presented that elevated loss ratios in the teens indicate not higher risk but a selection for short gestation intervals, while loss ratios beyond the mid-thirties do not point unequivocally to a substantial increase in risk at the older reproductive ages. PMID:2814570

  9. Surgical technique affects outcomes in acromioclavicular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Grassbaugh, Jason A; Cole, Chad; Wohlrab, Kurt; Eichinger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Optimal treatment for acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation is unknown. Numerous surgical procedures for AC injuries have been described with little comparison. This study sought to compare the clinical and radiographic results of various surgical techniques in order to identify the optimal surgical technique. Ninety patients met inclusion criteria of AC reconstruction at this institution. A retrospective review of outcomes was performed using the electronic records system. Radiographs were measured for pre- and postoperative grade and percent elevation versus the contralateral side. Overall revision rate was 9%. Suture button fixation had a revision rate of 0% compared to 14% (p = .01). Reconstruction procedures performed with distal clavicle excision showed a higher revision rate, 17% compared to 0% (p = .003). There were no statistically significant clinical differences. AC reconstructions performed with suture button construct were superior to other surgical techniques. Procedures performed with distal clavicle excision were inferior to those without. PMID:23449059

  10. The Hepatitis B Virus Genotype Affects the Persistence of Viral Replication in Immunodeficient NOG Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoshinobu; Miyagi, Takuya; Hikita, Hayato; Yoshioka, Teppei; Mukai, Kaori; Nawa, Takatoshi; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Ohkawa, Kazuyoshi; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Ryo, Akihide; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims At least eight genotypes of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been identified. HBV genotype C is the most common genotype in Japan, although the incidence of HBV genotype A is increasing. The reason underlying the differences in viral multiplication of the HBV genotypes is unclear, especially in vivo. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the differences in HBV load and the persistence of viremia in vivo between genotypes A and C. Methods Immunodeficient NOG mice were transfected by hydrodynamic injection with the HBV expression plasmids pHBA1.2 or pHBC1.2, which contain overlength (1.2-mer) copies of the genomes of HBV genotype A or C, respectively. Results One day after transfection, the number of HBcAg-positive hepatocytes and serum HBV DNA levels were similar between mice transfected with pHBA1.2 and pHBC1.2. Serum levels of HBV DNA, HBsAg and HBeAg in mice transfected with pHBA1.2 were maintained over 5 months. In contrast, those in mice with pHBC1.2 gradually decreased over time and reached undetectable levels within 3 months after transfection. HBcAg-stained hepatocytes were detected in mice transfected with pHBA1.2, but not pHBC1.2, 5 months post-transfection. Double-staining immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of cleaved caspase3-stained, HBcAg-positive hepatocytes in the pHBC1.2-transfected mice was higher than in the pHBA1.2-transfected mice 3 days post-transfection. Moreover, the plasmid DNA and covalently closed circular DNA levels were decreased in the livers of pHBC1.2-transfected mice. These results suggested that hepatocytes expressing HBV genotype C were eliminated by apoptosis in the absence of immune cells more often than in hepatocytes expressing HBV genotype A. Conclusions Immunodeficient mice transfected with HBV genotype A develop persistent viremia, whereas those transfected with HBV genotype C exhibit transient viremia accompanied by apoptosis of HBV-expressing hepatocytes. This differences may affect the

  11. The Neural Basis of Risky Choice with Affective Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Renata S.; Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Endestad, Tor; Biele, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective) expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus) correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes’ emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain of the decision

  12. Sublineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains and unfavorable outcomes of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Hang, Nguyen T L; Maeda, Shinji; Keicho, Naoto; Thuong, Pham H; Endo, Hiroyoshi

    2015-05-01

    The influence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lineages/sublineages on unfavorable tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of Beijing genotype sublineages and other factors contributing to treatment outcome. Patients newly diagnosed with sputum smear-positive and culture-positive TB in Hanoi, Vietnam, participated in the study. After receiving anti-TB treatment, they were intensively followed up for the next 16 months. MTB isolates collected before treatment were subjected to drug susceptibility testing, and further analyzed to determine MTB (sub) lineages and their clonal similarities. Of 430 patients, 17 had treatment failure and 30 had TB recurrence. Rifampicin resistance was associated with treatment failure {adjusted odds ratio = 6.64 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-29.73]}. The modern Beijing genotype was significantly associated with recurrent TB within 16 months [adjusted hazard ratio = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.17-9.27)], particularly after adjustment for the relevant antibiotic resistance. Human immunodeficiency virus coinfection and severity on chest radiographs were not significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Our findings provide further understanding of the influence of MTB strains on unfavorable treatment outcomes. Multiple risk factors should be considered for the optimal management of TB. PMID:25732626

  13. Hepatitis B virus genotypes in southwest Iran: Molecular, serological and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mojiri, Anahita; Behzad-Behbahani, Abbas; Saberifirozi, Mehdei; Ardabili, Maryam; Beheshti, Mahmood; Rahsaz, Marjan; Banihashemi, Mehrdad; Azarpira, Negar; Geramizadeh, Bita; Khadang, Baharak; Moaddeb, Afsaneh; Ghaedi, Mojgan; Heidari, Tahereh; Torab, Ardeshir; Salah, Alireza; Amirzadeh, Saeid; Jowkar, Zahra; Mehrabani, Davood; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Dehyadegari, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the associations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype with HBeAg and anti-HBe status, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and HBV-DNA detection in different groups of HBV-infected patients in southwest Iran. METHODS: A total of 89 HBsAg-positive serum samples were collected from the same number of patients. All sera were then investigated to determine HBV DNA and serological markers. For all the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples, biochemical, histopathological assays and genotyping were also performed. RESULTS: Genotype D was the only type of HBV found in different clinical forms of acute and chronic infections. There was a high prevalence of HBeAg-negative HBV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis (52.7%). Out of 55 patients with chronic hepatitis, seven (12.7%) were diagnosed with cirrhosis. A significant association between the presence of anti-HBe antibody and an increase in ALT level, among either HBeAg-negative (P = 0.01) or HBeAg-positive (P = 0.026) patients, was demonstrated. No significant differences were observed between the clinical outcomes of HBeAg-positive and -negative individuals (P = 0.24). CONCLUSION: Genotype D has been recognized as the only type of HBV found in different clinical forms of HBV infections, including cirrhosis, among the residents of southwest Iran. Anti-HBe possibly plays a role in disease progression in some patients with chronic hepatitis, at least for a period of disease. PMID:18330939

  14. Interaction between host genotype and environmental conditions affects bacterial density in Wolbachia symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Laurence; Henri, Hélène; Charif, Delphine; Boulétreau, Michel; Vavre, Fabrice

    2007-04-22

    Regulation of microbial population density is a necessity in stable symbiotic interactions. In Wolbachia symbiosis, both bacterial and host genotypes are involved in density regulation, but environmental factors may also affect bacterial population density. Here, we studied the interaction between three strains of Wolbachia in two divergent homozygous lines of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma at two different temperatures. Wolbachia density varied between the two host genotypes at only one temperature. Moreover, at this temperature, reciprocal-cross F1 insects displayed identical Wolbachia densities, which were intermediate between the densities in the two parental lines. While these findings confirm that the host genotype plays an important role in Wolbachia density, they also highlight its interaction with environmental conditions, making possible the evolution of local adaptations for the regulation of Wolbachia density. PMID:17251124

  15. Defining and Assessing Affective Outcomes in Undergraduate Pediatric Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Claire L.

    1990-01-01

    The affective aspect of the curriculum is defined as the development of appropriate and measurable values such as ethical behavior, honesty, tolerance, and becoming a life-long learner. In outcome assessment of the affective category, the goal is to evaluate the transition of the student to a professional. (MLW)

  16. Angiogenesis genotyping and clinical outcome during regorafenib treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Riccardo; Salvatore, Lisa; Del Prete, Michela; Prochilo, Tiziana; D'Anzeo, Marco; Loretelli, Cristian; Loupakis, Fotios; Aprile, Giuseppe; Maccaroni, Elena; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Bianconi, Maristella; Bittoni, Alessandro; Faloppi, Luca; Demurtas, Laura; Montironi, Rodolfo; Scarpelli, Marina; Falcone, Alfredo; Zaniboni, Alberto; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Regorafenib monotherapy is a potential option for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. However, the lack of predictive factors and the severe toxicities related to treatment have made its use in clinical practice challenging. Polymorphisms of VEGF and its receptor (VEGFR) genes might regulate angiogenesis and thus potentially influence outcome during anti-angiogenesis treatment such as regorafenib. Aim of our study was to evaluate the role of VEGF and VEGFR genotyping in determining clinical outcome for colorectal cancer patients receiving regorafenib. We retrospectively collected clinical data and samples (tumour or blood) of 138 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with regorafenib. We analysed the correlation of different VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGFR-1,2,3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with patients' progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results from angiogenesis genotyping showed that only VEGF-A rs2010963 maintained an independent correlation with PFS and OS. Among clinical factors only ECOG PS was independently correlated with OS, whereas no correlation with PFS was evident. Grouping together those results allowed further patients stratification into 3 prognostic groups: favourable, intermediate and unfavourable. VEGF-A rs2010963 genotyping may represent an important tool for a more accurate selection of optimal candidates for regorafenib therapy. PMID:27117754

  17. Angiogenesis genotyping and clinical outcome during regorafenib treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Giampieri, Riccardo; Salvatore, Lisa; Del Prete, Michela; Prochilo, Tiziana; D’Anzeo, Marco; Loretelli, Cristian; Loupakis, Fotios; Aprile, Giuseppe; Maccaroni, Elena; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Bianconi, Maristella; Bittoni, Alessandro; Faloppi, Luca; Demurtas, Laura; Montironi, Rodolfo; Scarpelli, Marina; Falcone, Alfredo; Zaniboni, Alberto; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Regorafenib monotherapy is a potential option for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. However, the lack of predictive factors and the severe toxicities related to treatment have made its use in clinical practice challenging. Polymorphisms of VEGF and its receptor (VEGFR) genes might regulate angiogenesis and thus potentially influence outcome during anti-angiogenesis treatment such as regorafenib. Aim of our study was to evaluate the role of VEGF and VEGFR genotyping in determining clinical outcome for colorectal cancer patients receiving regorafenib. We retrospectively collected clinical data and samples (tumour or blood) of 138 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with regorafenib. We analysed the correlation of different VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGFR-1,2,3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with patients’ progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results from angiogenesis genotyping showed that only VEGF-A rs2010963 maintained an independent correlation with PFS and OS. Among clinical factors only ECOG PS was independently correlated with OS, whereas no correlation with PFS was evident. Grouping together those results allowed further patients stratification into 3 prognostic groups: favourable, intermediate and unfavourable. VEGF-A rs2010963 genotyping may represent an important tool for a more accurate selection of optimal candidates for regorafenib therapy. PMID:27117754

  18. Genotypic Diversity Is Associated with Clinical Outcome and Phenotype in Cryptococcal Meningitis across Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Mathew A.; Sabiiti, Wilber; Robertson, Emma J.; Fuentes-Cabrejo, Karen M.; O’Hanlon, Simon J.; Jarvis, Joseph N.; Loyse, Angela; Meintjes, Graeme; Harrison, Thomas S.; May, Robin C.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Bicanic, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a major cause of mortality throughout the developing world, yet little is known about the genetic markers underlying Cryptococcal virulence and patient outcome. We studied a cohort of 230 Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) isolates from HIV-positive South African clinical trial patients with detailed clinical follow-up using multi-locus sequence typing and in vitro phenotypic virulence assays, correlating these data with clinical and fungal markers of disease in the patient. South African Cn displayed high levels of genetic diversity and locus variability compared to globally distributed types, and we identified 50 sequence types grouped within the main molecular types VNI, VNII and VNB, with 72% of isolates typed into one of seven 'high frequency' sequence types. Spatial analysis of patients’ cryptococcal genotype was not shown to be clustered geographically, which might argue against recent local acquisition and in favour of reactivation of latent infection. Through comparison of MLST genotyping data with clinical parameters, we found a relationship between genetic lineage and clinical outcome, with patients infected with the VNB lineage having significantly worse survival (n=8, HR 3.35, CI 1.51-7.20, p=0.003), and this was maintained even after adjustment for known prognostic indicators and treatment regimen. Comparison of fungal genotype with in vitro phenotype (phagocytosis, laccase activity and CSF survival) performed on a subset of 89 isolates revealed evidence of lineage-associated virulence phenotype, with the VNII lineage displaying increased laccase activity (p=0.001) and ex vivo CSF survival (p=0.0001). These findings show that Cryptococcus neoformans is a phenotypically heterogeneous pathogen, and that lineage plays an important role in cryptococcal virulence during human infection. Furthermore, a detailed understanding of the genetic diversity in Southern Africa will support further investigation into how genetic diversity is

  19. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  20. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of School Bond Elections in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lode, Marlin D.

    In spite of a nationwide concern for the crumbling infrastructure of school buildings, the prospects of passing bond issues to repair or replace buildings are elusive. This study examined positive and negative factors that affected the outcomes of school bond elections in four purposefully-selected school districts in Iowa. Variables that…

  1. Affective Neural Responses Modulated by Serotonin Transporter Genotype in Clinical Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Oathes, Desmond J.; Hilt, Lori M.; Nitschke, Jack B.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531) to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/LG carriers showed less activity than their LA/LA counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/LG healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations. PMID:25675343

  2. The Scion/Rootstock Genotypes and Habitats Affect Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fang; Pan, Zhiyong; Bai, Fuxi; An, Jianyong; Liu, Jihong; Guo, Wenwu; Bisseling, Ton; Deng, Xiuxin; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus roots have rare root hairs and thus heavily depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for mineral nutrient uptake. However, the AMF community structure of citrus is largely unknown. By using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragment, we investigated the genetic diversity of AMF colonizing citrus roots, and evaluated the impact of habitats and rootstock and scion genotypes on the AMF community structure. Over 7,40,000 effective sequences were obtained from 77 citrus root samples. These sequences were assigned to 75 AMF virtual taxa, of which 66 belong to Glomus, highlighting an absolute dominance of this AMF genus in symbiosis with citrus roots. The citrus AMF community structure is significantly affected by habitats and host genotypes. Interestingly, our data suggests that the genotype of the scion exerts a greater impact on the AMF community structure than that of the rootstock where the physical root-AMF association occurs. This study not only provides a comprehensive assessment for the community composition of the AMF in citrus roots under different conditions, but also sheds novel insights into how the AMF community might be indirectly influenced by the spatially separated yet metabolically connected partner—the scion—of the grafted citrus tree. PMID:26648932

  3. Genotype-phenotype correlation and pregnancy outcomes of partial trisomy 14q: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bregand-White, Julia; Saller, Devereux N; Clemens, Michele; Surti, Urvashi; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, several advances in ultrasound techniques, increasing availability of whole genome microarray testing, and overall expansion of our knowledge about the human genome have drastically enhanced our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities prenatally. Despite that, genotype-phenotype correlation is difficult to establish for many chromosomal aberrations, particularly for those that are rare, as it requires thorough analysis of a significant number of cases. This in turn increases the burden of the obstetric provider to appropriately counsel a patient regarding prognosis and pregnancy options in these complicated situations. Our experience in prenatal diagnosis and management of a fetus with multiple anomalies and partial trisomy for the 14q11-q24.2 prompted a comprehensive analysis of the relevant literature. Although complete non-mosaic trisomy 14 is associated with first trimester miscarriages, partial trisomy 14q is a rare condition with undefined genotype-phenotype correlation, preventing accurate prenatal counseling, and informed decision making. We performed a systematic literature review, that aimed to summarize prenatal and postnatal findings of individual case reports on 51 patients with partial trisomy 14q in order to elucidate genotype-phenotype correlation, and to supply healthcare professionals with recommendation on essential fetal and parental testing for accurate diagnosis, pregnancy outcomes, and proper family counseling. Comparison of the clinical findings among the patients with partial 14q trisomy suggest that the resulting phenotype is likely to be influenced by the extent of the 14q trisomy segment, associated chromosomal imbalances, parental origin of the rearrangement, and dosage of the genes within the imprinted 14q32 cluster. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27286879

  4. Tamoxifen metabolite concentrations, CYP2D6 genotype, and breast cancer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Madlensky, L; Natarajan, L; Tchu, S; Pu, M; Mortimer, J; Flatt, S W; Nikoloff, D M; Hillman, G; Fontecha, M R; Lawrence, H J; Parker, B A; Wu, A H B; Pierce, J P

    2011-05-01

    We explored whether breast cancer outcomes are associated with endoxifen and other metabolites of tamoxifen and examined potential correlates of endoxifen concentration levels in serum including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizer phenotype and body mass index (BMI). Concentration levels of tamoxifen, endoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OH-tamoxifen), and N-desmethyltamoxifen (ND-tamoxifen) were measured from samples taken from 1,370 patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer who were participating in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study. We tested these concentration levels for possible associations with breast cancer outcomes and found that breast cancer outcomes were not associated with the concentration levels of tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and ND-tamoxifen. For endoxifen, a threshold was identified, with women in the upper four quintiles of endoxifen concentration appearing to have a 26% lower recurrence rate than women in the bottom quintile (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), (0.55-1.00)). The predictors of this higher-risk bottom quintile were poor/intermediate metabolizer genotype, higher BMI, and lower tamoxifen concentrations as compared with the mean for the cohort as a whole. This study suggests that there is a minimal concentration threshold above which endoxifen is effective against the recurrence of breast cancer and that ~80% of tamoxifen takers attain this threshold. PMID:21430657

  5. Tamoxifen Metabolite Concentrations, CYP2D6 Genotype and Breast Cancer Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Madlensky, Lisa; Natarajan, Loki; Tchu, Simone; Pu, Minya; Mortimer, Joanne; Flatt, Shirley W.; Nikoloff, D. Michele; Hillman, Grantland; Fontecha, Marcel R.; Lawrence, H. Jeffrey; Parker, Barbara A.; Wu, Alan H.B.; Pierce, John P.

    2011-01-01

    We explored whether breast cancer outcomes are associated with endoxifen and other metabolites of tamoxifen, and to examine potential correlates of endoxifen concentrations including CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype and body mass index (BMI). Tamoxifen, endoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen concentrations were measured from 1370 estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients participating in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study, and tested for associations with breast cancer outcomes. Breast cancer outcomes were not associated with tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen or N-desmethyltamoxifen concentrations. For endoxifen, a threshold was identified suggesting that women in the upper four quintiles of endoxifen had a 26% lower recurrence rate than women in the bottom quintile. (HR=0.74; 95% CI, [0.55, 1.00]). Predictors of membership in this higher risk bottom quintile were poor/intermediate metabolizer genotype, higher BMI, and low tamoxifen concentrations. This study suggests a minimal threshold at which endoxifen is effective against breast cancer recurrence, which 80% of tamoxifen-takers achieve. PMID:21430657

  6. Genotype over-diagnosis in amygdala responsiveness: affective processing in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Furmark, Tomas; Henningsson, Susanne; Appel, Lieuwe; Åhs, Fredrik; Linnman, Clas; Pissiota, Anna; Faria, Vanda; Oreland, Lars; Bani, Massimo; Pich, Emilio Merlo; Eriksson, Elias; Fredrikson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the amygdala is thought to be a crucial brain region for negative affect, neuroimaging studies do not always show enhanced amygdala response to aversive stimuli in patients with anxiety disorders. Serotonin (5-HT)–related genotypes may contribute to interindividual variability in amygdala responsiveness. The short (s) allele of the 5-HT transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the T variant of the G-703T polymorphism in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) gene have previously been associated with amygdala hyperresponsivity to negative faces in healthy controls. We investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on amygdala responsiveness to angry faces in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) compared with healthy controls. Methods We used positron emission tomography with oxygen 15-labelled water to assess regional cerebral blood flow in 34 patients with SAD and 18 controls who viewed photographs of angry and neutral faces presented in counterbalanced order. We genotyped all participants with respect to the 5-HTTLPR and TPH2 polymorphisms. Results Patients with SAD and controls had increased left amygdala activation in response to angry compared with neutral faces. Genotype but not diagnosis explained a significant portion of the variance in amygdala responsiveness, the response being more pronounced in carriers of s and/or T alleles. Limitations Our analyses were limited owing to the small sample and the fact that we were unable to match participants on genotype before enrolment. In addition, other imaging techniques not used in our study may have revealed additional effects of emotional stimuli. Conclusion Amygdala responsiveness to angry faces was more strongly related to serotonergic polymorphisms than to diagnosis of SAD. Emotion activation studies comparing amygdala excitability in patient and control groups could benefit from taking variation in 5-HT–related genes into account. PMID:19125211

  7. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  8. Birth order, family environments, academic and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2003-06-01

    Relations were examined among birth order, family social status, family learning environments, and a set of affective and academic outcomes. Data were collected as part of an Australian longitudinal study (4,171 females and 3,718 males). Analysis suggested that birth order continued to have small but significant associations with adolescents' self-concept and educational aspirations and with young adults' educational attainment, after taking into account differences in family social status and family learning environments. PMID:12931949

  9. Outcome of patients with distinct molecular genotypes and cytogenetically normal AML after allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christoph; Labopin, Myriam; Socié, Gerard; Daguindau, Etienne; Volin, Liisa; Huynh, Anne; Bourhis, Jean Henri; Milpied, Noel; Cornelissen, Jan; Chevallier, Patrice; Maertens, Johan; Jindra, Pavel; Blaise, Didier; Lenhoff, Stig; Ifrah, Norbert; Baron, Frédéric; Ciceri, Fabio; Gorin, Claude; Savani, Bipin; Giebel, Sebastian; Polge, Emmanuelle; Esteve, Jordi; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-10-22

    To analyze the influence of distinct combinations of molecular aberrations on outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), a retrospective registry analysis was performed on 702 adults undergoing HSCT in first complete remission (CR). Patients were grouped according to presence or absence of NPM1 mutations (NPM1(mut)) and FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD). Double-negative patients were evaluated for mutations of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α gene (CEBPα). The influence of genotypes on relapse, non-relapse mortality, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS), and a prognostic classification combining NPM1/FLT3-ITD profile and classical risk factors were calculated. Two-year OS from HSCT was 81 ± 5% in NPM1(mut)/FLT3(wt), 75 ± 3% in NPM1(wt)/FLT3(wt), 66 ± 3% in NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD, and 54 ± 7% in NPM1(wt)/FLT3-ITD (P = .003). Analysis of CEBPα among patients with NPM1(wt)/FLT3(wt) revealed excellent results both in patients with CEBPα(mut) and with a triple negative genotype (2-year OS: 100%/77 ± 3%). In a Cox-model of predefined variables, age, FLT3-ITD and >1 course of chemotherapy to reach CR were risk factors associated with inferior outcome, regardless of NPM1 mutational status, variations of transplant protocols, or development of graft-versus-host disease. In a prognostic risk classification, 2-year OS/LFS rates were 88 ± 3%/79 ± 4% without any, 77 ± 2%/73 ± 3% with one, and 53 ± 4%/50 ± 4 with ≥2 risk factors (P = .003/.002). PMID:26351297

  10. Vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms do not influence the outcome and serum vitamin D level in pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy combined with protease inhibitor for patients with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Arai, Taeang; Atsukawa, Masanori; Tsubota, Akihito; Kondo, Chisa; Shimada, Noritomo; Abe, Hiroshi; Itokawa, Norio; Nakagawa, Ai; Okubo, Tomomi; Aizawa, Yoshio; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Although several vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms were reported to affect the outcome of pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PR) therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients, there are no reports on the impact of the vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms in PR therapy combined with protease inhibitor (PI). Vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms were determined in 177 genotype 1b-infected chronic hepatitis C patients who received 12 weeks of PR therapy with telaprevir, a first-generation PI, followed by 12 weeks of PR therapy. The sustained virologic response (SVR) rate was 83.1% (147 of 177 patients). The frequencies of vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms were: 83 non-TT and 94 TT genotypes for GC, 97 non-AA and 80 AA genotypes for DHCR7, 151 non-AA and 26 AA genotypes for CYP2R1, 162 non-GG and 15 GG genotypes for CYP27B1, and 105 non-GG and 72 GG genotypes for VDR gene. Multivariate analysis extracted IL28B TT genotype (P = 2.05 × 10(-6)) and serum 25(OH) D3 level (P = 0.024) as independent factors contributing to the achieving of SVR. The SVR rate in IL28B TT genotype patients with serum 25(OH) D3 level of < 25 ng/ml was significantly low compared to other patients. None of the vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms affected the treatment outcome and serum 25(OH) D3 level. In conclusions, the IL28B polymorphism and serum 25(OH) D3 level contributed significantly and independently to SVR in PR combined with PI for genotype 1b-infected chronic hepatitis C patients. However, none of vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms had an impact on the treatment outcome and serum 25(OH) D3 level. PMID:25964133

  11. Affective neural responses modulated by serotonin transporter genotype in clinical anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Oathes, Desmond J; Hilt, Lori M; Nitschke, Jack B

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531) to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/L(G) carriers showed less activity than their L(A)/L(A) counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/L(G) healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations. PMID:25675343

  12. Vestibular rehabilitation strategies and factors that affect the outcome.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, Anna; Skalidi, Nikoleta; Velegrakis, Georgios A

    2012-11-01

    Ever since the introduction of Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, vestibular rehabilitation (VR) has been gaining popularity in the treatment of the dizzy patient. Numerous studies support the effectiveness of VR in improving balance/walking skills, eye-head coordination and the quality of life of the patient. Different rehabilitation protocols have been used to treat patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Assessment of the patients' progress is based on the patients' selfperception of dizziness and their functional skills. Factors such as age, medication, time of onset of vertigo and home based VR have been evaluated on their effect on the rehabilitation's outcome. The aim of this review is to evaluate rehabilitation strategies and discuss the factors that affect the outcome. PMID:22526580

  13. Felt affect in good- and poor-outcome schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sovani, Anuradha; Thatte, Shubha; Deshpande, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Family members and caregivers may misinterpret blunted affect as a true lack of emotion in patients with schizophrenia. Aim: To assess felt affect or experienced emotion among low- and high-functioning schizophrenics. Methods: Two hundred people with schizophrenia were assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning scale of DSM-IV and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: The findings reveal that people with good- and poor-outcome schizophrenia show no significant differences in the emotions experienced, implying that felt affect is comparable regardless of the severity of symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. In fact, low-functioning patients scored a mean (SD) of 46.07 (13.13) on the PANAS, in contrast to a slightly lower scored by high-functioning patients (44.33 [12.03]). Conclusion: Although patients may show flat affect, and therefore be mistakenly considered withdrawn and apathetic by the observer, they do, in fact, experience as much, or perhaps even more emotion than their higher-functioning counterparts.

