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1

FraC/FraD-dependent intercellular molecular exchange in the filaments of a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp.  

PubMed

The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria are multicellular organisms in which two different cell types, the CO?-fixing vegetative cells and the N?-fixing heterocysts, exchange nutrients and regulators. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, inactivation of sepJ or genes in the fraC operon (fraC, fraD and fraE) produce filament fragmentation. SepJ, FraC and FraD are cytoplasmic membrane proteins located in the filament's intercellular septa that are needed for intercellular exchange of the fluorescent tracer calcein (622 Da). Transmission electron microscopy showed an alteration in the heterocyst cytoplasmic membrane at the vegetative cell-heterocyst septa in ?fraC and ?fraD mutants. Immunogold labelling of FraD confirmed its localization in the intercellular septa and clearly showed the presence of part of the protein between the cytoplasmic membranes of the adjacent cells. This localization seemed to be affected in the ?fraC mutant but was not impaired in a ?sepJ mutant. Intercellular transfer of a smaller fluorescent tracer, 5-carboxyfluorescein (374 Da), was largely impaired in ?fraC, ?fraD and double ?fraC-?fraD mutants, but much less in the ?sepJ mutant. These results show the existence in the Anabaena filaments of a FraC/FraD-dependent intercellular molecular exchange that does not require SepJ. PMID:21819458

Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Schwarz, Heinz; Maldener, Iris; Mariscal, Vicente; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

2011-10-01

2

Apollo 14 mission to Fra Mauro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1971 Apollo 14 Mission to Fra Mauro, a lunar highland area, is highlighted in this video. The mission's primary goal was the collection of lunar rocks and soil samples and lunar exploration. The soil and rock sampling was for the geochronological determination of the Moon's evolution and its comparison with that of Earth. A remote data collection station was

Brian D. Beasley

1991-01-01

3

Interpretation of Transformer FRA Responses— Part I: Influence of Winding Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency-response analysis (FRA) has been accepted as one of the most sensitive tools to detect mechanical faults of power transformers. Correct interpretation of FRA responses is crucial when assessing the integrity of a transformer. Transformer FRA responses have distinctive frequency regions which are predominated by core, windings, and measuring setup. This paper addresses one of the major factors that affect

Zhongdong Wang; Jie Li; Dahlina M. Sofian

2009-01-01

4

76 FR 41859 - Waiver Petition Docket Numbers FRA-2011-0002, CSX Transportation Railroad, and FRA-2004-17565...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contact FRA's Docket Clerk, Jerome Melis-Tull by telephone, e-mail, or in...days before the date of the hearing. Mr. Melis-Tull's contact information is as follows...telephone 202-493-6030; e-mail Jerome.Melis-Tull@dot.gov. The informal...

2011-07-15

5

Deformation of silicates in some Fra Mauro breccias.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the studies conducted show that there is no unequivocal evidence for appreciable static deformation (other than annealing) in the Fra Mauro formation. These rocks probably have been derived from depths to about 10 km. It is suggested that there has been no substantial tectonic activity in the range from the surface to 10 km since these rocks and those of the other Apollo sites crystallized some 3 to 4 billion years ago. This negative conclusion implies that at least the outer layer of the moon has been static for this length of time.

Lallemant, H. G. A.; Carter, N. L.

1972-01-01

6

Fra2 is a co-regulator of fep1 inhibition in response to iron starvation.  

PubMed

Iron is required for several metabolic functions involved in cellular growth. Although several players involved in iron transport have been identified, the mechanisms by which iron-responsive transcription factors are controlled are still poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Fep1 transcription factor represses genes involved in iron acquisition in response to high levels of iron. In contrast, when iron levels are low, Fep1 becomes inactive and loses its ability to associate with chromatin. Although the molecular basis by which Fep1 is inactivated under iron starvation remains unknown, this process requires the monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4. Here, we demonstrate that Fra2 plays a role in the negative regulation of Fep1 activity. Disruption of fra2+ (fra2?) led to a constitutive repression of the fio1+ gene transcription. Fep1 was consistently active and constitutively bound to its target gene promoters in cells lacking fra2+. A constitutive activation of Fep1 was also observed in a php4? fra2? double mutant strain in which the behavior of Fep1 is freed of its transcriptional regulation by Php4. Microscopic analyses of cells expressing a functional Fra2-Myc13 protein revealed that Fra2 localized throughout the cells with a significant proportion of Fra2 being observed within the nuclei. Further analysis by coimmunoprecipitation showed that Fra2, Fep1 and Grx4 are associated in a heteroprotein complex. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments brought further evidence that an interaction between Fep1 and Fra2 occurs in the nucleus. Taken together, results reported here revealed that Fra2 plays a role in the Grx4-mediated pathway that inactivates Fep1 in response to iron deficiency. PMID:24897379

Jacques, Jean-François; Mercier, Alexandre; Brault, Ariane; Mourer, Thierry; Labbé, Simon

2014-01-01

7

Fra2 Is a Co-Regulator of Fep1 Inhibition in Response to Iron Starvation  

PubMed Central

Iron is required for several metabolic functions involved in cellular growth. Although several players involved in iron transport have been identified, the mechanisms by which iron-responsive transcription factors are controlled are still poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Fep1 transcription factor represses genes involved in iron acquisition in response to high levels of iron. In contrast, when iron levels are low, Fep1 becomes inactive and loses its ability to associate with chromatin. Although the molecular basis by which Fep1 is inactivated under iron starvation remains unknown, this process requires the monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4. Here, we demonstrate that Fra2 plays a role in the negative regulation of Fep1 activity. Disruption of fra2+ (fra2?) led to a constitutive repression of the fio1+ gene transcription. Fep1 was consistently active and constitutively bound to its target gene promoters in cells lacking fra2+. A constitutive activation of Fep1 was also observed in a php4? fra2? double mutant strain in which the behavior of Fep1 is freed of its transcriptional regulation by Php4. Microscopic analyses of cells expressing a functional Fra2-Myc13 protein revealed that Fra2 localized throughout the cells with a significant proportion of Fra2 being observed within the nuclei. Further analysis by coimmunoprecipitation showed that Fra2, Fep1 and Grx4 are associated in a heteroprotein complex. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments brought further evidence that an interaction between Fep1 and Fra2 occurs in the nucleus. Taken together, results reported here revealed that Fra2 plays a role in the Grx4-mediated pathway that inactivates Fep1 in response to iron deficiency.

Jacques, Jean-Francois; Mercier, Alexandre; Brault, Ariane; Mourer, Thierry; Labbe, Simon

2014-01-01

8

The global Landsat imagery database for the FAO FRA remote sensing survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To collect and provide periodically updated information on global forest resources, their management and use, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been coordinating global forest resources assessments (FRA) every 5–10 years since 1946. To complement the FRA national-based statistics and to provide an independent assessment of forest cover and change, a global remote sensing survey (RSS) has

P. Potapov; M. C. Hansen; A. M. Gerrand; E. J. Lindquist; K. Pittman; S. Turubanova; M. Løyche Wilkie

2011-01-01

9

Apollo 14 - Nature and origin of rock types in soil from the Fra Mauro formation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compositions of glasses in the Apollo 14 soil correspond to four types of Fra Mauro basalts, to mare basalts and soils, and, in minor amounts, to gabbroic anorthosite and potash granite. The Fra Mauro basalts can be related by simple low pressure crystal-liquid fractionation that implies a parent composition like that of Apollo 14 sample 14310.

Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

1971-01-01

10

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215âFRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

2013-10-01

11

Signal-dependent fra-2 regulation in skeletal muscle reserve and satellite cells  

PubMed Central

Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that paradoxically also has some tissue-specific functions. In skeletal muscle cells, we document that the AP-1 subunit, Fra-2, is expressed in the resident stem cells (Pax7-positive satellite cells) and also in the analogous undifferentiated ‘reserve' cell population in myogenic cultures, but not in differentiated myofiber nuclei. Silencing of Fra-2 expression enhances the expression of differentiation markers such as muscle creatine kinase and myosin heavy chain, indicating a possible role of Fra-2 in undifferentiated myogenic progenitor cells. We observed that Fra-2 is a target of cytokine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling in cultured muscle cells, and extensive mass spectrometry and mutational analysis identified S320 and T322 as regulators of Fra-2 protein stability. Interestingly, Fra-2 S320 phosphorylation occurs transiently in activated satellite cells and is extinguished in myogenin-positive differentiating cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated Fra-2 expression and stabilization is linked to regulation of myogenic progenitor cells having implications for the molecular regulation of adult muscle stem cells and skeletal muscle regeneration.

Alli, N S; Yang, E C; Miyake, T; Aziz, A; Collins-Hooper, H; Patel, K; McDermott, J C

2013-01-01

12

Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production  

PubMed Central

The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2–deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2–overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1?2 (col1?2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os’s) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans.

Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael

2010-01-01

13

Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production.  

PubMed

The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2-deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2-overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1?2 (col1?2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os's) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans. PMID:20837772

Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

2010-09-20

14

Fra-1 controls motility of bladder cancer cells via transcriptional upregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL.  

PubMed

Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) is a Fos family member overexpressed in several types of human cancers. Here, we report that Fra-1 is highly expressed in the muscle-invasive form of the carcinoma of the bladder (80%) and to a lesser extent in superficial bladder cancer (42%). We demonstrate that in this type of cancer Fra-1 is regulated via a C-terminal instability signal and C-terminal phosphorylation. We show that manipulation of Fra-1 expression levels in bladder cancer cell lines affects cell morphology, motility and proliferation. The gene coding for AXL tyrosine kinase is directly upregulated by Fra-1 in bladder cancer and in other cell lines. Importantly, our data demonstrate that AXL mediates the effect of Fra-1 on tumour cell motility but not on cell proliferation. We suggest that AXL may represent an attractive therapeutic target in cancers expressing high Fra-1 levels. PMID:21822309

Sayan, A E; Stanford, R; Vickery, R; Grigorenko, E; Diesch, J; Kulbicki, K; Edwards, R; Pal, R; Greaves, P; Jariel-Encontre, I; Piechaczyk, M; Kriajevska, M; Mellon, J K; Dhillon, A S; Tulchinsky, E

2012-03-22

15

75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regarding Buy America & FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program AGENCY: Federal...related programs into the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) program, as...articulated a new ``Vision for High-Speed Rail in America''...

2010-09-27

16

NrrA directly regulates expression of the fraF gene and antisense RNAs for fraE in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed

The heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 grows as linear multicellular filaments that can contain hundreds of cells. Heterocysts, which are specialized cells for nitrogen fixation, are regularly intercalated among photosynthetic vegetative cells, and these cells are metabolically dependent on each other. Thus, multicellularity is essential for diazotrophic growth of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the fraF gene, which is required to limit filament length, is induced by nitrogen deprivation. The fraF transcripts extend to the fraE gene, which lies on the opposite DNA strand and could possess dual functionality, mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE. In the present study, we found that NrrA, a nitrogen-regulated response regulator, directly regulated expression of fraF. Induction of fraF by nitrogen deprivation was abolished by the nrrA disruption. NrrA specifically bound to the promoter region of fraF, and recognized an inverted repeat sequence. Thus, it is concluded that NrrA controls expression of mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE in response to nitrogen deprivation. PMID:24554757

Ehira, Shigeki; Ohmori, Masayuki

2014-05-01

17

Chromosomal Fragile Site FRA16D and DNA Instability in Cancer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that common aphidicolin-inducible fragile sites, in general, predispose to specific chromosomal breakage associated with deletion, amplification, and\\/or translocation in certain forms of cancer. Although this appears to be the case for the fragile site FRA3B and may be the case for FRA7G, it is not yet clear whether this association is a general property of this

Marie Mangelsdorf; Karin Ried; Erica Woollatt; Sonia Dayan; Helen Eyre; Merran Finnis; Lynne Hobson; Julie Nancarrow; Deon Venter; Elizabeth Baker; Robert I. Richards

18

Frequent breakpoints in the region surrounding FRA3B in sporadic renal cell carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constitutive fragile site at chromosomal band 3p14.2, FRA3B, is the most active common fragile site in the human genome. We have localized aphidicolin-induced breakpoints to two distinct clusters, separated by 200 Kb, in FRA3B (Paradee et al., 1996). Sequence analysis of these regions identified two polymorphic microsatellite markers immediately adjacent to each of these breakpoint clusters. In this report

Viji Shridhar; Liang Wang; Rita Rosati; William Paradee; Ravi Shridhar; Chadwick Mullins; Wael Sakr; David Grignon; Orlando J Miller; Qi C Sun; John Petros; David I Smith; DI Smith

1997-01-01

19

Aphidicolin-Induced FRA3B Breakpoints Cluster in Two Distinct Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common fragile site at chromosomal band 3p14.2 (FRA3B) is the most sensitive single site in the human genome to induced chromosomal lesions. This fragile site may predispose chromosome 3p to breakage that is commonly observed in lung, renal, and many other cancers. We previously used aphidicolin induction of FRA3B expression in a chromosome 3-only somatic cell hybrid to generate

Liang Wang; William Paradee; Chadwick Mullins; Ravi Shridhar; Rita Rosati; Charles M. Wilke; Thomas W. Glover; David I. Smith

1997-01-01

20

Implications of FRA16A Structure for the Mechanism of Chromosomal Fragile Site Genesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile sites are chemically induced nonstaining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. DNA sequences encompassing and including the rare, autosomal, folate-sensitive fragile site, FRA16A, were isolated by positional cloning. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)_n repeat. This repeat

J. K. Nancarrow; E. Kremer; K. Holman; H. Eyre; N. A. Doggett; D. Le Paslier; D. F. Callen; G. R. Sutherland; R. I. Richards

1994-01-01

21

From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special Web feature from the Metropolitan Museum centers around two fifteenth century paintings acquired by two US museums (the Metropolitan and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston) from the Barberini Collection in Rome in the 1930s, that have puzzled scholars for more than a century, and have only recently been identified as the work of Giovanni di Bartolomeo Corradini of Urbino, also known as Fra Carnevale. In addition to investigating the mystery of Fra Carnevale, the Web feature also examines the concepts of artistic identity, in contrast with the Renaissance practice of artworks that issue from the studio of a named artist, that are actually the work of many unnamed artists. To do this, the feature is divided into three sections: "Filippo Lippi", 29 works by Lippi and others trained in his workshop; "An Alternative Vision", seven paintings by artists working within the studio system, but, similar to Fra Carnevale's works, containing unusual elements; and "The Mystery of Fra Carnevale", including the two panels, most likely parts of Fra Carnevale's altarpiece for Santa Maria della Bella in Urbino, The Birth of the Virgin and The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, done in what has come to be recognized as Fra Carnevale's style-paintings so full of architectural details that the figures seem incidental to the architecture.

22

The PKC? pathway participates in the aberrant accumulation of Fra-1 protein in invasive ER-negative breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Fra-1 is aberrantly expressed in a large number of cancer cells and tissues, and emerging evidence suggests an important role for this Fos family protein in both oncogenesis and the progression or maintenance of many tumour types. Here, we show that the concentration of Fra-1 is high in invasive oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative (ER?) breast cancer cell lines, regardless of their Ras pathway status. All of the ER? cells express high levels of activated PKC?, and the inhibition of PKC? activity using RNA interference or the expression of a dominant-negative mutant results in a dramatic reduction in Fra-1 abundance. Conversely, the ectopic expression of constitutively active PKC? leads to Fra-1 phosphorylation and accumulation in poorly invasive ER+ cells. This accumulation is due to the stabilisation of the Fra-1 protein through PKC? signalling, whereas other members of the PKC family are ineffective. Both SPAK and ERK1/2, whose activities are up-regulated by PKC?, participate in PKC?-driven Fra-1 stabilisation. Interestingly, their relative contributions appear to be different depending on the cell line studied. ERK1/2 signalling has a major role in ER- MDA-MB-231 cells whereas Fra-1 accumulation occurs mainly through SPAK signalling in ER? BT549 cells. Fra-1 mutational analysis shows that the phosphorylation of S265, T223 and T230 is critical for PKC?-driven Fra-1 stabilisation. Phosphorylation of the protein was confirmed using specific antisera against Fra-1 phosphorylated on T223 or S265. In addition, Fra-1 participates in PKC?-induced cell invasion and is necessary for PKC?-induced cell migration. In summary, we identified PKC? signalling as an important regulator of Fra-1 accumulation in ER- breast cancer cells. Moreover, our results suggest that PKC? could participate in progression of some breast cancers and could be a new therapeutic target.

Belguise, Karine; Milord, Sandrine; Galtier, Florence; Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Piechaczyk, Marc; Chalbos, Dany

2012-01-01

23

FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection.  

PubMed

Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called "normal" instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

Noto, Keith; Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

2012-01-01

24

Frequency of Fra X syndrome among institutionalized mentally retarded males in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Results of cytogenetic studies, performed in a group of 201 institutionalized mentally retarded males, are presented. At least two cytogenetic methods for eliciting the Xq27.3 fragile site, recommended by the Fourth International Workshop on the Fra X Syndrome were used. A subgroup of 67 out of 201 studied males was also examined using molecular methods. In 6 (2.9%) males fra X syndrome was diagnosed. All cytogenetic positive results were confirmed by molecular analysis. Five patients had full expansion CGG repeats and one had both premutation and full mutation. Postulated frequency of fra X syndrome in Polish population being 0.2-0.4 / 1,000 males seems to be lower than it could be expected on the basis of previous literature data. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Mazurczak, T.; Bocian, E.; Milewski, M. [National Research Inst. of Mother and Child, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others] [National Research Inst. of Mother and Child, Warsaw (Poland); and others

1996-07-12

25

Fra proteins influencing filament integrity, diazotrophy and localization of septal protein SepJ in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp.  

PubMed

Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can fix N(2) in differentiated cells called heterocysts, which exchange nutritional and regulatory compounds with the neighbouring photosynthetic vegetative cells. The cells in the filament appear to be joined by some protein structures, of which SepJ (FraG) that is located at the cell poles in the intercellular septa and is needed for filament integrity seems to be a component. Other known proteins required for filament integrity include FraC and FraH. Whereas fraC (alr2392) was constitutively expressed as an operon together with two downstream genes, alr2393 (fraD) and alr2394 (fraE), fraH (alr1603) was induced under nitrogen deprivation. Single mutants of these genes showed filament fragmentation under nitrogen deprivation and did not grow diazotrophically, although they formed heterocysts. The fraC and fraD mutants showed an impaired localization of SepJ at the intercellular septa and were hampered in the intercellular transfer of the fluorescent probe calcein. As shown with GFP fusions, FraC and FraD are also located at the intercellular septa. Therefore, at least three different proteins, SepJ, FraC and FraD, influence the architecture and function of the intercellular septa in the Anabaena filaments. PMID:20487302

Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Mariscal, Vicente; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

2010-03-01

26

The F8H Glycosyltransferase is a Functional Paralog of FRA8 Involved in Glucuronoxylan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis  

EPA Science Inventory

The FRAGILE FIBER8 gene was previously shown to be required for the biosynthesis of the reducing end tetrasaccharide sequence of glucuronoxylan (GX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrate that F8H, a close homolog of FRA8, is a functional ortholog of FRA8 involved in GX bi...

27

The inheritance of fragile sites: apparent absence of fra(2)(q13) in the parents of three unrelated probands.  

PubMed Central

We describe the inherited folate sensitive fragile site, fra(2)(q13), in three unrelated mentally retarded children, two of them with different forms of epilepsy. Fra(2)(q13) was detected in one healthy sib of one of the probands. Except for one cell in one of the fathers, fra(2)(q13) could not be detected in any of the six parents, who were repeatedly studied using methods known to induce fragile sites of this type. These findings suggest that fra(2)(q13) is not associated with the clinical features of our patients and can be transmitted by persons not expressing it. The expression of fra(2)(q13) may be age dependent. Images

Keskiaho, L; Knuutila, S; Pihko, H; Nuutila, A; Kaski, U; Koivikko, M; de la Chapelle, A

1987-01-01

28

The next generation high-speed rail technology program at FRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As authorized in the Swift Rail Development Act of 1994, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) may undertake activities for the improvement, adaptation, and integration of proven technologies for commercial application in high-speed passenger rail service in the US. Since the sole operator of intercity passenger rail service in the country, Amtrak, has initiated a program to complete the electrification of

R. McCown; T. Tsai

1995-01-01

29

Investigations on sensitivity of FRA method in diagnosis of interturn faults in transformer winding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents sensitivity of Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) method applied to detection of interturn faults. Frequency response has been carried out on a special Reduced Scale Traction Transformer (RSTT). The RSTT has the wound iron core and eight coils arranged in the \\

Andrzej Wilk; Dominik Adamczyk

2011-01-01

30

Uniparental disomy (UPD) for fra(X) in a 47,XXY male  

SciTech Connect

We report a 4-year-old hyperactive, mentally retarded male with 47,XXY and UPD for fra(X). Speech and motor delay were first noted at age 15 months. He has no dysmorphic features, normal ears, hyperextensible joints, small testes, and no history of seizures. His mother has prominent lowest ears, a long midface, anteverted nostrils, hyperextensible joints, malocclusion, and had learning problems in school. Routine chromosome analysis revealed the proband to be 47,XXY. Parental chromosomes were normal in number. The proband was fra(X) positive [30/160 cells, 18%]. No cells had two expressed fra(X)s; however, this may be a function of the low level of expression and the number of cells scored. Maternal cells were also fra(X) positive [19/205, 9.2%]. Southern analysis demonstrated the mother to be heterozygous for a methylated, full mutation (>220 repeats); her normal FMR-1 gene was disproportionately unmethylated. The proband had two fully expanded and methylated FMR-1 genes, one the same size as the maternal gene and the other >620 repeats. RFLP analysis revealed a maternal meiotic II error, the result of which was UPD of the X chromosome.

Torfs, C.P.; Christianson, R.E.; Amos, J.A.; Huang, X.L.; Kang, X.Z. [Center for Human Genetics Boston Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

31

Clinico-neurological investigations in the fra(X) form of mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical, neurological and electroencephalographic investigation was undertaken in 29 previously cytogenetically verified hemizygous males with the fra(X) form of mental retardation (age range 3.5 to 59 years); in addition, 6 heterozygous females were examined. All male patients displayed the known physical aspects of this syndrome together with associated abnormalities of the palate, skeleton, connective tissue and endocrine system. The

P. Vieregge; U. Froster-Iskenius

1989-01-01

32

FRA2A is a CGG repeat expansion associated with silencing of AFF3.  

PubMed

Folate-sensitive fragile sites (FSFS) are a rare cytogenetically visible subset of dynamic mutations. Of the eight molecularly characterized FSFS, four are associated with intellectual disability (ID). Cytogenetic expression results from CGG tri-nucleotide-repeat expansion mutation associated with local CpG hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. The best studied is the FRAXA site in the FMR1 gene, where large expansions cause fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited ID syndrome. Here we studied three families with FRA2A expression at 2q11 associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We identified a polymorphic CGG repeat in a conserved, brain-active alternative promoter of the AFF3 gene, an autosomal homolog of the X-linked AFF2/FMR2 gene: Expansion of the AFF2 CGG repeat causes FRAXE ID. We found that FRA2A-expressing individuals have mosaic expansions of the AFF3 CGG repeat in the range of several hundred repeat units. Moreover, bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing both suggest AFF3 promoter hypermethylation. cSNP-analysis demonstrates monoallelic expression of the AFF3 gene in FRA2A carriers thus predicting that FRA2A expression results in functional haploinsufficiency for AFF3 at least in a subset of tissues. By whole-mount in situ hybridization the mouse AFF3 ortholog shows strong regional expression in the developing brain, somites and limb buds in 9.5-12.5dpc mouse embryos. Our data suggest that there may be an association between FRA2A and a delay in the acquisition of motor and language skills in the families studied here. However, additional cases are required to firmly establish a causal relationship. PMID:24763282

Metsu, Sofie; Rooms, Liesbeth; Rainger, Jacqueline; Taylor, Martin S; Bengani, Hemant; Wilson, David I; Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Morrison, Harris; Vandeweyer, Geert; Reyniers, Edwin; Douglas, Evelyn; Thompson, Geoffrey; Haan, Eric; Gecz, Jozef; Fitzpatrick, David R; Kooy, R Frank

2014-04-01

33

FRA2A Is a CGG Repeat Expansion Associated with Silencing of AFF3  

PubMed Central

Folate-sensitive fragile sites (FSFS) are a rare cytogenetically visible subset of dynamic mutations. Of the eight molecularly characterized FSFS, four are associated with intellectual disability (ID). Cytogenetic expression results from CGG tri-nucleotide-repeat expansion mutation associated with local CpG hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. The best studied is the FRAXA site in the FMR1 gene, where large expansions cause fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited ID syndrome. Here we studied three families with FRA2A expression at 2q11 associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We identified a polymorphic CGG repeat in a conserved, brain-active alternative promoter of the AFF3 gene, an autosomal homolog of the X-linked AFF2/FMR2 gene: Expansion of the AFF2 CGG repeat causes FRAXE ID. We found that FRA2A-expressing individuals have mosaic expansions of the AFF3 CGG repeat in the range of several hundred repeat units. Moreover, bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing both suggest AFF3 promoter hypermethylation. cSNP-analysis demonstrates monoallelic expression of the AFF3 gene in FRA2A carriers thus predicting that FRA2A expression results in functional haploinsufficiency for AFF3 at least in a subset of tissues. By whole-mount in situ hybridization the mouse AFF3 ortholog shows strong regional expression in the developing brain, somites and limb buds in 9.5–12.5dpc mouse embryos. Our data suggest that there may be an association between FRA2A and a delay in the acquisition of motor and language skills in the families studied here. However, additional cases are required to firmly establish a causal relationship.

Metsu, Sofie; Rooms, Liesbeth; Rainger, Jacqueline; Taylor, Martin S.; Bengani, Hemant; Wilson, David I.; Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Morrison, Harris; Vandeweyer, Geert; Reyniers, Edwin; Douglas, Evelyn; Thompson, Geoffrey; Haan, Eric; Gecz, Jozef; FitzPatrick, David R.; Kooy, R. Frank

2014-01-01

34

Activator Protein 1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) is dispensable for murine liver fibrosis, but modulates xenobiotic metabolism.  

PubMed

The Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor subunit Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) has been implicated in liver fibrosis. Here we used loss-of-function as well as switchable, cell type-specific, gain-of-function alleles for Fra-1 to investigate the relevance of Fra-1 expression in cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis. Our results indicate that Fra-1 is dispensable in three well-established, complementary models of liver fibrosis. However, broad Fra-1 expression in adult mice results in liver fibrosis, which is reversible, when ectopic Fra-1 is switched off. Interestingly, hepatocyte-specific Fra-1 expression is not sufficient to trigger the disease, although Fra-1 expression leads to dysregulation of fibrosis-associated genes. Both opn and cxcl9 are controlled by Fra-1 in gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments. Importantly, Fra-1 attenuates liver damage in the 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-feeding cholestatic liver injury model. Strikingly, manipulating Fra-1 expression affects genes involved in hepatic transport and detoxification, in particular glutathione S-transferases. Molecular analyses indicate that Fra-1 binds to the promoters of cxcl9 and gstp1 in vivo. Furthermore, loss of Fra-1 sensitizes, while hepatic Fra-1 expression protects from acetaminophen-induced liver damage, a paradigm for glutathione-mediated acute liver failure. Conclusion: These data define a novel function of Fra-1/AP-1 in modulating the expression of detoxification genes and the adaptive response of the liver to bile acids/xenobiotic overload. PMID:23703832

Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Bakiri, Latifa; Thomsen, Martin K; Hamacher, Rainer; Wagner, Erwin F

2014-01-01

35

49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards. 229.207 Section...STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.207 New...

2013-10-01

36

49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards. 229.207 Section...STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.207 New...

2009-10-01

37

Cancer-Specific Chromosome Alterations in the Constitutive Fragile Region FRA3B  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have sequenced 870 kilobases of the FHIT\\/FRA3B locus, from FHIT intron 3 to intron 7. The locus is AT rich (61.5%) and Alu poor (6.2%), and it apparently does not harbor other genes. In a detailed analysis of the 308-kilobase region between FHIT exon 5 and the telomeric end of intron 3, a region known to encompass a human

Koshi Mimori; Teresa Druck; Hiroshi Inoue; Hansjuerg Alder; Lori Berk; Masaki Mori; Kay Huebner; Carlo M. Croce

1999-01-01

38

Replication stress induces tumor-like microdeletions in FHIT\\/FRA3B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common fragile sites (CFSs) are loci that preferentially exhibit metaphase chromosome gaps and breaks after partial inhibition of DNA synthesis. The fragile site FRA3B, which lies within the FHIT tumor-suppressor gene, is a site of frequent heterozygous and homozygous deletions in many cancer cells and precancerous lesions. The great majority of FHIT and other CFS-associated gene rearrangements in tumors are

Sandra G. Durkin; Ryan L. Ragland; Martin F. Arlt; Jennifer G. Mulle; Stephen T. Warren; Thomas W. Glover

2008-01-01

39

Chromosomal fragile site, FRA16A: Implications for fragile site genesis  

SciTech Connect

Fragile sites are chemically induced non-staining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. The fragile sites sequenced to date (FRAXA and FRAXE) are rare, folate sensitive sites located on the X chromosomes. They have similar DNA sequence composition of a p(CCG)n repeat adjacent to a methylatable CpG island. Individuals expressing the fragile site have an unstable expanded repeat and methylation of the adjacent CpG island. FRAXA is associated with the most common form of familial mental retardation, Fragile X Syndrome. In order to further understand the relationship between the DNA sequence composition, position in the genome, and the chemistry of induction of fragile sites, we have characterized the rare, folate sensitive fragile site on human chromosome 16 referred to as FRA16A. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)n repeat. This repeat was adjacent to a CpG island that was methylated in fragile-site-expressing individuals. The FRA16A locus in individuals who do not express the fragile site is not a site of DNA methylation (imprinting) which suggests that the methylation associated with fragile sites may be a consequence and not a cause of their genesis. We have analyzed the normal repeat copy numbers for the fragile site p(CCG)n repeats in European, Japanese and Indian populations. While the FRAXA and FRAXE repeats show similar distributions of copy numbers, the FRA16A p(CCG)n repeat in Europeans has a greater range and number of alleles (23.7% have n>25) than its Japanese and Indian counterparts. In conjunction with our previous data demonstrating linkage disequilibrium (founder chromosomes) at the FRAXA locus, these data suggest that certain p(CCG)n repeats are inherently unstable.

Richards, R.I.; Nancarrow, J.K.; Mangelsdorf, M. [Women`s and Children`s Hospital, North Adelaide (Australia)] [and others

1994-09-01

40

All-fra\\/is-retinoic Acid Inhibits the Growth of Human RhabdomyosarcomaCell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been evaluating the role of all-fra\\/w-retinoic acid (RA) in the differentiation and growth of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines. Treatment of both embryonal (RD) and alveolar (RH30) human RMS cell lines with all-f ranv-KA resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth with a maximal inhibition of 92 and 66%, respectively, at 5 x 10~* M. When 13-cw-RA

Gary D. Crouch; Lee J. Helman

1991-01-01

41

Positions of Chromosome 3pl'L2 Fragile Sites (FRA3B) within the FHIT Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FHIT gene spans approximately 1 Mb of DNA at chromosome band 3p14.2, which includes the famffial renal ceHcarcinoma chromosome translocation breakpoint (between FHIT exons 3 and 4), the most Ire quently expressed human constitutive chromosomal fragile site (FRA3B, telomeric to the t(3;8) translocation), and numerous homozygousdeletions in various human cancers, frequently involving FHIT exon 5. The FRA3B has previously

Drazen B. Zimonjic; Teresa Druck; Masataka Ohta; Kumar Kastury; Carlo M. Croce; Nicholas C. Popescu; Kay Huebner

42

Aphidicolin-induced FRA3B breakpoints cluster in two distinct regions  

SciTech Connect

The common fragile site at chromosomal band 3p14.2 (FRA313) is the most sensitive single site in the human genome to induced chromosomal lesions. This fragile site may predispose chromosome 3p to breakage that is commonly observed in lung, renal, and many other cancers. We previously used aphidicolin induction of FRA3B expression in a chromosome 3-only somatic cell hybrid to generate a series of hybrids with breakpoints in the 3p14.2 region. These breakpoints were localized to two distinct clusters, separated by 200 kb, that lie on either side of a region of frequent breakage within FRA3B as observed by FISH analysis. Seven proximal aphidicolin-induced breakpoints were localized at or near the end of a THE element. The THE-1 element is flanked by LINE and Alu repetitive elements. The eight distal aphidicolin-induced breakpoints clustered in a region capable of forming multiple hairpin-like structures. Thus repetitive elements and hairpin-like structures may be responsible for chromosome fragility in this region. 21 refs., 2 figs.

Wang, Liang; Smith, D.I. [Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)] [Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Paradee, W. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others] [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); and others

1997-05-01

43

The strawberry pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) Fra a proteins control flavonoid biosynthesis by binding to metabolic intermediates.  

PubMed

Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins are involved in many aspects of plant biology but their molecular function is still unclear. They are related by sequence and structural homology to mammalian lipid transport and plant abscisic acid receptor proteins and are predicted to have cavities for ligand binding. Recently, three new members of the PR-10 family, the Fra a proteins, have been identified in strawberry, where they are required for the activity of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which is essential for the development of color and flavor in fruits. Here, we show that Fra a proteins bind natural flavonoids with different selectivity and affinities in the low ?m range. The structural analysis of Fra a 1 E and a Fra a 3-catechin complex indicates that loops L3, L5, and L7 surrounding the ligand-binding cavity show significant flexibility in the apo forms but close over the ligand in the Fra a 3-catechin complex. Our findings provide mechanistic insight on the function of Fra a proteins and suggest that PR-10 proteins, which are widespread in plants, may play a role in the control of secondary metabolic pathways by binding to metabolic intermediates. PMID:24133217

Casañal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Muñoz, Cristina; Dupeux, Florine; Luque, Irene; Botella, Miguel Angel; Schwab, Wilfried; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, José A

2013-12-01

44

Osteoblast-specific expression of Fra-2/AP-1 controls adiponectin and osteocalcin expression and affects metabolism.  

