Sample records for genstande fra forskningscenter

  1. Brndselscellers fysik og kemi Anders Smith og Mogens Mogensen, Afdelingen for Materialeforskning, Forskningscenter Ris.

    E-print Network

    -polymer-protonleder-brændselscellen (eng. "Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell" eller "Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell", PEMFC eller blot PEM), hvor elektrolytten er en pro- tonledende polymer (ofte bruges materialet Nafion fra firmaet

  2. 76 FR 41859 - Waiver Petition Docket Numbers FRA-2011-0002, CSX Transportation Railroad, and FRA-2004-17565...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Waiver Petition Docket Numbers FRA-2011-0002, CSX Transportation Railroad, and FRA-2004-17565, Union Pacific Railroad; Public Hearing On February 23,...

  3. Afprvning af leverance af reguleringsydelser fra et

    E-print Network

    Afprøvning af leverance af reguleringsydelser fra et mini KV-anlæg med UPS og TriGen funktionalitet decentrale kraftvarmeanlægs leverance af reguleringsydelser. I denne forbindelse er i dette delprojekt forsinkelser dels som følge af frafald af turbine leverandør og deraf følgende forsinket levering. Yderligere

  4. Selective Genomic Targeting by FRA-2/FOSL2 Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jeff S.; Klein, David C.; Carter, David A.

    2011-01-01

    FRA-2/FOSL2 is a basic region-leucine zipper motif transcription factor that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. The functional repertoire of this factor is unclear, partly due to a lack of knowledge of genomic sequences that are targeted. Here, we identified novel, functional FRA-2 targets across the genome through expression profile analysis in a knockdown transgenic rat. In this model, a nocturnal rhythm of pineal gland FRA-2 is suppressed by a genetically encoded, dominant negative mutant protein. Bioinformatic analysis of validated sets of FRA-2-regulated and -nonregulated genes revealed that the FRA-2 regulon is limited by genomic target selection rules that, in general, transcend core cis-sequence identity. However, one variant AP-1-related (AP-1R) sequence was common to a subset of regulated genes. The functional activity and protein binding partners of a candidate AP-1R sequence were determined for a novel FRA-2-repressed gene, Rgs4. FRA-2 protein preferentially associated with a proximal Rgs4 AP-1R sequence as demonstrated by ex vivo ChIP and in vitro EMSA analysis; moreover, transcriptional repression was blocked by mutation of the AP-1R sequence, whereas mutation of an upstream consensus AP-1 family sequence did not affect Rgs4 expression. Nocturnal changes in protein complexes at the Rgs4 AP-1R sequence are associated with FRA-2-dependent dismissal of the co-activator, CBP; this provides a mechanistic basis for Rgs4 gene repression. These studies have also provided functional insight into selective genomic targeting by FRA-2, highlighting discordance between predicted and actual targets. Future studies should address FRA-2-Rgs4 interactions in other systems, including the brain, where FRA-2 function is poorly understood. PMID:21367864

  5. Thomas Martini Jrgensen og Christian Linneberg fra Afdelingen.

    E-print Network

    Thomas Martini Jørgensen og Christian Linneberg fra Afdelingen. for Optik og Fluid Dynamik har bindinger Af Marianne Vang Ryde >> E-mail: cli.intellix.com Christian Linneberg forlod forskerstillingen på med EU-projekter" siger Christian Linneberg. RisøNyt 2/02 Fra idé til patenter og licenser #12

  6. The strawberry fruit Fra a allergen functions in flavonoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Cristina; Hoffmann, Thomas; Escobar, Nieves Medina; Ludemann, Felix; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Schwab, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The strawberry Fra a 1 allergen is a homolog of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. It is synthesized by red ripe fruits of Fragaria x ananassa while white fruits of a mutant genotype, which is known to be tolerated by individuals affected by allergy, are devoid of it. Proteomic analyses have shown that Fra a 1 is down-regulated in the tolerated white-fruited genotype along with enzymes of the anthocyanin pigment pathway. In this study, we report the spatial and temporal expression of three Fra a genes that encode different isoforms, and the transient RNAi-mediated silencing of the Fra a genes in strawberry fruits of the red-fruited cultivar Elsanta with an ihpRNA construct. As a consequence of reduced levels of Fra a mRNAs, fruits were obtained that produced significantly decreased levels of anthocyanins and upstream metabolites. This effect is consistent with the parallel down-regulation of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (FaPAL) and to a lesser extent of the chalcone synthase (FaCHS) transcript levels also found in these fruits. In naturally occurring white-fruited genotypes of F. chiloensis and F. vesca, Fra a transcript levels are higher than those of the red-fruited varieties, likely to compensate for the low expression levels of FaPAL and FaCHS in these mutant genotypes. The results demonstrate that Fra a expression is directly linked to flavonoid biosynthesis and show that the Fra a allergen has an essential biological function in pigment formation in strawberry fruit. PMID:19969523

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the strawberry allergens Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 in the presence of catechin.

    PubMed

    Casañal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Dupeux, Florine; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, Jose A

    2013-05-01

    The strawberry Fra a proteins belong to the pathogenesis-related PR-10 protein family and share a common fold with the Bet v 1 major pollen allergen and the START/PYR/PYL proteins, which are characterized by the presence of a central cavity and are often involved in the binding of a variety of natural compounds. The Fra a proteins play a key role in the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in strawberries and are essential for pigment formation in fruits. In order to understand Fra a protein function, full-length Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 cDNAs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were purified to homogeneity using metal-affinity chromatography. Diffraction-quality crystals of Fra a 1E and of Fra a 3 in the presence of (+)-catechin were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data from single crystals of Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 were processed to 2.2 and 3.0?Å resolution in space groups P212121 and P2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.02, b = 74.42, c = 84.04?Å and a = 137.91, b = 206.61, c = 174.7?Å for Fra a 1E and Fra a 3, respectively. PMID:23695565

  8. Mineralogy and origin of Fra Mauro fines and breccias.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaide, W.; Wrigley, R.

    1972-01-01

    Textural features, glassy spherule and glassy aggregate contents, and size-frequency distributions of lithic components of the regolith fines indicate that the Fra Mauro regolith of the smooth terrain is a highly reworked accumulation of debris derived primarily by impact comminution of annealed breccias. Analyses of the glassy spherules suggest that mare-derived debris must amount to less than 5% of the regolith, but exotic materials having the composition of the Fra Mauro breccias (highland-like) cannot be recognized. Breccia samples from the Fra Mauro site include (1) regolith breccias derived by lithification of local regolith material, (2) texturally and compositionally unique white rock breccias that may have been derived from ancient ejecta buried beneath the Fra Mauro formation, and (3) annealed breccias that are excavated samples of the Fra Mauro formation. The latter were deposited as heated impact ejecta, probably by avalanches produced by the Imbrian event and were annealed in situ in a thermal regime perhaps equivalent to that responsible for the pyroxene-hornfels facies of metamorphism in terrestrial rocks.

  9. TO: Persons Joining the Fermilab (FRA) Staff SUBJECT: Inventions and Employee Patent Agreement

    E-print Network

    Quigg, Chris

    TO: Persons Joining the Fermilab (FRA) Staff SUBJECT: Inventions and Employee Patent Agreement in royalties received from patentable inventions to which FRA, LLC has taken title. As provided in FRA, LLC to sign a patent agreement. The attached form has been developed to comply with this requirement

  10. Solution structure of the strawberry allergen Fra a 1

    PubMed Central

    Seutter von Loetzen, Christian; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwab, Wilfried; Rösch, Paul; Hartl-Spiegelhauer, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The PR10 family protein Fra a 1E from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is down-regulated in white strawberry mutants, and transient RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated silencing experiments confirmed that Fra a 1 is involved in fruit pigment synthesis. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of Fra a 1E. The protein fold is identical with that of other members of the PR10 protein family and consists of a seven-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet, two short V-shaped ?-helices and a long C-terminal ?-helix that encompass a hydrophobic pocket. Whereas Fra a 1E contains the glycine-rich loop that is highly conserved throughout the protein family, the volume of the hydrophobic pocket and the size of its entrance are much larger than expected. The three-dimensional structure may shed some light on its physiological function and may help to further understand the role of PR10 proteins in plants. PMID:22913709

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Washington 98660. The fax number is 360-696-7548. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 8 is: Dick.Clairmont@fra.dot.gov. [67 FR 75960, Dec. 10, 2002, as amended at 69 FR 30595, May 28,...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Washington 98660. The fax number is 360-696-7548. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 8 is: Dick.Clairmont@fra.dot.gov. [67 FR 75960, Dec. 10, 2002, as amended at 69 FR 30595, May 28,...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Washington 98660. The fax number is 360-696-7548. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 8 is: Dick.Clairmont@fra.dot.gov. [67 FR 75960, Dec. 10, 2002, as amended at 69 FR 30595, May 28,...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Washington 98660. The fax number is 360-696-7548. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 8 is: Dick.Clairmont@fra.dot.gov. [67 FR 75960, Dec. 10, 2002, as amended at 69 FR 30595, May 28,...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Washington 98660. The fax number is 360-696-7548. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 8 is: Dick.Clairmont@fra.dot.gov. [67 FR 75960, Dec. 10, 2002, as amended at 69 FR 30595, May 28,...

  16. Compositional data for twenty-one Fra Mauro lunar materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, H. J., Jr.; Cuttitta, F.; Annell, C. S.; Carron, M. K.; Christian, R. P.; Dwornik, E. J.; Greenland, L. P.; Ligon, D. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Major, minor, and trace element analyses are presented for two igneous rocks, six breccias, four microbreccias, two breccia clasts, and six soils, as well as a sample of sawdust from rock 14066. Evaluation of the data suggests that the samples from the Fra Mauro highlands have the same nonterrestrial characteristics shown previously by the samples returned from the mare regions by Apollo 11 and 12 - namely, a high refractory element content, a lower volatile element content, and an excess reducing capacity above that due to FeO. The Fra Mauro soils have higher concentrations of Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O and lower amounts of FeO and TiO2 than do the mare soils. They also show a bimodal distribution of Ni, B, and Nb. The highland breccias are richer in SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, Na2O, and K2O than those returned from the mare lowlands. FeO, TiO2, and MnO are lower in concentration at Fra Mauro, and the highland breccias are more complex mineralogically than those collected previously.

  17. Fra-1 promotes breast cancer chemosensitivity by driving cancer stem cells from dormancy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Chen, Si; Tan, Xiaoyue; Li, Na; Liu, Chenghu; Li, Zongjin; Liu, Ze; Stupack, Dwayne G; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Xiang, Rong

    2012-07-15

    Fra-1 is a member of the Fos transcription factor family that is highly expressed in multiple cancers, playing important roles in transformation, proliferation, and metastasis. In this study, we observed an inverse correlation between the expression of Fra-1 in human stage II breast cancer tissues and the corresponding level of clinical chemoresistance. Extending these findings in vitro, we found that knockdown of Fra-1 in breast tumor cells was sufficient to confer resistance to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, whereas enhanced Fra-1 expression could render these cells chemosensitive. The tumor cell side population, which is enriched for cancer stem cells, was found to be associated with chemoresistance. Increased side population fractions were detected among tumor cell lines subjected to Fra-1 knockdown. In contrast, enhanced expression of Fra-1 was correlated with a decreased side population fraction, and significantly, this finding was recapitulated in vivo, where tumors with enhanced expression of Fra-1 were found to have blunted growth. Tumor cells subjected to Fra-1 knockdown grew faster and were larger in size. Taken together, our findings suggest that Fra-1 may be an important prognostic marker for breast cancer therapy. PMID:22586064

  18. The role of the AP-1 transcription factors c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2 in the invasion process of mammary carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Milde-Langosch, Karin; Röder, Heike; Andritzky, Birte; Aslan, Bahriye; Hemminger, Gabriele; Brinkmann, Anja; Bamberger, Christoph M; Löning, Thomas; Bamberger, Ana-Maria

    2004-07-01

    Members of the Fos family of AP-1 transcription factors (c-Fos, FosB, FosB2, Fra-1 and Fra-2) are able to form dimers with Jun proteins which bind to the regulatory sequences of target genes. As many proteases involved in tumor invasion are AP-1-regulated, we assumed that Fos family members might be important for invasion of mammary carcinomas. Therefore, we performed transient transfections with expression vectors for c-Fos, FosB, FosB2, Fra-1 and Fra-2, followed by matrigel invasion assays. Fra-1 transfection resulted in a 2-4-fold increase of invasive cells in both cell lines. In a less degree, the invasive potential of MDA-MB231 cells was stimulated by Fra-2, whereas MCF7 invasion was enhanced by c-Fos and FosB. By double-labelling immunocytochemistry, PAI-1 up-regulation was observed in cells transfected with c-Fos, Fra-1 and Fra-2 expression vectors, whereas MMP1 and MMP9 expression was not affected. Results of cotransfection with a MMP9 promoter construct and AP-1 expression vectors do not indicate a direct up-regulation of MMP9 expression by Fos proteins except a positive effect of c-Fos in MCF7 cells. In parallel, expression of Fos family members as determined by Western Blot analysis in 75 mammary carcinomas was correlated with MMP1, MMP9, PAI-1 and uPAR protein levels in the tumors. Interestingly, high FosB levels were significantly associated with MMP1 overexpression, whereas expression of c-Fos and phosphorylated Fra-1 correlated with MMP9 protein levels. Strong Fra-2 expression correlated with high levels of MMP9, PAI-1, the uPA/PAI-1 complex and early recurrence. These data indicate that Fos proteins, especially Fra-1, c-Fos and Fra-2, might be involved in invasion of breast cancer cells. PMID:15319566

  19. Fra2 Is a Co-Regulator of Fep1 Inhibition in Response to Iron Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Jean-François; Mercier, Alexandre; Brault, Ariane; Mourer, Thierry; Labbé, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Iron is required for several metabolic functions involved in cellular growth. Although several players involved in iron transport have been identified, the mechanisms by which iron-responsive transcription factors are controlled are still poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Fep1 transcription factor represses genes involved in iron acquisition in response to high levels of iron. In contrast, when iron levels are low, Fep1 becomes inactive and loses its ability to associate with chromatin. Although the molecular basis by which Fep1 is inactivated under iron starvation remains unknown, this process requires the monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4. Here, we demonstrate that Fra2 plays a role in the negative regulation of Fep1 activity. Disruption of fra2+ (fra2?) led to a constitutive repression of the fio1+ gene transcription. Fep1 was consistently active and constitutively bound to its target gene promoters in cells lacking fra2+. A constitutive activation of Fep1 was also observed in a php4? fra2? double mutant strain in which the behavior of Fep1 is freed of its transcriptional regulation by Php4. Microscopic analyses of cells expressing a functional Fra2-Myc13 protein revealed that Fra2 localized throughout the cells with a significant proportion of Fra2 being observed within the nuclei. Further analysis by coimmunoprecipitation showed that Fra2, Fep1 and Grx4 are associated in a heteroprotein complex. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments brought further evidence that an interaction between Fep1 and Fra2 occurs in the nucleus. Taken together, results reported here revealed that Fra2 plays a role in the Grx4-mediated pathway that inactivates Fep1 in response to iron deficiency. PMID:24897379

  20. Widespread FRA1-Dependent Control of Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation Programs in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diesch, Jeannine; Sanij, Elaine; Gilan, Omer; Love, Christopher; Tran, Hoanh; Fleming, Nicholas I.; Ellul, Jason; Amalia, Marcia; Haviv, Izhak; Pearson, Richard B.; Tulchinsky, Eugene; Mariadason, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis involves complex remodeling of gene expression programs governing epithelial homeostasis. Mutational activation of the RAS-ERK is a frequent occurrence in many cancers and has been shown to drive overexpression of the AP-1 family transcription factor FRA1, a potent regulator of migration and invasion in a variety of tumor cell types. However, the nature of FRA1 transcriptional targets and the molecular pathways through which they promote tumor progression remain poorly understood. We found that FRA1 was strongly expressed in tumor cells at the invasive front of human colorectal cancers (CRCs), and that its depletion suppressed mesenchymal-like features in CRC cells in vitro. Genome-wide analysis of FRA1 chromatin occupancy and transcriptional regulation identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes as a major class of direct FRA1 targets in CRC cells. Expression of the pro-mesenchymal subset of these genes predicted adverse outcomes in CRC patients, and involved FRA-1-dependent regulation and cooperation with TGF? signaling pathway. Our findings reveal an unexpectedly widespread and direct role for FRA1 in control of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in CRC cells, and suggest that FRA1 plays an important role in mediating cross talk between oncogenic RAS-ERK and TGF? signaling networks during tumor progression. PMID:24658684

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 229, App. C Appendix C to Part 229—FRA Locomotive Standards—Code of Defects...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 229, App. C Appendix C to Part 229—FRA Locomotive Standards—Code of Defects...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 229, App. C Appendix C to Part 229—FRA Locomotive Standards—Code of Defects...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 229, App. C Appendix C to Part 229—FRA Locomotive Standards—Code of Defects...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

  10. Genetic disruption of Fra-1 decreases susceptibility to endotoxin-induced acute lung injury and mortality in mice.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Michelle; Reddy, Narsa M; Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Reddy, Sekhar P

    2012-01-01

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor, comprising Jun and Fos family proteins, distinctly regulates various cellular processes, including those involved in inflammation. FOS like antigen 1 (Fra-1), a member of the Fos family, dimerizes with members of the Jun family and regulates gene expression in a context-dependent manner. Although respiratory toxicants are known to stimulate the expression of Fra-1 in the lung, whether Fra-1 promotes or decreases susceptibility to the development and progression of toxicant-induced lung disease in vivo is not well established. To determine the role of Fra-1 in LPS-induced acute lung injury and mortality, we administered LPS either intraperitoneally or intratracheally to Fra-1-sufficient (Fra-11(+/+)) and Fra-1-deficient (Fra-1(?/?)) mice. LPS-induced mortality, lung injury, inflammation, cytokine measurements, and AP-1 and NF-?B activities were then assessed in these mice. Fra-1(?/?) mice showed a greater resistance to LPS-induced mortality than did their Fra-1(+/+) counterparts. Consistent with this result, LPS-induced lung injury and inflammatory responses were markedly lower in Fra-1(?/?) mice than in Fra-1(+/+) mice. Compared with Fra-1(+/+) mice, Fra-1(?/?) mice showed a reduced influx of neutrophils into the lungs, accompanied by a decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines in response to treatment with LPS. The decreased inflammatory responses in Fra-1(?/?) mice coincided with diminished and increased levels of NF-?B and c-Jun/AP-1 binding, respectively. These results demonstrate that Fra-1/AP-1 plays a key role in promoting LPS-induced injury and mortality in mice, and they suggest that targeting (i.e., inhibiting) this transcription factor may be a useful approach to dampening the adverse effects of exposure to endotoxins. PMID:21816965

  11. www.risoe.dk Forskningscenter Ris

    E-print Network

    /offshore) of ­ Power curves ­ Loads on wind turbine components ­ Wind ­ Power quality ­ Noise · Instrumentation Meteorology Lars Landberg Aeroelastisk Design Flemming Rasmussen Wind turbines Peter Hjuler Jensen Risø Wind Wind turbine Testing Søren M Petersen Test & Measurements Søren M. Petersen Dept. Management

  12. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608...

  13. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608...

  14. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608...

  15. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608...

  16. Sequence of the FRA3B Common Fragile Region: Implications for the Mechanism of FHIT Deletion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Inoue; Hideshi Ishii; Hansjuerg Alder; Eric Snyder; Teresa Druck; Kay Huebner; Carlo M. Croce

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that chromosomal fragile sites may be ``weak links'' that result in hot spots for cancer-specific chromosome rearrangements was supported by the discovery that numerous cancer cell homozygous deletions and a familial translocation map within the FHIT gene, which encompasses the common fragile site, FRA3B. Sequence analysis of 276 kb of the FRA3B\\/FHIT locus and 22 associated cancer cell

  17. FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection

    PubMed Central

    Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called “normal” instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

  18. Fra proteins influencing filament integrity, diazotrophy and localization of septal protein SepJ in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp.

    PubMed

    Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Mariscal, Vicente; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

    2010-03-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can fix N(2) in differentiated cells called heterocysts, which exchange nutritional and regulatory compounds with the neighbouring photosynthetic vegetative cells. The cells in the filament appear to be joined by some protein structures, of which SepJ (FraG) that is located at the cell poles in the intercellular septa and is needed for filament integrity seems to be a component. Other known proteins required for filament integrity include FraC and FraH. Whereas fraC (alr2392) was constitutively expressed as an operon together with two downstream genes, alr2393 (fraD) and alr2394 (fraE), fraH (alr1603) was induced under nitrogen deprivation. Single mutants of these genes showed filament fragmentation under nitrogen deprivation and did not grow diazotrophically, although they formed heterocysts. The fraC and fraD mutants showed an impaired localization of SepJ at the intercellular septa and were hampered in the intercellular transfer of the fluorescent probe calcein. As shown with GFP fusions, FraC and FraD are also located at the intercellular septa. Therefore, at least three different proteins, SepJ, FraC and FraD, influence the architecture and function of the intercellular septa in the Anabaena filaments. PMID:20487302

  19. [Incidence of oligophrenia with fragile X chromosome (FraXq27)].

    PubMed

    Bliumina, M G

    1987-01-01

    The study of 50 retarded males imbezilitat and idiots, and 100 males with oligophrenia-debilitat in 16-18 years. Severe macroorchism (1.8-4.5 times more, then anthropometric norma for this years) was found at 5 males in first group (10%), and in 8 males in second group (8%). The karyotype was study in 4 males with macroorchism. In 9-15% cells FraX (q27) was found. These data were extrapolated to 600 retarded children preschool and school age. The frequency of oligophrenia with FraX (q27) among all retarded males-8.5 +/- 1.5; retarded heterozygous females among all retarded girls-5.0 +/- 1.3; incidence of oligophrenia with FraX (q27) among all males in population-1:1000; all heterozigous for this gene among all females in population-7:750; retarded heterozygous females in all girls-1:2250 were established. PMID:3817470

  20. Expression profiling of genes regulated by Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor regulates the expression of genes controlling various processes including migration, invasion, and survival as well as extracellular remodeling. We recently demonstrated that loss of Fra-1 leads to exacerbated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, accompanied by enhanced expression of various inflammatory and fibrotic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which Fra-1 confers protection during bleomycin-induced lung injury, genome-wide mRNA expression profiling was performed. Results We found that Fra-1 regulates gene expression programs that include: 1) several cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammation, 2) several genes involved in the extracellular remodeling and cell adhesion, and 3) several genes involved in programmed cell death. Conclusion Loss of Fra-1 leads to the enhanced expression of genes regulating inflammation and immune responses and decreased the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, suggesting that this transcription factor distinctly modulates early pro-fibrotic cellular responses. PMID:23758685

  1. FraH is required for reorganization of intracellular membranes during heterocyst differentiation in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Mariscal, Vicente; Schwarz, Heinz; Maldener, Iris; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

    2011-12-01

    In the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, two different cell types, the CO(2)-fixing vegetative cells and the N(2)-fixing heterocysts, exchange nutrients and regulators for diazotrophic growth. In the model organism Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, inactivation of fraH produces filament fragmentation under conditions of combined nitrogen deprivation, releasing numerous isolated heterocysts. Transmission electron microscopy of samples prepared by either high-pressure cryo-fixation or chemical fixation showed that the heterocysts of a ?fraH mutant lack the intracellular membrane system structured close to the heterocyst poles, known as the honeycomb, that is characteristic of wild-type heterocysts. Using a green fluorescent protein translational fusion to the carboxyl terminus of FraH (FraH-C-GFP), confocal microscopy showed spots of fluorescence located at the periphery of the vegetative cells in filaments grown in the presence of nitrate. After incubation in the absence of combined nitrogen, localization of FraH-C-GFP changed substantially, and the GFP fluorescence was conspicuously located at the cell poles in the heterocysts. Fluorescence microscopy and deconvolution of images showed that GFP fluorescence originated mainly from the region next to the cyanophycin plug present at the heterocyst poles. Intercellular transfer of the fluorescent tracers calcein (622 Da) and 5-carboxyfluorescein (374 Da) was either not impaired or only partially impaired in the ?fraH mutant, suggesting that FraH is not important for intercellular molecular exchange. Location of FraH close to the honeycomb membrane structure and lack of such structure in the ?fraH mutant suggest a role of FraH in reorganization of intracellular membranes, which may involve generation of new membranes, during heterocyst differentiation. PMID:21949079

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 229, App. C Appendix C to Part 229—FRA Locomotive Standards—Code of Defects Editorial Note: Appendix C, published at 45 FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the...

  3. Narrative Strategies and Power Plays in Jaume Cabré's Fra Junoy o l'agonia dels sons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen M. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    A concern with the use and abuse of power, how it is exercised, by whom, and to what ends runs throughout the fiction of Catalan writer Jaume Cabré. His 1984 novel Fra Junoy o l'agonia dels sons, which was awarded the Premi Prudenci Bertrana, Crítica Serra d'Or, and Nacional de la Crítica, dramatizes the intransigence of ecclesiastical authorities in conflict

  4. Effect of Core Magnetization on Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) of Power Transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilanga Abeywickrama; Yuriy V. Serdyuk; Stanislaw M. Gubanski

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents how the frequency response analysis (FRA) measurements on a transformer can be influenced by magnetization condition of the core. Measurements were performed on two transformers at different magnetization levels to show effects of remanent magnetization in the core due to removal of 3-supply, of relaxation demagnetization and of dc flux on the frequency response of winding impedance.