  14. Do waiting times affect health outcomes? Evidence from coronary bypass.

    PubMed

    Moscelli, Giuseppe; Siciliani, Luigi; Tonei, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Long waiting times for non-emergency services are a feature of several publicly-funded health systems. A key policy concern is that long waiting times may worsen health outcomes: when patients receive treatment, their health condition may have deteriorated and health gains reduced. This study investigates whether patients in need of coronary bypass with longer waiting times are associated with poorer health outcomes in the English National Health Service over 2000-2010. Exploiting information from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), we measure health outcomes with in-hospital mortality and 28-day emergency readmission following discharge. Our results, obtained combining hospital fixed effects and instrumental variable methods, find no evidence of waiting times being associated with higher in-hospital mortality and weak association between waiting times and emergency readmission following a surgery. The results inform the debate on the relative merits of different types of rationing in healthcare systems. They are to some extent supportive of waiting times as an acceptable rationing mechanism, although further research is required to explore whether long waiting times affect other aspects of individuals' life. PMID:27299977

  15. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity Does Not Affect Productivity and Drought Response in Competitive Stands of Trifolium repens.

    PubMed

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J; Bruine de Bruin, Fabienne; Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning. We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets) were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions. Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly affected by soil

  16. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity Does Not Affect Productivity and Drought Response in Competitive Stands of Trifolium repens

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J.; Bruine de Bruin, Fabienne; Vermeulen, Peter J.; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning. We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets) were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions. Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly affected by soil

  17. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about the effect of prior affective episodes on the subsequent course of unipolar and bipolar disorder. The present thesis avoided most of these pitfalls or adjusted for them in analyses of hospital data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, collected nationwide from 1971 to 1993. Hospitalisation was used as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk of recurrence was the same for the two disorders. However, analyses with frailty models revealed that for unipolar men, this progressive course was due to a subgroup of patients

  18. Specific combinations of donor and recipient KIR-HLA genotypes predict for large differences in outcome after cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Takuya; Marin, David; Cao, Kai; Li, Li; Mehta, Pramod; Shaim, Hila; Sobieski, Catherine; Jones, Roy; Oran, Betul; Hosing, Chitra; Rondon, Gabriela; Alsuliman, Abdullah; Paust, Silke; Andersson, Borje; Popat, Uday; Kebriaei, Partow; Muftuoglu, Muharrem; Basar, Rafet; Kondo, Kayo; Nieto, Yago; Shah, Nina; Olson, Amanda; Alousi, Amin; Liu, Enli; Sarvaria, Anushruti; Parmar, Simrit; Armstrong-James, Darius; Imahashi, Nobuhiko; Molldrem, Jeffrey; Champlin, Richard; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Rezvani, Katayoun

    2016-07-14

    The ability of cord blood transplantation (CBT) to prevent relapse depends partly on donor natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity. NK effector function depends on specific killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and HLA interactions. Thus, it is important to identify optimal combinations of KIR-HLA genotypes in donors and recipients that could improve CBT outcome. We studied clinical data, KIR and HLA genotypes, and NK-cell reconstitution in CBT patients (n = 110). Results were validated in an independent cohort (n = 94). HLA-KIR genotyping of recipient germline and transplanted cord blood (CB) grafts predicted for large differences in outcome. Patients homozygous for HLA-C2 group alleles had higher 1-year relapse rate and worse survival after CBT than did HLA-C1/C1 or HLA-C1/C2 (HLA-C1/x) patients: 67.8% vs 26.0% and 15.0% vs 52.9%, respectively. This inferior outcome was associated with delayed posttransplant recovery of NK cells expressing the HLA-C2-specific KIR2DL1/S1 receptors. HLA-C1/x patients receiving a CB graft with the combined HLA-C1-KIR2DL2/L3/S2 genotype had lower 1-year relapse rate (6.7% vs 40.1%) and superior survival (74.2% vs 41.3%) compared with recipients of grafts lacking KIR2DS2 or HLA-C1 HLA-C2/C2 patients had lower relapse rate (44.7% vs 93.4%) and better survival (30.1% vs 0%) if they received a graft with the combined HLA-C2-KIR2DL1/S1 genotype. Relapsed/refractory disease at CBT, recipient HLA-C2/C2 genotype, and donor HLA-KIR genotype were independent predictors of outcome. Thus, we propose the inclusion of KIR genotyping in graft selection criteria for CBT. HLA-C1/x patients should receive an HLA-C1-KIR2DL2/L3/S2 CB graft, while HLA-C2/C2 patients may benefit from an HLA-C2-KIR2DL1/S1 graft. PMID:27247137

  19. Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Surgical Outcome in Tympanoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Naderpour, Masoud; Jabbari Moghadam, Yalda; Ghanbarpour, Ensieh; Shahidi, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tympanoplasty is a standard procedure to repair tympanic membrane perforation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of tympanoplasty (hearing improvement and tympanic membrane closure rate) in patients suffering from chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane by considering the prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, based on the results of tympanoplasty with temporal graft fascia in 60 patients in the ENT department of the Medical Science University of Tabriz, we evaluated prognostic factors, such as age, sex, smoking, size, and site of perforation, for the outcome of this surgery. Results: The rate of surgical success- integration of the graft- was 93.3%. Improvement of hearing, as demonstrated through audiometry, occurred in 93% of cases. We did not find any factors to be statistically significant to affect surgical outcome. Conclusion: Even by considering the influence of different factors on the results of a tympanoplasty operation, according to the statistical results of this study, there is not a significant difference in the results of the operation, neither in the health of the tympanic membrane after surgery nor in hearing development. PMID:27280095

  20. Recurrence of hepatitis C virus genotype-4 infection following orthotopic liver transplantation: Natural history and predictors of outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mudawi, Hatim; Helmy, Ahmed; Kamel, Yasser; Al Saghier, Mohammed; Al Sofayan, Mohammed; Al Sebayel, Mohammed; Khalaf, Hatem; Al Bahili, Hamad; Al Shiek, Yasser; Alawi, Khalil; AlJedai, Ahmed; Mohamed, Hazem; Al Hamoudi, Waleed; Abdo, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are few reports on hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) recurrences after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Therefore, we undertook a study to determine the epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of patients with biopsy-proven recurrent HCV infection and analyzed the factors that influence recurrent disease severity. We also compared disease recurrence and outcomes between HCV-4 and other genotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent OLT (locally or abroad) for HCV related hepatic cirrhosis from 1991 to 2006 and had recurrent HCV infection were identified. Clinical, laboratory and pathological data before and after OLT were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 116 patients who underwent OLT for hepatitis C, 46 (39.7%) patients satisfied the criteria of recurrent hepatitis C. Twenty-nine (63%) patients were infected with HCV genotype 4. Mean (SD) for age was 54.9 (10.9) years. Nineteen of the HCV genotype 4 patients (65.5%) were males, 21 (72.4%) received deceased donor grafts, and 7 (24.1%) developed ≥1 acute rejection episodes. Pathologically, 7 (24.1%) and 4 (13.8%) patients had inflammation grade 3-4 and fibrosis stage 3-4, respectively. Follow-up biopsy in 9 (31%) HCV genotype 4 patients showed stable, worse and improved fibrosis stage in 5, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. Of the 7 patients in the recurrent HCV group who died, 6 were infected with genotype 4 and 4 of them died of HCV-related disease. CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that HCV recurrence following OLT in HCV-4 patients is not significantly different from its recurrence for other genotypes. PMID:19318754

  1. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  2. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome.

    PubMed

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual's inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test-retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable across

  3. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    PubMed

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (<15 weeks) and was not universal among the snail lines. Lines that did not show gigantism were also characterised by a high parasite production rate and low survivorship, perhaps indicating energy reallocation into parasite production and costly immune defense. We observed no differences in total parasite production among lines throughout the entire course of infection, although lines differed in their parasite reproductive rate. The average rate of parasite production varied among lines from 1300 to 2450 cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of

  4. Melanin content in melanoma metastases affects the outcome of radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brożyna, Anna A; Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Jan; Slominski, Andrzej T

    2016-04-01

    Melanin possess radioprotective and scavenging properties, and its presence can affect the behavior of melanoma cells, its surrounding environment and susceptibility to the therapy, as showed in vitro experiments. To determine whether melanin presence in melanoma affects the efficiency of radiotherapy (RTH) we evaluated the survival time after RTH treatment in metastatic melanoma patients (n = 57). In another cohort of melanoma patients (n = 84), the relationship between melanin level and pT and pN status was determined. A significantly longer survival time was found in patients with amelanotic metastatic melanomas in comparison to the melanotic ones, who were treated with either RTH or chemotherapy (CHTH) and RTH. These differences were more significant in a group of melanoma patients treated only with RTH. A detailed analysis of primary melanomas revealed that melanin levels were significantly higher in melanoma cells invading reticular dermis than the papillary dermis. A significant reduction of melanin pigmentation in pT3 and pT4 melanomas in comparison to pT1 and T2 tumors was observed. However, melanin levels measured in pT3-pT4 melanomas developing metastases (pN1-3, pM1) were higher than in pN0 and pM0 cases. The presence of melanin in metastatic melanoma cells decreases the outcome of radiotherapy, and melanin synthesis is related to higher disease advancement. Based on our previous cell-based and clinical research and present research we also suggest that inhibition of melanogenesis can improve radiotherapy modalities. The mechanism of relationship between melanogenesis and efficacy of RTH requires additional studies, including larger melanoma patients population and orthotopic, imageable mouse models of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26910282

  5. Melanin content in melanoma metastases affects the outcome of radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Brożyna, Anna A.; Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Jan; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2016-01-01

    Melanin possess radioprotective and scavenging properties, and its presence can affect the behavior of melanoma cells, its surrounding environment and susceptibility to the therapy, as showed in vitro experiments. To determine whether melanin presence in melanoma affects the efficiency of radiotherapy (RTH) we evaluated the survival time after RTH treatment in metastatic melanoma patients (n = 57). In another cohort of melanoma patients (n = 84), the relationship between melanin level and pT and pN status was determined. A significantly longer survival time was found in patients with amelanotic metastatic melanomas in comparison to the melanotic ones, who were treated with either RTH or chemotherapy (CHTH) and RTH. These differences were more significant in a group of melanoma patients treated only with RTH. A detailed analysis of primary melanomas revealed that melanin levels were significantly higher in melanoma cells invading reticular dermis than the papillary dermis. A significant reduction of melanin pigmentation in pT3 and pT4 melanomas in comparison to pT1 and T2 tumors was observed. However, melanin levels measured in pT3-pT4 melanomas developing metastases (pN1-3, pM1) were higher than in pN0 and pM0 cases. The presence of melanin in metastatic melanoma cells decreases the outcome of radiotherapy, and melanin synthesis is related to higher disease advancement. Based on our previous cell-based and clinical research and present research we also suggest that inhibition of melanogenesis can improve radiotherapy modalities. The mechanism of relationship between melanogenesis and efficacy of RTH requires additional studies, including larger melanoma patients population and orthotopic, imageable mouse models of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26910282

  6. COMT Val108/158 Met Genotype Affects Neural but not Cognitive Processing in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Need, Anna C.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T.; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496–1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output. PMID:19641018

  7. Influence of genotype-dependent effects of covariates on the outcome of segregation analysis of the body mass index.

    PubMed Central

    Borecki, I B; Bonney, G E; Rice, T; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    1993-01-01

    Several recent studies of the body mass index (BMI) have provided support for a recessive major gene influencing heaviness in humans. Segregation analysis of the BMI was carried out recently in a series of randomly sampled French-Canadian families to determine whether we could replicate the major gene finding by using a residual phenotype adjusted for the effects of age and sex. The best model included a recessive major effect for high BMI values with residual familial resemblance; however, Mendelian transmission could not be confirmed, and the no-transmission hypothesis (where all the tau's are constrained to be equal) was not rejected. Considering that the BMI is a complex phenotype affected by many factors and that there are known variations in body composition during growth and aging, we undertook a reanalysis of the data, using a model that allowed the estimation of genotype-specific age and gender effects. New tests on the transmission parameters satisfy the criteria for interfering Mendelian segregation. The results suggest that individuals with the "high" recessive genotype show the greatest degree of heaviness at birth, with a subsequent trend toward lower values throughout life, while individuals with the dominant "normal" genotypes show no appreciable trends with age. In addition, the "high" genotype appears to confer a greater degree of heaviness in females as compared with males. These results, along with other observations from the data, suggest that, while a recessive single gene influence may be discernible, the phenotypic expression of the BMI is likely to be complicated by genotype x environment interactions and, possibly, by the action of other loci. Further, the data also are consistent with the hypothesis that modifying factors may include the adoption of a more prudent life-style by individuals genetically predisposed to heaviness and a secular increase in the incidence, prevalence, and potency of environmentally based triggers leading to a

  8. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  9. Vitamin D Levels Vary during Antiviral Treatment but Are Unable to Predict Treatment Outcome in HCV Genotype 1 Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grammatikos, Georgios; Lange, Christian; Susser, Simone; Schwendy, Susanne; Dikopoulos, Nektarios; Buggisch, Peter; Encke, Jens; Teuber, Gerlinde; Goeser, Tobias; Thimme, Robert; Klinker, Hartwig; Boecher, Wulf O.; Schulte-Frohlinde, Ewert; Penna-Martinez, Marissa; Badenhoop, Klaus; Zeuzem, Stefan; Berg, Thomas; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background Different parameters have been determined for prediction of treatment outcome in hepatitis c virus genotype 1 infected patients undergoing pegylated interferon, ribavirin combination therapy. Results on the importance of vitamin D levels are conflicting. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of vitamin D levels before and during therapy together with single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in vitamin D metabolism in the context of other known treatment predictors has been performed. Methods In a well characterized prospective cohort of 398 genotype 1 infected patients treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin for 24–72 weeks (INDIV-2 study) 25-OH-vitamin D levels and different single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed together with known biochemical parameters for a correlation with virologic treatment outcome. Results Fluctuations of more than 5 (10) ng/ml in 25-OH-vitamin D-levels have been observed in 66 (39) % of patients during the course of antiviral therapy and neither pretreatment nor under treatment 25-OH-vitamin D-levels were associated with treatment outcome. The DHCR7-TT-polymorphism within the 7-dehydrocholesterol-reductase showed a significant association (P = 0.031) to sustained viral response in univariate analysis. Among numerous further parameters analyzed we found that age (OR = 1.028, CI = 1.002–1.056, P = 0.035), cholesterol (OR = 0.983, CI = 0.975–0.991, P<0.001), ferritin (OR = 1.002, CI = 1.000–1.004, P = 0.033), gGT (OR = 1.467, CI = 1.073–2.006, P = 0.016) and IL28B-genotype (OR = 2.442, CI = 1.271–4.695, P = 0.007) constituted the strongest predictors of treatment response. Conclusions While 25-OH-vitamin D-levels levels show considerable variations during the long-lasting course of antiviral therapy they do not show any significant association to treatment outcome in genotype 1 infected patients. PMID:24516573

  10. Genotype at the PMEL17 locus affects social and explorative behaviour in chickens.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A-C; Kerje, S; Andersson, L; Jensen, P

    2010-04-01

    1. We studied behaviour and brain gene expression in homozygous PMEL17 genotypes, using chickens originating from an advanced White Leghorn x red junglefowl intercross. The behavioural studies consisted of three social and one explorative behaviour test. There were significant differences between the genotypes in both social and explorative behaviour. 2. Gene expression studies showed no PMEL17 expression in brain, so the genotype differences must depend on extra-neural gene expression or expression during embryonic development. However, linkage or spurious family effects (genetic drift) can not be excluded. 3. The study strongly suggests a correlated effect between plumage colour and behaviour, and we conclude that PMEL17 may have a pleiotropic effect on social and explorative behaviour in chickens. PMID:20461577

  11. Inducible nitric oxide synthetase genotype and Helicobacter pylori infection affect gastric cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Alireza; Hosseini, Vahid; Janbabai, Ghasem; Fazli, Bahman; Ajami, Abulghasem; Hosseini-khah, Zahra; Gilbreath, Jeremy; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of the inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) C150T polymorphism with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric cancer (GC) risk in Iran. METHODS: In order to determine whether there was a correlation between iNOS genotype and GC in Iran, we conducted a case-control study using samples from 329 individuals. For each sample, the C150T iNOS polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction digestion. Patients were grouped by cancer presence, demographic and behavior characteristics, and H. pylori infection status. Statistical tests were conducted to determine whether any behavioral factors or a particular iNOS genotype was associated with GC in the study population. RESULTS: In this population, we found that smoking, hot beverage consumption, a familial history of GC and H. pylori infection status were significantly associated with GC development (P = 0.015, P < 0.001, P = 0.0034, and P < 0.015, respectively). The distribution of the C150T iNOS genotypes among the two study groups was not statistically significant alone, but was impacted by H. pylori infection status. When compared to the non-H. pylori infected group, cancer patients who had a heterozygous CT genotype and were also infected with H. pylori were 2.1 times more at risk of developing GC [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, P = 0.03] while those with a homozygous TT genotype and infected with H. pylori were 5.0 times more at risk of developing GC (OR = 5.0, P = 0.029). In contrast, this association was not seen in patients in the control group. CONCLUSION: A CT or TT polymorphism at position 150 in the iNOS gene significantly increases the risk of GC and may be a marker for GC susceptibility. PMID:23002365

  12. Physiological traits and meat quality of pigs as affected by genotype and housing system.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Prunier, A; Bonhomme, N; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Dourmad, J Y

    2011-05-01

    The influence of pig housing system: alternative (bedding with outdoor area, BO) vs. conventional (slatted floor, SF) on growth performance, reactivity to pre-slaughter handling and meat quality was evaluated in two genotypes differing in the sire line, Duroc (CD) or synthetic (CS) with 40 pigs/genotype. Animal response to housing did not differ between genotypes. BO pigs had higher growth rate and feed intake, but similar carcass composition to SF pigs. Levels of stress related hormones and plasma metabolites at slaughter were not different between BO and SF pigs, suggesting that housing did not influence pig reactivity to pre-slaughter handling. Similar (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris) or slightly reduced (Semimembranosus) pH values, higher drip, lipid content and juiciness were observed in BO compared with SF pork. CD pigs had more tender meat than CS. In conclusion, the BO system resulted in higher feed intake, faster growth rate, increased intramuscular fat, and improved eating quality in both genotypes. PMID:21185130

  13. Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Gregory, Jesse F; Zeisel, Steven H; Gibson, Charles R; Mader, Thomas H; Kinchen, Jason M; Ueland, Per M; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina A; Smith, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic changes have occurred in a subset of astronauts on International Space Station missions. Visual deterioration is considered the greatest human health risk of spaceflight. Affected astronauts exhibit higher concentrations of 1-carbon metabolites (e.g., homocysteine) before flight. We hypothesized that genetic variations in 1-carbon metabolism genes contribute to susceptibility to ophthalmic changes in astronauts. We investigated 5 polymorphisms in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes and their association with ophthalmic changes after flight in 49 astronauts. The number of G alleles of MTRR 66 and C alleles of SHMT1 1420 both contributed to the odds of visual disturbances. Preflight dehydroepiandrosterone was positively associated with cotton wool spots, and serum testosterone response during flight was associated with refractive change. Block regression showed that B-vitamin status and genetics were significant predictors of many of the ophthalmic outcomes that we observed. In one example, genetics trended toward improving (P = 0.10) and B-vitamin status significantly improved (P < 0.001) the predictive model for refractive change after flight. We document an association between MTRR 66 and SHMT1 1420 polymorphisms and spaceflight-induced vision changes. This line of research could lead to therapeutic options for both space travelers and terrestrial patients. PMID:26316272

  14. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate. PMID:26470162

  15. Genotype: A Crucial but Not Unique Factor Affecting the Clinical Phenotypes in Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoxia; Ouyang, Yan; Wang, Zhaohui; Ren, Hong; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Weiming; Xu, Yaowen; Ni, Liyan; Yu, Xialian; Chen, Xiaonong; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Li; Li, Xiao; Xu, Jing; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) gene (GLA) mutations have been identified in Fabry disease (FD), but studies on genotype-phenotype correlation are limited. This study evaluated the features of GLA gene mutations and genotype-phenotype relationship in Chinese FD patients. Gene sequencing results, demographic information, clinical history, and laboratory findings were collected from 73 Chinese FD patients. Totally 47 mutations were identified, including 23 novel mutations which might be pathogenic. For male patients, those with frameshift and nonsense mutations presented the classical FD, whereas those with missense mutations presented both of classical and atypical phenotypes. Interestingly, two male patients with missense mutation p.R356G from two unrelated families, and two with p.R301Q from one family presented different phenotypes. A statistically significant association was found between the levels of α-gal A enzyme activity and ocular changes in males, though no significant association was found between residual enzyme activity level and genotype or clinical phenotypes. For female patients, six out of seven with frameshift mutations and one out of nine with missense mutation presented the classical FD, and α-gal A activity in those patients was found to be significantly lower than that of patients with atypical phenotypes (13.73 vs. 46.32 nmol/ml/h/mg). Our findings suggest that the α-gal A activity might be associated with the clinical severity in female patients with FD. But no obvious associations between activity level of α-gal A and genotype or clinical phenotypes were found for male patients. PMID:27560961

  16. Genotype: A Crucial but Not Unique Factor Affecting the Clinical Phenotypes in Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaohui; Ren, Hong; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Weiming; Xu, Yaowen; Ni, Liyan; Yu, Xialian; Chen, Xiaonong; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Li; Li, Xiao; Xu, Jing; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) gene (GLA) mutations have been identified in Fabry disease (FD), but studies on genotype-phenotype correlation are limited. This study evaluated the features of GLA gene mutations and genotype-phenotype relationship in Chinese FD patients. Gene sequencing results, demographic information, clinical history, and laboratory findings were collected from 73 Chinese FD patients. Totally 47 mutations were identified, including 23 novel mutations which might be pathogenic. For male patients, those with frameshift and nonsense mutations presented the classical FD, whereas those with missense mutations presented both of classical and atypical phenotypes. Interestingly, two male patients with missense mutation p.R356G from two unrelated families, and two with p.R301Q from one family presented different phenotypes. A statistically significant association was found between the levels of α-gal A enzyme activity and ocular changes in males, though no significant association was found between residual enzyme activity level and genotype or clinical phenotypes. For female patients, six out of seven with frameshift mutations and one out of nine with missense mutation presented the classical FD, and α-gal A activity in those patients was found to be significantly lower than that of patients with atypical phenotypes (13.73 vs. 46.32 nmol/ml/h/mg). Our findings suggest that the α-gal A activity might be associated with the clinical severity in female patients with FD. But no obvious associations between activity level of α-gal A and genotype or clinical phenotypes were found for male patients. PMID:27560961

  17. Factors affecting patient outcome in primary cutaneous aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Tatara, Alexander M.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary cutaneous aspergillosis (PCA) is an uncommon infection of the skin. There is a paucity of organized literature regarding this entity in regard to patient characteristics, associated Aspergillus species, and treatment modalities on outcome (disease recurrence, disease dissemination, and mortality). We reviewed all published reports of PCA from 1967 to 2015. Cases were deemed eligible if they included the following: patient baseline characteristics (age, sex, underlying condition), evidence of proven or probable PCA, primary treatment strategy, and outcome. We identified 130 eligible cases reported from 1967 to 2015. The patients were predominantly male (63.8%) with a mean age of 30.4 ± 22.1 years. Rates of PCA recurrence, dissemination, and mortality were 10.8%, 18.5%, and 31.5%, respectively. In half of the cases, there was an association with a foreign body. Seven different Aspergillus species were reported to cause PCA. Systemic antifungal therapy without surgery was the most common form of therapy (60% of cases). Disease dissemination was more common in patients with underlying systemic conditions and occurred on average 41.4 days after PCA diagnosis (range of 3–120 days). In a multivariate linear regression model of mortality including only patients with immunosuppressive conditions, dissemination and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome were statistically significantly associated with increased mortality. Nearly one-third of patients with PCA die with the disease. Dissemination and host status are critical in patient outcome. PMID:27367980

  18. Cryptococcal Genotype Influences Immunologic Response and Human Clinical Outcome after Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Darin L.; Moskalenko, Oleksandr; Corcoran, Jennifer M.; McDonald, Tami; Rolfes, Melissa A.; Meya, David B.; Kajumbula, Henry; Kambugu, Andrew; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Knight, Joseph F.; Boulware, David R.; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT In sub-Saharan Africa, cryptococcal meningitis (CM) continues to be a predominant cause of AIDS-related mortality. Understanding virulence and improving clinical treatments remain important. To characterize the role of the fungal strain genotype in clinical disease, we analyzed 140 Cryptococcus isolates from 111 Ugandans with AIDS and CM. Isolates consisted of 107 nonredundant Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii strains and 8 C. neoformans var. grubii/neoformans hybrid strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize genotypes, yielding 15 sequence types and 4 clonal clusters. The largest clonal cluster consisted of 74 isolates. The results of Burst and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the C. neoformans var. grubii strains could be separated into three nonredundant evolutionary groups (Burst group 1 to group 3). Patient mortality was differentially associated with the different evolutionary groups (P = 0.04), with the highest mortality observed among Burst group 1, Burst group 2, and hybrid strains. Compared to Burst group 3 strains, Burst group 1 strains were associated with higher mortality (P = 0.02), exhibited increased capsule shedding (P = 0.02), and elicited a more pronounced Th2 response during ex vivo cytokine release assays with strain-specific capsule stimulation (P = 0.02). The results of these analyses suggest that cryptococcal strain variation can be an important determinant of human immune responses and mortality. PMID:23015735

  19. Race Affects Outcome among Infants with Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Robert H; Balint, Jane; Horslen, Simon; Wales, Paul W.; Soden, Jason; Duggan, Christopher; Li, Ruosha; Belle, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intestinal failure is a rare, devastating condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine if ethnic and racial differences were associated with patient survival and likelihood of receiving an intestinal transplant in a contemporary cohort of children with intestinal failure. Methods This was an analysis of a multicenter cohort study with data collected from chart review conducted by the Pediatric Intestinal Consortium (PIFCon). Entry criteria included infants < 12 mo receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) for > 60 continuous days and followed for at least 2 years. Outcomes included death and intestinal transplant (ITx). Race and ethnicity were recorded as they were in the medical record. For purposes of statistical comparisons and regression modeling, categories of race were consolidated into “white” and “non-white” children. Results Of 272 subjects enrolled, 204 white and 46 non-white children were available for analysis. The 48 month cumulative incidence probability (CIP) of death without ITx was 0.40 for non-white and 0.16 for white children (p<0.001); the CIP of ITx was 0.07 for non-white vs 0.31 for white children (p=0.003). The associations between race and outcomes remained after accounting for low-birth weight, diagnosis, and being seen at a transplant center. Conclusion Race is associated with death and receiving an ITx in a large cohort of children with intestinal failure. This study highlights the need to investigate reasons for this apparent racial disparity in outcome among children with intestinal failure. PMID:24918984

  20. How much do immigration and trade affect labor market outcomes?

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Freeman, R B; Katz, L F

    1997-01-01

    "This paper provides new estimates of the impact of immigration and trade on the U.S. labor market.... We examine the relation between economic outcomes for native workers and immigrant flows to regional labor markets.... We...use the factor proportions approach to examine the contributions of immigration and trade to recent changes in U.S. educational wage differentials and attempt to provide a broader assessment of the impact of immigration on the incomes of U.S. natives." Comments and discussion by John DiNardo, John M. Abowd, and others are included (pp. 68-85). PMID:12321914

  1. Cognitive and Affective Learning Outcomes of Gifted Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcourt, Marcia A. B.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Goldberg, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    This project was a 2-year investigation of elementary school children placed in programs for high-ability learners. The primary purpose of the study was to investigate academic and affective changes in students during their first 2 years in a gifted program. Students were assessed during the fall of one year and the spring of the next year.…

  2. Higher Education for Sustainability: Seeking Affective Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to interpret aspects of education for sustainability in relation to educational theories of the affective domain (values, attitudes and behaviours) and suggest how the use of these theories, and relevant experience, in other educational areas could benefit education for sustainability.…

  3. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  4. Family-School Links: How Do They Affect Educational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; Dunn, Judith F., Ed.