PubMed

Recent studies have established that the skeleton functions as an endocrine organ affecting metabolism through the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin (Ocn). However, it is not fully understood how many transcription factors expressed in osteoblasts regulate the endocrine function. Here, we show that mice with osteoblast-specific deletion of Fra-2 (Fosl2) have low bone mass but increased body weight. In contrast, transgenic expression of Fra-2 in osteoblasts leads to increased bone mass and decreased body weight accompanied by reduced serum glucose and insulin levels, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, mice lacking Fra-2 have reduced levels of circulating Ocn, but high adiponectin (Adipoq), whereas Fra-2 transgenic mice exhibit high Ocn and low Adipoq levels. Moreover, we found that Adipoq was expressed in osteoblasts and that this expression was transcriptionally repressed by Fra-2. These results demonstrate that Fra-2 expression in osteoblasts represents a novel paradigm for a transcription factor controlling the endocrine function of the skeleton. PMID:24046454

Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Rosen, Evan D; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Schett, Georg; Amling, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

2013-12-01

45

Replication of a common fragile site, FRA3B, occurs late in S phase and is delayed further upon induction: implications for the mechanism of fragile site induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FRA3B at 3p14.2 is the most highly expressed of the common fragile sites observed when DNA repli- cation is perturbed by aphidicolin or folate stress. The molecular basis for chromosome fragility at FRA3B is unknown. In contrast to the rare fragile sites, including FRAXA, no repeat motifs, such as trinucleotide re- peats, have been identified within FRA3B. Several lines

Michelle M. Le Beau; Feyruz V. Rassool; Mary E. Neilly; Rafael Espinosa; Thomas W. Glover; David I. Smith; Timothy W. McKeithan

1998-01-01

46

Pores of the toxin FraC assemble into 2D hexagonal clusters in both crystal structures and model membranes.  

PubMed

The recent high-resolution structure of the toxin FraC derived from the sea anemone Actinia fragacea has provided new insight into the mechanism of pore formation by actinoporins. In this work, we report two new crystal forms of FraC in its oligomeric prepore conformation. Together with the previously reported structure, these two new structures reveal that ring-like nonamers of the toxin assemble into compact two-dimensional hexagonal arrays. This supramolecular organization is maintained in different relative orientations adopted by the oligomers within the crystal layers. Analyses of the aggregation of FraC pores in both planar and curved (vesicles) model membranes show similar 2D hexagonal arrangements. Our observations support a model in which hexagonal pore-packing is a clustering mechanism that maximizes toxin-driven membrane damage in the target cell. PMID:22728830

Mechaly, Ariel E; Bellomio, Augusto; Morante, Koldo; Agirre, Jon; Gil-Cartón, David; Valle, Mikel; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel; Guérin, Diego M A

2012-11-01

47

c-Jun, Fra2, and ATF-2 Immunoreactivity in the Jejunal Tissues of the Healthy Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the localization of some activator protein-1 (AP-1) proteins in healthy rat jejunum.\\u000a For this purpose, the AP-1 members c-Jun, Fra-2, and ATF-2 immunoreactivity (c-Jun-IR, Fra-2-IR, ATF-2-IR) in villus epithelial\\u000a cells (ECs), intravillous lamina propria cells (LPCs), crypt cells (CCs), and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were analyzed by\\u000a immunohistochemical methods. Among all the

Nurullah Keklikoglu

2008-01-01

48

The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe-2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation†  

PubMed Central

The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in S. cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which they control Aft1 localization are unclear. To reconstitute and characterize components of this signaling pathway in vitro, we have overexpressed yeast Fra2 and Grx3/4 in E. coli. We have shown that co-expression of recombinant Fra2 with Grx3 or Grx4 allows purification of a stable [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster-containing Fra2-Grx3 or Fra2-Grx4 heterodimeric complex. Reconstitution of a [2Fe-2S] cluster on Grx3 or Grx4 without Fra2 produces a [2Fe-2S]-bridged homodimer. UV-visible absorption and CD, resonance Raman, EPR, ENDOR, Mössbauer, and EXAFS studies of [2Fe-2S] Grx3/4 homodimers and the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3/4 heterodimers indicate that inclusion of Fra2 in the Grx3/4 Fe-S complex causes a change in the cluster stability and coordination environment. Taken together, our analytical, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 form a Fe-S-bridged heterodimeric complex with Fe ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. Overall, these results suggest that the ability of the Fra2-Grx3/4 complex to assemble a [2Fe-2S] cluster may act as a signal to control the iron regulon in response to cellular iron status in yeast.

Li, Haoran; Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Dingra, Nin N.; Naik, Sunil G.; Lees, Nicolas S.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela J.; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K.; Outten, Caryn E.

2009-01-01

49

Evidence against close linkage of the loci for fraXq of Martin-Bell syndrome and for factor IX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage between the loci for fraXq of Martin-Bell syndrome and factor IX was studied in nine families exhibiting this syndrome by means of a restriction fragment length polymorphism at the factor IX locus. Computer analysis of the data indicates there to be no evidence for close linkage between the syndrome and the factor IX locus.

B. Zoll; J. Arnemann; M. Krawczak; D. N. Cooper; G. Pescia; W. Wahli; P. Steinbach; J. Schmidtke

1985-01-01

50

Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

2013-10-01

51

FRA2 Is a STAT5 Target Gene Regulated by IL-2 in Human CD4 T Cells  

PubMed Central

Signal transducers and activators of transcription 5(STAT5) are cytokine induced signaling proteins, which regulate key immunological processes, such as tolerance induction, maintenance of homeostasis, and CD4 T-effector cell differentiation. In this study, transcriptional targets of STAT5 in CD4 T cells were studied by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Genomic mapping of the sites cloned and identified in this study revealed the striking observation that the majority of STAT5-binding sites mapped to intergenic (>50 kb upstream) or intronic, rather than promoter proximal regions. Of the 105 STAT5 responsive binding sites identified, 94% contained the canonical (IFN-? activation site) GAS motifs. A number of putative target genes identified here are associated with tumor biology. Here, we identified Fos-related antigen 2 (FRA2) as a transcriptional target of IL-2 regulated STAT5. FRA2 is a basic -leucine zipper (bZIP) motif ‘Fos’ family transcription factor that is part of the AP-1 transcription factor complex and is also known to play a critical role in the progression of human tumours and more recently as a determinant of T cell plasticity. The binding site mapped to an internal intron within the FRA2 gene. The epigenetic architecture of FRA2, characterizes a transcriptionally active promoter as indicated by enrichment for histone methylation marks H3K4me1, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, and transcription/elongation associated marks H2BK5me1 and H4K20me1. FRA2 is regulated by IL-2 in activated CD4 T cells. Consistently, STAT5 bound to GAS sequence in the internal intron of FRA2 and reporter gene assays confirmed IL-2 induced STAT5 binding and transcriptional activation. Furthermore, addition of JAK3 inhibitor (R333) or Daclizumab inhibited the induction in TCR stimulated cells. Taken together, our data suggest that FRA2 is a novel STAT5 target gene, regulated by IL-2 in activated CD4 T cells.

Rani, Aradhana; Greenlaw, Roseanna; Runglall, Manohursingh; Jurcevic, Stipo; John, Susan

2014-01-01

52

Sedimentology of clastic rocks from the Fra Mauro region of the moon.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin-section examination of sixteen clastic rock samples returned by the Apollo 14 mission from the Fra Mauro region of the moon suggests the presence of at least two distinctly different lithologies. Five of the samples (group I) are characterized by an abundant glassy matrix and glass particles and lesser amounts of plagioclase and pyroxene grains, and lithic clasts. The other eleven samples (group II) are relatively fine grained, very poorly sorted, and consist largely of pyroxene, plagioclase, and lithic clasts set in an abundant mineralic matrix. Group I and II lithologies were probably both deposited from impact generated base surges. The differences between them stem not as much from the basic sedimentary processes as from the differences in the magnitude of the events generating the base surges and the resultant difference in available detrital materials.

Lindsay, J. F.

1972-01-01

53

Breakages at common fragile sites set boundaries of amplified regions in two leukemia cell lines K562 - Molecular characterization of FRA2H and localization of a new CFS FRA2S.  

PubMed

Genome amplification is often observed in human tumors. The breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle is the mechanism that often underlies duplicated regions. Some research has indicated common fragile sites (CFS) as possible sites of chromosome breakages at the origin of BFB cycles. Here we searched two human genome regions known as amplification hot spots for any DNA copy number amplifications by analyzing 21 cancer cell lines to investigate the relationship between genomic fragility and amplification. We identified a duplicated region on a chromosomes der(2) present in the karyotype of two analysed leukemia cell lines K562. The two duplicated regions are organized into large palindromes, which suggests that one BFB cycle has occurred. Our findings show that the three breakpoints are localized in the sequence of three CFSs: FRA2H (2q32.1-q32.2), which here has been characterized molecularly; FRA2S (2q22.3-q23.3), a newly localized aphidicolin inducible CFS; and FRA2G (2q24.3-q31). PMID:20851513

Pelliccia, Franca; Bosco, Nazario; Rocchi, Angela

2010-12-18

54

In cardiac myoblasts, cellular redox regulates FosB and Fra-1 through multiple cis-regulatory modules.  

PubMed

Depending on the dose, norepineprine (NE) can induce hypertrophy or apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in mediating both responses, but the mechanisms are not understood as yet. Earlier we demonstrated that the two pathways are marked by the differential induction of FosB and Fra-1, two members of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. We now demonstrate that NE induces both fosB and fra-1 at the transcriptional level. Catalase and MnTMPyP (a superoxide dismutase mimetic) suppress their activation by NE. In contrast, in cells without NE treatment, MnTMPyP upregulates their expression, whereas catalase inhibits it. Thus, regulation of fosB and fra-1 by ROS is context specific. To delineate the mechanisms, the 1493- and 2689-bp upstream regions of the fosB and fra-1 genes were cloned into the luciferase vector and assayed for transient expression. Catalase and MnTMPyP regulated both promoters the same as their endogenous counterparts in NE-treated and untreated cells. Deletion, mutation, and ChIP analyses suggested that multiple cis-elements including SP-1, CEBP, and AP-1 in the fosB promoter make discrete contributions to mediating the redox response. A gel mobility-shift-based oxidation-reduction assay suggested that, whereas SP-1 is a direct sensor of cellular redox state, CEBP is not. This study suggests that multiple redox signals generate gene-specific modules affecting their expression. PMID:21820506

Jindal, Ekta; Goswami, Shyamal K

2011-10-15

55

Gene expression profiling in prostate cancer cells with Akt activation reveals Fra-1 as an Akt-inducible gene.  

PubMed

To determine which genes may be regulated by Akt and participate in the transformation of cells, we have examined by microarray analyses genes turned on in the prostate cancer cell line, PC3, when Akt activity was induced. PC3 cells, which lack the lipid phosphatase PTEN, were treated overnight with a reversible inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, LY294002 (a treatment which was found to reversibly decrease Akt enzymatic activity). The inhibitor was then washed out and mRNA collected 2, 6, and 10 h later and compared by microarray analyses with mRNAs present immediately after removal of the inhibitor. One of the identified induced mRNAs, Fra-1, was further studied by transient transfections of a reporter construct containing its 5' regulatory region. This construct was found to be directly induced 4- to 5-fold by co-transfection with constitutively active Akt3 but not kinase dead Akt. The regulation by Akt3 was found to be due to two specific regions in the Fra-1 regulatory sequence which match Sp1 consensus sites. Finally, gel shift studies showed that the binding of Sp1 to one of these sites was dependent on the PI 3-kinase pathway. These results indicate that LY294002 treatment and washout is a useful method to study the activation of Akt in the context of a tumor cell. Moreover, the identification of Fra-1 as an Akt-regulated gene may have implications for the ability of Akt to transform cells since Fra-1 has been implicated in cell growth and the aggressiveness of tumors. PMID:12692267

Tiwari, Gunjan; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Pollack, Jonathan R; Roth, Richard A

2003-04-01

56

ATF3 and Fra1 have opposite functions in JNK and ERK-dependent DNA damage responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

JNK and ERK MAP kinases regulate cellular responses to genotoxic stress in a cell type and cell context-dependent manner. However, the factors that determine and execute JNK- and ERK-controlled stress responses are only partly known. In this study, we investigate the roles of the AP-1 components ATF3 and Fra1 in JNK- and ERK-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We show

Mohamed Hamdi; Herman E. Popeijus; Françoise Carlotti; Josephine M. Janssen; Corina van der Burgt; Paulien Cornelissen-Steijger; Bob van de Water; Rob C. Hoeben; Koichi Matsuo; Hans van Dam

2008-01-01

57

Matrix attachment region (MAR) properties and abnormal expansion of AT island minisatellites in FRA16B fragile sites in leukemic CEM cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT-rich minisatellites (AT islands) are sites of genomic instability in cancer cells and targets for extremely lethal AT-specific drugs, such as biz- elesin. Here we investigated the AT islands in the FRA16B fragile site region for their possible roles in the organization of DNA on the nuclear matrix. The FRA16B AT island nominally spans ~3 kb of mostly >90% A\\/T

Jennifer A. Jackson; Alex V. Trevino; Maryanne C. Herzig; Terence S. Herman; Jan M. Woynarowski

2003-01-01

58

UCSD/FRA non-contact ultrasonic guided-wave system for rail inspection: an update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail defect detection. A prototype has been designed and field tested with the support of Volpe National Transportation Systems Center and ENSCO, Inc. The goal of this project is to develop a rail defect detection system that provides (a) better defect detection reliability (including internal transverse head defects under shelling and vertical split head defects), and (b) higher inspection speed than achievable by current rail inspection systems. This effort is also in direct response to Safety Recommendations issued by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) following the disastrous train derailments at Superior, WI in 1992 and Oneida, NY in 2007 among others. The UCSD prototype uses non-contact ultrasonic probing of the rail head (laser and air-coupled), ultrasonic guided waves, and a proprietary real-time statistical analysis algorithm that maximizes the sensitivity to defects while minimizing false positives. The current design allows potential inspection speeds up to 40 mph, although all field tests have been conducted up to 15 mph so far. This paper summarizes (a) the latest technology development test conducted at the rail defect farm of Herzog, Inc. in St Joseph, MO in June 2010, and (b) the completion of the new Rail Defect Farm facility at the UCSD Camp Elliott Field Station with partial in-kind donations from the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway.

Coccia, Stefano; Phillips, Robert; Nucera, Claudio; Bartoli, Ivan; Salamone, Salvatore; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Fateh, Mahmood; Carr, Gary

2011-03-01

59

A novel combination: ranpirnase and rosiglitazone induce a synergistic apoptotic effect by down-regulating Fra-1 and Survivin in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence supports the idea that two known phosphatidylinositol 3?-Kinase (PI3K) downstream proteins, Fra-1 and Survivin, are potential targets for cancer therapy. Increased expression of Fra-1, a Fos family member of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), has been implicated in both the maintenance and progression of the transformed state of several cancer cells. In addition, high Survivin expression in tumors correlates with more aggressive behavior, lower response to chemotherapeutic drugs, and shortened survival time. Previously, we reported that in malignant mesothelioma cells with increased PI3K activity, small molecule inhibitors of the (PI3K)/AKT pathway acted cooperatively with the amphibian ribonuclease chemotherapeutic drug ranpirnase to inhibit cell growth. Because the thiazolidinedione (TZD) anti-diabetic drug, rosiglitazone, targets the PI3K/AKT pathway, we investigated the effect of the combination of these two drugs in cell survival in several cancer cell lines. We show here that the combination of ranpirnase and rosiglitazone synergistically decreases cell viability and increases cell apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. Cell killing is associated with decreased Fra-1 and Survivin expression and knock-down of Fra-1 increases cell killing by ranpirnase in a dose-dependent manner, but not by rosiglitazone. The drug combination does not have a synergistic effect on killing in Fra-1 knock-down cells, demonstrating that Fra-1 modulation accounts in part for the synergism. The novel drug combination of ranpirnase and rosiglitazone is a promising combination to treat cancers with increased PI3K-dependent Fra-1 expression or Survivin.

Ramos-Nino, Maria E; Littenberg, Benjamin

2008-01-01

60

A novel combination: ranpirnase and rosiglitazone induce a synergistic apoptotic effect by down-regulating Fra-1 and Survivin in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence supports the idea that two known phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) downstream proteins, Fra-1 and Survivin, are potential targets for cancer therapy. Increased expression of Fra-1, a Fos family member of the transcription factor activator protein-1, has been implicated in both the maintenance and the progression of the transformed state of several cancer cells. In addition, high Survivin expression in tumors correlates with more aggressive behavior, lower response to chemotherapeutic drugs, and shortened survival time. Previously, we reported that, in malignant mesothelioma cells with increased PI3K activity, small-molecule inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT pathway acted cooperatively with the amphibian RNase chemotherapeutic drug ranpirnase to inhibit cell growth. Because the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone targets the PI3K/AKT pathway, we investigated the effect of the combination of these two drugs in cell survival in several cancer cell lines. We show here that the combination of ranpirnase and rosiglitazone synergistically decreases cell viability and increases cell apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. Cell killing is associated with decreased Fra-1 and Survivin expression and knockdown of Fra-1 increases cell killing by ranpirnase in a dose-dependent manner but not by rosiglitazone. The drug combination does not have a synergistic effect on killing in Fra-1 knockdown cells, showing that Fra-1 modulation accounts in part for the synergism. The novel drug combination of ranpirnase and rosiglitazone is a promising combination to treat cancers with increased PI3K-dependent Fra-1 expression or Survivin. PMID:18606715

Ramos-Nino, Maria E; Littenberg, Benjamin

2008-07-01

61

Fra(X)(q27.2), the common fragile site, observed in only one of 760 cases studied for the fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Cell cultures from 760 whole blood, amniotic fluid, chorionic villus sample, and peripheral umbilical blood sample specimens were exposed to multiple fra(X)(q27.3) induction systems (none had aphidicolin). Fifty-three exhibited the rare fragile site, fra(X)(q27.3) or FRAXA, none of which demonstrated the common fragile site or FRAXD at band Xq27.2. Only one cell in one of the negative whole blood FUdR-treated cultures from a mentally retarded male showed FRAXD. Therefore, it appears that FRAXD occurs very rarely in cultures treated to induce FRAXA since only one positive cell was observed in over 88,000 analyzed. It appears that very low frequencies of fra(X)(q27) can be accounted for only in part by the presence of the common fragile site since only one of 9 cases, each with one fra(X)(q27) positive cell, exhibited FRAXD and the others were FRAXA. After confirmation of FRAXA with direct DNA testing in a large number of low frequency cases, it should be possible to rely on the detection of very low frequencies of fra(X)(q27.3), e.g., 1% with at least 2 positive cells. PMID:1605182

Jenkins, E C; Genovese, M J; Duncan, C J; Gu, H; Stark-Houck, S L; Lele, K; Li, S Y; Krawczun, M S

62

Neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells requires the junB and fra-1 gene induction which is dependent on the HMGI-C gene product.  

PubMed

The expression of the high mobility group I (HMGI)-C chromatin component was shown previously to be essential for the establishment of the neoplastic phenotype in retrovirally transformed thyroid cell lines. To identify possible targets of the HMGI-C gene product, we have analyzed the AP-1 complex in normal, fully transformed and antisense HMGI-C-expressing rat thyroid cells. We show that neoplastic transformation is associated with a drastic increase in AP-1 activity, which reflects multiple compositional changes. The strongest effect is represented by the dramatic junB and fra-1 gene induction, which is prevented in cell lines expressing the antisense HMGI-C. These results indicate that the HMGI-C gene product is essential for the junB and fra-1 transcriptional induction associated with neoplastic transformation. The inhibition of Fra-1 protein synthesis by stable transfection with a fra-1 antisense RNA vector significantly reduces the malignant phenotype of the transformed thyroid cells, indicating a pivotal role for the fra-1 gene product in the process of cellular transformation. PMID:9311991

Vallone, D; Battista, S; Pierantoni, G M; Fedele, M; Casalino, L; Santoro, M; Viglietto, G; Fusco, A; Verde, P

1997-09-01

63

Neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells requires the junB and fra-1 gene induction which is dependent on the HMGI-C gene product.  

PubMed Central

The expression of the high mobility group I (HMGI)-C chromatin component was shown previously to be essential for the establishment of the neoplastic phenotype in retrovirally transformed thyroid cell lines. To identify possible targets of the HMGI-C gene product, we have analyzed the AP-1 complex in normal, fully transformed and antisense HMGI-C-expressing rat thyroid cells. We show that neoplastic transformation is associated with a drastic increase in AP-1 activity, which reflects multiple compositional changes. The strongest effect is represented by the dramatic junB and fra-1 gene induction, which is prevented in cell lines expressing the antisense HMGI-C. These results indicate that the HMGI-C gene product is essential for the junB and fra-1 transcriptional induction associated with neoplastic transformation. The inhibition of Fra-1 protein synthesis by stable transfection with a fra-1 antisense RNA vector significantly reduces the malignant phenotype of the transformed thyroid cells, indicating a pivotal role for the fra-1 gene product in the process of cellular transformation.

Vallone, D; Battista, S; Pierantoni, G M; Fedele, M; Casalino, L; Santoro, M; Viglietto, G; Fusco, A; Verde, P

1997-01-01

64

Old Players with a Newly Defined Function: Fra-1 and c-Fos Support Growth of Human Malignant Breast Tumors by Activating Membrane Biogenesis at the Cytoplasm  

PubMed Central

A shared characteristic of tumor cells is their exacerbated growth. Consequently, tumor cells demand high rates of phospholipid synthesis required for membrane biogenesis to support their growth. c-Fos, in addition to its AP-1 transcription factor activity, is the only protein known up to date that is capable of activating lipid synthesis in normal and brain tumor tissue. For this latter activity, c-Fos associates to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through its N-terminal domain and activates phospholipid synthesis, an event that requires it Basic Domain (BD) (aa 139–159). Fra-1, another member of the FOS family of proteins, is over-expressed in human breast cancer cells and its BD is highly homologous to that of c-Fos with two conservative substitutions in its basic amino acids. Consequently, herein we examined if Fra-1 and/or c-Fos participate in growth of breast cancer cells by activating phospholipid synthesis as found previously for c-Fos in brain tumors. We found both Fra-1 and c-Fos over-expressed in >95% of human ductal breast carcinoma biopsies examined contrasting with the very low or undetectable levels in normal tissue. Furthermore, both proteins associate to the ER and activate phospholipid synthesis in cultured MCF7 and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells and in human breast cancer samples. Stripping tumor membranes of Fra-1 and c-Fos prior to assaying their lipid synthesis capacity in vitro results in non-activated lipid synthesis levels that are restored to their initial activated state by addition of Fra-1 and/or c-Fos to the assays. In MDA-MB231 cells primed to proliferate, blocking Fra-1 and c-Fos with neutralizing antibodies blocks lipid-synthesis activation and cells do not proliferate. Taken together, these results disclose the cytoplasmic activity of Fra-1 and c-Fos as potential targets for controlling growth of breast carcinomas by decreasing the rate of membrane biogenesis required for growth.

Motrich, Ruben D.; Castro, Gonzalo M.; Caputto, Beatriz L.

2013-01-01

65

Chagas disease-specific antigens: characterization of epitopes in CRA/FRA by synthetic peptide mapping and evaluation by ELISA-peptide assay  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of epitopes in proteins recognized by medically relevant antibodies is useful for the development of peptide-based diagnostics and vaccines. In this study, epitopes in the cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi were identified using synthetic peptide techniques and pooled sera from Chagasic patients. The epitopes were further assayed with an ELISA assay based on synthetic peptides. Methods Twenty-two overlapping synthetic peptides representing the coding sequence of the T. cruzi CRA and FRA proteins were assessed by a Spot-synthesis array analysis using sera donated by patients with Chagas disease. Shorter peptides were selected that represented the determined epitopes and synthesized by solid phase synthesis to evaluate the patterns of cross-reactivities and discrimination through an ELISA-diagnostic assay. Results The peptide Spot-synthesis array successfully identified two IgG antigenic determinants in the CRA protein and four in FRA. Bioinformatics suggested that the CRA antigens were unique to T. cruzi while the FRA antigen showed similarity with sequences present within various proteins from Leishmania sp. Subsequently, shorter peptides representing the CRA-1, CRA-2 and FRA-1 epitopes were synthesized by solid phase synthesis and assayed by an ELISA-diagnostic assay. The CRA antigens gave a high discrimination between Chagasic, Leishmaniasis and T. cruzi-uninfected serum. A sensitivity and specificity of 100% was calculated for CRA. While the FRA antigen showed a slightly lower sensitivity (91.6%), its specificity was only 60%. Conclusions The epitopes recognized by human anti-T. cruzi antibodies have been precisely located in two biomarkers of T. cruzi, CRA and FRA. The results from screening a panel of patient sera through an ELISA assay based on peptides representing these epitopes strongly suggest that the sequences from CRA would be useful for the development of diagnostic reagents that could improve upon the sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests. Overall, the results provide further evidence of the usefulness of identifying specific linear B-cell epitopes for improving diagnostic tools.

2013-01-01

66

In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

Jerde, E. A.; Morris, R. V.; Warren, P. H.

1990-04-01

67

In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

1990-01-01

68

A comparison of forest cover maps in Mainland Southeast Asia from multiple sources: PALSAR, MERIS, MODIS and FRA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainty in tracking tropical forest extent and changes substantially affects our assessment of the consequences of forest change on the global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Recently cloud-free imagery useful for tropical forest mapping from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has become available. We used PALSAR 50-m Orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 and a decision tree method to conduct land cover classification and generate a 2009 forest map, which was evaluated using 2106 field photos from the Global Geo-referenced Field Photo Library (http://www.eomf.ou.edu/photos). The resulting land cover classification had a high overall accuracy of 93.3 % and a Kappa Coefficient of 0.9. The PALSAR-based forest map was then compared with three existing forest cover products at three scales (regional, national, and continental): the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments (FRA) 2010, Global Land Cover Map with MERIS (GlobCover) 2009, and the MODIS Terra + Aqua Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1) 2009. The intercomparison results show that these four forest datasets differ. The PALSAR-based forest area estimate is within the range (6.1 ~ 9.0 ×105 km2) of the other three products and closest to the FAO FRA 2010 estimate. The spatial disagreements of the PALSAR-based forest, MCD12Q1 forest and GlobCover forest are evident; however, the PALSAR-based forest map provides more detail (50-m spatial resolution) and high accuracy (the Producer's and the User's Accuracies were 88 % and 95 %, respectively) and PALSAR can be used to evaluate MCD12Q1 2009 and GlobCover 2009 forest maps. Given the higher spatial resolution, PALSAR-based forest products could further improve the modeling accuracy of carbon cycle in tropical forests.

Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Sheldon, S. L.; Biradar, C. M.; Duong, N. D.; Hazarika, M.

2012-12-01

69

Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A Promotes Invasion of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells through ERK/Fra-1-Mediated Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly metastatic, and this malignant feature may be promoted by an EBV oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A). Acting as a signal regulator, LMP2A can enhance invasiveness and motility of epithelial cells. Downstream from the LMP2A-triggered signaling events, it is largely unknown what key effector proteins are induced and essentially promote cell invasion. In the present study, we found that in NPC cells, LMP2A upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a metastasis-associated protease. LMP2A increased MMP9 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. It also activated the MMP9 promoter, in which two AP-1 elements were required for the promoter activation. Among AP-1 transcription factors, Fra-1 was induced by LMP2A and is essential for LMP2A-triggered MMP9 expression. Induction of Fra-1 was dependent on the LMP2A-activated ERK1/2 pathway, and induction of the ERK1/2–Fra-1–MMP9 axis required PY motifs in the amino-terminal domain of LMP2A. Notably, LMP2A-promoted invasion of NPC cells was blocked when MMP9 expression, Fra-1 induction, or ERK1/2 activation was inhibited. In addition, we found an association of LMP2A with MMP9 expression in NPC tumor biopsy specimens, where Fra-1 was a major mediation factor. This study reveals an underlying mechanism of LMP2A-induced cell invasion, from signal transduction to upregulation of a critical protease. Considering that MMP9 can also be upregulated by another EBV oncoprotein, LMP1, this protease may be a pivotal effector at which the EBV-induced, invasion-promoting mechanisms converge, serving as an attractive therapeutic target for NPC treatment.

Lan, Yu-Yan; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Chang, Jeffrey Shu-Ming; Chen, Chaio-Wei; Lai, Hsiao-Ching; Wu, Shih-Yi; Yeh, Tzu-Hao; Chang, Fang-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen

2012-01-01

70

A 350-kb Cosmid Contig in 3p14.2 That Crosses the t(3;8) Hereditary Renal Cell Carcinoma Translocation Breakpoint and 17 Aphidicolin-Induced FRA3B Breakpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constitutive fragile site at human chromosomal band 3p14.2, FRA3B, has been described as the most active common fragile site in the human genome. FRA3B is cytologically indistinguishable from the chromosome 3 breakpoint observed in the hereditary renal cell carcinoma (hRCC) translocation t(3;8) (p14.2;q24.13). Previous work demonstrated that a 1330-kb YAC clone, YC850A6, spans both the t(3;8) translocation and FRA3B

William Paradee; Charles M. Wilke; Liang Wang; Ravi Shridhar; Chadwick M. Mullins; Ann Hoge; Thomas W. Glover; David I. Smith

1996-01-01

71

Contribution of REM sleep to Fos and FRA expression in the vestibular nuclei of rat leading to vestibular adaptation during the STS-90 Neurolab Mission.  

PubMed

1. Electrophysical studies performed in ground-based experiments have shown that VN neurons respond to labyrinthine signals following stimulation of macular gravity receptors. Additional evidence indicates that VN neurons may also respond to extralabyrinthine signals of pontine origin, which occur during the PGO waves typical of REM sleep (Bizzi et al., 1964a, b; cf. also Pompeiano, 1967, 1970, 1974 for ref.). 2. In a previous study (Pompeiano et al., 2002) changes in Fos and FRA expression were used to identify the short-term (Fos) and the long-term (FRA) molecular changes which affect the VN neurons at different time points of the space flight. In particular, while Fos protein persists in the brain tissue only for a few hours (6-8 hrs) after its induction, FRA proteins, which can also be induced in the same experimental conditions, persist in the brain tissue for longer periods of time (i.e. from 12/24 hrs to days). 3. In order to relate the changes in gene expression which occurred in the VN during the space flight either to gravity changes or to REM sleep, we investigated in a recent study (Centini et al, 2006) the changes in Fos and FRA expression which occurred in different phases of the sleep-waking cycle, thus being indicative of the animal state. We could then compare the results obtained during the space lab Mission with those previously observed either in ground-based experiments during the physiological state of waking and slow-wave (SWS) or during neurochemically induced episodes of PS, as obtained after microinjection of appropriate agents in dorsal pontine structures of rats. 4. Our findings indicated that a waking state possibly associated with episodes of SWS, occurred at FD2 and FD14, i.e. at launch and after exposure of the animal to microgravity. It appeared also that at the reentry (R + 1) rather than at launch (FD2), an increase in Fos and FRA expression affected the noradrenergic LC neurons, as well as several related structures. These findings probably resulted from the acceleration stress, or immobilization stress as shown by the appearance of a starle reaction (or arrest reaction) which occurred after landing. This condition of stress was followed after landing by an increase in Fos and FRA expression which affected ventromedial medullary reticular structures, whose descending projections are involved in the suppression of postural activity during PS. Moreover, their ascending projections were likely to increase the FRA expression in the neocortex as well as in several regions of the limbic system, such as the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus, which lead to EEG desynchronization and the theta activity during PS. FRA expression affected also at the reentry pontine and diencephalic structures, such as the lateral parabrachial nucleus and the central nucleus of the amygdala, which are known to contribute to the occurrence of pontine waves and the related bursts of REM. 5. Observations made on the various components of the vestibular complex indicated that no Fos and FRA expression occurred in the LVN at the four different mission time points. However, an increase in Fos and FRA expression occurred particularly in the medial (MVN) and spinal vestibular nuclei (SpVN) at FD2 and at R + 1, i.e. 1 day after launch and 12-24 hours after landing, respectively. The pattern of FRA expression observed in the VN during the space flight was generally similar to that of Fos, except at the reentry, when FRA positive cells were observed throughout the whole SpVN, but not the MVN, which showed only a few labeled cells in its rostral part. In contrast to this finding, a prominent Fos expression was found not only in the SpVN, but also throughout the entire MVN. In this case the Fos labeling affected not only the caudal but also the rostral part of this structure, including the dorsal (MVePc) rather than the ventral aspect (MVeMc). Grounded on their different time of persistence, both Fos and FRA expression which occurred in the SpVe could be attributed to the increase in gravity force experienced during take-off a

Pompeiano, O

2007-01-01

72

Scribble Modulates the MAPK/Fra1 Pathway to Disrupt Luminal and Ductal Integrity and Suppress Tumour Formation in the Mammary Gland  

PubMed Central

Polarity coordinates cell movement, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis to build and maintain complex epithelial tissues such as the mammary gland. Loss of polarity and the deregulation of these processes are critical events in malignant progression but precisely how and at which stage polarity loss impacts on mammary development and tumourigenesis is unclear. Scrib is a core polarity regulator and tumour suppressor gene however to date our understanding of Scrib function in the mammary gland has been limited to cell culture and transplantation studies of cell lines. Utilizing a conditional mouse model of Scrib loss we report for the first time that Scrib is essential for mammary duct morphogenesis, mammary progenitor cell fate and maintenance, and we demonstrate a critical and specific role for Scribble in the control of the early steps of breast cancer progression. In particular, Scrib-deficiency significantly induced Fra1 expression and basal progenitor clonogenicity, which resulted in fully penetrant ductal hyperplasia characterized by high cell turnover, MAPK hyperactivity, frank polarity loss with mixing of apical and basolateral membrane constituents and expansion of atypical luminal cells. We also show for the first time a role for Scribble in mammalian spindle orientation with the onset of mammary hyperplasia being associated with aberrant luminal cell spindle orientation and a failure to apoptose during the final stage of duct tubulogenesis. Restoring MAPK/Fra1 to baseline levels prevented Scrib-hyperplasia, whereas persistent Scrib deficiency induced alveolar hyperplasia and increased the incidence, onset and grade of mammary tumours. These findings, based on a definitive genetic mouse model provide fundamental insights into mammary duct maturation and homeostasis and reveal that Scrib loss activates a MAPK/Fra1 pathway that alters mammary progenitor activity to drive premalignancy and accelerate tumour progression.