  5. FRA2A Is a CGG Repeat Expansion Associated with Silencing of AFF3

    PubMed Central

    Metsu, Sofie; Rooms, Liesbeth; Rainger, Jacqueline; Taylor, Martin S.; Bengani, Hemant; Wilson, David I.; Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Morrison, Harris; Vandeweyer, Geert; Reyniers, Edwin; Douglas, Evelyn; Thompson, Geoffrey; Haan, Eric; Gecz, Jozef; FitzPatrick, David R.; Kooy, R. Frank

    2014-01-01

    Folate-sensitive fragile sites (FSFS) are a rare cytogenetically visible subset of dynamic mutations. Of the eight molecularly characterized FSFS, four are associated with intellectual disability (ID). Cytogenetic expression results from CGG tri-nucleotide-repeat expansion mutation associated with local CpG hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. The best studied is the FRAXA site in the FMR1 gene, where large expansions cause fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited ID syndrome. Here we studied three families with FRA2A expression at 2q11 associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We identified a polymorphic CGG repeat in a conserved, brain-active alternative promoter of the AFF3 gene, an autosomal homolog of the X-linked AFF2/FMR2 gene: Expansion of the AFF2 CGG repeat causes FRAXE ID. We found that FRA2A-expressing individuals have mosaic expansions of the AFF3 CGG repeat in the range of several hundred repeat units. Moreover, bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing both suggest AFF3 promoter hypermethylation. cSNP-analysis demonstrates monoallelic expression of the AFF3 gene in FRA2A carriers thus predicting that FRA2A expression results in functional haploinsufficiency for AFF3 at least in a subset of tissues. By whole-mount in situ hybridization the mouse AFF3 ortholog shows strong regional expression in the developing brain, somites and limb buds in 9.5–12.5dpc mouse embryos. Our data suggest that there may be an association between FRA2A and a delay in the acquisition of motor and language skills in the families studied here. However, additional cases are required to firmly establish a causal relationship. PMID:24763282

  6. The chloroethylating anticancer drug ACNU induces FRA1 that is involved in drug resistance of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Meise, Ruth; Tomicic, Maja T; Kaina, Bernd; Christmann, Markus

    2012-07-01

    FRA1 belongs, together with c-Fos and FosB, to the family of Fos proteins that form with members of the ATF and Jun family the transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein 1). Previously we showed that c-Fos protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts against the cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light by induction of the endonuclease XPF, leading to enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER) activity. Here, we analyzed the regulation of FRA1 in glioma cells treated with the anticancer drug nimustine (ACNU) and its role in ACNU-induced toxicity. We show that FRA1 is upregulated in glioblastoma cells following ACNU on mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of FRA1 by either siRNA or shRNA clearly sensitized glioma cells towards ACNU-induced cell death. Despite decreased AP-1 binding activity upon FRA1 knockdown, this effect is independent on regulation of the AP-1 target genes fasL, ercc1 and xpf. In addition, FRA1 knockdown does not affect DNA repair capacity. However, lack of FRA1 attenuated the ACNU-induced phosphorylation of CHK1 and led to a reduced arrest of cells in G2/M and, thereby, presumably leads to enhanced cell death in the subsequent cell cycle. PMID:22609303

  7. Estrogen-induced Expression of Fos-related Antigen 1 (FRA-1) Regulates Uterine Stromal Differentiation and Remodeling*

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amrita; Li, Quanxi; Laws, Mary J.; Kaya, Hatice; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2012-01-01

    Concerted actions of estrogen and progesterone via their cognate receptors orchestrate changes in the uterine tissue, regulating implantation during early pregnancy. The uterine stromal cells undergo steroid-dependent differentiation into morphologically and functionally distinct decidual cells, which support embryonic growth and survival. The hormone-regulated pathways underlying this unique cellular transformation are not fully understood. Previous studies in the mouse revealed that, following embryo attachment, de novo synthesis of estrogen by the decidual cells is critical for stromal differentiation. In this study we report that Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1), a member of the Fos family of transcription factors, is a downstream target of regulation by intrauterine estrogen. FRA-1 expression was localized in the differentiating uterine stromal cells surrounding the implanted embryo. Attenuation of estrogen receptor ? (Esr1) expression by siRNA mediated silencing in primary uterine stromal cells suppressed FRA-1 expression. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated direct recruitment of ESR1 to an estrogen response element in the Fra-1 promoter. Down-regulation of Fra-1 expression during in vitro decidualization blocked stromal differentiation and resulted in a marked decrease in stromal cell migration. Interestingly, FRA-1 controls the expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP9 and MMP13, which are critical modulators of stromal extracellular matrix remodeling. Collectively, these results suggest that FRA-1, induced in response to estrogen signaling via ESR1, is a key regulator of stromal differentiation and remodeling during early pregnancy. PMID:22514284

  8. Aberrantly expressed Fra-1 by IL-6/STAT3 transactivation promotes colorectal cancer aggressiveness through epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Guoping; Wang, Tingyang; Chen, Yuexia; Gong, Chaoju; Bai, Yanfeng; Wang, Bo; Qi, Hongyan; Shen, Jing; Zhu, Lijun; Qian, Cheng; Lai, Maode; Shao, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in tumor microenvironment has been suggested to promote development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) plays a critical role in IL-6 induced CRC aggressiveness and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). In CRC cell lines, the expression of Fra-1 gene was found significantly upregulated during IL-6-driven EMT process. The Fra-1 induction occurred at transcriptional level in a manner dependent on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), during which both phosphorylated and acetylated post-translational modifications were required for STAT3 activation to directly bind to the Fra-1 promoter. Importantly, RNA interference-based attenuation of either STAT3 or Fra-1 prevented IL-6-induced EMT, cell migration and invasion, whereas ectopic expression of Fra-1 markedly reversed the STAT3-knockdown effect and enhanced CRC cell aggressiveness by regulating the expression of EMT-promoting factors (ZEB1, Snail, Slug, MMP-2 and MMP-9). Furthermore, Fra-1 levels were positively correlated with the local invasion depth as well as lymph node and liver metastasis in a total of 229 CRC patients. Intense immunohistochemical staining of Fra-1 was observed at the tumor marginal area adjacent to inflammatory cells and in parallel with IL-6 secretion and STAT3 activation in CRC tissues. Together, this study proposes the existence of an aberrant IL-6/STAT3/Fra-1 signaling axis leading to CRC aggressiveness through EMT induction, which suggests novel therapeutic opportunities for the malignant disease. PMID:25750173

  9. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards...changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive...

  10. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards...changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive...

  11. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards...changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive...

  12. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards...changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive...

  13. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards...changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive...

  14. Fra(2) (q13) and inv(9) (p11q12) in autism: causal relationship?

    PubMed

    Jayakar, P; Chudley, A E; Ray, M; Evans, J A; Perlov, J; Wand, R

    1986-01-01

    Twenty individuals with autism or related disorders underwent chromosome analysis and physical examinations with documentation of minor anomalies. Chromosome anomalies were identified in 3: 2 had the heritable folate sensitive fra(2) (q13) site and 1 had an inv(9) (p11q12). No heritable chromosome variants or anomalies were seen in 20 age and sex-matched control individuals. When patients with the fra(2) were excluded from analyses, there was no difference in the frequency of chromosome breaks and/or gaps between the study group and control group. The results of this study suggest that heritable folate sensitive fragile sites and other chromosome variants may be more commonly seen in individuals with autism or related disorders in childhood than in the general population. PMID:3953656

  15. Accumulation of Fra1 in ras-Transformed Cells Depends on Both Transcriptional Autoregulation and MEK-Dependent Posttranslational Stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Casalino; Dario De Cesare; Pasquale Verde

    2003-01-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor plays an essential role in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. It was previ- ously shown that the fra-1 gene product is upregulated by various oncogenes and is involved in the in vitro and in vivo transformation of thyroid cells. Here we show that the ras oncogene-dependent accumulation of Fra-1 is mediated by a positive feedback mechanism which

  16. Positions of Chromosome 3pl'L2 Fragile Sites (FRA3B) within the FHIT Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drazen B. Zimonjic; Teresa Druck; Masataka Ohta; Kumar Kastury; Carlo M. Croce; Nicholas C. Popescu; Kay Huebner

    The FHIT gene spans approximately 1 Mb of DNA at chromosome band 3p14.2, which includes the famffial renal ceHcarcinoma chromosome translocation breakpoint (between FHIT exons 3 and 4), the most Ire quently expressed human constitutive chromosomal fragile site (FRA3B, telomeric to the t(3;8) translocation), and numerous homozygousdeletions in various human cancers, frequently involving FHIT exon 5. The FRA3B has previously

  17. Cancer-Specific Chromosome Alterations in the Constitutive Fragile Region FRA3B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koshi Mimori; Teresa Druck; Hiroshi Inoue; Hansjuerg Alder; Lori Berk; Masaki Mori; Kay Huebner; Carlo M. Croce

    1999-01-01

    We have sequenced 870 kilobases of the FHIT\\/FRA3B locus, from FHIT intron 3 to intron 7. The locus is AT rich (61.5%) and Alu poor (6.2%), and it apparently does not harbor other genes. In a detailed analysis of the 308-kilobase region between FHIT exon 5 and the telomeric end of intron 3, a region known to encompass a human

  18. The Strawberry Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) Fra a Proteins Control Flavonoid Biosynthesis by Binding to Metabolic Intermediates*

    PubMed Central

    Casañal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Muñoz, Cristina; Dupeux, Florine; Luque, Irene; Botella, Miguel Angel; Schwab, Wilfried; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins are involved in many aspects of plant biology but their molecular function is still unclear. They are related by sequence and structural homology to mammalian lipid transport and plant abscisic acid receptor proteins and are predicted to have cavities for ligand binding. Recently, three new members of the PR-10 family, the Fra a proteins, have been identified in strawberry, where they are required for the activity of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which is essential for the development of color and flavor in fruits. Here, we show that Fra a proteins bind natural flavonoids with different selectivity and affinities in the low ?m range. The structural analysis of Fra a 1 E and a Fra a 3-catechin complex indicates that loops L3, L5, and L7 surrounding the ligand-binding cavity show significant flexibility in the apo forms but close over the ligand in the Fra a 3-catechin complex. Our findings provide mechanistic insight on the function of Fra a proteins and suggest that PR-10 proteins, which are widespread in plants, may play a role in the control of secondary metabolic pathways by binding to metabolic intermediates. PMID:24133217

  19. Fra-1/AP-1 induces EMT in mammary epithelial cells by modulating Zeb1/2 and TGF? expression.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, L; Macho-Maschler, S; Custic, I; Niemiec, J; Guío-Carrión, A; Hasenfuss, S C; Eger, A; Müller, M; Beug, H; Wagner, E F

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for embryonic morphogenesis and wound healing and critical for tumour cell invasion and dissemination. The AP-1 transcription factor Fra-1 has been implicated in tumorigenesis and in tumour-associated EMT in human breast cancer. We observed a significant inverse correlation between Fra-1 mRNA expression and distant-metastasis-free survival in a large cohort of breast cancer patients derived from multiple array data sets. This unique correlation among Fos genes prompted us to assess the evolutionary conservation between Fra-1 functions in EMT of human and mouse cells. Ectopic expression of Fra-1 in fully polarized, non-tumourigenic, mouse mammary epithelial EpH4 cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype, characterized by a loss of epithelial and gain of mesenchymal markers. Proliferation, motility and invasiveness were also increased in the resulting EpFra1 cells, and the cells were tumourigenic and efficiently colonized the lung upon transplantation. Molecular analyses revealed increased expression of Tgf?1 and the EMT-inducing transcription factors Zeb1, Zeb2 and Slug. Mechanistically, Fra-1 binds to the tgfb1 and zeb2 promoters and to an evolutionarily conserved region in the first intron of zeb1. Furthermore, increased activity of a zeb2 promoter reporter was detected in EpFra1 cells and shown to depend on AP-1-binding sites. Inhibiting TGF? signalling in EpFra1 cells moderately increased the expression of epithelial markers, whereas silencing of zeb1 or zeb2 restored the epithelial phenotype and decreased migration in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Thus Fra-1 induces changes in the expression of genes encoding EMT-related transcription factors leading to the acquisition of mesenchymal, invasive and tumorigenic capacities by epithelial cells. This study defines a novel function of Fra-1/AP-1 in modulating tgfb1, zeb1 and zeb2 expression through direct binding to genomic regulatory regions, which establishes a basis for future in vivo genetic manipulations and preclinical studies using mouse models. PMID:25301070

  20. The molecular basis of the folate-sensitive fragile site FRA11A at 11q13.

    PubMed

    Debacker, K; Winnepenninckx, B; Longman, C; Colgan, J; Tolmie, J; Murray, R; van Luijk, R; Scheers, S; Fitzpatrick, D; Kooy, F

    2007-01-01

    We report on the molecular basis of the rare, folate-sensitive fragile site FRA11A in chromosome band 11q13 in a family with cytogenetic expression. Five individuals express the fragile site and one was mentally retarded. Expansion of a polymorphic CGG-repeat located at the 5' end of the C11orf80 gene causes FRA11A. The CGG-repeat elongation coincides with hypermethylation of the adjacent CpG island and subsequent transcriptional silencing of the C11orf80 gene. This gene has no homology with known genes. A relationship between cytogenetic expression of the fragile site and the mental handicap seems unlikely, as FRA11A was found in a mentally retarded patient as well as in phenotypically normal carriers from the same family. However, incomplete penetrance cannot be entirely excluded. PMID:18160775

  1. The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe-2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoran; Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Dingra, Nin N.; Naik, Sunil G.; Lees, Nicolas S.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela J.; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K.; Outten, Caryn E.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in S. cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which they control Aft1 localization are unclear. To reconstitute and characterize components of this signaling pathway in vitro, we have overexpressed yeast Fra2 and Grx3/4 in E. coli. We have shown that co-expression of recombinant Fra2 with Grx3 or Grx4 allows purification of a stable [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster-containing Fra2-Grx3 or Fra2-Grx4 heterodimeric complex. Reconstitution of a [2Fe-2S] cluster on Grx3 or Grx4 without Fra2 produces a [2Fe-2S]-bridged homodimer. UV-visible absorption and CD, resonance Raman, EPR, ENDOR, Mössbauer, and EXAFS studies of [2Fe-2S] Grx3/4 homodimers and the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3/4 heterodimers indicate that inclusion of Fra2 in the Grx3/4 Fe-S complex causes a change in the cluster stability and coordination environment. Taken together, our analytical, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 form a Fe-S-bridged heterodimeric complex with Fe ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. Overall, these results suggest that the ability of the Fra2-Grx3/4 complex to assemble a [2Fe-2S] cluster may act as a signal to control the iron regulon in response to cellular iron status in yeast. PMID:19715344

  2. Transcriptional complexity and roles of Fra-1/AP-1 at the uPA/Plau locus in aggressive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Tolza, Claire; Piechaczyk, Marc; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Plau codes for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), critical in cancer metastasis. While the mechanisms driving its overexpression in tumorigenic processes are unknown, it is regulated by the AP-1 transcriptional complex in diverse situations. The AP-1 component Fra-1 being overexpressed in aggressive breast cancers, we have addressed its role in the overexpression of Plau in the highly metastatic breast cancer model cell line MDA-MB231 using ChIP, pharmacological and RNAi approaches. Plau transcription appears controlled by 2 AP-1 enhancers located -1.9 (ABR-1.9) and -4.1 kb (ABR-4.1) upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) of the uPA-coding mRNA, Plau-001, that bind Fra-1. Surprisingly, RNA Pol II is not recruited only at the Plau-001 TSS but also upstream in the ABR-1.9 and ABR-4.1 region. Most Pol II molecules transcribe short and unstable RNAs while tracking down toward the TSS, where there are converted into Plau-001 mRNA-productive species. Moreover, a minority of Pol II molecules transcribes a low abundance mRNA of unknown function called Plau-004 from the ABR-1.9 domain, whose expression is tempered by Fra-1. Thus, we unveil a heretofore-unsuspected transcriptional complexity at Plau in a reference metastatic breast cancer cell line with pleiotropic effects for Fra-1, providing novel information on AP-1 transcriptional action. PMID:25200076

  3. Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

  4. Ris-R-1499(DA) Rekommendationer om reaktioner efter

    E-print Network

    III fra projekt om reaktioner ef- ter utilsigtede hændelser Doris �stergaard, Niels Hermann, Henning Københavns Amt Forskningscenter Risø Roskilde Danmark Juni 2005 #12;Forfatter: Doris �stergaard, Niels. Embedslægeinstitutionen Frederiksborg Amt Embedslæge Niels Hermann © 2005. Rapporterne kan frit citeres med tydelig

  5. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System...

  6. Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

  7. Synergistic Activation of Human Involucrin Gene Expression by Fra1 and p300—Evidence for the Presence of a Multiprotein Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F Crish; Richard L Eckert

    2008-01-01

    Involucrin is expressed in the differentiated suprabasal epidermal layers, and an AP1 transcription factor-binding site present in the involucrin promoter distal regulatory region is required for this regulation. This site binds Fra-1, but cofactor interaction at this site has not been adequately characterized. We show that Fra-1 and p300 histone acetyltransferase are present at the AP1 site, as detected by

  8. A novel combination: ranpirnase and rosiglitazone induce a synergistic apoptotic effect by down-regulating Fra-1 and Survivin in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Nino, Maria E; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the idea that two known phosphatidylinositol 3?-Kinase (PI3K) downstream proteins, Fra-1 and Survivin, are potential targets for cancer therapy. Increased expression of Fra-1, a Fos family member of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), has been implicated in both the maintenance and progression of the transformed state of several cancer cells. In addition, high Survivin expression in tumors correlates with more aggressive behavior, lower response to chemotherapeutic drugs, and shortened survival time. Previously, we reported that in malignant mesothelioma cells with increased PI3K activity, small molecule inhibitors of the (PI3K)/AKT pathway acted cooperatively with the amphibian ribonuclease chemotherapeutic drug ranpirnase to inhibit cell growth. Because the thiazolidinedione (TZD) anti-diabetic drug, rosiglitazone, targets the PI3K/AKT pathway, we investigated the effect of the combination of these two drugs in cell survival in several cancer cell lines. We show here that the combination of ranpirnase and rosiglitazone synergistically decreases cell viability and increases cell apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. Cell killing is associated with decreased Fra-1 and Survivin expression and knock-down of Fra-1 increases cell killing by ranpirnase in a dose-dependent manner, but not by rosiglitazone. The drug combination does not have a synergistic effect on killing in Fra-1 knock-down cells, demonstrating that Fra-1 modulation accounts in part for the synergism. The novel drug combination of ranpirnase and rosiglitazone is a promising combination to treat cancers with increased PI3K-dependent Fra-1 expression or Survivin. PMID:18606715

  9. Fra?1 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and promotes cervical cancer cell apoptosis by p53 signaling pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Luo, Guijuan; Jiang, Bin; Tian, Qi; Li, Yueran; Xue, Min

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease; however, it is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is thought to develop through a multistep process involving virus, tumor suppressor genes, proto?oncogenes and immunological factors. It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient to cause malignancy. At present, the etiology of cervical carcinoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of FOS?like antigen?1 (Fra?1) gene was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non?cancerous tissues by RT?qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting techniques. To uncover the effect of Fra?1 on cervical cancer, we tested and confirmed that Fra?1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells by MMT assays in vitro. At the same time, overexpression of Fra?1 promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra?1 in cervical cancer, we tested the expression levels of key molecules in p53 signaling pathway by western blotting technology. The results showed that p53 was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non?cancerous tissues, but MDM2 proto?oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) was upregulated in cervical cancer. In vitro, the p53 was upregulated and MDM2 was downregulated in HeLa cells with Fra?1 overexpression. In summary, our results suggested that Fra?1 expression is low in cervical cancer tissues and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by p53 signaling pathway. PMID:25651840

  10. Monitoring thermal stresses and incipient buckling of continuous-welded rails: results from the UCSD\\/BNSF\\/FRA large-scale laboratory test track

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Phillips; Claudio Nucera; Stefano Coccia; Francesco Lanza di Scalea; Ivan Bartoli; Mahmood Fateh; Gary Carr

    2011-01-01

    Most modern railways use Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). A major problem is the almost total absence of expansion joints that can create buckling in hot weather and breakage in cold weather due to the rail thermal stresses. In June 2008 the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), under the sponsorship of a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and

  11. Chagas disease-specific antigens: characterization of epitopes in CRA/FRA by synthetic peptide mapping and evaluation by ELISA-peptide assay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of epitopes in proteins recognized by medically relevant antibodies is useful for the development of peptide-based diagnostics and vaccines. In this study, epitopes in the cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi were identified using synthetic peptide techniques and pooled sera from Chagasic patients. The epitopes were further assayed with an ELISA assay based on synthetic peptides. Methods Twenty-two overlapping synthetic peptides representing the coding sequence of the T. cruzi CRA and FRA proteins were assessed by a Spot-synthesis array analysis using sera donated by patients with Chagas disease. Shorter peptides were selected that represented the determined epitopes and synthesized by solid phase synthesis to evaluate the patterns of cross-reactivities and discrimination through an ELISA-diagnostic assay. Results The peptide Spot-synthesis array successfully identified two IgG antigenic determinants in the CRA protein and four in FRA. Bioinformatics suggested that the CRA antigens were unique to T. cruzi while the FRA antigen showed similarity with sequences present within various proteins from Leishmania sp. Subsequently, shorter peptides representing the CRA-1, CRA-2 and FRA-1 epitopes were synthesized by solid phase synthesis and assayed by an ELISA-diagnostic assay. The CRA antigens gave a high discrimination between Chagasic, Leishmaniasis and T. cruzi-uninfected serum. A sensitivity and specificity of 100% was calculated for CRA. While the FRA antigen showed a slightly lower sensitivity (91.6%), its specificity was only 60%. Conclusions The epitopes recognized by human anti-T. cruzi antibodies have been precisely located in two biomarkers of T. cruzi, CRA and FRA. The results from screening a panel of patient sera through an ELISA assay based on peptides representing these epitopes strongly suggest that the sequences from CRA would be useful for the development of diagnostic reagents that could improve upon the sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests. Overall, the results provide further evidence of the usefulness of identifying specific linear B-cell epitopes for improving diagnostic tools. PMID:24299278

  12. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  13. A comparison of forest cover maps in Mainland Southeast Asia from multiple sources: PALSAR, MERIS, MODIS and FRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Sheldon, S. L.; Biradar, C. M.; Duong, N. D.; Hazarika, M.

    2012-12-01

    The uncertainty in tracking tropical forest extent and changes substantially affects our assessment of the consequences of forest change on the global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Recently cloud-free imagery useful for tropical forest mapping from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has become available. We used PALSAR 50-m Orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 and a decision tree method to conduct land cover classification and generate a 2009 forest map, which was evaluated using 2106 field photos from the Global Geo-referenced Field Photo Library (http://www.eomf.ou.edu/photos). The resulting land cover classification had a high overall accuracy of 93.3 % and a Kappa Coefficient of 0.9. The PALSAR-based forest map was then compared with three existing forest cover products at three scales (regional, national, and continental): the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments (FRA) 2010, Global Land Cover Map with MERIS (GlobCover) 2009, and the MODIS Terra + Aqua Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1) 2009. The intercomparison results show that these four forest datasets differ. The PALSAR-based forest area estimate is within the range (6.1 ~ 9.0 ×105 km2) of the other three products and closest to the FAO FRA 2010 estimate. The spatial disagreements of the PALSAR-based forest, MCD12Q1 forest and GlobCover forest are evident; however, the PALSAR-based forest map provides more detail (50-m spatial resolution) and high accuracy (the Producer's and the User's Accuracies were 88 % and 95 %, respectively) and PALSAR can be used to evaluate MCD12Q1 2009 and GlobCover 2009 forest maps. Given the higher spatial resolution, PALSAR-based forest products could further improve the modeling accuracy of carbon cycle in tropical forests.