    This book explores issues related to the links between families and schools and how they affect children's educational achievement, and is organized as follows: Part 1, titled "Families and Schools: How Can They Work Together To Promote Children's School Success?" contains the following chapters: chapter 1, "Family Involvement in Chidrens' and…

  5. Characterization of high-yield performance as affected by genotype and environment in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Zeng, Fang-rong; Pao, Zong-zhi; Zhang, Guo-ping

    2008-05-01

    We characterized yield-relevant characters and their variations over genotypes and environments (locations and years) by examining two rice varieties (9746 and Jinfeng) with high yield potential. 9746 and Jinfeng were planted in two locations of Shanghai, China, during 2005 and 2006. The results show that there was a large variation in grain yield between locations and years. The realization of high yield potential for the two types of rice was closely related to the improved sink size, such as more panicles per square meter or grains per panicle. Stem and leaf biomasses were mainly accumulated from tillering stage to heading stage, and showed slow decline during grain filling. Meanwhile, some photosynthetic characters including net photosynthesis rate (Pn), leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf area (SLA), fluorescence parameter (maximum quantum yield of PSII, Fv/Fm), chlorophyll content (expressed as SPAD value), as well as nutrient (N, P, K) uptake were also measured to determine their variations over genotypes and environments and their relationships with grain yield. Although there were significant differences between years or locations for most measurements, SLA at tillering and heading stages, Fv/Fm and LAI at heading stage, stem biomass at heading and maturity stages, and leaf nitrogen concentration at tillering and heading stages remained little changed, indicating their possible applications as selectable characters in breeding programs. It was also found that stem nitrogen accumulation at tillering stage is one of the most important and stable traits for high yield formation. PMID:18500775

  6. Secondary science classroom dissections: Informing policy by evaluating cognitive outcomes and exploring affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed that dissection was superior, and one revealed that the alternative was superior. No differences in attitudes toward science, dissection or school were found. Attitudes toward non-human animals were not measured. This study focused on the dissections of earthworms and frogs in middle and high school classrooms. Pre and post-tests of conceptual understanding revealed failing scores and no significant pre/post differences. Because these tests required critical thinking skills, and the dissection activities did not, it is difficult to determine if the poor performance on these tests indicates the inability of the students to think critically, and/or if it indicates the ineffectiveness of dissection. Further studies of dissections that focus on critical thinking would be necessary to make this distinction. Classroom observations, student written narratives, and student and adult interviews revealed mixed attitudes toward non-human animals. Student behaviors during dissection were similar to those behaviors exhibited during non-dissection activities. Most students and adults readily supported worm dissections while they expressed some trepidation about frog dissections. Students and adults universally expressed affection for their pets and opposed the use of their own pets for dissection/research. There was slight support for the use of dogs and cats for dissection/research, but only those students who expressed hate for cats said that they could dissect cats. None of the students or adults expressed a willingness to dissect dogs. Some students

  7. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotype Affects Skeletal Muscle Strength In Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno; Louro, Hugo; Marinho, Daniel Almeida; Cardoso Marques, Mário; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years) and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years). The athletes were classified as: short (≤ 200m) and middle (400m to 1500m) distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland). DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote’s. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05). In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05), in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females. Key points DD homozygote’s and D allele carriers from both genders shows significantly higher right grip strength. Right grip strength remains significantly higher in the D allele carrier’s female endurance group. Female’s D allele

  8. Factors Affecting Phenotype Variability in a Family with CMT2B: Gender and LRSAM1 Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Peddareddygari, Leema Reddy; Oberoi, Kinsi; Vellore, Jaasrini Reddy; Grewal, Raji P.

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) is an autosomal dominant axonal neuropathy caused by mutations in various genes. The subtype CMT2B results from missense mutations in RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family gene, whereas missense mutations in the Leucine-rich repeat and sterile alpha motif-containing protein 1 (LRSAM1) gene cause CMT2P. We describe the genotype/phenotype analysis of a family in which a previously described mutation in the RAB7A gene and a novel mutation in the LRSAM1 gene were identified. In this family, none of the individuals had ulceromutilating features, and there was a marked variability in the age of onset. We discuss the possible etiology of the observed phenotypic variability including the role of gender and possible RAB7A/LRSAM1 gene interactions. PMID:27462242

  9. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in meningo-encephalitis affected striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Cesare, Angela; Otranto, Domenico; Casalone, Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Mignone, Walter; Tittarelli, Cristiana; Meloni, Silvana; Castagna, Giuseppe; Forster, Fiona; Kennedy, Seamus; Traversa, Donato

    2011-12-29

    This study reports the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in the brain of three striped dolphins (Stenella ceoruleoalba) found stranded on the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy between 2007 and 2008. These animals showed a severe, subacute to chronic, non-purulent, multifocal meningo-encephalitis, with the cerebral parenchyma of two dolphins harbouring protozoan cysts and zoites immunohistochemically linked to T. gondii. Molecular, phylogenetic and mutation scanning analyses showed the occurrence of Type II and of an atypical Type II T. gondii isolates in one and two dolphins, respectively. In spite of the different molecular patterns characterizing the above T. gondii genotypes, the brain lesions observed in the three animals showed common microscopic features, with no remarkable differences among them. The role of T. gondii in causing the meningo-encephalitis is herein discussed. PMID:21802209

  10. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  11. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  12. Hospital volume affects outcome after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Pamilo, Konsta J; Peltola, Mikko; Paloneva, Juha; Mäkelä, Keijo; Häkkinen, Unto; Remes, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The influence of hospital volume on the outcome of total knee joint replacement surgery is controversial. We evaluated nationwide data on the effect of hospital volume on length of stay, re-admission, revision, manipulation under anesthesia (MUA), and discharge disposition for total knee replacement (TKR) in Finland. Patients and methods 59,696 TKRs for primary osteoarthritis performed between 1998 and 2010 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. Hospitals were classified into 4 groups according to the number of primary and revision knee arthroplasties performed on an annual basis throughout the study period: 1–99 (group 1), 100–249 (group 2), 250–449 (group 3), and ≥ 450 (group 4). The association between hospital procedure volume and length of stay (LOS), length of uninterrupted institutional care (LUIC), re-admissions, revisions, MUA, and discharge disposition were analyzed. Results The greater the volume of the hospital, the shorter was the average LOS and LUIC. Smaller hospital volume was not unambiguously associated with increased revision, re-admission, or MUA rates. The smaller the annual hospital volume, the more often patients were discharged home. Interpretation LOS and LUIC ought to be shortened in lower-volume hospitals. There is potential for a reduction in length of stay in extended institutional care facilities. PMID:25323798

  13. Does Treatment Duration Affect Outcome After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, David J.; Li Tianyu; Horwitz, Eric M.; Chen, David Y.T.; Pollack, Alan; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: The protraction of external beam radiotherapy (RT) time is detrimental in several disease sites. In prostate cancer, the overall treatment time can be considerable, as can the potential for treatment breaks. We evaluated the effect of elapsed treatment time on outcome after RT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 1989 and November 2004, 1,796 men with prostate cancer were treated with RT alone. The nontreatment day ratio (NTDR) was defined as the number of nontreatment days divided by the total elapsed days of RT. This ratio was used to account for the relationship between treatment duration and total RT dose. Men were stratified into low risk (n = 789), intermediate risk (n = 798), and high risk (n = 209) using a single-factor model. Results: The 10-year freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) rate was 68% for a NTDR <33% vs. 58% for NTDR {>=}33% (p = 0.02; BF was defined as a prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL). In the low-risk group, the 10-year FFBF rate was 82% for NTDR <33% vs. 57% for NTDR {>=}33% (p = 0.0019). The NTDR was independently predictive for FFBF (p = 0.03), in addition to T stage (p = 0.005) and initial prostate-specific antigen level (p < 0.0001) on multivariate analysis, including Gleason score and radiation dose. The NTDR was not a significant predictor of FFBF when examined in the intermediate-risk group, high-risk group, or all risk groups combined. Conclusions: A proportionally longer treatment duration was identified as an adverse factor in low-risk patients. Treatment breaks resulting in a NTDR of {>=}33% (e.g., four or more breaks during a 40-fraction treatment, 5 d/wk) should be avoided.

  14. Outcomes in cochlear implantation: variables affecting performance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Waltzman, Susan B

    2012-02-01

    This article highlights variables that affect cochlear implant performance, emerging factors warranting consideration, and variables shown not to affect performance. Research on the outcomes following cochlear implantation has identified a wide spectrum of variables known to affect pos0timplantation performance. These variables relate to the device itself as well as individual patient characteristics. Factors believed to affect spiral ganglion cell survival and function have been shown to influence postoperative performance. Binaural hearing affects performance. Social and educational factors also affect postoperative performance. Novel variables capable of affecting performance continue to emerge with increased understanding of auditory pathway development and neural plasticity. PMID:22115688

  15. Psychosocial Environment and Affective Outcomes in Technology-Rich Classrooms: Testing a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigated classroom environment antecedent variables and student affective outcomes in Australian high schools. The Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was used to assess 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation,…

  16. Hepatitis C virus genotype and HIV coinfection affect cytokine mRNA levels in unstimulated PBMC but do not shift the T1/T2 balance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Silvia; Watson, Mark W; Clark, Ben; Flexman, James P; Cheng, Wendy; French, Martyn A H; Price, Patricia

    2006-08-01

    Rapid progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in patients with HIV/HCV may reflect different cytokine responses and be influenced by HCV genotype. This is addressed by a study of patients with HIV/HCV coinfection and infection with HCV genotype 2 or 3 (2/3). They are compared with coinfected patients infected with genotype 1 and HCV monoinfected patients matched for HCV genotype. IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-4delta2 mRNA were quantified by real-time PCR in unstimulated PBMC and after in vitro stimulation with HCV core or nonstructural 3/4A antigen. In unstimulated PBMC, levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 mRNA were lowest in HIV/HCV genotype 1 patients, intermediate in HIV/HCV genotype 2/3 patients and highest in HCV genotype 2/3 patients. Neither HCV genotype nor HIV affected levels of IL-10 mRNA in unstimulated PBMC or IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA in PBMC stimulated with HCV antigens. Levels of IL-4 and IL-4delta2 mRNA correlated in mitogen-stimulated PBMC from all patient groups but both were low in HIV/HCV genotype 1 patients. Serum soluble CD30 levels (a putative marker of a T2 cytokine environment) did not differ between patient groups. The data do not suggest a shift in the T1/T2 balance driven by HIV coinfection or HCV genotype but either may affect IL-4 bioavailability. PMID:16834574

  17. Intervention Outcomes among HIV-affected Families Over 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rice, Eric; Comulada, W. Scott; Best, Karin; Elia, Carla; Peters, Katherine; Li, Li; Green, Sara; Valladares, Ena

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of a family-based intervention over time among HIV-affected families. Mothers Living with HIV (MLH; n=339) in Los Angeles and their school-aged children were randomized to either an intervention or control condition and followed for 18 months. MLH and their children in the intervention received 16 cognitive-behavioral, small-group sessions designed to help them maintain physical and mental health, parent while ill, address HIV-related stressors, and reduce HIV-transmission behaviors. At recruitment, MLH reported few problem behaviors related to physical health, mental health, or sexual or drug transmission acts. Compared to MLH in the control condition, intervention MLH were significantly more likely to monitor their own CD4 cell counts and their children were more likely to decrease alcohol and drug use. Most MLH and their children had relatively healthy family relationships. Family-based HIV interventions should be limited to MLH who are experiencing substantial problems. PMID:22020758

  18. Prediction and diagnosis of clinical outcomes affecting restoration margins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, J B; Sarrett, D C

    2012-04-01

    The longevity of dental restorations is largely dependent on the continuity at the interface between the restorative material and adjacent tooth structure (the restoration margin). Clinical decisions on restoration repair or replacement are usually based upon the weakest point along that margin interface. Physical properties of a restorative material, such as polymerisation shrinkage, water sorption, solubility, elastic modulus and shear strength, all have an effect on stress distribution and can significantly affect margin integrity. This review will focus on two aspects of margin deterioration in the oral environment: the in vitro testing of margin seal using emersion techniques to simulate the oral environment and to predict clinical margin failure and the relationship between clinically observable microleakage and secondary caries. The many variables associated with in vitro testing of marginal leakage and the interpretation of the data are presented in detail. The most recent studies of marginal leakage mirror earlier methodology and lack validity and reliability. The lack of standardised testing procedures makes it impossible to compare studies or to predict the clinical performance of adhesive materials. Continual repeated in vitro studies contribute little to the science in this area. Clinical evidence is cited to refute earlier conclusions that clinical microleakage (penetrating margin discoloration) leads to caries development and is an indication for restoration replacement. Margin defects, without visible evidence of soft dentin on the wall or base of the defect, should be monitored, repaired or resealed, in lieu of total restoration replacement. PMID:22066463

  19. Midterm Outcome of Femoral Artery Stenting and Factors Affecting Patency

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae Seoung; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and midterm results of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting with self-expanding nitinol stents and to identify the factors affecting patency. Materials and Methods: SFA stenting was performed in 165 limbs of 117 patients from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were followed-up for the first occurrence of occlusion or stenosis based on computed tomography and duplex scan results and a decrease in ankle brachial index of >15%. Results: During the follow-up period (mean, 15.3±3.2 months), no early thrombotic reocclusions occurred within 30 days, but in-stent restenosis developed in 78 limbs. The primary patency rates at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 78%, 66%, 42%, and 22%, respectively, and the secondary patency rates were 85%, 72%, 58%, and 58%, respectively. TASC II C or D lesions, stent length >8 cm, number of patent tibial arteries and diabetes were significantly associated with reintervention. Conclusion: The midterm results of stenting for SFA occlusive disease were disappointing because the primary and secondary patency rates at two years were 22% and 58%, respectively. Reintervention after SFA stenting remains a major problem, particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus or long TASC II C or D lesions. PMID:26719837

  20. Gender Affects Early Postoperative Outcomes of Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hee-Uk; Jung, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Background The literature does not provide consistent information on the impact of patients' gender on recovery after rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender affects pain and functional recovery in the early postoperative period after rotator cuff repair. Methods Eighty patients (40 men and 40 women) were prospectively enrolled. Pain intensity and functional recovery were evaluated, using visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and range of motion on each of the first 5 postoperative days, at 2 and 6 weeks and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Perioperative medication-related adverse effects and postoperative complications were also assessed. Results The mean VAS pain score was significantly higher for women than men at 2 weeks after surgery (p = 0.035). For all other periods, there was no significant difference between men and women in VAS pain scores, although women had higher scores than men. Mean forward flexion in women was significantly lower than men at 6 weeks after surgery (p = 0.033) and the mean degree of external rotation in women was significantly lower than men at 6 weeks (p = 0.007) and at 3 months (p = 0.017) after surgery. There was no significant difference in medication-related adverse effects or postoperative complications. Conclusions Women had more pain and slower recovery of shoulder motion than men during the first 3 months after rotator cuff repair. These findings can serve as guidelines for pain management and rehabilitation after surgery and can help explain postoperative recovery patterns to patients with scheduled rotator cuff repair. PMID:26217471

  1. Soa genotype selectively affects mouse gustatory neural responses to sucrose octaacetate

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, MASASHI; LI, XIA; McCAUGHEY, STUART A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.; BACHMANOV, ALEXANDER A.

    2013-01-01

    In mice, behavioral acceptance of the bitter compound sucrose octaacetate (SOA) depends on allelic variation of a single gene, Soa. The SW.B6-Soab congenic mouse strain has the genetic background of an “SOA taster” SWR/J strain and an Soa-containing donor chromosome fragment from an “SOA nontaster” C57BL/6J strain. Using microsatellite markers polymorphic between the two parental strains, we determined that the donor fragment spans 5–10 cM of distal chromosome 6. The SWR/J mice avoided SOA in two-bottle tests with water and had strong responses to SOA in two gustatory nerves, the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL). In contrast, the SW.B6-Soab mice were indifferent to SOA in two-bottle tests and had very weak responses to SOA in both of these nerves. The SWR/J and SW.B6-Soab mice did not differ in responses of either nerve to sucrose, NaCl, HCl, or the bitter-tasting stimuli quinine, denatonium, strychnine, 6-n-propylthiouracil, phenylthiocarbamide, and MgSO4. Thus the effect of the Soa genotype on SOA avoidance is mediated by peripheral taste responsiveness to SOA, involving taste receptor cells innervated by both the CT and GL nerves. PMID:11328963

  2. COMT genotype affects prefrontal white matter pathways in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Colich, Natalie L.; Perry, Lee M.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena I.; Louro, Hugo M.; Hallmayer, Joachim F.; Waugh, Christian E.; Bammer, Roland; Glover, Gary H.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is widely used to evaluate the development of white matter. Information about how alterations in major neurotransmitter systems, such as the dopamine (DA) system, influence this development in healthy children, however, is lacking. Catechol-O-metyltransferase (COMT) is the major enzyme responsible for DA degradation in prefrontal brain structures, for which there is a corresponding genetic polymorphism (val158met) that confers either a more or less efficient version of this enzyme. The result of this common genetic variation is that children may have more or less available synaptic DA in prefrontal brain regions. In the present study we examined the relation between diffusion properties of frontal white matter structures and the COMT val158met polymorphism in 40 children ages 9–15. We found that the val allele was associated with significantly elevated fractional anisotropy values and reduced axial and radial diffusivities. These results indicate that the development of white matter in healthy children is related to COMT genotype and that alterations in white matter may be related to the differential availability of prefrontal DA. This investigation paves the way for further studies of how common functional variants in the genome might influence the development of brain white matter. PMID:20083203

  3. APOE Genotype Predicts Extent of Bleeding and Outcome in Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, Alessandro; Anderson, Christopher D.; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M.; Schmidt, Helena; Kissela, Brett; Hansen, Björn M.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Pires, Caroline R.; Ayres, Alison M.; Schwab, Kristin; Cortellini, Lynelle; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Romero, Javier M.; Rost, Natalia S.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Viswanathan, Anand; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Rabionet, Raquel; Norrving, Bo; Tirschwell, David L.; Selim, Magdy; Brown, Devin L.; Silliman, Scott L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Meschia, James F.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Roquer, Jaume; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Background APOE alleles ε2/ε4 increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the lobar regions, presumably through their influence on risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We investigated whether these variants also associate with ICH severity, specifically larger ICH volume at presentation. Methods We initially investigated the association of ε2/ε4 with ICH volume and outcome in a Discovery sample of 865 individuals of European ancestry. Replication was completed in two samples, comprising 946 Europeans (Replication I) and 214 African-Americans (Replication II) respectively. Admission ICH volume was quantified on CT scan. Poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale: 3 – 6) and mortality were assessed at 90 days. Findings Among patients with lobar ICH, APOE ε2 was associated with larger ICH volume: each allele copy increased hematoma size by 5·3 cc (95% CI 4·1 – 6·2 cc, p = 0.004), with replication in Europeans (p = 0·008) and African Americans (p = 0·016). Consistent with this, ε2 was associated with both mortality (OR = 1·50, 1·23 – 1·82, p = 2·45 × 10−5) and poor functional outcome (OR = 1·52, 1·25 – 1·85, p = 1·74 × 10−5). We were not able to replicate published associations between ε4 and overall ICH mortality in a meta-analysis of all available data (n = 2202 ICH cases, OR = 1·08, 95% CI: 0·86 – 1·36, p = 0·52). Interpretation In lobar ICH, APOE ε2 is associated with larger ICH volume at presentation, and hence increased mortality and disability. These findings suggest a role for the vasculopathic changes associated with the ε2 allele in influencing the severity and clinical course of lobar ICH. Funding This study was funded by NIH-NINDS, the American Heart Association, government agencies in Spain, Poland and Austria, academic institutions in Sweden and Austria, and philanthropic organizations. PMID:21741316

  4. Impact of KIR and HLA Genotypes on Outcomes after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sobecks, Ronald M; Wang, Tao; Askar, Medhat; Gallagher, Meighan M; Haagenson, Michael; Spellman, Stephen; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Müller, Carlheinz; Battiwalla, Minoo; Gajewski, James; Verneris, Michael R; Ringdén, Olle; Marino, Susana; Davies, Stella; Dehn, Jason; Bornhäuser, Martin; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Woolfrey, Ann; Shaw, Peter; Pollack, Marilyn; Weisdorf, Daniel; Milller, Jeffrey; Hurley, Carolyn; Lee, Stephanie J; Hsu, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer cells are regulated by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) interactions with HLA class I ligands. Several models of natural killer cell reactivity have been associated with improved outcomes after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but this issue has not been rigorously addressed in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) unrelated donor (URD) HCT. We studied 909 patients undergoing RIC-URD HCT. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 612) lacking ≥ 1 KIR ligands experienced higher grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.28; P = .005) compared to those with all ligands present. Absence of HLA-C2 for donor KIR2DL1 was associated with higher grade II to IV (HR, 1.4; P = .002) and III to IV acute GVHD (HR, 1.5; P = .01) compared with HLA-C2(+) patients. AML patients with KIR2DS1(+), HLA-C2 homozygous donors had greater treatment-related mortality compared with others (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.2; P = .002) but did not experience lower relapse. There were no significant associations with outcomes for AML when assessing donor-activating KIRs or centromeric KIR content or for any donor-recipient KIR-HLA assessments in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 297). KIR-HLA combinations in RIC-URD HCT recapitulate some but not all KIR-HLA effects observed in myeloablative HCT. PMID:25960307

  5. Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Toffan, Anna; Panzarin, Valentina; Toson, Marica; Cecchettin, Krizia; Pascoli, Francesco

    2016-05-26

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the appearance and the severity of VNN disease. We assessed the effect of temperature (20°, 25° and 30°C) on mortality and virus load in the brain of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with 4 genetically different betanodaviruses, namely red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV), striped jack NNV (SJNNV) and the reassortant strains RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV. The RGNNV/SJNNV virus possesses the polymerase gene of RGNNV and the coat protein gene of SJNNV, and vice versa for the SJNNV/RGNNV virus. The obtained results showed that the RGNNV strain is the most pathogenic for juvenile sea bass, but clinical disease and mortality appeared only at higher temperatures. The SJNNV strain is weakly pathogenic for D. labrax regardless of the temperature used, while virus replication was detected in the brain of survivors only at 20°C. Finally, reassortant strains caused low mortality, independent of the temperature used, but the viral load in the brain was strongly influenced by water temperature and the genetic type of the polymerase gene. Taken together, these data show that nodavirus replication in vivo is a composite process regulated by both the genetic features of the viral strain and water temperatures. PMID:27225206

  6. DETERMINATION OF GENOTYPE COMBINATIONS THAT CAN PREDICT THE OUTCOME OF THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE USING THE 5-HT3 ANTAGONIST ONDANSETRON

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bankole A.; Seneviratne, Chamindi; Wang, Xin-Qun; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Li, Ming D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previously, we reported that the 5′-HTTLPR-LL and rs1042173-TT (SLC6A4-LL/TT) genotypes in the serotonin transporter gene predicted a significant reduction in the severity of alcohol consumption among alcoholics receiving the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron. In this study, we explored additional markers of ondansetron treatment response in alcoholics by examining polymorphisms in the HTR3A and HTR3B genes, which regulate directly the function and binding of 5-HT3 receptors to ondansetron. Method We genotyped 1 rare and 18 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HTR3A and HTR3B in the same sample that we had genotyped for SLC6A4-LL/TT in the previous randomized, double-blind, 11-week clinical trial. Participants were 283 European Americans who received oral ondansetron (4 μg/kg twice daily) or placebo along with weekly cognitive behavioral therapy. Associations of individual and combined genotypes with treatment response on drinking outcomes were analyzed. Results Individuals carrying one or more of genotypes rs1150226-AG and rs1176713-GG in HTR3A and rs17614942-AC in HTR3B showed a significant overall mean difference between ondansetron and placebo in drinks per drinking day (−2.50; effect size (ES)=0.867), percentage of heavy drinking days (−20.58%; ES=0.780), and percentage of days abstinent (18.18%; ES=0.683). Combining these HTR3A/HTR3B and SLC6A4-LL/TT genotypes increased the target cohort from approaching 20% (identified in our previous study) to 34%. Conclusions We present initial evidence suggesting that a combined 5-marker genotype panel can be used to predict the outcome of treatment of alcohol dependence with ondansetron. Additional, larger pharmacogenetic studies would help to validate our results. PMID:23897038

  7. Genotype and allele frequencies of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter genes affecting immunosuppressants in the Spanish white population.