Godde, Nathan J.; Sheridan, Julie M.; Smith, Lorey K.; Pearson, Helen B.; Britt, Kara L.; Galea, Ryan C.; Yates, Laura L.; Visvader, Jane E.; Humbert, Patrick O.

2014-01-01

73

MicroRNA-19a-3p inhibits breast cancer progression and metastasis by inducing macrophage polarization through downregulated expression of Fra-1 proto-oncogene.  

PubMed

One of the hallmarks of malignancy is the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) from a pro-immune (M1-like) phenotype to an immune-suppressive (M2-like) phenotype. However, the molecular basis of the process is still unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA) comprises a group of small, non-coding RNAs that are broadly expressed by a variety of organisms and are involved in cell behaviors such as suppression or promotion of tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrate that miR-19a-3p, broadly conserved among vertebrates, was downregulated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells of the M2 phenotype in conditoned medium of 4T1 mouse breast tumor cells. This downregulation correlated with an increased expression of the Fra-1 gene, which was reported to act as a pro-oncogene by supporting the invasion and progression of breast tumors. We found significant upregulation of miR-19a-3p in RAW264.7 macrophages after transfection with a miR-19a-3p mimic that resulted in a significant suppression of the expression of this gene. In addition, we could measure the activity of binding between miR-19a-3p and Fra-1 with a psiCHECK luciferase reporter system. Further, transfection of RAW264.7 macrophage cells with the miR-19a-3p mimic decreased the expression of the Fra-1 downstream genes VEGF, STAT3 and pSTAT3. Most importantly, the capacity of 4T1 breast tumor cells to migrate and invade was impaired in vivo by the intratumoral injection of miR-19a-3p. Taken together, these findings indicate that miR-19a-3p is capable of downregulating the M2 phenotype in M2 macrophages and that the low expression of this miRNA has an important role in the upregulation of Fra-1 expression and induction of M2 macrophage polarization. PMID:23831570

Yang, J; Zhang, Z; Chen, C; Liu, Y; Si, Q; Chuang, T-H; Li, N; Gomez-Cabrero, A; Reisfeld, R A; Xiang, R; Luo, Y

2014-06-01

74

LOXL4 Is Induced by Transforming Growth Factor ?1 through Smad and JunB/Fra2 and Contributes to Vascular Matrix Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) is a pleiotropic factor involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling. In search for novel genes mediating the action of TGF-?1 on vascular ECM, we identified the member of the lysyl oxidase family of matrix-remodeling enzymes, lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), as a direct target of TGF-?1 in aortic endothelial cells, and we dissected the molecular mechanism of its induction. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis analysis of the LOXL4 promoter demonstrated the absolute requirement of a distal enhancer containing an activator protein 1 (AP-1) site and a Smad binding element for TGF-?1 to induce LOXL4 expression. Functional cooperation between Smad proteins and the AP-1 complex composed of JunB/Fra2 accounted for the action of TGF-?1, which involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent phosphorylation of Fra2. We furthermore provide evidence that LOXL4 was extracellularly secreted and significantly contributed to ECM deposition and assembly. These results suggest that TGF-?1-dependent expression of LOXL4 plays a role in vascular ECM homeostasis, contributing to vascular processes associated with ECM remodeling and fibrosis.

Busnadiego, Oscar; Gonzalez-Santamaria, Jose; Lagares, David; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Muller, Laurent

2013-01-01

75

Multicolor FISH mapping of YAC clones in 3p14 and identification of a YAC spanning both FRA3B and the t(3;8) associated with hereditary renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human chromosome band 3p14 contains two tightly linked cytogenetic markers of broad interest, FRA3B and the t(3;8) breakpoint associated with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The common fragile site at 3p14.2 (FRA3B) is the most sensitive site on normal human chromosomes to breakage when DNA replication is perturbed by aphidicolon or folate stress. The t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1) translocation segregates with RCC in

C. M. Wilke; S. W. Guo; B. K. Hall

1994-01-01

76

A C-terminal domain in FosB, absent in FosB/SF and Fra-1, which is able to interact with the TATA binding protein, is required for altered cell growth.  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes is thought to occur through interactions between specific transcription factors and the general transcription machinery. We show that the regulatory protein FosB, but not FosB/SF or Fra-1, specifically and stably associates with the TATA box binding protein (TBP) and the multiprotein complex TFIID. The binding to TBP is specified by the last 55 C-terminal amino acids of FosB, requiring a small amino acid sequence, termed the 'TBP binding motif' (TBM). Deletion of the TBM affects transcriptional activity slightly, but it is adjacent to a proline-rich sequence which constitutes the major transactivation domain. However, both regions are required for the transformation of Rat-1A cells by FosB. Transfection experiments demonstrate that inhibition of transactivation due to excess levels of Gal4-FosB (squelching) can be partially relieved by the co-expression of TBP, which establishes that TFIID is a functional target of FosB. Since TBP binding is not exhibited by FosB/SF or Fra-1, we suggest that the activity mediated by the TBP interaction is one differentiating characteristic that distinguishes the FosB functions from those of FosB/SF and Fra-1. Images

Metz, R; Kouzarides, T; Bravo, R

1994-01-01

77

Monitoring thermal stresses and incipient buckling of continuous-welded rails: results from the UCSD/BNSF/FRA large-scale laboratory test track  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most modern railways use Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). A major problem is the almost total absence of expansion joints that can create buckling in hot weather and breakage in cold weather due to the rail thermal stresses. In June 2008 the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), under the sponsorship of a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, began work to develop a technique for in-situ measurement of stress and detection of incipient buckling in CWR. The method under investigation is based on ultrasonic guided waves, and the ultimate goal is to develop a prototype that can be used in motion. A large-scale full rail track (70 feet in length) has been constructed at UCSD's Powell Structural Laboratories, the largest laboratories in the country for structural testing, to validate the CWR stress measurement and buckling detection technique under rail heating conditions well controlled in the laboratory. This paper will report on the results obtained from this unique large-scale test track to date. These results will pave the road for the future development of the rail stress measurement & buckling detection prototype.

Phillips, Robert; Nucera, Claudio; Coccia, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Bartoli, Ivan; Fateh, Mahmood; Carr, Gary

2011-03-01

78

Short-term (Fos) and long-term (FRA) protein expression in rat locus coeruleus neurons during the neurolab mission: contribution of altered gravitational fields, stress, and other factors.  

PubMed

Changes in immediate-early gene (IEG) expression during and after space flight were studied in the rat locus coeruleus (LC) during the NASA Neurolab mission. The LC sends widespread projections throughout the brain and releases the neuromodulator norepinephrine. LC neurons respond to natural vestibular stimulation; their firing rate also increases during waking and decreases or ceases during sleep. LC neurons express IEGs such as c-fos after activation. Adult male albino Fisher 344 rats were killed at four mission time points, and the number of Fos- and Fos-related antigen (FRA)-positive LC cells were counted in flight and ground-based control rats. Half of the subjects at each time point were exposed to light for 60 min prior to killing to standardize their sleep-waking state. FRA-expressing cells were more numerous than Fos-expressing cells in both flight- and ground-based subjects. The difference between FRA- and Fos-expressing cells within individuals was significantly larger 24 h after landing in subjects exposed to both space flight and light pulse than in all other subjects at any mission time point. Fos and FRA responses scaled in proportion to the maximum response observed in any single individual showed similar patterns of variation. Analysis of the scaled and combined responses showed that LC IEG levels responded to both gravity changes and light pulses. Subjects exposed to either single stimulus had equivalent responses, significantly greater than those of control subjects maintained in dim light. The combination of gravity change and light pulse gave significantly higher LC responses than either stimulus alone 24 h after takeoff, and to a lesser extent after 12 days in space; the highest responses were obtained 24 h after landing. By 14 days after landing, animals exposed to space flight and light pulse responded no differently than ground-based subjects. No difference in LC IEG expression was clearly attributable to changes in the sleep-waking state of subjects. Activity of noradrenergic LC neurons has been previously shown to modulate IEG expression in target structures. The increased IEG LC activity (seen most especially 24 h after landing) may reflect large-scale activation of noradrenergic neurons that may serve as a trigger for molecular changes in target structures, and be critical for adaptation to gravity changes. PMID:12401326

Pompeiano, M; d'Ascanio, P; Centini, C; Pompeiano, O; Balaban, E

2002-01-01

79

The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial  

PubMed Central

Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

2013-01-01

80

Skurlastkvalitet fra Sandeskur (Sawn Timber Quality from Sandeskur).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the results from grading of sawn timber from a timber quality called Sandeskur is shown. The timber quality is between pulpwood and the lowest saw wood quality. The sawn timber is graded according to NS-INSTA 142 and the commercial grading ...

A. Ovrum

2002-01-01

81

Avloepsvann fra Blekerier (Waste Water from Bleaching Works).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a survey of the literature regarding the bleaching of chemical substances and the compounds which are released from bleaching works. In conventional bleaching with chlorine, a number of chlorinated organic compounds are formed. It has been ...

V. Loras

1976-01-01

82

New Rural Public Transport Solutions (Ny Kollektivtransport pa Landsbygda. Erfaringer Fra et forsoksprosjekt i Vest-Agder Sammenholdt med Erfaringer fra Liknende forsk Andre Steder).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes a trial scheme for the development of rural public transport in Vet-Agder county, based on dial-a-bus services, and compares the results with trial schemes elsewhere. The project is part of the Norwegian Department of Transport and C...

E. Froeysadal B. Norheim

2000-01-01

83

Hydrokarbonanalyse av Blaskjell og Sedimenter fra Brofjorden (Analysis of Hydrocarbons in Mussels and Sediments from Brofjorden).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mussels and sediments were analysed for volatile, petrogenic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon levels in mussels are relatively low compared to other chronically polluted coastal areas. In sediments, petroleum hydrocarbons were defected beside of...

R. G. Lichtenthaler F. Oreld N. Berg B. Sortland

1980-01-01

84

Katalytisk rensning af gas fra halmforgasning. Parameterforsoeg. (Catalytic cleaning of gas from straw gasification. Parameter experiment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various catalysts were tested in relation to different gas compositions and temperatures in order to find their modes of operation. The three types examined were a sulphidic one incorporating nickel and molybdenum on alumina, an oxidic one with chromium o...

K. Pedersen

1995-01-01

85

Geomorphology of crater and basin deposits - Emplacement of the Fra Mauro formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of continuous deposits near lunar craters larger than about 1 km wide are considered, and it is concluded that (1) concentric dunes, radial ridges, and braided lineations result from deposition of the collision products of ejecta from adjacent pairs of similarly oriented secondary-crater chains and are, therefore, concentrations of secondary-crater ejecta; (2) intracrater ridges are produced within preexisting craters surrounding a fresh primary crater by ricocheting and focusing of secondary-crater ejecta from the preexisting craters' walls; and (3) secondary cratering has produced many of the structures of the continuous deposits of relatively small lunar craters and is the dominant process for emplacement of most of the radial facies of the continuous deposits of large lunar craters and basins. The percentages of Imbrium ejecta in deposits and the nature of Imbrium sculpturing are investigated.

Morrison, R. H.; Oberbeck, V. R.

1975-01-01

86

EXACT: EXercise or Advice after ankle fraCTure. Design of a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Ankle fractures are common. Management of ankle fractures generally involves a period of immobilisation followed by rehabilitation\\u000a to reduce pain, stiffness, weakness and swelling. The effects of a rehabilitation program are still unclear. However, it has\\u000a been shown that important components of rehabilitation programs may not confer additional benefits over exercise alone. The\\u000a primary aim of this trial is to

Paula R Beckenkamp; C Christine Lin; Robert D Herbert; Marion Haas; Kriti Khera; Anne M Moseley

2011-01-01

87

Osteoclast size is controlled by Fra2 through LIF\\/LIF-receptor signalling and hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoclasts are multinucleated haematopoietic cells that resorb bone. Increased osteoclast activity causes osteoporosis, a disorder resulting in a low bone mass and a high risk of fractures. Increased osteoclast size and numbers are also a hallmark of other disorders, such as Paget's disease and multiple myeloma. The protein c-Fos, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, is essential for

Aline Bozec; Latifa Bakiri; Astrid Hoebertz; Robert Eferl; Arndt F. Schilling; Vukoslav Komnenovic; Harald Scheuch; Matthias Priemel; Colin L. Stewart; Michael Amling; Erwin F. Wagner

2008-01-01

88

Confronto fra coatings abradibili ceramici e metallici per applicazioni in turbine a gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of new materials for high temperature gas turbine applications promote improvements of all engine components, in particular of the turbine first stage, where it is possible to obtain a large increase in performance. Abradable seals reduce clearances between rotor and stator elements, in order to reduce thermal loss and secondary flows which decrease engine performances. A comparison

I. Giovannetti; G. Zonfrillo; M. Bigi; M. Giannozzi

89

Lunar surface closeup stereoscopic photography at Fra Mauro (Apollo 14 site)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 17-1/2 stereopairs of lunar surface rocks and soil was taken on the Apollo 14 mission. The closeup stereopair photographs are presented with a preliminary interpretation for those interested in lunar soil formation, impact phenomena, and soil mechanics.

Carrier, W. D., III; Heiken, G.

1972-01-01

90

Exposure ages and neutron capture record in lunar samples from Fra Mauro.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic-ray exposure ages of Apollo 14 rocks and rock fragments obtained by the Kr81-Kr83 method range from 27 to 700 m.y. Rock 14321, collected near the Cone crater rim, is one of the many approximately 27 m.y. old ejecta which were reported at the Third Lunar Science Conference. All the other rocks have considerably higher exposure ages. Isotopic anomalies from neutron capture in gadolinium, bromine, and barium are used to obtain information on the lunar neutron spectrum at various depths below the lunar surface. The flux ratio of resonance and slow (less than 0.3 eV) neutrons is found to be nearly constant in the topmost approximately 100 g/sq cm.

Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

1972-01-01

91

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...frequent and open communications with the national...before embarking on new policies that...basis to discuss new regulations, persistent...concerns, emerging technology, and compliance...addition to these communication practices...the development of new safety...

2013-10-01

92

75 FR 8785 - Agency Request for Emergency Processing of Collection of Information Associated With FRA's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

[Federal Register Volume 75, Number 37 (Thursday...After Publication of Second Agency Federal Register Notice Concerning Solicitation of...publication of this notice in the Federal Register. Title: Notice of Funding...

2010-02-25

93

49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing determined...the railroad conducts random alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested...be based on the total number of covered employees...consortium who are subject to random testing at the same...

2009-10-01

94

49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...annual percentage rate for random drug testing determined...the railroad conducts random drug testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested...be based on the total number of covered employees...consortium who are subject to random drug testing at the...

2009-10-01

95

49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percentage rate for random drug testing must be 50 percent of covered...percentage rate for random drug testing is based on the reported...this part. In order to ensure reliability of the data, the Administrator...percentage rate for random drug testing of covered employees....

2013-10-01

96

Energibesparelse ved rensning af luft fra sproejtekabiner. (Saving energy by cleaning air using spraying cabins).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim was to develop a varnishing-spray cabin, for use within the furniture manufacturing industry, with a suction system where air during recirculation and re-use for drying processes will contain a concentration of solvents organic which is high enoug...

1992-01-01

97

Nitrogen fra fjell til fjord. Aarsrapport 1993. (Nitrogen from mountain to fjord - Annual report 1993).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nitrogen from mountain to fjord is an interdisciplinary research programme which studies the nitrogen cycle from deposition to discharge into the sea. The project includes investigation of the nitrogen budgets for two catchments and selected areas of moun...

O. Kaste M. Bechmann K. Toerset

1994-01-01

98

Breakages at common fragile sites set boundaries of amplified regions in two leukemia cell lines K562 – Molecular characterization of FRA2H and localization of a new CFS FRA2S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome amplification is often observed in human tumors. The breakage–fusion–bridge (BFB) cycle is the mechanism that often underlies duplicated regions. Some research has indicated common fragile sites (CFS) as possible sites of chromosome breakages at the origin of BFB cycles.Here we searched two human genome regions known as amplification hot spots for any DNA copy number amplifications by analyzing 21

Franca Pelliccia; Nazario Bosco; Angela Rocchi

2010-01-01

99

Oceanographical Observations from Danish Light-Vessels and Coastal Stations, 1973 Oceanografiske Observationer Fra Danske Fyrskibe Og Kyststationer, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on water currents, water temperature and salinity, and surface sample characteristics, taken from oceanographical observations made at the Danish light vessel stations, are recorded in tabular form.

1974-01-01

100

Methotrexate treatment of FraX fibroblasts results in FMR1 transcription but not in detectable FMR1 protein levels  

PubMed Central

Background Fragile X syndrome is caused by the loss of FMRP expression due to methylation of the FMR1 promoter. Treatment of fragile X syndrome patients’ lymphoblastoid cells with 5-azadeoxycytidine results in demethylation of the promoter and reactivation of the gene. The aim of the study was to analyze if methotrexate, an agent which also reduces DNA methylation but with less toxicity than 5-azadeoxycytidine, has therapeutic potential in fragile X syndrome. Methods Fibroblasts of fragile X syndrome patients were treated with methotrexate in concentrations ranging from 1 to 4 ?g/ml for up to 14 days. FMR1 and FMRP expression were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blotting. Results FMR1 mRNA was detected and levels correlated positively with methotrexate concentrations and time of treatment, but western blotting did not show detectable FMRP levels. Conclusions We show that it is possible to reactivate FMR1 transcription in fibroblasts of fragile X syndrome patients by treatment with methotrexate. However, we were not able to show FMRP expression, possibly due to the reduced translation efficacy caused by the triplet repeat extension. Unless FMR1 reactivation is more effective in vivo our results indicate that methotrexate has no role in the treatment of fragile X syndrome.

2013-01-01

101

Undersoegelse af solvarmeanlaeg fra Zen B.V. (Investigation of solar heating system from Zen B.V).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small, inexpensive solar water heating system marketed by the Dutch company Zen B.V. was investigated. The system makes use of the drain back principle. Water is used as the solar collector fluid. The heat storage consist of two small hot water tanks, a...

S. Furbo K. Ellehauge

1994-01-01

102

Maling af Ekstern Stoj fra Virksomheder. Prototypemalinger (Measurement of Noise Coming from Businesses or Activities. Prototype Cases of Such Measurement).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic manual on noise coming from businesses or activities, divided into two parts: a description of the process of measuring such noise and the presentation of detailed accounts of the actual measurement of it in four different instances. Terms used in d...

1978-01-01

103

Adattamento tecnologico, relazioni fra imprese e istituzioni di supporto nei distretti industriali. Un modello di simulazione basata su agenti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial districts can be conceived as complex systems characterised by a network of interactions amongst heterogeneous, localised, functionally integrated and complementary firms. The paper introduces an industrial district computational prototype that allows to simulate fundamental industrial districts' mechanisms. The paper aims at showing firstly that economic performance of industrial districts proceeds to the behavior of firms and the form through

Squazzoni Flaminio; Boero Riccardo

2004-01-01

104

49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of fatigue mitigation tools, and that the railroad...proposed fatigue mitigation tools, and determinations...and fatigue mitigation tools every two years to ensure...for the purpose of making part or all of the analysis...Associate Administrator. Decisions of the Associate...

2013-10-01

105

Straalingsdoser fra forurenede levnedsmidler efter uheld paa et atomkraftvaerk. (Radiation doses from contaminated food after a nuclear accident).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents estimates of radiation doses from contaminated food after a hypothetical accident at a nuclear power plant. The calculations are made from assumptions intended to represent Swedish conditions. The accident scenario is based on a hypot...

M. Oehlenschlaeger S. P. Nielsen

1991-01-01

106

Avgassutslipp fra innenriks sjoetransport. Aktuelle utslippsreduserende tiltak. (Exhaust emissions from the coastal fleet in Norway. Possible measures to reduce emissions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes possible technological measures to reduce emissions of NOx, HC, CO and particles from engines in use in the Norwegian coastal fleet. The costs and applicability of the most probable measures are discussed for various engine types. 45 ...

O. Melhus P. K. Bremnes

1989-01-01

107

Rail transportation risk and accident severity: A statistical analysis of variables in FRA's accident\\/incident data base  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Railroad Administration (US DOT) maintains a file of carrier-reported railroad accidents and incidents that meet stipulated threshold criteria for damage cost and\\/or casualties. A thoroughly-cleaned five-year time series of this data base was subjected to unbiased statistical procedures to discover (a) important causative variables in severe (high damage cost) accidents and (b) other key relationships between objective accident

C. L. Saricks; I. Janssen

1991-01-01

108

Rail transportation risk and accident severity: A statistical analysis of variables in FRA's accident/incident data base  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Railroad Administration (US DOT) maintains a file of carrier-reported railroad accidents and incidents that meet stipulated threshold criteria for damage cost and/or casualties. A thoroughly-cleaned five-year time series of this data base was subjected to unbiased statistical procedures to discover (a) important causative variables in severe (high damage cost) accidents and (b) other key relationships between objective accident conditions and frequencies. Just under 6000 records, each representing a single event involving rail freight shipments moving on mainline track, were subjected to statistical frequency analysis, then included in the construction of classification and regression trees as described by Breimann et al. (1984). Variables related to damage cost defined the initial splits,'' or branchings of the tree. An interesting implication of the results of this analysis with respect to transportation of hazardous wastes by rail is that movements should be avoided when ambient temperatures are extreme (significantly < 20{degrees} or > 80{degrees}F), but that there should be no a priori bias against shipping wastes in longer train consists. 2 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

Saricks, C.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Energy Systems Div.); Janssen, I. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Biological and Medical Research Div.)

1991-01-01

110

Two activator protein-1 elements in the matrix metalloproteinase-1 promoter have differential effects on transcription and bind Jun D, c-Fos, and Fra2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1, MMP-1) plays a central role in connective tissue metabolism as the only enzyme capable of degrading interstitial collagens at neutral pH. We used fragments of the rabbit collagenase promoter ranging from 1800 to 182 bp to measure transcriptional activity of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) site at ?77. Mutation at ?77 in this sequence greatly reduced basal transcription

Lori A. White; Constance E. Brinckerhoff

1995-01-01

111

Petrogenesis of the western highlands of the moon - Evidence from a diverse group of whitlockite-rich rocks from the Fra Mauro formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of KREEPy basalts has been discovered in Apollo 14 soils. These samples exhibit similarities to both HA and VHK basalts, albeit with much higher REE abundances, and contain up to 2 vol pct whitlockite and can be explained by assimilation of a K-, REE- and P-rich fluids by an original HA or VHK basalt. This KREEP component could have been produced late in the evolution of the lunar magma ocean and is similar in composition to QMD at Apollo 14. Two rocks have trace element compositions that are representative of actual KREEP. One of the samples appears to be petrographically pristine and could represent an actual KREEP basalt rock. Five subophitic high-Al basalts represent sampling of either a slowly cooled impact melt sheet or, more likely, the same basalt flow. Two 'quasi-pristine' highland rocks confirm the postulate of a connection between KREEP and the alkali suite. A newly discovered alkali anorthosite is a plagioclase cumulate with about 15 percent trapped KREEPy liquid.

Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

1992-01-01

112

49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...Based on these analyses, the reviewer...analyze the Hazard Log and/or...Criticality Analysis (FMECA), and other hazard analyses for completeness...reviewer; (4) Identification of any...

2013-10-01

113

Informasjonsbearbeiding og Beslutningstaking: En Gjennomgang av Litteratur med Eksempler fra Trafikk (Information Processing and Decisionmaking: A Literature Survey with Examples from Traffic).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Literature on information processing and behavior are surveyed. Theories on information processing are presented. Failures in the information processing are defined, possible consequences of these are listed and examples of such on ensuing driver behavior...

K. Midtland A. Glad

1998-01-01

114

49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation...Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation...independent third-party assessment of PTC system safety verification and...

2010-10-01

115

Expression of the fragile site Xq27 in fibroblasts. I. Detection of Fra(X)(q27) in fibroblast clones from males with X-linked mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve fibroblast clones from two males with X-linked mental retardation expressed the fragile site Xq27 in 3%–38% of metaphases analyzed. The number of in vitro doublings during the cloning procedure had no evident influence on the induction of fragile X expression. The variability of fragile X expression seems to depend on cell properties acquired during culture rather than on properties

P. Steinbach; G. Barbi; S. Baur; A. Wiedenmann

1983-01-01

116

Physical fine mapping of genes underlying X-linked deafness and non fra(X)-X-linked mental retardation at Xq21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies and cytogenetically visible deletions associated with nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and a specific form of deafness (DFN3) have indicated that the genes responsible for these disorders are located at Xq21. Using DNA probes from this region, we have studied several overlapping deletions spanning different parts of Xq21. This has enabled us to assign the DFN3 gene and

I. Bach; D. Robinson; N. Thomas; H.-H. Ropers; F. P. M. Cremers

1992-01-01

117

Risanamento Trofico Negli Ecosistemi Lacustri: Confronto Fra i Laghi di Bracciano e Martignano (Trophic Recovering of Freshwater Ecosystem: Comparison between Bracciano and Martignano Lakes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volcanic monomictic lakes of Central Italy are generally influenced by agricultural and antropic pressure. Eutrophy can follow these conditions, leading to negative consequences for both environment and human uses, as the occurrence of toxic algal blo...

M. Bruno, E. Marchiori, M. Mecozzi, R. Congestri, S. Melchiorre

2006-01-01

118

H 2O 2-induced egr-1, fra-1, and c-jun gene expression is mediated by tyrosine kinase in aortic smooth muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has recently been shown to have a dual effect on cell growth by stimulating proliferation and triggering apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by H2O2 is a direct consequence of oxidant injury, while the proliferative response to H2O2 is thought to be a protective mechanism against oxidant injury. Signaling of the H2O2-induced proliferative effect has been proposed to occur via

Najia Jin; Nathan D Hatton; Maureen A Harrington; Xiaolin Xia; Steve H Larsen; Rodney A Rhoades

2000-01-01

119

Videreudvikling af soft-top til opsamling af biogas fra lagertanke. (Further development of Soft-Top for the accumulation of biogas from storage tanks).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the first prototype of Soft-Top for covering storage tanks was invented and tested on the biomass conversion plant at Farsoe, Denmark, in 1990-91, the interest in coverings for storage tanks has grown. The advantages these coverings give are a bette...

K. Henriksen

1993-01-01

120

Studie om forskningsprosjekt vedroerende utslipp fra fly i oevre luftlag. (Study on research projects concerning aircraft emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report from NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) relates to a study on the level of air pollution from aircraft emissions. The study covers an evaluation of finished, ongoing or planned research projects comprising the effects from aircraft emi...

A. G. Kraaboel F. Stordal

1996-01-01

121

Sammenligning af goedningsvirkning og tab af kvaelstof fra ubehandlet og afgasset kvaeggylle. (Comparison of fertilizing effect and loss of nitrogen from untreated and degassed cattle manures).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a period of three years experiments have been carried out in order to compare the fertilizing effect of untreated cattle slurries, and cattle slurries that have been used for the conversion of biomass to methane, on spring barley with undersown gra...

H. Oertenblad E. Hvelplund K. Henriksen

1992-01-01

122

Utslipp av olje og kjemikalier fra plattformene paa norsk kontinentalsokkel 1991. (Discharges of oil and chemicals from the platforms on the Norwegian continental shelf 1991).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives an overview regarding the discharges to sea of oil and chemicals from offshore installations on the Norwegian Continental shelf in 1991. The figures are based on the oil companies own discharge report to the State Pollution Control Author...

I. Valvatne

1993-01-01

123

Utslipp av olje og kjemikalier fra plattformene paa norsk kontinentalsokkel 1992. (Discharges of oil and chemicals from the platforms on the Norwegian continental shelf 1992).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives an overview regarding the discharges to sea of oil and chemicals from offshore installations on the Norwegian Continental shelf in 1992. The figures are based on the oil companies own discharge reports to the State Pollution Control Autho...

I. Valvatne

1993-01-01

124

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...is likely to expedite FRA's processing of the petition. FRA will...the crossing are governed by a signal system, FRA's signal rules (49 CFR parts 233, 235, and 236) apply, as do the signal provisions of the hours...

2011-10-01

125

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...is likely to expedite FRA's processing of the petition. FRA will...the crossing are governed by a signal system, FRA's signal rules (49 CFR parts 233, 235, and 236) apply, as do the signal provisions of the hours...

2012-10-01

126

Gesprächstranskription auf dem Computer - das System EXMARaLDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Der Einsatz des Computers zur Transkription natürlicher Gespräche ist in der Pra- xis zwar weit verbreitet, die schnelle Weiterentwicklung der Computertechnologie hat aber dazu geführt, dass verschiedene Systeme oft scheinbar zusammenhangs- los nebeneinander stehen, ohne dass ihre Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede Ge- genstand einer umfassenden theoretischen Betrachtung wären. Der vorliegende Aufsatz will einen Beitrag zu einer solchen theoretischen Betrachtung der Gesprächstranskription

Thomas Schmidt

127

Cluster of genes that encode positive and negative elements influencing filament length in a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis in vegetative cells and nitrogen fixation in heterocysts, and their filaments can be hundreds of cells long. In the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the genes in the fraC-fraD-fraE operon are required for filament integrity mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. The fraC operon transcript partially overlaps gene all2395, which lies in the opposite DNA strand and ends 1 bp beyond fraE. Gene all2395 produces transcripts of 1.35 kb (major transcript) and 2.2 kb (minor transcript) that overlap fraE and whose expression is dependent on the N-control transcription factor NtcA. Insertion of a gene cassette containing transcriptional terminators between fraE and all2395 prevented production of the antisense RNAs and resulted in an increased length of the cyanobacterial filaments. Deletion of all2395 resulted in a larger increase of filament length and in impaired growth, mainly under N2-fixing conditions and specifically on solid medium. We denote all2395 the fraF gene, which encodes a protein restricting filament length. A FraF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein accumulated significantly in heterocysts. Similar to some heterocyst differentiation-related proteins such as HglK, HetL, and PatL, FraF is a pentapeptide repeat protein. We conclude that the fraC-fraD-fraE?fraF gene cluster (where the arrow indicates a change in orientation), in which cis antisense RNAs are produced, regulates morphology by encoding proteins that influence positively (FraC, FraD, FraE) or negatively (FraF) the length of the filament mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. This gene cluster is often conserved in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. PMID:23813733

Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

2013-09-01

128

Doser fra ekstern og intern bestraaling i Norge foerste aar etter Tsjernobyl-ulykken. (Doses from external and internal radiation in Norway during the first year after the Chernobyl accident).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this article the estimation of monthly doses from external radiation from internal radiation due to ingestion of contaminated food is reported. The monthly doses is estimated for each municipality in Norway for the first 13 months after the Chernobyl a...

P. Strand G. Kjoelaas J. B. Reitan T. Strand T. Berthelsen

1990-01-01

129

Petroleumsvirksomhet i isfylte farvann - utbyggings- og driftsfase. Maalfokusering for eventuell konsekvensutredning. Arbeidsdokument fra AKU/AEAM-seminar, Stavanger 4. - 6. desember 1995. (Petroleum activity in ice covered waters - development and operation phase. Focus of eventual consequential explanation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report from a seminar relates to the petroleum activities in the Barentshavet north. The focal point was to put on petroleum activities in ice covered waters covering the drilling and operation phase, to identify discharges from various technical sol...

J. Thomassen K. H. Andresen K. A. Moe

1996-01-01

130

Petroleumsvirksomhet i Barentshavet nord - letevirksomhet. Arbeidsdokument fra AKUP/AEAM-seminar i Trondheim 22 and 23 Feb 1995. (The Northern Barents Sea Assessment Program - Exploration Activities. Report from AKUP/AEAM seminar in Trondheim 22 and 23 Feb 1995).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interdisciplinary working seminar was held in Trondheim, Norway, 22 and 23 Feb 1995 in order (1) to identify the relevant topics to concentrate on in an environmental impact assessment for exploration activities in the southern parts of the northern Ba...

J. Thomassen K. H. Andresen K. A. Moe

1995-01-01

131

An Investigation on 11 Products from the 54/74 Series in Plastic- or Ceramic Encapsulation . en Undersoegelse AF 11 Fabrikater Fra 54/74-Serien I Plast-Og Keramikindkapsling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of digital integrated circuits are discussed. Through the use of a relatively simple apparatus, as well as a series of environmental exposures, the quality of small scale integration circuits is determined. It is shown that various man...

H. J. Nordby

1971-01-01

132

Foreloepig rapport fra NILU og DNMI om drivhuseffekten og klimautviklingen. (Preliminary report from the Norwegian Institute for Air Research and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute on the greenhouse effect and the climate development).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases will probably result in an effective doubling of the present CO(sub 2) concentration within year 2030. According to climate model calculations this will lead to an increase in the global mean temperature of 2 - ...