  14. Common Chromosome Fragile Sites in Human and Murine Epithelial Cells and FHIT/FRA3B Loss-Induced Global Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Horton, Susan; Saldivar, Joshua C.; Miuma, Satoshi; Stampfer, Martha R.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Huebner, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal positions of common fragile sites differ in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, with positions dependent on the epigenetically determined density of replication origins at these loci. Because rearrangement of fragile loci and associated loss of fragile gene products are hallmarks of cancers, we aimed to map common fragile sites in epithelial cells, from which most cancers derive. Among the five most frequently activated sites in human epithelial cells were chromosome bands 2q33 and Xq22.1, which are not among top fragile sites identified in lymphoblasts or fibroblasts. FRA16D at 16q23 was among the top three fragile sites in the human epithelial cells examined, as it is in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, while FRA3B at 3p14.2, the top fragile locus in lymphoblasts, was not fragile in most epithelial cell lines tested. Epithelial cells exhibited varying hierarchies of fragile sites; some frequent epithelial cell fragile sites are apparently not frequently altered in epithelial cancers and sites that are frequently deleted in epithelial cancers are not necessarily among the most fragile. Since we have reported that loss of expression of the FRA3B-encoded FHIT protein causes increased replication stress-induced DNA damage, we also examined the effect of FHIT-deficiency on markers of genome instability in epithelial cells. FHIT-deficient cells exhibited increases in fragile breaks and in ?H2AX and 53BP1 foci in G1 phase cells, confirming in epithelial cells that the FHIT gene and encompassing FRA3B, is a “caretaker gene” necessary for maintenance of genome stability. PMID:23929738

  15. AP-1 (Fra-1/c-Jun)-mediated Induction of Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Is Required for 15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid-induced Angiogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Quyen, Dong Van; Kundumani-Sridharan, Venkatesh; Brooks, Peter C.; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE)-induced angiogenesis, we have studied the role of MMP-2. 15(S)-HETE induced MMP-2 expression and activity in a time-dependent manner in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVECs). Inhibition of MMP-2 activity or depletion of its levels attenuated 15(S)-HETE-induced HDMVEC migration, tube formation, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. 15(S)-HETE also induced Fra-1 and c-Jun expression in a Rac1-MEK1-JNK1-dependent manner. In addition, 15(S)-HETE-induced MMP-2 expression and activity were mediated by Rac1-MEK1-JNK1-dependent activation of AP-1 (Fra-1/c-Jun). Cloning and site-directed mutagenesis of MMP-2 promoter revealed that AP-1 site proximal to the transcriptional start site is required for 15(S)-HETE-induced MMP-2 expression, and Fra-1 and c-Jun are the essential components of AP-1 that bind to MMP-2 promoter in response to 15(S)-HETE. Hind limb ischemia led to an increase in MEK1 and JNK1 activation and Fra-1, c-Jun, and MMP-2 expression resulting in enhanced neovascularization and recovery of blood perfusion in wild-type mice as compared with 12/15-Lox?/? mice. Together, these results provide the first direct evidence for a role of 12/15-Lox-12/15(S)-HETE axis in the regulation of ischemia-induced angiogenesis. PMID:20353950

  16. Instability at the FRA8I common fragile site disrupts the genomic integrity of the KIAA0146, CEBPD and PRKDC genes in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Brueckner, Lena M; Hess, Elisa M; Schwab, Manfred; Savelyeva, Larissa

    2013-08-01

    Specific patterns of genomic aberrations have been associated with different types of malignancies. In colorectal cancer, losses of chromosome arm 8p and gains of chromosome arm 8q are among the most common chromosomal rearrangements, suggesting that the centromeric portion of chromosome 8 is particularly sensitive to breakage. Genomic alterations frequently occur in the early stages of tumorigenesis at specific genomic regions known as common fragile sites (cFSs). CFSs represent parts of the normal chromosome structure that are prone to breakage under replication stress. In this study, we identified the genomic location of FRA8I, spanning 530 kb at 8q11.21 and assessed the composition of the fragile DNA sequence. FRA8I encompasses KIAA0146, a large protein-coding gene with yet unknown function, as well as CEBPD and part of PRKDC, two genes encoding proteins involved in tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. We show that FRA8I is unstable in lymphocytes and epithelial cells, displaying similar expression rates. We examined copy number alteration patterns within FRA8I in a panel of 25 colorectal cancer cell lines and surveyed publically available profiles of 56 additional colorectal cancer cell lines. Combining these data shows that focal recombination events disrupt the genomic integrity of KIAA0146 and neighboring cFS genes in 12.3% of colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, data analysis revealed evidence that KIAA0146 is a translocation partner of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene in recurrent t(8;14)(q11;q32) translocations in a subset of patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Our data molecularly describe a region of enhanced chromosomal instability in the human genome and point to a role of the KIAA0146 gene in tumorigenesis. PMID:23603433

  17. Sources of clasts in terrestrial impact melts - Clues to the origin of LKFM. [Low-K Fra Mauro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, K. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Spudis, P. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1989-01-01

    Low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) 'basalt', which is found exclusively as an impact melt rock, cannot be modeled geochemically from its clast population or from any combination of known pristine lunar rock types. To clarify clast/melt relationships, a study was made of impact melt rocks from Mistastin Lake crater, Labrador, where there are only three target rocks: anorthosite, quartz monzonite, and granodiorite. Feldspar compositions in these rocks define distinct fields on the An-Ab-Or ternary diagram, making it possible to identify the source of each feldspar clast. Clasts in the Mistastin impact melts do not reflect the abundance of target rocks melted during the impact. The abundance of anorthosite in the clast population varies from 34 to 100 percent compared to a relatively constant value of 65 percent calculated to be in the melt matrix. Therefore the clasts appear to be derived predominantly from material relatively far removed from the zone of impact melting. Melt-matrix composition is dictated strictly by the composition of the target materials within a small radius around and below the point of impact. This suggests that the LKFM composition was derived from a lower crustal source.

  18. Sources of mineral fragments in impact melts 15445 and 15455 - Toward the origin of low-K Fra Mauro basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; McCormick, K. A.

    The compositions of major and minor elements in mineral clasts in low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) are studied in order to gain a deeper understanding of the genesis of LKFM and its primogenitors. The fragments are picked up as the impact melt moves outward from the center of the target. It is suggested that most of the mineral debris found in the melts is derived from troctolites of the Mg-suite. The chemical end member that dominates the LKFM melt matrics is not present as either mineral or lithic clastic debris in these melt rocks. It is proposed that the missing chemical component of LKFM could have been a magma, existing within the crust 3.9 Ga ago, and was either ejected intact to form LKFM melt rocks or was mixed with other shock-melted crusted and mantle rocks to produce the LKFM compositions. Assimilation of lithic and mineral clasts into the melt after breccian assembly is not a significant process and cannot be adduced to explain the LKFM melt/clast dichotomy.

  19. Role of the WWOX gene, encompassing fragile region FRA16D, in suppression of pancreatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shunji; Semba, Shuho; Maeda, Naoko; Aqeilan, Rami I; Huebner, Kay; Yokozaki, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    The WW-domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene spans the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D (16q23.2) and is believed to be a tumor suppressor in various human malignancies. We have previously shown frequent down-modulation of Wwox expression in pancreatic carcinoma (PC); however, biological function of Wwox in pancreatic duct carcinogenesis remains unknown. In PANC-1 (Wwox-negative) PC-derived cells, restoration of recombinant WWOX gene expression with adenoviral gene delivery (Ad-WWOX) effectively increased the number of cells with subG(1) DNA contents in a multiplicity of infection-dependent manners: Ad-WWOX infection up-regulated caspase-3 activity and reduced procaspase-3 and procaspase-8 levels. We also confirmed that restoration of WWOX gene suppressed cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. In addition, transduction of wild-type WWOX-expressing vector inhibited PANC-1 colony formation; however, substitution of Y33 of Wwox with arginine did not lead to inhibition of colony formation, suggesting the biological significance of the WW1 domain of Wwox for its tumor-suppressing activity. In PC tissue samples, abundant cytoplasmic Wwox expression was detected in the normal pancreatic duct epithelium, whereas Wwox expression was frequently reduced not only in a large fraction of PC but also in precancerous lesions in accord with the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) grade, which was closely correlated with patients' poorer outcome. Interestingly, the existence of Wwox expression was associated with elevated mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Smad4) protein levels in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that down-modulation of Wwox expression is an early event and may be associated with the down-regulation of Smad4 protein levels during pancreatic duct carcinogenesis. PMID:18460020

  20. A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated with oil and animal glue. A large number of overpaintings above the original scheme of polychromy was found, which could be ascribed to almost three different interventions; the absence of modern pigments suggests that they could be realized long ago.

  1. NYT................................................. FRA BJERGET

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by the confinements of theology. Roughly at the same time, or a little later, Freud was discovering the subconscious. Natural science, too, leapt forward with enormous strides. The emergence of new theories and ideas by instincts, indeed, by sexuality, and the pursuit of natural laws revealed unexplored areas of enormous

  2. A CGG-repeat expansion mutation in ZNF713 causes FRA7A: association with autistic spectrum disorder in two families.

    PubMed

    Metsu, Sofie; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Debacker, Kim; Bernhard, Birgitta; Rooms, Liesbeth; Grafodatskaya, Daria; Weksberg, Rosanna; Fombonne, Eric; Taylor, Martin S; Scherer, Stephen W; Kooy, R Frank; FitzPatrick, David R

    2014-11-01

    We report de novo occurrence of the 7p11.2 folate-sensitive fragile site FRA7A in a male with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) due to a CGG-repeat expansion mutation (?450 repeats) in a 5' intron of ZNF713. This expanded allele showed hypermethylation of the adjacent CpG island with reduced ZNF713 expression observed in a proband-derived lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). His unaffected mother carried an unmethylated premutation (85 repeats). This CGG-repeat showed length polymorphism in control samples (five to 22 repeats). In a second unrelated family, three siblings with ASD and their unaffected father were found to carry FRA7A premutations, which were partially or mosaically methylated. In one of the affected siblings, mitotic instability of the premutation was observed. ZNF713 expression in LCLs in this family was increased in three of these four premutation carriers. A firm link cannot yet be established between ASD and the repeat expansion mutation but plausible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25196122

  3. LOXL4 Is Induced by Transforming Growth Factor ?1 through Smad and JunB/Fra2 and Contributes to Vascular Matrix Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Busnadiego, Oscar; González-Santamaría, José; Lagares, David; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Muller, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) is a pleiotropic factor involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling. In search for novel genes mediating the action of TGF-?1 on vascular ECM, we identified the member of the lysyl oxidase family of matrix-remodeling enzymes, lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), as a direct target of TGF-?1 in aortic endothelial cells, and we dissected the molecular mechanism of its induction. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis analysis of the LOXL4 promoter demonstrated the absolute requirement of a distal enhancer containing an activator protein 1 (AP-1) site and a Smad binding element for TGF-?1 to induce LOXL4 expression. Functional cooperation between Smad proteins and the AP-1 complex composed of JunB/Fra2 accounted for the action of TGF-?1, which involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent phosphorylation of Fra2. We furthermore provide evidence that LOXL4 was extracellularly secreted and significantly contributed to ECM deposition and assembly. These results suggest that TGF-?1-dependent expression of LOXL4 plays a role in vascular ECM homeostasis, contributing to vascular processes associated with ECM remodeling and fibrosis. PMID:23572561

  4. 5th Conference on Pesticides and Related Organic Micropollutants in the Environment, Marseille, FRA, 22-25 Octobre 2008 1 How to mitigate pesticides point sources pollution at the EU level

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -target organisms and can have adverse effects on human health, wildlife and the environment. Such adverse effects5th Conference on Pesticides and Related Organic Micropollutants in the Environment, Marseille, FRA, 22-25 Octobre 2008 1 How to mitigate pesticides point sources pollution at the EU level Bernard

  5. Keywords. d(GGC/GCC)5; d(CAG/CTG)5; hairpin structure; model building; molecular mechanics; quadruplex structure Abbreviations used: DM, dystrophia myotonica; FraX, fragile X syndrome; HD, Huntington disease; rms, root mean square.

    E-print Network

    Bansal, Manju

    ; HD, Huntington disease; rms, root mean square. J. Biosci. | Vol. 26 | No. 5 | December 2001 | 649 myotonica, DM), fragile X syndrome (FraX), Huntington disease (HD), several spinocerebellar ataxias of the Huntington's gene (Huntington's disease collaborative research group 1993). However, the following properties

  6. A major quantitative trait locus for cold-responsive gene expression is linked to frost-resistance gene Fr-A2 in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Iehisa, Julio C M; Takumi, Shigeo

    2013-03-01

    Low temperature induces expression of Cor (cold-responsive)/Lea (late embryogenesis-abundant) gene family members through C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors in common wheat. However, the relationship between the genetic loci controlling cold-responsive gene expression and freezing tolerance is unclear. In expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis, accumulated transcripts of Cor/Lea and CBF genes were quantified in recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two common wheat cultivars with different levels of freezing tolerance. Four eQTLs controlling five cold-responsive genes were found, and the major eQTL with the greatest effect was located on the long arm of chromosome 5A. At least the 1D and 5A eQTLs played important roles in development of freezing tolerance in common wheat. The chromosomal location of the 5A eQTL, controlling four cold-responsive genes, coincided with a region homoeologous to a frost-tolerance locus (Fr-A (m) 2) reported as a CBF cluster region in einkorn wheat. The 5A eQTL plays a significant role through Cor/Lea gene expression in cold acclimation of wheat. In addition, our results suggest that one or more CBF copies at the Fr-2 region positively regulate other copies, which might amplify the positive effects of the CBF cluster on downstream Cor/Lea gene activation. PMID:23641182

  7. Monitoring thermal stresses and incipient buckling of continuous-welded rails: results from the UCSD/BNSF/FRA large-scale laboratory test track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert; Nucera, Claudio; Coccia, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Bartoli, Ivan; Fateh, Mahmood; Carr, Gary

    2011-04-01

    Most modern railways use Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). A major problem is the almost total absence of expansion joints that can create buckling in hot weather and breakage in cold weather due to the rail thermal stresses. In June 2008 the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), under the sponsorship of a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, began work to develop a technique for in-situ measurement of stress and detection of incipient buckling in CWR. The method under investigation is based on ultrasonic guided waves, and the ultimate goal is to develop a prototype that can be used in motion. A large-scale full rail track (70 feet in length) has been constructed at UCSD's Powell Structural Laboratories, the largest laboratories in the country for structural testing, to validate the CWR stress measurement and buckling detection technique under rail heating conditions well controlled in the laboratory. This paper will report on the results obtained from this unique large-scale test track to date. These results will pave the road for the future development of the rail stress measurement & buckling detection prototype.

  8. Astrocytoma-associated antigens - IL13R?2, Fra-1, and EphA2 as potential markers to monitor the status of tumour-derived cell cultures in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The molecular heterogeneity of high-grade astrocytomas underlies the difficulties in the development of representative and valuable in vitro experimental models for their studies. The purpose of our study was to estimate the value of astrocytoma-associated antigens (AAAs) - IL13R?2, Fra-1, EphA2 - and the most common molecular aberrations typical for astrocytomas as potential markers to screen the status of tumour-derived cell cultures in vitro. Methods The tumour-derived cell cultures were established from high-grade astrocytomas. The expression analyses of the tested genes were performed via semi-quantitative real-time PCR and subsequently verified by immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical technique. The analyses of molecular aberrations at DNA level included gene dosage status evaluation based on real-time PCR, sequencing analysis, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assay. Results The expression analyses based on semi-quantitative real-time PCR showed that in the final stage of culture the expression level of all tested AAAs was significantly higher or at least comparable to that of primary tumours; however, two expression patterns were observed during cell culture establishment. Analysis at the single cell level via immunocytochemistry also demonstrated an increase of the level of tested proteins and/or selection of tumour cell populations strongly positive for AAAs vs. other cell types including admixed non-tumoural cells. Confrontation of AAA expression data with the results of molecular analyses at DNA level seems to support the latter, revealing that the expression pattern of astrocytoma-associated antigens in tumour-derived cells in subsequent stages of culture is convergent with changes in the molecular profile of examined cell populations. Conclusions The consistency of the obtained results seems to support the use of the selected AAAs, in particular IL13R?2 and Fra-1, as tools facilitating the establishment of tumour-derived cultures. However, the intratumoural heterogeneity of high-grade astrocytomas may require further detailed characterisation of the molecular profile of a tumour in order to evaluate the value of the experimental model in relation to the individual context of particular studies.

  9. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23289935

  10. REFERAT FRA MTE i IT-utvalget

    E-print Network

    Kalisch, Henrik

    instituttsleder. Sak 3. Oppkobling mot nettet via VPN. Studenter har klaget att de ikke får logget seg på VPN mottatt en invitasjon. 3. Saken med VPN oppkobling. Henrik Kalisch Leder it-utvalget #12;

  11. Ris-R-1325(DA) Spredning af lugt fra svinestalde

    E-print Network

    in the near by environment is a concern, and in some cases a problem for the nearby neighbours. Mitigation strategy for venting and mitigating the effects of malodour. Partners involved were: Danish environmental under et forsøg, hvor kunstig genereret røg og tracergas er tilsat fire af bygningens 10 eksisterende

  12. Algoritme til lsning af geometriske puslespil ud fra

    E-print Network

    with the problematics of developing a computer program- me which is able to solve geometric jigsaw puzzles correctly the methods are tested on a simple jigsaw puzzle where each side of a piece only fits together with one other side of another piece. Subsequent- ly there are runned tests on small jigsaw puzzles containing

  13. Ancient crustal components in the Fra Mauro breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1983-11-01

    Texturally pristine clasts preserve primary petrographic relationships and mineral compositions, yielding insights into igneous processes of the early lunar crust that cannot be gained from highly shocked and brecciated 'chemically pristine' samples. The use of texture as a prime criterion allows for expansion of the data base derived solely from chemical criteria, and provides complementary data. Texturally pristine clasts from the Apollo 14 site studied here include anorthosite, troctolites, gabbronorites, and basalts. Alkali anorthosites are plagioclase orthocumulates and may form by flotation in Mg-suite plutons. Ferroan anorthosite was cataclastically deformed and metamorphosed to granulite facies. Troctolites include both 01 + Plg and 01 + En + Plg cumulates. Major and trace element analyses of two troctolites reveal 'eastern' geochemical affinities that contrast other 'western' troctolites. Gabbronorites are Pig + Plg + or - Sp cumulates whose parent magmas may range from high-Al to intermediate-Ti mare basalt. At least three varieties of mare basalt are found at Apollo 14: high-Al, low-Ti; low-Al, intermediate-Ti; and low-Al, Ti VHK basalt. VHK (Very High Potassium) basalt is a new variety indigenous to Apollo 14.

  14. Ris National Laboratory Ris-R-1095 (EN)

    E-print Network

    1999 advertisements on the backs of Copen- hagen city buses show, what we are talk- ing about here anniversary. It is a recurring theme in the book Til samfundets tarv ­ Forskningscenter Risøs historie

  15. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...grants: (1) To conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and (2) to conduct a Study of...Protection Agency, to conduct a ``Locomotive Biofuel Study.'' This study will focus on determining...other passenger rail operators could use biofuel blends to power locomotives and...

  16. 75 FR 34213 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...responsible parties for two grants: to conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and to conduct a Study of the Use of Bio-based Technologies...for the two grant programs: (1) To conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and (2) to conduct a Study of the Use of...

  17. FL/FRA Liste de priodiques 06.03.2008 1

    E-print Network

    Genève, Université de

    (1980)-> Annales de la Société Jean-Jacques Rousseau. - Genève : A. Jullien [puis] Droz, 1905-. - T. 1.: BFLB 8517 Acéphale : religion, sociologie, philosophie. - Paris : J.M. Place, 1980. - 1(24 juin 1936

  18. I prodotti editoriali nella rete-mercato fra editori e consumatori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richeri Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The article analyze the main sectors of the publishing industry highlighting major features and factors that encourage or curb the shift from physical to intangible. To-day publishers are able to find a very wild on-line market for their products that offer the possibility to change in deep the organizational and costing structure, the time to market of the editorial contents

  19. Fri prosjektsttte: Nye prosjekter innenfor matematikk, naturvitenskap og teknologi (FRINATEK) fra 2014 Prosjekt Tittel Prosjektansvarlig

    E-print Network

    Brandenburg, Axel

    -structure interaction in the upper airways Institutt for energi- og prosessteknikk, Norges Teknisk- Naturvitenskapelige (EME) Farmasøytisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo 231741 Modeling of obstructive sleep apnea by fluid

  20. EUROGRAPHICS '2000 / M. Gross and F.R.A. Hopgood (Guest Editors)

    E-print Network

    Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    . Introduction Since the release of the first fully computer-animated fea- ture film "Toy Story" in 1995, animation films have be- come more and more popular. All of them feature articulated characters whose automatically producing realistic collision-free animation of the upper arms. Based on the latest models

  1. 49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...intends to modify the program in conformity with the specific requirements of this part at least 60 days prior to implementing such a change. (1) A modification is material if it would affect the program's conformance with this part....

  2. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...intends to modify the program in conformity with the specific requirements of this part at least 30 days prior to implementing such a change. (1) A modification is material if it would affect the program's conformance with this part....

  3. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...intends to modify the program in conformity with the specific requirements of this part at least 30 days prior to implementing such a change. (1) A modification is material if it would affect the program's conformance with this part....

  4. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...intends to modify the program in conformity with the specific requirements of this part at least 30 days prior to implementing such a change. (1) A modification is material if it would affect the program's conformance with this part....

  5. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...intends to modify the program in conformity with the specific requirements of this part at least 30 days prior to implementing such a change. (1) A modification is material if it would affect the program's conformance with this part....

  6. 49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...intends to modify the program in conformity with the specific requirements of this part at least 60 days prior to implementing such a change. (1) A modification is material if it would affect the program's conformance with this part....

  7. 49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...intends to modify the program in conformity with the specific requirements of this part at least 60 days prior to implementing such a change. (1) A modification is material if it would affect the program's conformance with this part....

  8. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...intends to modify the program in conformity with the specific requirements of this part at least 30 days prior to implementing such a change. (1) A modification is material if it would affect the program's conformance with this part....

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...This policy statement required by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-121...civil penalty assessments based on the value and integrity of the information presented....

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...This policy statement required by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-121...civil penalty assessments based on the value and integrity of the information presented....

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...This policy statement required by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-121...civil penalty assessments based on the value and integrity of the information presented....

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...This policy statement required by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-121...civil penalty assessments based on the value and integrity of the information presented....

  13. EUROGRAPHICS 2000 / M. Gross and F.R.A. Hopgood (Guest Editors)

    E-print Network

    Labrosse, Frédéric

    it is not pixel based but rather represents a picture as vector data, from which an altered version such as zooming, retouching or colourising, avoiding common problems associated with pixel image manipulation manipulation. 1. Introduction Image manipulation techniques like retouching, colourising or compositing

  14. The magma ocean from the Fra Mauro shoreline - an overview of the Apollo 14 crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    1983-11-01

    Petrographic and mineralogical studies of coarse grained, polymineralic, texturally monominct igneous clasts from the Apollo 14 breccias show troctolite and troctolitic anorthosite to be the most abundant rock types. The second most abundant group consists of plagioclase cumulates with more evolved mineral compositions than the Mg-rich trend anorthosite cumulates. Coarse grained ilmenite gabbros and mineralogically evolved monzonoritic and granitic clasts are widespread in occurrence, but not abundant. The present data provide further support for widespread regional heterogeneities within the early lunar crust.

  15. The magma ocean from the Fra Mauro shoreline - An overview of the Apollo 14 crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Petrographic and mineralogical studies of coarse grained, polymineralic, texturally monominct igneous clasts from the Apollo 14 breccias show troctolite and troctolitic anorthosite to be the most abundant rock types. The second most abundant group consists of plagioclase cumulates with more evolved mineral compositions than the Mg-rich trend anorthosite cumulates. Coarse grained ilmenite gabbros and mineralogically evolved monzonoritic and granitic clasts are widespread in occurrence, but not abundant. The present data provide further support for widespread regional heterogeneities within the early lunar crust.

  16. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...less than the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing...testing at the same minimum annual percentage rate under this part or any DOT...employees for testing at the highest percentage rate established for the...

  17. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...testing at the same minimum annual percentage rate under this part or any DOT...to random drug testing at the percentage rate established for the calendar...employees for testing at the highest percentage rate established for the...

  18. Oncogene . Author manuscript The PKC pathway participates in the aberrant accumulation of Fra-1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Oncogene . Author manuscript Page /1 13 The PKC pathway participates in the aberrant accumulation-Serine-Threonine Kinases ; metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos ; metabolism ; Receptors, Estrogen ; metabolism

  19. Paraje (de Fra Cristobal): investigations of a Territorial period Hispanic village site in southern New Mexico

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Douglas Kevin

    1986-01-01

    and instruction in conserving many of the arti facts. Shawn assi sted in the identification'of many of the artifacts and helped in all phases of the analysis and report. Her input made tne author's job much easier and is appreciated. Several individuals were... Spatial Analysis. Conclusions. . . . . . . Page 41 41 51 55 65 78 101 112 112 122 140 158 158 171 176 179 193 ZUO 215 215 221 226 240 249 Page REFERENCES CITED 251 APPENDIX I. LA IIZ4 ARTIFACT INVENTORY 275 APPENDIX I I. LA...

  20. Geomorphology of crater and basin deposits - Emplacement of the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. H.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of continuous deposits near lunar craters larger than about 1 km wide are considered, and it is concluded that (1) concentric dunes, radial ridges, and braided lineations result from deposition of the collision products of ejecta from adjacent pairs of similarly oriented secondary-crater chains and are, therefore, concentrations of secondary-crater ejecta; (2) intracrater ridges are produced within preexisting craters surrounding a fresh primary crater by ricocheting and focusing of secondary-crater ejecta from the preexisting craters' walls; and (3) secondary cratering has produced many of the structures of the continuous deposits of relatively small lunar craters and is the dominant process for emplacement of most of the radial facies of the continuous deposits of large lunar craters and basins. The percentages of Imbrium ejecta in deposits and the nature of Imbrium sculpturing are investigated.

  1. Exposure ages and neutron capture record in lunar samples from Fra Mauro.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic-ray exposure ages of Apollo 14 rocks and rock fragments obtained by the Kr81-Kr83 method range from 27 to 700 m.y. Rock 14321, collected near the Cone crater rim, is one of the many approximately 27 m.y. old ejecta which were reported at the Third Lunar Science Conference. All the other rocks have considerably higher exposure ages. Isotopic anomalies from neutron capture in gadolinium, bromine, and barium are used to obtain information on the lunar neutron spectrum at various depths below the lunar surface. The flux ratio of resonance and slow (less than 0.3 eV) neutrons is found to be nearly constant in the topmost approximately 100 g/sq cm.

  2. Servizi per l'infanzia, mutamenti, legami con il territorio fra cultura e controcultura

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Fabbri

    2010-01-01

    Il report analizza le rappresentazioni di insegnanti di scuola dell'infanzia e educa- trici di nido, in relazione ai principali trend di mutamento sociale e istituzionale e ai cambiamenti legati agli stili educativi. Particolarmente significativo risulta su questo versante l'intreccio dinamico tra servizi e territorio: in direzione di sinergia e di collaborazione reciproca in alcune parti del paese; di maggiore attrito

  3. FRA3B and other common fragile sites: the weakest links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Huebner; Carlo M. Croce

    2001-01-01

    In 1979, the first chromosome alteration associated with familial cancer was reported. Five years later, a fragile site was observed in the same chromosome region. The product of the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, which encompasses this fragile site, is partially or entirely lost in most human cancers, indicating that it has a tumour-suppressor function. Inactivation of only one FHIT

  4. Lunar surface closeup stereoscopic photography at Fra Mauro (Apollo 14 site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Heiken, G.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 17-1/2 stereopairs of lunar surface rocks and soil was taken on the Apollo 14 mission. The closeup stereopair photographs are presented with a preliminary interpretation for those interested in lunar soil formation, impact phenomena, and soil mechanics.