    PubMed

    Bosó, Virginia; Herrero, María J; Buso, Enrique; Galán, Juan; Almenar, Luis; Sánchez-Lázaro, Ignacio; Sánchez-Plumed, Jaime; Bea, Sergio; Prieto, Martín; García, María; Pastor, Amparo; Sole, Amparo; Poveda, José Luis; Aliño, Salvador F

    2014-04-01

    Interpatient variability in drug response can be widely explained by genetically determined differences in metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, and drug targets, leading to different pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic behaviors of drugs. Genetic variations affect or do not affect drug responses depending on their influence on protein activity and the relevance of such proteins in the pathway of the drug. Also, the frequency of such genetic variations differs among populations, so the clinical relevance of a specific variation is not the same in all of them. In this study, a panel of 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 different genes (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, MTHFR, NOD2/CARD15, SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1, TPMT, and UGT1A9), encoding for the most relevant metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters relating to immunosuppressant agents, was analyzed to determine the genotype profile and allele frequencies in comparison with HapMap data. A total of 570 Spanish white recipients and donors of solid organ transplants were included. In 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms, statistically significant differences in allele frequency were observed. The largest differences (>100%) occurred in ABCB1 rs2229109, ABCG2 rs2231137, CYP3A5 rs776746, NOD2/CARD15 rs2066844, TPMT rs1800462, and UGT1A9 rs72551330. In conclusion, differences were recorded between the Spanish and other white populations in terms of allele frequency and genotypic distribution. Such differences may have implications in relation to dose requirements and drug-induced toxicity. These data are important for further research to help explain interindividual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability in response to drug therapy. PMID:24232128

  8. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Dopamine transporter SLC6A3 genotype affects cortico-striatal activity of set-shifts in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Habak, Claudine; Noreau, Anne; Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Mejía-Constaín, Beatriz; Degroot, Clotilde; Strafella, Antonio P; Chouinard, Sylvain; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Rouleau, Guy A; Monchi, Oury

    2014-11-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition that affects motor function along with a wide range of cognitive domains, including executive function. The hallmark of the pathology is its significant loss of nigrostriatal dopamine, which is necessary for the cortico-striatal interactions that underlie executive control. Striatal dopamine reuptake is mediated by the SLC6A3 gene (formerly named DAT1) and its polymorphisms, which have been largely overlooked in Parkinson's disease. Thirty patients (ages 53-68 years; 19 males, 11 females) at early stages of Parkinson's disease, were genotyped according to a 9-repeat (9R) or 10-repeat (10R) allele on the SLC6A3/DAT1 gene. They underwent neuropsychological assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a set-shifting task (a computerized Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) that relies on fronto-striatal interactions. Patients homozygous on the 10R allele performed significantly better on working memory tasks than 9R-carrier patients. Most importantly, patients carrying a 9R allele exhibited less activation than their 10R homozygous counterparts in the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex and caudate nucleus, when planning and executing a set-shift. This pattern was exacerbated for conditions that usually recruit the striatum compared to those that do not. This is the first study indicating that the SLC6A3/DAT1 genotype has a significant effect on fronto-striatal activation and performance in Parkinson's disease. This effect is stronger for conditions that engage the striatum. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess this polymorphism's effect on the clinical evolution of patients with Parkinson's disease, especially with cognitive decline. PMID:25212851

  10. How measurement artifacts affect cerebral autoregulation outcomes: A technical note on transfer function analysis.

    PubMed

    Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; de Jong, Daan L K; Lagro, Joep; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that aims to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion during changes in blood pressure (BP). Transfer function analysis (TFA), the most reported method in literature to quantify CA, shows large between-study variability in outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of measurement artifacts in this variation. Specifically, the role of distortion in the BP and/or CBFV measurementon TFA outcomes was investigated. The influence of three types of artifacts on TFA outcomes was studied: loss of signal, motion artifacts, and baseline drifts. TFA metrics of signals without the simulated artifacts were compared with those of signals with artifacts. TFA outcomes scattered highly when more than 10% of BP signal or over 8% of the CBFV signal was lost, or when measurements contained one or more artifacts resulting from head movement. Furthermore, baseline drift affected interpretation of TFA outcomes when the power in the BP signal was 5 times the power in the LF band. In conclusion, loss of signal in BP and loss in CBFV, affects interpretation of TFA outcomes. Therefore, it is vital to validate signal quality to the defined standards before interpreting TFA outcomes. PMID:26935320

  11. Domestication-related variation in social preferences in chickens is affected by genotype on a growth QTL.

    PubMed

    Wirén, A; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2013-04-01

    A growth-related QTL on chicken chromosome 1 has previously been shown to influence domestication behaviour in chickens. In this study, we used Red Junglefowl (RJF) and White Leghorn (WL) as well as the intercross between them to investigate whether stress affects the way birds allocate their time between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics in a social preference test ('social support seeking'), and how this is related to genotype at specific loci within the growth QTL. Red Junglefowl males spent more time with unfamiliar chickens before the stressful event compared to the other birds, whereas all birds except WL males tended to spend less time with unfamiliar ones after stress. A significant QTL locus was found to influence both social preference under undisturbed circumstances and social support seeking. The WL allele at this QTL was associated not only with a preference for unfamiliar individuals but also with a shift towards familiar ones in response to stress (social support seeking). A second, suggestive QTL also affected social support seeking, but in the opposite direction; the WL allele was associated with increased time spent with unfamiliar individuals. The region contains several possible candidate genes, and gene expression analysis of a number of them showed differential expression between RJF and WL of AVPR2 (receptor for vasotocin), and possibly AVPR1a (another vasotocin receptor) and NRCAM (involved in neural development) in the lower frontal lobes of the brains of RJF and WL animals. These three genes continue to be interesting candidates for the observed behavioural effects. PMID:23331324

  12. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  13. Affective Learning Outcomes in Workplace Training: A Test of Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Ally, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Research employing an experimental design pilot-tested two delivery platforms, WebCT™ and vClass™, for the generation of affective learning outcomes in the workplace. Using a sample of volunteer participants in the help-desk industry, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two types of delivery software. Thirty-eight subjects…

  14. Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour and Secondary Students' Cognitive, Affective and Moral Outcomes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivan, Atara; Chan, Dennis W. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study validated the Chinese version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) in the Hong Kong context as well as examined the relationship between students' perceptions of interpersonal teacher behaviour and their cognitive, affective and moral learning outcomes. Data were collected with the QTI and four other measures of student…

  15. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  16. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  17. Factors Affecting Academic Outcomes of Underprepared Community College Students. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, J. Charles

    This study examined the factors affecting the four-year academic performance and outcomes of 1,249 underprepared students at Prince George's Community College (Maryland). The fall 1994 freshmen required remediation in reading, writing, or mathematics. Subjects were defined as achievers if, by summer 1998, they had earned a degree or certificate…

  18. Technology Integration before Student Outcomes: Factors Affecting Teacher Adoption of Technology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Alankar

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1920s, ICTs have been endorsed as solutions to challenges of access and quality in education. Proponents have also supported technology use in education on grounds that it could potentially impact cognitive, affective, and pedagogical outcomes. Based on these perceived benefits, many developed and developing countries have been…

  19. Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes.

    PubMed

    El-Soda, Mohamed; Boer, Martin P; Bagheri, Hedayat; Hanhart, Corrie J; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2014-02-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL-environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype-environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes. PMID:24474811

  20. Genotype on the pigmentation regulating PMEL17 gene affects behavior in chickens raised without physical contact with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Mormede, Pierre; Kerje, Susanne; Jensen, Per

    2011-03-01

    Chickens homozygous for the Dominant white or wild-type allele of PMEL17 were subjected to a broad phenotyping in order to detect consistent differences between genotypes. To exclude feather pecking, the chickens were individually housed without physical contact, from the day of hatching, and tested for social, aggressive, fear and exploratory behaviors, and corticosterone and testosterone levels were assessed. In a principal component analysis, 53.2% of the behavior variation was explained by two factors. Factor one was an activity and social factor, and there was a significant effect of genotype on the factor scores. On factor two, related to aggressive behavior, there were significant effects of genotype, sex and their interaction. There were no genotype effects on hormone levels or any other measured non-behavioral phenotypes. Hence, differences in behavior between PMEL17 genotypes remained when negative social experiences were excluded, indicating a direct pleiotropic effect of the gene on behavior. PMID:20623330

  1. Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects steady-state distribution and clearance of arsenic in arsenate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael F.; Edwards, Brenda C.; Herbin-Davis, Karen M.; Saunders, Jesse; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.

    2010-12-15

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes formation of mono-, di-, and tri-methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Distribution and retention of arsenic were compared in adult female As3mt knockout mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice using a regimen in which mice received daily oral doses of 0.5 mg of arsenic as arsenate per kilogram of body weight. Regardless of genotype, arsenic body burdens attained steady state after 10 daily doses. At steady state, arsenic body burdens in As3mt knockout mice were 16 to 20 times greater than in wild-type mice. During the post dosing clearance period, arsenic body burdens declined in As3mt knockout mice to {approx} 35% and in wild-type mice to {approx} 10% of steady-state levels. Urinary concentration of arsenic was significantly lower in As3mt knockout mice than in wild-type mice. At steady state, As3mt knockout mice had significantly higher fractions of the body burden of arsenic in liver, kidney, and urinary bladder than did wild-type mice. These organs and lung had significantly higher arsenic concentrations than did corresponding organs from wild-type mice. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in tissues of As3mt knockout mice; tissues from wild-type mice contained mixtures of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Diminished capacity for arsenic methylation in As3mt knockout mice prolongs retention of inorganic arsenic in tissues and affects whole body clearance of arsenic. Altered retention and tissue tropism of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice could affect the toxic or carcinogenic effects associated with exposure to this metalloid or its methylated metabolites.

  2. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  3. Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes. PMID:23965029

  4. Examining intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals: cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study had two purposes: (a) examine the associations between intrinsic (relative to extrinsic) exercise goal content and cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes; and (b) test the mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in the Exercise Goal Content --> Outcomes relationship. Using a sample of 410 adults, hierarchical regression analysis showed relative intrinsic goal content to positively predict physical self-worth, self-reported exercise behavior, psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction and negatively predict exercise anxiety. Except for exercise behavior, the predictive utility of relative intrinsic goal content on the dependent variables of interest remained significant after controlling for participants' relative self-determined exercise motivation. Structural equation modeling analyses showed psychological need satisfaction to partially mediate the effect of relative intrinsic goal content on the outcome variables. Our findings support further investigation of exercise goals commensurate with the goal content perspective advanced in SDT. PMID:19454771

  5. Comparing predicted and actual affective responses to process versus outcome: an emotion-as-feedback perspective.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jessica Y Y; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Tang, Suki K Y

    2013-10-01

    One of the conjectures in affective forecasting literature is that people are advised to discount their anticipated emotions because their forecasts are often inaccurate. The present research distinguishes between emotional reactions to process versus those to outcome, and highlights an alternative view that affective misforecasts could indeed be adaptive to goal pursuit. Using an ultimatum game, Study 1 showed that people overpredicted how much they would regret and be disappointed by the amount of effort they exerted, should the outcomes turned out worse than expected; nonetheless, people could accurately predict their emotional responses to unfavorable outcomes per se. In a natural setting of a university examination, Study 2 demonstrated that actual regret and disappointment toward favorable outcomes were more intense than the level people expected, but this discrepancy was not observed in their emotional responses to efforts they had invested. These two distinct patterns of results substantiate the argument that the deviation between predicted and actual emotions is dependent on the referents of the emotional reactions. PMID:23831563

  6. Transmission and persistence of Ceratonova shasta genotypes in Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Charlene N; Wong, Peter; Hallett, Sascha L; Ray, R Adam; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2014-12-01

    Ceratonova shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmon and trout transmitted by waterborne actinospores. Based on DNA sequence data and host specificity, 4 distinct parasite genotypes are recognized. Genotypes I and II are common in the lower reaches of the Klamath River, Oregon-California, but only infection by genotype I causes mortality in Chinook salmon. We conducted sentinel fish exposures and determined genotype composition in river water during exposure, and in fish gills, intestine, and tank water post-exposure to determine whether: (1) transmission of parasites having different genotypes is host-specific and (2) all transmitted genotypes persist in the host through to release as waterborne stages. Initial parasite transmission to the fish host appears indiscriminant, since we detected both genotypes I and II in 83.6% of the fish gills sampled. However, only genotype I was detected in fish that succumbed to infection, while both genotypes persisted in fish that survived. Persistence was likely dependent on exposure dose, initial infection type (mixed or single) and infection outcome (mortality or survival). The transmission of both genotypes to a majority of Chinook salmon and the persistence of multiple genotypes raises questions about how infection with mixed genotypes could result in within-host interactions that affect disease severity. PMID:24945751

  7. Effects of acute psychosocial stress exposure on endocrine and affective reactivity in college students differing in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    Enhanced stress vulnerability has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. Although both genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (neuroticism) factors are known to increase stress vulnerability, no experimental study has investigated the interaction between these two factors on psychobiological reactivity following acute stress exposure. This study used a balanced experimental design to examine the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism in neuroendocrine and affective stress responses. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the short/short (S/S) allele and 48 carriers of the long/long (L/L) allele with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor. Mood was assessed before and after the stressor, and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and at 20, 30, and 60 min after stressor onset. Acute stress increased salivary cortisol concentration regardless of either 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism, but it caused a less profound negative mood change in L/L compared to S/S-allele carriers with the lowest neuroticism scores. The 5-HTTLPR genotype influences affective reactivity to acute stress conditional upon neuroticism, improving resilience to acute stress in L/L-allele carriers if they do not already possess high cognitive-affective (neuroticism) vulnerability. PMID:21438771

  8. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Adaptation to Local Temperature Affect Immunity and Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Brian P.; Flores, Heather A.; Lorigan, James G.; Yourth, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history “balance” between immunity and other fitness traits in a constant environment. However, both local adaptation to heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions can maintain genetic variation in a species. In this study, we test Drosophila melanogaster genotypes sampled from tropical Africa, temperate northeastern North America, and semi-tropical southeastern North America for resistance to bacterial infection and fecundity at three different environmental temperatures. Environmental temperature had absolute effects on all traits, but there were also marked genotype-by-environment interactions that may limit the global efficiency of natural selection on both traits. African flies performed more poorly than North American flies in both immunity and fecundity at the lowest temperature, but not at the higher temperatures, suggesting that the African population is maladapted to low temperature. In contrast, there was no evidence for clinal variation driven by thermal adaptation within North America for either trait. Resistance to infection and reproductive success were generally uncorrelated across genotypes, so this study finds no evidence for a fitness tradeoff between immunity and fecundity under the conditions tested. Both local adaptation to geographically heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions may explain the persistence of genetic variation for resistance to infection in natural populations. PMID:18369474

  9. The cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy scar and factors affecting it

    PubMed Central

    Waly, Mostafa A; Shalaby, Osama E; Elbakary, Molham A; Hashish, Aiman A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex-DCR) and to detect the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: Prospective randomized interventional study included forty patients who were treated by 40 Ex-DCRs. In twenty patients, medial canthal vertical incision was used and in the other twenty cases, subciliary incision was used. The skin was closed using vicryl 6-0 or prolene 6-0 interrupted sutures, and each one was randomly used in twenty patients (10 patients of each incision type). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated 6 months postoperative by the patients and by an oculoplastic surgeon on a four grades scale. Cosmetic results and its correlation to patients’ age, sex, skin complexion, type of incision, and type of skin sutures were studied. Results: The mean scar grading was 0.98 ± 1.0 and 1.3 ± 1.0 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. About 27.5% described their scars as cosmetically significant. The cosmetic outcome was significantly affected by the type of incision with only 5% significant scars in subciliary incision group. Prolene 6-0 suture was associated with better cosmetic results with 15% significant scars. 50% of dark-skinned patients showed cosmetically significant scars. Although no correlation was found between patients’ age and cosmetic outcome, pediatric patients showed higher tendency to scar visibility with mean scar grade 1.2 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 0.9 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. Conclusion: Dark skinned and pediatric patients are more prone to visible Ex-DCR scar. The use of subciliary approach and prolene 6-0 skin sutures is associated with more favorable cosmetic outcome. PMID:27221676

  10. Bad actions or bad outcomes? Differentiating affective contributions to the moral condemnation of harm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan M; Hannikainen, Ivar A; Cushman, Fiery A

    2014-06-01

    Moral condemnation of harmful behavior is influenced by both cognitive and affective processes. However, despite much recent research, the proximate source of affect remains unclear. One obvious contender is empathy; simulating the victim's pain could lead one to judge an action as wrong ("outcome aversion"). An alternative, less obvious source is one's own aversion to performing the action itself ("action aversion"). To dissociate these alternatives, we developed a scale that assessed individual aversions to (a) witnessing others experience painful outcomes (e.g., seeing someone fall down stairs); and (b) performing actions that are harmless yet aversive (e.g., stabbing a fellow actor with a fake stage knife). Across 4 experiments, we found that moral condemnation of both first-person and third-party harmful behavior in the context of moral dilemmas is better predicted by one's aversion to action properties than by an affective response to victim suffering. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated both action aversion and the degree of expected suffering across a number of actions and found that both factors make large, independent contributions to moral judgment. Together, these results suggest we may judge others' actions by imagining what it would feel like to perform the action rather than experience the consequences of the action. Accordingly, they provide a counterpoint to a dominant but largely untested assumption that empathy is the key affective response governing moral judgments of harm. PMID:24512250

  11. Reduced-Function CYP2C19 Genotype and Risk of Adverse Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Treated With Clopidogrel Predominantly for PCI: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mega, Jessica L.; Simon, Tabassome; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Antman, Elliott M.; Bliden, Kevin; Cannon, Christopher P.; Danchin, Nicolas; Giusti, Betti; Gurbel, Paul; Horne, Benjamin D.; Hulot, Jean-Sebastian; Kastrati, Adnan; Montalescot, Gilles; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Shen, Lei; Sibbing, Dirk; Steg, P. Gabriel; Trenk, Dietmar; Wiviott, Stephen D.; Sabatine, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Content Clopidogrel, one of the most commonly prescribed medications, is a pro-drug requiring CYP450 biotransformation. Data suggest its pharmacologic effect varies based on CYP2C19 genotype, but there is uncertainty regarding the clinical risk imparted by specific genotypes. Objective In patients treated with clopidogrel, to define the risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes among carriers of one (∼26% prevalence in whites) and carriers of two (∼2% prevalence in whites) reduced-function CYP2C19 variants. Data Sources and Study Selection A literature search was conducted (January 2000-August 2010) of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases. Genetic studies were included where clopidogrel was initiated in predominantly invasively managed patients in a manner consistent with the current guideline recommendations and where clinical outcomes were ascertained. Data Extraction Investigators from nine studies evaluating CYP2C19 genotype and clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel contributed the relevant hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for specific cardiovascular outcomes by genotype. Results Among 9685 patients [91.3% of whom underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 54.5% of whom had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS)], 863 experienced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; 84 patients had stent thrombosis among the 5894 evaluated for such. Overall, 71.5% were non-carriers, 26.3% had one, and 2.2% had two CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles. A significantly increased risk of the composite endpoint was evident in both carriers of one (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.27, P=0.01) and two (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.24-2.50, P=0.002) CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles. Similarly, there was a significantly increased risk of stent thrombosis in both carriers of one (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.69-4.22, P<0.0001) and two (HR 3.97, 95% CI 1.75-9.02, P=0.001) CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles

  12. Hepatitis C virus genotype 1: how genetic variability of the core protein affects the response to pegylated-interferon and ribavirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Alhamlan, F S; Al-Ahdal, M N; Khalaf, N Z; Abdo, A A; Sanai, F M; Al-Ashgar, H I; Elhefnawi, M; Zaid, A; Al-Qahtani, A A

    2014-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus subgenotypes 1a and 1b are found worldwide and cause 60% of all hepatitis C cases. It has been reported recently that viral genetic variations have a critical impact on the patient treatment outcome. In particular, polymorphisms of the HCV core protein have been linked to poor treatment response. However, most of these studies were conducted on Asian populations, Japanese in particular who are infected with HCV subgenotype 1b. Hence, we aimed in this study to examine the core protein polymorphisms in Saudi patients who are infected with chronic HCV genotype 1 (1a and 1b subtypes) and its association with treatment outcome. Direct sequencing of full-length core protein and data mining analyses were utilized. Results have shown that the response to treatment is dependent on subgenotypes. Indeed, HCV-1b showed different point mutations that are associated with treatment outcome where the point mutations at positions 70 (Arg(70) Gln) and 75 (Thr(75) Ala) in HCV-1b are significantly associated with PEG-IFN/RBV treatment response. In contrast, HCV-1a showed no significant association between core protein mutations and response to treatment. In addition, analyses of HCV-1a core protein sequences revealed a highly conserved region especially in the responder group. This study provides a new insight in the genetic variability of full-length core protein in HCV genotype 1 in Saudi infected patients. PMID:24166351

  13. New Avian Paramyxoviruses Type I Strains Identified in Africa Provide New Outcomes for Phylogeny Reconstruction and Genotype Classification

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Patricia; Briand, François-Xavier; Molia, Sophie; Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Chevalier, Véronique; Balança, Gilles; Traoré, Abdallah; Grillet, Colette; Maminiaina, Olivier Fridolin; Guendouz, Samia; Dakouo, Marthin; Samaké, Kassim; Bezeid, Ould El Mamy; Diarra, Abbas; Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Thompson, Peter; Martinez, Dominique; Jestin, Véronique; Albina, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most lethal diseases of poultry worldwide. It is caused by an avian paramyxovirus 1 that has high genomic diversity. In the framework of an international surveillance program launched in 2007, several thousand samples from domestic and wild birds in Africa were collected and analyzed. ND viruses (NDV) were detected and isolated in apparently healthy fowls and wild birds. However, two thirds of the isolates collected in this study were classified as virulent strains of NDV based on the molecular analysis of the fusion protein and experimental in vivo challenges with two representative isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F and HN genes showed that isolates recovered from poultry in Mali and Ethiopia form new groups, herein proposed as genotypes XIV and sub-genotype VIf with reference to the new nomenclature described by Diel’s group. In Madagascar, the circulation of NDV strains of genotype XI, originally reported elsewhere, is also confirmed. Full genome sequencing of five African isolates was generated and an extensive phylogeny reconstruction was carried out based on the nucleotide sequences. The evolutionary distances between groups and the specific amino acid signatures of each cluster allowed us to refine the genotype nomenclature. PMID:24204623

  14. Environment and host genotype determine the outcome of a plant-virus interaction: from antagonism to mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hily, Jean-Michel; Poulicard, Nils; Mora, Miguel-Ángel; Pagán, Israel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that plant-virus interactions vary between antagonism and conditional mutualism according to environmental conditions. This hypothesis is based on scant experimental evidence, and to test it we examined the effect of abiotic factors on the Arabidopsis thaliana-Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) interaction. Four Arabidopsis genotypes clustering into two allometric groups were grown under six environments defined by three temperature and two light-intensity conditions. Plants were either CMV-infected or mock-inoculated, and the effects of environment and infection on temporal and resource allocation life-history traits were quantified. Life-history traits significantly differed between allometric groups over all environments, with group 1 plants tolerating abiotic stress better than those of group 2. The effect of CMV infection on host fitness (virulence) differed between genotypes, being lower in group 1 genotypes. Tolerance to abiotic stress and to infection was similarly achieved through life-history trait responses, which resulted in resource reallocation from growth to reproduction. Effects of infection varied according to plant genotype and environment from detrimental to beneficial for host fitness. These results are highly relevant and demonstrate that plant viruses can be pleiotropic parasites along the antagonism-mutualism continuum, which should be considered in analyses of the evolution of plant-virus interactions. PMID:26365599

  15. Does Augmented Reality Affect High School Students' Learning Outcomes in Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Jonathan Christopher

    Some teens may prefer using a self-directed, constructivist, and technologic approach to learning rather than traditional classroom instruction. If it can be demonstrated, educators may adjust their teaching methodology. The guiding research question for this study focused on how augmented reality affects high school students' learning outcomes in chemistry, as measured by a pretest and posttest methodology when ensuring that the individual outcomes were not the result of group collaboration. This study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental study design that used a comparison and experimental group. Inferential statistical analysis was employed. The study was conducted at a high school in southwest Colorado. Eighty-nine respondents returned completed and signed consent forms, and 78 participants completed the study. Results demonstrated that augmented reality instruction caused posttest scores to significantly increase, as compared to pretest scores, but it was not as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Scores did improve under both types of instruction; therefore, more research is needed in this area. The present study was the first quantitative experiment controlling for individual learning to validate augmented reality using mobile handheld digital devices that affected individual students' learning outcomes without group collaboration. This topic was important to the field of education as it may help educators understand how students learn and it may also change the way students are taught.