G. O. Braathen H. Dovland B. Aune

1989-01-01

133

Karakterisering og behandling af spildevand fra roeggasafsvovling ved vaadabsorptionsprocessen med efterfoelgende oxidation. (Characterization and management of waste water from desulphurization of flue gas by the wet absorption process with following oxidation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of the wet absorption process for the desulphurization of flue gas from coal fired power plants produces calcium sulphate, and waste water containing nitrate, neutral salts and a certain amount of heavy metals. The conditions which influen...

B. Mose Pedersen G. Holm Kristensen

1990-01-01

134

Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

Rubino, Antonia

1989-01-01

135

Levnedsmiddelforurening Omkring Industrielle Punktkilder 1982. 2: Arsen, Krom og Kobber i Afgroeder fra Hjoerring (Food Contamination Around Industrial Point Sources 1982. 2: Arsenic Chromium and Copper in Crops from Hjoerring, Northern Jutland, Denmark.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to monitor the level of contamination by As, Cr and Cu in soil and crops around a wood preservation plant in Hjorring, Jutland, and to evaluate whether the local population is exposed to unacceptable intakes of these elements ...

E. H. Larsen S. E. Lykke

1986-01-01

136

49 CFR 236.1023 - Errors and malfunctions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vendor or supplier and FRA of the failure, malfunction, or defective condition that decreased or eliminated the safety functionality; (2) Keep the applicable vendor or supplier and FRA apprised on a continual basis of the status of any and all...

2013-10-01

137

75 FR 68861 - Miscellaneous Amendments to the Federal Railroad Administration's Accident/Incident Reporting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fatality data. This new data may help FRA, organizations promoting safety on and around railroad property, and suicide prevention agencies assess the problem and develop programs to decrease the incidence of suicides by train. FRA notes...

2010-11-09

138

77 FR 12407 - Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as Amended; Response...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...4), FRA notes that an employee working for multiple railroads may nonetheless be subject to an excessive risk of human factors accidents caused by fatigue. Further, FRA does have the authority to pursue individual liability enforcement...

2012-02-29

139

78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2012-0104, Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC44 Signal System Reporting Requirements AGENCY...that each carrier must file with FRA a signal system status report every five years...updated information regarding railroad signal systems to be available to FRA...

2013-06-19

140

Aberrant Neural Function during Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neurobiological systems which underlie emotion attribution among female patients with Fragile X (FraX) syndrome are examined. Results show that the emotion circuit which regulates responses to facial stimuli is potentially disrupted among female subjects with FraX syndrome. Anterior cingulate cortex activity in female subjects with FraX…

Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

2008-01-01

141

49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and occupational illnesses that occurred during the preceding month. (d) Form FRA 6180.56âAnnual Railroad Report of Manhours by State. Form FRA 6180.56 shall be submitted as part of the monthly Railroad Injury and Illness Summary (Form FRA...

2010-10-01

142

Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the milk and that the physiological transfer of FRA occurs from rumen to milk within 6.5 h or the first milking after dosage. Ferulic acid may affect the functionality of milk due to its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Future research will be required to elucidate whether FRA in milk is bioavailable and bioactive, and to evaluate the complete sensory and microbiological effects of increased FRA and FRA degradation products in milk. PMID:22921626

Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

2012-11-01

143

Correction of fructosamine value for serum albumin and globulin concentrations.  

PubMed

Using the data of 131 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the correction formulas of fructosamine value ([FRA]) were devised to standardize the uncorrected [FRA] to serum albumin concentrations ([ALB]) of 4 g/dl, globulin concentrations ([GLB]) of 3 g/dl, and total protein concentrations ([TP]) of 7 g/dl. The following formula was derived for its maximum correlation coefficient (r) between corrected [FRA] ([FRAc]) and fasting blood glucose concentration ([G]); [FRAc] = [FRA]x33.3/(7.6 [ALB]+[GLB]). In these 131 diabetic patients, r between uncorrected [FRA] and [G] at 2 weeks ago was 0.562. When corrected by [FRA]x33.3/(7.6 [ALB]+[GLB]), [FRA]x4/[ALB], [FRA]+30 (4-[ALB]), [FRA]+23 (4-[ALB]), [FRA]+30 (7-[TP]), [FRA]x7/[TP], and [FRA]x3/[GLB], r was, respectively, 0.616, 0.612, 0.595, 0.589, 0.582, 0.581 and 0.478. In 24 patients with NIDDM whose [ALB] is either above 4.5 g/dl or below 3.5 g/dl, r between uncorrected [FRA] and [G] was as low as 0.389 without positive correlation. By using our correction formulas of [FRA]x33.3/(7.6 [ALB]+[GLB]) or [FRA] x 4/[ALB], r was statistically increased, respectively, to 0.769 or 0.788 (P less than 0.05 in both cases) in contrast to no significant increase of r by other formulas being at 0.598, 0.556, 0.540, 0.562 and 0.121. Based on these analyses, it is concluded that our correction formula of [FRA] by [FRAc]=[FRA]x33.3/(7.6 [ALB]+[GLB]) accurately reflects [G] in NIDDM even with hypo- or hyper-albuminemia, and [FRAc]=[FRA]x4/[ALB] is useful for practical application for its simplicity. PMID:1773712

Kunika, K; Itakura, M; Yamashita, K

1991-08-01

144

Substrate cleavage profiling suggests a distinct function of Bacteroides fragilis metalloproteinases (fragilysin and metalloproteinase II) at the microbiome-inflammation-cancer interface.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic anaerobic Bacteroides fragilis is a significant source of inflammatory diarrheal disease and a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Two distinct metalloproteinase types (the homologous 1, 2, and 3 isoforms of fragilysin (FRA1, FRA2, and FRA3, respectively) and metalloproteinase II (MPII)) are encoded by the B. fragilis pathogenicity island. FRA was demonstrated to be important to pathogenesis, whereas MPII, also a potential virulence protein, remained completely uncharacterized. Here, we, for the first time, extensively characterized MPII in comparison with FRA3, a representative of the FRA isoforms. We employed a series of multiplexed peptide cleavage assays to determine substrate specificity and proteolytic characteristics of MPII and FRA. These results enabled implementation of an efficient assay of MPII activity using a fluorescence-quenched peptide and contributed to structural evidence for the distinct substrate cleavage preferences of MPII and FRA. Our data imply that MPII specificity mimics the dibasic Arg?Arg cleavage motif of furin-like proprotein convertases, whereas the cleavage motif of FRA (Pro-X-X-Leu-(Arg/Ala/Leu)?) resembles that of human matrix metalloproteinases. To the best of our knowledge, MPII is the first zinc metalloproteinase with the dibasic cleavage preferences, suggesting a high level of versatility of metalloproteinase proteolysis. Based on these data, we now suggest that the combined (rather than individual) activity of MPII and FRA is required for the overall B. fragilis virulence in vivo. PMID:24145028

Shiryaev, Sergey A; Remacle, Albert G; Chernov, Andrei V; Golubkov, Vladislav S; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Muranaka, Norihito; Dambacher, Corey M; Capek, Petr; Kukreja, Muskan; Kozlov, Igor A; Perucho, Manuel; Cieplak, Piotr; Strongin, Alex Y

2013-11-29

145

Arabidopsis Fragile Fiber8, Which Encodes a Putative Glucuronyltransferase, Is Essential for Normal Secondary Wall Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Secondary walls in vessels and fibers of dicotyledonous plants are mainly composed of cellulose, xylan, and lignin. Although genes involved in biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin have been intensively studied, little is known about genes participating in xylan synthesis. We found that Arabidopsis thaliana fragile fiber8 (fra8) is defective in xylan synthesis. The fra8 mutation caused a dramatic reduction in fiber wall thickness and a decrease in stem strength. FRA8 was found to encode a member of glycosyltransferase family 47 and exhibits high sequence similarity to tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) pectin glucuronyltransferase. FRA8 is expressed specifically in developing vessels and fiber cells, and FRA8 is targeted to Golgi. Comparative analyses of cell wall polysaccharide fractions from fra8 and wild-type stems showed that the xylan and cellulose contents are drastically reduced in fra8, whereas xyloglucan and pectin are elevated. Further structural analysis of cell walls revealed that although wild-type xylans contain both glucuronic acid and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues, xylans from fra8 retain only 4-O-methylglucuronic acid, indicating that the fra8 mutation results in a specific defect in the addition of glucuronic acid residues onto xylans. These findings suggest that FRA8 is a glucuronyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of glucuronoxylan during secondary wall formation.

Zhong, Ruiqin; Pena, Maria J.; Zhou, Gong-Ke; Nairn, C. Joseph; Wood-Jones, Alicia; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, W. Herbert; Darvill, Alan G.; York, William S.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

2005-01-01

146

Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.  

PubMed

Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

Olsen, Anya

2012-01-01

147

The effect of 1-?-d-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine on the expression of the common fragile site at 3p14  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the G2-treatment of 1-ß-d-arabino-furanosyl-cytosine (araC) on the expression of the common fragile site at 3p14 (FRA3B) was studied. A significantly increased frequency of FRA3B induced by G2 treatment of araC was found in the lymphocytes grown in folate-deficient medium (positive rate 100%). A relatively low frequency of FRA3B was also induced in the cultures with folate in

Xinzhi Li; Zu-an Yan; Xianting Zhou

1986-01-01

148

Autistic Behaviors Among Girls with Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of autistic behaviors were examined for 30 school-age girls with fragile X (fraX) and 31 age- and IQ-matched controls through a structured interview administered to each girl's parent(s). IQ scores were obtained for each participant; anxiety, neuroanatomical, and molecular-genetic data were derived for girls with fraX. Girls with fraX had significantly more autistic behaviors than controls. These behaviors were

Michèle M. M. Mazzocco; Wendy R. Kates; Thomas L. Baumgardner; Lisa S. Freund; Allan L. Reiss

1997-01-01

149

Deletion at fragile sites is a common and early event in Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant intermediate to esophageal adenocarcinoma, which develops in the context of chronic inflammation and exposure to bile and acid. We asked whether there might be common genomic alterations that could be identified as potential clinical biomarker(s) for BE by whole genome profiling. We detected copy number alterations and/or loss of heterozygosity at 56 fragile sites in 20 patients with premalignant BE. Chromosomal fragile sites are particularly sensitive to DNA breaks and are frequent sites of rearrangement or loss in many human cancers. Seventy-eight percent of all genomic alterations detected by array-CGH were associated with fragile sites. Copy number losses in early BE were observed at particularly high frequency at FRA3B (81%), FRA9A/C (71.4%), FRA5E (52.4%), and FRA 4D (52.4%), and at lower frequencies in other fragile sites, including FRA1K (42.9%), FRAXC (42.9%), FRA 12B (33.3%), and FRA16D (33.3%). Due to the consistency of the region of copy number loss, we were able to verify these results by quantitative PCR, which detected the loss of FRA3B and FRA16D, in 83% and 40% of early molecular stage BE patients, respectively. Loss of heterozygosity in these cases was confirmed through pyrosequencing at FRA3B and FRA16D (75% and 70%, respectively). Deletion and genomic instability at FRA3B and other fragile sites could thus be a biomarker of genetic damage in BE patients and a potential biomarker of cancer risk. PMID:20647332

Lai, Lisa A; Kostadinov, Rumen; Barrett, Michael T; Peiffer, Daniel A; Pokholok, Dimitry; Odze, Robert; Sanchez, Carissa A; Maley, Carlo C; Reid, Brian J; Gunderson, Kevin L; Rabinovitch, Peter S

2010-08-01

150

Deletion at Fragile Sites is a Common and Early Event in Barrett's Esophagus  

PubMed Central

Barrett’s esophagus is a premalignant intermediate to esophageal adenocarcinoma, which develops in the context of chronic inflammation and exposure to bile and acid. We asked whether there might be common genomic alterations that could be identified as potential clinical biomarker(s) for Barrett’s esophagus by whole genome profiling. We detected copy number alterations and/or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at fifty-six fragile sites in 20 patients with premalignant Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Chromosomal fragile sites are particularly sensitive to DNA breaks and have been shown to be frequent sites of rearrangement or loss in many human cancers. 78% of all genomic alterations detected by array-CGH were associated with fragile sites. Copy number losses in early BE were observed at particularly high frequency at FRA3B (81%), FRA9A/C (71.4%), FRA5E (52.4%) and FRA 4D (52.4%), and at lower frequencies in other fragile sites, including FRA1K (42.9%), FRAXC (42.9%), FRA 12B (33.3%) and FRA16D (33.3%). Due to the consistency of the region of copy number loss, we were able to verify these results by quantitative PCR which detected loss of FRA3B and FRA16D, in 83% and 40% of early molecular stage BE patients respectively. LOH in these cases was confirmed via pyrosequencing at FRA3B and FRA16D (75% and 70% respectively). Deletion and genomic instability at FRA3B and other fragile sites could thus be a biomarker of genetic damage in BE patients and a potential biomarker of cancer risk.

Lai, Lisa A.; Kostadinov, Rumen; Barrett, Michael T.; Peiffer, Daniel A.; Pokholok, Dimitry; Odze, Robert; Sanchez, Carissa A.; Maley, Carlo C.; Reid, Brian J.; Gunderson, Kevin L.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.

2011-01-01

151

White-light imaging with fractal zone plates.  

PubMed

We report the achievement of the first images to our knowledge obtained with a fractal zone plates (FraZPs). FraZPs are diffractive lenses characterized by the fractal structure of their foci. This property predicts an improved performance of FraZPs as image forming devices with an extended depth of field and predicts a reduced chromatic aberration under white-light illumination. These theoretical predictions are confirmed experimentally in this work. We show that the polychromatic modulation transfer function of a FraZP affected by defocus is about two times better than one corresponding to a Fresnel zone plate. PMID:17671552

Furlan, Walter D; Saavedra, Genaro; Monsoriu, Juan A

2007-08-01

152

50 kW-forgasseren. Forgasning af halm i totrins-processen. Gasrensning. Motordrift paa gas fra halm. Reduktion af H(sub 2)-koncentrationen i forgasningsgas. (50 kW-gasifier. Gasification of straw based on the two-step process. Gas purification. Operation of motors using gas from straw. Reduction of H(sub 2) concentration in gasification gas).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant problem connected with the gasification of straw is that straw tends to become soft at the temperature that is most suitable for a satisfactory speed of gasification. Once the straw has become soft or begun to melt a most unmanageable slag i...

U. Henriksen O. Christensen

1994-01-01

153

Autistic Behaviors among Girls with Fragile X Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with parents of 30 school-age girls with fragile X syndrome (fraX) and 31 age- and IQ-matched controls concerning autistic behaviors found that girls with fraX had significantly more autistic behaviors than controls, but incidence of autistic behaviors was not correlated with IQ. Anxiety and posterior cerebellar area measures were also…

Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Kates, Wendy R.; Baumgardner, Thomas L.; Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.

1997-01-01

154

THE 2010 GLOBAL FOREST RESOURCE ASSESSMENT REMOTE SENSING SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global concern is growing over deforestation because of its climate impacts as well as loss of biodiversity and other forest services. FAO has been reporting on the world's forests at 5 to 10 year intervals from 1946 to 2005 through the Global Forest Resources Assessments (FRA). As part of FRA 2010, FAO, its member countries and partner organizations are undertaking

A. M. Gerrand; E. J. Lindquist; M. Wilkie; Y. Shimabukuro; R. Cumani; M. Hansen; P. Potapov; F. Achard

2010-01-01

155

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agreement is put in writing and a check is submitted to FRA's accounting division covering the full amount agreed on. Cases brought...reorganized version of the CFR text used by FRA to facilitate computerization of inspection data, is substantively identical to the...

2012-10-01

156

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agreement is put in writing and a check is submitted to FRA's accounting division covering the full amount agreed on. Cases brought...reorganized version of the CFR text used by FRA to facilitate computerization of inspection data, is substantively identical to the...

2011-10-01

157

LTV/SIG Metroliner Truck Test. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the test plan and results for Phase 2 tests of the LTV/SIG Metroliner Truck. Section 4.0 is the test plan which was submitted to DOT/FRA on September 5, 1974. The test plan was approved by DOT/FRA before testing began. It became neces...

N. H. Sandlin H. M. Bumgardner F. E. Dean A. W. Johnston

1975-01-01

158

69 FR 35146 - Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...whether the exposures exceeded...that noise exposure was within...reduce the effects of noise...impaired communication. FRA also...decreasing vigilance. FRA then...reduce the exposure of operating...help ensure effective radio communications, and to...for crew communication. Noise can...of noise exposure varies......

2004-06-23

159

75 FR 2466 - State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...may be submitted by any of the following methods: Fax: 1-202-493-2251; Mail...FRA's Docket Clerk by mail, Michelle Silva, Office of Chief Counsel, FRA, 1200...DC 20590, or e-mail (Michelle.Silva@dot.gov), or at the fax number...

2010-01-15

160

76 FR 50213 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to...Draft EIS, FRA, CA, California High-Speed Train (HST): Fresno to Bakersfield Section High-Speed Train...Draft EIS, FRA, CA, California High-Speed Train...

2011-08-12

161

77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contact FRA's Docket Clerk, Jerome Melis- Tull, by telephone, email, or in writing...days before the date of the hearing. Mr. Melis-Tull's contact information is: FRA...telephone: 202-493-6058; email: Jerome.Melis-Tull@dot.gov. The hearing will...

2012-08-01

162

78 FR 70888 - Need for Agency Approval of a Railroad's Use of Certain Technology That Has Been Previously...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...then must develop a Product Safety Plan (PSP), for each product, which is intended...Then the railroad must submit its RSPP and PSP(s) to FRA for approval. See 49 CFR 236...on the basis of a different railroad's PSP. However, FRA did discuss the...

2013-11-27

163

Carrier detection and X-inactivation studies in the fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic investigations by three different lymphocyte culture methods in 63 obligate and potential carriers of the fragile X [fra(X)] are reported. A difference was observed between normal and retarded carriers in the manifestation of the fra(X). An inverse relationship between percentage positive cells and age was demonstrated in normal carriers, whereas retarded carriers generally showed higher percentages at all ages.

Karen Brøndum Nielsen; N. Tommerup; Hanne Poulsen; Petrea Jacobsen; Bente Beck; Margareta Mikkelsen

1983-01-01

164

Factors Associated with Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas previous research has demonstrated elevated levels of parenting stress in parents of children with general developmental disability, there has been little investigation of stress in parents of children specifically affected by the common neurogenetic disorder fragile X syndrome (FraX). This study elucidates stress profiles in mothers of children with FraX and delineates the contribution of child characteristics, home environment,

CINDY JOHNSTON; DAVID HESSL; CHRISTINE BLASEY; HEATHER ERBA; D. JENNIFER DYER-FRIEDMAN; BRONWYN GLASER

2003-01-01

165

The fragile X syndrome: no evidence for any recent mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X (fra(X)) syndrome, the most common form of familial mental retardation, is caused by heritable unstable DNA composed of CGG repeats. As reproductive fitness of fra(X) patients is severely compromised, a high mutation rate has been proposed to explain the high prevalence. However, we have been unable to show any new mutation for 84 probands referred to us to

A P Smits; J C Dreesen; J G Post; D F Smeets; C de Die-Smulders; T Spaans-van der Bijl; L C Govaerts; S T Warren; B A Oostra; B A van Oost

1993-01-01

166

Folate Receptor ? Associated With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Poor Prognosis.  

PubMed

Context.-Folate receptor ? (FRA) has been shown to be selectively expressed in several types of human cancer, including breast cancer. Currently, several FRA target therapies are under intensive study. Objective.-To investigate the expression pattern of FRA in a large cohort of patients with breast cancer and analyze its relationship with different clinicopathologic features, with expression of several key biomarkers, and with clinical outcome. Design.-Four hundred forty-seven cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma diagnosed between 1997 and 2008 at the University of Rochester Medical Center were identified and reviewed, and 25 blocks of tissue microassays were constructed. The association between expression of FRA and clinicopathologic features; expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2/neu, and Ki-67; and clinical outcome of these tumors were evaluated. Results.-The expression of FRA was significantly associated with tumors with high histologic grade, higher nodal stages, ER/PR negativity, and high proliferative activity (Ki-67 ? 15%), and was independent of HER2/neu overexpression. In all, 74% of ER/PR-negative and 80% of triple-negative breast cancers expressed FRA. The expression of FRA was significantly associated with a worse disease-free survival. Conclusions.-Our data demonstrate that a significant subgroup of ER/PR-negative and triple-negative breast cancers express FRA, and its expression is associated with worse clinical outcome. PMID:24028341

Zhang, Zhang; Wang, Jianmin; Tacha, David E; Li, Pamela; Bremer, Ryan E; Chen, Huijiao; Wei, Bing; Xiao, Xiuli; Da, Jiping; Skinner, Kristin; Hicks, David G; Bu, Hong; Tang, Ping

2014-07-01

167

77 FR 22841 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standards, 49 CFR Section 223.11(b), which require FRA Type II material in all side-facing windows of the locomotive...of such design that impedes installation of thicker FRA Type II glass without significant modifications in the side...

2012-04-17

168

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Procedures for Approval of Rear End Marking Devices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standard prescribed in 49 CFR 221.15, including any detailed mathematical data reflecting expected performance. (2) FRA will review...compliance with 49 CFR 221.15 appears possible from a theoretical analysis, the FRA will authorize and may take part in testing to...

2013-10-01

169

49 CFR 209.105 - Notice of probable violation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FRA may change the civil penalty amount proposed to be assessed up to and including the maximum penalty amount of $75,000 for each...if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe...property, FRA may change the penalty amount proposed to be...

2013-10-01

170

Research to Enhance Rail Network Performance. Transportation Research Board. Conference Proceedings on the Web 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA's) Office of R&D sought an independent view of future directions for the R&D program and asked for assistance from the committee that was already familiar with the program. FRA wanted an outreach effort that would in...

2007-01-01

171

[The fragile X (Martin-Bell) syndrome].  

PubMed

Fra (X) or Martin-Bell syndrome is the most common X-linked mental retardation with an incidence of 1/1000-2000 newborns. Chromatid break, double chromatid break or total loss of distal part of X chromosome (which occurs most often inside the C positive band q 27.3) is demonstrated in most male hemizygotes as mental retardation and specific phenotypic features. Fra (X) syndrome is proved in the cultured lymphocytes or fibroblasts with special cytogenetic methods. The prenatal diagnosis is possible by examining of amniotic fluid or the lymphocytes from the umbilical cord. We report two families with fra (X) syndrome. In the first one, 6 year- and 9-month-old boy with mental retardation and characteristic phenotypic features has been recognized as the carrier of fra (X) syndrome and after that his 4-year-old brother with similar symptoms. In the second family, there is a severe mentally retarded 3-year-old boy with fra (X) syndrome who besides typical phenotipic changes also exhibits symptoms of autism. The percentage of the cells with fra (X) chromosome in our patients (30%, 28%, 18%) is not correlated with the degree of their mental retardation. The mothers of our patients are the heterozygous carriers of the syndrome (3% and 1.5% fra (X) chromosome). PMID:2097475

Zergollern-Cupak, L; Sabol, Z; Hitrec, V; Vukovi?, J; Medica, I

1990-01-01

172

Characterization of the Human Folate Receptor Alpha Via Novel Antibody-Based Probes  

PubMed Central

Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a cell surface protein whose aberrant expression in malignant cells has resulted in its pursuit as a therapeutic target and marker for diagnosis of cancer. The development of immune-based reagents that can reproducibly detect FRA from patient tissue processed by varying methods has been difficult due to the complex post-translational structure of the protein whereby most reagents developed to date are highly structure-sensitive and have resulted in equivocal expression results across independent studies. The aim of the present study was to generate novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using modified full length FRA protein as immunogen in order to develop a panel of mAbs to various, non-overlapping epitopes that may serve as diagnostic reagents able to robustly detect FRA-positive disease. Here we report the development of a panel of FRA-specific mAbs that are able to specifically detect FRA using an array of diagnostic platforms and methods. In addition, the methods used to develop these mAbs and their diverse binding properties provide additional information on the three dimensional structure of FRA in its native cell surface configuration.

O'Shannessy, Daniel J.; Somers, Elizabeth B.; Albone, Earl; Cheng, Xin; Park, Young Chul; Tomkowicz, Brian E.; Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Kohl, Thomas O.; Forsyth, Tracy M.; Smale, Robert; Fu, Yao-Shi; Nicolaides, Nicholas C.

2011-01-01

173

FRAGILE FIBER3, an Arabidopsis Gene Encoding a Type II Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase, Is Required for Secondary Wall Synthesis and Actin Organization in Fiber Cells  

PubMed Central

Type II inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5PTases) in yeast and animals have been known to regulate the level of phosphoinositides and thereby influence various cellular activities, such as vesicle trafficking and actin organization. In plants, little is known about the phosphatases involved in hydrolysis of phosphoinositides, and roles of type II 5PTases in plant cellular functions have not yet been characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that the FRAGILE FIBER3 (FRA3) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, which encodes a type II 5PTase, plays an essential role in the secondary wall synthesis in fiber cells and xylem vessels. The fra3 mutations caused a dramatic reduction in secondary wall thickness and a concomitant decrease in stem strength. These phenotypes were associated with an alteration in actin organization in fiber cells. Consistent with the defective fiber and vessel phenotypes, the FRA3 gene was found to be highly expressed in fiber cells and vascular tissues in stems. The FRA3 protein is composed of two domains, an N-terminal localized WD-repeat domain and a C-terminal localized 5PTase catalytic domain. In vitro activity assay demonstrated that recombinant FRA3 exhibited phosphatase activity toward PtdIns(4,5)P2, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, and Ins(1,4,5)P3, with the highest substrate affinity toward PtdIns(4,5)P2. The fra3 missense mutation, which caused an amino acid substitution in the conserved motif II of the 5PTase catalytic domain, completely abolished the FRA3 phosphatase activity. Moreover, the endogenous levels of PtdIns(4,5)2 and Ins(1,4,5)P3 were found to be elevated in fra3 stems. Together, our findings suggest that the FRA3 type II 5PTase is involved in phosphoinositide metabolism and influences secondary wall synthesis and actin organization.

Zhong, Ruiqin; Burk, David H.; Morrison, W. Herbert; Ye, Zheng-Hua

2004-01-01

174

Multilocus analysis of the fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multilocus analysis of the fragile X (fra(X)) syndrome was conducted with 147 families. Two proximal loci, DXS51 and F9, and two distal loci, DXS52 and DXS15, were studied. Overall, the best multipoint distances were found to be DXS51-F9, 6.9%, F9-fra(X), 22.4%; fra(X)-DXS52, 12.7%; DXS52-DXS15, 2.2%. These distances can be used for multipoint mapping of new probes, carrier testing and

W. T. Brown; A. Gross; C. Chan; E. C. Jenkins; J. L. Mandel; I. Oberlé; B. Arveiler; G. Novelli; S. Thibodeau; R. Hagerman; K. Summers; G. Turner; B. N. White; L. Mulligan; C. Forster-Gibson; J. J. A. Holden; B. Zoll; M. Krawczak; P. Goonewardena; K. H. Gustavson; U. Pettersson; G. Holmgren; C. Schwartz; P. N. Howard-Peebles; P. Murphy; W. R. Breg; H. Veenema; N. J. Carpenter

1988-01-01

175

Particle Production in High Energy Nucleus--Nucleus Experiments at Berkeley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of high energy nucleus-nucleus experiments performed at the Berkeley Bevalac is presented. Earlier results on projectile and target fragmentation and pion production are briefly summarized. More recent results on Coulomb effects in projectile fra...

L. S. Schroeder

1976-01-01

176

EMT Video: Group Two (VHS 3/4 inch) (Video).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Group two includes the following ten titles: 'Splinting: The Basswood Splint to the Forearm'; 'Splinting: The Dislocated or Fractured Elbow'; 'Splinting: Open Fracture'; 'Wireladder Splint - The Injured Ankle'; 'Applying Splints to the Leg'; 'Multiple Fra...

1979-01-01

177

EMT Video: Group Two (VHS 1/2 inch) (Video).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Group two includes the following ten titles: 'Splinting: The Basswood Splint to the Forearm'; 'Splinting: The Dislocated or Fractured Elbow'; 'Splinting: Open Fracture'; 'Wireladder Splint - The Injured Ankle'; 'Applying Splints to the Leg'; 'Multiple Fra...

1979-01-01

178

75 FR 27053 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter Renewal of the Railroad Safety Advisory...SUMMARY: FRA announces the charter renewal of the RSAC, a Federal...

2010-05-13

179

77 FR 28421 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter Renewal of the Railroad Safety Advisory...SUMMARY: FRA announces the charter renewal of the RSAC, a Federal...

2012-05-14

180

78 FR 25345 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2013, the Charlotte Southern Railroad (CHS) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0034. CHS has requested a waiver of compliance from...equipment/generator car. Specifically, CHS seeks a waiver of compliance for...

2013-04-30

181

Mhost Finite Element Program: 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components. Volume 1: Theoretical Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formulations and algorithms implemented in the MHOST finite element program are discussed. The code uses a novel concept of the mixed iterative solution technique for the efficient 3-D computations of turbine engine hot section components. The general fra...

S. Nakazawa

1991-01-01

182

78 FR 13747 - Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity of Underground Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...axle assembly had impacted the pipeline. Although the pipeline was buried about 11 feet deep and protected...occurred in the vicinity of their buried facilities. Like PHMSA, FRA...You Dig'' program to notify pipeline operators of rail...

2013-02-28

183

77 FR 40700 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...LLC, Mr. Jason Scott, Vice President Signals & Communications, 3425 Forrest...

2012-07-10

184

78 FR 46679 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

2013-08-01

185

78 FR 21185 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

2013-04-09

186

78 FR 34151 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal...seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number...

2013-06-06

187

78 FR 12824 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [Docket Number FRA-2002-14116] Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System or Relief From Requirements In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and 49...

2013-02-25

188

78 FR 14874 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...proposed temporary discontinuance of the signal system at the Randolph Street...

2013-03-07

189

77 FR 74736 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

2012-12-17

190

77 FR 65935 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

2012-10-31

191

77 FR 2774 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 211 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA has reopened and assigned...Jonathan Barket, AVP, Communications & Signals, 1 Railroad Boulevard, Port...

2012-01-19

192

78 FR 68147 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Olson, Chief Engineer Communications & Signals, 500 Water Street, Speed Code...

2013-11-13

193

77 FR 9296 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...discontinuance of the automatic block signal (ABS) system between Control...

2012-02-16

194

78 FR 47822 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...be discontinued and all associated signal equipment consisting of Power Switch...

2013-08-06

195

78 FR 12823 - Notice of Joint Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Olson, Chief Engineer Communication and Signals, 500 Water Street, Speed Code...

2013-02-25

196

78 FR 77787 - Notice of Joint Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Olson, Chief Engineer Communication and Signals, 500 Water Street, Speed Code...

2013-12-24

197

78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Olson, Chief Engineer Communications and Signals, 500 Water Street, Speed Code...

2013-11-29

198

76 FR 52382 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Locomotive Safety Standards and Event Recorders. OMB Control Number: 2130-0004...and maintain locomotives and event recorders so that they are safe, free of defects...to life. Crashworthy locomotive event recorders provide FRA with verifiable factual...

2011-08-22

199

78 FR 13155 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2001-9717. LKRR seeks to extend a waiver of compliance for one locomotive, specifically, one 1955 General Motors' Electro-Motive Division Model SW-1200, Number LKRR 1205, from 49 CFR Section 223.11, Requirements for existing...

2013-02-26

200

77 FR 35471 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2012-0016. Due to security procedures in effect since...transportation safety, security, accessibility, communication...processing equipment, or security equipment, including surveillance and detection cameras. (25)...

2012-06-13

201

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...practices will address those risks. FRA is not likely...a discussion of what fatigue management strategies will be in...minimize the effects of fatigue on their job performance...response officials, the risk of death or...

2010-10-01

202

77 FR 73734 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...will include opening remarks from the FRA Administrator and status reports will be provided by the Fatigue Management, Rail Failure, and Risk Reduction Working Groups. Status reports will also be provided by the Engineering and System...

2012-12-11

203

78 FR 26423 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...topics will include opening remarks from the FRA Administrator. Status reports will be provided by the Fatigue Management, Rail Failure, and Risk Reduction Working Groups. Status reports will also be provided by the Engineering and System...

2013-05-06

204

77 FR 52393 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...opening remarks from the FRA Administrator, and status reports will be provided by the Critical Incident, Fatigue Management, and Risk Reduction Working Groups. Status reports will also be provided by the Engineering and System Safety Task...

2012-08-29

205

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...practices will address those risks. FRA is not likely...a discussion of what fatigue management strategies will be in...minimize the effects of fatigue on their job performance...response officials, the risk of death or...

2009-10-01

206

78 FR 1317 - Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Positive Train Control Systems: De Minimis...Grade Crossing/Signal and Train Control Amendments (RRR...Safe Transportation of Bulk Explosives (RRR). 33. 2137-AE87...implementation of positive train control systems. FRA...

2013-01-08

207

75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...assistance of RSAC. FRA notes that train operation at cant deficiency...general terms, the higher the train speed through a curve, the...Railroad Association; American Train Dispatchers Association... Institute of Makers of Explosives; International...

2010-05-10

208

75 FR 39616 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...relief being requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Pan Am Railways [Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0107] The Pan Am Railways (Pan Am) seeks a waiver of compliance with the Locomotive Safety Standards,...

2010-07-09

209

Evidence for the coevolution of axon guidance molecule Netrin and its receptor Frazzled.  