  5. 10-1 (6/24/02) 10.15 FRA TERNITY A ND SORORITY HOUSING POLICY

    E-print Network

    the educational environment and the overall quality of campus life. In order to facilitate the presence organization registered through the Office of Student Life; 3. Be "dry," or alcohol-free; 4. Be willing of residence halls specifically dedicated to fraternity and sorority organizations. This policy shall supersede

  6. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...railroad performs the analysis of its schedules...of them presents a risk for fatigue that...schedule may be at risk of experiencing a...additional follow-up analysis must be submitted...identified through the analysis required by paragraph...this section as at risk, including...

  7. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...railroad performs the analysis of its schedules...of them presents a risk for fatigue that...schedule may be at risk of experiencing a...additional follow-up analysis must be submitted...identified through the analysis required by paragraph...this section as at risk, including...

  8. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...railroad performs the analysis of its schedules...of them presents a risk for fatigue that...schedule may be at risk of experiencing a...additional follow-up analysis must be submitted...identified through the analysis required by paragraph...this section as at risk, including...

  9. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...railroad performs the analysis of its schedules...of them presents a risk for fatigue that...schedule may be at risk of experiencing a...additional follow-up analysis must be submitted...identified through the analysis required by paragraph...this section as at risk, including...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

  14. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

  15. SCHEDA DI VALUTAZIONE DEL SERVICE DESK "carichipendenti" Rispondere con un giudizio compreso fra 1 e 4, dove 1 esprime il minimo e 4 il massimo

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    nella pagina web di presentazione del servizio? o 1 o 2 o 3 o 4 Come valuta la completezza e l'accessibilità alle informazioni richiedibili attraverso il servizio? o 1 o 2 o 3 o 4 Come valuta la chiarezza delle informazioni fornite sull'accesso al sistema? o 1 o 2 o 3 o 4 Come valuta la completezza del servizio rispetto

  16. A major quantitative trait locus for cold-responsive gene expression is linked to frost-resistance gene Fr-A2 in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    Motomura, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Iehisa, Julio C. M.; Takumi, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature induces expression of Cor (cold-responsive)/Lea (late embryogenesis-abundant) gene family members through C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors in common wheat. However, the relationship between the genetic loci controlling cold-responsive gene expression and freezing tolerance is unclear. In expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis, accumulated transcripts of Cor/Lea and CBF genes were quantified in recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two common wheat cultivars with different levels of freezing tolerance. Four eQTLs controlling five cold-responsive genes were found, and the major eQTL with the greatest effect was located on the long arm of chromosome 5A. At least the 1D and 5A eQTLs played important roles in development of freezing tolerance in common wheat. The chromosomal location of the 5A eQTL, controlling four cold-responsive genes, coincided with a region homoeologous to a frost-tolerance locus (Fr-Am2) reported as a CBF cluster region in einkorn wheat. The 5A eQTL plays a significant role through Cor/Lea gene expression in cold acclimation of wheat. In addition, our results suggest that one or more CBF copies at the Fr-2 region positively regulate other copies, which might amplify the positive effects of the CBF cluster on downstream Cor/Lea gene activation. PMID:23641182

  17. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236...select various safety-critical software modules, as well as safety-critical...Identification of the hardware and software verification and validation...to develop safety-critical software; and (8) If directed...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236...select various safety-critical software modules, as well as safety-critical...Identification of the hardware and software verification and validation...to develop safety-critical software; and (8) If directed...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236...select various safety-critical software modules, as well as safety-critical...Identification of the hardware and software verification and validation...to develop safety-critical software; and (8) If directed...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236...select various safety-critical software modules, as well as safety-critical...Identification of the hardware and software verification and validation...to develop safety-critical software; and (8) If directed...

  1. Petrogenesis of the western highlands of the moon - Evidence from a diverse group of whitlockite-rich rocks from the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1992-01-01

    A group of KREEPy basalts has been discovered in Apollo 14 soils. These samples exhibit similarities to both HA and VHK basalts, albeit with much higher REE abundances, and contain up to 2 vol pct whitlockite and can be explained by assimilation of a K-, REE- and P-rich fluids by an original HA or VHK basalt. This KREEP component could have been produced late in the evolution of the lunar magma ocean and is similar in composition to QMD at Apollo 14. Two rocks have trace element compositions that are representative of actual KREEP. One of the samples appears to be petrographically pristine and could represent an actual KREEP basalt rock. Five subophitic high-Al basalts represent sampling of either a slowly cooled impact melt sheet or, more likely, the same basalt flow. Two 'quasi-pristine' highland rocks confirm the postulate of a connection between KREEP and the alkali suite. A newly discovered alkali anorthosite is a plagioclase cumulate with about 15 percent trapped KREEPy liquid.

  2. Simon FraSer UniverSity, vancoUver, canada GRCNEWSthe newSletter oF the GerontoloGy reSearch centre

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Richard "Hao"

    The GRC is proud to present the upcoming 20th Friesen conference: Growing old in a changing climate: exploring the interface Between Population aging and Global Warming ­ May 25-26, 2011. Please see our-doctoral fellow on the TIPS project. He will be responsible for developing a research protocol on risk factors

  3. Yersinia pestis pFra Shows Biovar-Specific Differences and Recent Common Ancestry with a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Plasmid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL B. PRENTICE; KEITH D. JAMES; JULIAN PARKHILL; STEPHEN G. BAKER; KIM STEVENS; MARK N. SIMMONDS; KAREN L. MUNGALL; CAROL CHURCHER; PETRA C. F. OYSTON; RICHARD W. TITBALL; BRENDAN W. WREN; JOHN WAIN; DEREK PICKARD; TRAN TINH HIEN; JEREMY J. FARRAR; GORDON DOUGAN

    2001-01-01

    Population genetic studies suggest that Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a clonal pathogen that has recently emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Plasmid acquisition is likely to have been a key element in this evolutionary leap from an enteric to a flea-transmitted systemic pathogen. However, the origin of Y. pestis-specific plasmids remains obscure. We demonstrate specific plasmid rearrangements in different

  4. Brandon J. Van Dyk, Marcus S. Dersch, Ryan G. Kernes, and J. Riley Edwards FRA Tie and Fastener BAA Industry Partners Meeting

    E-print Network

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 PercentExceeding Peak Vertical Load (kips) Edgewood Environment Variation of Loads on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 5

  5. Copy number and haplotype variation at the VRN-A1 and central FR-A2 loci are associated with frost tolerance in hexaploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frost tolerance is a key trait to ensure winter wheat survival. Natural variation for this trait is mainly associated with allelic differences at the VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) and FROST RESISTANCE 2 (FR2) loci. VRN1 regulates the transition between vegetative and reproductive stages and FR2, a locus in...

  6. 77 FR 28421 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257: Notice No. 70] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

  7. 75 FR 27053 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 61] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

  8. B.A. spcialis avec majeure en lettres franaises et Baccalaurat en ducation (Offered only in French) 156 credits (5 years)

    E-print Network

    Sankoff, David

    2740 La poésie FRA2780 Le récit FRA3759 Histoire de la langue française List B FRA3755 Le roman Sciences or Social Sciences. The faculties of Science and Engineering also offer many majors and minors electives (12classes). Notes 1 The Department will recommend the course FRA2520 to students of the program

  9. Dette eksamensprojekt er udfrt p Institut for Informatik og Matematisk Modellering, IMM, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet i perioden 5. august 2002 til 31. marts 2003.

    E-print Network

    i hjernevæv, der adskiller epilepsiramte rotter fra en gruppe raske rotter. Proteinsammensætningen i hjernevæv fra rotter er bestemt ved hjælp af 2d-elektroforesegeler. Der blev analyseret prøver fra 19 rotter, dels fra 12 rotter med tre forskellige grader af epilepsi (under udvikling, mild og svær) og dels fra

  10. Fra Mauro Formation,Apollo 14: 11. ^ ~ r -^ ~ rAges of Apollo 14 Rocks F. J. stadennannl, E. Heusser and E. K. Jessbergcr; Max Planck Institut fur Kemphysik, D-6900

    E-print Network

    these samples were 10 fragments from breccia 14063, which was collected only 20 m from the rim of Cone Crater. From impact mechanics it seems probable that this breccia is Cone Crater ejecta. This view is supported-collection. The ^Ar-^Ar ages of the other fragments from breccia 14063are scattered over a broad range (Fig. 2

  11. Igor Candido - Il libro della Scrittura, il libro della Natura, il libro della Memoria: l'esegesi dantesca di C.S. Singleton fra tradizione giudaico-cristiana e trascendentalismo emersoniano - MLN 122:1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Candido

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the key function and meaning of Dante's imitation of God's creation through three Books of revelation (Scripture, Nature, History-Memory), as elaborated in Singleton's major critical works on Dante written between 1949 and 1958 (An Essay on the \\

  12. 77 FR 64374 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Port Authority Trans-Hudson Product Safety Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ...FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2012-0075. PATH is upgrading some of its track circuits with Digicode microprocessor-based track circuits. The Digicode track circuit is part of Alstom's Smartway Digital Track Circuit product line...

  13. 78 FR 34151 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0050. Applicant: Wisconsin Central Limited, Mr. Thomas W. Hilliard, Senior Manager S&C, Engineering Department, Southern Region, 17641 South Ashland Avenue, Homewood, IL 60430....

  14. 78 FR 1934 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...part 223 (Safety Glazing Standards--Locomotives, Passenger Cars and Cabooses). FRA...permanent waiver of compliance for two locomotives, SIND 103 and SIND 104, from the requirements...223.11--Requirements for existing locomotives, which requires FRA Type I...

  15. 77 FR 30047 - Petition for Alternative Locomotive Crashworthiness Design

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...FRA-2012-0036] Petition for Alternative Locomotive Crashworthiness Design In accordance with...Administration (FRA) for approval of alternative locomotive crashworthiness design for an electric locomotive, Model ACS-64, built by Siemens...

  16. 77 FR 69923 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...223--Safety Glazing Standards-- Locomotives, Passenger Cars and Cabooses. FRA...223.11--Requirements for existing locomotives and 49 CFR 223.13--Requirements...petitioned FRA for a waiver for one American Locomotive Company Model S-4,...

  17. Bioteknologien og Frankenstein Dag O. Hessen

    E-print Network

    Hessen, Dag Olav

    etterkrigstiden; det var Aldous Huxleys Brave New World fra 1932, og George Orwells 1984 fra 1949. Den første var sannhetsrelativisering og en bølge av "new age"-fenomener, som oftest ikledd naturvitenskapens språkdrakt. Barnet ble

  18. 78 FR 979 - Petition for Positive Train Control Safety Plan Approval and System Certification of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...Number FRA-2010-0056] Petition for Positive Train Control Safety Plan Approval and...Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for Positive Train Control (PTC) Safety Plan (PTCSP...comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union,...

  19. 78 FR 59754 - Notice of Application for Approval of Railroad Safety Program Plan and Product Safety Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0088...Notice of Application for Approval of Railroad Safety Program Plan and Product Safety...Railway (ATN) petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for approval...

  20. 78 FR 48931 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Emergency Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 75] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Emergency Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

  1. 77 FR 73734 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 72] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

  2. 75 FR 11992 - Notice of Scheduling of Public Hearing; Association of American Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2009-0111...Public Hearing; Association of American Railroads In a notice published January 4, 2010, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) announced...

  3. 78 FR 71708 - Notification of Application for Approval of a Railroad Safety Program Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2011-0026...Notification of Application for Approval of a Railroad Safety Program Plan In accordance with...Island Rail Road petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for approval...

  4. 77 FR 77183 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting Postponement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 73] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting Postponement AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

  5. 78 FR 62002 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 76] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

  6. 78 FR 42998 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2013-0067...Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials...Safety Administration (PHMSA), Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

  7. 78 FR 68147 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0110...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...Transportation (CSX) petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) seeking...

  8. 77 FR 52393 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257Notice No. 69] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

  9. 78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0111...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with part...Transportation (CSX) petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) seeking...

  10. 78 FR 26423 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257: Notice No. 74] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

  11. 78 FR 28283 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Railroad Administration (FRA) on March 26, 2013, the North Shore Railroad Company (NSHR) has petitioned FRA for a waiver...miles), the Lycoming Valley Railroad (34 miles), the North Shore Railroad (38 miles), and the Shamokin Valley...

  12. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Form FRA F 6180.81—Employee Human Factor Attachment. Form FRA F 6180...that they attribute to an employee human factor. This form shall be completed...Incident Attributed to Employee Human Factor; Employee Statement...

  13. 78 FR 1603 - Department Regulatory Agenda; Semiannual Summary

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...the beginning of PATT in 1985. Currently, FRA tests blood and urine specimens for eight drug classifications: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, the opiates, the amphetamines, phencyclidine (PCP), the barbiturates, and the benzodiazepines. FRA...

  14. 78 FR 26110 - Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...have to go between equipment. (3) Review with...employees, including management employees, SOFA Safety...entering between rolling equipment exists. FRA recommends...characteristics of the type of equipment being switched, particularly...including railroad management. FRA encourages...

  15. 76 FR 55819 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...4] RIN 2130-AC35 Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties...Director, Office of Railroad Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...seat deterioration. FRA's safety strategy is to promptly identify...scanning'' system utilizes laser imagery to ``see''...

  16. 49 CFR 239.201 - Emergency preparedness plan; filing and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the conditionally approved plan has been finally approved by FRA, and if not approved...plan of a railroad or railroads is not finally approved by FRA, the affected railroad...FRA's written notice that the plan was not finally approved. (3) Review of...

  17. Aberrant Neural Function during Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological systems which underlie emotion attribution among female patients with Fragile X (FraX) syndrome are examined. Results show that the emotion circuit which regulates responses to facial stimuli is potentially disrupted among female subjects with FraX syndrome. Anterior cingulate cortex activity in female subjects with FraX…

  18. 75 FR 2597 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...H, FRA believes that final agency determinations under this new subpart I should also...assessment. FRA will attempt to make a determination of the necessary level of third party...clear that it is FRA that will make the determination of the acceptability of the...

  19. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...FRA-2010-0174] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as prescribed...FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

  20. Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of chickpea protein hydrolysate (CPH)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanhong Li; Bo Jiang; Tao Zhang; Wanmeng Mu; Jian Liu

    2008-01-01

    Chickpea protein hydrolysate (CPH) was fractionated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25. The antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of four CPH fractions (Fra.I, Fra.II, Fra.III, and Fra.IV) were measured using reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation, and 1,1-diphenyl-2- pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH)\\/superoxide\\/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay. The antioxidant activity of Fra.IV (81.13%) was closer to that of ?-tocopherol (83.66%) but lower than that

  1. In the Absence of Frazzled Over-Expression of Abelson Tyrosine Kinase Disrupts Commissure Formation and Causes Axons to Leave the Embryonic CNS

    PubMed Central

    Karmo, Stephanie; Seeger, Mark A.; VanBerkum, Mark F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the Drosophila embryonic nerve cord, the formation of commissures require both the chemoattractive Netrin receptor Frazzled (Fra) and the Abelson (Abl) cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase. Abl binds to the cytoplasmic domain of Fra and loss-of-function mutations in abl enhance fra-dependent commissural defects. To further test Abl's role in attractive signaling, we over-expressed Abl in Fra mutants anticipating rescue of commissures. Methodology/Principal Findings The Gal4-UAS system was used to pan-neurally over-express Abl in homozygous fra embryos. Surprisingly, this led to a significant decrease in both posterior and anterior commissure formation and induced some commissural and longitudinal axons to project beyond the CNS/PNS border. Re-expressing wild-type Fra, or Fra mutants with a P-motif deleted, revert both commissural and exiting phenotypes, indicating that Fra is required but not a specific P-motif. This is supported by S2 cell experiments demonstrating that Abl binds to Fra independent of any specific P-motif and that Fra continues to be phosphorylated when individual P-motifs are removed. Decreasing midline repulsion by reducing Robo signaling had no effect on the Abl phenotype and the phenotypes still occur in a Netrin mutant. Pan-neural over-expression of activated Rac or Cdc42 in a fra mutant also induced a significant loss in commissures, but axons did not exit the CNS. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, these data suggest that Fra activity is required to correctly regulate Abl-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics underlying commissure formation. In the absence of Fra, increased Abl activity appears to be incorrectly utilized downstream of other guidance receptors resulting in a loss of commissures and the abnormal projections of some axons beyond the CNS/PNS border. PMID:20352105

  2. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

  3. Et introduksjonskurs EndNote X6 introduksjon Liv Brynhild Aspaas og Jo Forthun -NTNU UB, jan. 2013 2

    E-print Network

    Malinnikova, Eugenia

    ..................................................................................................................................... 11 Eksempel 3: ISI Web of Science.................................................................................................................................. 19 EndNote Web (http://myendnoteweb.com/) ............................................................................ 20 Eks) Fra ISI Web of Science til EndNote Web

  4. 76 FR 18623 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Railroad Safety Program Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notification of Petition for Approval; Railroad Safety Program Plan Although not required, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is providing notice that it...

  5. 75 FR 26843 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Railroad Safety Program Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notification of Petition for Approval; Railroad Safety Program Plan Although not required, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is providing notice that it...

  6. 75 FR 20038 - Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2010-005-N-5] Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration, Department of Transportation....

  7. High functioning fragile X males: demonstration of an unmethylated fully expanded FMR-1 mutation associated with protein expression.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, R J; Hull, C E; Safanda, J F; Carpenter, I; Staley, L W; O'Connor, R A; Seydel, C; Mazzocco, M M; Snow, K; Thibodeau, S N

    1994-07-15

    Fragile X (fra(X)) males with a standardized IQ score of 70 or higher represent a high functioning (HF) or nonretarded fra(X) male group. This group, which does not include nonpenetrant males, has received little research attention to date. Of 221 fra(X) males who had been evaluated through The Children's Hospital in Denver since 1981 and had completed cognitive or developmental testing, 29 (13%) were high functioning by the above definition. We found that HF males on the whole had a lower cytogenetic score and were younger than retarded fra(X) males, but there was no difference between these two groups in the number of typical fra(X) physical manifestations present. FMR-1 DNA testing was performed on 134 fra(X) males and methylation status was determined for 51 of these. A greater percentage of HF males had a mosaic pattern or an incompletely methylated full mutation than did retarded males. A unique DNA pattern, an unmethylated fully expanded mutation, was discovered in 3 of the highest functioning fra(X) males. Protein studies performed on 2 of these males demonstrated the presence of FMR-1 protein, albeit at lower levels than normal. FMR-1 protein was not present in retarded fra(X) males. Significant FMR-1 protein expression may be responsible for higher cognitive functioning in the 2 males with unmethylated fully expanded mutations compared to retarded fra(X) males. PMID:7942991

  8. Netrins and Frazzled/DCC promote the migration and mesenchymal to epithelial transition of Drosophila midgut cells

    PubMed Central

    Pert, Melissa; Gan, Miao; Saint, Robert; Murray, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mesenchymal-epithelial transitions (METs) are important in both development and the growth of secondary tumours. Although the molecular basis for epithelial polarity is well studied, less is known about the cues that induce MET. Here we show that Netrins, well known as chemotropic guidance factors, provide a basal polarising cue during the Drosophila midgut MET. Both netrinA and netrinB are expressed in the visceral mesoderm, the substrate upon which midgut cells migrate, while their receptor frazzled (fra) is expressed in midgut cells. Netrins are required to polarise Fra to the basal surface, and Netrins and Fra undergo mutually-dependent endocytosis, with Fra subsequently trafficking to late endosomes. Mutations to fra and netrins affect both migration and MET but to different degrees. Loss of fra strongly delays migration, midgut cells fail to extend protrusions, and apico-basal polarisation of proteins and epithelium formation is inhibited. In netrin mutants, the migration phenotype is weaker and cells still extend protrusions. However, apico-basal polarisation of proteins, including Fra, and FActin is greatly disrupted and a monolayer fails to form. Delocalised accumulations of FActin are prevalent in netrin mutants but not fra mutants suggesting delocalised Fra may disrupt the MET. ?PS localisation is also affected in netrin mutants in that a basal gradient is reduced while localisation to the midgut/VM interface is increased. Since a similar effect is seen when endocytosis is inhibited, Netrin and Fra may regulate Integrin turnover. The results suggest Netrin-dependent basal polarisation of Fra is critical for the formation of an epithelium. PMID:25617422

  9. Fibrinogen and FDP-E Antigen Deposits in Nephritic Kidneys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Nagai; Chuichi Kawai

    1978-01-01

    Glomerular localization of fibrinogen reactive antigens (FRA) and fibrinogen degradation products reactive antigens (FDP-E) was investigated in 184 renal biopsy specimens of diseased kidneys by an immunofluorescent method. There was clear dissociation of FRA and neoantigen deposits in the glomeruli in a moderately active stage of acute glomerulonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis and in all 5 cases of lipoid nephrosis. In lupus

  10. 76 FR 8699 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...FRA-2009-0095, Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC16 Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction AGENCY...that the correct docket number for the Locomotive Safety Standards notice of proposed...2011, FRA published an NPRM related to locomotive safety standards. See 76 FR...

  11. 77 FR 23159 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...FR-2009-0095, Notice No. 4] RIN 2130-AC16 Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction AGENCY...that the correct docket number for the Locomotive Safety Standards final rule is FRA-2009-0094...FRA published a final rule related to locomotive safety standards. See 77 FR...

  12. Section 130 Program Overview Project Prioritization

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    of hazards" at public railway- highway grade crossings · Section 130 funds are set-aside from a State% Federal share, including grade crossing closures and traffic control/signalization, according to 23 USC million per year. 4 #12;Roles - FHWA and FRA related to railway-highway crossing safety 5 FHWA FRA

  13. 78 FR 28284 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...April 11, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...Number FRA-2013-0040. Specifically, CP requests relief from 49 CFR 232.205...operating in distributive power (DP) mode. CP requests that FRA allow 90 cubic feet...

  14. 77 FR 13978 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 [Docket...FRA-2008-0059, Notice No. 5] RIN 2130-AB96 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track...for Roadway Workers AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

  15. 77 FR 53164 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 [Docket...FRA-2008-0059, Notice No. 6] RIN 2130-AC37 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track...for Roadway Workers AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

  16. BEYOND THE ARITHMETIC A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    Shore, Richard A.

    of hyperarithmetic analysis and present a new natural example; we look at the complexity of the elementary equi from the view- points of Computable Mathematics and Reverse Mathematics. (Two linear or- derings look at the strength of Fra"iss'e's conjecture. From our results, we deduce that Fra"i* *ss

  17. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...FRA-2012-0033] Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete...Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Buy America waiver request and request for comment...a waiver request from FRA's Buy America Act requirements for the purchase of...

  18. Overflader er ekstremt vigtige i bio-logi og medicin, for det er her, tinge-

    E-print Network

    ," siger Peter Kingshott og Niels Larsen fra Polymerafdelingen. I øjeblikket arbejder mange firmaer rundt funktioner," siger Niels Larsen. Kopi af naturen Ved vævsdyrkning er det afgørende, at cellerne kan vokse på i industrien," siger Niels Larsen. Udgangspunktet var bindevæv fra køer og svin. Overfladen af

  19. The Fragile Fiber1 Kinesin Contributes to Cortical Microtubule-Mediated Trafficking of Cell Wall Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I.; McClosky, Daniel D.; Anderson, Charles T.; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A.; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  20. The fragile fiber1 Kinesin contributes to cortical microtubule-mediated trafficking of cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I; McClosky, Daniel D; Anderson, Charles T; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard; Dixit, Ram

    2015-03-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  1. Indeterminacy and the 6.1 Logical Analysis of Handover Failures

    E-print Network

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    .ATCcomm history extends Naturals ; Sequences ; ATCcomm;ATCcomm history SATC #1; = 9 ! msg 2 SATCdata : ^ msg [persistent data][#12;d ] =\\NW052" ^ msg [persistent data][fdata] =\\FRA" LATC #1; = 9 ! msg 2 SATCdata : ^ msg [persistent data][#12;d ] =\\NW052" ^ msg [persistent data][fdata] =\\FRA" LATC2 #1; = 9 ! msg 2 SATCdata

  2. 49 CFR 209.105 - Notice of probable violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...FRA may change the civil penalty amount proposed to be assessed up to and including the maximum penalty amount of $55,000 for each...if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe...property, FRA may change the penalty amount proposed to be...

  3. 49 CFR 209.105 - Notice of probable violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...FRA may change the civil penalty amount proposed to be assessed up to and including the maximum penalty amount of $55,000 for each...if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe...property, FRA may change the penalty amount proposed to be...

  4. 49 CFR 209.105 - Notice of probable violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...FRA may change the civil penalty amount proposed to be assessed up to and including the maximum penalty amount of $55,000 for each...if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe...property, FRA may change the penalty amount proposed to be...

  5. 49 CFR 209.105 - Notice of probable violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...FRA may change the civil penalty amount proposed to be assessed up to and including the maximum penalty amount of $75,000 for each...if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe...property, FRA may change the penalty amount proposed to be...

  6. 49 CFR 209.105 - Notice of probable violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...FRA may change the civil penalty amount proposed to be assessed up to and including the maximum penalty amount of $75,000 for each...if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe...property, FRA may change the penalty amount proposed to be...