  16. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence. PMID:22429791

  17. Antigenic differences among NDV strains of different genotypes used in vaccine formulation affects viral shedding after a virulent challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be separated into genotypes based on genome differences even though they are antigenically considered to be of a single serotype. It is widely recognized that an efficacious Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine made with any NDV does induce protection against ...

  18. Analysis of donor heterogeneity as a factor affecting the clinical outcome of oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sarah E; Faddy, Malcolm; Levett, Stephen; Sharma, Vinay; Gosden, Roger

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated factors that may affect the clinical outcome of oocyte donation on the basis of data from a clinical programme involving 243 treatment cycles analysed retrospectively. In each cohort, oocytes were distributed randomly to one, two or three recipients, which enabled the outcomes in terms of pregnancy and live birth rates to be compared among donors. The results were compared with respect to age of the donor and recipient, number of oocytes collected, fertilization and cleavage rates, qualitative embryo criteria (morphological grade) and other clinical criteria. Most variables had no significant effect on either outcome, although the live birth rate varied inversely with recipient age. Unsurprisingly, the pregnancy rate was correlated positively with the number of embryos transferred. Most of the variation in pregnancy and live birth rates (85-90%) could not be accounted for by any specific donation characteristic, indicating that interdonor heterogeneity was the result of idiopathic factors. The factor most predictive of a recipient's cycle outcome was a history of previous success of the donor, which accounted for approximately 30% of the variation in live birth rates. Pregnancy success rates varied widely among oocyte donors, as has been found among sperm donors. This observation highlights the need to identify markers that predict developmental competence and help to identify the genetic and environmental bases of differential fertility. In conclusion, the quality of oocytes varied widely among women presumed to be fertile by clinical criteria, and the causative factors set a major limitation on the prospects of improving the outcome of egg donation. PMID:12477962

  19. Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Melissa J.; Branson, Nicholas; Cody, Denis; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article discusses the impacts of arousal and emotional state on training animals using methods based on reward and punishment. Three-dimensional graphs are provided to offer a visual means to illustrate how arousal and emotional state may influence the effectiveness of reward and punishment depending on the behaviour being trained. Dogs and horses are used to illustrate this with reference to commonly trained behaviours in a predatory and a prey animal. Abstract Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them. PMID:26487403

  20. Predicted and experienced affective responses to the outcome of the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

    PubMed

    Kitchens, Michael B; Corser, Grant C; Gohm, Carol L; VonWaldner, Kristen L; Foreman, Elizabeth L

    2010-12-01

    People typically have intense feelings about politics. Therefore, it was no surprise that the campaign and eventual election of Barack Obama were highly anticipated and emotionally charged events, making it and the emotion experienced afterward a useful situation in which to replicate prior research showing that people typically overestimate the intensity and duration of their future affective states. Consequently, it was expected that Obama supporters and McCain supporters might overestimate the intensity of their affective responses to the outcome of the election. Data showed that while McCain supporters underestimated how happy they would be following the election, Obama supporters accurately predicted how happy they would be following the election. These data provide descriptive information on the accuracy of people's predicted reactions to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. The findings are discussed in the context of the broad literature and this specific and unique event. PMID:21323142

  1. Paraoxonase 1 Gene Polymorphism Does Not Affect Clopidogrel Response Variability but Is Associated with Clinical Outcome after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeehoon; Jeon, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Si-Hyuck; Han, Jung-Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun; Yang, Han-Mo; Lee, Hae-Young; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Oh, Byung-Hee; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background Paraoxonase (PON) is a high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme with antioxidative and anti-atherogenic property. Its function is associated with coronary artery disease and its activity genetically controlled. We evaluated whether genetic variation of PON-1 is associated with clinical outcome in a large cohort of Korean patients with drug-eluting stents implantation. Methods A total of 1676 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation were enrolled in the prospective CROSS-VERIFY cohort from June 2006 to June 2010. We genotyped the PON1-Q192R gene, measured clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR), and analyzed lipid profiles. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis at 12 months. Results PON-1 genotyping data were available in 1336 patients. Since the Q-allele is associated with decreased PON-activity, we analyzed the outcome between patients with QQ/QR (815 patients, 61%) and those with RR-genotype (521 patients, 39%). After adjustment for common cardiac risk factors, the QQ/QR-genotype was an independent predictor of the primary thrombotic endpoint with an 11-fold increased risk (HR 11.6, 95% CI: 1.55–87.0), but not repeat revascularization (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.78–1.61). The QQ/QR-genotype was not associated with OPR (QQ/QR: 231±86 PRU vs. RR 236±82 PRU, p = 0.342) but higher small-dense LDL levels (1.20±0.12 mg/dL vs. 0.76±0.15 mg/dL, p = 0.027). The increased risk of thrombotic outcomes was more profound in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients compared with non-ACS patients. Conclusion PON1 Q-allele is an independent predictor of worse cardiovascular outcome independent of platelet function and is associated with significantly higher levels of small dense LDL-C. PMID:23418418

  2. Lifestyle-Related Diseases Affect Surgical Outcomes after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Hyperlipidemia (HL) and hypertension (HT) lead to systemic atherosclerosis. Not only atherosclerosis but also bone fragility and/or low bone mineral density result from diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to examine whether these lifestyle-related diseases affected surgical outcomes after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Methods The subjects comprised 122 consecutive patients who underwent single-level PLIF for degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. The clinical results were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before surgery and at 2 years postoperatively. The fusion status was graded as union in situ, collapsed union, or nonunion at 2 years after surgery. The abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) score was assessed using preoperative lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine. Results HL did not significantly affect the JOA score recovery rate. On the other hand, HT and CKD (stage 3 to 4) had a significant adverse effect on the recovery rate. The recovery rate was also lower in the DM group than in the non-DM group, but the difference was not significant. The AAC score was negatively correlated with the JOA score recovery rate. The fusion status was not significantly affected by HL, HT, DM, or CKD; however, the AAC score was significantly higher in the collapsed union and nonunion group than in the union in situ group. Conclusions At 2 years after PLIF, the presence of HT, CKD, and AAC was associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes, and advanced AAC significantly affected fusion status. PMID:26835195

  3. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes. PMID:25619927

  4. High Incidence of Noonan Syndrome Features Including Short Stature and Pulmonic Stenosis in Patients carrying NF1 Missense Mutations Affecting p.Arg1809: Genotype-Phenotype Correlation.

    PubMed

    Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Xie, Jing; Gomes, Alicia; Sharp, Angela; Callens, Tom; Chen, Yunjia; Liu, Ying; Cochran, Meagan; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Atkin, Joan; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Barnett, Christopher P; Crenshaw, Melissa; Bartholomew, Dennis W; Basel, Lina; Bellus, Gary; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Bialer, Martin G; Bick, David; Blumberg, Bruce; Cortes, Fanny; David, Karen L; Destree, Anne; Duat-Rodriguez, Anna; Earl, Dawn; Escobar, Luis; Eswara, Marthanda; Ezquieta, Begona; Frayling, Ian M; Frydman, Moshe; Gardner, Kathy; Gripp, Karen W; Hernández-Chico, Concepcion; Heyrman, Kurt; Ibrahim, Jennifer; Janssens, Sandra; Keena, Beth A; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Leppig, Kathy; McDonald, Marie; Misra, Vinod K; Mulbury, Jennifer; Narayanan, Vinodh; Orenstein, Naama; Galvin-Parton, Patricia; Pedro, Helio; Pivnick, Eniko K; Powell, Cynthia M; Randolph, Linda; Raskin, Salmo; Rosell, Jordi; Rubin, Karol; Seashore, Margretta; Schaaf, Christian P; Scheuerle, Angela; Schultz, Meredith; Schorry, Elizabeth; Schnur, Rhonda; Siqveland, Elizabeth; Tkachuk, Amanda; Tonsgard, James; Upadhyaya, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C; Wallace, Stephanie; Williams, Charles; Zackai, Elaine; Zonana, Jonathan; Lazaro, Conxi; Claes, Kathleen; Korf, Bruce; Martin, Yolanda; Legius, Eric; Messiaen, Ludwine

    2015-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most frequent genetic disorders, affecting 1:3,000 worldwide. Identification of genotype-phenotype correlations is challenging because of the wide range clinical variability, the progressive nature of the disorder, and extreme diversity of the mutational spectrum. We report 136 individuals with a distinct phenotype carrying one of five different NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809. Patients presented with multiple café-au-lait macules (CALM) with or without freckling and Lisch nodules, but no externally visible plexiform neurofibromas or clear cutaneous neurofibromas were found. About 25% of the individuals had Noonan-like features. Pulmonic stenosis and short stature were significantly more prevalent compared with classic cohorts (P < 0.0001). Developmental delays and/or learning disabilities were reported in over 50% of patients. Melanocytes cultured from a CALM in a segmental NF1-patient showed two different somatic NF1 mutations, p.Arg1809Cys and a multi-exon deletion, providing genetic evidence that p.Arg1809Cys is a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocytes and causes a pigmentary phenotype. Constitutional missense mutations at p.Arg1809 affect 1.23% of unrelated NF1 probands in the UAB cohort, therefore this specific NF1 genotype-phenotype correlation will affect counseling and management of a significant number of patients. PMID:26178382

  5. Lung perfusion and emphysema distribution affect the outcome of endobronchial valve therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Christian; Theilig, Dorothea; Herzog, Dominik; Poellinger, Alexander; Doellinger, Felix; Schreiter, Nils; Schreiter, Vera; Schürmann, Dirk; Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, Bettina; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2016-01-01

    The exclusion of collateral ventilation (CV) and other factors affect the clinical success of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). However, despite its benefits, the outcome of ELVR remains difficult to predict. We investigated whether clinical success could be predicted by emphysema distribution assessed by computed tomography scan and baseline perfusion assessed by perfusion scintigraphy. Data from 57 patients with no CV in the target lobe (TL) were retrospectively analyzed after ELVR with valves. Pulmonary function tests (PFT), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) were performed on patients at baseline. The sample was grouped into high and low levels at the median of TL perfusion, ipsilateral nontarget lobe (INL) perfusion, and heterogeneity index (HI). These groups were analyzed for association with changes in outcome parameters from baseline to 3 months follow-up. Compared to baseline, patients showed significant improvements in PFT, SGRQ, and 6MWT (all P≤0.001). TL perfusion was not associated with changes in the outcome. High INL perfusion was significantly associated with increases in 6MWT (P=0.014), and high HI was associated with increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), (P=0.012). Likewise, there were significant correlations for INL perfusion and improvement of 6MWT (r=0.35, P=0.03) and for HI and improvement in FEV1 (r=0.45, P=0.001). This study reveals new attributes that associate with positive outcomes for patient selection prior to ELVR. Patients with high perfusions in INL demonstrated greater improvements in 6MWT, while patients with high HI were more likely to respond in FEV1. PMID:27354783

  6. Lung perfusion and emphysema distribution affect the outcome of endobronchial valve therapy.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Christian; Theilig, Dorothea; Herzog, Dominik; Poellinger, Alexander; Doellinger, Felix; Schreiter, Nils; Schreiter, Vera; Schürmann, Dirk; Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, Bettina; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2016-01-01

    The exclusion of collateral ventilation (CV) and other factors affect the clinical success of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). However, despite its benefits, the outcome of ELVR remains difficult to predict. We investigated whether clinical success could be predicted by emphysema distribution assessed by computed tomography scan and baseline perfusion assessed by perfusion scintigraphy. Data from 57 patients with no CV in the target lobe (TL) were retrospectively analyzed after ELVR with valves. Pulmonary function tests (PFT), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) were performed on patients at baseline. The sample was grouped into high and low levels at the median of TL perfusion, ipsilateral nontarget lobe (INL) perfusion, and heterogeneity index (HI). These groups were analyzed for association with changes in outcome parameters from baseline to 3 months follow-up. Compared to baseline, patients showed significant improvements in PFT, SGRQ, and 6MWT (all P≤0.001). TL perfusion was not associated with changes in the outcome. High INL perfusion was significantly associated with increases in 6MWT (P=0.014), and high HI was associated with increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), (P=0.012). Likewise, there were significant correlations for INL perfusion and improvement of 6MWT (r=0.35, P=0.03) and for HI and improvement in FEV1 (r=0.45, P=0.001). This study reveals new attributes that associate with positive outcomes for patient selection prior to ELVR. Patients with high perfusions in INL demonstrated greater improvements in 6MWT, while patients with high HI were more likely to respond in FEV1. PMID:27354783

  7. Evidence that COMT genotype and proline interact on negative-symptom outcomes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Clelland, C L; Drouet, V; Rilett, K C; Smeed, J A; Nadrich, R H; Rajparia, A; Read, L L; Clelland, J D

    2016-01-01

    Elevated peripheral proline is associated with psychiatric disorders, and there is evidence that proline is a neuromodulator. The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes proline catabolism, maps to human chromosome 22q11.2, a region conferring risk of schizophrenia. In the Prodh-null mouse, an interaction between elevated peripheral proline and another 22q11.2 gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), on neurotransmission and behavior has been reported. We explored the relationship between fasting plasma proline levels and COMT Val(158)Met genotype on symptoms (positive, negative and total) in schizophrenia patients. In an exploratory study we also examined symptom change in patients with bipolar disorder. There was a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT on negative symptoms in schizophrenia (P<0.0001, n=95). In COMT Val/Val patients, high proline was associated with low Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptom (SANS) scores. In contrast, high proline was associated with high SANS scores in patients carrying a Met allele. The relationship between proline and COMT also appears to modify negative symptoms across psychiatric illness. In bipolar disorder, a significant interaction was also observed on negative-symptom change (P=0.007, n=43). Negative symptoms are intractable and largely unaddressed by current medications. These data indicate a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT genotype, influencing negative symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. That high proline has converse effects on symptoms by COMT genotype, may have implications for therapeutic decisions. PMID:27622935

  8. Critical Factors Affecting the Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes: A Delphi Study of the Opinions of Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify critically important factors that affect the meaningful assessment of student learning outcomes and study why these factors were critically important. A three-round Delphi process was used to solicit the opinions of individuals who were actively involved in student learning outcomes assessment…

  9. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  10. The Host Genotype and Environment Affect Strain Types of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Inhabiting the Intestinal Tracts of Twins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influences of host genotype and environment on Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum inhabiting human intestines at the strain level, six pairs of twins, divided into two groups (children and adults), were recruited. Each group consisted of two monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and one dizygotic (DZ) twin pair. Child twins had been living together from birth, while adult twins had been living separately for 5 to 10 years. A total of 345 B. longum subsp. longum isolates obtained from 60 fecal samples from these twins were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and 35 sequence types (STs) were finally acquired. Comparison of strains within and between the twin pairs showed that no strains with identical STs were observed between unrelated individuals or within adult DZ twin pairs. Eight STs were found to be monophyletic, existing within MZ twins and child DZ twins. The similarity of strain types within child cotwins was significantly higher than that within adult cotwins, which indicated that environment was one of the important determinants in B. longum subsp. longum strain types inhabiting human intestines. However, although these differences between MZ and DZ twins were observed, it is still difficult to reach an exact conclusion about the impact of host genotype. This is mainly because of the limited number of subjects tested in the present study and the lack of strain types tracing in the same twin pairs from birth until adulthood. PMID:25956768

  11. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants’ comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)–no feedback–was on average “slightly uncomfortable”, the other three conditions were “slightly comfortable” (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use. PMID:26824693

  12. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier.

    PubMed

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants' comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)-no feedback-was on average "slightly uncomfortable", the other three conditions were "slightly comfortable" (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use. PMID:26824693

  13. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2015-01-01

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms. PMID:26460122

  14. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  15. Relationship of Negative Affect and Outcome of an Opioid Therapy Trial Among Low Back Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Edwards, Robert R.; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ross, Edgar L.; Michna, Edward; Warnick, Meredith; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients with chronic noncancer pain frequently report symptoms of depression and anxiety (negative affect), which are associated with higher ratings of pain intensity and a greater likelihood of being prescribed chronic opioid therapy. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to test the hypothesis that initial levels of negative affect can predict treatment-related outcomes in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of extended-release (ER) hydromorphone among opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain. Methods Four hundred fifty-nine (N = 459) patients participated in the titration/conversion phase of a multicenter study, of which 268 were randomized to receive once-daily hydromorphone or placebo. All patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at baseline and were divided evenly into Low (N = 157), Moderate (N = 155), and High (N = 147) negative affect groups based on their scores. Group differences in numerical pain intensity measures at home and in the clinic, Roland–Morris Disability ratings, and measures of symptoms from the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) throughout the trial were analyzed. Results Two hundred sixty-eight of the initial 459 subjects who entered the 2 to 4-week titration/conversion phase (pretreatment) were successfully randomized to either placebo or ER hydromorphone; a total of 110 patients then completed this double-blind phase of the study. Those in the Moderate and High negative affect groups tended to drop out more often during the titration/conversion phase because of the adverse effects or lack of efficacy of their prescribed opioid than those in the Low negative mood group (P < 0.05). Overall, those patients in the Moderate and High groups reported significantly higher pain intensity scores in at-home and in-clinic pain intensity ratings (P < 0.05), greater disability on the Roland–Morris Scale (P < 0.01), and more withdrawal symptoms on the SOWS (P < 0.05) than those in

  16. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:25288430

  17. Spirituality and religiousness as predictive factors of outcome in schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sylvia; Perroud, Nader; Gillieron, Christiane; Brandt, Pierre-Yves; Rieben, Isabelle; Borras, Laurence; Huguelet, Philippe

    2011-04-30

    Spirituality and religiousness have been shown to be highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. This study assesses the predictive value of helpful vs. harmful use of religion to cope with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder at 3 years. From an initial cohort of 115 outpatients, 80% were reassessed for positive, negative and general symptoms, clinical global impression, social adaptation and quality of life. For patients with helpful religion at baseline, the importance of spirituality was predictive of fewer negative symptoms, better clinical global impression, social functioning and quality of life. The frequencies of religious practices in community and support from religious community had no effect on outcome. For patients with harmful religion at baseline, no relationships were elicited. This result may be due to sample size. Indeed, helpful spiritual/religious coping concerns 83% of patients, whereas harmful spiritual/religious coping concerns only 14% of patients. Our study shows that helpful use of spirituality is predictive of a better outcome. Spirituality may facilitate recovery by providing resources for coping with symptoms. In some cases, however, spirituality and religiousness are a source of suffering. Helpful vs. harmful spiritual/religious coping appears to be of clinical significance. PMID:20869123

  18. Parenting Cognition and Affective Outcomes Following Parent Management Training: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Colalillo, Sara; Johnston, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Parent management training (PMT) is considered the gold standard in the treatment of child behavior problems. The secondary effects of these interventions, particularly on parent well-being, are infrequently studied, despite evidence that parents of children with behavior problems often experience personal difficulties. This narrative review examined the affective and parenting cognition outcomes of PMT for mothers and fathers of children ages 2-13 years, across 48 controlled treatment studies. Substantial support was found for reductions in parenting stress, and increases in perceived parenting competence following PMT. Evidence indicated fewer improvements in domains more distal from parenting, including parent depressive symptoms and marital relationship dysfunction. A number of studies suggested parent gender as a moderator of parent outcomes of PMT; however, the underrepresentation of fathers in existing research limits conclusions in this regard. Avenues for future research are highlighted to address current gaps in the literature, and to further our understanding of the ways in which both children and parents may benefit from PMT. PMID:27389605

  19. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  20. Factors affecting the outcome of related allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with Fanconi Anemia.

    PubMed

    Ayas, Mouhab; Siddiqui, Khawar; Al-Jefri, Abdullah; El-Solh, Hassan; Al-Ahmari, Ali; Khairy, Ashraf; Markiz, Samer; Shahin, Hasan; Al-Musa, Abdulrahman; Al-Seraihy, Amal

    2014-10-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can cure bone marrow failure in patients with Fanconi Anemia (FA), and it is generally accepted that these patients should receive low-intensity conditioning because of the underlying DNA repair defect in their cells. Outcomes for recipients of matched related HCT have generally been favorable, but only a few studies have scrutinized the factors that may affect the eventual outcome of these patients. This retrospective analysis of 94 pediatric patients with FA who underwent related HCT at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center was carried out to attempt to identify factors that may affect outcome. Results showed overall survival (OS) probabilities of 92.5%, 89%, and 86% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In univariate analysis, use of higher dose cyclophosphamide (CY) (60 mg/kg) conditioning was associated with a better 10-year OS than lower dose CY (20 mg/kg) conditioning (91% versus 82%, respectively; P = .035), and use of radiation-containing regimens was associated with a significantly lower 10-year OS than nonradiation regimens (76% versus 91%, respectively; P = .005). Of the 4 regimens used in this study, the fludarabine-based regimen was associated with the highest survival (95.2%; P = .034). The use of the higher dose CY (60 mg/kg) was associated with a significantly increased incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) (20% versus 5.6% respectively; P = .049). Three patients (3%) developed squamous cell carcinoma (2 oropharyngeal and 1 genitourinary), at 9.4, 5.4, and 13.3 years after HCT; 2 of them had radiation-containing conditioning. In conclusion, our data suggest that although using a higher dose CY (60 mg/kg) conditioning regimen may be associated with better survival, it is also associated with a significantly increased risk of HC. The addition of fludarabine to the low-dose CY (20 mg/kg) is associated with the best survival. On the other hand, radiation-containing regimens are associated with

  1. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered

  2. Early predictive efficacy of core antigen on antiviral outcomes in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infected patients.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bo; Yang, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Luo, Bi-Fen; Kong, Fan-Yun; Rao, Hui-Ying; Jin, Qian; Cong, Xu; Wei, Lai

    2015-01-01

    Response-guided therapy is of limited use in developing countries because hepatitis C virus RNA detection by sensitive molecular methods is time- and labor-consuming and expensive. We evaluated early predictive efficacy of serum hepatitis C virus core antigen kinetics on sustained virologic response in patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus during pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment. For 478 patients recruited, hepatitis C virus RNAs were detected at baseline, and at weeks 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 using Cobas TaqMan. Architect hepatitis C virus core antigen was performed at baseline, and weeks 4 and 12. Predictive values of hepatitis C virus core antigen on sustained virologic response were compared to hepatitis C virus RNA. In the first 12 weeks after treatment initiation the dynamic patterns of serum hepatitis C virus core antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA levels were similar in sustained virologic response, relapse, and null response patients groups. Although areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves of hepatitis C virus core antigen were lower than those of hepatitis C virus RNA at the same time points, modeling analysis showed that undetectable hepatitis C virus core antigen (rapid virological response based on hepatitis C virus core antigen) had similar positive predictive value on sustained virologic response to hepatitis C virus RNA at week 4 (90.4% vs 93.3%), and hepatitis C virus core antigen decrease greater than 1log10IU/mL (early virological response based on hepatitis C virus core antigen) had similar negative predictive value to hepatitis C virus RNA at week 12 (94.1% vs 95.2%). Analysis on the validation group demonstrated a positive predictive value of 97.5% in rapid virological response based on hepatitis C virus core antigen and a negative predictive value of 100% in early virological response based on hepatitis C virus core antigen. In conclusion, hepatitis C virus core antigen is comparable to hepatitis C virus RNA in

  3. Does therapist’s attitude affect clinical outcome of lumbar facet joint injections?

    PubMed Central

    Middendorp, Marcus; Kollias, Konstantinos; Ackermann, Hanns; Splettstößer, Annina; Vogl, Thomas J; Khan, M Fawad; Maataoui, Adel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if the clinical outcome of intra-articular lumbar facet joint injections is affected by the therapist’s attitude. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with facet joint-associated chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. All patients received computed tomography-guided, monosegmental intra-articular facet joint injections. Following the therapeutic procedure, the patients of the experimental group (EG) held a conversation with the radiologist in a comfortable atmosphere. During the dialog, the patients were encouraged to ask questions and were shown four images. The patients of the control group (CG) left the clinic without any further contact with the radiologist. Outcome was assessed using a pain-based Verbal Numeric Scale at baseline, at 1 wk and at 1, 3, and 6 mo after first treatment. RESULTS: The patient demographics showed no differences between the groups. The patients of the EG received 57 interventional procedures in total, while the patients of the CG received 70 interventional procedures. In both groups, the pain scores decreased significantly over the entire observation period. Compared to the CG, the EG showed a statistically significant reduction of pain at 1 wk and 1 mo post-treatment, while at 3 and 6 mo after treatment, there were no significant differences between both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show a significant effect on pain relief during the early post-interventional period in the EG as compared to the CG. The basic principle behind the higher efficacy might be the phenomenon of hetero-suggestion. PMID:27358691

  4. Gender-related affecting factors of prediabetes on its 10-year outcome

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaomin; Qiu, Miaoyan; Zhang, Xuan'e; Wang, Haiyan; Tong, Wenxin; Ju, Liping; Gu, Lei; Sun, Siming; Zhang, Hongli; Wang, Weiqing; Tian, Jingyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the gender-related affecting factors of prediabetes on its 10-year outcome, in a longitudinal study. Methods and results This longitudinal population-based study was performed in the Ping Liang community, Yangpu district, Shanghai, between November 2002 and October 2014. There were 334 participants with prediabetes enrolled in the final analysis. While a certain proportion of the prediabetic population progress to diabetes, the majority remain at the same level or even revert to normal glucose regulation. No gender difference was observed in the change of glucose regulation. However, results from an adjusted logistic regression analysis in males showed that physical activity was significantly associated with both elevated odds of reverting to normal glucose regulation (active vs inactive, OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.09 to 8.30) and developing diabetes (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.92). Age, baseline 2 h glucose, triglycerides and smoking status were also risk factors significantly associated with diabetes development; while for females, waist circumference played a key role in the outcome. Every unit elevation of waist circumference was associated with lower odds of reverting to normal glucose regulation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98) and higher odds of progressing to diabetes (OR, 1.05; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10). Baseline hypertension and family history of diabetes carried higher risk for developing diabetes as well. Conclusions Physical activity in males and waist circumference in females are important factors predicting both progression to diabetes and regression to normal glucose regulation, indicating that more exercise for males and lower waist circumference for females are beneficial for prediabetes to achieve reversion. PMID:27239315

  5. Climate change affects the outcome of competitive interactions-an application of principal response curves.

    PubMed

    Heegaard, Einar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    It has been hypothesised that climate change may affect vegetation by changing the outcome of competitive interactions. We use a space-for-time approach to evaluate this hypothesis in the context of alpine time-of-snowmelt gradients. Principal response curves, a multivariate repeated-measurement analysis technique, are used to analyse for compositional differences in local ridge-to-snowbed gradients among 100 m altitudinal bands from 1,140 to 1,550 m a.s.l., corresponding to a temperature gradient of 2.5 degrees C (local lapse rate is 0.6 degrees C). The interaction between time-of-snowmelt and altitude is strongly significant statistically, indicating that the altitudinal gradient cannot be explained simply by the physiological responses of the species, but that there are also changes in the outcome of competitive interactions. At higher altitudes, there is a decrease in the time-of-snowmelt ranges of species which have intermediate times-of-snowmelt optima, whereas snowbed (chinophilous) species have wider time-of-snowmelt ranges. As snowbed species can survive, grow and reproduce at very early snow-free sites at high altitudes, the most likely explanation for their absence from all but the latest time-of-snowmelt habitats at lower altitudes is competitive exclusion by more vigorous lee-side species. This suggests that with future climate change snowbed species will experience, in addition to habitat fragmentation and reduced size of habitats due to increased temperature and snowmelt, an indirect effect due to competitive exclusion from late-snowmelt sites by species that have their optima outside snowbeds. PMID:15021981

  6. Does Family Structure Affect Children's Educational Outcomes? NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Robert A.; Ginther, Donna K.