PubMed

Coevolution of a ligand and its receptor is critical for maintaining their function in different species, but how ligand and its receptor coevolve is poorly understood. The axon guidance molecule Netrin and its receptor Frazzled (Fra) are useful to study the mechanisms of ligand-receptor coevolution. Here, we have applied codon substitution models to identify positive selection of the netrin and fra genes. The sites under positive selection in netrin and fra were detected in same lineage, such as nematode, dipteran, hymenopteran, hemichordate, and teleost. Several amino acid residues that are under positive selection were identified in the interaction domains. Here we provide evidence that positive selection is essential for the coevolution of Netrin and Fra during central nervous system evolution. PMID:24746635

Huang, Ling; Zhao, Xiao; Yu, Qi; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-07-01

210

76 FR 23923 - Hazardous Materials: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones by Drivers of Commercial Motor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prohibits both the use of cell phones and texting. FRA cited...texting or talking on a cell phone. In light of these incidents...Some States are already tracking enforcement. For example...motorists violating this cell phone law....

2011-04-29

211

78 FR 979 - Petition for Positive Train Control Safety Plan Approval and System Certification of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Railroad Administration (FRA) for Positive Train Control (PTC) Safety Plan (PTCSP) approval and system certification of...236.1005, when all effects of the change associated with the PTC system are taken into account. BNSF believes that approval...

2013-01-07

212

Potassium Stable Isotopic Compositions Measured by High-Resolution MC-ICP-MS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potassium isotopic (K-41/K-39) compositions are notoriously difficult to measure. TIMS measurements are hindered by variable fractionation patterns throughout individual runs and too few isotopes to apply an internal spike method for instrumental mass fra...

J. I. Simon L. E. Morgan N. S. Lloyd R. M. Ellam

2012-01-01

213

75 FR 44046 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conductor Certification, and a possible new task regarding Dark Territory may be presented to the committee for approval. This...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

2010-07-27

214

75 FR 73158 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Development, Use, and Implementation of Rail Safety Technology in Dark Territory. This agenda is subject to change, including the...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

2010-11-29

215

76 FR 24561 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hours of Service, Training Standards, Track Safety Standards, Dark Territory, Passenger Safety, and Medical Standards Working...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

2011-05-02

216

76 FR 67020 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Device Distraction, Critical Incident, Track Safety Standards, Dark Territory, Passenger Safety, and Medical Standards Working...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

2011-10-28

217

Workshop Session No. 3: Human Interaction with Embedded Virtual Simulations. Summary of Discussion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This workshop session was facilitated by Dr. Thomas Alexander (GER) and Dr. Sylvain Hourlier (FRA) and focused on interface technology and human effectiveness including sensors and controls, visual perception and decision making (e.g. target detection and...

2009-01-01

218

49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to electronic records. 228.205 Section 228...RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors...

2013-10-01

219

77 FR 56840 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restoration and Management Plan, Lake, Porter, and LaPorte Counties, IN, Comment Period Ends: 11/13/2012, Contact: Constantine J. Dillon 219-926-7561. Amended Notices EIS No. 20120235, Draft Supplement, FRA, CA, California High-Speed...

2012-09-14

220

Adult fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X syndrome [fra (X)] is currently accepted as the second most frequent chromosomal disorder associated with developmental disability. Although next to Down syndrome in frequency, no postmortem studies of confirmed adult cases had been reported.

R. D. Rudelli; W. T. Brown; K. Wisniewski; E. C. Jenkins; M. Laure-Kamionowska; F. Connell; H. M. Wisniewski

1985-01-01

221

77 FR 19413 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pertain to railroad locomotive horn testing. FRA assigned the petition Docket...frequency and duration of horn blasts and the resulting impact on the surrounding community...improvement from the current testing scheme permitted under 49...

2012-03-30

222

75 FR 60860 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...was built in 1969. Since FRA's long-standing definition of ``antiquated'' is being built prior to the end of World War II, even though this equipment is used on in tourist/excursion/educational service, relief from the Federal...

2010-10-01

223

Safety Testing of Intermodal Hazmat Configurations, Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents summary results of a research program sponsored by the Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The program was concerned with safety issues of flatcars and the transport of liquid hazardous materials (hazma...

G. Kachadourian

1988-01-01

224

77 FR 75696 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contain eight windows each. No Type...FRA-certified glazing is currently installed...However, all side windows are \\1/4...equipped with double panes. Also, each end window is \\1/4...attributed to window glazing since this...

2012-12-21

225

Formation of Planetesimals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formation of planetesimals is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) nebular structure; (2) aerodynamics of the solid bodies in the nebula; (3) problems with gravitational instability; (4) particle growth by coagulation; properties of fra...

S. J. Weidenschilling

1991-01-01

226

Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

227

78 FR 48765 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...consists of representatives from Class I railroads, labor unions, car builders, private car owners, and shippers, along with ergonomics experts and government representatives from FRA and Transport Canada who participate as non-voting members. The Task...

2013-08-09

228

77 FR 62596 - Interim Guidance on State Freight Plans and State Freight Advisory Committees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21). Section 1118 of MAP-21...html National Transportation Atlas Database includes FRA rail network...national_transportation_atlas_database/ Online highway...Department's implementation of MAP-21 requirements for State...

2012-10-15

229

Lunar laser ranging data deposited in the National Space Science Data Center: Filtered observations for January - June 1971 and unfiltered photon detections for July - December 1971  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The filtered data are discussed which were obtained during laser ranging operations with Apollo reflectors placed on the moon at Tranquility Base, Fra Mauro, and Hadley. Unfiltered photon detections are described.

Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

1973-01-01

230

77 FR 64183 - Notice of Availability of a Final General Conformity Determination for the California High-Speed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Merced to Fresno Section of the California High-Speed Train (HST) System on September 18, 2012. FRA is...Act General Conformity requirements. The California High Speed Rail Authority (Authority), as the Project-...

2012-10-18

231

Review Guide for Criticality Safety Evaluations. DOE Standard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to provide a set of guidelines, not checklists, for use by DOE criticality safety personnel when reviewing criticality safety evaluations produced by the contractor. This review guide is intended to provide a consistent fra...

1999-01-01

232

49 CFR 268.13 - Deadline for submission of applications for preconstruction planning assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...returned to FRA by December 31, 1998. Applications shall be submitted to: Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, ATTN: Maglev Project, RDV-11, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Stop 20,Washington, DC 20590. [65 FR 2344, Jan. 14, 2000,...

2013-10-01

233

76 FR 34139 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2011-0027; Notice No. 2] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting...announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal...DATES: The meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee...

2011-06-10

234

77 FR 3326 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2011-0027; Notice No. 3] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of...ACTION: Announcement of Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting...announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a...

2012-01-23

235

75 FR 26343 - Request for Expedited Certification and Type Approval of Amtrak Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Amtrak ACSES. ACSES has been deployed on the Northeast Corridor since December 2000, in accordance with the FRA...type approval of ACSES, presently installed on the Northeast Corridor, in fulfillment of the requirements of and...

2010-05-11

236

76 FR 32391 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2011-0027; Notice No. 1] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of...ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting...announces the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a...

2011-06-06

237

78 FR 23631 - Notice of Intent To Grant Buy America Waiver to Amtrak To Use Three Non-Domestic Component Parts...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reinvestment Act grant from FRA, will upgrade and improve the catenary, power, track and signal systems on the Northeast Corridor primarily between New Brunswick, New Jersey and Trenton, New Jersey. It will also improve the western...

2013-04-19

238

77 FR 69918 - Notice and Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...economic growth in the region. Thus, FRA established the Northeast Corridor (NEC) Future Program to develop a Passenger Rail Corridor Investment Plan (PRCIP) for the Northeast region. The PRCIP will address the larger goals...

2012-11-21

239

77 FR 58439 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Northeast Corridor Between Washington, DC, New York, NY...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Northeast Corridor Between Washington...FRA established the Northeast Corridor (NEC) Future Program to develop a Passenger Rail Corridor Investment Plan (PRCIP) for the Northeast region. The PRCIP...

2012-09-20

240

77 FR 20690 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2011-0027; Notice No. 4] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of...ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee (NECSC...stakeholders operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC), and the purpose...

2012-04-05

241

78 FR 23815 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2011-0027; Notice No. 6] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of...ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee (NECSC...announces the fourth meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a...

2013-04-22

242

75 FR 38343 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and the decision to use tiering or a unified project-level document. FRA encourages...demand model structure including example equations and elasticities. ii. Describe the...tier, NEPA will be satisfied through a unified project-level document...

2010-07-01

243

Vertical Track Modulus in Plastic Composite Tie Test Zones at FAST.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transportation Technology Center (TTCI) conducted vertical track modulus (stiffness) tests on existing plastic composite tie test zones on the High Tonnage Loop (HTL) at the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Facility for Accelerated Service Testing ...

R. Jimenez

2003-01-01

244

Chromosome 16 abnormalities in embryos and in sperm from a male with a fragile site at 16q22.1.  

PubMed

Two fragile sites, FRA16B and FRA16C, are located in the chromosome band 16q22.1. Neither of them is associated with any specific clinical condition. We report the development and outcome of a clinically applied PGD cycle in a couple who had difficulty in achieving pregnancy. The woman was a carrier of a balanced reciprocal translocation, t(11;22)(q23;q11.2), and the man presented high expression of the fragile site 16q22.1 (FRA16B/C) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Gains and losses of chromosome 16 fragments were detected in sperm and embryos. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case suggesting a link between FRA16B/C and chromosome 16 abnormalities in embryos and sperm from a carrier. PMID:24434955

Martorell, M R; Martínez-Pasarell, O; Lopez, O; Polo, A; Sandalinas, M; Garcia-Guixé, E; Bassas, L

2014-01-01

245

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FRA-MEC-MCD-300-F (flasher). 3. Manufacturer: American Electronics, Inc., 1 40 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ...rail carriers 1. Carrier: Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Co., Technical Research & Development Department,...

2013-10-01

246

78 FR 76710 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...statistics. BEA uses data collected on these forms to prepare estimates of the employee compensation component of national income and state personal income. Specifically, data on the number of employee injuries and deaths from forms FRA F...

2013-12-18

247

Gage Restraint Measurement System Comparison Tests: Railbound and Hi-Rail Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparative tests were conducted to evaluate the gage restraint measurement system (GRMS) testing capabilities of a railbound GRMS vehicle, Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA's) T-6, and a hi-rail vehicle, Holland Company's TrackStar GRMS system. The ...

J. Choros T. Sussman M. Fateh E. Curtis

2003-01-01

248

Nationwide Study of Train Whistle Bans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Executive summary; Introduction (Background, Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Accidents, Florida Whistle Ban, FRA Emergency Order No. 15, Nationwide Whistle Ban Study); Purpose (Objectives, Need For Study); Data Description (Collection And Scope, Ini...

1995-01-01

249

Beaverhead impact structure, SW Montana and Idaho: Implications for the regional geology of the western U.S.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Beaverhead impact structure in SW Montana and Idaho is an allochthonous fragment of a large impact structure (approximately 100 km diameter) that was transported some distance eastward during the Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. It is the first tectonic fra...

P. S. Fiske R. B. Hargaves

1994-01-01

250

49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

2011-10-01

251

49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

2012-10-01

252

49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

2010-10-01

253

78 FR 77788 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Railroad Association (ASLRRA), on behalf of the Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC; the Three Notch Railway, LLC; and the Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC, has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for an amended waiver of compliance...

2013-12-24

254

77 FR 75045 - Locomotive Safety Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SA and the appropriate level of human factors analysis. As FRA states in both...for training that will address human factors related to the implementation...training, but fails to provide any human factors based rationale for...

2012-12-19

255

Application of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for Rail Flaw Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The average number of Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) reportable broken rail-related derailments between 1995 and 2005 was approximately 28 annually. The annual property damage resulting from the accidents was approximately $35 million. Programs c...

G. Garcia J. Zhang

2006-01-01

256

Data Acquisition and Control Programs for Solartron's Frequency Response Analyzer and Electrochemical Interface on the DEC Micro PDP-11.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We developed three programs in FORTRAN to control and acquire data from Solartron's Model 1250 and 1286 Frequency Response Analyzer and Electrochemical Interface. FRA operates the 1250, EI operates the 1286, and FREI operates the 1250 in conjunction with ...

T. R. Guilinger D. K. Melgaard

1987-01-01

257

Crossing Consolidation Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of highway-rail grade crossing consolidation guidelines provides federal endorsement for the closure and consolidation of unneeded highway-rail grade crossings. The USDOT Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Develop...

2009-01-01

258

75 FR 8788 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rescheduled from the weather- postponed February 11, 2010, meeting (75 FR 3959). The RSAC meeting topics will include opening remarks from the FRA Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety, and status reports will be provided by representatives from...

2010-02-25

259

75 FR 3959 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC meeting topics will include opening remarks from the FRA Administrator, and status reports will be provided by the Locomotive Standards, Passenger Safety, Track...

2010-01-25

260

78 FR 66987 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA will accept grant applications until February 5, 2014. Reviews will be conducted immediately following the solicitation...Nation's approximately 700 railroads. 3. Technical Merit (20%): Degree to which proposed ideas exhibit a...

2013-11-07

261

49 CFR 236.1001 - Purpose and scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...S.C. 20157, this subpart, or an FRA order, including requirements to ensure that the development, functionality, architecture, installation, implementation, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of...

2013-10-01

262

Progress in Rail Integrity Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the work conducted over the past two decades on rail integrity research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and carried out by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The research has involved both experi...

D. Y. Jeong

2001-01-01

263

76 FR 14443 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...for high-speed and intercity passenger rail projects...FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) program. The funding...

2011-03-16

264

77 FR 38388 - Notice of Decision to Grant Buy America Waiver to Washington Department of Transportation to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation to Purchase Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Rail Ties AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...waiver request from the FRA Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act (PRIIA...concrete ties in the Pacific Northwest Rail Corridor high-speed intercity...

2012-06-27

265

78 FR 28940 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Atlanta to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor AGENCY: Federal Rail Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...Statement (Study) to evaluate potential passenger rail improvements between Atlanta, GA and...

2013-05-16

266

78 FR 57450 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Altamont Corridor Rail Project From Stockton to San Jose, California...statement (EIS) for the Altamont Corridor Rail Project from Stockton to San Jose, California...project sponsor, the California High Speed Rail Authority (Authority). FRA...

2013-09-18

267

77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2012-0066] State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan Guidance...submission, and acceptance of State rail plans. State rail plans are...

2012-08-14

268

75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2010-0020] National Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In...INFORMATION: Background: The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of...

2010-04-05

269

Precise Localization of Aphidicolin-Induced Breakpoints on the Short Arm of Human Chromosome 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common fragile site at 3p14.2 (FRA3B) has been described as the most active fragile site in the human genome. This locus may predispose chromosome 3 to specific losses due to deletions and translocations that have been associated with several malignancies, including hereditary renal cell carcinoma. We have previously described induction of breakage around FRA3B using aphidicolin in a somatic

William Paradee; Chadwick Mullins; Zhanquan He; Thomas Glover; Charles Wilke; Bertram Opalka; Jochen Schutte; David I. Smith

1995-01-01

270

Co-localisation of CCG repeats and chromosome deletion breakpoints in Jacobsen syndrome: evidence for a common mechanism of chromosome breakage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate-sensitive fragile sites are associated with the expansion and hypermethylation of CCG-repeats. The fragile site in 11q23.3, FRA11B, has been shown to cause chromosome deletions in vivo, its expression being associated with Jacobsen (11q-) syndrome. However, the majority of Jacobsen deletions are distal to FRA11B and are not related to its expression. To test the hypothesis that other unidentified fragile

Christopher Jones; Roman Müllenbach; Paul Grossfeld; Rebecca Auer; Remi Favier; Ken Chien; Michael James; Alan Tunnacliffe; Finbarr Cotter

2000-01-01

271

Design and spectral characteristics of gain-flattened tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and the spectral gain and noise figure (NF) characteristics of tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs), which are tellurite FRAs (T-FRAs) or hybrid tellurite\\/silica FRAs (hybrid FRAs), are described. Propagation equations for a multiwavelength (multi-?)-pumped T-FRA that include the pump interaction terms are presented, with which the gain and NF of the T-FRA can be calculated. Tellurite fiber (TF)

Hiroji Masuda; Atsushi Mori; Koji Shikano; Makoto Shimizu

2006-01-01

272

Social Functioning Among Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome and Their Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social behaviors among two genetically homogeneous groups—girls with fragile X (fraX) or Turner syndrome (TS)—were examined to address the role of family environment versus biological determinants of social dysfunction in girls with these disorders. Using a sibling pair design, girls with fraX or TS were compared with their own sisters on measures of IQ and social functioning. The 8 girls

Michèle M. M. Mazzocco; Thomas Baumgardner; Lisa S. Freund; Allan L. Reiss

1998-01-01

273

Autism spectrum disorder in fragile X syndrome: Communication, social interaction, and specific behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study extends our previous work on social behavior impairment in young males with fragile X syndrome (FraX). Specifically, we evalu- ated whether the autistic phenomenon in FraX is expressed as a range of behavioral impairments as in idiopathic autism (Aut). We also examined whether there are behaviors, identified as items of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI- R), that

Walter E. Kaufmann; Ranon Cortell; Alice S. M. Kau; Irena Bukelis; Elaine Tierney; Robert M. Gray; Christiane Cox; George T. Capone; Pia Stanard

2004-01-01

274

Further evidence for genetic heterogeneity in the fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-linked fragile X[fra(X)] syndrome, associated with a fragile site at Xq27.3, is the most common Mendeban inherited form of mental deficiency. Approximately 1 in 1060 males and 1 in 677 females carry the fra (X) chromosome. However, diagnosis of carrier status can be difficult since about 20% of males and 44% of females are nonpenetrant for mental impairment and\\/or

W. T. Brown; E. C. Jenkins; A. C. Gross; C. B. Chan; M. S. Krawczun; C. J. Duncan; S. L. Sklower; G. S. Fisch

1987-01-01

275

DNA methylation of the fragile X locus in somatic and germ cells during fetal development: Relevance to the fragile X syndrome and X inactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain insights into mechanisms responsible for methylation of CpG islands on the inactive X chromosome of normal females, we examined methylation of the fragile X (FraX) locus in a variety of tissues from normal fetuses and adults, and from males with the FraX syndrome. We identified 20 CCGG sites (MspI-HpaII sites M1–M20) within a 12-kb BglII fragment that includes

Shengyuan Luo; J. Courtland Robinson; Allan L. Reiss; Barbara R. Migeon

1993-01-01

276

Fully Integrated Impedance Spectroscopy Systems for Biochemical Sensor Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rapid progress in the miniaturization of biosensors, array microsystems utilizing impedance spectroscopy (IS) are of emerging interest. Focused on the electronics portion of such IS microsystems, this paper analyzes FFT-based and frequency response analyzer (FRA)-based approaches and compares them for hardware efficiency in array applications. For the chosen FRA-based approach, two possible systems are described and their circuit-level realizations

Chao Yang; Daniel Rairigh; Andrew Mason

2007-01-01

277

Mechanism of repression of squamous differentiation marker, SPRR1B, in malignant bronchial epithelial cells: role of critical TRE-sites and its transacting factors.  

PubMed

The overexpression of SPRR1B in bronchial epithelium is a marker for early metaplastic changes and the loss of its expression is associated with an irreversible malignant transformation. In the present study, we have used a model system consisting of normal and malignant bronchial epithelial (BE) cells to elucidate the differential transcriptional control of SPRR1B. SPRR1B expression is either detectable or PMA (phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate) -inducible in several malignant BE cells including squamous, adeno, small and large cell carcinomas. Loss of SPRR1B expression is correlated well with the lack of strong in vivo protein-DNA interactions at the -152 bp promoter, which contains two functional TRE sites. Even though the basal level AP-1 protein DNA binding pattern is different between normal and malignant cells, PMA significantly enhances Jun and Fos binding to the consensus TRE site in both cell types. Intriguingly, the composition of AP-1 protein binding to the -152 to -86 bp SPRR1B promoter is quite different. In untreated cells, SPRR1B promoter is predominantly occupied by JunD and Fra2. PMA significantly induced binding of JunB and Fra1 in normal cells, while JunB and Fra2 bound to TREs in the malignant cells. Overexpression of fra1 in malignant cells significantly enhanced SPRR1B promoter activity. In contrast, overexpression of fra2, but not fra1, strongly reduced both basal and PMA-inducible promoter activities in normal cells. Together, these results indicate that either temporal expression and/or differential activation of AP-1 proteins, especially Fra1 and Fra2, might contribute to the dysregulation of terminal differentiation marker, SPRR1B, expression in various BE cells. PMID:11313996

Patterson, T; Vuong, H; Liaw, Y S; Wu, R; Kalvakolanu, D V; Reddy, S P

2001-02-01

278

One-step affinity tag purification of full-length recombinant human AP1 complexes from bacterial inclusion bodies using a polycistronic expression system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AP-1 transcription factor is a dimeric protein complex formed primarily between Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) and Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2) family members. These distinct AP-1 complexes are expressed in many cell types and modulate target gene expression implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses. Although the importance of AP-1 has long been recognized, the biochemical characterization of

Wei-Ming Wang; A-Young Lee; Cheng-Ming Chiang

2008-01-01

279

Risk assessment of a petroleum-contaminated site through a multi-phase and multi-component modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated simulation and risk-assessment approach is proposed, which includes a multi-phase and multi-component modeling system for simulating flow and transport of petroleum constituents in the subsurface and a fuzzy relation analysis (FRA) model for assessing environmental risks under uncertainty. Outputs of the simulation modeling were directly input into the FRA model to comprehensively evaluate integrated risk due to transport

Z. Chen; G. H. Huang; A. Chakma

2000-01-01

280

Insular Volume Reduction in Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental deficit and is caused by mutations of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. While males and females with the full FMR1 mutation are affected differently because the disorder is X-linked, both suffer from varying degrees of cognitive impairment, attention deficits and social anxiety. The insula is a sensory integrative region that has been increasingly suggested as a critical area involved in anxiety manifestation. The current study was designed to examine possible changes in insular volume in FraX compared to age- and gender-matched typically developing healthy controls (HC) as well as age, gender-, and intelligence-matched developmentally delayed controls (DD). An established native-space, manual morphometry method was utilized to quantify total and regional insular volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Total, anterior and posterior insular volumes were found to be reduced in FraX compared to both HC and DD. The current data add to a growing literature concerning brain abnormalities in FraX and suggests that significant volume reduction of the insula is a component of the FraX neuroanatomical phenotype. This finding also provides an intriguing potential neural correlate for hyperarousal and gaze aversion, which are prominent behavioral symptoms of FraX.

Cohen, Jeremy D.; Nichols, Taylor; Brignone, Laura; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

2011-01-01

281

Fragile X syndrome: a pilot proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in premutation carriers  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is increasing evidence that neurodevelopmental differences in people with Fragile X syndrome (FraX) may be explained by differences in glutamatergic metabolism. Premutation carriers of FraX were originally considered to be unaffected although several recent reports demonstrate neuroanatomical, cognitive, and emotional differences from controls. However there are few studies on brain metabolism in premutation carriers of FraX. Methods We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare neuronal integrity of a number of brain metabolites including N-Acetyl Aspartate, Creatine?+?Phosphocreatinine, Choline, myoInositol, and Glutamate containing substances (Glx) in 17 male premutation carriers of FraX and 16 male healthy control individuals. Results There was no significant between-group difference in the concentration of any measured brain metabolites. However there was a differential increase in N-acetyl aspartate with aging in premutation FraX individuals compared to controls. Conclusions This is the first 1?H-MRS study to examine premutation FraX individuals. Although we demonstrated no difference in the concentration of any of the metabolites examined between the groups, this may be due to the large age ranges included in the two samples. The differential increase in NAA levels with aging may reflect an abnormal synaptic pruning process.

2012-01-01

282

Expression of a Mutant Form of Cellulose Synthase AtCesA7 Causes Dominant Negative Effect on Cellulose Biosynthesis1  

PubMed Central

Cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CesAs) have been implicated in catalyzing the biosynthesis of cellulose, the major component of plant cell walls. Interactions between CesA subunits are thought to be required for normal cellulose synthesis, which suggests that incorporation of defective CesA subunits into cellulose synthase complex could potentially cause a dominant effect on cellulose synthesis. However, all CesA mutants so far reported have been shown to be recessive in terms of cellulose synthesis. In the course of studying the molecular mechanisms regulating secondary wall formation in fibers, we have found that a mutant allele of AtCesA7 gene in the fra5 (fragile fiber 5) mutant causes a semidominant phenotype in the reduction of fiber cell wall thickness and cellulose content. The fra5 missense mutation occurred in a conserved amino acid located in the second cytoplasmic domain of AtCesA7. Overexpression of the fra5 mutant cDNA in wild-type plants not only reduced secondary wall thickness and cellulose content but also decreased primary wall thickness and cell elongation. In contrast, overexpression of the fra6 mutant form of AtCesA8 did not cause any reduction in cell wall thickness and cellulose content. These results suggest that the fra5 mutant protein may interfere with the function of endogenous wild-type CesA proteins, thus resulting in a dominant negative effect on cellulose biosynthesis.

Zhong, Ruiqin; Morrison, W. Herbert; Freshour, Glenn D.; Hahn, Michael G.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

2003-01-01

283

Spinal motor actions of the ?-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO in the cat.  

PubMed

For further evaluation of opioidergic spinal motor functions the action of the ?-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO was tested on transmission in different non-nociceptive and nociceptive spinal reflex pathways from flexor reflex afferents (FRA), and in non-FRA reflex pathways in spinal cats. The action of DAMGO was complex, not following a simple pattern with selective depression of nociceptive pathways compared to non-nociceptive ones. Monosynaptic reflexes of the flexor posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBSt) and transmission in nociceptive as well as non-nociceptive excitatory FRA pathways to PBSt were depressed, while the specific excitatory nociceptive non-FRA pathway from the central foot pad to foot extensors was mainly not depressed but rather facilitated by DAMGO. DAMGO caused a facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes to the extensor gastrocnemius soleus (GS) and partly a reversal of inhibitory to excitatory conditioning effects from cutaneous afferents to GS. FRA interneurones could show either an increase or a cessation of their spontaneous activity, but responsiveness to nociceptive and non-nociceptive afferent activation was blocked by DAMGO. The main DAMGO action is generated via interneuronal systems rather than on motoneurones themselves. The results indicate that opioidergic spinal functions are extensively involved in spinal motor control exceeding a mere suppression of nociceptive motor withdrawal reactions. PMID:21276826

Steffens, Heinz; Schomburg, Eike D

2011-05-01

284

Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28°C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37°C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

2004-08-01

285

Structural and functional diversity of metalloproteinases encoded by the Bacteroides fragilis pathogenicity island.  

PubMed

Bacteroides fragilis causes the majority of anaerobic infections in humans. The presence of a pathogenicity island in the genome discriminates pathogenic and commensal B. fragilis strains. The island encodes metalloproteinase II (MPII), a potential virulence protein, and one of three homologous fragilysin isozymes (FRA; also termed B. fragilis toxin or BFT). Here, we report biochemical data on the structural-functional characteristics of the B. fragilis pathogenicity island proteases by reporting the crystal structure of MPII at 2.13 Å resolution, combined with detailed characterization of the cleavage preferences of MPII and FRA3 (as a representative of the FRA isoforms), identified using a high-throughput peptide cleavage assay with 18 583 substrate peptides. We suggest that the evolution of the MPII catalytic domain can be traced to human and archaebacterial proteinases, whereas the prodomain fold is a feature specific to MPII and FRA. We conclude that the catalytic domain of both MPII and FRA3 evolved differently relative to the prodomain, and that the prodomain evolved specifically to fit the B. fragilis pathogenicity. Overall, our data provide insights into the evolution of cleavage specificity and activation mechanisms in the virulent metalloproteinases. PMID:24698179

Shiryaev, Sergey A; Aleshin, Alexander E; Muranaka, Norihito; Kukreja, Muskan; Routenberg, David A; Remacle, Albert G; Liddington, Robert C; Cieplak, Piotr; Kozlov, Igor A; Strongin, Alex Y

2014-06-01

286

Purification, cloning and characterization of fragaceatoxin C, a novel actinoporin from the sea anemone Actinia fragacea.  

PubMed

Actinia fragacea is commonly called the "strawberry" anemone because of the distinctive yellow or green spots displayed on its red column. Its venom contains several haemolytic proteins with a molecular mass of approximately 20 kDa that can be separated by ion-exchange column chromatography. One of them was purified to homogeneity and was named fragaceatoxin C (FraC). Its 15 N-terminal residues were identified by Edman degradation and served to obtain its complete DNA coding sequence by RT-PCR. The coding region of FraC was amplified and cloned in the expression vector pBAT-4. Purified recombinant FraC consists of 179 amino acids and multiple sequence alignment with other actinoporins clearly indicates that FraC belongs to this protein family. The secondary structure, thermal stability and lytic activity of native and recombinant FraC were practically identical and exhibit the same basic features already described for equinatoxin-II and sticholysin-II. PMID:19563820

Bellomio, Augusto; Morante, Koldo; Barlic, Ariana; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Viguera, Ana Rosa; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel

2009-11-01

287

Variation at the fragile X locus does not influence susceptibility to bipolar disorder  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years several pedigrees have been reported which are suggestive of linkage between susceptibility to bipolar disorder and markers on chromosome Xq28. Other workers have failed to replicate these reports and the methodology of the positive reports has been criticized. Recently there have been several reports of an association between fragile X (FRA(X)) and affective disorder within families and in unrelated individuals compared with controls. Such reports could be consistent with the Xq28 marker reports because FRA(X) maps to Xq27.3. We report a study at the FRA(X) CGG repeat locus in 79 unrelated Caucasian bipolar probands without fragile X syndrome and 77 unrelated controls. We found no evidence that variation at this locus confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder. 28 refs., 1 fig.

Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; McGuffin, P. [Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-06-15

288

Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10?/? mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1? SPI2? or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies.

Ali, Mohamed M.; Newsom, David L.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L.; Smith, Jenee N.; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J.; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

2014-01-01

289

Experimental investigation on amplification and coherence properties of a single-frequency and dual-single-frequency narrow-linewidth fiber Raman amplifier employing a switchable narrow-linewidth seed laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a narrow-linewidth fiber Raman amplifier (NL-FRA) operating at single-frequency (SF) and dual-single-frequency (DSF) to study the amplification and coherence properties. A switchable NL seed laser at a central wavelength of 1079.7 nm is utilized to provide SF and DSF signal light for FRA. The signal light is Raman amplified to 791 mW and 1.07 W, respectively. Measurements of spectrum and frequency spectrum indicate that there is no significant indication of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and four-wave mixing (FWM). The experimental investigation on coherence properties of SF and DSF NL-FRA indicates that the optical-path-difference-control and control-servomechanism-system for coherent beam combination (CBC) of DSF NL-FRAs are more strictly required, but still feasible.

Xu, Jiangming; Wu, Wuming; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Hou, Jing

2011-11-01

290

Structural insights into the oligomerization and architecture of eukaryotic membrane pore-forming toxins.  

PubMed

Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteins that are secreted as soluble molecules and are inserted into membranes to form oligomeric transmembrane pores. In this paper, we report the crystal structure of Fragaceatoxin C (FraC), a PFT isolated from the sea anemone Actinia fragacea, at 1.8 Å resolution. It consists of a crown-shaped nonamer with an external diameter of about 11.0 nm and an internal diameter of approximately 5.0 nm. Cryoelectron microscopy studies of FraC in lipid bilayers reveal the pore structure that traverses the membrane. The shape and dimensions of the crystallographic oligomer are fully consistent with the membrane pore. The FraC structure provides insight into the interactions governing the assembly process and suggests the structural changes that allow for membrane insertion. We propose a nonameric pore model that spans the membrane by forming a lipid-free ?-helical bundle pore. PMID:21300287

Mechaly, Ariel E; Bellomio, Augusto; Gil-Cartón, David; Morante, Koldo; Valle, Mikel; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel; Guérin, Diego M A

2011-02-01

291

Fructose-asparagine is a primary nutrient during growth of Salmonella in the inflamed intestine.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10-/- mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1- SPI2- or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies. PMID:24967579

Ali, Mohamed M; Newsom, David L; González, Juan F; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L; Smith, Jenee N; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M M

2014-06-01

292

Regulation of steatohepatitis and PPAR? signaling by distinct AP-1 dimers.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects up to 30% of the adult population in Western societies, yet the underlying molecular pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the dimeric Activator Protein 1 as a regulator of NAFLD. Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) and Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) prevent dietary NAFLD by inhibiting prosteatotic PPAR? signaling. Moreover, established NAFLD and the associated liver damage can be efficiently reversed by hepatocyte-specific Fra-1 expression. In contrast, c-Fos promotes PPAR? expression, while c-Jun exerts opposing, dimer-dependent functions. Interestingly, JunD was found to be essential for PPAR? signaling and NAFLD development. This unique antagonistic regulation of PPAR? by distinct AP-1 dimers occurs at the transcriptional level and establishes AP-1 as a link between obesity, hepatic lipid metabolism, and NAFLD. PMID:24411941

Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Bakiri, Latifa; Thomsen, Martin K; Williams, Evan G; Auwerx, Johan; Wagner, Erwin F

2014-01-01

293

Speech disturbances (cluttering) in mildly impaired males with the Martin-Bell/fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

The language characteristics of fra(X) males (n = 10) with an IQ greater than or equal to 70 were evaluated. Language testing demonstrated relatively stronger receptive vocabulary skills compared to weak auditory memory and processing skills. A characteristic speech and language disturbance, cluttering, was present in 9 of the 10 study patients. Their speech was characterized by a fast and fluctuating rate of speech, and repetitions of sounds, words or phrases. Other aspects of cluttering including attentional problems, hyperactivity, motor delays and reading difficulties are commonly seen in the fra(X) syndrome. Cluttering may be helpful in identifying the fra(X) syndrome in a male who is not retarded. PMID:3953648

Hanson, D M; Jackson, A W; Hagerman, R J

1986-01-01

294

78 FR 58501 - Hazardous Materials: Failure To Pay Civil Penalties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the violation(s) of the HMR are described in 14 CFR Part 13. FAA begins the process of assessing civil penalties by...Subpart B (FRA), 49 CFR Part 386 (FMCSA), and 14 CFR Part 13 (FAA. The proposed rule carries out a statutory...