  7. Mrk energi Anja C. Andersen, Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institutet, Kbenhavns

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Anja C.

    den amerikanske astronom Edwin Hubble, der i 1920'erne fandt, at fjerne galakser bevæger sig væk fra fra hinanden, må de en gang have været meget tættere på hinanden. Figure 1: : Udsnit af Hubble på flere tidspunkter i Universets historie. På trods af at dette har været klart siden Hubbles dage

  8. Call Level Performance Analysis for Multiservices Wireless Cellular Networks With Adaptive Resource Allocation Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauro Ortigoza-Guerrero; F. A. Cruz-Perez; H. Heredia-Ureta

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a novel mathematical approach to evaluate the performance of adaptive or flexible resource allocation (FRA) strategies with uniform quality of service (QoS) provisioning in multiservices wireless cellular networks, in terms of the call blocking probabilities and transmission delay, is proposed. FRA strategies improve channel utilization by dynamically adjusting user transmission rates. Based on the available cell capacity,

  9. On the History and Origin of LKFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    Fra Mauro is the name of a geologic formation surrounding the Imbrium Basin of the Moon as well as the name of the region of the Apollo 14 lunar landing site. The formation was named for a 16th century Italian geographer and cartographer. In its original invocation in 1971 by the Apollo Soil Survey (ASS), Fra Mauro basalt was not a crystalline basalt, but the designation of a "compositional group" of impact glasses found in the Apollo 14 soil that were basaltic in composition. The ASS noted the similarity between the Fra Mauro basalt glass composition and sample 14310, an unbrecciated, crystalline Apollo 14 rock that would now be designated an impact melt rock. In 1972 the term Fra Mauro basalt was first applied to a rock, sample 14310, although in related papers, Fra Mauro basaltic glass was equated with KREEP. In 1973 the ASS noted that a wide range of K concentrations occurred among glasses of Fra Mauro basaltic composition in the Apollo 15 regolith. The terms high-K, moderate-K and low-K Fra Mauro first occurred in that context, but always as an adjective. Lock Fra Mauro glasses were those with 0.12 +/- 0.07% K2O, compared with 0.47 +/- 0.17% and 1.1 +/- 0.4% for moderate and high-K Fra Mauro glasses and 0.6% for Apollo 15 KREEP basalt. An important evolutionary step in the concept of low Fra Mauro basalt occurred in 1973 when the composition was first used as a component in a mass-balance (mixing) model for Apollo 16 soils [8,9] and later average highlands crust, despite that the term had not yet been applied to an actual rock sample. The first use of the acronym LKFM occurred in a 1973 paper describing glass compositions in Apollo 16 soil.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 223 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the...substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ....

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 237 - Schedule of Civil Penalties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the...substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the...substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they...

  13. Influence of planting treatments on American chestnut (Castanea dentata)

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    replaced www.epa.gov #12;4/25/2009 2 Historic surface mining reclamation practices Left "as is" Valleys and Reclamation Act of 1977 Compaction Erosion Heavy Liming Grass Planted The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA

  14. 78 FR 5767 - Positive Train Control Systems (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC32 Positive Train Control Systems (RRR) AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...passenger and freight railroads install positive train control (PTC) systems. The present document clarifies FRA's...

  15. 76 FR 52918 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ...RIN 2130-AC27 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...implementation of processor-based train control systems. See 70 FR 11,052 (Mar...Requirements for Positive Train Control Systems In this NPRM, FRA is...

  16. 76 FR 63899 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC27 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA...risk-based criteria in order to avoid positive train control (PTC) system implementation on track segments that do not...

  17. 49 CFR 219.211 - Analysis and follow-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the National Transportation Safety Board. (c) With respect...of use or administration of medications (consistent with § 219...Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, Washington, DC...physical condition for which any medication was authorized or...

  18. 49 CFR 219.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Associate Administrator for Safety of FRA, the Associate Administrator's...substance (including prescription medications, over-the-counter products...the National Transportation Safety Board. Passenger train...a prescription-strength medication to the...

  19. 49 CFR 219.211 - Analysis and follow-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...the National Transportation Safety Board. (c) With respect...of use or administration of medications (consistent with § 219...Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, Washington, DC...physical condition for which any medication was authorized or...

  20. 49 CFR 219.211 - Analysis and follow-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...the National Transportation Safety Board. (c) With respect...of use or administration of medications (consistent with § 219...Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, Washington, DC...physical condition for which any medication was authorized or...

  1. 49 CFR 219.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...over-the-counter medication at a dosage equal to...employee actually takes the medication). Class I, Class...Associate Administrator for Safety of FRA, the Associate...National Transportation Safety Board. Passenger...prescription-strength medication to the...

  2. 49 CFR 219.211 - Analysis and follow-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...the National Transportation Safety Board. (c) With respect...of use or administration of medications (consistent with § 219...Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, Washington, DC...physical condition for which any medication was authorized or...

  3. 49 CFR 219.211 - Analysis and follow-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the National Transportation Safety Board. (c) With respect...of use or administration of medications (consistent with § 219...Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, Washington, DC...physical condition for which any medication was authorized or...

  4. 49 CFR 219.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Associate Administrator for Safety of FRA, the Associate Administrator's...substance (including prescription medications, over-the-counter products...the National Transportation Safety Board. Passenger train...a prescription-strength medication to the...

  5. 49 CFR 216.13 - Special notice for repairs-locomotive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Special notice for repairs-locomotive. 216.13 Section 216.13 Transportation...EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs...13 Special notice for repairs—locomotive. (a) When an FRA Motive...

  6. 75 FR 3959 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...The RSAC meeting topics will include opening remarks from the FRA Administrator, and status reports will be provided by the Locomotive Standards, Passenger Safety, Track Safety Standards, and Medical Standards Working Groups. Status updates will be...

  7. 49 CFR 216.13 - Special notice for repairs-locomotive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Special notice for repairs-locomotive. 216.13 Section 216.13 Transportation...EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs...13 Special notice for repairs—locomotive. (a) When an FRA Motive...

  8. 49 CFR 216.13 - Special notice for repairs-locomotive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Special notice for repairs-locomotive. 216.13 Section 216.13 Transportation...EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs...13 Special notice for repairs—locomotive. (a) When an FRA Motive...

  9. 78 FR 22364 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...Safety Glazing Standards--Locomotives, Passenger Cars and Cabooses...Number FRA-2011-0069. Kloke Locomotive Works is constructing for Steam...built (2013) replica of a steam locomotive that was originally built in...

  10. 49 CFR 216.13 - Special notice for repairs-locomotive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Special notice for repairs-locomotive. 216.13 Section 216.13 Transportation...EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs...13 Special notice for repairs—locomotive. (a) When an FRA Motive...

  11. 77 FR 9297 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ...regulations contained at 49 CFR Part 230, Steam Locomotive Inspection and Maintenance Standards. FRA...maintains six narrow gauge (36-inch) steam locomotives; four 1925 Baldwin 2-8-2 locomotives and two 1923 Alco 2-8- 2...

  12. 49 CFR 216.13 - Special notice for repairs-locomotive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Special notice for repairs-locomotive. 216.13 Section 216.13 Transportation...EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs...13 Special notice for repairs—locomotive. (a) When an FRA Motive...

  13. 78 FR 25344 - Petition for a Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...part 240, Qualification and Certification of Locomotive Engineers. FRA assigned the petition Docket...provides that only certified persons may operate a locomotive in any class of locomotive or train service, in order to operate...

  14. 49 CFR 236.1001 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...S.C. 20157, this subpart, or an FRA order, including requirements to ensure that the development, functionality, architecture, installation, implementation, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of...

  15. 76 FR 21943 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ...arguments in favor of relief. Illinois Railway Museum [Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0017] The Illinois Railway Museum (IRYM) seeks a waiver of...the Steam Locomotive Inspection and Maintenance Standards, 49 CFR 230.17,...

  16. 75 FR 82139 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...in favor of relief. Grand Canyon Railway, Inc. [Waiver Petition Docket...FRA-2010-0143] The Grand Canyon Railway, Inc. (GRCX) seeks a waiver...Steam Locomotive Inspection and Maintenance Standards, 49 CFR 230.16...

  17. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  18. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  19. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  20. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  1. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  2. 75 FR 60165 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...assistance for certain categories of refinancing, FRA believes the greatest benefit...in increased public benefits. The refinancing of eligible capital investments poses similar issues. In a refinancing, RRIF financial assistance is...

  3. 77 FR 56909 - Notice of Comment Period Extension for the Revised Draft Environmental Impact Report/Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...California High-Speed Train (HST) Project (Project) issued on June 20, 2012 has...October 19, 2012. FRA and the Project sponsor, the California High...this decision to be responsive to stakeholder requests and to encourage...

  4. 78 FR 13155 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...FRA-2001-9717. LKRR seeks to extend a waiver of compliance for one locomotive, specifically, one 1955 General Motors' Electro-Motive Division Model SW-1200, Number LKRR 1205, from 49 CFR Section 223.11, Requirements for existing...

  5. 75 FR 36551 - State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...from the estimated sum of the original burden submission from the ten identified States and the burden resubmission from the quantum that may not comply during the initial submission. FRA considers $259,000 to represent the aggregated State burden...

  6. 78 FR 3964 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2013. The designated ERD for calendar year 2013 is docket number...

  7. 75 FR 3782 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2010. The designated ERD for calendar year 2010 is docket number...

  8. 76 FR 1209 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2011. The designated ERD for calendar year 2011 is docket number...

  9. 77 FR 5293 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2012. The designated ERD for calendar year 2012 is docket number...

  10. 75 FR 60860 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...arguments in favor of relief. Port Manatee Railroad [Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0091] The Port Manatee Railroad (PMRR) seeks a waiver of...terminal- switching railway operated on Manatee County Authority property at Port...

  11. 49 CFR 244.1 - Scope, application, and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS...prescribes requirements for filing and implementing a Safety Integration Plan with FRA whenever a Class I railroad proposes...

  12. 49 CFR 244.19 - Disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS...AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.19 Disposition... FRA reviews an applicant's Safety Integration Plan, and any amendments...

  13. 49 CFR 244.19 - Disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS...AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.19 Disposition... FRA reviews an applicant's Safety Integration Plan, and any amendments...

  14. 49 CFR 244.1 - Scope, application, and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS...prescribes requirements for filing and implementing a Safety Integration Plan with FRA whenever a Class I railroad proposes...

  15. 76 FR 40320 - Risk Reduction Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ...required to be supported by a risk analysis and a Risk Reduction Program Plan (RRPP...Miriam Kloeppel, Staff Director, Risk Reduction Program Division, Office of Safety Analysis, FRA, 1200 New Jersey...

  16. Projektansvarlig: Lektor Peter B. Andersen, Institut for Tvr-kulturelle og Regionale Studier, Afdeling for Religionshistorie,

    E-print Network

    lutheranske kirke TELC's (Tamil Evangelican Lutheran Church) udvikling fra Indiens selvstændighed i 1947 til i- nogram. Kirken blev bygget af mis- sionen og tilhører i dag Tamilnadu Evangelical Lutheran Church (TELC

  17. 12 CFR 211.8 - Investments and activities abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...is deemed to be an investor. (b) Direct investments by member banks. A member bank's direct investments under section 25 of the FRA (12 U... ) shall be limited to: (1) Foreign banks; (2) Domestic or...

  18. 12 CFR 211.8 - Investments and activities abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...is deemed to be an investor. (b) Direct investments by member banks. A member bank's direct investments under section 25 of the FRA (12 U... ) shall be limited to: (1) Foreign banks; (2) Domestic or...

  19. 12 CFR 211.8 - Investments and activities abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...is deemed to be an investor. (b) Direct investments by member banks. A member bank's direct investments under section 25 of the FRA (12 U... ) shall be limited to: (1) Foreign banks; (2) Domestic or...

  20. 78 FR 77787 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0130...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...dated November 1, 2013, Union Pacific Railroad (UP) petitioned the Federal...

  1. 76 FR 27170 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Application...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System [Docket Number FRA-2010-0163...CSX) and the Allegheny Valley Railroad (AVRR) have jointly petitioned...

  2. 78 FR 77787 - Notice of Joint Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0136...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation (NIRCRC), and CSX...

  3. 75 FR 34200 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number: FRA-2010-0083...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

  4. 78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0114...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with part...Southern Corporation (NS) and Bay Coast Railroad (BCR) jointly petitioned the...

  5. 75 FR 76069 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Docket Number FRA-2010-0154...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

  6. 75 FR 179 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Compliance and Scheduling of Public Hearing Association of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2009-0111...Public Hearing Association of American Railroads In accordance with part 211 of Title...notice that the Association of American Railroads (AAR) has petitioned the Federal...

  7. 78 FR 12824 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2002-14116...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System or Relief From Requirements...January 21, 2013, the Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company (GTW), which operates...

  8. 78 FR 25344 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0037...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...the Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad, LLC (WNYP) has petitioned the...

  9. 75 FR 34200 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2010-0084...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

  10. 78 FR 77785 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0125...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...dated September 3, 2013, Union Pacific Railroad (UP) and BNSF Railway (BNSF)...

  11. 75 FR 70771 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2010-0157...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

  12. 76 FR 10086 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2011-0008...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

  13. 78 FR 48765 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...consists of representatives from Class I railroads, labor unions, car builders, private car owners, and shippers, along with ergonomics experts and government representatives from FRA and Transport Canada who participate as non-voting members. The Task...

  14. En Model til Fremskrivning af Isag Frits Mller Andersen og Helge V. Larsen

    E-print Network

    METAL. 23 3.6 FRAKTIONERNE 58-61: BYGGE-/ANLÆGSAFFALD. 24 4 MODELLERING AF AFFALD FRA SEKUNDÆRE KILDER. Arbejdet er fulgt af en rådgivningsgruppe i Miljøstyrelsen bestående af: Christian Fischer Mette

  15. 75 FR 74132 - Notice of Intent To Grant Buy America Waiver to Northern New England Passenger Rail Authority To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...Administration Notice of Intent To Grant Buy America Waiver to Northern New England Passenger...ACTION: Notice of intent to grant Buy America waiver...NNEPRA) waiver request from FRA's Buy America requirement, 49 U.S.C....

  16. 75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...Docket No. FRA-2010-0020] National Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In...INFORMATION: Background: The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of...

  17. 78 FR 28940 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Atlanta to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor AGENCY: Federal Rail Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...Statement (Study) to evaluate potential passenger rail improvements between Atlanta, GA and...

  18. 77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...Docket No. FRA-2012-0066] State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan Guidance...submission, and acceptance of State rail plans. State rail plans are...

  19. 78 FR 57450 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...Impact Statement for the Altamont Corridor Rail Project From Stockton to San Jose, California...statement (EIS) for the Altamont Corridor Rail Project from Stockton to San Jose, California...project sponsor, the California High Speed Rail Authority (Authority). FRA...

  20. 77 FR 28285 - Positive Train Control Systems (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...requiring implementation under the 2008 baseline is the so-called ``residual risk test.'' Under this test, the railroad...forward-looking only. Peabody claims that the exclusion of so-called headline accidents is unverified. FRA pointed out...

  1. 75 FR 65707 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...Railroad Administration Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for...29, 2010 (75 FR 60165) regarding consideration and processing of applications for...2010 (75 FR 60165) regarding FRA's consideration and processing of applications...

  2. Protein kinase C ? is a central signaling node and therapeutic target for breast cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Wai Leong; Lu, Haihui; Buikhuisen, Joyce; Soh, Boon Seng; Lim, Elgene; Reinhardt, Ferenc; Wu, Zhenhua Jeremy; Krall, Jordan A.; Bierie, Brian; Guo, Wenjun; Chen, Xi; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Brown, Myles; Lim, Bing; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The epithelial-mesenchymal transition program becomes activated during malignant progression and can enrich for cancer stem cells (CSCs). We report that inhibition of protein kinase C ? (PKC?) specifically targets CSCs, but has little effect on non-CSCs. The formation of CSCs from non-stem cells involves a shift from EGFR to PDGFR signaling, and results in the PKC?-dependent activation of FRA1. We identified an AP-1 molecular switch in which c-FOS and FRA1 are preferentially utilized in non-CSCs and CSCs, respectively. PKC? and FRA1 expression is associated with the aggressive triple-negative breast cancers and the depletion of FRA1 results in a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Hence, identifying molecular features that shift between cell states can be exploited to target signaling components critical to CSCs. PMID:24029232

  3. 49 CFR 236.1011 - PTC Implementation Plan content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...paragraph, “partial implementation” of a PTC system refers to use, pursuant to subpart H of this part, of technology embedded in PTC systems that does not employ all of the functionalities required by this subpart. (c) FRA review....

  4. Conceptual Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

    E-print Network

    of language, in particular the works of Gottlob Frege and Rudolf Carnap, we start by defining when a logical hovedbidragene til intensionalitet, der stammer fra Gottlob Frege og Rudolf Carnap, starter vi med at definere

  5. 78 FR 47822 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0076. Applicant: Port of Los Angeles, Mr. Ron Groves, PE, Senior Civil Engineer, Engineering Division, 425 South Palos Verdes Street, San Pedro, CA 90731. POLA seeks approval of the proposed...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...mountainous terrain, and various signal systems place increased emphasis on the...immediately results in a fairly complex system. FRA therefore recommends...Properly use the train braking systems? —Comply with speed...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...mountainous terrain, and various signal systems place increased emphasis on the...immediately results in a fairly complex system. FRA therefore recommends...Properly use the train braking systems? —Comply with speed...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...mountainous terrain, and various signal systems place increased emphasis on the...immediately results in a fairly complex system. FRA therefore recommends...Properly use the train braking systems? —Comply with speed...

  9. Lunar laser ranging data deposited in the National Space Science Data Center: Filtered observations for January - June 1971 and unfiltered photon detections for July - December 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The filtered data are discussed which were obtained during laser ranging operations with Apollo reflectors placed on the moon at Tranquility Base, Fra Mauro, and Hadley. Unfiltered photon detections are described.

  10. 78 FR 13156 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...exception to a condition in a previously granted application for an approval of the discontinuance and removal of NWP's interlocking signal system on three drawbridges--including the Brazos Drawbridge--in Docket Number FRA-2008-0010. By...

  11. 75 FR 16896 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...Status: Regular Review. Type of Request: Extension without change of a previously approved collection. Abstract: Section 20139 of Title 49 of the United States Code required FRA to issue rules, regulations, orders, and standards for the safety of...

  12. CAPITOLATO SPECIALE CONCESSIONE DEL SERVIZIO STAMPA E PLOTTAGGIO PRESSO LA

    E-print Network

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    DISTINTO NEI SEGUENTI LOTTI: - LOTTO 1: FACOLT� DI ARCHITETTURA ­ SEDE DI VIA GIANTURCO ­ ROMA; - LOTTO 2 in ciascun lotto. Contratto Il contratto stipulato, a seguito dell'aggiudicazione, fra l'Amministrazione e il

  13. Avviso di manifestazione di interesse La "Busta 2" "Progetto del servizio", riportante anche la dicitura "Lotto n. ___ ____________"

    E-print Network

    Costagliola, Gennaro

    anche la dicitura "Lotto n. ___ ____________" deve contenere un indice dettagliato e completo della ditta deve tener conto che fra le finalità del servizio vi è l'intento di perseguire, per ciascun lotto

  14. 49 CFR 224.15 - Special approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...of an alternative standard shall be submitted to the Docket Clerk, Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Railroad Administration, RCC-10, Mail Stop 10, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. (c) Notice. FRA will publish a notice...

  15. 75 FR 26842 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...relief being requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Metro-North Railroad [Docket Number FRA-2007-0006] The Metro-North Railroad (Metro-North) seeks a permanent waiver of compliance from certain specific...

  16. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...FRA-2003-15754] Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN...Melis- Tull, by telephone, email, or in writing, at least 5 business days before the...

  17. 49 CFR 229.201 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.201...This subpart prescribes minimum crashworthiness standards for locomotives. It also...obtaining FRA approval of: new locomotive crashworthiness design standards; changes to...

  18. 49 CFR 229.201 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.201...This subpart prescribes minimum crashworthiness standards for locomotives. It also...obtaining FRA approval of: new locomotive crashworthiness design standards; changes to...

  19. 76 FR 7628 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...European manufacturer and meet European safety standards for crashworthiness and related safety measures. DCTA has submitted two petitions...evidence to FRA in support of a petition for waiver of Tier 1 crashworthiness and occupant protection standards [Alternate Vehicle...

  20. 49 CFR 229.201 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.201...This subpart prescribes minimum crashworthiness standards for locomotives. It also...obtaining FRA approval of: new locomotive crashworthiness design standards; changes to...

  1. 49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.205...occupied service must meet the minimum crashworthiness performance requirements set forth... (1) Meeting an FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...

  2. 49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.205...occupied service must meet the minimum crashworthiness performance requirements set forth... (1) Meeting an FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...

  3. 49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.205...occupied service must meet the minimum crashworthiness performance requirements set forth... (1) Meeting an FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...

  4. 49 CFR 229.201 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.201...This subpart prescribes minimum crashworthiness standards for locomotives. It also...obtaining FRA approval of: new locomotive crashworthiness design standards; changes to...

  5. 49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.205...occupied service must meet the minimum crashworthiness performance requirements set forth... (1) Meeting an FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...

  6. 49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.205...occupied service must meet the minimum crashworthiness performance requirements set forth... (1) Meeting an FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...

  7. 49 CFR 229.201 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.201...This subpart prescribes minimum crashworthiness standards for locomotives. It also...obtaining FRA approval of: new locomotive crashworthiness design standards; changes to...

  8. 76 FR 76218 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...231.1(e), Ladders; and 49 CFR 238.230(b), Welded safety appliances. FRA has modified the application...locomotives consist of a frame assembly incorporating welded joints in the fabrication. The assembly is then bolted to...

  9. 49 CFR 236.1001 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...S.C. 20157, this subpart, or an FRA order, including requirements to ensure that the development, functionality, architecture, installation, implementation, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of...

  10. 49 CFR 236.1001 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...S.C. 20157, this subpart, or an FRA order, including requirements to ensure that the development, functionality, architecture, installation, implementation, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of...

  11. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  12. 75 FR 44046 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...Conductor Certification, and a possible new task regarding Dark Territory may be presented to the committee for approval. This...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  13. 77 FR 19054 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...provided by the Track Safety Standards, Critical Incident, Dark Territory, Fatigue Management, Risk Reduction, Electronic...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  14. 76 FR 24561 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...Hours of Service, Training Standards, Track Safety Standards, Dark Territory, Passenger Safety, and Medical Standards Working...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  15. 76 FR 67020 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...Device Distraction, Critical Incident, Track Safety Standards, Dark Territory, Passenger Safety, and Medical Standards Working...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  16. 75 FR 73158 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...Development, Use, and Implementation of Rail Safety Technology in Dark Territory. This agenda is subject to change, including the...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  17. 78 FR 56995 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...and a sustainability evaluation to determine how C\\3...test period is over. The evaluation is needed to provide FRA with guidance...railroad industry. Program evaluation is an inherently data driven activity. Its basic tenet is...

  18. 78 FR 70398 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...and a sustainability evaluation to determine how C\\3...test period is over. The evaluation is needed to provide FRA with guidance...railroad industry. Program evaluation is an inherently data driven activity. Its basic tenet is...

  19. 75 FR 11988 - Notice of Request for Approval To Collect New Information: Collection of Safety Culture Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...and a sustainability evaluation to determine how C \\3...test period is over. The evaluation is needed to provide the FRA with...railroad industry. Program evaluation is an inherently data-driven activity. Its basic tenet is...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...conducting a skills performance test. FRA is providing the following...conducting a skills performance test, a designated supervisor of...employee have the necessary books (Operating Rules, Safety Rules...conducted (Radio, Air Brake Tests, Locomotive, etc.)?...

  1. R I S N Y T N O 2 2 0 0 6 S I D E 4

    E-print Network

    - ternationale Energi Agentur", IEA, samt EU og nu også den danske regering, som netop har meldt ud, at Danmark i primære energiforbrug til 2030. "Business as usual" scenario fra IEA World Energy Outlook 2005. "Vi har

  2. Chromosome 16 abnormalities in embryos and in sperm from a male with a fragile site at 16q22.1.

    PubMed

    Martorell, M R; Martínez-Pasarell, O; Lopez, O; Polo, A; Sandalinas, M; Garcia-Guixé, E; Bassas, L

    2014-01-01

    Two fragile sites, FRA16B and FRA16C, are located in the chromosome band 16q22.1. Neither of them is associated with any specific clinical condition. We report the development and outcome of a clinically applied PGD cycle in a couple who had difficulty in achieving pregnancy. The woman was a carrier of a balanced reciprocal translocation, t(11;22)(q23;q11.2), and the man presented high expression of the fragile site 16q22.1 (FRA16B/C) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Gains and losses of chromosome 16 fragments were detected in sperm and embryos. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case suggesting a link between FRA16B/C and chromosome 16 abnormalities in embryos and sperm from a carrier. PMID:24434955

  3. AABCD springer.com Matematica senza confini

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Robin

    AABCD springer.com Matematica senza confini Alfio Quarteroni fra sport, ambiente e medicina Michele Carducci Museo Nazionale della Scienza e della Tecnologia Sala del cenacolo Via San Vittore, 21 Milano

  4. 78 FR 9107 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...as the Allegheny Line. The Allegheny Line's maximum authorized speed is 25 mph, and it complies with FRA Class 2 track standards. The Bagdad Line's maximum authorized speed remains at 10 mph. KJR requests a permanent waiver of...

  5. 75 FR 38172 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...develop, and construct an intercity high- speed passenger-only rail corridor, exclusive...alignment. The system will feature a high-speed train operation at speeds up to 150 mph (FRA Class 8), featuring preferred electric...