    This paper examines correlations between children's educational outcomes and family structure. Although popular discussions focus on distinctions between two-parent and single-parent families, earlier research shows that outcomes for stepchildren are similar to outcomes for children in single-parent families, and earlier researchers suggested that…

  7. Cardiovascular and Affective Outcomes of Active Gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a Cardiovascular Training Tool

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Keith E.; Naugle, Kelly M.; Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    Naugle, KE, Naugle, KM, and Wikstrom, EA. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a cardiovascular training tool. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 443–451, 2014–Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  8. Variable Gene Dispersal Conditions and Spatial Deforestation Patterns Can Interact to Affect Tropical Tree Conservation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with ‘Near’ distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  9. Do different reperfusion methods affect the outcomes of stroke induced by MCAO in adult rats?

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xia-Lin; Deng, Hou-Liang; Wu, Ping; Xu, En

    2016-09-01

    There are two patterns of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models used in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) I/R models, which differ in the use of unilateral or bilateral carotid artery reperfusion. The primary difference between the two patterns of I/R models is the complexity of the surgery procedure. However, researchers in this field have no idea whether there are any differences in outcomes of these two methods. In this study, we investigated the effects of the two methods on neurological deficits, infarct volume, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Through evaluating the current way of bilateral common carotid artery reperfusion, we tried to find whether it could be replaced by an easier way. We found that there were no statistical significant differences between the different methods in infarct volume, neurological deficits, BBB integrity, and the level of BDNF (P > 0.05). These data demonstrated that different methods did not affect the neurological deficits, infarct volume, BBB integrity, and the BDNF protein level, which provides reference when we use an experimental stroke. These results suggest that the two methods have similar capability for inducing cerebral I/R injury and can be interchanged. PMID:26268737

  10. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  11. Outcomes and Risk Factors Affecting Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Colorectal Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nam Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emergency colorectal surgery has a high risk of mortality and morbidity because of incomplete bowel preparation, bacterial proliferation, and contamination. In this study, we investigated the outcomes and the risk factors affecting mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery for the treatment of various colorectal diseases. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to survey the clinical results for patients who had undergone emergency colorectal surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. We analyzed various clinicopathologic factors, which were divided into 3 categories: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Results A total of 50 patients had undergone emergency colorectal surgery during the time period covered by this study. Among them, 10 patients (20%) died during the postoperative period. A simple linear regression analysis showed that the risk factors for mortality were old age, preoperative hypotension, and a high American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed a high ASA score and preoperative hypotension to be independent risk factors. Conclusion In this study, emergency colorectal surgery showed a relatively high mortality rate. Furthermore, the independent risk factors for mortality were preoperative hypotension and high ASA score; thus, patients with these characteristics need to be evaluated more carefully and receive better care if the mortality rate is to be reduced.

  12. Delay of Treatment Initiation Does Not Adversely Affect Survival Outcome in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Min Kyoon; Lee, Eunshin; Kim, Jongjin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies examining the relationship between time to treatment and survival outcome in breast cancer have shown inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to analyze the overall impact of delay of treatment initiation on patient survival and to determine whether certain subgroups require more prompt initiation of treatment. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of stage I-III patients who were treated in a single tertiary institution between 2005 and 2008. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to evaluate the impact of interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation in breast cancer and various subgroups. Results A total of 1,702 patients were included. Factors associated with longer delay of treatment initiation were diagnosis at another hospital, medical comorbidities, and procedures performed before admission for surgery. An interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation as a continuous variable or with a cutoff value of 15, 30, 45, and 60 days had no impact on disease-free survival (DFS). Subgroup analyses for hormone-responsiveness, triple-negative breast cancer, young age, clinical stage, and type of initial treatment showed no significant association between longer delay of treatment initiation and DFS. Conclusion Our results show that an interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation of 60 days or shorter does not appear to adversely affect DFS in breast cancer. PMID:26511801

  13. A genotype-specific, randomized controlled behavioral intervention to improve the neuroemotional outcome of cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide with >700,000 surgeries in 2006 in the US alone. Cardiac surgery results in a considerable exposure to physical and emotional stress; stress-related disorders such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder are the most common adverse outcomes of cardiac surgery, seen in up to 20% of patients. Using information from a genome-wide association study to characterize genetic effects on emotional memory, we recently identified a single nucleotide polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (the Bcll single nucleotide polymorphism) as a significant genetic risk factor for traumatic memories from cardiac surgery and symptoms of post-traumaticstress disorder. The Bcll high-risk genotype (Bcll GG) has a prevalence of 16.6% in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with increased glucocorticoid receptor signaling under stress. Concomitant animal experiments have confirmed an essential role of glucocorticoid receptor activation for traumatic memory formation during stressful experiences. Early cognitive behavioral intervention has been shown to prevent stress-related disorders after heart surgery. Methods/Design The proposed study protocol is based on the above mentioned earlier findings from animal experiments and preclinical studies in volunteers. Patients (n = 872) will be genotyped for the Bcll single nucleotide polymorphism before surgery, which should result in 120 homozygous high-risk carriers of the Bcll GG allele and 240 randomly selected low-risk heterozygous or non-carriers of the single nucleotide polymorphism. All patients will then undergo randomization to either cognitive behavioral intervention or a control intervention consisting of non-specific general information about the role of stress in heart disease. The primary efficacy endpoint will be post-traumatic stress levels at one year after surgery as determined by a standardized

  14. Virus and Host Factors Affecting the Clinical Outcome of Bluetongue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Caporale, Marco; Di Gialleonorado, Luigina; Janowicz, Anna; Wilkie, Gavin; Shaw, Andrew; Savini, Giovanni; Van Rijn, Piet A.; Mertens, Peter; Di Ventura, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host species, breed, age, BTV serotypes, and strains within a serotype affect the clinical course of bluetongue. Results obtained indicate that in small ruminants, there is a marked difference in the susceptibility to clinical disease induced by BTV at the host species level but less so at the breed level. No major differences in virulence were found between divergent serotypes (BTV-8 and BTV-2). However, we observed striking differences in virulence between closely related strains of the same serotype collected toward the beginning and the end of the European BTV-8 outbreak. As observed previously, differences in disease severity were also observed when animals were infected with either blood from a BTV-infected animal or from the same virus isolated in cell culture. Interestingly, with the exception of two silent mutations, full viral genome sequencing showed identical consensus sequences of the virus before and after cell culture isolation. However, deep sequencing analysis revealed a marked decrease in the genetic diversity of the viral population after passaging in mammalian cells. In contrast, passaging in Culicoides cells increased the overall number of low-frequency variants compared to virus never passaged in cell culture. Thus, Culicoides might be a source of new viral variants, and viral population diversity can be another factor influencing BTV virulence. IMPORTANCE Bluetongue is one of the major infectious diseases of ruminants. It is caused by an arbovirus known as bluetongue virus (BTV). The clinical outcome of BTV infection is extremely variable. We show that there are clear links between the severity of bluetongue and the mammalian host species infected

  15. Oocyte donation in Turner's syndrome: an analysis of the factors affecting the outcome.

    PubMed

    Khastgir, G; Abdalla, H; Thomas, A; Korea, L; Latarche, L; Studd, J

    1997-02-01

    A total of 29 women with Turner's syndrome (19 monosomy and 10 mosaic) had 68 cycles of oocyte donation that included 29 cycles of initial attempt and 39 cycles of subsequent attempts. Oral oestradiol valerate was used either in a variable dose (42 cycles) or in a constant dose (26 cycles) regimen for the endometrial preparation which was monitored by pelvic ultrasonography. The embryos/zygotes were transferred either fresh (50 cycles) or after cryopreservation (18 cycles) into the Fallopian tube (41 cycles) and uterine cavity (27 cycles) as appropriate. There were 28 clinical pregnancies including two sets of triplets resulting in a pregnancy rate of 41.2% per treatment cycle and an implantation rate of 17.1% per embryo transferred. The recipient's age, chromosomal constitution or associated uterine or tubal anomaly had no influence on the treatment outcome. The implantation and pregnancy rates were higher in the subsequent than initial cycles (22.6 versus 9.99%, P < 0.05; 51.3 versus 27.6%, P < 0.05). An endometrial thickness of > or = 6.5 mm was an important predictor of pregnancy but the endometrial echo pattern failed to predict the outcome. Although the total dose of oestradiol before embryo transfer was higher in the pregnant cycles than the non-pregnant ones and its gradation (< 50 mg, 50-100 mg, < 100 mg) influenced the implantation (3.4, 17.5, 26.3% respectively, P < 0.05) and pregnancy rates (10, 42.2, 61.5% respectively, P < 0.05), the effect was indirect by altering the endometrial thickness. The number of oocytes fertilized affected the pregnancy rate irrespective of the number of embryos transferred. The implantation and pregnancy rates were higher when fresh rather than frozen-thawed embryos were transferred (20.3 versus 8.2%, P < 0.05; 48 versus 22.2%, P < 0.05) but the route of transfer was of no statistical importance. The overall miscarriage rate was higher (50%), and was related to the presence of hypoplastic or bicornuate uterus and to a low

  16. Personality and serotonin transporter genotype interact with social context to affect immunity and viral set-point in simian immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, John P; Abel, Kristina; Mendoza, Sally P; Blozis, Shelley A; McChesney, Michael B; Cole, Steve W; Mason, William A

    2008-07-01

    From the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, stress has been a suspected contributor to the wide variation seen in disease progression, and some evidence supports this idea. Not all individuals respond to a stressor in the same way, however, and little is known about the biological mechanisms by which variations in individuals' responses to their environment affect disease-relevant immunologic processes. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus/rhesus macaque model of AIDS, we explored how personality (Sociability) and genotype (serotonin transporter promoter) independently interact with social context (Stable or Unstable social conditions) to influence behavioral expression, plasma cortisol concentrations, SIV-specific IgG, and expression of genes associated with Type I interferon early in infection. SIV viral RNA set-point was strongly and negatively correlated with survival as expected. Set-point was also associated with expression of interferon-stimulated genes, with CXCR3 expression, and with SIV-specific IgG titers. Poorer immune responses, in turn, were associated with display of sustained aggression and submission. Personality and genotype acted independently as well as in interaction with social condition to affect behavioral responses. Together, the data support an "interactionist" perspective [Eysenck, H.J., 1991. Personality, stress and disease: an interactionist perspective. Psychol. Inquiry 2, 221-232] on disease. Given that an important goal of HIV treatment is to maintain viral set-point as low as possible, our data suggest that supplementing anti-retroviral therapy with behavioral or pharmacologic modulation of other aspects of an organism's functioning might prolong survival, particularly among individuals living under conditions of threat or uncertainty. PMID:17719201

  17. Factors affecting the outcome of maternity care. II. Neonatal outcomes and resources beyond the hospital of birth.

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, M; Szczepura, A; Lodwick, A; Stilwell, J

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of data about perinatal mortality and indicators of resources at maternity hospitals in the West Midlands region between 1977 and 1983 showed that paediatric staff ratios were inversely related to in-house mortality rates. In this paper, the outcomes for and resources used by transferred babies are added to those of the hospital of birth for three of the study years--1978, 1980, and 1982. Patterns of transfer differ between units and over time in the region, and a regional neonatal intensive care policy was introduced in 1980. Analysis of the new variables showed that in 1978 paediatric staffing was significantly inversely related to neonatal mortality. In later years, neonatal mortality of births at maternity units is explained entirely by the proportion of low or very low weight births. PMID:3221167

  18. The effect of playing a science center-based mobile game: Affective outcomes and gender differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana

    Situated in a hands-on science center, The Great STEM Caper was a collaborative mobile game built on the ARIS platform that was designed to engage 5th-9th grade players in NGSS science and engineering practices while they interacted with various exhibits. Same gender partners sharing one iPad would search for QR codes placed at specific exhibits; scanning a code within the game would launch a challenge for that exhibit. The primary hypothesis was that in- game victories would be equivalent to "mastery experiences" as described by Bandura (1997) and would result in increased science self-efficacy. Gender differences in gameplay behaviors and perceptions were also studied. The study included two groups, one that played the game during their visit and one that explored the science center in the traditional way. The Motivation to Learn Science Questionnaire was administered to participants in both groups both before and after their visit to the science center. Participants wore head-mounted GoPro cameras to record their interactions within the physical and social environment. No differences in affective outcomes were found between the game and comparison groups or between boys and girls in the game group. The MLSQ was unable to measure any significant change in science self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment of science, or overall motivation to learn science in either group. However, girls outperformed boys on every measure of game achievement. Lazzaro's (2004) four types of fun were found to be a good fit for describing the gender differences in game perceptions and behaviors. Girls tended to enjoy hard fun and collaborative people fun while boys enjoyed easy fun and competitive people fun. While boys associated game achievement with enjoyment and victory, girls perceived their game achievement as difficult, rather than enjoyable or victorious.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea affects the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-jie; Gao, Xiao-fei; Ge, Zhen; Jiang, Xiao-Min; Xiao, Ping-xi; Tian, Nai-liang; Kan, Jing; Lee, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of evidence regarding the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary artery disease. We sought to investigate whether OSA affects the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PCI. Patients and methods All enrolled individuals treated with PCI were evaluated for OSA by polysomnography. The primary end point was defined as major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 2 years, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and/or target vessel revascularization. Results A total of 340 consecutive patients undergoing PCI were assigned to the OSA (n=152, apnea–hypopnea index ≥15) and non-OSA (n=188, apnea–hypopnea index <15) groups. The incidence of OSA in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI was 44.7%. Patients in the OSA group had more three-vessel disease (34.9%), increased number of total implanted stents (3.3±2.0), and longer total stent length (83.8±53.1 mm) when compared to the non-OSA group (23.4%, P=0.020; 2.8±1.9, P=0.007; 68.7±48.4, P=0.010). After a median follow-up of 2 years, the incidence of MACEs was significantly higher in patients with OSA (25.0% vs 16.0%, P=0.038), mainly driven by the increased periprocedural MI (19.2% vs 11.2%, P=0.038) in the OSA group. By Cox regression multivariable analysis, the independent predictor of MACEs was OSA (hazard ratio: 1.962, 95% confidence interval: 1.036–3.717, P=0.039). Conclusion There was a high prevalence of moderate-to-severe OSA in patients undergoing PCI, and OSA was associated with significantly increased MACE rate, mainly due to the increase in periprocedural MI rate. PMID:27284240

  20. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  1. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  2. Culture Matters. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Participation in Vocational Education and Training by Australian Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John; Ardler, William; Morley-Warner, Terri; Solomon, Nicky; Spindler, Laraine

    The factors affecting the outcomes of indigenous Australians' participation in vocational education and training (VET) were examined in a study in which 7 Aboriginal researchers in 5 Australian states and territories interviewed 70 indigenous Australians enrolled in VET and 48 coordinators and teachers in technical and further education (TAFE)…

  3. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  4. NS5A sequence heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus genotype 4a predicts clinical outcome of pegylated-interferon-ribavirin therapy in Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    El-Shamy, Ahmed; Shoji, Ikuo; El-Akel, Wafaa; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Deng, Lin; El-Raziky, Maissa; Jiang, Da-peng; Esmat, Gamal; Hotta, Hak

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) is the cause of approximately 20% of the 180 million cases of chronic hepatitis C in the world. HCV-4 infection is common in the Middle East and Africa, with an extraordinarily high prevalence in Egypt. Viral genetic polymorphisms, especially within core and NS5A regions, have been implicated in influencing the response to pegylated-interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) combination therapy in HCV-1 infection. However, this has not been confirmed in HCV-4 infection. Here, we investigated the impact of heterogeneity of NS5A and core proteins of HCV-4, mostly subtype HCV-4a, on the clinical outcomes of 43 Egyptian patients treated with PEG-IFN/RBV. Sliding window analysis over the carboxy terminus of NS5A protein identified the IFN/RBV resistance-determining region (IRRDR) as the most prominent region associated with sustained virological response (SVR). Indeed, 21 (84%) of 25 patients with SVR, but only 5 (28%) of 18 patients with non-SVR, were infected with HCV having IRRDR with 4 or more mutations (IRRDR ≥ 4) (P = 0.0004). Multivariate analysis identified IRRDR ≥ 4 as an independent SVR predictor. The positive predictive value of IRRDR ≥ 4 for SVR was 81% (21/26; P = 0.002), while its negative predictive value for non-SVR was 76% (13/17; P = 0.02). On the other hand, there was no significant correlation between core protein polymorphisms, either at residue 70 or at residue 91, and treatment outcome. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate for the first time that IRRDR ≥ 4, a viral genetic heterogeneity, would be a useful predictive marker for SVR in HCV-4 infection when treated with PEG-IFN/RBV. PMID:22993188

  5. How Group Experience Affects Outcomes from NOLS Programs: A Means-End Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Marni; Soule, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Using means-end theory, this study evaluates how being part of a group influences outcomes of National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) participants. This study examines outcomes from NOLS courses during the summer of 2006 in the Wind River Mountain Range of Wyoming. Immediately following 2006 course completion, a convenience sample of 345…

  6. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  7. Does Alcohol Consumption during Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Treatment Affect Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Duraisamy, Karthickeyan; Mrithyunjayan, Sunilkumar; Ghosh, Smita; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Subramoniapillai, Jayasankar; Oeltmann, John E.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale India reports the largest number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases in the world; yet, no longitudinal study has assessed factors related to treatment outcomes under programmatic conditions in the public sector. Objectives To describe demographic, clinical, and risk characteristics associated with treatment outcomes for all patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis registered in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, Kerala State, India from January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Methods Cox regression methods were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess factors associated with an unsuccessful treatment outcome. Measurements and Main Results Of 179 patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis registered, 112 (63%) had successful treatment outcomes (77 bacteriologically cured, 35 treatment completed) and 67 (37%) had unsuccessful treatment outcomes (30 died, 26 defaulted, 9 failed treatment, 1 stopped treatment because of drug-related adverse events, and 1 developed extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis). The hazard for unsuccessful outcome was significantly higher among patients who consumed alcohol during treatment (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.1–17.6) than those who did not. Persons who consumed alcohol during treatment, on average, missed 18 more intensive-phase doses (95% CI, 13–22) than those who did not. Although many patients had diabetes (33%), were ever smokers (39%), or had low body mass index (47%), these factors were not associated with outcome. Conclusion Overall treatment success was greater than global and national averages; however, outcomes among patients consuming alcohol remained poor. Integration of care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and alcoholism should be considered to improve treatment adherence and outcomes. PMID:24735096

  8. Chronic urinary retention in men: how we define it, and how does it affect treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Negro, Carlo L A; Muir, Gordon H

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is a poorly defined entity, as the key element of definition, significant postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), has not a worldwide and moreover evidenced-based definition. There is no agreement on which is the threshold value to define a significant PVR and different society produced guidelines with different thresholds ranging from 300 mL to 1000 mL. Diagnosis is difficult, and management has not been defined yet. There is a lack of studies on the best management of these patients, as this group of patients has always been considered at high risk of failure. Only one study compares conservative with the surgical management but it is not a randomised controlled trail. This review offers a systematic appraisal of the most recent publications on CUR. It indicates the absence of a real worldwide agreed definition, as the two keys element of it are not satisfactorily defined yet: significant PVR, is suffering from a lack of evidenced-based definition, and percussable or palpable bladder is a very nebulous concept as it is not a criteria of certainty as different individual variables affect it. This has an important effect on management which is not structured. Most of the trials involving benign prostatic hyperplasia treatments (either medical or surgical) tend to exclude this group of patients, which is a clinically important group, comprising up to a quarter of men undergoing TURP in the UK. Urinary retention describes a bladder that does not empty completely or does not empty at all. Historically, urinary retention has been classified as either acute or chronic the latter is generally classified as high pressure or low pressure according to the bladder filling pressure on urodynamic. A MEDLINE® search for articles written in English and published before January 2010 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention: 'urinary retention', 'chronic urinary retention

  9. Quantitative trait loci affecting survival and fertility-related traits in Caenorhabditis elegans show genotype-environment interactions, pleiotropy and epistasis.

    PubMed Central

    Shook, D R; Johnson, T E

    1999-01-01

    We have identified, using composite interval mapping, quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting a variety of life history traits (LHTs) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using recombinant inbred strains assayed on the surface of agar plates, we found QTL for survival, early fertility, age of onset of sexual maturity, and population growth rate. There was no overall correlation between survival on solid media and previous measures of survival in liquid media. Of the four survival QTL found in these two environments, two have genotype-environment interactions (GEIs). Epistatic interactions between markers were detected for four traits. A multiple regression approach was used to determine which single markers and epistatic interactions best explained the phenotypic variance for each trait. The amount of phenotypic variance accounted for by genetic effects ranged from 13% (for internal hatching) to 46% (for population growth). Epistatic effects accounted for 9-11% of the phenotypic variance for three traits. Two regions containing QTL that affected more than one fertility-related trait were found. This study serves as an example of the power of QTL mapping for dissecting the genetic architecture of a suite of LHTs and indicates the potential importance of environment and GEIs in the evolution of this architecture. PMID:10545455

  10. BAY61-3606 Affects the Viability of Colon Cancer Cells in a Genotype-Directed Manner

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Ken S.; Zhang, Tinghu; Kendall, Krystle R.; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Gray, Nathanael S.; Haigis, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background K-RAS mutation poses a particularly difficult problem for cancer therapy. Activating mutations in K-RAS are common in cancers of the lung, pancreas, and colon and are associated with poor response to therapy. As such, targeted therapies that abrogate K-RAS-induced oncogenicity would be of tremendous value. Methods We searched for small molecule kinase inhibitors that preferentially affect the growth of colorectal cancer cells expressing mutant K-RAS. The mechanism of action of one inhibitor was explored using chemical and genetic approaches. Results We identified BAY61-3606 as an inhibitor of proliferation in colorectal cancer cells expressing mutant forms of K-RAS, but not in isogenic cells expressing wild-type K-RAS. In addition to its anti-proliferative effects in mutant cells, BAY61-3606 exhibited a distinct biological property in wild-type cells in that it conferred sensitivity to inhibition of RAF. In this context, BAY61-3606 acted by inhibiting MAP4K2 (GCK), which normally activates NFκβ signaling in wild-type cells in response to inhibition of RAF. As a result of MAP4K2 inhibition, wild-type cells became sensitive to AZ-628, a RAF inhibitor, when also treated with BAY61-3606. Conclusions These studies indicate that BAY61-3606 exerts distinct biological activities in different genetic contexts. PMID:22815993

  11. Foreign language affects the contribution of intentions and outcomes to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Geipel, Janet; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Surian, Luca

    2016-09-01

    We examine whether the use of a foreign language, as opposed to the native language, influences the relative weight intentions versus outcomes carry in moral evaluations. In Study 1, participants were presented with actions that had positive outcomes but were motivated by dubious intentions, while in Study 2 with actions that had negative outcomes but were motivated by positive intentions. Participants received the materials either in their native or a foreign language. Foreign language prompted more positive moral evaluations in Study 1 and less positive evaluations in Study 2. These results show that foreign language reduces the relative weight placed on intentions versus outcomes. We discuss several theoretical accounts that are consistent with the results such as that foreign language attenuates emotions (triggered by intentions) or it depletes cognitive resources. PMID:27232522

  12. Does family group decision making affect child welfare outcomes? Findings from a randomized control study.

    PubMed

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs (FGDM; Fresno n = 60; Riverside n = 50) administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that children were not worse than those receiving traditional services; outcomes examined were related to child safety, placement stability, and permanence. PMID:19391466

  13. Proteome Differences between Hepatitis B Virus Genotype-B- and Genotype-C-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dahai; Zeng, Yongyi; Xing, Xiaohua; Liu, Hongzhi; Lin, Minjie; Han, Xiao; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in southeast Asia where HBV genotype B and genotype C are the most prevalent. Viral genotypes have been reported to significantly affect the clinical outcomes of HCC. However, the underlying molecular differences among different genotypes of HBV virus infected HCC have not been revealed. Here, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology integrated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify the proteome differences between the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. In brief, a total of 83 proteins in the surrounding noncancerous tissues and 136 proteins in the cancerous tissues between HBV genotype-B- and genotype-C-induced HCC were identified, respectively. This information revealed that there might be different molecular mechanisms of the tumorigenesis and development of HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. Furthermore, our results indicate that the two proteins ARFIP2 and ANXA1 might be potential biomarkers for distinguishing the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. Thus, the quantitative proteomic analysis revealed molecular differences between the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC, and might provide fundamental information for further deep study. PMID:26709725