2013-09-24

295

O3, CO2 and chemical fractionation in ponderosa pine saplings  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental factors can affect plant tissue quality which is important for quality of organic matter inputs into soil food webs and decomposition of soil organic matter. Thus the effects of increases in CO2 and O3 and their interactions were determined for various chemical fra...

296

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Alternative Safety Measures  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pt. 222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222âAlternative Safety Measures Introduction...public authority application to FRA (§ 222.39(b)) may include ASMs...the subject crossing(s); and b. A sustainable public education and awareness...

2009-10-01

297

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Alternative Safety Measures  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pt. 222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222âAlternative Safety Measures Introduction...public authority application to FRA (§ 222.39(b)) may include ASMs...the subject crossing(s); and b. A sustainable public education and awareness...

2010-10-01

298

Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: X2000 US demonstration vehicle dynamics trials, preliminary test report. Report for October 1992January 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report documents the procedures, events, and results of vehicle dynamic tests carried out on the ASEA-Brown Boveri (ABB) X2000 tilt body trainset in the US between October 1992 and January 1993. These tests, sponsored by Amtrak and supported by the FRA, were conducted to assess the suitability of the X2000 trainset for safe operation at elevated cant deficiencies and

B. T. Whitten; J. K. Kesler

1993-01-01

299

Identification of the genes affecting the regulation of riboflavin synthesis in the flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii using insertion mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of a group of so-called flavinogenic yeast species that overproduce riboflavin (vitamin B2) in response to iron limitation. Using insertion mutagenesis, we isolated P. guilliermondii mutants overproducing riboflavin. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of recombination sites revealed that insertion cassettes integrated into the genome disrupting P. guilliermondii genes similar to the VMA1 gene of Ashbya gossypii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and FES1 and FRA1 genes of S. cerevisiae. The constructed P. guilliermondii ?vma1–17 mutant possessed five- to sevenfold elevated riboflavin production and twofold decreased iron cell content as compared with the parental strain. Pichia guilliermondii ?fra1–45 mutant accumulated 1.8–2.2-fold more iron in the cells and produced five- to sevenfold more riboflavin as compared with the parental strain. Both ?vma1–17 and ?fes1–77 knockout strains could not grow at 37 °C in contrast to the wild-type strain and the ?fra1–45 mutant. Increased riboflavin production by the wild-type strain was observed at 37 °C. Although the ?fes1–77 mutant did not overproduce riboflavin, it showed partial complementation when crossed with previously isolated P. guilliermondii riboflavin-overproducing mutant rib80–22. Complementation analysis revealed that ?vma1–17 and ?fra1–45 mutants are distinct from previously reported riboflavin-producing mutants hit1-1, rib80-22 and rib81-31 of this yeast.

Boretsky, Yuriy R.; Pynyaha, Yuriy V.; Boretsky, Volodymyr Y.; Fedorovych, Dariya V.; Fayura, Lyubov R.; Protchenko, Olha; Philpott, Caroline C.; Sibirny, Andriy A.

2012-01-01

300

Studies concerning the biogenesis of natural derivatives of lysergic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto Dall'esame della incorporazione di possibili precursori negli alcaloidi prodotti daC. paspali eC. purpurea risulta che non vi è una diretta correlazione fra la biogenesi delle catene laterali della ergometrina e dellaa-idrossietilammide dell'acido lisergico, e che l'ergometrina non è un precursore dei derivati peptidici dell'acido lisergico.

A. Minghetti; F. Arcamone

1969-01-01

301

Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT) tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT) is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are

Cristina Uboldi; Elena Guidi; Sante Roperto; Valeria Russo; Franco Roperto; Giulia Di Pia Meo; Leopoldo Iannuzzi; Sandrine Floriot; Mekki Boussaha; André Eggen; Luca Ferretti

2006-01-01

302

Drejfuyushchie dekametrovye vspleski Yupitera s menyayushchimsya masshtabom vremeni. (Jupiter's drifting decametric bursts with the changing time scale).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The drifting burst class with the changing time scale for each event is selected from the observational data of the Jovian decametric emission obtained with the radiotelescope UTR-2. The burst duration at fixed frequency changes from few seconds (or a fra...

N. N. Gerasimova

1988-01-01

303

71 FR 63065 - Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...recognized the effectiveness of this redesign...for crew communication. Noise can...of noise exposure varies greatly...addressing noise exposures in the locomotive...implement effective training...since few exposures are reduced...truly that effective (as evidenced...reducing noise exposure in cab environments...FRA is not aware of......

2006-10-27

304

Brief Report: Autism of the Asperger Type Associated with an Autosomal Fragile Site.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study describes a 12-year-old boy with autism in association with the folate-sensitive fragile site fra(2)(q13). Cytogenetic results of blood analysis are described, and two possibilities are discussed: the fragile site may be a coincidental finding unrelated to the autism, or may represent an area of potential gene damage. (JDD)

Saliba, Joseph R.; Griffiths, Mike

1990-01-01

305

77 FR 2605 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...7), requiring cab-mounted horns to be tested with microphones at 4 feet above the height of the rail. FRA assigned the...shadows and ground reflection on the measurements when using a microphone at the 4-foot height. CSX also provided...

2012-01-18

306

78 FR 46678 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...will be discontinued, and all associated signal equipment and Crossover 83 will be...

2013-08-01

307

78 FR 68146 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Dearborn Division, Toledo, OH. CP Oak Signals 2S-1, 2S-3, 2N-1, and...

2013-11-13

308

78 FR 17282 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...modifications that it will make to the signal system at the A&R crossing in...

2013-03-20

309

77 FR 31429 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...proposed discontinuance of an automatic block signal (ABS) system and a traffic control...

2012-05-25

310

76 FR 4416 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal...discontinuance or modification of the signal system. [Docket Number FRA-2010-0168...William E. Van Trump, AVP Engineering--Signal/Comm./TCO, 1400 Douglas...

2011-01-25

311

78 FR 47822 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...discontinuance of the automatic block signal (ABS) system on Main Line 1 and...

2013-08-06

312

76 FR 34801 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...decrease of limits consists of moving the 2S signal on the siding south to the clearance...

2011-06-14

313

78 FR 71710 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals and the installation of cab signals...

2013-11-29

314

78 FR 77787 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Phillip A. Danner, AVP Engineering-Signal, 1400 Douglas Street, MS 0910,...

2013-12-24

315

78 FR 59754 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...discontinuance and removal of the automatic block signal (ABS) system between Southaven,...

2013-09-27

316

78 FR 9106 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...these proposed changes to modernize its signal equipment and install Positive Train...

2013-02-07

317

78 FR 77786 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Purcell, Acting Chief Engineer--Signals, One Penn Plaza East, Newark, NJ...

2013-12-24

318

78 FR 37656 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...proposed modification of the railroad signal interlocking systems at DB & Cabin M...

2013-06-21

319

78 FR 77785 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Phillip A. Danner, AVP Engineering-Signal, 1400 Douglas Street, MS 0910,...

2013-12-24

320

78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...with electronic control equipment and new signals arranged to the existing track...

2013-11-29

321

77 FR 48204 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition docket...Phillip A. Danner, AVP Engineering-Signal, 1400 Douglas Street, MS 0910,...

2012-08-13

322

MODELING OF SPINEL SETTLING IN WASTE GLASS MELTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The topic of this multi-institutional bi-national research is the formation and settling of spinel, the most common crystalline phase that precipitates in molten high-level waste HLW) glass. For the majority of HLW streams, spinel formation in the HLW melter limits the waste fra...

323

77 FR 68722 - National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...symposium should notify Michelle Silva in FRA's Office of Chief Counsel...date of the symposium. Ms. Silva's contact information is as...202-493-6030; email: michelle.silva@dot.gov. For information...Inventory Data by Electronic Methods (Electronic Submission...

2012-11-16

324

76 FR 9401 - Union Pacific Railroad Company; Notice of Public Hearing and Extension of Public Comment Period  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA's Docket Clerk, Michelle Silva, by telephone, e-mail...the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as...202-493-6030; e-mail michelle.silva@dot.gov. The informal hearing...submitted by any of the following methods: Web site:...

2011-02-17

325

Computer simulations and experiments to study the fracture of rods by flying plates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have used HEMP3D to study the interaction of flying plates with a tungsten-alloy rod. HEMP3D is a three-dimensional elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic Lagrangian finite-difference computer simulation program with sliding interfaces. We have implemented a fra...

J. E. Reaugh M. L. Wilkins

1990-01-01

326

Study on Legal Issues in the Reorganization of Health Care Institutions. Volume 15: Special Topic Research Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercial franchising in the health care industry and for-profit health maintenance organizations are discussed as part of a 19-volume study of the legal and organizational problems of health care institutions in the United States. The development of fra...

W. J. Curran, G. B. Moseley

1971-01-01

327

I mercati delle registrazioni e dei concerti nell'era della musica digitale  

Microsoft Academic Search

[ITALIANO] Le preferenze dei consumatori si stanno trasformando in maniera decisa nei confronti della musica digitale. La diffusione del file sharing e della musica attraverso internet ha modificato profondamente il mercato musicale, i ruoli e le interrelazioni fra gli agenti economici. Il mercato delle registrazioni su supporto tradizionale quello maggiormente penalizzato dal crescente numero di download a causa del fenomeno

Francesco BALDUCCI

2008-01-01

328

A comparison of trans-admittance and characteristic impedance as metrics for detection of winding displacements in power transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer function signatures are commonly used in condition monitoring analysis to give early indications of winding movement in power transformers. This paper presents a comparison of the use of trans-admittance (frequency response analysis, FRA), presently the industry standard, and characteristic impedance (transmission line diagnostics, TLD), a new method, as signatures for the detection of winding displacements in power transformers. To

A. Singh; F. Castellanos; J. R. Marti; K. D. Srivastava

2009-01-01

329

49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its...

2013-10-01

330

75 FR 76256 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Withdrawal of Applications and Voluntary Suspension of Benefits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reconsider their having applied for old-age benefits. Continued work...year of application. Recent media articles have promoted the use...retirement beneficiaries to apply for old-age benefits prior to FRA...Reacting to this media attention, the Center for...

2010-12-08

331

Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

2003-01-01

332

Non-contact rail flaw detection system: first field test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at UCSD, with the initial support of NSF and the current support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), have been working on a flaw detection prototype for rails that uses non-contact ultrasonic probing and robust data processing algorithms to provide high speed and high reliability defect detection in these structures. Besides the obvious advantages of non-contact probing, the prototype

Piervincenzo Rizzo; Stefano Coccia; Francesco Lanza di Scalea; Ivan Bartoli; Mahmood Fateh

2007-01-01

333

76 FR 68260 - Notice of Public Hearing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contact FRA's Docket Clerk, Jerome Melis-Tull, by telephone, email, or in writing...days before the date of the hearing. Mr. Melis-Tull's contact information is as follows...202) 493-6058; email: Jerome.Melis-Tull@dot.gov. The hearing will...

2011-11-03

334

76 FR 66126 - Notice of Public Hearing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...hearing, contact FRA's Docket Clerk Jerome Melis-Tull by telephone, email, or in writing...days before the date of the hearing. Mr. Melis-Tull's contact information is as follows...202-493- 6058; and e-mail: Jerome.Melis-tull@dot.gov. The hearing will...

2011-10-25

335

49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that is added to a docket. (For example, the first document submitted to the docket in 2009 will be identified as FRA-2009-XXX-1.) Thus, each petition submitted to the ERD will have a unique document number which should be identified on all...

2013-10-01

336

Flow Regime Transition Criteria Consistent with Two-Fluid Model for Vertical Two-Phase Flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditional flow-regime criteria based on the gas and liquid superficial velocities may not be suitable to the analyses of rapid transient or entrance flows by the two-fluid model. Under these conditions, direct geometrical parameters such as the void fra...

K. Mishima M. Ishii

1983-01-01

337

Genome wide DNA-profiling of HIV-related B-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) represent a frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To elucidate HIV-NHL pathogenesis, we performed a genome-wide DNA profiling based on a single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarray comparative genomic hybridization in 57 HIV-lymphomas and, for comparison, in 105 immunocompetent diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (IC-DLBCL). Genomic complexity varied across HIV-NHL subtypes. HIV-Burkitt lymphoma showed a significantly lower number of lesions than HIV-DLBCL (P = 0.032), whereas the median number of copy number changes was significantly higher in Epstein-Barr virus negative (EBV-) HIV-DLBCL (42.5, range 8-153) compared to EBV+ cases (22; range 3-41; P = 0.029). Compared to IC-DLBCL, HIV-DLBCL displayed a distinct genomic profile with no gains of 18q and specific genetic lesions. Fragile sites-associated genes, including FHIT (FRA3B), WWOX (FRA16D), DCC (FRA18B) and PARK2 (FRA6E) were frequently inactivated in HIV-NHL by interstitial deletions, and a significantly higher prevalence of FHIT alterations was observed in HIV-DLBCL compared to IC-DLBCL. The same genes involved by fragile site deletions were also frequently affected by aberrant methylation of regulative regions. PMID:19832807

Capello, Daniela; Scandurra, Marta; Poretti, Giulia; Rancoita, Paola M V; Mian, Michael; Gloghini, Annunziata; Deambrogi, Clara; Martini, Maurizio; Rossi, Davide; Greiner, Timothy C; Chan, Wing C; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Moreno, Santiago M; Piris, Miguel A; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Spina, Michele; Tirelli, Umberto; Inghirami, Giorgio; Rinaldi, Andrea; Zucca, Emanuele; Favera, Riccardo D; Cavalli, Franco; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Kwee, Ivo; Carbone, Antonino; Gaidano, Gianluca; Bertoni, Francesco

2010-01-01

338

77 FR 73456 - Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...freight-all-kinds (FAK) and transportation protective service (TPS) truckload (TL) shipments will be calculated using a mileage-based...increment change will take effect in 1 June 2013 for FAK and TPS. No changes made to DTC or PSSFC FRA effective dates. The...

2012-12-10

339

Correlations Between Rail Defect Growth Data and Engineering Analyses, Part I. Laboratory Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the first in a three-part series describing the technical contributions of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Vole Center) to the UIC/WEC (International Union of Railways/World Ex...

D. Y. Jeong

2003-01-01

340

78 FR 59754 - Notice of Application for Approval of Railroad Safety Program Plan and Product Safety Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan (RSPP) and Product Safety Plan (PSP) for the Railsoft TrackAccess System...only. FRA is accepting comments on the ATN PSP Version 1, dated July, 15, 2013, which...1, dated April 12, 2013, and the ATN PSP Version 1, dated July 15, 2013,...

2013-09-27

341

76 FR 48941 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Product Safety Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA) approval of a Product Safety Plan (PSP) submitted pursuant to 49 CFR part 236...Marquette submitted a petition for approval of a PSP for the Railsoft TrackAccess System. The...railroad productivity. Marquette asserts the PSP demonstrates that the TrackAccess...

2011-08-09

342

49 CFR 269.3 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 269.3 Section 269.3 Transportation...RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM § 269.3 Application. (a) Certification. This...of the certification on the FRA public Web site upon receipt. (b) Route...

2013-10-01

343

77 FR 76597 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...these components be considered to have the same standard life expectancy as determined by the M7 waiver (Docket Number FRA-2004-17099...a year per car, which delineates a similar wear and life expectancy to that of the M7. MNR proposes to test only those...

2012-12-28

344

75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...have proposed to redevelop the James A. Farley Building and its Western Annex into a...development rights associated with the Farley Complex. DATES: FRA invites interested...hearing will be held at the James A. Farley Post Office Building, located at...

2010-04-29

345

A cytogenetic study of mentally retarded school children in taiwan with special reference to the fragile X chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cytogenetic study was made on 341 mentally retarded children in the Provincial Nantou Rehabilitation Center for the Mentally Retarded and the St. Raphael Opportunity Center in Tainan. Of the 89 mentally retarded children with chromosomal abnormalities, 63 had Down syndrome, 13 had the fragile X [fra(X)] syndrome, and the remaining had other aneuploid constitutions. Family studies were possible for

Shuan-Yow Li; Chin-Chu Tsai; Ming-Yung Chou

1988-01-01

346

49 CFR 268.11 - Project eligibility standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of a preconstruction planning grant is to develop...of a preconstruction planning grant or the FRA has...Demonstrates that private enterprise would be able to run the...subsection. (6) Planning/environmental process...other sensitive water resources; and...

2013-10-01

347

Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

2009-01-01

348

Autistic Behavior in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 57 boys with fragile X syndrome (fraX) between the ages of 24 and 133 months was rated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) to assess the extent to which autism and autistic features were evident in a young population. Fourteen subjects (approximately 25% of the sample) scored above the cutoff for autism, suggesting a relatively high

Donald B. Bailey; Gary B. Mesibov; Deborah D. Hatton; Renee D. Clark; Jane E. Roberts; Lisa Mayhew

1998-01-01

349

Social Escape Behaviors in Children with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors…

Hall, Scott; DeBernardis, Marie; Reiss, Allan

2006-01-01

350

Further segregation analysis of the fragile X syndrome with special reference to transmitting males  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new series of 96 pedigrees with the fra(X) syndrome was analysed using complex segregation analysis with pointers, defining affection as any degree of mental impairment. These families were found to exhibit the same segregation pattern as the first series of 110 pedigrees (Sherman et al. 1984). The best estimate for penetrance of mental impairment in males was 79% and

S. L. Sherman; P. A. Jacobs; N. E. Morton; U. Froster-Iskenius; P. N. Howard-Peebles; K. B. Nielsen; M. W. Partington; G. R. Sutherland; G. Turner; M. Watson

1985-01-01

351

An Aggregated Information Technology Checklist for Operational Risk Management An Aggregated Information Technology Checklist for Operational Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the issue of the Information Technology (IT) Governance fra- meworks and standards that respond to different levels of operational risks, especially those caused by the information systems and technology infrastructure. A require- ment analysis regarding Basel II is conducted, a gap analysis between the Information Control Models (ICMs) is performed, and the aggregated IT checklist for Operational

Mehmet Zeki Önal

352

Identification of a nonsense mutation at amino acid 584-arginine of platelet glycoprotein IIb in patients with type I glanzmann thrombasthenia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using southern blot, the restriction digests of genomic DNAs in eleven patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia from ten unrelated kindred were probed with a platelet full-length GP IIb cDNA. An abnormal 2.3 kb Taq I fragment and two 1.65 kb and 0.65 kb fra...

J. Gu W. Xu X. Wang Q. Wu Z. Qi

1993-01-01

353

77 FR 26703 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...publication, FRA instructed that the numerical amount ``$100,000'' be removed from 49 CFR 228.21 and the numerical amount ``$105,000'' be added...should have directed the removal of the numerical amount ``$100,000'' from...

2012-05-07

354

Soil resources and soil erosion in the Norse settlement area of østerbygden in southern Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordbundsundersøgelser i nordboernes Østerbygden i Sydgrønland viser, at der i perioder er foregået omfattende jorderosion. Erosionen har især ramt de tæt bebyggede dele at nordbosamfundet, i indlandet. Detaljerede jordprofilstudier og C?dateringer af større trækulfragmenter fra forskellige lag i jorden er foretagede, ligesom jordenes erosionsresistens er undersøgt. Undersøgelserne viser, at de meget let eroderbare jorde har været stabile gennem Holocæn frem

Bjarne Holm Jakobsen

1991-01-01

355

China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy. Updated December 9, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S.-China relations were remarkably smooth for much of the George W. Bush Administration, raising speculation about how relations will fare after the transition to the Obama Administration. The State Department in 2005 unveiled what it said was a new fra...

K. Dumbaugh

2008-01-01

356

Association between Cigarette Smoking and FHIT Gene Alterations in Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic data have strongly indicated that cigarette smoking is linked to the development of lung cancer. However, little is known of the molecular targets of carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke. To identify genetic lesions characteristic of tobacco damage, we undertook a molec ular analysis of microsateilite alterations within the FHIT gene and FRA3B, as well as at an independent locus

Gabriella Sozzi; Laura Sard; Laura De Gregorio; Antonio Marchetti; Katia Musso; Fiamma Buttitta; Silvana Tornielli; Silvia Pellegrini; Maria Luisa Veronese; Giacomo Manenti; Matteo Incarbone; Antonio Chella; Carlo A. Angeletti; Ugo Pastorino; Kay Huebner; Generoso Bevilaqua; Silvana Pilotti; Carlo M. Croce; Marco A. Pierotti

357

Safety Margin Testing of a 70-Ton Boxcar with Shifted Plywood Lading. Summary Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FRA performed the Safety Margin Tests of a plywood lading that is suspected of being a derailment cause factor, with the objectives of determining conditions that cause the plywood to shift and the effect of the shifted plywood on derailment margins. ...

G. Kachadourian

1984-01-01

358

49 CFR 209.109 - Payment of penalty; compromise.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Accounting Division, AMZ-300, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125. Overnight express payments may be sent to DOT/FRA...MacArthur Blvd. Headquarters Building, Room 176, Oklahoma City, OK 73169. Payment by credit card must be made via the Internet...

2013-10-01

359

ANALISI TEORICA DEL CAMPO DI SPOSTAMENTO PRODOTTO DA UN TERREMOTO SUL PROPRIO PIANO DI FAGLIA: EFFETTI SULLA GEOMETRIA E L'ORIENTAZIONE DELLA FAGLIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'approccio comunemente utilizzato per il calcolo teorico del campo di deformazione indotto da una sorgente sismica in un mezzo elastico è basato sull'equivalenza fra una dislocazione di taglio elementare e una doppia coppia di forze puntiformi. Il campo prodotto da una sorgente di dimensioni finite viene poi ottenuto tramite sovrapposizione lineare dei campi generati da una distribuzione di doppie coppie

S. Tinti; A. Armigliato; A. Manucci

360

Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management  

EPA Science Inventory

River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

361

Lack of association between mutation size and cognitive/behavior deficits in fragile X males: A brief report  

SciTech Connect

Previously, researchers reported molecular-neurobehavioral or molecular-cognitive associations in individuals with fra(X) (fragile X) mutation. However, not all investigators have noted molecular-behavioral relationships. Consequently, we examined prospectively 30 fra(X) males age 3-15 years from four testing sites to determine whether there was a relationship between mutation size and degree of either cognitive or adaptive behavior deficit. To measure cognitive abilities, all individuals were administered the Stanford-Binet (4th edition) IQ test. To evaluate adaptive behavior (DQ) skills, all individuals were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. To determine fra(X) status, genomic DNA from all individuals was extracted and digested with EcoRI and EagI restriction enzymes. Southern blots were prepared and hybridized with the pE5.1 probe. The Pearson correlation coefficient between full mutation size and composite IQ score revealed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P > .76). The Pearson coefficient between mutation size and DQ also showed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P >.73). We conclude that while fra(X) mutation produces cognitive and behavior deficits in males who inherit the defective gene, there is no relationship between mutation size and degree of deficit. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Fisch, G.S. [SUNY/Health Science Center and Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [SUNY/Health Science Center and Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Carpenter, N. [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States); Simensen, R. [Greenwood Genetics Center, SC (United States)] [and others] [Greenwood Genetics Center, SC (United States); and others

1996-08-09

362

Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Safety of advanced braking concepts for high speed ground transportation systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to develop qualitative and quantitative information on the various braking strategies used in high-speed ground transportation systems in support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The approach employed in this study is composed of two steps: first, build a technical understanding of the various braking strategies, and second, perform a safety analysis for each

D. P. Wagner; D. R. Ahlbeck; J. F. Luedeke; S. D. Cook; M. A. Dielman

1995-01-01

363

75 FR 26842 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as it pertains to railroad locomotive horn testing. Metro-North seeks to utilize...specifically designed for the purpose of testing horns removed from the locomotives in lieu of...testing of its approximately 1,098 train horns. FRA's Safety Board (Board) did...

2010-05-12

364

Comparison of multivariate statistical analysis and fuzzy recognition algorithm for quantitative mapping soil organic matter content with hyperspectral data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil organic matter is one of the important criterions of soil fertility. Mapping and dating soil organic matter is of great importance in soil use and evaluation. In this paper we compare two measures of multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) and fuzzy recognition algorithm (FRA) for quantitative mapping soil organic matter content using Hyperspectral remote sensing. This study was tested

Jian Wu; Yaolin Liu; Xican Li; Jing Wang; Dan Chen

2009-01-01

365

A short-filament mutant of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 that fragments in nitrogen-deficient medium.  

PubMed

Strain 129 is a fragmentation mutant of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Growing with fixed nitrogen, this mutant forms filaments that are much shorter than wild-type filaments. Following starvation for fixed nitrogen, strain 129 becomes nearly unicellular and forms few heterocysts, although electron microscopy suggests that proheterocysts form while fragmentation occurs. Starvation for sulfate, phosphate, iron, and calcium does not cause this fragmentation. The affected gene in strain 129, fraC, was cloned by complementation and characterized. It encodes a unique 179-amino-acid protein rich in phenylalanine. Insertional inactivation of the chromosomal copy of fraC results in a phenotype identical to that of strain 129, while complementation using a truncated version of FraC results in only partial complementation of the original mutant. Heterocysts could be induced to form in N-replete cultures of strain 129, as in wild-type cells, by supplying extra copies of the hetR gene on a plasmid. Thus, FraC is required for the integrity of cell junctions in general but is apparently not directly involved in normal differentiation and nitrogen fixation. PMID:7883709

Bauer, C C; Buikema, W J; Black, K; Haselkorn, R

1995-03-01

366

New Explanation for the Roles of Fhit Protein in the Progress of Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alteration of the Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT) gene, encompassing the FRA3B fragile site at chromosome 3p14.2, especially reduction or deletion of its expression, is involved in many breast cancers. Little is known about the biological function of the F...

Y. Wang

2004-01-01

367

78 FR 54952 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contained at 49 CFR 229.81, Emergency Pole; shoe insulation. FRA assigned the petition...each locomotive equipped with third rail shoes shall have a device for insulating the...from rolling stock equipped with contact shoes by means of such devices would...

2013-09-06

368

49 CFR 222.51 - Under what conditions will quiet zone status be terminated?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Under what conditions will quiet zone status be terminated? 222...Zones § 222.51 Under what conditions will quiet zone status be terminated? (a...ZonesâAnnual risk review . (1) FRA will annually calculate the Quiet Zone...

2013-10-01

369

PARK2, a Large Common Fragile Site Gene, is Part of a Stress Response Network in Normal Cells That is Disrupted During the Development of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PARK2 (Parkin) is an extremely large gene that spans greater than 1.3 megabases of genomic sequence within chromosomal band 6q26. This gene is derived from within the distal end of the highly unstable FRA6E (6q26) common fragile site (CFS). CFSs are large...

D. I. Smith Y. Zhu

2007-01-01

370

The rationale for B lymphocyte depletion in Graves' disease. Monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody therapy as a novel treatment option  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed the immunology of thyroid autoimmunity with special reference to the importance of B lymphocytes (B cells) in thyroidal and extrathyroidal Graves' disease (GD), thus providing a fra- mework for the hypothesis that B cell depletion may be beneficial in GD. Additionally, after reviewing the efficacy and safety in other autoimmune diseases, we propose that treatment with the

Daniel El Fassi; Claus H Nielsen; Hans C Hasselbalch; Laszlo Hegedus

2006-01-01

371

77 FR 73589 - Positive Train Control Systems (RRR)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Supreme Court to preempt the entire field of locomotive safety. In sum, FRA...of the release value of any relay or electromagnetic device in the circuit. This requirement...release value of any relay or other electromagnetic device in the circuit, except...

2012-12-11

372

Using IT to Improve Medication Safety for Rural Elders. Grant Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of this project was to enable clinicians to be on the same page about their patients medications. We initially proposed to implement and evaluate a patient centered medication information system, RxSafe, that could improve the care of fra...

K. Ordelheide P. N. Gorman

2008-01-01

373

Genetics and expression of the fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

The discovery of the Fragile X (fra(X] syndrome represents a major advance in our understanding of mild mental retardation. This X-linked syndrome is the most common hereditary form of mental retardation. Recent estimates find that approximately 1/981 males and 1/677 females carry the fra(X) chromosome. The majority of affected males are moderate to severely retarded, but about 20% are mildly retarded and about 5% are borderline. Approximately 20% of males who inherit the fra(X) chromosome are termed non-penetrant; they do not express it cytogenetically and are of normal intellect. About 1/3 of carrier females show mental impairment and about 10% are mildly retarded. We have found evidence for genetic heterogeneity based on linkage analysis to flanking DNA probes. Some large families show tight linkage between fra(X) and the flanking probe F9, while others show loose linkage. Preliminary findings indicate the linkage heterogeneity may also be related to cognition: affected males in tightly linked families tended to be mildly retarded. PMID:2895523

Brown, W T; Jenkins, E C; Gross, A C; Chan, C B; Wisniewski, K; Cohen, I L; Miezejeski, C M

1987-01-01

374

Application of AC-Impedance Method on Determination of Corrosion Rate of Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AC-impedance technique was experimentally evaluated as one of the in-situ measuring means to determine the corrosion rate of metals immersed in aqueous solutions. Surface impedance of corroding metals was measured by both the FET and FRA methods using...

M. Suzuki

1987-01-01

375

Locomotive In-Cab Alerter Technology Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This report reviews the technical history of locomotive alerter logic, the evolution of Federal alerter regulations, NTSB and FRA\\/CAWG analyses of fatigue\\/alertness accidents, recent UK and Australian and USassessments of potential new alerter technologies, Automatic Behavior Syndrome in sleep deprived individuals, industry stakeholder views of alerter performance problems, and the scientific, technical, operational, safety and cost issues defining the

Charles M. Oman; Andrew M. Liu

376

76 FR 78731 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011, Drake Switching Company, LLC (DSC) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0015. DSC seeks a waiver of compliance from certain...SWX735), which is used as a locomotive. DSC states that this shuttlewagon is...

2011-12-19

377

75 FR 11988 - Notice of Request for Approval To Collect New Information: Collection of Safety Culture Data  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...study on the use of close calls data to improve safety in the rail industry. The study is conducted by the Office of Human Factors in the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and is designed to identify safety issues and propose corrective...

2010-03-12

378

Climbing Robot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mobile robot for traversing any surface consisting of a number of interconnected segments, each interconnected segment having an upper 'U' frame member, a lower 'U' frame member, a compliant joint between the upper 'U' frame member and the lower 'U' fra...

J. Kerley E. May W. Ecklund

1992-01-01

379

Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of "antiandrogens" on male rat reproductive development  

EPA Science Inventory

Although risk assessments are typically conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis, the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act requires the USEPA to consider cumulative risk of chemicals that act via a common mechanism of toxicity. To this end, we are conducting studies to provide a fra...

380

49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairsârailroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

2013-10-01

381

78 FR 48931 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Emergency Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...this time, it is estimated that this accident resulted in 42 fatalities, and 5 persons are still reported to be missing. Remarks will be given by the FRA Administrator, Committee members will be briefed on the preliminary findings of the accident,...

2013-08-12

382

49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its...

2011-10-01

383

49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its...

2012-10-01

384

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems: Magnetic and electric field testing of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) urban transit system. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, September 1992March 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). Plans for near future US applications include maglev projects (e.g. in Orlando, FL and Pittsburgh, PA) and high speed rail (the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle). The

W. L. Jacobs; D. C. Robertson; G. A. Steiner

1993-01-01

385

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems. Magnetic and electric field testing of the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) rail systems. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report, September 1992March 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). A franchise has been awarded to the Texas high Speed Rail Corporation to operate a 200 mph French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle (Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio),

F. M. Dietrich; P. N. Papas; W. L. Jacobs; W. E. Ferro

1993-01-01

386

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems. Magnetic and electric field testing of the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) rail systems. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, September 1992March 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). A franchise has been awarded to the Texas High Speed Rail Corporation to operate a 200 mph French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle (Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio),

F. M. Dietrich; W. E. Jacobs

1993-01-01

387

77 FR 58211 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012, Central Montana Rail, Inc. (CMR) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...FRA-2001-10948. In their petition, CMR seeks relief from 49 U.S.C. 21103...24-hour period. In support of its request, CMR explained that the allowance for train...

2012-09-19

388

77 FR 38882 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement, for the Chicago, IL to St...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Corridor Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Illinois to St. Louis, Missouri High Speed Rail Corridor Program. The Draft EIS includes...project-level evaluation for the Springfield Rail Improvements Project. FRA is the...

2012-06-29

389

Intercity rail-passenger car ride quality test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Railroad Administration's research and development program relating to intercity rail-passenger ride quality focuses on developing ride quality design criteria and specifications. The FRA ride quality test program and some of the techniques being used to analyze and evaluate the design criteria of the program are discussed.

Scharr, R. L.; Owings, R. P.

1975-01-01

390

49 CFR 232.15 - Movement of defective equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...safe and timely repair of equipment; (v) The relevant weather conditions at the location that affect accessibility or create...procedures contained in § 232.17, and shall be subject to any modifications determined by FRA to be necessary to ensure consistency...

2013-10-01

391

The relationship between headache and religious attendance (the Nord-Tr?ndelag health study- HUNT)  

PubMed Central

Background Religious belief can be used as a pain coping strategy. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between headache and religious activity using prospective data from a large population-based study. Methods This longitudinal cohort study used data from two consecutive surveys in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 2 and 3) performed in 1995–1997; and 2006–2008. Among the 51,383 participants aged???20 years who answered headache questions at baseline, 41,766 were eligible approximately 11 years later. Of these, 25,177 (60%) completed the question in HUNT 3 regarding religious activity. Frequent religious attendees (fRA) (used as a marker of stronger religious belief than average) were defined as those who had been to church/prayer house at least once monthly during the last six months. Results In the multivariate analyses, adjusting for known potential confounders, individuals with headache 1–14 days/month in HUNT 2 were more likely to be fRA 11 years later than headache-free individuals. Migraine at baseline predisposed more strongly to fRA at follow-up (OR?=?1.25; 95% CI 1.19-1.40) than did non-migrainous headache (OR?=?1.13; 95% 1.04-1.23). The odds of being fRA was 48% increased (OR 1.48; 95% 1.19-1.83) among those with migraine 7–14 days/month at baseline compared to subjects without headache. In contrast, headache status at baseline did not influence the odds of being frequent visitors of concerts, cinema and/or theatre at follow-up 11 years later. Conclusions In this prospective study, headache, in particular migraine, at baseline slightly increased the odds of being fRA 11 years later.