  6. Expression of immediate early genes in the hippocampal formation of the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) during a food-hoarding task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom V. Smulders; Timothy J. Devoogd

    2000-01-01

    Black-capped chickadees store food in many different locations in their home range and are able to accurately remember these locations. We measured the number of cells immunopositive for three different Immediate Early Gene products (Fra-1, c-Fos and ZENK) to map neuronal activity in the chickadee Hippocampal Formation (HF) during food storing and retrieval. Fra-1-like immunoreactivity is downregulated in the dorsal

  7. Virulent non-capsulate Yersinia pestis variants constructed by insertion mutagenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Drozdov; A. P. ANISIMOVP; S. V. Samoilova; I. N. Yezhov; S. A. Yeremin; A. V. Karlyshev; V. M. Krasilnikova; V. I. Kravchenko

    1995-01-01

    Summary. Insertion mutagenesis with the help of the plasmid pFS23 was used to generate Yersinia pestis fra mutants. The results of pFra- strain production under non-selective conditions suggested that such Y. pestis variants may be generated in natural plague foci at high frequency and may participate in supporting the epizootic process. Present data suggest that the reduction of virulence in

  8. Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of gene expression by Jun, Fos and Krox, and CREB\\/ATF proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Herdegen; J. D. Leah

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews findings up to the end of 1997 about the inducible transcription factors (ITFs) c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2, Krox-20 (Egr-2) and Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1, Zif268); and the constitutive transcription factors (CTFs) CREB, CREM, ATF-2 and SRF as they pertain to gene expression in the mammalian nervous system. In the first part we consider basic facts

  9. The Drosophila Fragile X Gene Negatively Regulates Neuronal Elaboration and Synaptic Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luyuan Pan; Yong Q. Zhang; Elvin Woodruff; Kendal Broadie

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. The disease is caused by the silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene, which encodes the RNA binding translational regulator FMRP [1–4]. In FraX patients and fmr1 knockout mice, loss of FMRP causes denser and morphologically altered postsynaptic dendritic spines [5–7]. Previously, we established

  10. Molecular Insights into Frataxin-Mediated Iron Supply for Heme Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Andreas; Blauenburg, Bastian; Miethke, Marcus; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is required as an element to sustain life in all eukaryotes and most bacteria. Although several bacterial iron acquisition strategies have been well explored, little is known about the intracellular trafficking pathways of iron and its entry into the systems for co-factor biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the iron-dependent process of heme maturation in Bacillus subtilis and present, for the first time, structural evidence for the physical interaction of a frataxin homologue (Fra), which is suggested to act as a regulatory component as well as an iron chaperone in different cellular pathways, and a ferrochelatase (HemH), which catalyses the final step of heme b biogenesis. Specific interaction between Fra and HemH was observed upon co-purification from crude cell lysates and, further, by using the recombinant proteins for analytical size-exclusion chromatography. Hydrogen–deuterium exchange experiments identified the landscape of the Fra/HemH interaction interface and revealed Fra as a specific ferrous iron donor for the ferrochelatase HemH. The functional utilisation of the in vitro-generated heme b co-factor upon Fra-mediated iron transfer was confirmed by using the B. subtilis nitric oxide synthase bsNos as a metabolic target enzyme. Complementary mutational analyses confirmed that Fra acts as an essential component for maturation and subsequent targeting of the heme b co-factor, hence representing a key player in the iron-dependent physiology of B. subtilis. PMID:25826316

  11. Limitedly selective action of a delta-agonistic leu-enkephalin on the transmission in spinal motor reflex pathways in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, P F; Schomburg, E D; Steffens, H

    1991-01-01

    1. The influence of the delta-opioid receptor agonist (D-Ser2)-leu-enkephalin (Thr6) (DSLET) on different spinal reflex pathways was investigated in anaemically decapitated, high spinal cats. Monosynaptic reflexes were tested to analyse excitatory and inhibitory flexor reflex afferent (FRA) pathways from nociceptive (from the skin of the central pad) and non-nociceptive (from skin, joint or group II muscle) afferents, as well as an excitatory nociceptive non-FRA pathway from the central pad to plantaris and intrinsic foot extensors and the inhibitory pathway from Ib muscle afferents. 2. DSLET suffused over the spinal cord (concentration 10(-3)-10(-6) M) caused a concentration-dependent depression of transmission in nociceptive and non-nociceptive FRA pathways. The excitatory FRA pathways including those from group II muscle afferents were more sensitive than the inhibitory ones. The nociceptive non-FRA pathway from the central pad to plantaris and intrinsic foot extensors was less affected than the FRA pathways. The inhibitory pathway from Ib muscle afferents remained almost unaffected. 3. Intravenous injection of DSLET (0.5-3.6 mg/kg) induced dose-dependent effects similar to those from local spinal application. The main difference was that I.V. injection more readily caused depression of the inhibitory FRA pathways to extensors. 4. The effects of local spinal application and of I.V. injection of DSLET were antagonized by I.V. injection of naloxone (0.1-1 mg/kg). 5. The effects of DSLET on spinal reflex pathways in many respects resemble that of monoamines. Possibly there is an interaction and a co-operation of enkephalins and monoamines in motor control. PMID:1665854

  12. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the cognitive and behavioral outcomes seen in individuals with FraX. Specifically, structural MRI studies have established and begun to refine the specific topography of neuroanatomical variation associated with FraX. In addition, functional neuroimaging studies have begun to elucidate the neural underpinnings of many of the unique characteristics of FraX including difficulties with eye gaze, executive functioning, and behavioral inhibition. This review highlights studies with a focus on the relevant gene-brain-behavior connections observed in FraX. The relationship of brain regions and activation patterns to FMRP are discussed as well as the clinical cognitive and behavioral correlates of these neuroimaging findings. PMID:20014368

  13. Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

    2004-08-01

    Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28°C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37°C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

  14. Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Newsom, David L.; González, Juan F.; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L.; Smith, Jenee N.; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J.; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10?/? mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1? SPI2? or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies. PMID:24967579

  15. Falls risk assessment begins with hello: lessons learned from the use of one home health agency's fall risk tool.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Patricia J; Ramsay, Katherine

    2012-10-01

    Identifying older adults at risk for falls is a challenge all home healthcare agencies (HHAs) face. The process of assessing for falls risk begins with the initial home visit. One HHA affiliated with an academic medical center describes its experience in development and use of a Falls Risk Assessment (FRA) tool over a 10-year period. The FRA tool has been modified since initial development to clarify elements of the tool based on research and to reflect changes in the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) document. The primary purpose of this article is to share a validated falls risk assessment tool to facilitate identification of fall-related risk factors in the homebound population. A secondary purpose is to share lessons learned by the HHA during the 10 years using the FRA. PMID:23026986

  16. Realistic Transverse Images of the Proton Charge and Magnetic Densities

    E-print Network

    Siddharth Venkat; John Arrington; Gerald A. Miller; Xiaohui Zhan

    2010-11-05

    We develop a technique, denoted as the finite radius approximation (FRA), that uses a two-dimensional version of the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem to determine transverse densities and their uncertainties from experimental quantities. Uncertainties arising from experimental uncertainties on the form factors and lack of measured data at high $Q^2$ are treated. A key feature of the FRA is that a form factor measured at a given value of $Q^2$ is related to a definite region in coordinate space. An exact relation between the FRA and the use of a Bessel series is derived. The proton Dirac form factor is well enough known such that the transverse charge density is very accurately known except for transverse separations $b$ less than about 0.1 fm. The Pauli form factor is well known to $Q^2$ of about 10 GeV$^2$, and this allows a reasonable, but improvable, determination of the anomalous magnetic moment density.

  17. Very large common fragile site genes and their potential role in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ge; Smith, David I

    2014-12-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) are large chromosomal regions that are hot-spots for alterations especially within cancer cells. The three most frequently expressed CFS regions (FRA3B, FRA16D and FRA6E) contain genes that span extremely large genomic regions (FHIT, WWOX and PARK2, respectively), and these genes were found to function as important tumor suppressors. Many other CFS regions contain extremely large genes that are also targets of alterations in multiple cancers, but none have yet been demonstrated to function as tumor suppressors. The loss of expression of just FHIT or WWOX has been found to be associated with a worse overall clinical outcome. Studies in different cancers have revealed that some cancers have decreased expression of multiple large CFS genes. This loss of expression could have a profound phenotypic effect on these cells. In this review, we will summarize the known large common fragile site genes and discuss their potential relationship to cancer development. PMID:25300511

  18. Variation at the fragile X locus does not influence susceptibility to bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; McGuffin, P. [Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-15

    Over the last 20 years several pedigrees have been reported which are suggestive of linkage between susceptibility to bipolar disorder and markers on chromosome Xq28. Other workers have failed to replicate these reports and the methodology of the positive reports has been criticized. Recently there have been several reports of an association between fragile X (FRA(X)) and affective disorder within families and in unrelated individuals compared with controls. Such reports could be consistent with the Xq28 marker reports because FRA(X) maps to Xq27.3. We report a study at the FRA(X) CGG repeat locus in 79 unrelated Caucasian bipolar probands without fragile X syndrome and 77 unrelated controls. We found no evidence that variation at this locus confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  19. A Cascade of Iron-Containing Proteins Governs the Genetic Iron Starvation Response to Promote Iron Uptake and Inhibit Iron Storage in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Mercè; Ayté, José; Hidalgo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters. PMID:25806539

  20. Genetic and interval mapping of the bovine X chromosome for quantitative trait loci using microsatellite markers

    E-print Network

    Yeh, Chen-Chen

    1995-01-01

    of deletions and translocations (GI. OvER and STEIN 1988). Active exploration of fragile sites began in the late 1970s when the fragile X (fra(X)) syndrome was recognized to be a common chromosomal abnormality in mental retardation (GIRAUD et a/. 1976, HARv...EY et al. 1977). It is associated with an unusual form of X-linked inheritance where both men and women can be carriers (SHAPIRO 1991). Over 30'/0 of female carriers of the fra(X) syndrome are clinically affected. The condition has been mapped to Xq27...

  1. Significance of Folate Receptor alpha and Thymidylate Synthase Protein Expression in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer treated with Pemetrexed

    PubMed Central

    Christoph, Daniel C; Asuncion, Bernadette Reyna; Hassan, Biftu; Tran, Cindy; Maltzman, Julia D; O’Shannessy, Daniel J; Wynes, Murry W; Gauler, Thomas C; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Hoiczyk, Mathias; Schuler, Martin; Eberhardt, Wilfried E; Hirsch, Fred R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Folate receptor alpha (FRA) regulates cellular uptake of folates and antifolates. Information about FRA protein expression in metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is limited. We investigated FRA as a biomarker for pemetrexed-based chemotherapy and compared it to thymidylate synthase (TS), the main target of pemetrexed. Materials and Methods Pre-treatment tumor specimens from 207 NSCLC patients with advanced disease were assessed for FRA and TS protein expression by immunohistochemistry using the H-score (range: 0–300) and correlated to patients’ clinicopathological data, radiographic response (RECIST), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Low total (cytoplasmic and nuclear) TS protein expression (H-score <210) was associated with improved PFS (median: 5.6 vs. 3.5 months; HR=0.6379, P=0.0131) and prolonged OS (median: 22.5 vs. 11.5 months; HR: 0.5680, P=0.0107). An association between lower TS levels and response to pemetrexed-based therapy was found: mean H-score 187±5, median 180 for responders vs. 201±4, median 210, P=0.0244. High intracellular FRA expression (H-score ? 110) was associated with prolonged OS (28.9 vs. 11.7 months, HR=0.5316, P=0.0040) and a trend for association with PFS (5.6 vs. 4.1 months, HR=0.7395, P=0.0801) was noted. Membranous FRA expression was seen in 83% of patients, moreover, high membranous expression (H-score ?20) was associated with improved PFS (5.6 vs. 3.7 months, HR=0.6445, P=0.0306) and OS (22.1 vs. 11.5 months, HR=0.5378, P=0.0131). Conclusions A large number of NSCLC patients have high expression of FRA and/or low level of TS expression. Expression levels of FRA and TS were associated with clinical benefit from pemetrexed-therapy. PMID:23242435

  2. Investigation of Transformer Model for TRV Calculation by EMTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thein, Myo Min; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Harada, Katsuhiko; Ohtsuka, Shinya; Hikita, Masayuki; Haginomori, Eiichi; Koshiduka, Tadashi

    Analysis of the EMTP transformer model was performed with the 4kVA two windings low voltage transformer with the current injection (CIJ) measurement method to study a transient recovery voltage (TRV) at the transformer limited fault (TLF) current interrupting condition. Tested transformer's impedance was measured by the frequency response analyzer (FRA). From FRA measurement graphs leakage inductance, stray capacitance and resistance were calculated. The EMTP transformer model was constructed with those values. The EMTP simulation was done for a current injection circuit by using transformer model. The experiment and simulation results show a reasonable agreement.

  3. Major element chemistry of glasses in Apollo 14 soil 14156.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Jakes, P.

    1973-01-01

    Glasses in a soil sample (14156) from the middle layer of the trench at the Fra Mauro landing site show a wide range of compositions clustered around certain preferred compositions. Ninety per cent of the glasses are of two major types - Fra Mauro basalt (63%) with high K and 17 wt % Al2O3 and Highland basalt or anorthositic gabbro (27%) with low K and 25 to 26 wt % Al2O3. The glass population is almost identical with that of the comprehensive soil 14259.

  4. december 2001 Bioproduktion

    E-print Network

    dets struktur. Ud fra den viden kunne biologen James D. Watson og fysikeren Francis Crick i 1953 i. Watson og Francis Crick ikke ville have været i stand til at opstille deres model for DNAs struk- tur, Watson og Crick modtog efter hendes død. I dag er det banal skolelærdom, at DNA er et spiralformet

  5. A fragile site in the X chromosome of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A fragile site in the X chromosome of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L) U Gripenberg S Huuhtanen M for the last 5 or 7 h of growth. In chromosome preparations from BrdU- treated cultures, a fragile site (fra) was observed in the X chromosome of the reindeer. The X chromosome of the reindeer is exceptionally large

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the...general policy, penalty citations will cite the defect code rather than the CFR...the CFR and/or statutory citation in place of the defect code section cited in the...

  7. Unasylva 210, Vol. 53, 2002 Potentialforaremote-sensing-aidedforestresource

    E-print Network

    LeaderintheForestInventory Program at the Rocky Mountain ResearchStationoftheUnitedStates DepartmentofAgriculture,Forest Service,FortCollins,Colorado, United States. T he Global Forest Resources As- sessment 2000 (FRA 2000 processes in the tropics, especially deforestation, forest degradation, frag- mentation and shifting

  8. L'Universit de Montral a fait son entre au sein du club slect des 30 employeurs de

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    arômes com- posés à partir d'huiles essentielles (pin, gé- raniol, cumin et fromage parmesan). Chaque juxtaposée l'étiquette « Fleurs fraîches » ou « Parfum bas de gamme » ; le cumin était accompagné des étiquet

  9. 49 CFR 229.27 - Annual tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Form FRA F 6180-49A, and the person conducting the test and that person's supervisor shall sign the form. (c) A microprocessor-based event recorder with a self-monitoring feature equipped to verify that all data elements required by this...

  10. 49 CFR 229.27 - Annual tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Form FRA F 6180-49A, and the person conducting the test and that person's supervisor shall sign the form. (c) A microprocessor-based event recorder with a self-monitoring feature equipped to verify that all data elements required by this...

  11. 49 CFR 229.27 - Annual tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Form FRA F 6180-49A, and the person conducting the test and that person's supervisor shall sign the form. (c) A microprocessor-based event recorder with a self-monitoring feature equipped to verify that all data elements required by this...

  12. The Activity-Regulated Cytoskeletal-Associated Protein Arc Is Expressed in Different StriosomeMatrix Patterns Following

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    ­Matrix Patterns Following Exposure to Amphetamine and Cocaine Andrew Tan, Rosario Moratalla, *Gregory L. Lyford to two psychomotor stimulants, cocaine and amphetamine. Cocaine induced arc in striatal neurons that were patterns of Arc expression evoked by cocaine and amphetamine parallel those of c-Fos, JunB, FRA, and NGFI

  13. 77 FR 40700 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance...seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the...Operating Rules 6.21, when a severe weather event is encountered during the...

  14. 77 FR 2774 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ...Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance...seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA has reopened...out of service since being damaged by weather in December 2003. RBMN applied,...

  15. 77 FR 64077 - National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...purposes of this analysis. As explained...not-for-profit enterprises that are independently...purposes of this analysis. Hence there are...purpose of this analysis, FRA broke Class...any significant financial impact on their...to the Office of Management and Budget...

  16. Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-THESIS-2003-67

    E-print Network

    through the breadth and depth of the data. The project involves a study of how graph theory can be used to model entities and relations in the database, and how graph algorithms can be used in the data SQL databaser #12;Henrik Mønsted eFuture ­ Kubebaseret ad hoc rapportering fra SQL databaser Kgs

  17. CEESCENTER for ENVIRONMENTALand ESTUARINESTUDIES UN/VRS/TYof MARYLAND SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    CEESCENTER for ENVIRONMENTALand ESTUARINESTUDIES UN/VRS/TYof MARYLAND SYSTEM USA LEVEL ONE REPORT MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT MARYLAND CHESAPEAKE BAY WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAMProgram R.M. Stankelisl Sr FRA, FieldProgram Universityof MarylandSystem Center for Environmental& Estuarine

  18. Development of Machine Vision Technology for Railcar Safety Appliance Inspection

    E-print Network

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    to determine the optimal illumination needed for proper functioning of the algorithms. Future work will consist, sill steps, brake steps, ladders, running boards, uncoupling levers, and brake wheels, as well as other appliances are currently regulated under U.S. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) regulations that specify

  19. Norwegian Information Security Conference Norsk Informasjonssikkerhetskonferanse

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -stiftelsen og Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2010 ISBN 978-82-519-2705-5 Det må ikke kopieres fra denne boka ut over University College Tapir Akademisk Forlag har som målsetting å bidra til å utvikle gode læremidler og alle utgivelsen: Lasse.Postmyr@tapirforlag.no Tapir Akademisk Forlag 7005 TRONDHEIM Tlf.: 73 59 32 10 Faks: 73 59

  20. 75 FR 55632 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...Standards of 49 CFR 223.11 Requirements for existing locomotives. Specifically, Railtown has petitioned FRA for a waiver for four diesel locomotives: Former U.S. Navy locomotives 613 and 612, built by Alco in 1953; former U.S....

  1. 2. Alfred Lord Tennyson, selected poems (eg.: 'Mariana', 'The Lady of Shallott', 'The Lotus Eaters', 'Ulysses', In Memoriam, Maud, 'Tithonus', 'Tiresias') (OUP edition of The Major Works)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Browning

    Duchess', 'Love Among the Ruins', 'Evelyn Hope', 'Fra Lippo Lippi', 'Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came', 'Bishop Blougram's Apology', 'Andrea del Sarto', 'The Last Ride Together', 'Two in the Campagna') (Oxford Authors edition) 5. George Eliot, Middlemarch (Oxford World's Classics) 6. Thomas Hardy, selected poems (eg.: 'Hap', 'Neutral Tones', 'She to Him', 'Postponement', 'A Broken Appointment', 'The Darkling Thrush',

  2. Evaluating Effectiveness of a Marine Protected Area Network in West Hawai'i to Increase Productivity of an Aquarium Fishery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian N. Tissot; William J. Walsh; Leon E. Hallacher

    2004-01-01

    A network of nine Fish Replenishment Areas (FRAs) was established in West Hawai'i in 2000 in response to declines of reef fishes taken by aquarium collectors. In 1999, we established 23 study sites in FRAs, areas open to collec- tors, and reference areas (existing protected areas) to collect data both before and after the closure of the FRA network in

  3. Gutierrez et al 1 Advancements in Fastening System Design for

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    , Illinois, 61801, USA *Amsted Rail Company, Inc. 1700 Walnut St. Granite City, IL 62040, USA **Unit Rail, a Division of Amsted Rail Company, Inc. 8500 W. 110th, Suite 220 Overland Park, KS 66210, USA 5,046 words, 2 restraining the rail to the proper gauge and cant as required by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA

  4. Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management

    EPA Science Inventory

    River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

  5. Identification of the genes affecting the regulation of riboflavin synthesis in the flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii using insertion mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boretsky, Yuriy R.; Pynyaha, Yuriy V.; Boretsky, Volodymyr Y.; Fedorovych, Dariya V.; Fayura, Lyubov R.; Protchenko, Olha; Philpott, Caroline C.; Sibirny, Andriy A.

    2012-01-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of a group of so-called flavinogenic yeast species that overproduce riboflavin (vitamin B2) in response to iron limitation. Using insertion mutagenesis, we isolated P. guilliermondii mutants overproducing riboflavin. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of recombination sites revealed that insertion cassettes integrated into the genome disrupting P. guilliermondii genes similar to the VMA1 gene of Ashbya gossypii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and FES1 and FRA1 genes of S. cerevisiae. The constructed P. guilliermondii ?vma1–17 mutant possessed five- to sevenfold elevated riboflavin production and twofold decreased iron cell content as compared with the parental strain. Pichia guilliermondii ?fra1–45 mutant accumulated 1.8–2.2-fold more iron in the cells and produced five- to sevenfold more riboflavin as compared with the parental strain. Both ?vma1–17 and ?fes1–77 knockout strains could not grow at 37 °C in contrast to the wild-type strain and the ?fra1–45 mutant. Increased riboflavin production by the wild-type strain was observed at 37 °C. Although the ?fes1–77 mutant did not overproduce riboflavin, it showed partial complementation when crossed with previously isolated P. guilliermondii riboflavin-overproducing mutant rib80–22. Complementation analysis revealed that ?vma1–17 and ?fra1–45 mutants are distinct from previously reported riboflavin-producing mutants hit1-1, rib80-22 and rib81-31 of this yeast. PMID:21261808

  6. WOLFSON READING ROOM PERIODICALS These titles are on open access in the Wolfson Reading Room, you do not need to order in advance,

    E-print Network

    Pym, David J.

    and holding details. SHELFMARK TITLE Per 050 Con The contemporary review Per 050 Cor Cornhill magazine. Per 050 Edi Edinburgh review, or critical journal. Per 050 Fra Fraser's magazine. Per 050 Wes Westminster Acts of the Privy Council of England. New series 1542-1631. Per 900 Ayr Archaeological collections Per

  7. Asianettverkets nyhetsbrev -Uke 44, 2011 Weekly Newsletter from the Network for Asian Studies -Week 44, 2011

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    Norway-Japan Seminar med tittelen "Renewables and Energy Security in Japan, East Asia and Norway". Tid og fikk plass i nyhetsbrevet. Seminarer og gjesteforelesninger NTNUs Japan-program inviterer til 2011 fra Verdensbanken. Tid og sted: Onsdag 9. november kl. 12.30 ­ 14.00, NUPI, C. J. Hambros plass 2D

  8. Population geneticsPopulation genetics Breeding population a group of randomly mating

    E-print Network

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina

    be found from allele frequencies Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg Hardy-Weinberg theorem If fr(A) = p; fr Hardy-Weinberg theorem: applications 1. Knowing frequency of one allele/genotype, estimate frequencies of the other alleles and genotypes 2. Testing if a population is a Hardy-Weinberg population (randomly mating

  9. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the form, see: http://www.fra.dot.gov/Content3.asp?P=504. (c) Each railroad shall ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each report submitted. (d) As a...

  10. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the form, see: http://www.fra.dot.gov/Content3.asp?P=504. (c) Each railroad shall ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each report submitted. (d) As a...

  11. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the form, see: http://www.fra.dot.gov/Content3.asp?P=504. (c) Each railroad shall ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each report submitted. (d) As a...

  12. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the form, see: http://www.fra.dot.gov/Content3.asp?P=504. (c) Each railroad shall ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each report submitted. (d) As a...

  13. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the form, see: http://www.fra.dot.gov/Content3.asp?P=504. (c) Each railroad shall ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each report submitted. (d) As a...

  14. 64 FR 25540 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-05-12

    ...response to Bombardier's comment on the size of the occupant seated behind the seat being...generally vary in proportion to either the size of the organization or the extent to which...generally vary proportionally with the size of the fleet of each railroad. FRA is...

  15. Projektvrktj Mikkel Schneider Larsen

    E-print Network

    University of Denmark Informatics and Mathematical Modelling Building 321, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark- munikationen mellem den enkelte projektdeltager, projektlederen og den øverste ledelse. Denne rapport handler at arbejde iterativt ud fra Unied Process. Denne rapport er skrevet på dansk. #12;iv #12;Preface This thesis

  16. 78 FR 48766 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...June 24, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...Number FRA-2003-15010. In its petition, CP requests an extension of its existing waiver...of a single dispatching desk, located in CP's Network Management Center in...

  17. 75 FR 34205 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...FRA-2010-0025] The Copper Basin Railway, Inc. (CBR) seeks a waiver of compliance from certain...requires stenciling of restricted cars. CBR owns 46 open top hopper cars that were built...the provision of 49 CFR 215.203(a). CBR is seeking special approval to...

  18. BANDO DI PARTECIPAZIONE al PREMIO TESI "ADRIANA CAVA" 2014 Torino, 20 marzo 2014

    E-print Network

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    BANDO DI PARTECIPAZIONE al PREMIO TESI "ADRIANA CAVA" 2014 Torino, 20 marzo 2014 Adriana Cava Jazz compagnia di danza jazz di Adriana Cava, operanti da molti anni sul territorio nazionale per la formazione professionale di danzatori jazz e per la divulgazione di un genere di danza fra i più conosciuti e diffusi nel

  19. BANDO DI PARTECIPAZIONE al PREMIO TESI "ADRIANA CAVA" Adriana Cava Jazz Ballet in collaborazione con il DAMS di Torino, in occasione del

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    BANDO DI PARTECIPAZIONE al PREMIO TESI "ADRIANA CAVA" Adriana Cava Jazz Ballet in collaborazione territorio nazionale, per celebrare l'attività della scuola e della compagnia di danza jazz di Adriana Cava danzatori jazz e per la divulgazione di un genere di danza e di spettacolo fra i più conosciuti e diffusi

  20. The lunar highland melt-rock suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Size can be used as a criterion to select 18 large (larger than 1 cm) samples from among 148 melt-rock fragments of all sizes. This selection provides a suite of large samples which represent the important chemical variants among highland melt rocks; each large sample has enough material for a number of sample-destructive studies, as well as for future reference. Cluster analysis of the total data base of 148 highland melt rocks shows six distinct groups: anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro ('highland basalt'), low K Fra Mauro, intermediate-K Fra Mauro, and high-K. Large samples are available for four of the melt-rock groups (gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro, and intermediate-K Fra Mauro). This sample selection reveals two subgroups of anorthositic gabbro (one anorthite-poor with negative Eu anomaly and one anorthite-rich without Eu anomaly). There is a sharp distinction between those Apollo 16 melt rocks and glasses which have both been classified as 'gabbroic anorthosite'.