  14. Yield and quality grade outcomes as affected by molecular breeding values for commercial beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N M; DeVuyst, E A; Brorsen, B W; Lusk, J L

    2015-05-01

    Although genetic tests for many economically important beef cattle traits are commercially available, additional information is needed to help the industry better understand how the results from these tests translate into phenotypic outcomes. This information has important implications for marker-assisted management. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between molecular breeding values (MBV) characterizing yield grade and marbling and distributions of phenotypic outcomes for yield grade and quality grade. Using data collected from commercially-fed cattle, mixed-model regression equations were estimated for yield grade and quality grade outcomes for both the full sample of commercial cattle (n= 8,995) and a subsample of black-hided steers (n = 4,790). Significant yield grade (P < 0.01) and marbling (P < 0.01) MBV effects were found. However, the yield grade MBV held up better at predicting phenotypic outcomes than the marbling MBV. Estimated conditional probability mass functions of yield and quality grade outcomes for the general population and black-hided steers were similar. Since distributions for black-hided steers were expected to be more applicable from a management perspective, we focused our analysis on these animals. For example, black-hided steers with "low" genetic potential for yield grade and marbling had about a 29% chance of achieving the base price or better on a price grid (yield grade 3 or lower and quality grade Low Choice or better). Increasing genetic potential for marbling increased the likelihood of achieving this same outcome. However, increasing genetic potential for yield grade was unlikely to increase overall carcass quality given its large deleterious effect on quality grade outcomes. Instead, simultaneous improvements in genetic potential for yield grade and marbling offered much more reliable improvements in overall carcass quality. For example, an animal with "moderate" genetic potential for both yield

  15. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  16. Neighborhoods and Youth: How Neighborhood Demographics and Social Processes Affect Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Researchers over the past two decades have increasingly recognized the importance of neighborhood contexts for youth development. For example, living in a disadvantaged neighborhood has been associated with a wide range of negative outcomes throughout the early years of the life course. However, neighborhoods likely have very different effects,…

  17. Organizational and individual factors affecting consumer outcomes of care in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Morris, Anne; Bloom, Joan R; Kang, Soo

    2007-05-01

    The impact of organizational and individual factors on outcomes of care were assessed for 424 adult consumers with chronic mental illness who were receiving services from one of 14 Community Mental Health Organizations (CMHOs) in Colorado over a 30-month period, as part of a larger statewide evaluation of the impact of Medicaid capitation on mental health services. Data on organizational culture and climate were aggregated from surveys of staff and administrators conducted within CMHOs over a two-year period corresponding to the collection of consumer outcome and service utilization data. Growth curve analyses were conducted on consumer perceptions of physical and mental health, and on quality of life (QOL). Analyses indicated a significant cross-level effect of organizational culture and climate on improvements in consumer perceptions of physical and mental health, but not on a "quasi-objective" index of QOL. Individual characteristics, such as age, diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity, were significant predictors of outcomes. Being older, female, an ethnic minority, and having a diagnosis of schizophrenia all predicted poorer outcomes among consumers. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy and future research. PMID:17096194

  18. Can a future choice affect a past measurement’s outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-15

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell’s theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement’s outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  19. Culture-Specific Variables That May Affect Employment Outcomes for Mexican-American Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier-Kronick, Nancy

    This paper reviews variables specific to the Mexican-American culture that might influence work-related behavior and outcomes for youths with disabilities from this population. Areas covered include: parental/family network; cultural view of disability; religious influences; acculturation levels; language issues; education and employment…

  20. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  1. Do Neighbours Affect Teenage Outcomes? Evidence from Neighbourhood Changes in England. CEE DP 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo; Weinhardt, Felix

    2010-01-01

    There are large disparities between the achievements, behaviour and aspirations of children growing up in different neighbourhoods. This has contributed to the view that neighbourhoods can determine individuals' outcomes. Notably, in the long run these effects could lead to larger social inequality and reduce social mobility, which is why they…

  2. Does Family Group Decision Making Affect Child Welfare Outcomes? Findings from a Randomized Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that…

  3. Does Surgical Management of the Hand in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Affect Functional Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Judith C.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Haga, Nienke; Verheij, Nienke P.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the literature on the effects of surgery of the spastic hand in children with cerebral palsy on functional outcome and muscle coordination. We performed a search of the relevant literature in Medline, Embase, and Biological Abstracts from 1966 to June 2006. The search resulted in eight studies on the effect of…

  4. Affective Commitment to the Organization, Supervisor, and Work Group: Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Bentein, Kathleen; Stinglhamber, Florence

    2004-01-01

    Three longitudinal studies investigated the usefulness of distinguishing among employees' affective commitments to the organization, the supervisor, and the work group. Study 1, with 199 employees from various organizations, found that affective commitments to these entities were factorially distinct and related differentially to their theorized…

  5. An update to the HIV-TRePS system: the development of new computational models that do not require a genotype to predict HIV treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Revell, Andrew D.; Wang, Dechao; Wood, Robin; Morrow, Carl; Tempelman, Hugo; Hamers, Raph; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Ene, Luminita; Wensing, Annemarie; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard I.; Nelson, Mark; Emery, Sean; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Lane, H. Clifford; Larder, Brendan A.; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard; Montaner, Julio; Harrigan, Richard; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Hamers, Raph; Sigaloff, Kim; Agan, Brian; Marconi, Vincent; Wegner, Scott; Sugiura, Wataru; Zazzi, Maurizio; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Gatell, Jose; Lazzari, Elisa; Gazzard, Brian; Nelson, Mark; Pozniak, Anton; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Ruiz, Lidia; Clotet, Bonaventura; Staszewski, Schlomo; Torti, Carlo; Lane, Cliff; Metcalf, Julie; Perez-Elias, Maria-Jesus; Carr, Andrew; Norris, Richard; Hesse, Karl; Vlahakis, Emanuel; Tempelman, Hugo; Barth, Roos; Morrow, Carl; Wood, Robin; Ene, Luminita; Dragovic, Gordana; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David; Torti, Carlo; Baxter, John; Monno, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Gatell, Jose; Clotet, Bonventura; Picchio, Gaston; deBethune, Marie-Pierre; Perez-Elias, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The optimal individualized selection of antiretroviral drugs in resource-limited settings is challenging because of the limited availability of drugs and genotyping. Here we describe the development of the latest computational models to predict the response to combination antiretroviral therapy without a genotype, for potential use in such settings. Methods Random forest models were trained to predict the probability of a virological response to therapy (<50 copies HIV RNA/mL) following virological failure using the following data from 22 567 treatment-change episodes including 1090 from southern Africa: baseline viral load and CD4 cell count, treatment history, drugs in the new regimen, time to follow-up and follow-up viral load. The models were assessed during cross-validation and with an independent global test set of 1000 cases including 100 from southern Africa. The models' accuracy [area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC)] was evaluated and compared with genotyping using rules-based interpretation systems for those cases with genotypes available. Results The models achieved AUCs of 0.79–0.84 (mean 0.82) during cross-validation, 0.80 with the global test set and 0.78 with the southern African subset. The AUCs were significantly lower (0.56–0.57) for genotyping. Conclusions The models predicted virological response to HIV therapy without a genotype as accurately as previous models that included a genotype. They were accurate for cases from southern Africa and significantly more accurate than genotyping. These models will be accessible via the online treatment support tool HIV-TRePS and have the potential to help optimize antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings where genotyping is not generally available. PMID:24275116

  6. Does Cognitive Impairment Affect Rehabilitation Outcome in Parkinson’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzoli, Davide; Ortelli, Paola; Maestri, Roberto; Bera, Rossana; Giladi, Nir; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Pezzoli, Gianni; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson’s disease (PD). No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in PD have been performed before. Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with PD. Methods: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with PD hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment (MIRT) between January 2014 and September 2015. According to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), patients were divided into: group 1—normal cognition (score 27–30), group 2—mild cognitive impairment (score 21–26), group 3—moderate or severe cognitive impairment (score ≤ 20). According to Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), subjects were divided into patients with normal (score ≥13.8) and pathological (score <13.8) executive functions. The outcome measures were: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Parkinson’s Disease Disability Scale (PDDS), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results: All scales had worse values with the increase of cognitive impairment and passing from normal to pathological executive functions. After rehabilitation, all the outcome measures improved in all groups (p < 0.0001). Between groups, the percentage of improvement was significantly different for total UPDRS (p = 0.0009, best improvement in normal MMSE group; p = 0.019, best improvement in normal FAB group), and BBS (p < 0.0001, all pairwise comparisons significant, best improvement in patients with worse MMSE score; p < 0.0001, best improvement in patients with pathological FAB). TUG (p = 0.006) and BBS (p < 0.0001) improved in patients with pathological FAB score, more than in those with normal FAB score. Conclusions: Patients gain benefit in the rehabilitative outcomes, regardless of cognition

  7. Idiosyncratic Variables Affecting Functional Analysis Outcomes: A Review (2001–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Dube, William V.

    2013-01-01

    Although typical functional analyses often produce clear outcomes, some studies have reported ambiguous results that cannot be interpreted. Such undifferentiated outcomes may occur if test conditions do not include relevant antecedent or consequent events. Clinicians then may try to modify the functional analysis conditions to include those events. Hanley, Iwata, and McCord (2003) reviewed the functional analysis literature through the year 2000 and described idiosyncratic variables included in modified functional analyses. The objective of the present review was to present a quantitative analysis of idiosyncratic antecedents and consequences in modified functional analyses during the past decade (2001 to 2010). We discuss the range of stimulus parameters tested and the assessment strategies used for informing the modified analysis conditions. PMID:24114110

  8. Psychosocial outcome following genetic risk counselling for familial colorectal cancer. A comparison of affected patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Jost, R; Haunstetter, C M; Sattel, H; Schroeter, C; Bertsch, U; Cremer, F; Kienle, P; Tariverdian, M; Kloor, M; Gebert, J; Brechtel, A

    2008-11-01

    Few studies have reported prospective data on psychosocial outcomes after genetic counselling in families with suspected hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). This prospective study examines the impact of multidisciplinary risk counselling on the psychosocial outcome of 139 affected cancer patients and 233 family members without cancer at risk for HNPCC. Participants completed questionnaires specific to HNPCC before and 8 weeks after attending the familial cancer clinic. Affected patients' levels of distress were closely related to their health status and exceeded that of unaffected individuals, as did worry regarding their relatives' risk. A significant reduction in general anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), distress specific to familial CRC (Impact of Events Scale) and general cancer worry (Distress Hereditary Disorder) was demonstrated after counselling in both affected patients and unaffected individuals. Reduction in distress was more pronounced in affected patients given a high risk of HNPCC compared with those at intermediate risk. Among unaffected individuals, distress declined regardless of what clinical risk they were assigned. Their perceptions of risk and cancer-related threat declined, while confidence in effective surveillance increased. These results suggest the beneficial effects of multidisciplinary counselling even when high-risk information is conveyed. A patient's previous cancer experience is likely to contribute to clinically relevant distress (15% of those patients), indicating the need for appropriate counselling. PMID:18954412

  9. Predictive Factors Affecting Long-Term Outcome of Unilateral Lateral Rectus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Mi-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few long-term outcome reports of unilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession for exotropia including a large number of subjects. Previous reports on unilateral LR recession commonly show extremely low rates of initial overcorrection and large exodrifts after surgery suggesting that the surgical dose may be increased. However, little is known of the long-term outcome of a large unilateral LR recession for exotropia. Objectives To determine long-term outcomes and predictive factors of recurrence after a large unilateral LR recession in patients with exotropia. Data Extraction Retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients aged 3 to 17 years who underwent 10 mm unilateral LR recession for exotropia of ≤ 25 prism diopters (Δ) with prism and alternate cover testing and were followed up for more than 2 years after surgery. Final success rates within 10Δ of exophoria/tropia and 5Δ of esophoria/tropia at distance in the primary position, improvement in stereopsis and the predictive factors for recurrence were evaluated. Results At 24 months after surgery, 54% of patients had ocular alignment meeting the defined criteria of success, 45% had recurrence and 1% had overcorrection. After a mean follow-up of 39 months, 36% showed success, 63% showed recurrence and 1% resulted in overcorrection. The average time of recurrence was 23.4±14.7 months (range, 1–60 months) and the rate of recurrence per person-year was 23% after unilateral LR recession. Predictive factors of recurrence were a larger preoperative near angle of deviation (>16Δ) and larger initial postoperative exodeviation (>5Δ) at distance. Conclusions Long-term outcome of unilateral LR recession for exotropia showed low success rates with high recurrence, thus should be reserved for patients with a small preoperative near angle of exodeviation. PMID:26418819

  10. Cross-reactive immunologic material status affects treatment outcomes in Pompe disease infants.

    PubMed

    Kishnani, Priya S; Goldenberg, Paula C; DeArmey, Stephanie L; Heller, James; Benjamin, Danny; Young, Sarah; Bali, Deeksha; Smith, Sue Ann; Li, Jennifer S; Mandel, Hanna; Koeberl, Dwight; Rosenberg, Amy; Chen, Y-T

    2010-01-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease, which is usually fatal if onset occurs in infancy. Patients synthesize a non-functional form of GAA or are unable to form native enzyme. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) prolongs survival in infantile Pompe patients but may be less effective in cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-negative patients. We retrospectively analyzed the influence of CRIM status on outcome in 21 CRIM-positive and 11 CRIM-negative infantile Pompe patients receiving rhGAA. Patients were from the clinical setting and from clinical trials of rhGAA, were 6 months of age, were not invasively ventilated, and were treated with IV rhGAA at a cumulative or total dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg/2 weeks. Outcome measures included survival, invasive ventilator-free survival, cardiac status, gross motor development, development of antibodies to rhGAA, and levels of urinary Glc(4). Following 52 weeks of treatment, 6/11 (54.5%) CRIM-negative and 1/21 (4.8%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated (p<0.0001). By age 27.1 months, all CRIM-negative patients and 4/21 (19.0%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated. Cardiac function and gross motor development improved significantly more in the CRIM-positive group. IgG antibodies to rhGAA developed earlier and serotiters were higher and more sustained in the CRIM-negative group. CRIM-negative status predicted reduced overall survival and invasive ventilator-free survival and poorer clinical outcomes in infants with Pompe disease treated with rhGAA. The effect of CRIM status on outcome appears to be mediated by antibody responses to the exogenous protein. PMID:19775921

  11. Cross-reactive immunologic material status affects treatment outcomes in Pompe disease infants

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, Priya S.; Goldenberg, Paula C.; DeArmey, Stephanie L.; Heller, James; Benjamin, Danny; Young, Sarah; Bali, Deeksha; Smith, Sue Ann; Li, Jennifer S.; Mandel, Hanna; Koeberl, Dwight; Rosenberg, Amy; Chen, Y-T

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease, which is usually fatal if onset occurs in infancy. Patients synthesize a non-functional form of GAA or are unable to form native enzyme. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) prolongs survival in infantile Pompe patients but may be less effective in cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-negative patients. We retrospectively analyzed the influence of CRIM status on outcome in 21 CRIM-positive and 11 CRIM-negative infantile Pompe patients receiving rhGAA. Patients were from the clinical setting and from clinical trials of rhGAA, were ≤6 months of age, were not invasively ventilated, and were treated with IV rhGAA at a cumulative or total dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg/2 weeks. Outcome measures included survival, invasive ventilator-free survival, cardiac status, gross motor development, development of antibodies to rhGAA, and levels of urinary Glc4. Following 52 weeks of treatment, 6/11 (54.5%) CRIM-negative and 1/21 (4.8%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated (p < 0.0001). By age 27.1 months, all CRIM-negative patients and 4/21 (19.0%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated. Cardiac function and gross motor development improved significantly more in the CRIM-positive group. IgG antibodies to rhGAA developed earlier and serotiters were higher and more sustained in the CRIM-negative group. CRIM-negative status predicted reduced overall survival and invasive ventilator-free survival and poorer clinical outcomes in infants with Pompe disease treated with rhGAA. The effect of CRIM status on outcome appears to be mediated by antibody responses to the exogenous protein. PMID:19775921

  12. Method of induction could affect emotional outcomes: comment on markey, chin, vanepps, and loewenstein (2014 ).

    PubMed

    Bench, Shane W; Yaugher, Ashley C; Lench, Heather C

    2015-04-01

    Markey, Chin, Vanepps, and Loewenstein (2014) demonstrated six methods for the induction of boredom. However, a clear and testable definition of boredom should be established prior to experimental manipulation of the construct. Defining boredom from a functional emotion perspective is one approach that affords a definition separable from the outcomes associated with boredom and insight into which manipulations may effectively target the construct. PMID:25730196

  13. Nonsurgical scar management of the face: does early versus late intervention affect outcome?

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2013-01-01

    Special emphasis is placed on the clinical management of facial scarring because of the profound physical and psychological impact of facial burns. Noninvasive methods of facial scar management include pressure therapy, silicone, massage, and facial exercises. Early implementation of these scar management techniques after a burn injury is typically accepted as standard burn rehabilitation practice, however, little data exist to support this practice. This study evaluated the timing of common noninvasive scar management interventions after facial skin grafting in children and the impact on outcome, as measured by scar assessment and need for facial reconstructive surgery. A retrospective review of 138 patients who underwent excision and grafting of the face and subsequent noninvasive scar management during a 10-year time frame was conducted. Regression analyses were used to show that earlier application of silicone was significantly related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores, specifically in the subscales of vascularity and pigmentation. Early use of pressure therapy and implementation of facial exercises were also related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale vascularity scores. No relationship was found between timing of the interventions and facial reconstructive outcome. Early use of silicone, pressure therapy, and exercise may improve scar outcome and accelerate time to scar maturity. PMID:23816994

  14. Do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs affect the outcome of arthroscopic Bankart repair?

    PubMed

    Blomquist, J; Solheim, E; Liavaag, S; Baste, V; Havelin, L I

    2014-12-01

    To achieve pain control after arthroscopic shoulder surgery, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a complement to other analgesics. However, experimental studies have raised concerns that these drugs may have a detrimental effect on soft tissue-to-bone healing and, thus, have a negative effect on the outcome. We wanted to investigate if there are any differences in the clinical outcome after the arthroscopic Bankart procedure for patients who received NSAIDs prescription compared with those who did not. 477 patients with a primary arthroscopic Bankart procedure were identified in the Norwegian shoulder instability register and included in the study. 32.5% received prescription of NSAIDs post-operatively. 370 (78%) of the patients answered a follow-up questionnaire containing the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI). Mean follow-up was 21 months. WOSI at follow-up were 75% in the NSAID group and 74% in the control group. 12% of the patients in the NSAID group and 14% in the control group reported recurrence of instability. The reoperation rate was 5% in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Prescription of short-term post-operative NSAID treatment in the post-operative period did not influence on the functional outcome after arthroscopic Bankart procedures. PMID:24750379

  15. Contribution of ABCB1 and CYP2D6 genotypes to the outcome of tamoxifen adjuvant treatment in premenopausal women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Argalácsová, S; Slanař, O; Vítek, P; Tesařová, P; Bakhouche, H; DraŽďáková, M; Bartošová, O; Zima, T; PertuŽelka, L

    2015-01-01

    Recent pre-clinical evidence suggests that the active metabolite of tamoxifen, endoxifen, is a substrate for efflux pump P-glycoprotein. The aim of our study was to evaluate, if the polymoprhisms within ABCB1 gene alter tamoxifen adjuvant treatment efficacy in premenopausal women. Totally 71 premenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer indicated for tamoxifen adjuvant treatment were followed retrospectively for median period of 56 months. The gentic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and ABCB1 were analyzed and potential covariates as tumor grading, staging, age at the diagnosis, comedication, quantitative positivity of ER or PR were also evaluated. Cox proportional-hazards regression model indicated that patients carrying at least one variant allele in ABCB1 rs1045642 had significantly longer time to event survival compared to wild type subjects. Non-significant trend was noted for better treatment outcome of patients carrying at least one variant allele in the SNP rs2032582, while for the CYP2D6 polymorphism poor metabolizer phenotype resulted in worse outcome in comparison to extensive metabolizers subjects with HR of 4.04 (95 % CI 0.31-52.19). Similarly, patients using CYP2D6 inhibitors had non-significantly shorter time-to-event as compared to never users resulting in hazard ratio of 2.06 (95 % CI 0.40-10.63). ABCB1 polymorphisms may affect outcome of tamoxifen adjuvant treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patiens. This factor should be taken into account in addition to the CYP2D6 polymorphism or phenotypic inhibition of CYP2D6 activity. PMID:26681084

  16. Social Variables Affecting Mate Preferences, Copulation and Reproductive Outcome in a Pack of Free-Ranging Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  17. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    PubMed

    Cafazzo, Simona; Bonanni, Roberto; Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  18. Class IIa histone deacetylases affect neuronal remodeling and functional outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kassis, Haifa; Shehadah, Amjad; Li, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Cui, Yisheng; Roberts, Cynthia; Sadry, Neema; Liu, Xianshuang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2016-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that stroke induces nuclear shuttling of class IIa histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Stroke-induced nuclear shuttling of HDAC4 is positively and significantly correlated with improved indices of neuronal remodeling in the peri-infarct cortex. In this study, using a rat model for middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we tested the effects of selective inhibition of class IIa HDACs on functional recovery and neuronal remodeling when administered 24hr after stroke. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 15-17/group) were subjected to 2 h MCAO and orally gavaged with MC1568 (a selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor), SAHA (a non-selective HDAC inhibitor), or vehicle-control for 7 days starting 24 h after MCAO. A battery of behavioral tests was performed. Lesion volume measurement and immunohistochemistry were performed 28 days after MCAO. We found that stroke increased total HDAC activity in the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to the contralateral hemisphere. Stroke-increased HDAC activity was significantly decreased by the administration of SAHA as well as by MC1568. However, SAHA significantly improved functional outcome compared to vehicle control, whereas selective class IIa inhibition with MC1568 increased mortality and lesion volume and did not improve functional outcome. In addition, MC1568 decreased microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2, dendrites), phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNFH, axons) and myelin basic protein (MBP, myelination) immunoreactivity in the peri-infarct cortex. Quantitative RT-PCR of cortical neurons isolated by laser capture microdissection revealed that MC1568, but not SAHA, downregulated CREB and c-fos expression. Additionally, MC1568 decreased the expression of phosphorylated CREB (active) in neurons. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that selective inhibition of class IIa HDACs impairs neuronal remodeling and neurological outcome. Inactivation of CREB and c-fos by MC1568 likely contributes to

  19. Maternal First Trimester TSH Concentrations: Do They Affect Perinatal and Endocrine Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, M; Shafat, T; Erez, O; Lichtenstein, Y; Awesat, J; Novack, V; Tsur, A

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to examine the distribution of 1(st) trimester TSH and evaluate its association with perinatal outcomes and future development of maternal thyrotoxicosis. This retrospective cohort study included data of all women without prior thyroid disease who delivered a singleton at our medical center from 1/2001 to 12/2011 and had a 1(st) trimester TSH<4.0 mU/l. Women were divided according to 1(st) trimester TSH concentrations into quartiles and by predefined TSH values (mU/l): 1) TSH<0.1; 2) TSH 0.11-0.2; 3) TSH 0.21-0.4; and 4) TSH 0.4-4. Obstetrical outcomes, hCG concentrations, and future thyroid status were collected from electronic medical records. A total of 13 841 women fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean maternal TSH concentration at 5 weeks of gestation was 2.09±0.83 mU/l and decreased to 1.29±0.87 mU/l in weeks 8-9 with an increase towards the end of the 1(st) trimester. Odds ratio for future thyrotoxicosis was 3.64 in the lowest compared to the highest TSH quartile and 10.03 in those with TSH<0.1 compared to TSH 0.41-4 mU/l. Rates of female fetuses were higher in the low TSH quartiles and in the lower TSH groups, however baby gender was not associated with increased risk of future thyrotoxicosis. Low maternal 1(st) trimester TSH quartiles or concentrations were not associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Only a minor fraction of pregnant women with a low first tirmester TSH subsequently developed future thyrotoxicosis. PMID:27351808

  20. Favorable outcome of patients affected by rhabdoid tumors due to rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS).