2014-01-01

392

The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Circadian Rhythmicity and Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

The control of new protein synthesis provides a means to locally regulate the availability of synaptic components necessary for dynamic neuronal processes. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding translational regulator, is a key player mediating appropriate synaptic protein synthesis in response to neuronal activity levels. Loss of FMRP causes Fragile X Syndrome (FraX), the most commonly inherited form of mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders. FraX-associated translational dysregulation causes wide-ranging neurological deficits including severe impairments of biological rhythms, learning processes and memory consolidation. Dysfunction in cytoskeletal regulation and synaptic scaffolding disrupts neuronal architecture and functional synaptic connectivity. The understanding of this devastating disease and the implementation of meaningful treatment strategies require a thorough exploration of the temporal and spatial requirements for FMRP in establishing and maintaining neural circuit function.

Gatto, Cheryl L.; Broadie, Kendal

2013-01-01

393

The amnestic syndrome: Applying the Rorschach Inkblot method for differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Dissociative processes were investigated in a man diagnosed with focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) following a traumatic head injury without any anterograde memory deficit. Findings were derived from the Rorschach Inkblot method, which was administered together with other performance-based tests and a self-report inventory for evaluating dissociative proneness in personality functioning. A substantial set of behavioral and test response variables indicated dissociation proneness and the activation of dissociative mechanisms. This conception was supported a few months following the evaluation when the patient reported a total spontaneous recovery of the memory deficit. The interplay between neurological and functional factors in FRA is discussed with a view for creating an integrated model. PMID:23985019

Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth; Kedem, Sagit; Hadar, Uri

2014-12-01

394

Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Analytical methodology for safety validation of computer controlled subsystems. Volume 2. Development of a safety validation methodology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The evolution in the implementations of safety critical systems in the railroad industry from simple vital relays to more complex computer-based configurations has raised many issues among users as well as the Federal Railraod Authority (FRA). Foremost among these issues is the need to assure similar or improved levels of safety those currently provided by conventional fail-safe technology. This concern is heightened in newer high-speed rail and maglev systems which operate or are being designed to operate at considerably higher speeds and levels of automation than conventional rail systems. The overall objective of this program was to develop a safety validation methodology that could be considered (by the FRA) for use as a standard for manufacturers and users to help ensure the safe operation of safety critical computer-based system.

Luedeke, J.F.

1995-09-01

395

Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Regulates RhoA Activation and Tumor Cell Plasticity by Inhibiting Guanine Exchange Factor H1 Activity  

PubMed Central

In certain Ras mutant cell lines, the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling increases RhoA activity and inhibits cell motility, which was attributed to a decrease in Fra-1 levels. Here we report a Fra-1-independent augmentation of RhoA signaling during short-term inhibition of ERK signaling. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we identified guanine exchange factor H1 (GEF-H1) as mediating this effect. ERK binds to the Rho exchange factor GEF-H1 and phosphorylates it on S959, causing inhibition of GEF-H1 activity and a consequent decrease in RhoA activity. Knockdown experiments and expression of a nonphosphorylatable S959A GEF-H1 mutant showed that this site is crucial in regulating cell motility and invasiveness. Thus, we identified GEF-H1 as a critical ERK effector that regulates motility, cell morphology, and invasiveness.

von Thun, Anne; Preisinger, Christian; Rath, Oliver; Schwarz, Juliane P.; Ward, Chris; Monsefi, Naser; Rodriguez, Javier; Garcia-Munoz, Amaya; Birtwistle, Marc; Bienvenut, Willy; Anderson, Kurt I.

2013-01-01

396

Bone development and inflammatory disease is regulated by AP-1 (Fos/Jun).  

PubMed

The Fos and Jun proteins are members of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, which is a central regulator for many cellular functions. This paper summarises the important functions of Fos proteins in bone development, with special emphasis on the Fos-related proteins Fra-1 and Fra-2. These factors determine the functions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and regulate cytokine signalling during bone development. Likewise, the Jun proteins control the expression of cytokines and chemokines and are probably causally involved in inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. Investigations into the molecular mechanisms responsible for skin inflammation have revealed that Jun proteins control cytokine expression, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha by transcriptional and posttranscriptional pathways. Finally, the paper discusses the relevance of the Jun-dependent mouse model for psoriasis for preclinical studies in the field of anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:19995753

Wagner, E F

2010-01-01

397

In-home fall risk assessment and detection sensor system.  

PubMed

Falls are a major problem in older adults. A continuous, unobtrusive, environmentally mounted (i.e., embedded into the environment and not worn by the individual), in-home monitoring system that automatically detects when falls have occurred or when the risk of falling is increasing could alert health care providers and family members to intervene to improve physical function or manage illnesses that may precipitate falls. Researchers at the University of Missouri Center for Eldercare and Rehabilitation Technology are testing such sensor systems for fall risk assessment (FRA) and detection in older adults' apartments in a senior living community. Initial results comparing ground truth (validated measures) of FRA data and GAITRite System parameters with data captured from Microsoft(®) Kinect and pulse-Doppler radar are reported. PMID:23675644

Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie; Abbott, Carmen; Galambos, Colleen; Pak, Youngju; Ho, Dominic K C; Stone, Erik E; Rui, Liyang; Back, Jessica; Miller, Steven J

2013-07-01

398

AP1 Transcription Factors in Epidermal Differentiation and Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

AP1 (jun/fos) transcription factors (c-jun, junB, junD, c-fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) are key regulators of epidermal keratinocyte survival and differentiation and important drivers of cancer development. Understanding the role of these factors in epidermis is complicated by the fact that each protein is expressed, at different levels, in multiple cells layers in differentiating epidermis, and because AP1 transcription factors regulate competing processes (i.e., proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation). Various in vivo genetic approaches have been used to study these proteins including targeted and conditional knockdown, overexpression, and expression of dominant-negative inactivating AP1 transcription factors in epidermis. Taken together, these studies suggest that individual AP1 transcription factors have different functions in the epidermis and in cancer development and that altering AP1 transcription factor function in the basal versus suprabasal layers differentially influences the epidermal differentiation response and disease and cancer development.

Eckert, Richard L.; Adhikary, Gautam; Young, Christina A.; Jans, Ralph; Crish, James F.; Xu, Wen; Rorke, Ellen A.

2013-01-01

399

Positional cloning of the hereditary renal carcinoma 3; 8 chromosome translocation breakpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosome (p14.2;q24.1) translocation t(3;8) has been associated with hereditary renal cancer in one family. Based on cytogenetic analysis and loss-of-heterozygosity experiments, the 3p14 region has been independently implicated as harboring a tumor suppressor gene critical to kidney and lung cancer development. The 3p14.2 region also contains FRA3B, the most sensititive fragile site induced by aphidicolin. A chromosome 3 probe,

F. L. Boldog; A. S. Nilsson; H. A. Drabkin; R. M. Gemmill; C. M. Wilke; T. W. Glover; S. C. Chandrasekharappa; R. S. Brown; F. P. Li

1993-01-01

400

Comparative Mapping and Genomic Annotation of the Bovine Oncosuppressor Gene WWOX  

Microsoft Academic Search

WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) is the gene mapping at FRA16D HSA16q23.1, the second most active common fragile site in the human genome. In this study we characterized at a detailed molecular level WWOX in the bovine genome. First, we sequenced cDNA from various tissues and obtained evidence in support of a 9-exon structure for the gene, similar to the human

S. Manera; S. Bonfiglio; A. Malusà; C. Denis; M. Boussaha; V. Russo; F. Roperto; A. Perucatti; G. P. Di Meo; A. Eggen; L. Ferretti

2009-01-01

401

Da Bhopal a Porto Marghera: la responsabilità ambientale delle compagnie transnazionali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sommario: La notte fra il 2 e il 3 dicembre 1984 quaranta tonnellate di una miscela di gas tossici fuoriuscirono dall'impianto di produzione di pesticidi della Union Carbide a Bhopal, in India. Questo incidente rappresenta il più grande disastro nella storia dell'industria chimica, per il quale oggi si contano almeno 20.000 vittime e circa mezzo milione di persone ne subiscono

Vittoria Polidori

402

A novel analysis of ZVS wireless power transfer system using coupled resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two coils constitute a coupled-resonator wireless power transfer (WPT) system contributing as a critical part of zero-volt-switching (ZVS) power supply. Coupled resonators are first analyzed by the harmonic resonance analysis (HRA), and the F-parameter resonance analysis (FRA) methods to obtain the input impedance and voltage gain vs. the operating frequency. After that, the total circuit including the switching transistors and

Tatsuya Hosotani; Ikuo Awai

2012-01-01

403

Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

regions, especially for the 1980s. However, our results indicate that the net rate of tropical forest clearing increased '10% from the 1980s to 1990s, most notably in southeast Asia, in contrast to an 11% reduction reported by the FRA. We estimate net mean annual carbon fluxes from tropical deforestation and regrowth to average 0.6 (0.3- 0.8) and 0.9 (0.5-1.4) petagrams

Ruth S. DeFries; Richard A. Houghton; Matthew C. Hansen; Christopher B. Field; D. Skole; John Townshend

2002-01-01

404

Petrology of Apollo 14 regolith breccias and ion microprobe studies of glass beads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mineral chemistries, glass chemistries, and bulk compositions of Apollo 14 regolith beccias are used to study the regolith evolution at the Apollo 14 site and on the moon in general. Major changes in the regolith since the formation of the breccias include an increase in maturity, an increase in glasses with the Fra Mauro basalt composition, and decreases in feldspathic and mare glasses. The results suggest the presence of a source with a larger non-KREEPy highland plutonic component than other breccias.

Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.

1989-01-01

405

Mutation frequencies of X-linked mental retardation genes in families from the EuroMRX consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EuroMRX family cohort consists of about 400 families with non-syndromic and 200 families with syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). After exclusion of Fragile X (Fra X) syndrome, probands from these families were tested for mutations in the coding sequence of 90 known and candidate XLMR genes. In total, 73 causative mutations were identified in 21 genes. For 42% of

Arjan P. M. de Brouwer; Helger G. Yntema; Tjitske Kleefstra; Dorien Lugtenberg; Astrid R. Oudakker; Bert B. A. de Vries; J. H. L. M. van Bokhoven; Hilde Van Esch; Suzanne G. M. Frints; Guy Froyen; Jean-Pierre Fryns; Martine Raynaud; Marie-Pierre Moizard; Nathalie Ronce; Anissa Bensalem; Claude Moraine; Karine Poirier; Laetitia Castelnau; Yoann Saillour; Thierry Bienvenu; Chérif Beldjord; Vincent des Portes; Jamel Chelly; Gillian Turner; Tod Fullston; Jozef Gecz; Andreas W. Kuss; Andreas Tzschach; Lars Riff Jensen; Steffen Lenzner; Vera M. Kalscheuer; Hans-Hilger Ropers; Ben C. J. Hamel

2007-01-01

406

Further delineation of X-linked mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal, clinical, and psychological data are presented on members of six families with X-linked mental retardation. Affected males in three of these families express the fra(X)(q28) marker, while the retarded males in the other three do not. Similar variable physical and psychological charateristics, such as lop ears, large testes, and perseverative speech, are present in affected males in all six

D. S. Herbst; H. G. Dunn; F. J. Dill; D. K. Kalousek; L. W. Krywaniuk

1981-01-01

407

A neuropsychological investigation of male premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is currently thought that fragile X syndrome (FraX; the most common inherited form of learning disability) results from having more than 200 cytosine–guanine–guanine (CGG) trinucleotide repeats, with consequent methylation of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene and loss of FMR1 protein (FMRP). It was also considered that premutation carriers (with 55–200 CGG repeats) are unaffected, although a tremor\\/ataxia

Caroline J. Moore; Eileen M. Daly; Nicole Schmitz; Flora Tassone; Carolyn Tysoe; Randi J. Hagerman; Paul J. Hagerman; Robin G. Morris; Kieran C. Murphy; Declan G. M. Murphy

2004-01-01

408

The fragile X syndrome in a large family. II. Psychological investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligence levels and intelligence profiles were investigated in 52 members of a large family with the fragile X syndrome. The mental abilities were evaluated by the three Wechsler intelligence tests (WAIS, WISC-R, and WPPSI). Chromosomal and psychological data were then compared. In 22 non-retarded fra(X) negative family members, a mean IQ of 102 was found (males 97, females 106). Eleven

H Veenema; T Veenema; J P Geraedts

1987-01-01

409

Hazardous-materials car placement in a train consist. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, 18 Feb17 Nov 88  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appendices, Volume II consist of Appendix A. Form FRA F6180-54 (12-74) Rail Equipment Accident\\/Incident Report; Appendix B. Data Related to Derailment Analysis; Appendix C. Review of Selected Railroad Accidents Involving Multiple Hazardous Materials; Appendix D. U.S. Department of Transportation Hazmat Car Placement Regulations; Appendix E. Canadian Transport Commission Hazmat Car Placement Regulations; Appendix F. Hazardous Materials Definitions; Appendix G. Table

R. E. Thompson; E. R. Zamejc; D. R. Ahlbeck

1992-01-01

410

Functional and Clinical Significance of Variants Localized to 8q24 in Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Multiple GWAS have identified several susceptibility variants for colon cancer at 8q24. However, the functional roles of these variants have yet to be elucidated. Here, we evaluated the potential role of these markers in tumor progression and examined association with commonly observed structural abnormalities in this region, c-MYC amplification and chromosome fragility at FRA8C and FRA8D. We first replicated the previously reported association by testing 1178 cases and 1009 clinic-based controls with eight markers localized to three specific regions at 8q24. We observed significant associations with colon cancer risk with markers rs13254738 (ordinal OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.072-0.94, Ptrend=0.0037) and rs6983267 (ordinal OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.03-1.32, Ptrend=0.013). Survival analysis was performed using a separate set of 460 cases to evaluate the clinical significance of these markers. Overall, univariate analysis did not detect survival differences for any of the markers. We also tested a subset of the 460 cases (N=380) for structural abnormalities at or near the c-MYC locus using FISH analysis. Furthermore, we evaluated a small number of cases homozygous for the rs6983267 alleles to test for differences in fragile site induction. None of the 8q markers correlated with amplification at the c-MYC locus as detected by FISH, and no clear pattern of breakage was observed at the FRA8C and FRA8D sites. In this study, we confirm the association for several SNPs at 8q24 in colon cancer but have not detected any structural role relating to c-MYC amplification or chromosomal fragility. Finally, these risk alleles do not appear to be associated with survival.

Cicek, Mine S.; Slager, Susan L.; Achenbach, Sara J.; French, Amy J.; Blair, Hilary E.; Fink, Stephanie R.; Foster, Nathan R.; Kabat, Brian F.; Halling, Kevin C.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cerhan, James R.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Boardman, Lisa A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Alberts, Steven R.; Limburg, Paul J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.

2014-01-01

411

Addendum to papers from the GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds) GANISOL Team, published in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Ion Sources, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, September 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

This addendum applies to the paper authored by contributors from the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) published in the February 2010 issue of Review of Scientific Instruments, within the Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Ion Sources, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, September 2009 (Key Scientific coordinator: P. Delahaye; Technical coordinator: P. Jardin; SPIRAL 2 coordinator: R. Leroy and H. Fra˚nberg-Delahaye

N. Alahari; O. Bajeat; C. Barué; F. Chautard; E. Clément; P. Delahaye; F. de Oliveira; M. Dubois; M. Fadil; H. Nberg-Delahaye; B. Jacquot; P. Jardin; M. G. Saint-Laurent; N. Lecesne; P. Lehérissier; R. Leroy; M. Lewitowicz; G. Lhersonneau; L. Maunoury; A. Méry; P. Roussel-Chomaz; J. Y. Pacquet; A. Pichard; J. C. Thomas

2010-01-01

412

Trasformazioni e patologie del paesaggio  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anche il paesaggio, come vedremo, si evolve. Ma parlare oggi di evoluzione è assai problematico e quindi non si può fare a\\u000a meno di un inquadramento più generale del fenomeno. Quando oggi si parla di evoluzione si presenta sovente un quadro che,\\u000a purtroppo, non ha sempre i caratteri della scienza e un dibattito che, di conseguenza, trascina polemiche anche fra

Vittorio Ingegnoli

413

INCREASING SPEEDS THROUGH THE DIVERGING ROUTE OF A TURNOUT WITHOUT INCREASING LEAD LENGTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented are the results of Phase I of an FRA-sponsored study on low-cost means to increase safe speeds through turnouts by way of a retrofit or upgrade. Turnout lead length and frog angle were considered fixed, eliminating costs in relocating the frog or switch points. After in-depth research and dynamic simulation testing, it was determined that the best approach was

Clifford Bonaventura; Allan Zarembski; Joseph Palese; Donald Holfeld

2004-01-01

414

Analyses of the returned lunar surface fines for porphyrins.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 11, 12, and 14 lunar surface fines were examined for the presence of porphyrins by a sensitive fluorescent technique. The returned lunar samples studied were of bulk fines collected from the Sea of Tranquillity by Apollo 11, from the Ocean of Storms by Apollo 12, and from the nonmare Fra Mauro formation by Apollo 14. It was found that no porphyrins are present in lunar surface fines which have been extensively irradiated and sorted.

Rho, J. H.; Bauman, A. J.; Cohen, E. A.; Yen, T. F.; Bonner, J.

1972-01-01

415

Characteristics of micromorphology and element distribution of iron–manganese cutans in typical soils of subtropical China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of iron–manganese cutans and to observe information of their pedogenic processes and certain environmental condition changes in the pedogenic process of subtropical Chinese soils. The characteristics of micromorphology of iron–manganese cutans and element distribution with linear microprofiles (i.e., the vertical microprofile from cutan to matrix soil) in Fragiudalfs (FRA), Ferrudalfs

Li Huang; Jun Hong; Wenfeng Tan; Hongqing Hu; Fan Liu; Mingkuang Wang

2008-01-01

416

JNK1 and AP-1 regulate PMA-inducible squamous differentiation marker expression in Clara-like H441 cells.  

PubMed

Exposure of distal bronchiolar region to various toxicants and pollutants suppresses Clara cell differentiation marker expression and greatly enhances the induction of squamous cell differentiation (SCD). Here, we demonstrate for the first time phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate (PMA)-inducible expression of SCD markers, SPRRs, in Clara-like H441 cells. The transcriptional stimulation of human SPRR1B expression is mainly mediated by a -150- to -84-bp region that harbors two critical activator protein (AP)-1 sites. In unstimulated cells, the -150- to -84-bp region is weakly bound by AP-1 proteins, mainly JunD and Fra1. However, PMA prominently induced the binding of JunB and Fra1. Consistent with this, overexpression of wild-type Jun proteins upregulated the SPRR1B promoter activity. Conversely, a c-jun mutant suppressed both basal and PMA-inducible reporter gene expression. Intriguingly, overexpression of fra2 suppressed PMA-inducible reporter activity, whereas fra1 significantly enhanced basal level activity, indicating an opposing role for these proteins in SPRR1B expression in a manner similar to that observed in proximal tracheobronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B clone S6). Interestingly, unlike in S6 cells, a catalytically inactive c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1 mutant significantly reduced the PMA-inducible SPRR1B promoter activity in H441 cells. Thus either temporal expression and/or spatial activation of AP-1 proteins by JNK1 might contribute to the induction of SCD in Clara cells. PMID:11792626

Vuong, Hue; Patterson, Tricia; Adiseshaiah, Pavan; Shapiro, Paul; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V; Reddy, Sekhar P M

2002-02-01

417

High Absolute Coronary Disease Risk among Turks: Involvement of Risk Factors Additional to Conventional Ones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To confirm previous findings on excess absolute coronary heart disease (CHD) risk among Turks. Methods: The observed incident CHD risk of a representative population sample was compared with that anticipated by Fra- mingham risk scores (FRS). At 7.4 years of follow-up of 3,027 participants free of CHD at baseline, risk estimation was contrasted in the 398 cases of newly developed

Altan Onat; Günay Can; Gülay Hergenç; Zekeriya Küçükdurmaz; Hüsniye Yüksel

2010-01-01

418

Adhesive/Cohesive Strength of a ZrO2.1-2 w/o Y2O3/NiCrAlY Thermal Barrier Coating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The room temperature adhesive/cohesive strength of a 0.05 cm thick ZrO2.12w/oY2O3/0.013 cm thick NiCrAlY thermal barrier coating system (TBC) was investigated. The weakest link was the oxide/NiCrAlY interface region with a strength of 6.2 MN/sq m. The fra...

S. R. Levine

1978-01-01

419

The FHIT Gene, Spanning the Chromosome 3p14.2 Fragile Site and Renal Carcinoma–Associated t(3;8) Breakpoint, Is Abnormal in Digestive Tract Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 200–300 kb region of chromosome 3p14.2, including the fragile site locus FRA3B, is homozygously deleted in multiple tumor-derived cell lines. Exon amplification from cosmids covering this deleted region allowed identification of the human FHIT gene, a member of the histidine triad gene family, which encodes a protein with 69% similarity to an S. pombe enzyme, diadenosine 5?, 5??? P1,

Masataka Ohta; Hiroshi Inoue; Maria Grazia Cotticelli; Kumar Kastury; Raffaele Baffa; Juan Palazzo; Zurab Siprashvili; Masaki Mori; Peter McCue; Teresa Druck; Carlo M Croce; Kay Huebner

1996-01-01

420

Il ruolo di Guglielmo Marconi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Marconi, come risulta dai verbali, non era molto assiduo alle riunioni del Direttorio del CNR. In quel periodo, nonostante\\u000a il manifestarsi dei primi sintomi dellamalattia cardiaca che l’avrebbe condotto alla morte nel 1937, continuava a dividersi\\u000a fra numerosi impegni: la Reale Accademia d’Italia di cui era stato nominato da poco presidente, la costruzione della prima\\u000a stazione radio del Vaticano, gli

Franco Foresta Martin; Geppi Calcara

421

Effects of immunization against alpha-inhibin using two adjuvants on daily sperm production and hormone concentrations in ram lambs.  

PubMed

Twenty-five ram lambs were immunized against alpha-inhibin peptide emulsified in Freund's adjuvant (FRA), Emulsigen (EML) containing an oligodeoxynucleotide as an immunostimulant, or adjuvant without alpha-inhibin antigen (control). Four immunizations were administered during an 85-d period, after which testes were obtained for determination of daily sperm production (DSP) and histological evaluation. alpha-Inhibin antibody (Ab) titers were 70-fold greater in lambs treated with FRA than in EML-treated ram lambs. alpha-Inhibin immunization had no effect on testes weight or on plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. Mean DSP/g tended (P=0.1) to be greater in alpha-inhibin-immunized (EML=17.6x10(6); FRA=15.8x10(6)) ram lambs than in control animals (14.4x10(6)). One of the 8 control ram lambs had an elevated DSP/g, which was a statistical outlier. Without data from this lamb, DSP/g was increased (P<0.01) in alpha-inhibin-immunized ram lambs by 28% over controls. No association was found between the titer of alpha-inhibin Ab developed and DSP/g. Histologically, the percentage of testicular area occupied by seminiferous tubules differed (P=0.01) by treatment and was greatest (82%) in EML-treated ram alpha-inhibin-immunized lambs and lowest (74%) in control animals. Percentage tubular area and DSP/g were correlated (r=0.57, P=0.003). Findings show that (1) the extent of the increase in DSP/g is not dependent on the titer of alpha-inhibin Ab; (2) the increase in DSP/g is achieved through an increase in the mass of seminiferous tubules; and (3) FRA elicits a greater alpha-inhibin Ab titer than EML containing an oligodeoxynucleotide. PMID:19646838

Voge, J L; Parker, J B; Wheaton, J E

2009-11-01

422

The source and origin of the exotic component and KREEP-rich materials on the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enrichments of trace-element concentrations in lunar soils are attributed to the combined effects of comminution of local rocks and a preferential addition of the exotic component to finer grain sizes. The exotic component appears similar to Fra Mauro materials, and there is a strong correlation between the percentage of exotic component and distance from the Fra Mauro site. Based on trace-element characteristics, it is suggested that the exotic component is finely comminuted KREEP and is dispersed on the lunar surface from the Fra Mauro and other high gamma-ray active regions in the Imbrium-Procellarum regions. The major and trace-element chemistry of these materials is considered to be due to impact melting of trace-element-rich accessory phases followed by variable dilution with partial melts of the bulk solid phases of plagioclase, low-Ca pyroxene, and olivine. The generation of KREEP and the exotic component is an impact-produced local process and need not imply a global occurrence of radioactive crust on the moon.

Murthy, V. R.

1975-01-01

423

On-Site Diagnosis of Transformer Winding by Frequency Response Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Displacement and/or deformation of a coil in oil-immersed transformers are hazardous. Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) has the possibility to detect these abnormalities with high sensitivity. However, a guideline for diagnosis of transformers by FRA is not yet firmly established. In this paper, FRA is applied to seven oil-immersed transformers installed in substations. Diagnosis methods when initial data do not exist are evaluated. When the initial data do not exist, it may be possible to diagnose by comparing transfer functions of three phases (phase-to-phase comparison) or by comparing transfer functions to those of sister units (sister-unit comparison). The phase-to phase comparison cannot be applied to some kinds of vector groups. The sister-unit comparison is fully applicable and the performance of the comparison can be improved by additionally comparing the transfer functions phase-to-phase. Furthermore, applicability of measurement of the transfer functions without disconnecting the bus from the transformer is evaluated. The bus should be disconnected from the transformer under tests because the measured transfer functions are influenced by bus.

Miyazaki, Satoru; Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Matsumoto, Kazumichi; Nakamura, Shinichi

424

Integration of mTOR and estrogen-ERK2 signaling in lymphangioleiomyomatosis pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease of women associated with the metastasis of tuberin-null cells with hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. Clinical trials with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin have revealed partial efficacy but are not curative. Pregnancy appears to exacerbate LAM, suggesting that estrogen (E2) may play a role in the unique features of LAM. Using a LAM patient-derived cell line (bearing biallelic Tuberin inactivation), we demonstrate that E2 stimulates a robust and biphasic activation of ERK2 and transcription of the late response-gene Fra1 associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In a carefully orchestrated collaboration, activated mTORC1/S6K1 signaling enhances the efficiency of Fra1 translation of Fra1 mRNA transcribed by the E2-ERK2 pathway, through the phosphorylation of the S6K1-dependent eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B. Our results indicate that targeting the E2-ERK pathway in combination with the mTORC1 pathway may be an effective combination therapy for LAM. PMID:23983265

Gu, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Jane J; Ilter, Didem; Blenis, Nickolas; Henske, Elizabeth Petri; Blenis, John

2013-09-10

425

Integration of mTOR and estrogen-ERK2 signaling in lymphangioleiomyomatosis pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease of women associated with the metastasis of tuberin-null cells with hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. Clinical trials with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin have revealed partial efficacy but are not curative. Pregnancy appears to exacerbate LAM, suggesting that estrogen (E2) may play a role in the unique features of LAM. Using a LAM patient-derived cell line (bearing biallelic Tuberin inactivation), we demonstrate that E2 stimulates a robust and biphasic activation of ERK2 and transcription of the late response-gene Fra1 associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In a carefully orchestrated collaboration, activated mTORC1/S6K1 signaling enhances the efficiency of Fra1 translation of Fra1 mRNA transcribed by the E2–ERK2 pathway, through the phosphorylation of the S6K1-dependent eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B. Our results indicate that targeting the E2–ERK pathway in combination with the mTORC1 pathway may be an effective combination therapy for LAM.

Gu, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Jane J.; Ilter, Didem; Blenis, Nickolas; Henske, Elizabeth Petri; Blenis, John

2013-01-01

426

Fragile X syndrome in incestuous families  

SciTech Connect

Reed suggested the investigation of children 219 from incestuous unions as a method for calculation of the detrimental heterozygosity of man. Some studies of latent genetics load in man have been based on the comparison of health status of incestuous children with their half-sibs born to the same mothers in matings with nonconsanguineous partners. These studies were limited to the detection of autosomal-recessive genes leading to abnormal phenotypes or mental deficiency in homozygotes. The highest coefficient of inbreeding in human beings is 1/4 in offspring of incestuous matings: hence, the high proportion of affected homozygotes and low incidence of affected individuals among their maternal half-sibs. Mental deficiency in incestuous children represents not only cases of simple recessive inheritance. Recently, we observed three incestuous families in which fragile X syndrome was detected. The fra(X) children were born to carriers from incestuous unions as well as to unrelated partners. Therefore, we recommend use of incestuous children and their maternal half-sibs as a control group for studies estimating latent genetic load after investigation for fra(X). The incidence of fra(X) syndrome is high, and mental retardation in heterozygotes is uncommon. Both of these factors can play a role in the occurrence of incest, and in pregnancy at young age, as well as in multiple partnerships. Families of heterozygotes for fragile X should be excluded from the material for the calculation of human latent detrimental (autosomal-recessive) genetic load. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Seemanova, E. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

1996-11-11

427

Neuropsychological profiles of three sisters homozygous for the fragile X premutation  

SciTech Connect

Fragile X syndrome (fraX) is associated with an amplification of a CGG repeat within the fraX mental retardation (FMR-1) gene. We describe an exceptional family in which 3 adult sisters are homozygous for the FMR-1 premutation. Each sister inherited 2 premutation alleles (ca. 80 CGG repeats) from their biologically unrelated parents. The 3 sisters were administered measures of executive function, visual spatial, memory, and verbal skills. Deficiencies in the first 2 of these domains have been reported among females with the full mutation. The sisters` performances were compared with available normative data and with published group means for females affected by fraX. These women did not appear to have verbal or memory difficulties. None of the women demonstrated a global executive function deficit, and none had global deficits in spatial ability. The profiles of these sisters are consistent with reports that the fragile X premutation does not affect cognitive performance. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Mazzocco, M.M.M. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Holden, J.J.A. [Ongwanada Resource Centre, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)] [Ongwanada Resource Centre, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

1996-08-09

428

Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein developmentally regulates activity-dependent axon pruning.  

PubMed

Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder with symptoms ranging from hyperexcitability to mental retardation and autism. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene product, the mRNA-binding translational regulator FMRP, causes structural over-elaboration of dendritic and axonal processes, as well as functional alterations in synaptic plasticity at maturity. It is unclear, however, whether FraX is primarily a disease of development, a disease of plasticity or both: a distinction that is vital for engineering intervention strategies. To address this crucial issue, we have used the Drosophila FraX model to investigate the developmental function of Drosophila FMRP (dFMRP). dFMRP expression and regulation of chickadee/profilin coincides with a transient window of late brain development. During this time, dFMRP is positively regulated by sensory input activity, and is required to limit axon growth and for efficient activity-dependent pruning of axon branches in the Mushroom Body learning/memory center. These results demonstrate that dFMRP has a primary role in activity-dependent neural circuit refinement during late brain development. PMID:18321984

Tessier, Charles R; Broadie, Kendal

2008-04-01

429

Infection with retroviral vectors leads to perturbed DNA replication increasing vector integrations into fragile sites  

PubMed Central

Genome instability is a hallmark of cancer. Common fragile sites (CFSs) are specific regions in the human genome that are sensitive to replication stress and are prone to genomic instability in different cancer types. Here we molecularly cloned a new CFS, FRA11H, in 11q13. The genomic region of FRA11H harbors a hotspot of chromosomal breakpoints found in different types of cancer, indicating that this region is unstable during cancer development. We further found that FRA11H is a hotspot for integrations of Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV)-based vectors, following CD34+ infections in vitro as well as ex-vivo during gene therapy trials. Importantly, we found that the MLV-based vector infection in-vitro leads to replication perturbation, DNA damage and increased CFS expression. This suggests that infection by MLV-based vectors leads to replication-induced genome instability, raising further concerns regarding the use of retroviral vectors in gene therapy trials.

Bester, Assaf C.; Kafri, Moshe; Maoz, Karin; Kerem, Batsheva

2013-01-01

430

Molecular fragil X screening in normal populations  

SciTech Connect

In December, 1993, we initiated a pilot project in which DNA fragile X (fraX) testing was offered during routine prenatal or genetic counseling to all pregnant women seen at the Genetics & IVF Institute, most of whom were referred for the indication of advanced maternal age. A brochure on fragile X syndrome was sent to each patient prior to her appointment and was reviewed by a counselor or physician during the counseling session. As of June 1995, 3,345 patients were offered testing; 474 women with no identified family history of mental retardation or learning disability and 214 women with a positive family history accepted the test on a self-pay basis. The second population screened was 271 potential donors in our anonymous egg donor program. DNA from blood was tested by Southern blot using EcoRI/EagI and StB12.3. If an expansion was detected, CGG repeat number was determined by PCR-based analysis. Among the 474 patients with unremarkable family histories, three fraX carriers were identified (repeat sizes = 60+), whereas none were found in the 214 patients with a positive family history. Among the potential egg donors, two high borderline patients were identified (repeat sizes = between 50 and 59). Our ongoing study indicates that screening of pregnant or preconceptual populations for fraX carrier status using DNA testing is accepted by many patients and is an important addition to current medical practice. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Spence, W.C.; Black, S.H.; Fallon, L. [Genetics & IVF Inst., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others] [Genetics & IVF Inst., Fairfax, VA (United States); and others

1996-07-12

431

[Clinical and cytogenetic diagnosis of Martin-Bell syndrome].  