  1. Linear regression method for wide-band flat-gain fiber Raman amplifier pump power automatic configuration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Wen; Lihua Wei; Wanyi Gu

    2005-01-01

    Linear regression method for flat-gain Fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) pump power automatic configuration is proposed. It can give the optimal pump power configuration automatically according to the signal output variation with pump power changes, without any prior knowledge of fiber parameters, like attenuation, effective area, Raman gain factor, and etc. This method is based on the pump power integral model

  2. Novel methods for fast fiber Raman amplifier pump configuration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Wen; Xin Yang; Wanyi Gu

    2005-01-01

    Traditional heuristic algorithms are time consuming in searching the pump configuration to obtain a wide-band flat-gain fiber Raman amplifier (FRA). In this paper, two methods are proposed to deal with this problem. One is called combined generic algorithm (CGA). By using the quadratic programming algorithm instead of generic algorithm (GA) to solve the pump integral, the search space dimension is

  3. 77 FR 12407 - Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as Amended; Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ...must give the employee off duty before the employee may go on duty again. In issuing this interpretation, FRA...Limitations on Time on Duty in a May not remain or go on May not remain or go on May not remain or go on Single Tour. duty in...

  4. 77 FR 35471 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...Building, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington...Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., W31-208...effect on the human or natural environment. The...the proposed seven new CEs are not of the...efficient use of resources of either FRA...

  5. Social smartphone app for personalized recommendation of

    E-print Network

    Social smartphone app for personalized recommendation of local experiences Jesper Jarlskov Kongens helping people nd the most relevant nightlife spots based on their personal preferences and social fra deres personlige præferencer og sociale relationer. Forretningsmodellen bliver lavet vha

  6. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

  7. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 17] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

  8. Ris-R-1595(DA) Evaluering af rapporteringssystemet

    E-print Network

    : organisation, rappor- tering, analyse og handlinger, formidling, formidling fra RiskEnheden, patienter og of a survey as related to the experience of reporting adverse events among patient safety managers (risk man. A questionnaire has been developed by the Risk Unit and Risø for the patient safety managers and quality

  9. Danmarks Miljundersgelser Miljministeriet

    E-print Network

    koncentrationer af tungmetaller (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, og Pb) i 2000 adskiller sig ikke væsentligt fra to og tre; størst for Pb og Cd. Emneord: Atmosfærisk deposition, tørdeposition, våddepositionDanmarks Miljøundersøgelser Miljøministeriet NOVA 2003 Atmosfærisk deposition 2000 Faglig rapport

  10. Danmarks Miljundersgelser Miljministeriet

    E-print Network

    koncentrationer af tungmetaller (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, og Pb) i 2003 adskiller sig ikke væsent- ligt fra to og tre; størst for Pb og Cd. Emneord: Atmosfærisk deposition og luftkvalitet, kvælstoforbindelserDanmarks Miljøundersøgelser Miljøministeriet NOVA 2003 Atmosfærisk deposition 2003 Faglig rapport

  11. Adjusting Social Security for Increasing Life Expectancy: Effects on Progressivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Courtney Monk; John A. Turner; Natalia A. Zhivan

    2010-01-01

    Achieving long-run Social Security solvency requires addressing rising life expectancy. Increasing the Full Retirement Age (FRA), while holding the Early Entitlement Age (EEA) fixed, could be effective but eventually will result in replacement rates that are viewed by many as too low. A possible policy to prop up replacement rates is to raise the EEA, which has been age 62

  12. Religion det 21. rhundredes udfordring I det 20. rhundrede begyndte religion s smt at g af mode som forskningsfelt. Efter 2.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Religion ­ det 21. århundredes udfordring I det 20. århundrede begyndte religion så småt at gå af samfundsvidenskabelige antologier fra Københavns Universitets satsningsområde "Religion i det 21. århundrede" skal læses. De tre antologier er 'Gudstro i Danmark' (2005), 'Gudebilleder ­Ytringsfrihed og religion i en

  13. Primo convegno italiano COMUNICATO STAMPA

    E-print Network

    Schettini, Raimondo

    Primo convegno italiano COMUNICATO STAMPA Antropologie della Cina Il primo convegno italiano sull'antropologia, parteciperanno alcuni fra i massimi esponenti dell'antropologia cinese. Le relazioni di circa un'ora ciascu- na Yang Shengmin, direttore School of Ethnology and Anthropology, Minzu University, Pechino: La via dell'antropologia

  14. 75 FR 60860 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...definition of ``antiquated'' is being built prior to the end of World War II, even though this equipment is used on in tourist...comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and specify the basis for...

  15. 75 FR 26841 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...definition of ``antiquated'' is being built prior to the end of World War II, even though this equipment is used in tourist...comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and specify the basis for...

  16. 75 FR 52060 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...antiquated'' applies to equipment to built prior to the end of World War II. In this case, even though the above listed equipment...comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and specify the basis for...

  17. 49 CFR 238.433 - Draft system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...special adapters used. (b) All passenger equipment continues to be subject to the requirements concerning couplers and uncoupling devices contained in Federal Statute at 49 U.S.C. chapter 203 and in FRA regulations at part 231 and § 232.2 of...

  18. 49 CFR 238.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...As stated in § 238.433(b), all such passenger equipment remains subject to the requirements concerning couplers and uncoupling devices contained in Federal statute at 49 U.S.C. chapter 203 and in FRA regulations at part 231 and § 232.2 of...

  19. 49 CFR 213.4 - Excepted track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...gage on excepted track shall not be more than 4 feet 101/4 inches. This paragraph (e)(4) is applicable September 21, 1999. (f) A track owner shall advise the appropriate FRA Regional Office at least 10 days prior to removal of...

  20. RisNyt NO2 2005 Broen over Death Valley

    E-print Network

    RisøNyt NO2 2005 Broen over Death Valley I november 2004 afsatte Ministeriet for Videnskab bruges til at hjælpe lovende ideer over Death Valley", siger Jeppe Jessen fra Risø Innovations Aktiviteter. "Death Valley" er et internationalt udtryk for den kløft, der opstår mellem den egentlige

  1. Forskningsret Medicinstuderende og tandlgestuderende ved Health p Aarhus Universitet kan sge om indskriv-

    E-print Network

    ;15.05 2 For tandlægestuderende gælder, at der skal søges orlov, idet forskningsår ikke kan gennemfø- res semestre eller søge orlov fra studiet. Vejledning i forhold til SU og den fortsatte bachelor- eller

  2. 75 FR 82140 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...of Class 1 yard tracks: 1. Compound fissure: Note B, no change. Note A2, change... Note A, no change. 2. Transverse fissure, detail fracture, engine burn fracture...interested party desires an opportunity for oral comment, they should notify FRA,...

  3. UNIVERSITETET I OSLO Det matematisk-naturvitenskapelige fakultet

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    begrenset mengde malm. a) [4 poeng] Finn det ubestemte integralet e2t 1 + e2t dt b) [8 poeng]Finn et uttrykk g(t) for hvor mye malm som er utvunnet fra en gruve med gruvekonstant K etter t °ar. Avgør om limt g

  4. Initiative to develop a Sector Qualifications Frame work (SQF) for the Metal and Electrical Industry in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Levelling of sectoral qualifications is the basis o f designing of sectoral qualifications frameworks and in the same time it is very challeng ing task, demanding to consider and to adapt to the multiple factors. This task becomes even more complicated when it turns to the designing of the sectoral qualifications fra meworks on the international level. Ensuring complete compatibility

  5. 49 CFR 232.611 - Periodic maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic maintenance. 232.611 Section 232...ECP) Braking Systems § 232.611 Periodic maintenance. (a) In addition...shall submit a procedure for conducting periodic single car air brake tests to FRA...

  6. Apollo 14 Impact Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for Regional Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.

    2002-01-01

    Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar impact glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro region consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP impact glasses may possess a memory of impacts prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. 49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its...

  8. 49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its...

  9. 49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its...

  10. 49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its...

  11. IMPACT DE LA COULEUR DE FOND SUR LES CROYANCES ENVERS LE PRODUIT : UNE APPROCHE MULTI-CULTURELLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard ROULLET; DAHMANE MOUELHI

    Color is a contextual or environmental variable whi ch impacts affective states or cognitive processes, using or not cultural or symbolic biases. Color and its thre e components (hue, brightness and saturation) must be taken into account in marketing, either in advertising, i n packaging design or in atmospherics management. A transcultural study, implemented in Tunisia and Fra nce (both

  12. Visual Monitoring of Railroad Grade Crossing Yaser Sheikh, Yun Zhai, Khurram Shafique, and Mubarak Shah

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    Visual Monitoring of Railroad Grade Crossing Yaser Sheikh, Yun Zhai, Khurram Shafique, and Mubarak Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection

  13. The Economic and Social Impact of Railroad Incidents: Prevent Tragedy on the Tracks

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    The Economic and Social Impact of Railroad Incidents: Prevent Tragedy on the Tracks "Safety is Good someone is hit by a train resulting in a serious injury or death. · The FRA Railroad Safety Statistics Trains a day (296 Saturday trains & 163 Sunday trains) Metra Overview #12;Tenant Railroads · Amtrak

  14. RAILROAD ACCIDENT RATES FOR USE IN TRANSPORTATION RISK ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T Anderson; Christopher P. L. Barkan

    2004-01-01

    Annual safety statistics published by FRA provide train accident counts for various groupings, such as railroad, accident type, cause, track type and class, train length, and speed. However, hazardous materials transportation risk analysis often requires more detailed accident rate statistics for specific combinations of these groupings. The statistics that are presented enable more precise determination of the probability that Class

  15. Mutation frequencies of Xlinked mental retardation genes in families from the EuroMRX consortium.

    E-print Network

    Institut des Sciences Cognitives, CNRS

    Mutation frequencies of Xlinked mental retardation genes in families from the EuroMRX consortium Xlinked mental retardation (XLMR). After exclusion of Fragile X (Fra X) syndrome, probands from carriers, the mental retardation phenotype could be explained by a mutation. There was no difference

  16. Available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/psyneuen

    E-print Network

    Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    and studies of fmr1 knockout mice have led to the hypothesis that, in addition to mental retardation, fragile stress is unaltered by the lack of fragile X mental retardation protein. Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FraX), the most common inherited form of mental retardation, is caused

  17. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Circadian Rhythmicity and Memory Consolidation

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Circadian Rhythmicity and Memory Consolidation Cheryl L. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA- binding translational regulator, is a key player causes fragile X syndrome (FraX), the most commonly inherited form of mental retardation and autism

  18. Fathoming fragile X in fruit flies Yong Q. Zhang and Kendal Broadie

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    37235-1634, USA Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is the most common inherited mental retardation disease. It is caused by mutation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene. The FMR1 protein (FMRP) is a widely that loss of function is causative. The fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene was identified in 1991 [3

  19. 78 FR 66987 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...railroad safety and efficiency. The program originally...Program Manager-Advanced Technologies, FRA, at (312) 835-3903...parties whose proposed work may not be of interest...The Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program, authorized...improved safety and network efficiency.'' To be...

  20. Chemical niche differentiation among sympatric species of orchid bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YVONNE ZIMMERMANN; SANTIAGO R. RAMIREZ; THOMAS ELTZ

    Male Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini ) collect volatile substances (fra- grances) from flowers and other sources (e.g., decaying wood) and store them in specialized hind tibial pockets. The accumulated chemicals are later emitted during courtship display, presumably to lure conspecific females for mating. We analyzed tibial fragrances of males of 15 sympatric Panamanian species in the genus Euglossa to test

  1. New approaches to improve the performance of the PEM based fuel cell power systems

    E-print Network

    Choi, Woojin

    2005-11-01

    Membrane Fuel Cell Stack (PEMFCS) is first proposed. This equivalent circuit model of the fuel cell stack is derived by a frequency response analysis (FRA) technique to evaluate the effects of the ripple current generated by the power-conditioning unit...

  2. 77 FR 26703 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...No. FRA-2004-17529; Notice No. 9] RIN 2130-AB94 Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty...published a final rule, pursuant to the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, which increased the aggravated...

  3. 75 FR 45197 - Notice of Buy America Waiver Request by Northern New England Passenger Rail Authority To Purchase...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...Railroad Administration Notice of Buy America Waiver Request by Northern New England...Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Buy America waiver request and request for comment...is seeking a waiver from FRA's Buy America requirement--49 U.S.C....

  4. Intercity rail-passenger car ride quality test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharr, R. L.; Owings, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration's research and development program relating to intercity rail-passenger ride quality focuses on developing ride quality design criteria and specifications. The FRA ride quality test program and some of the techniques being used to analyze and evaluate the design criteria of the program are discussed.

  5. Process Improvement for better Quality

    E-print Network

    oversikt i seks punkter over hvordan man gjennomfører en RCA. 2. En detaljert beskrivelse av hvert av de seks punktene i en RCA. Beskrivelsen er detaljert nok til at det er mulig å utføre en RCA ut fra beskrivelsen. 3. Et gjennomarbeidet eksempel som viser hvordan de seks trinnene i prosessen kan se ut i en

  6. RESEARCHARTICLE Copyright 2006 American Scientific Publishers

    E-print Network

    Mason, Andrew

    Methodologies for Sensor Arrays Daniel Rairigh , Andrew Mason, and Chao Yang Electrical and Computer Engineering is inhibiting further research with many nanotechnology sensors and impeding the full potential of many related approach are presented, and the rapid FRA method is shown to provide the best combination of speed

  7. O3, CO2 and chemical fractionation in ponderosa pine saplings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors can affect plant tissue quality which is important for quality of organic matter inputs into soil food webs and decomposition of soil organic matter. Thus the effects of increases in CO2 and O3 and their interactions were determined for various chemical fra...

  8. Genome-wide profiling of AP-1-regulated transcription provides insights into the invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Qiao, Yichun; Jonsson, Philip; Wang, Jian; Xu, Li; Rouhi, Pegah; Sinha, Indranil; Cao, Yihai; Williams, Cecilia; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2014-07-15

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive clinical subtype accounting for up to 20% of all breast cancers, but its malignant determinants remain largely undefined. Here, we show that in TNBC the overexpression of Fra-1, a component of the transcription factor AP-1, offers prognostic potential. Fra-1 depletion or its heterodimeric partner c-Jun inhibits the proliferative and invasive phenotypes of TNBC cells in vitro. Similarly, RNAi-mediated attenuation of Fra-1 or c-Jun reduced cellular invasion in vivo in a zebrafish tumor xenograft model. Exploring the AP-1 cistrome and the AP-1-regulated transcriptome, we obtained insights into the transcriptional regulatory networks of AP-1 in TNBC cells. Among the direct targets identified for Fra-1/c-Jun involved in proliferation, adhesion, and cell-cell contact, we found that AP-1 repressed the expression of E-cadherin by transcriptional upregulation of ZEB2 to stimulate cell invasion. Overall, this work illuminates the pathways through which TNBC cells acquire invasive and proliferative properties. PMID:24830720

  9. 75 FR 39325 - Notice of Draft Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...draft finding of no significant impact (draft FONSI) and is inviting the public to comment on...will be considered and addressed in the final FONSI. Copies of both the Tier-1 EA and draft FONSI are available on FRA's Web site at:...

  10. Neurohumoral control of gastrointestinal motility Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Cellules digestives,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    peptides are present in both the digestive tract and the central nervous system. In spite of the work des Cellules digestives, (FRA 49 INSERM), Faculté de Médecine X Bichat, 16, rue H.-Huchard, 75018 produced a whole new collection of peptide molecules extracted from the digestive tract. Two facts

  11. Site and substrate treatments influence American chestnut budset and survival

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    " Valleys filled in Erosion/Landslides Mass Instability Water Pollution Trees Planted www, Plant Biotech Building Background Cross-Ridge mining Overburden returned Mountaintop Removal Overburden Background The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) 1. Create a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth

  12. Compito di Comunicazioni radiomobili: 21/04/2005 Si consideri un canale radiomobile caratterizzato dal seguente modello di path loss

    E-print Network

    Abrardo, Andrea

    la potenza necessaria (espressa in Watt) al trasmettitore affinche' la probabilita' di outage Po sia condizioni sulla qualita' del segnale richiesta b,s si ricava immediatamente la potenza minima richiesta attenuazioni di potenza totali fra trasmettitore e ricevitore (comprensive #12;2 di pathloss, shadowing e

  13. Does the Rise in the Full Retirement Age Encourage Disability Benefits Applications? Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyan Li; Nicole Maestas

    2008-01-01

    As the Social Security full retirement age rises, the relative generosity of Social Security retirement benefits compared to disability benefits is declining, raising the incentive for insured people to apply for disability benefits. After controlling for other differences in observable characteristics, such as life-time earnings, we find that an average four month increase in the FRA slightly increases the two-year

  14. C-Fos expression is a molecular predictor of progression and survival in epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mahner, S; Baasch, C; Schwarz, J; Hein, S; Wölber, L; Jänicke, F; Milde-Langosch, K

    2008-01-01

    Members of the Fos protein family dimerise with Jun proteins to form the AP-1 transcription factor complex. They have a central function in proliferation and differentiation of normal tissue as well as in oncogenic transformation and tumour progression. We analysed the expression of c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2 to investigate the function of Fos transcription factors in ovarian cancer. A total of 101 patients were included in the study. Expression of Fos proteins was determined by western blot analysis, quantified by densitometry and verified by immunohistochemistry. Reduced c-Fos expression was independently associated with unfavourable progression-free survival (20.6, 31.6 and 51.2 months for patients with low, moderate and high c-Fos expression; P=0.003) as well as overall survival (23.8, 46.0 and 55.5 months for low, moderate and high c-Fos levels; P=0.003). No correlations were observed for FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2. We conclude that loss of c-Fos expression is associated with tumour progression in ovarian carcinoma and that c-Fos may be a prognostic factor. These results are in contrast to the classic concept of c-Fos as an oncogene, but are supported by the recently discovered tumour-suppressing and proapoptotic function of c-Fos in various cancer types. PMID:18854825

  15. 76 FR 34890 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...FRA delays the effective date of the final rule until October 1, 2011. Issued in Washington, DC, on June 9, 2011. Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator. [FR Doc. 2011-14835 Filed 6-10-11; 4:15 pm] BILLING CODE...

  16. Liverpool John Moores University, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology Report on module performance for Programme Self Assessment

    E-print Network

    Brown, Richard

    Liverpool John Moores University, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology Report on module is core/option (list): BI, ZOL and FRA 1. Please refer to student questionnaire results for the module and Psychology Report on module performance for Programme Self Assessment 4. Use the space below to cite examples

  17. 78 FR 70888 - Need for Agency Approval of a Railroad's Use of Certain Technology That Has Been Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...915 that the railroad comply with the terms of its FRA-approved PSP. Authority: 49 U.S.C. 20102-20103, 20107, 20133, 20141, 20157, 20301-20303, 20306, 20701-20703, 21301-21302, 21304; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR...

  18. 78 FR 36817 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...Extension without change of a currently approved collection. Affected Public: Railroads. Form(s): N/A. Abstract: Section 20139 of Title 49 of the United States Code required FRA to issue rules, regulations, orders, and standards for the safety of...

  19. Costs of compliance case study: Packaging & Packaging Waste Directive 94/62/EC

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    2006-01-01

    ENV.G.1/FRA/2004/0081. The contents and views contained in this report are those of the authors, and do not necessarily represent those of the European Commission. Document Control Document Prepared by Final packaging case study.doc JM

  20. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: A RELIGIOUS AND

    E-print Network

    CONFLICT RESOLUTION: A RELIGIOUS AND THEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE FROM AFRICA Islam og kristendom: Konference på Aarhus Universitet, den 24.09.2012 Conflict Resolution: A Religious and Theological Perspective from Africa Dr Johnson Mbillah, Ghana, præst fra den reformerte kirke, har siden 2000 været leder

  1. Chimeric Axon Guidance Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg J Bashaw; Corey S Goodman

    1999-01-01

    Frazzled (Fra) is the DCC-like Netrin receptor in Drosophila that mediates attraction; Roundabout (Robo) is a Slit receptor that mediates repulsion. Both ligands are expressed at the midline; both receptors have related structures and are often expressed by the same neurons. To determine if attraction versus repulsion is a modular function encoded in the cytoplasmic domain of these receptors, we

  2. OPENING PLENARY SECOND PLENARY THIRD PLENARYWater Crisis Global Health Governance

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    OPENING PLENARY SECOND PLENARY THIRD PLENARYWater Crisis Global Health Governance Marjorie GriffinOpOliS experience Associate Dean, Research, Director of Global Health and Professor in the Faculty of Health Sciences SiMon FraSer UniverSity Professor of Global Health Policy London SChooL oF hyGiene and tropi

  3. Lack of association between mutation size and cognitive/behavior deficits in fragile X males: A brief report

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, G.S. [SUNY/Health Science Center and Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [SUNY/Health Science Center and Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Carpenter, N. [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States); Simensen, R. [Greenwood Genetics Center, SC (United States)] [and others] [Greenwood Genetics Center, SC (United States); and others

    1996-08-09

    Previously, researchers reported molecular-neurobehavioral or molecular-cognitive associations in individuals with fra(X) (fragile X) mutation. However, not all investigators have noted molecular-behavioral relationships. Consequently, we examined prospectively 30 fra(X) males age 3-15 years from four testing sites to determine whether there was a relationship between mutation size and degree of either cognitive or adaptive behavior deficit. To measure cognitive abilities, all individuals were administered the Stanford-Binet (4th edition) IQ test. To evaluate adaptive behavior (DQ) skills, all individuals were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. To determine fra(X) status, genomic DNA from all individuals was extracted and digested with EcoRI and EagI restriction enzymes. Southern blots were prepared and hybridized with the pE5.1 probe. The Pearson correlation coefficient between full mutation size and composite IQ score revealed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P > .76). The Pearson coefficient between mutation size and DQ also showed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P >.73). We conclude that while fra(X) mutation produces cognitive and behavior deficits in males who inherit the defective gene, there is no relationship between mutation size and degree of deficit. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  4. A novel technique for measurement of self-generated magnetic fields and the plasma density in laser produced plasmas from the Faraday rotation using two color probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Joshi; P. A. Naik; S. Barnwal; Y. B. S. R. Prasad; P. D. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic information about the self-generated magnetic fields (SGMF) generated in laser produced plasmas is normally obtained by measuring the Faraday rotation angle (FRA) of a linearly polarized laser probe beam passing through the plasma. Simultaneous recording of the corresponding interferogram is required to get the density information necessary for estimating the magnetic field. The problem with this method is that

  5. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  6. Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of "antiandrogens" on male rat reproductive development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although risk assessments are typically conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis, the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act requires the USEPA to consider cumulative risk of chemicals that act via a common mechanism of toxicity. To this end, we are conducting studies to provide a fra...

  7. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  8. Social Escape Behaviors in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott; DeBernardis, Marie; Reiss, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors…

  9. Recent advances in electrochemical impedance measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Evans; B. Sayers

    1994-01-01

    Summary form only given as follows: Accurate measurements of electrochemical impedance requires highly sophisticated instrumentation, especially in applications where small stimulating signals are employed. The combination of a frequency response analyser (FRA) and a potentiostat are the most widely utilised for these applications, but have limitations when measuring high impedances, or high frequency (>1 MHz). Some of these may be

  10. A short-filament mutant of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 that fragments in nitrogen-deficient medium.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, C C; Buikema, W J; Black, K; Haselkorn, R

    1995-01-01

    Strain 129 is a fragmentation mutant of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Growing with fixed nitrogen, this mutant forms filaments that are much shorter than wild-type filaments. Following starvation for fixed nitrogen, strain 129 becomes nearly unicellular and forms few heterocysts, although electron microscopy suggests that proheterocysts form while fragmentation occurs. Starvation for sulfate, phosphate, iron, and calcium does not cause this fragmentation. The affected gene in strain 129, fraC, was cloned by complementation and characterized. It encodes a unique 179-amino-acid protein rich in phenylalanine. Insertional inactivation of the chromosomal copy of fraC results in a phenotype identical to that of strain 129, while complementation using a truncated version of FraC results in only partial complementation of the original mutant. Heterocysts could be induced to form in N-replete cultures of strain 129, as in wild-type cells, by supplying extra copies of the hetR gene on a plasmid. Thus, FraC is required for the integrity of cell junctions in general but is apparently not directly involved in normal differentiation and nitrogen fixation. PMID:7883709

  11. VIII International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures C. Boulay, S. Staquet, M. Azenha, A. Deraemaeker, M. Crespini, J. Carette, J. Granja, B. Delsaute, C. Dumoulin, G. Karaiskos

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VIII International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures FraMCoS-8 C. Dumoulin, G. Karaiskos 1 MONITORING ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE SINCE VERY EARLY AGE BY MEANS OF CYCLIC of concrete, Young's modulus, round robin test, dynamic testing, ultrasonic measurements Abstract: Early age

  12. AG3 srl (spin off universitario) Anno di costituzione: 2011

    E-print Network

    Sproston, Jeremy

    AG3 srl (spin off universitario) Anno di costituzione: 2011 Settore: Servizi di ricerca e sviluppo geologia, della geofisica e della geotermia. AG3 vuole dare una risposta alle nuove esigenze energetiche territorio. Fra le tante possibilità che offre la geotermia, la scelta di AG3 è stata quella di concentrarsi

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 228 - Requirements of the Hours of Service Act: Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...orders pertaining to or affecting train movements. ...orders pertaining to or affecting the movement of his...considered by FRA as factors to be used in applying the concepts...negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations...negligent violation or a pattern of...