    PubMed

    Kordes, Uwe; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Modena, Piergiorgio; Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Reinhard, Harald; Hasselblatt, Martin; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Frühwald, Michael C

    2014-05-01

    Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome is usually associated with shorter survival in patients with malignant rhabdoid tumors regardless of anatomical origin. Here we present four children harboring truncating heterozygous SMARCB1/INI1 germline mutations with favorable outcome. All four patients received multi-modality treatment, three according to therapeutic recommendations by the EU-RHAB registry, two without radiotherapy, and mean event-free survival accounts for 7 years. In conclusion, intensive treatment with curative intent is justified for children with rhabdoid tumors even if an underlying rhabdoid predisposition syndrome is demonstrated. PMID:24123847

  1. Older Age Does Not Affect Healing Time and Functional Outcomes After Fracture Nonunion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, David P.; Shulman, Brandon S.; Karia, Raj; Spitzer, Allison B.; Konda, Sanjit R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elderly patients are at risk of fracture nonunion, given the potential setting of osteopenia, poorer fracture biology, and comorbid medical conditions. Risk factors predicting fracture nonunion may compromise the success of fracture nonunion surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of patient age on clinical and functional outcome following long bone fracture nonunion surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data identified 288 patients (aged 18-91) who were indicated for long bone nonunion surgery. Two-hundred and seventy-two patients satisfied study inclusion criteria and analyses were performed comparing elderly patients aged ≥65 years (n = 48) with patients <65 years (n = 224) for postoperative wound complications, Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) functional status, healing, and surgical revision. Regression analyses were performed to look for associations between age, smoking status, and history of previous nonunion surgery with healing and functional outcome. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 91.5% (249 of 272) of patients. Results: Despite demographic differences in the aged population, including a predominance of medical comorbidities (P < .01) and osteopenia (P = .02), there was no statistical differences in the healing rate of elderly patients (95.8% vs 95.1%, P = .6) or time to union (6.2 ± 4.1 months vs. 7.2 ± 6.6, P = .3). Rates of postoperative wound complications and surgical revision did not statistically differ. Elderly patients reported similar levels of function up to 12 months after surgery. Regression analyses failed to show any significant association between age and final union or time to union. There was a strong positive association between smoking and history of previous nonunion surgery with time to union. Age was associated (positively) with 12-month SMFA activity score. Conclusions: Smoking and failure of previous surgical

  2. The MICA-129 dimorphism affects NKG2D signaling and outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Isernhagen, Antje; Malzahn, Dörthe; Viktorova, Elena; Elsner, Leslie; Monecke, Sebastian; von Bonin, Frederike; Kilisch, Markus; Wermuth, Janne Marieke; Walther, Neele; Balavarca, Yesilda; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Engelke, Michael; Walter, Lutz; Bickeböller, Heike; Kube, Dieter; Wulf, Gerald; Dressel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic ligand for the activating natural killer (NK)-cell receptor NKG2D. A single nucleotide polymorphism causes a valine to methionine exchange at position 129. Presence of a MICA-129Met allele in patients (n = 452) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) increased the chance of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.77, P = 0.0445) and reduced the risk to die due to acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57, P = 0.0400) although homozygous carriers had an increased risk to experience this complication (OR = 1.92, P = 0.0371). Overall survival of MICA-129Val/Val genotype carriers was improved when treated with anti-thymocyte globulin (HR = 0.54, P = 0.0166). Functionally, the MICA-129Met isoform was characterized by stronger NKG2D signaling, triggering more NK-cell cytotoxicity and interferon-γ release, and faster co-stimulation of CD8+ T cells. The MICA-129Met variant also induced a faster and stronger down-regulation of NKG2D on NK and CD8+ T cells than the MICA-129Val isoform. The reduced cell surface expression of NKG2D in response to engagement by MICA-129Met variants appeared to reduce the severity of aGVHD. PMID:26483398

  3. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  4. Pretransfer computed tomography delays arrival to definitive care without affecting pediatric trauma outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Aodhnait S.; Antiel, Ryan M.; Polites, Stephanie F.; Ishitani, Michael B.; Moir, Christopher R.; Zielinski, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Children with thoracic or abdominal trauma, presenting to referring hospitals, may undergo CT imaging prior to transfer to a pediatric trauma center (PTC). We sought to determine if children who undergo pretransfer imaging experience a delay in definitive care and worse clinical outcomes. Methods Pediatric blunt trauma patients transferred to our level I PTC were identified in this IRB approved study. Those transferred with CT imaging of the chest or abdomen/pelvis prior to transfer were compared to those transferred without imaging. Results Of 246 patients with a mean age of 12.4 ± 5.3 years (64% male), 128 patients (52%) underwent chest (n = 85) and/or abdominal (n = 115) CT studies prior to transfer. Among those patients with pretransfer CT, 14% of CT scans were repeated. On multivariate analysis accounting for distance, time from injury to arrival at our PTC was significantly greater in children who underwent pretransfer CT (320 ± 216 vs. 208 ± 149 minutes, p < 0.001). Median length of stay (3 vs. 3 days) and mortality (3% vs. 3%) were similar between groups (all p > 0.05). Conclusions A substantial number of pediatric blunt trauma patients underwent CT scans prior to transfer, which is associated with a delay in transfer but not worse outcomes. PMID:26778842

  5. How Group Factors Affect Adolescent Change Talk and Substance Use Outcomes: Implications for Motivational Interviewing Training

    PubMed Central

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Houck, Jon M.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Clients who verbalize statements arguing for change (change talk, CT) in psychotherapy are more likely to decrease alcohol and other drug use (AOD) compared to clients who voice statements in opposition of change (sustain talk, ST). Little is known about how CT and ST are expressed in groups where adolescents may vary in their AOD use severity and readiness to change. First, we examined how session content was associated with CT/ST, and then we looked at whether different subtypes of CT/ST were associated with subsequent AOD outcomes three months later. Audio recordings (N=129 sessions) of a 6-session group motivational interviewing (MI) intervention, Free Talk, were coded. Session content was not associated with CT; however, some session content was associated with higher percentages of ST (e.g., normative feedback). Subtypes of CT (Commitment and Reason) were associated with improved AOD outcomes, whereas Ability subtype remarks were related to increased marijuana use, intentions, and consequences. Findings offer helpful guidance for clinical training and narrow in on the type of CT to try to elicit in group MI sessions. Regardless of session content, adolescents can benefit from hearing CT during the group. PMID:25602608

  6. Pediatric hydrocephalus: Does the shunt device pressure selection affect the outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Arvind; Sharma, Anuj; Gupta, Charitesh

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of low- versus medium-pressure shunts in pediatric hydrocephalus in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Forty patients of pediatric hydrocephalus were randomized into two groups. The Chhabra differential pressure VP shunt (low or medium) was inserted in every patient. Postoperative follow-up was performed for symptomatic improvement and radiological evaluation (by sonography or computed tomography scan) for ventricle hemispheric ratio (VHR). Comparative analysis of pre- and postoperative VHR and need of redo surgery for shunt malformation were carried out to establish outcomes. Results: Nineteen patients had a low-pressure and 21 patients had a medium-pressure shunt inserted. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 10 years. The average preoperative VHR in group A was 55.37%, which reduced to 40% postoperatively (P = 0.00005); likewise, the pre- and postoperative VHR in group B were 61.57% and 42%, respectively, which was statistically significant (P = 0.0006). The complications of shunts and incidence of redo shunt surgery in both groups were not found to be statistically significant (P = 0.5614). Conclusions: The study found no significant difference in the outcome of patients with low- or medium-pressure shunt placement in pediatric hydrocephalus. PMID:22529548

  7. Client Preferences Affect Treatment Satisfaction, Completion, and Clinical Outcome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; McLear, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of client preferences on treatment satisfaction, completion, and clinical outcome. Our search of the literature resulted in 34 empirical articles describing 32 unique clinical trials that either randomized some clients to an active choice condition (shared decision making condition or choice of treatment) or assessed client preferences. Clients who were involved in shared decision making, chose a treatment condition, or otherwise received their preferred treatment evidenced higher treatment satisfaction (ESd = .34; p < .001), increased completion rates (ESOR = 1.37; ESd = .17; p < .001), and superior clinical outcome (ESd = .15; p < .0001), compared to clients who were not involved in shared decision making, did not choose a treatment condition, or otherwise did not receive their preferred treatment. Although the effect sizes are modest in magnitude, they were generally consistent across several potential moderating variables including study design (preference versus active choice), psychoeducation (informed versus uninformed), setting (inpatient versus outpatient), client diagnosis (mental health versus other), and unit of randomization (client versus provider). Our findings highlight the clinical benefit of assessing client preferences, providing treatment choices when two or more efficacious options are available, and involving clients in treatment-related decisions when treatment options are not available. PMID:25189522

  8. Sleep apnoea adversely affects the outcome in patients who undergo posterior lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Stundner, O.; Chiu, Y-L.; Sun, X.; Ramachandran, S-K.; Gerner, P.; Vougioukas, V.; Mazumdar, M.; Memtsoudis, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of sleep apnoea, little information is available regarding its impact on the peri-operative outcome of patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. The impact of sleep apnoea on various outcome measures was assessed by regression analysis. The records of 84 655 patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion were identified and 7.28% also had a diagnostic code for sleep apnoea. Compared with patients without sleep apnoea, these patients were older, more frequently female, had a higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of peri-operative complications, post-operative mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, and intensive care. Patients with sleep apnoea also had longer and more costly periods of hospitalisation. In the regression analysis, sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.50, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18). Patients with sleep apnoea who undergo posterior lumbar fusion pose significant challenges to clinicians. PMID:24493191

  9. How does family drug treatment court participation affect child welfare outcomes?

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth Joanne; Eldred, Lindsey Morgan; Vernerey, Allison; Sloan, Frank Allen

    2014-10-01

    Parental substance use is a risk factor for child maltreatment. Family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) have emerged in the United States as a policy option to treat the underlying condition and promote family preservation. This study examines the effectiveness of FDTCs in North Carolina on child welfare outcomes. Data come from North Carolina records from child protection services, court system, and birth records. Three types of parental participation in a FDTC are considered: referral, enrolling, and completing an FDTC. The sample includes 566 children who were placed into foster care and whose parents participated in a FDTC program. Findings indicate that children of parents who were referred but did not enroll or who enrolled but did not complete had longer stays in foster care than children of completers. Reunification rates for children of completers were also higher. Outcomes for children in the referred and enrolled groups did not differ in the multivariate analyses. While effective substance use treatment services for parents may help preserve families, future research should examine factors for improving participation and completion rates as well as factors involved in scaling programs so that more families are served. PMID:24736039

  10. The Effects of Trauma History and Prenatal Affective Symptoms on Obstetric Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Emma Robertson; Putnam, Frank W; Pressman, Eva K; Rubinow, David R; Putnam, Karen T; Matthieu, Monica M; Gilchrist, Michelle A; Jones, Ian; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal maternal mood may inform the adverse obstetric outcomes seen in disadvantaged populations. The contribution of having a trauma history is not well studied. We examined the impact of trauma exposure and mood symptoms on obstetric outcomes in 358 women. Women with antecedent trauma were more likely to have a history of depression, odds ratio = 2.83, 95% confidence interval [1.81, 4.42], were younger at their first pregnancy, 18.86 years versus 20.10 years, and had a higher number of previous pregnancies, 2.01 versus 1.54, compared to those with no trauma exposure. Women with prenatal anxiety had significantly smaller babies than nonanxious women, 3,313.17 g, (SD = 441.58) versus 3,429.27 g, (SD = 437.82) Trauma history magnified the effects of maternal prenatal mood on birthweight; the moderating effect was limited to those who first experienced a trauma under 18 years of age. Childhood trauma exposure increased vulnerability for low birthweight delivery associated with prenatal mood disturbance. Screening pregnant women for trauma history and current mood symptoms is indicated. PMID:27276162

  11. Marital Conflict and Child Outcomes: The Role of Children's Affect and Coping Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sarah E.; Clements, Mari L.

    This study examined young children's affective distress and behavioral responses to parental marital conflict. Forty-eight 4-year-olds and their parents participated in the study. Mothers and fathers independently completed measures of marital conflict, children's reactions to marital conflict, and child behavior problems, while the children…

  12. User Experience of Mobile Interactivity: How Do Mobile Websites Affect Attitudes and Relational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media offer new opportunities for fostering communications between individuals and companies. Corporate websites are being increasingly accessed via smart phones and companies are scrambling to offer a mobile-friendly user experience on their sites. However, very little is known about how interactivity in the mobile context affects user…

  13. Affecting Factors and Outcome on Intermittent Internet Pulling Behavior in Taiwan's Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays people's lives heavily rely on Internet facilities. Internet users generally have constant Internet connectivity and intermittently click on sites they want to access even amidst studying or working. In this study, we sought to examine the factors affecting intermittent Internet pulling behavior on undergraduate students. Furthermore, the…

  14. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2015-01-01

    The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months) and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients) and the low functioning group (20 patients) using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients. PMID:26889198

  15. Social-Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap.

    PubMed

    Becker, Bronwyn E; Luthar, Suniya S

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  16. Factors affecting the postoperative limb alignment and clinical outcome after Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Ju; Bae, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Hong Chul

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the postoperative mechanical axis deviation and clinical outcome according to bearing size, femoral component position, and tibial resection angle after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). A total of 104 patients with 124 knees underwent Oxford phase 3 UKA. The overall changes in mechanical axis deviation and tibiofemoral angle were significantly different according to bearing size (P = .001 and < .001), but they were not significantly different according to the tibial resection angle and femoral component position. The postoperative mechanical axis fell into the zone C or zone 2 in 108 knees (87%) and into the zone 3 or zone 4 in 16 cases (13%). One hundred eight cases, which had the mechanical axis passing the zone C or zone 2, did not show any progression of arthritis. Limb alignment is a function of the thickness of the bearing rather than alignments of femoral and tibial implant. PMID:22285234

  17. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  18. Factors affecting treatment outcome in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A retrospective analysis from South India

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Sahil; Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Yadalla, Dayakar; Rajagopalan, Jayagayathri; Velis, Girish Bharat; Talele, Deepti; Kushwaha, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate outcomes for different treatment modalities in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in an Indian population. Design: Retrospective, interventional, case series. Materials and Methods: In an institutional setting, case records of patients with CNLDO from January 2008 to 2012, were reviewed, and data on patient demographics, clinical presentation, and treatment details (sac massage, probing, and/or dacryocystorhinostomy) were recorded. Success of treatment was defined as complete resolution of symptoms and negative regurgitation on pressure over lacrimal sac (ROPLAS) area. Results: Two hundred and ninety-eight eyes of 240 patients with a mean age of 22.2 ± 26.14 months (median = 12 months, interquartile range = 17) were analyzed. Sac massage (n = 226) was successful in 67 eyes (30%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that children with mucoid ROPLAS were almost 6 times more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 5.55 vs. clear ROPLAS, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.35–13.09, P < 0.001) to experience failure of sac massage. Overall probing (n = 193) was successful for 143 (74%) eyes. Multivariable logistic regression showed that older children were 25% more likely to experience probing failure (OR = 1.25 for every 6 months increment in age, 95%, CI = 1.09–1.42, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Sac massage is successful in only a third of our patients and those with mucoid ROPLAS are more likely to experience failure. Probing is successful in three-quarter of our subjects, and its success declines with a progressive increase in age. Lower socioeconomic status, poor general health, and recurrent respiratory infections are unique to our population and may influence outcomes. PMID:26654998

  19. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  20. Data on IL-6 c.-174 G>C genotype and allele frequencies in patients with coronary heart disease in dependence of cardiovascular outcome.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Stefan; Schlitt, Axel; Benten, Ann-Christin; Hofmann, Britt; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Schulz, Susanne

    2016-09-01

    In this data article we present data on the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the interleukin (IL)-6 c.-174 G>C polymorphism (rs 1800795) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in dependence of the incidence of new cardiovascular events (combined endpoint: myocardial infarction, stroke/TIA, cardiac death, death according to stroke) within three years follow-up. Moreover, we investigated putative associations between individual expression of IL-6 genotypes and IL-6 serum level. This investigation is a subanalysis of the article entitled "The Interleukin 6 c.-174 CC genotype is a predictor for new cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease within three years follow-up" (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01045070) (Reichert et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27570807

  1. Nonambulatory cows: Duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care affect outcome of flotation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-03-01

    Cows that are unable or unwilling to stand and remain recumbent for ≥ 12 h are defined as nonambulatory. Care and management of nonambulatory cattle is considered a major animal welfare concern facing the livestock industry, particularly the dairy sector. Flotation therapy has gained interest as a means to promote recovery in nonambulatory cows and is based on the concept that by floating the cow in warm water, secondary pressure damage to muscles and nerves will be reduced. The objective of this study was to assess the physiological responses to stress related to the flotation therapy and to evaluate the effect of recumbency duration and nursing care on the outcome of the flotation therapy. The outcomes of 34 nonambulatory Holstein dairy cows were analyzed after they were subjected to flotation therapy. The duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care provided before initiation of the flotation treatment were assessed based on producer responses to survey questions, and from on-site observations by the researchers. A veterinarian examined all cows before flotation therapy began. The treatment was divided into 5 phases: baseline (before filling), manipulation (placing the cow into the tank), filling (the tank was filled with water), flotation (the cow was confined in the filled tank), and draining (water was removed from the tank). Stress responses to the procedure, excluding the manipulation portion, were assessed using heart rate variability. The high-frequency component (HF normalized units) decreased during the filling and draining phases (2.8 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.4, respectively) compared with the baseline and floating phase (5.1 ± 0.6 and 4.9 ± 0.3, [corrected] respectively). These results indicate that the stress related to the flotation therapy is greatest during the filling and draining phases of the treatment, when cows likely have to exert increased effort to transition to a standing position. The flotation therapy was less likely to be

  2. Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Sabiiti, Wilber; Robertson, Emma; Beale, Mathew A.; Johnston, Simon A.; Brouwer, Annemarie E.; Loyse, Angela; Jarvis, Joseph N.; Gilbert, Andrew S.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Harrison, Thomas S.; May, Robin C.; Bicanic, Tihana

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality globally. High fungal burden in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis and poor fungal clearance during treatment are recognized adverse prognostic markers; however, the underlying pathogenic factors that drive these clinical manifestations are incompletely understood. We profiled a large set of clinical isolates for established cryptococcal virulence traits to evaluate the contribution of C. neoformans phenotypic diversity to clinical presentation and outcome in human cryptococcosis. Methods. Sixty-five C. neoformans isolates from clinical trial patients with matched clinical data were assayed in vitro to determine murine macrophage uptake, intracellular proliferation rate (IPR), capsule induction, and laccase activity. Analysis of the correlation between prognostic clinical and host immune parameters and fungal phenotypes was performed using Spearman’s r, while the fungal-dependent impact on long-term survival was determined by Cox regression analysis. Results. High levels of fungal uptake by macrophages in vitro, but not the IPR, were associated with CSF fungal burden (r = 0.38, P = 0.002) and long-term patient survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.2–5.5, P = 0.012). High-uptake strains were hypocapsular (r = –0.28, P = 0.05) and exhibited enhanced laccase activity (r = 0.36, P = 0.003). Fungal isolates with greater laccase activity exhibited heightened survival ex vivo in purified CSF (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001) and resistance to clearance following patient antifungal treatment (r = 0.39, P = 0.003). Conclusion. These findings underscore the contribution of cryptococcal-phagocyte interactions and laccase-dependent melanin pathways to human clinical presentation and outcome. Furthermore, characterization of fungal-specific pathways that drive clinical manifestation provide potential targets for the development of therapeutics and the management of CM. Funding. This work

  3. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III. PMID:24125857

  4. Maternal Prenatal Positive Affect, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Birth Outcomes: The PREDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuusinen, Tiina; Tuovinen, Soile; Villa, Pia; Hämäläinen, Esa; Laivuori, Hannele; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether maternal prenatal emotions are associated with gestational length and birth weight in the large PREDO Study with multiple measurement points of emotions during gestation. Methods Altogether 3376 pregnant women self-assessed their positive affect (PA, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and anxiety (Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, STAI) symptoms up to 14 times during gestation. Birth characteristics were derived from the National Birth Register and from medical records. Results One standard deviation (SD) unit higher PA during the third pregnancy trimester was associated with a 0.05 SD unit longer gestational length, whereas one SD unit higher CES-D and STAI scores during the third trimester were associated with 0.04–0.05 SD unit shorter gestational lengths (P-values ≤ 0.02), corresponding to only 0.1–0.2% of the variation in gestational length. Higher PA during the third trimester was associated with a significantly decreased risk for preterm (< 37 weeks) delivery (for each SD unit higher positive affect, odds ratio was 0.8-fold (P = 0.02). Mothers with preterm delivery showed a decline in PA and an increase in CES-D and STAI during eight weeks prior to delivery. Post-term birth (≥ 42 weeks), birth weight and fetal growth were not associated with maternal prenatal emotions. Conclusions This study with 14 measurements of maternal emotions during pregnancy show modest effects of prenatal emotions during the third pregnancy trimester, particularly in the weeks close to delivery, on gestational length. From the clinical perspective, the effects were negligible. No associations were detected between prenatal emotions and birth weight. PMID:26919119

  5. Parents' Readiness to Change Affects BMI Reduction Outcomes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Karen P.; Black, Jessica J.; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Hannon, Tamara S.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Rofey, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence supports the importance of parental involvement for youth's ability to manage weight. This study utilized the stages of change (SOC) model to assess readiness to change weight control behaviors as well as the predictive value of SOC in determining BMI outcomes in forty adolescent-parent dyads (mean adolescent age = 15 ± 1.84 (13–20), BMI = 37 ± 8.60; 70% white) participating in a weight management intervention for adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adolescents and parents completed a questionnaire assessing their SOC for the following four weight control domains: increasing dietary portion control, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, decreasing dietary fat, and increasing usual physical activity. Linear regression analyses indicated that adolescent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was not predictive of adolescent change in BMI from baseline to treatment completion. However, parent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was predictive of adolescent change in BMI, (t(24) = 2.15, p = 0.043). Findings support future research which carefully assesses adolescent and parent SOC and potentially develops interventions targeting adolescent and parental readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle goals. PMID:22970350

  6. Developmental Exposure to TCDD Reduces Fertility and Negatively Affects Pregnancy Outcomes across Multiple Generations

    PubMed Central

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known endocrine disruptor. Since humans and animals are most sensitive to toxicant exposure during development, we previously developed a mouse model of in utero TCDD exposure in order to examine the impact of this toxicant on adult reproductive function. Our initial in utero toxicant-exposure study revealed a dose-dependent reduction in uterine sensitivity to progesterone; however, we did not previously explore establishment or maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, in the current study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in adult C57BL/6 mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure. Herein we demonstrate reduced fertility and an increased incidence of premature birth (PTB) in F1 mice exposed in utero to TCDD as well as in three subsequent generations. Finally, our studies revealed that mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure exhibit an increased sensitivity to inflammation which further negatively impacted gestation length in all generations examined. PMID:20955784

  7. Dose impaired relaxation of left ventricle affect early outcomes in CABG patients?

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Jamshid; Rezakhanloo, Fereshteh

    2010-01-01

    Although systolic dysfunction is revealed as a prognostic factor in cardiac surgery, the role of diastolic dysfunction as a predictive factor is less evaluated. In this retrospective study from 872 patients that underwent isolated coronary artery bypass graft (Jan 2008-Feb 2009), 388 patients had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (>50%). These are divided in two groups, Group 1: 361 patients without diastolic dysfunction (impaired relaxation) and Group 2: 27 patients with diastolic dysfunction (impaired relaxation). Mean age in group 1 was 57.72 year and in group 2 was 61.16 year (P = 0.07). Risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertention and dyslipidemia were similar. Although overall complication rate was higher in group 2 (11.1% vs. 2.8% P value 0.05), but when each complication was studied individually no significant statistical difference was found. Also no significant statistical difference was found in mortality (2.2% in group 1 vs 7.4% in group 2 P = 0.1). In conclusion, from clinical standpoint diastolic dysfunction can be an important factor in assessing surgical outcome in patients whom underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:21137652

  8. Factors affecting short- and long-term outcomes of manipulation under anaesthesia in patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Owen, John M; Sayers, Adrian E; Woods, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate and determine the factors that affect short- and long-term outcome following manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) of patients with adhesive capsulitis. Methods Patients recruited from January 1999 to January 2010 were retrospectively analyzed and classified as having primary or secondary adhesive capsulitis. All patients were assessed for range of movement (ROM) and Oxford Shoulder Scores (OSS) before and immediately postoperatively, as well as for OSS more than 1 year post MUA. Results In total, 295 patients (315 shoulders) were sequentially recruited, and information was collected at baseline, as well as at a mean follow-up of 28 days and 3.6 years. A significant improvement in OSS and ROM was noted 1 month post MUA (p < 0.0001) with females benefiting more than males (p < 0.0025). Long-term follow-up revealed that the improvement in OSS was maintained (p < 0.0001). Secondary adhesive capsulitis significantly reduced the efficacy of MUA as assessed by ROM (p < 0.0001). Other factors (age, initial ROM and OSS, and length of symptoms prior to MUA) did not significantly affect the outcome over the short- or long-term. Conclusions The findings of the present study show that all patient groups had a significantly improved ROM and OSS in the short-term with long-term maintenance of improved OSS.

  9. Severity of lung fibrosis affects early surgical outcomes of lung cancer among patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Mimae, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norihiko; Takamochi, Kazuya; Aokage, Keiju; Shimada, Yoshihisa; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2016-07-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is defined as upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis, which are representative lung disorders that increase the prevalence of lung cancer. This unique disorder may affect the morbidity and mortality during the early period after surgery. The present study aimed to identify which clinicopathological features significantly affect early surgical outcomes after lung resection in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and in those with CPFE.We retrospectively assessed 2295 patients with NSCLC and found that 151 (6.6%) had CPFE. All were surgically treated between January 2008 and December 2010 at 4 institutions.The postoperative complication rates for patients with and without CPFE were 39% and 17%, respectively. The 90-day mortality rates were higher among patients with than without CPFE (7.9% vs 1%). Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was the main cause of death among 12 patients with CPFE who died within 90 days after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis selected CPFE, gender, age, and clinical stage as independent predictive factors for postoperative complications, and CPFE, clinical stage, and sex for 90-day mortality. The severity of lung fibrosis on preoperative CT images was an independent predictive factor for 90-day mortality among patients with CPFE.The key predictive factor for postoperative mortality and complications of lung resection for NSCLC was CPFE. The severity of lung fibrosis was the principal predictor of early outcomes after lung surgery among patients with CPFE and NSCLC. PMID:27442681

  10. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    PubMed Central

    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Deyessa, Negussie; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Dessie, Yadeta

    2016-01-01

    Background The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. Objective This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP. Design Health facility–based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 348 patient cards. The outcome variable was time to recovery. Descriptive analysis was done using percentages for categorical data and mean/median for continuous variables. A robust method of analyzing time to event data, the Cox proportional-hazard regression, was used. All statistical tests in this study are declared significant at p<0.05. Result 89.1% of children with kwashiorkor and 69.4% of children with marasmus were recovered. Of the total children studied, 22% were readmitted cases. The median time of recovery was 35 days for children with kwashiorkor and 49 days for children with marasmus. Children older than 3 years were 33% less likely to achieve nutritional recovery [adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.46, 0.97)]. Similarly, marasmic children stayed longer on treatment [AHR=0.42, 95% CI (0.32, 0.56)]. However, children who gained Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ≥ 0.24 mm/day were 59% more likely to recover faster [AHR=1.59, 95% CI (1.23, 2.06)]. Conclusions Close monitoring of weight and MUAC gain to assess nutritional improvement with due emphasis given to children with lower admission weight, children of age 3 years and above and marasmic children will have a positive effect on treatment duration and outcome. PMID:27396484