  14. MODELING OF SPINEL SETTLING IN WASTE GLASS MELTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The topic of this multi-institutional bi-national research is the formation and settling of spinel, the most common crystalline phase that precipitates in molten high-level waste HLW) glass. For the majority of HLW streams, spinel formation in the HLW melter limits the waste fra...

  15. 49 CFR 213.333 - Automated vehicle-based inspection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...lateral capacity of the track structure shall not permit a Gage Widening...The vehicle shall either be instrumented or equipped with a portable...appropriate. (k)(1) The instrumented vehicle or the portable...FRA may require that an instrumented vehicle having dynamic...

  16. 49 CFR 213.333 - Automated vehicle-based inspection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...lateral capacity of the track structure shall not permit a Gage Widening...The vehicle shall either be instrumented or equipped with a portable...appropriate. (k)(1) The instrumented vehicle or the portable...FRA may require that an instrumented vehicle having dynamic...

  17. IEA-Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas

    E-print Network

    EFP-06 IEA- Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas-Bioenergy, Task 37- Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas", via samarbejde, informationsudveksling, fælles analyser. biogas fra anaerob udrådning (AD) som en integreret gylle og affalds behandlings teknologi. Arbejdet

  18. AFSLUTNINGSRAPPORT Journal nr. 33031-0066

    E-print Network

    ethanol. Endelig er det testet at øge konceptets udbytte ved at producere biogas fra resten af det af gærceller. Fermentering (Xylose) Fermentering (Glucose) Fast brændstof Biogas proces ForbehandlingBiomasse BIOGAS ETHANOL Proces vand H2 Vådoxidation Enzymatisk hydrolysis + C6 fermentering Destillation Anaerob

  19. Lunar materials: Their mineralogy, petrology and chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelis Klein

    1972-01-01

    The manned Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 and the automated Luna 16 lunar missions have provided us with lunar rock and regolith (soil) samples from a number of geologically distinct sites. The mare regions were sampled by Apollo 11, 12 and Luna 16, whereas Apollo 14 landed on a terrain with more relief, the Fra Mauro Formation which represents

  20. 76 FR 78731 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...2011, Drake Switching Company, LLC (DSC) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0015. DSC seeks a waiver of compliance from certain...SWX735), which is used as a locomotive. DSC states that this shuttlewagon is...

  1. Brief Report: Autism of the Asperger Type Associated with an Autosomal Fragile Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saliba, Joseph R.; Griffiths, Mike

    1990-01-01

    This case study describes a 12-year-old boy with autism in association with the folate-sensitive fragile site fra(2)(q13). Cytogenetic results of blood analysis are described, and two possibilities are discussed: the fragile site may be a coincidental finding unrelated to the autism, or may represent an area of potential gene damage. (JDD)

  2. Lunar near-surface structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Cooper; Robert L. Kovach; Joel S. Watkins

    1974-01-01

    Seismic refraction data obtained at the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites permit a compressional wave velocity profile of the lunar near surface to be derived. Although the regolith is locally variable in thickness, it possesses surprisingly similar seismic characteristics. Beneath the regolith at the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro site and the Apollo 16 Descartes site is material with

  3. 78 FR 68146 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition...Division, Toledo, OH. CP Oak Signals 2S-1, 2S-3, 2N-1, and...Switch 3 will be converted to a radio- controlled switch....

  4. Characterizing wool keratin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keratin from wool is a reactive, biocompatible, and biodegradable material. Efficient alkaline extractions gave yields of 68% to 82% protein within 2 to 5 hours of exposure at 65 ºC. The water soluble keratin preparations contained intermediate filament and microfibrillar component-proteins of fra...

  5. National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark

    E-print Network

    at offshore wind turbines NERI Technical Report, No. 440 #12;National Environmental Research Institute turbines. National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. 27 pp. - NERI Technical Report No 440. http Environmental Research Institute Faglige rapporter fra DMU/NERI Technical Reports #12;4 #12;5 This report

  6. Ris-R-1012(EN, DA) Ris Publication Activities in 1997

    E-print Network

    a list of references to the scientific and technical journal articles, books, reports, lectures database produced by the Institute for Scientific Information. The largest part of the report contains Publikationsdatabase og fra Risø Institutional Citation Report produceret af Institute for Scientific Information. Den

  7. 1. Lo `straniero avventuroso' sulle tracce delle tavolette Anni '40 CALTABELLOTTA (Agrigento). Pastori di MonteAdranone avrebbero do-

    E-print Network

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    realizzate in forma anonima a Ginevra o a Londra. primavera 1977 LILLE. M. Frederiksen, studioso neozelandese tavolette al Getty Museum continueranno fino ai primi anni '90. primavera 1979 ROCCA D'ENTELLA (Palermo). G americana. primavera 1982 PISA. Discussione e contatti epistolari fra Nenci e Daux: quest'ultimo, infatti

  8. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  9. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  10. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  11. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  12. 78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...FRA-2013-0064] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake test procedures located in AAR...System Tests for Freight Equipment-- Single Car Test, and required pursuant to 49 CFR...

  13. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  14. Association between Cigarette Smoking and FHIT Gene Alterations in Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriella Sozzi; Laura Sard; Laura De Gregorio; Antonio Marchetti; Katia Musso; Fiamma Buttitta; Silvana Tornielli; Silvia Pellegrini; Maria Luisa Veronese; Giacomo Manenti; Matteo Incarbone; Antonio Chella; Carlo A. Angeletti; Ugo Pastorino; Kay Huebner; Generoso Bevilaqua; Silvana Pilotti; Carlo M. Croce; Marco A. Pierotti

    Epidemiologic data have strongly indicated that cigarette smoking is linked to the development of lung cancer. However, little is known of the molecular targets of carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke. To identify genetic lesions characteristic of tobacco damage, we undertook a molec ular analysis of microsateilite alterations within the FHIT gene and FRA3B, as well as at an independent locus

  15. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  16. Interpretation of the compositional variability of Apollo 15 soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Duncan; M. K. Sher; Y. C. Abraham; A. J. Erlank; J. P. Willis; L. H. Ahrens

    1975-01-01

    The reported soil compositional data for 23 elements in 11 Apollo 15 samples are interpreted by means of factor analysis and calculated mixing models. A close correlation between soil composition and selenographic position relative to the two types of geologic terrain underlying the landing site is noted, and the low-K Fra Mauro type composition of the predominant material of the

  17. LINK2009 FASE 1 UDVIKLING AF 2. GEN. BRNDSELSCELLE

    E-print Network

    LINK2009 FASE 1 »UDVIKLING AF 2. GEN. BR�NDSELSCELLE K�RET�JER OG BRINTTANKSTATION« SLUTRAPPORT: Brændselscelle bil fra LINK2009 til almindeligt bilsyn i Herning #12;LINK2009 FASE 1 SLUTRAPPORT MARTS 2010 Foreningen Hydrogen Link Danmark | www.hydrogenlink.net Side 2 af 56 Indledning & sammendrag I begyndelsen af

  18. The relationship between headache and religious attendance (the Nord-Trøndelag health study- HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Religious belief can be used as a pain coping strategy. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between headache and religious activity using prospective data from a large population-based study. Methods This longitudinal cohort study used data from two consecutive surveys in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 2 and 3) performed in 1995–1997; and 2006–2008. Among the 51,383 participants aged???20 years who answered headache questions at baseline, 41,766 were eligible approximately 11 years later. Of these, 25,177 (60%) completed the question in HUNT 3 regarding religious activity. Frequent religious attendees (fRA) (used as a marker of stronger religious belief than average) were defined as those who had been to church/prayer house at least once monthly during the last six months. Results In the multivariate analyses, adjusting for known potential confounders, individuals with headache 1–14 days/month in HUNT 2 were more likely to be fRA 11 years later than headache-free individuals. Migraine at baseline predisposed more strongly to fRA at follow-up (OR?=?1.25; 95% CI 1.19-1.40) than did non-migrainous headache (OR?=?1.13; 95% 1.04-1.23). The odds of being fRA was 48% increased (OR 1.48; 95% 1.19-1.83) among those with migraine 7–14 days/month at baseline compared to subjects without headache. In contrast, headache status at baseline did not influence the odds of being frequent visitors of concerts, cinema and/or theatre at follow-up 11 years later. Conclusions In this prospective study, headache, in particular migraine, at baseline slightly increased the odds of being fRA 11 years later. PMID:24386923

  19. Later cART Initiation in Migrant Men from Sub-Saharan Africa without Advanced HIV Disease in France

    PubMed Central

    de Monteynard, Laure-Amélie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; de Truchis, Pierre; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Khuong-Josses, Marie-Aude; Gilquin, Jacques; Rey, David; Simon, Anne; Pavie, Juliette; Mahamat, Aba; Matheron, Sophie; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the time from entry into care for HIV infection until combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation between migrants and non migrants in France, excluding late access to care. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals newly enrolled in the FHDH cohort between 2002–2010, with CD4 cell counts >200/?L and no previous or current AIDS events were included. In three baseline CD4 cell count strata (200–349, 350-499, ?500/?L), we examined the crude time until cART initiation within three years after enrolment according to geographic origin, and multivariable hazard ratios according to geographic origin, gender and HIV-transmission group, with adjustment for baseline age, enrolment period, region of care, plasma viral load, and HBV/HBC coinfection. Results Among 13338 individuals, 9605 (72.1%) were French natives (FRA), 2873 (21.4%) were migrants from sub-Saharan Africa/non-French West Indies (SSA/NFW), and 860 (6.5%) were migrants from other countries. Kaplan-Meier probabilities of cART initiation were significantly lower in SSA/NFW than in FRA individuals throughout the study period, regardless of the baseline CD4 stratum. After adjustment, the likelihood of cART initiation was respectively 15% (95%CI, 1–28) and 20% (95%CI, 2–38) lower in SSA/NFW men than in FRA men who had sex with men (MSM) in the 350-499 and ?500 CD4 strata, while no difference was observed between other migrant groups and FRA MSM. Conclusion SSA/NFW migrant men living in France with CD4 >350/?L at entry into care are more likely to begin cART later than FRA MSM, despite free access to treatment. Administrative delays in obtaining healthcare coverage do not appear to be responsible. PMID:25734445

  20. A chemical potentiator of copper-accumulation used to investigate the iron-regulons of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W; Dainty, Samantha J; Patterson, Carl J; Pohl, Ehmke; Blackburn, Hannah; Wilson, Clare; Hess, Corinna R; Rutherford, Julian C; Quaranta, Laura; Corran, Andy; Robinson, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    The extreme resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to copper is overcome by 2-(6-benzyl-2-pyridyl)quinazoline (BPQ), providing a chemical-biology tool which has been exploited in two lines of discovery. First, BPQ is shown to form a red (BPQ)2Cu(I) complex and promote Ctr1-independent copper-accumulation in whole cells and in mitochondria isolated from treated cells. Multiple phenotypes, including loss of aconitase activity, are consistent with copper-BPQ mediated damage to mitochondrial iron–sulphur clusters. Thus, a biochemical basis of copper-toxicity in S. cerevisiae is analogous to other organisms. Second, iron regulons controlled by Aft1/2, Cth2 and Yap5 that respond to mitochondrial iron–sulphur cluster status are modulated by copper-BPQ causing iron hyper-accumulation via upregulated iron-import. Comparison of copper-BPQ treated, untreated and copper-only treated wild-type and fra2? by RNA-seq has uncovered a new candidate Aft1 target-gene (LSO1) and paralogous non-target (LSO2), plus nine putative Cth2 target-transcripts. Two lines of evidence confirm that Fra2 dominates basal repression of the Aft1/2 regulons in iron-replete cultures. Fra2-independent control of these regulons is also observed but CTH2 itself appears to be atypically Fra2-dependent. However, control of Cth2-target transcripts which is independent of CTH2 transcript abundance or of Fra2, is also quantified. Use of copper-BPQ supports a substantial contribution of metabolite repression to iron-regulation. PMID:24895027

  1. Rapid effects of triiodothyronine on immediate-early gene expression in Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Mercier, G; Turque, N; Schumacher, M

    2001-08-01

    In the peripheral nervous system, triiodothyronine (T3) plays an important role in the development and regeneration of nerve fibers and in myelin formation. However, the target genes of T3 in peripheral nerves remain to be identified. We investigated whether T3 activated genes of transcription factors in Schwann cells. Expression of egr-1 (krox-24), egr-2 (krox-20), egr-3, c-jun, junB, c-fos, fosB, fra-1, fra-2, and CREB genes was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in Schwann cells isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerves and in the cell lines MSC-80 (mouse Schwann cells), NIH-3T3 (mouse fibroblasts), and CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells). Some of these transcription factors have been shown to be involved in Schwann cell differentiation. T3 triggered a rapid (15-30 min), transient (1-2-h) and strong (6- to 15-fold) stimulation of Egr-1, Egr-2, Egr-3, Jun B, c-Fos, and Fos B mRNA expression in Schwann cells. In contrast, expression of c-Jun, Fra-1, Fra-2, and CREB mRNA was not affected by T3. The stimulatory effects of T3 could be abolished by adding actinomycin D. T3 triggered the same pattern of gene stimulation in the mouse Schwann cell line MSC80, but not in the NIH-3T3 and CHO cell lines. Serum activated all the genes that responded to T3 and in addition fra-1 and fra-2, but not c-jun and CREB. Immunoblotting showed that the increase in Egr-1 and c-Fos mRNA levels was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding proteins. In addition, shifts of the protein bands indicated a posttranslational modification of the two proteins. These effects of T3 are likely to be mediated by the intracellular T3 receptor, as the D-isomer RT3 and T0, which do not bind to T3 receptors, proved ineffective. The present data suggested that T3 may regulate Schwann cell functions and differentiation by transiently activating the expression of specific transcription factors. PMID:11460264

  2. Extralunar materials in cone-crater soil 14141.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Chou, C.-L.; Bild, R. W.; Baedecker, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Cd, In, Ir, and Au in duplicate samples of lunar soil 14141 and in one additional replicate each of soils 14163 and 14259. The concentrations of extralunar trace elements Ni, Ge, Ir, and Au in 14141 and 14163 are, respectively, about 69 and 82% as high as those in 14259. Although most of the mass of 14141 appears to be ejecta from Cone Crater, a sizable contamination by mature Fra Mauro soil such as 14259 is also present. The siderophilic-element concentrations of the subregolith Fra Mauro materials are estimated to be 25 plus or minus 25% of those observed in 14259.

  3. Petrology of the Apollo 11 highland component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Laul, J. C.

    1983-11-01

    New data for 38 highland fragments hand-picked from Apollo 11 coarse fines are reported. Petrographic, mineralogic, and bulk chemical data show that: (1) the Apollo 11 highland component is non-KREEPy and like that of Apollo 16; (2) poikilitic rocks, granulitic breccias, and the anorthosite-norite-troctolite suite are the most abundant rock types, followed by polymict breccias and glasses; (3) both the ferroan anorthosite and Mg-rich plutonic suites are represented in the Apollo 11 highland component; (4) except for one sample, the intermediate-K Fra Mauro and high-K Fra Mauro groups are not represented. The data and observations are consistent with local derivation of the highland material from beneath relatively thin basalt flows and addition to the regolith via vertical mixing.

  4. Petrology of the Apollo 11 highland component.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Laul, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    New data for 38 highland fragments hand-picked from Apollo 11 coarse fines are reported. Petrographic, mineralogic, and bulk chemical data show that (1) the Apollo 11 highland component is non-KREEPy and like that of Apollo 16; (2) poikilitic rocks, granulitic breccias, and the anorthosite-norite-troctolite suite are the most abundant rock types, followed by polymict breccias and glasses; (3) both the ferroan anorthosite and Mg-rich plutonic suites are represented in the Apollo 11 highland component; (4) except for one sample, the intermediate-K Fra Mauro and high-K Fra Mauro groups are not represented. The data and observations are consistent with local derivation of the highland material from beneath relatively thin basalt flows and addition to the regolith via vertical mixing.

  5. Chongmyungtang attenuates kainic acid-induced seizure and mortal effect in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Jang, K J; Lee, K H; Kim, S L; Choi, D Y; Park, B K; Im, D H; Cho, Y J; Jhoo, W K; Kim, H C

    1997-08-01

    TheChongmyungtang (CMT; the combination ofAcorus gramineus, polygala tenuifolia andPoria cocos) has been recognized to possess the preventive effect against several neurologic disorders in human. In this study, we examined the effect of CMT on the three parameters associated with kainic acid (KA)-induced neurotoxicities; seizure/mortality, increased fos-related antigen (FRA) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. KA induced vigorous convulsions lasting 4-6 hr. Pretreatments with CMT before KA injection significantly reduced the seizure intensity as well as the mortality. CMT pretreatments also attenuated the KA-induced increase in FRA/GFAP expression in the hippocampus. These results suggest that CMT has a neuroprotective effect against KA-induced neurotoxicities. PMID:18975183

  6. Structural basis for self-assembly of a cytolytic pore lined by protein and lipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Koji; Caaveiro, Jose M. M.; Morante, Koldo; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-02-01

    Pore-forming toxins (PFT) are water-soluble proteins that possess the remarkable ability to self-assemble on the membrane of target cells, where they form pores causing cell damage. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of action of the haemolytic protein fragaceatoxin C (FraC), a ?-barrel PFT, by determining the crystal structures of FraC at four different stages of the lytic mechanism, namely the water-soluble state, the monomeric lipid-bound form, an assembly intermediate and the fully assembled transmembrane pore. The structure of the transmembrane pore exhibits a unique architecture composed of both protein and lipids, with some of the lipids lining the pore wall, acting as assembly cofactors. The pore also exhibits lateral fenestrations that expose the hydrophobic core of the membrane to the aqueous environment. The incorporation of lipids from the target membrane within the structure of the pore provides a membrane-specific trigger for the activation of a haemolytic toxin.

  7. Major element composition of glasses in three Apollo 15 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Warner, J.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 180 glasses in each of three Apollo 15 soils have been analyzed for nine elements. Cluster analysis techniques allow the recognition of preferred glass compositions that are equated with parent rock compositions. Green glass rich in Fe and Mg, poor in Al and Ti may be derived from deep-seated pyroxenitic material now present at the Apennine Front. Fra Mauro basalt (KREEP) is most abundant in the LM soil and is tentatively identified as ray material from the Aristillus-Autolycus area. Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro), believed to be derived from the lunar highlands, has the same composition as at other landing sites, but is less abundant. The Apennine Front is probably not true highland material but may contain a substantial amount of material with the composition of Fra Mauro basalt, but lacking the high-K content.

  8. CNRM/GAME, UMR 3589 Proposition de Stage M2 ou de fin d'Etude pour 2014

    E-print Network

    Ribes, Aurélien

    CNRM/GAME, UMR 3589 Proposition de Stage M2 ou de fin d'Etude pour 2014 Nom du laboratoire (et n° de l'unité) dans lequel se déroulera le stage : Météo-France, CEN, CNRM-GAME, UMR 3589 Titre du sujet neige humide regelée ou de la neige fraîche. #12;CNRM/GAME, UMR 3589 Ce stage requiert de fortes

  9. Energy for the future with Ris from nuclear power to sustainable energy Ris NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy

    E-print Network

    Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Risø NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy edited by MoRteN JastRup #12;Energy for the future #12;Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Translated from 'Energi til fremtiden ­ med Risø fra

  10. Petrology of Apollo 14 regolith breccias and ion microprobe studies of glass beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mineral chemistries, glass chemistries, and bulk compositions of Apollo 14 regolith beccias are used to study the regolith evolution at the Apollo 14 site and on the moon in general. Major changes in the regolith since the formation of the breccias include an increase in maturity, an increase in glasses with the Fra Mauro basalt composition, and decreases in feldspathic and mare glasses. The results suggest the presence of a source with a larger non-KREEPy highland plutonic component than other breccias.

  11. Identification of the genes affecting the regulation of riboflavin synthesis in the flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii using insertion mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Boretsky, Yuriy R; Pynyaha, Yuriy V; Boretsky, Volodymyr Y; Fedorovych, Dariya V; Fayura, Lyubov R; Protchenko, Olha; Philpott, Caroline C; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-05-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of a group of so-called flavinogenic yeast species that overproduce riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) in response to iron limitation. Using insertion mutagenesis, we isolated P. guilliermondii mutants overproducing riboflavin. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of recombination sites revealed that insertion cassettes integrated into the genome disrupting P. guilliermondii genes similar to the VMA1 gene of Ashbya gossypii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and FES1 and FRA1 genes of S. cerevisiae. The constructed P. guilliermondii?vma1-17 mutant possessed five- to sevenfold elevated riboflavin production and twofold decreased iron cell content as compared with the parental strain. Pichia guilliermondii?fra1-45 mutant accumulated 1.8-2.2-fold more iron in the cells and produced five- to sevenfold more riboflavin as compared with the parental strain. Both ?vma1-17 and ?fes1-77 knockout strains could not grow at 37 °C in contrast to the wild-type strain and the ?fra1-45 mutant. Increased riboflavin production by the wild-type strain was observed at 37 °C. Although the ?fes1-77 mutant did not overproduce riboflavin, it showed partial complementation when crossed with previously isolated P. guilliermondii riboflavin-overproducing mutant rib80-22. Complementation analysis revealed that ?vma1-17 and ?fra1-45 mutants are distinct from previously reported riboflavin-producing mutants hit1-1, rib80-22 and rib81-31 of this yeast. PMID:21261808

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of `Alpine' Fragaria vesca, and transmission of transgenes to R1 progeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Haymes; T. M. Davis

    1998-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was used to stably introduce ?-glucuronidase (gus) and neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) marker genes into `Alpine' Fragaria vesca FRA 197, a diploid (2n = 2x = 14) strawberry. R0 generation transformants derived from a single clump of kanamycin-resistant\\u000a callus were vegetatively propagated. The presence of the gus and nptII genes in five clonal R0 runner plants was confirmed by

  13. November 2008 Buildings and

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    CLeodoSteC davis maRquesSimoN FraSer UNiverSity tHomas mueLLeRPreSideNt, CaNada greeN bUildiNg CoUNCil dana vanie; colleges and schools. Buildings are part of the multi-scale urban system, so this paper complements). The operation of buildings is responsible for emitting more than 30% of the world's green- house gases. When we

  14. 12 JP Aarhus Torsdag den 31. marts 2011 INTERNATIONALE

    E-print Network

    aarhusianere har nok på et eller andet tids- punkt tænkt: Gad vide, hvor- dan det er at gå rundt oppe i Japan. At sende et signal om, at vi støtter dem,« si- ger den 21-årige Moemi Nagasaki. »To send danskere små 9.000 km fra Japan et ind- tryk af, hvordan japaner- ne er påvirket af de tre ka- tastrofer

  15. NANO-SCIENCE CENTER Nano-Science Center har som sit

    E-print Network

    Nygård, Jesper

    FORSKNING 54 NANO-SCIENCE CENTER Nano-Science Center har som sit mål at drive nanoforskning på højt opstod, da Thue Schwartz mødte forskerne fra Nano-Science Center. De er nemlig eksperter i transistorer at kommunikere med transistorer i molekylestørrelse, vil det blive muligt at bygge bittesmå sensorer, der aflæser

  16. Social Security SS wage base $106,800

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Social Security SS wage base $106,800 FICA tax rate--employee4 7.65% SECA tax rate,680 (Applies only to earnings for months prior to attaining FRA) Social Security cost-of-living adjustment 0.40/$110.50 Part A: First 60 days--patient pays a deductible $1,100 Next 30 days--patient pays per day $275 Next 60

  17. head : Translate.Access tail : Translate.AccessList

    E-print Network

    Baumgartner, Gerald

    String() Translate frags : Translate.F... Translate() ArrayExp() AssignExp() BINOP() BreakExp() CALL() CJUMP() CONSTDec() WhileExp() getResult() initRecord() procEntryExit() Cx Cx() unCx() unEx() unNx() DataFrag DataFra... Frag next : Translate.Frag Frag() Ex Ex() unCx() unEx() unNx() ExpList head : Translate.Exp tail

  18. Use of the high altitude Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-1) in identifying cloud features

    E-print Network

    Frazee, Donald William

    1968-01-01

    USE OF THE HIGH ALTITUDE APPLICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE (ATS-I) IN IDENTIFYING CLOUD FEATURES A Thesis by DONAID WILL Jinni FRA"EE Major, USAI" Submitted to the Graduate College or the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requi. rements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1968 Mn, jor Subject Meteorology USE OF THE HIGH ALTITUDE APPLICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE (ATS-1) IN IDENTIFYING CLOUD FEATURES A Thesis by DONALD WILLIAM FRAZEE Major, USAF Approved...

  19. Technicians examine largest lunar rock sample collected

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Three Brown and Root/Northrop technicians in the Nonsterile Nitrogen Laboratory in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) peer through glass at the much-discussed basketball size rock which Apollo 14 crewmen brought back from the Fra Mauro area of the Moon. They are, left to right, Linda Tyler, Nancy L. Trent and Sandra Richards (21244); Dr. Daniel Anderson, an aerospace technologist and test director in the LRL, looks at basketball size rock through a microscope (21245).

  20. Further delineation of X-linked mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Herbst; H. G. Dunn; F. J. Dill; D. K. Kalousek; L. W. Krywaniuk

    1981-01-01

    Chromosomal, clinical, and psychological data are presented on members of six families with X-linked mental retardation. Affected males in three of these families express the fra(X)(q28) marker, while the retarded males in the other three do not. Similar variable physical and psychological charateristics, such as lop ears, large testes, and perseverative speech, are present in affected males in all six