PubMed

A total of 368 patients aged 1 year 11 months to 35 years with oligophrenia were examined cytogenetically. Out of 58 boys with a typical disease picture, the fragile X chromosome (fra-X) was revealed in 57. In all the cases, the syndrome could be diagnosed clinically before chromosomal analysis was made. In a group of children with undifferentiated oligophrenia including those with the sex-linked inheritance type, fra-X was not discovered. Besides, the fragile X chromosome was revealed in 4 girls. Of these, 3 were probands' sisters and one case was sporadic. The girls manifested both symptomatology typical for Martin-Bell syndrome and nonspecific mental retardation. Another 55 probands' relatives were examined clinically and cytogenetically. The fra-X was discovered in 9 mothers of the patients. The mean IQ in the women with the revealed fragile X chromosome was much lower than the mean IQ of all the women, mothers of the sick children. It is concluded that in spite of a wide range of the variability of somatic and psychopathological disorders in patients with Martin-Bell syndrome, the possibility of the clinical diagnosis of the disease without making cytogenetic studies attains as much as almost 100%. Symptoms, specific for the clinical diagnosis of the disease were distinguished. PMID:1661516

Kupriianova, T A; Gor'kova, S A; Marincheva, G S

1991-01-01

432

Sleep research in space: expression of immediate early genes in forebrain structures of rats during the nasa neurolab mission (STS-90).  

PubMed

1. Electrophysiological and behavioural observations have shown that changes in the sleep-waking activity occur in astronauts during the space flight. Experiments performed in ground-based experiments have previously shown that the immediate early gene (IEG) c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, can be used as a molecular correlate of sleep and waking. However, while Fos expression peaks within 2-4 hours after the stimulus and returns to baseline within 6-8 hours, other IEGs as the FRA proteins which are also synthetized soon after their induction, persist in the cell nuclei for longer periods of time, ranging from 1-2 days to weeks. 2. Both Fos and FRA expression were evaluated in several adult albino rats sacrificed at different time points of the space flight, i.e. either at FD2 and FD14, i.e. at launch and about two weeks after launch, respectively, or at R + 1 and R + 13, i.e. at the reentry and about two weeks after landing. The changes in Fos and FRA expression were then compared with those obtained in ground controls. These experiments demonstrate activation of several brain areas which varies during the different phases of the space flight. Due to their different time of persistence, Fos and FRA immunohistochemistry can provide only correlative observations. In particular, FRA expression has been quite helpful to identify the occurrence of short-lasting events such as those related either to stress or to REM-sleep, whose episodes last in the rat only a few min and could hardly be detected by using only Fos expression. 3. Evidence was presented indicating that at FD2 and FD14 Fos-labeled cells were observed in several brain areas in which Fos had been previously identified as being induced by spontaneous or forced waking in ground-based experiments. In contrast to these findings FLT rats sacrificed at R + 1 showed low levels of Fos immunostaining in the cerebral cortex (neocortex) and several forebrain structures such as the hypothalamus and thalamus. Some Fos staining was also present in limbic cortical areas, the septum, and the hippocampus. The main area of the forebrain of FLT rats sacrificed at R + 1, showing an increased expression of Fos, was the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) (cf. 127), as well as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (cf. 122). At R + 13 Fos immunostaining was variable among FLT rats. However, none of these rats showed a significant number of Fos-positive cells in CeA. 4. Most of the rats studied for Fos expression were also tested for FRA expression. In particular, a scattered amount of FRA expression occurred at FD14 in different areas of the neocortex and in limbic forebrain regions (such as the cingulate, retrosplenial and entorhinal cortex). It included also the hippocampus, the lateral septum, the caudate/putamen, as well as some hypothalamic regions. At the reentry (R + 1) it was previously shown that a prominent increase in FRA expression occurred in the LC of FLT rats (cf. 122). This finding was associated with an increase in FRA expression which affected not only the nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis of the medulla, which sends excitatory glutamatergic afferents to the LC (cf. 31 for ref.), but also structures which are known to produce corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide which activates the noradrenergic LC neurons during stress. 5. These findings which result from acceleration stress were followed by REMS episodes, which probably occurred after a long period of sleep deprivation following exposure to microgravity. It was previously shown that an increase in Fos and FRA expression occurred at the reentry in some pontine and medullary reticular structures (cf. 128), which are likely to be involved in both the descending (postural atonia) and the ascending manifestations of PS. These findings can be integrated by results of the present experiments showing that at the reentry high levels of FRA expression occurred in the hippocampus and the limbic system, i.e. in structures which are involved in the generalized pattern of EEG desynchroniza

Centini, C; Pompeiano, O

2007-05-01

433

Induction of gene expression via activator protein-1 in the ascorbate protection against UV-induced damage.  

PubMed Central

UV irradiation is a major insult to the skin. We have shown previously that exogenous vitamin C (ascorbate) accumulates in HaCaT keratinocytes, thus conferring the ability to prevent radical formation and cell death elicited by UV-B. Here, we have investigated the potential mechanisms accounting for the cytoprotective effects exerted by this antioxidant. Using a cDNA microarray hybridization, we identified several genes whose expression was up-regulated by ascorbate. We focused on the fra-1 gene, a member of the Fos family of transcription factors that down-regulates activator protein-1 (AP-1) target genes. Both in HaCaT and in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, we found Fra-1 mRNA induction as early as 2 h after ascorbate loading. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and antibody supershift analysis revealed that ascorbate modulates AP-1 DNA-binding activity and that Fra-1 is in AP-1 complexes in treated cells. Furthermore, transient-transfection studies, using an AP-1 reporter construct, showed that ascorbate was able to inhibit both basal and UV-B-induced AP-1-dependent transcription. Ascorbate also modulates UV-B-induced AP-1 activity by preventing the phosphorylation and activation of the upstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), thus inhibiting phosphorylation of the endogenous c-Jun protein. These data suggest that ascorbate mediates cellular responses aimed at counteracting UV-mediated cell damage and cell death by interfering at multiple levels with the activity of the JNK/AP-1 pathway and modulating the expression of AP-1-regulated genes.

Catani, M V; Rossi, A; Costanzo, A; Sabatini, S; Levrero, M; Melino, G; Avigliano, L

2001-01-01

434

An FPGA-based frequency response analyzer for multisine and stepped sine measurements on stationary and time-varying impedance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based frequency response analyzer (FRA) for impedance frequency response function (FRF) measurements using periodic excitations, i.e. sine waves and multisines. The stepped sine measurement uses two dedicated hardware-built digital embedded multiplier blocks to extract the phase and quadrature components of the output signal. The multisine FRF measurements compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the input/output signals. In this paper, we describe its design, implementation and performance evaluation, performing electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements on phantoms. The stepped sine accuracy is 1.21% at 1 k? (1%), the precision is 35 m? and the total harmonic distortion plus noise (THD+N) is -120 dB. As for the multisine impedance FRF measurements, the magnitude and phase precision are, respectively, 0.23 ? at 48.828 kHz and 0.021 deg at 8.087 MHz when measuring a resistor 505 ? (1%). The magnitude accuracy is 0.55% at 8.087 MHz while the phase accuracy is 0.17 deg at 6.54 MHz. In all, the stepped sine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 84 dB and 65 dB at frequencies below and above 1 MHz respectively. The SNR for the multisine FRF measurements is above 65 dB (30 kHz-10 MHz). The FRA bandwidth is 610.4 mHz-12.5 MHz and the maximum FRF measurement rate exciting with multisines starting at 30 kHz is 200 spectra s-1. Based on its technical specifications and versatility, the FRA presented can be used in many applications, e.g. for getting insight quickly into the instantaneous impedance FRF of the time-varying impedance under test.

Sanchez, B.; Fernandez, X.; Reig, S.; Bragos, R.

2014-01-01

435

Arsenite suppression of involucrin transcription through AP1 promoter sites in cultured human keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

While preserving keratinocyte proliferative ability, arsenite suppresses cellular differentiation markers by preventing utilization of AP1 transcriptional response elements. In present experiments, arsenite had a dramatic effect in electrophoretic mobility supershift analysis of proteins binding to an involucrin promoter AP1 response element. Without arsenite treatment, binding of JunB and Fra1 was readily detected in nuclear extracts from preconfluent cultures and was not detected a week after confluence, while c-Fos was detected only after confluence. By contrast, band shift of nuclear extracts from arsenite treated cultures showed only JunB and Fra1 binding in postconfluent as well as preconfluent cultures. Immunoblotting of cell extracts showed that arsenite treatment prevented the loss of Fra1 and the increase in c-Fos proteins that occurred after confluence in untreated cultures. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated substantial reduction of c-Fos and acetylated histone H3 at the proximal and distal AP1 response elements in the involucrin promoter and of coactivator p300 at the proximal element. Alteration of AP1 transcription factors was also examined in response to treatment with four metal containing compounds (chromate, vanadate, hemin, divalent cadmium) that also suppress involucrin transcription. These agents all influenced transcription at AP1 elements in a transcriptional reporter assay, but exhibited less effect than arsenite on binding activity assessed by mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation and displayed variable effects on AP1 protein levels. These findings help trace a mechanism by which transcriptional effects of arsenite become manifest and help rationalize the unique action of arsenite, compared to the other agents, to preserve proliferative ability.

Sinitsyna, Nadezda N.; Reznikova, Tatiana V.; Qin Qin; Song, Hyukhwan; Phillips, Marjorie A. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Rice, Robert H., E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.ed [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States)

2010-03-15

436

Mechanisms of the hyperkalaemia caused by nafamostat mesilate: effects of its two metabolites on Na+ and K+ transport properties in the rabbit cortical collecting duct.  

PubMed Central

1. The present experiments were undertaken to determine the mechanism(s) of hyperkalaemia caused by nafamostat mesilate (NM), a serine-protease inhibitor. 2. We investigated the effects of luminal addition of two metabolites of NM, p-guanidinobenzoic acid (PGBA) and 6-amidino-2-naphthol (AN), on Na+ and K+ transport properties of the collecting duct (CD) cell in the isolated perfused cortical collecting duct (CCD) from rabbit kidneys, because these metabolites, but not NM, were mainly excreted into the urine. 3. Addition of PGBA at 10(-5) and 10(-4) M in the lumen resulted in a hyperpolarization of VA in parallel with increases in transepithelial resistance (RT) and fractional apical membrane resistance (fRA). PGBA added to the luminal perfusate at 10(-5) and 10(-4) M changed VA, RT and fRA in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were completely inhibited by pretreatment with luminal amiloride (50 microM). PGBA at 10(-6) M in the lumen had no effect on the electrical parameters. 4. Luminal addition of AN at 10(-4) M also caused the apical membrane to hyperpolarize in parallel with increases in RT and fRA. These effects were also completely inhibited by pretreatment with luminal amiloride (50 microM). AN at 10(-5) M in the lumen had no effect on the electrical parameters. 5. We conclude that two metabolites of NM, PGBA and AN, act on the apical membrane of the CD cell and inhibit the amiloride-sensitive Na+ conductance, resulting in an inhibition of K+ secretion. This direct action of these metabolites, rather than NM, on the CCD might contribute to the NM-induced hyperkalaemia.

Muto, S.; Imai, M.; Asano, Y.

1994-01-01

437

Chronic co-administration of nicotine and methamphetamine causes differential expression of immediate early genes in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of rats.  

PubMed

Nicotine and methamphetamine (METH) cause addiction by triggering neuroplastic changes in brain reward pathways though they each engage distinct molecular targets (nicotine receptors and dopamine transporters respectively). Addiction to both drugs is very prevalent, with the vast majority of METH users also being smokers of cigarettes. This co-morbid occurrence thus raised questions about potential synergistic rewarding effects of the drugs. However, few studies have investigated the chronic neurobiological changes associated with co-morbid nicotine and METH addiction. Here we investigated the effects of these two drugs alone and in combination on the expression of several immediate early genes (IEGs) that are sensitive to drug exposures. Chronic exposure to either nicotine or METH caused significant decreases in the expression of fosb, fra1, and fra2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) but not in the dorsal striatum whereas the drug combination increased fra2 expression in both structures. Except for junB mRNA levels that were decreased by the three drug treatments in the NAc, there were no significant changes in the Jun family members. Of the Egr family members, NAc egr2 expression was decreased after nicotine and the drug combination whereas NAc egr3 was decreased after METH and the drug combination. The drug combination also increased striatal egr3 expression. The Nr4a family member, nr4a2/nurr1, showed increased striatal expression after all three drug treatments, while striatal nr4a3/nor-1 expression was increased by the drug combination whereas NAc nr4a1/nurr77 was decreased by nicotine and the drug combination. These observations suggest that, when given in combination, the two drugs exert distinct effects on the expression of IEGs in dopaminergic projection areas from those elicited by each drug alone. The significance of these changes in IEG expression and in other molecular markers in fostering co-morbid METH and nicotine abuse needs to be further evaluated. PMID:23562942

Saint-Preux, F; Bores, L R; Tulloch, I; Ladenheim, B; Kim, R; Thanos, P K; Volkow, N D; Cadet, J L

2013-07-23

438

4-Hydroxynonenal Induces Rat ?-Glutamyl Transpeptidase through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Mediated Electrophile Response Element/Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Signaling  

PubMed Central

?-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) plays critical roles in glutathione homeostasis and metabolism. Rat GGT is a single-copy gene from which seven types of GGT mRNA with a common protein encoding sequence, but different 5?-untranslated regions, may be transcribed. We previously showed that type V-2 was the predominant form of GGT mRNA in rat L2 epithelial cells, and that it could be induced by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) through the electrophile response element (EpRE) located in GGT promoter 5 (GP5). Here, we report transcription factors binding to GP5 EpRE and the involved signaling pathways. Immunodepletion gel shift assays demonstrated that GP5 EpRE bound JunB, c-Jun, FosB, and Fra2 from unstimulated cells, and that after exposure to HNE, EpRE binding complexes contained nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf) 1, Nrf2, JunB, c-Jun, FosB, c-Fos, Fra1, and Fra2. HNE-induced binding of Nrf2 and c-Jun in GP5 EpRE was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Using reporter assays and specific inhibitors, we found that HNE induction of rat GGT mRNA V-2 was dependent on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not protein kinase C or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Pretreatment with ERK and p38MAPK inhibitors also blocked HNE-increased EpRE binding. HNE-increased nuclear content of Nrf1, Nrf2, and c-Jun in L2 cells was partially blocked by inhibition of either ERK1/2 or p38MAPK and completely blocked by simultaneous inhibition of both MAPKs. In conclusion, HNE induces GGT mRNA V-2 through altered EpRE transcription factor binding mediated by both ERK and p38MAPK.

Zhang, Hongqiao; Liu, Honglei; Iles, Karen E.; Liu, Rui-Ming; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Laperche, Yannick; Forman, Henry Jay

2009-01-01

439

4-Hydroxynonenal induces rat gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase through mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated electrophile response element/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling.  

PubMed

Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) plays critical roles in glutathione homeostasis and metabolism. Rat GGT is a single-copy gene from which seven types of GGT mRNA with a common protein encoding sequence, but different 5'-untranslated regions, may be transcribed. We previously showed that type V-2 was the predominant form of GGT mRNA in rat L2 epithelial cells, and that it could be induced by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) through the electrophile response element (EpRE) located in GGT promoter 5 (GP5). Here, we report transcription factors binding to GP5 EpRE and the involved signaling pathways. Immunodepletion gel shift assays demonstrated that GP5 EpRE bound JunB, c-Jun, FosB, and Fra2 from unstimulated cells, and that after exposure to HNE, EpRE binding complexes contained nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf) 1, Nrf2, JunB, c-Jun, FosB, c-Fos, Fra1, and Fra2. HNE-induced binding of Nrf2 and c-Jun in GP5 EpRE was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Using reporter assays and specific inhibitors, we found that HNE induction of rat GGT mRNA V-2 was dependent on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not protein kinase C or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Pretreatment with ERK and p38MAPK inhibitors also blocked HNE-increased EpRE binding. HNE-increased nuclear content of Nrf1, Nrf2, and c-Jun in L2 cells was partially blocked by inhibition of either ERK1/2 or p38MAPK and completely blocked by simultaneous inhibition of both MAPKs. In conclusion, HNE induces GGT mRNA V-2 through altered EpRE transcription factor binding mediated by both ERK and p38MAPK. PMID:16195535

Zhang, Hongqiao; Liu, Honglei; Iles, Karen E; Liu, Rui-Ming; Postlethwait, Edward M; Laperche, Yannick; Forman, Henry Jay

2006-02-01

440

Monothiol glutaredoxins and A-type proteins: Partners in Fe-S cluster trafficking  

PubMed Central

Monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) are proposed to function in Fe-S cluster storage and delivery, based on their ability to exist as apo monomeric forms and dimeric forms containing a subunit-bridging [Fe2S2]2+ cluster, and to accept [Fe2S2]2+ clusters from primary scaffold proteins. In addition yeast cytosolic monothiol Grxs interact with Fra2 (Fe repressor of activation-2), to form a heterodimeric complex with a bound [Fe2S2]2+ cluster that plays a key role in iron sensing and regulation of iron homeostasis. In this work, we report on in vitro UV-visible CD studies of cluster transfer between homodimeric monothiol Grxs and members of the ubiquitous A-type class of Fe-S cluster carrier proteins (NifIscA and SufA). The results reveal rapid, unidirectional, intact and quantitative cluster transfer from the [Fe2S2]2+ cluster-bound forms of A. thaliana GrxS14, S. cerevisiae Grx3, and A. vinelandii Grx-nif homodimers to A. vinelandii NifIscA and from A. thaliana GrxS14 to A. thaliana SufA1. Coupled with in vivo evidence for interaction between monothiol Grxs and A-type Fe-S cluster carrier proteins, the results indicate that these two classes of proteins work together in cellular Fe-S cluster trafficking. However, cluster transfer is reversed in the presence of Fra2, since the [Fe2S2]2+ cluster-bound heterodimeric Grx3/Fra2 complex can be formed by intact [Fe2S2]2+ cluster transfer from NifIscA. The significance of these results for Fe-S cluster biogenesis or repair and the cellular regulation of the Fe-S cluster status are discussed.

Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Zhang, Bo; Randeniya, Sajini; Albetel, Angela-Nadia; Li, Haoran; Couturier, Jeremy; Outten, Caryn E.; Rouhier, Nicolas

2013-01-01

441

Field testing of prototype systems for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In both high speed and freight rail systems, the modern construction method is Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). The purpose of the CWR method is to eliminate joints in order to reduce the maintenance costs for both the rails and the rolling stock. However the elimination of the joints increases the risk of rail breakage in cold weather and buckling in hot weather. In order to predict the temperature at which the rail will break or buckle, it is critical to have knowledge of the temperature at which the rail is stress free, namely, the Rail Neutral Temperature (Rail-NT).The University of California at San Diego has developed an innovative technique based on non-linear ultrasonic guided waves, under FRA research and development grants for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks. Through the licensing of this technology from the UCSD and under the sponsorship of the FRA Office of Research and Development, a field deployable prototype system has been developed and recently field tested at cooperating railroad properties. Three prototype systems have been deployed to the Union Pacific (UP), Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF), and AMTRAK railroads for field testing and related data acquisition for a comprehensive evaluation of the system, with respect to both performance and economy of operation. The results from these tests have been very encouraging. Based on the lessons learned from these field tests and the feedback from the railroads, it is planned develop a compact 2nd generation Rail-NT system to foster deployment and furtherance of FRA R&D grant purpose of potential contribution to the agency mission of US railroad safety. In this paper, the results of the field tests with the railroads in summer of 2013 are reported.

Phillips, Robert; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Nucera, Claudio; Fateh, Mahmood; Choros, John

2014-03-01

442

Positional Cloning of the Hereditary Renal Carcinoma 3;8 Chromosome Translocation Breakpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosome (p14.2;q24.1) translocation t(3;8)has been associated with hereditary renal cancer in one family. Based on cytogenetic analyses and loss-of-heterozygosity experiments, the 3p14 region has been independently implicated as harboring a tumor suppressor gene critical to kidney and lung cancer development. The 3p14.2 region also contains FRA3B, the most sensitive fragile site induced by aphidicolin. A chromosome 3 probe, R7K145,

Ferenc L. Boldog; Robert M. Gemmill; Charles M. Wilke; Thomas W. Glover; Ann-Sofie Nilsson; Settara C. Chandrasekharappa; Robert S. Brown; Frederick P. Li; Harry A. Drabkin

1993-01-01

443

Probabilistic analysis of fires in nuclear plants  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to describe a multilevel (i.e., staged) probabilistic analysis of fire risks in nuclear plants (as part of a general PRA) which maximizes the benefits of the FRA (fire risk assessment) in a cost effective way. The approach uses several stages of screening, physical modeling of clearly dominant risk contributors, searches for direct (e.g., equipment dependences) and secondary (e.g., fire induced internal flooding) interactions, and relies on lessons learned and available data from and surrogate FRAs. The general methodology is outlined. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Unione, A.; Teichmann, T.

1985-01-01

444

Preliminary data on boulders at station 6, Apollo 17 landing site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cluster of boulders at Station 6 (Apollo 17 landing site) consists of breccias derived from the North Massif. Three preliminary lithologic units were established, on the basis of photogeologic interpretations; all lithologies identified photogeologically were sampled. Breccia clasts and matrices studied petrographically and chemically fall into two groups by modal mineralogy: (1) low-K Fra Mauro or high basalt composition, consisting of 50-60% modal feldspar, approximately 45% orthopyroxene and 1-7% Fe-Ti oxide; (2) clasts consisting of highland basalt composition, consisting of 70% feldspar, 30% orthopyroxene and olivine and a trace of Fe-Ti oxide.

Heiken, G. H.; Butler, P., Jr.; Simonds, C. H.; Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J.; Schmitt, H. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Pearce, W. G.

1973-01-01

445

Vapor phase crystallization in Apollo 14 breccia.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vugs contained in many of the highly recrystallized breccias from Apollo 14 are discussed, along with the well-developed crystals of plagioclase, pyroxene, ilmenite, apatite, whitlockite, iron, nickel-iron, and troilite that extend from the vug walls and bridge open spaces. These crystals are interpreted as having formed by deposition from a hot vapor containing oxides, halides, sulfides, alkali metals, iron and possibly other chemical species. The hot vapor was associated with the thermal metamorphism and subsequent cooling of the Fra Mauro formation after it had been deposited as an ejecta blanket by the Imbrian impact.

Mckay, D. S.; Clanton, U. S.; Morrison, D. A.; Ladle, G. H.

1972-01-01

446

The altarpieces of Della Robbia atelier in Marche region: investigations on technology and provenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissemination of Della Robbia glazed terracotta in the Marche (Italy) region started from the third decade of the 16th century. Numerous altarpieces, some of which no longer exist, document this artistic production. The protagonists of this diffusion phase were two of Andrea Della Robbia's sons, Marco (Fra Mattia) and Francesco (Fra Ambrogio). This paper shows the results of the scientific investigations carried out on constitutive materials of different altarpieces located in South Marche belonging to the Fra Mattia's production: the Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, dated back to 1527-1530, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano; the Annunciation, dated back to 1520, placed in the church of S. Maria del Soccorso in Arcevia; the fragmentary Crowned Madonna and saints altarpiece, probably realized after 1531, today preserved in Civic Museum of Ripatransone. The first altarpiece was made in Montecassiano using two different assembling or production techniques: the external part of the lunette and the pillar strips are made of glazed polychrome terracotta, while the altar step and the internal part are an interesting and uncommon example of polychrome painted terracotta. The provenance of the glazed Arcevia altarpiece is not clear yet: some historians hypothesize a local manufacture of Fra Mattia and some others a Roman or Florentine production. The remaining parts of Ripatransone altarpiece are partially glazed and partially not coated perhaps because they were unfinished and not yet painted. Clay body samples collected from the above mentioned altarpieces were investigated using different analytical techniques (OM, XRD, XRF, PIXE) to point out differences in chemical and mineralogical composition and to determine if the altarpieces were made by using local raw clay materials or other clays from Tuscany or Campania as in the Della Robbia previous production. A comparison has also been made with literature data on the Della Robbia terracotta masterpieces. From the chemical point of view, the clay bodies show a good compositional homogeneity and result calcium and iron-rich according with the raw local materials. The presence of gehlenite, pyroxenes, and hematite and the incomplete decomposition of clay minerals indicate that firing for all different terracotta parts occurred in a thermal range between 800 and 950 °C, mostly in oxidizing conditions.

Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Barcaioni, S.; Bouquillon, A.; Padeletti, G.; Pallante, P.

2013-12-01

447

Photographic illustration of scheduled traverses planned for Apollo 13  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photographic illustration of the Fra Mauro area showing the scheduled traverses planned for the extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. The larger red dot marked LM indicates the landing point of the Apollo 13 Lunar Module. The red line shows the path of the first EVA traverse. The second EVA traverse is marked with a black line. The yellow line denotes the extension of each traverse in the event a decision is made to do so. The red dots indicate the points of interest for samples and for observation.

1970-01-01

448

Non-contact ultrasonic guided wave inspections of rails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail integrity evaluation. A prototype using an ultrasonic air-coupled guided wave signal generation and air-coupled signal detection, in pair with a real-time statistical analysis algorithm, is under development. Experimental tests results, carried out at the UCSD Rail Defect Farm, indicate that the prototype is able to detect internal rail defects with high reliability. Extensions of the system are planned to add rail surface characterization to the internal rail defect detection.

Nguyen, Thompson V.; Mariani, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

2014-03-01

449

Provenance of KREEP and the exotic component - Elemental and isotopic studies of grain size fractions in lunar soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sieve fraction analyses of lunar soils reveal the presence of a fine-grained exotic component enriched in K, Rb, Sr, Ba, and in radiogenic Sr in all soils. The probable source of this exotic component is the areas of high-surficial radioactivity observed by orbital gamma ray spectrometry, such as those at Fra Mauro and Archimedes. If the exotic component is fine-grained KREEP, the origin and distribution of KREEP fragments in the soils are identified. It is suggested that the exotic component represents trace element enriched material located at some depth in the Imbrium area which was surficially deposited during Imbrium excavation.

Evensen, N. M.; Murthy, V. R.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.

1974-01-01

450

Monitoring the Extent of Forests on National to Global Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on forest extent and change is important for many purposes, including understanding the global carbon cycle and managing natural resources. International statistics on forest extent are generated using many different sources often producing inconsistent results spatially and through time. Results will be presented comparing forest extent derived from the recent global Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) FRA 2000 report with products derived using wall-to-wall Landsat, AVHRR and MODIS data sets. The remotely sensed data sets provide consistent results in terms of total area despite considerable differences in spatial resolution. Although the location of change can be satisfactorily detected with all three remotely sensed data sets, reliable measurement of change can only be achieved through use of Landsat-resolution data. Contrary to the FRA 2000 results we find evidence of an increase in deforestation rates in the late 1990s in several countries. Also we have found evidence of considerable changes in some countries for which little or no change is reported by FAO. The results indicate the benefits of globally consistent analyses of forest cover based on multiscale remotely sensed data sets rather than a reliance on statistics generated by individual countries with very different definitions of forest and methods used to derive them.

Townshend, J.; Townshend, J.; Hansen, M.; DeFries, R.; DeFries, R.; Sohlberg, R.; Desch, A.; White, B.

2001-05-01

451

Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of Citrus clementina  

PubMed Central

Background Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidization. The study included comparisons of their ploidy, homozygosity, genome integrity, and gene dosage, using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, SSR marker genotyping, and array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH). Results Chromosome counting and flow cytometry revealed that ESP and FRA were haploid, but ITA was tri-haploid. Homozygous patterns, represented by a single peak (allele), were observed among the three plants at almost all SSR loci distributed across the entire diploid donor genome. Those few loci with extra peaks visualized as output from automated sequencing runs, generally low or ambiguous, might result from amplicons of paralogous members at the locus, non-specific sites, or unexpected recombinant alleles. No new alleles were found, suggesting the genomes remained stable and intact during gametogenesis and regeneration. The integrity of the haploid genome also was supported by array-CGH studies, in which genomic profiles were comparable to the diploid control. Conclusions The presence of few gene hybridization abnormalities, corroborated by gene dosage measurements, were hypothetically due to the segregation of hemizygous alleles and minor genomic rearrangements occurring during the haploidization procedure. In conclusion, these plants that are valuable genetic and breeding materials contain completely homozygous and essentially intact genomes.

2013-01-01

452

Normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene and abnormal incorporation of fibrillin into the extracellular matrix in Lujan Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Lujan syndrome is an X-linked condition that includes mild-to-moderate mental retardation, poor social integration, normal secondary sexual development with normal testicular size, generalized hypotonia, hypernasal voice and dolichostenomelia. Major cardiac complications and lens dislocation have not been reported although severe myopia may occur. All reported cases have had negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome but establishing this constellation of findings as a distinctive entity has been difficult. We report 4 males in two sibships with clinical findings consistent with Lujan syndrome, normal karyotypes, negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome and a normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene. Dermal fibroblasts explanted from one of the affected males were used to study fibrillin synthesis secretion and extracellular matrix incorporation into microfibrils. Cells from the affected individual showed normal synthesis and secretion of fibrillin when compared to control cells, but the fibrillin was not incorporated into the extracellular matrix. These results suggest the presence of a gene on the X chromosome which may play a role in microfibril assembly and when deficient may disrupt the incorporation of fibrillin into microfibrils. This may be important not only in normal body morphogenesis but also in the development/function of the brain. More affected individuals are needed to investigate these findings further.

Greenhaw, G.A.; Stone, C.; Milewicz, D. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

453

Dscam Guides Embryonic Axons By Netrin-Dependent And Independent Functions  

PubMed Central

Summary Developing axons are attracted to the CNS midline by Netrin proteins and other as yet unidentified signals. Netrin signals are transduced in part by Frazzled (Fra)/DCC receptors. Genetic analysis in Drosophila indicates that additional unidentified receptors are needed to mediate the attractive response to Netrin. Analysis of Bolwig’s Nerve reveals that Netrin mutants have a similar phenotype to Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (Dscam) mutants. Netrin and Dscam mutants display dose sensitive interactions suggesting that Dscam could act as a Netrin receptor. We show using cell overlay assays that Netrin binds to fly and vertebrate Dscam, and that Dscam binds Netrin with the same affinity as DCC. At the CNS midline, we find that Dscam and its paralog Dscam3 act redundantly to promote midline crossing. Simultaneous genetic knockout of the two Dscams and the Netrin receptor fra produces a midline crossing defect that is stronger than the removal of Netrins, suggesting that Dscams also function in a pathway parallel to Netrins. Additionally, over-expression of Dscam in axons that do not normally cross the midline is able to induce ectopic midline crossing, consistent with an attractive receptor function. Our results support the model that Dscams function as attractive receptors for Netrin and also act in parallel to Frazzled/DCC. Furthermore, the results suggest that Dscams have the ability to respond to multiple ligands and act as receptors for an unidentified midline attractive cue. These functions in axon guidance have implications for the pathogenesis of Down Syndrome.

Andrews, Gracie L.; Tanglao, Shawna; Farmer, W. Todd; Morin, Steves; Brotman, Steven; Berberoglu, Michael A.; Price, Hilary; Fernandez, George C.; Mastick, Grant S.; Charron, Frederic; Kidd, Thomas

2009-01-01

454

Differential sensitivity of FOS and JUN family members to calpains.  

PubMed

Degradation of c-fos protein (c-FOS) in the cytoplasm is very rapid in vivo and constitutes a crucial regulation of the nuclear steady-state level through the control of the amount of full-length molecules available for nuclear transport. Using cytoplasmic extracts from various origins, we report herein that c-FOS degradation can be initiated in a calcium-dependent manner which involves cysteine proteases called milli- and micro-calpain. Interestingly, FOS-B, a member of the fos multigene family, as well as all members of the jun family (JUN-B, c-JUN and JUN-D) are also sensitive to calpains albeit to different extents. FRA-2, which is a c-FOS-related protein, is resistant to micro- but not to milli-calpain whereas FRA-1, another member of the fos family, is resistant to both proteases. Given the fact that a work by others (Hiraï et al., 1991b) suggests that calpains can be involved in c-FOS and c-JUN degradation in vivo, our observations raises the possibility of a novel contribution to the regulation of AP-1 transcription complex activity through a differential control of the steady-state level of some of its components that involves calpains. PMID:8183563

Carillo, S; Pariat, M; Steff, A M; Roux, P; Etienne-Julan, M; Lorca, T; Piechaczyk, M

1994-06-01

455

Phase chemistry of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical, X-ray-diffraction and electron-microprobe techniques were used to investigate 0.26 gm of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259. Major element microprobe analyses were made of 470 mineral grains and 388 glass grains. The mineral abundances in the soil are 45% plagioclase, 41% pyroxene, 7% olivine, 3% oxides, 2% K-feldspar; 1% nickel-iron, and less than 1% troilite. The glasses have a wide range of compositions but preferred values are evident and are interpreted as representative of rock types contributing to the soil at the Fra Mauro site. Eleven per cent of the glasses have compositions like those of mare basalts or mare soils and are believed to be mare-derived. Eighty-six per cent of the glasses are equivalent in composition to basalts that have higher Al, and lower Ca/Al and Fe/Mg ratios than mare basalts. The most abundant compositional type is named Fra Mauro basaltic glass and is subdivided into three related types. The other major glass type in the soil corresponds in composition to anorthositic gabbro.

Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

1974-01-01

456

Chemical characterization and antiherpes activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Lithothamnion muelleri.  

PubMed

We report herein the chemical characterization and antiherpes activity of polysaccharides from the red alga Lithothamnion muelleri (Hapalidiaceae). The polysaccharide-rich fractions B1 and B2 were obtained by extraction with Na2CO3 and were purified by size exclusion chromatography to afford Fra-B1 and Fra-B2. The polysaccharides were characterized by FT-IR and chemical analysis (total contents of carbohydrates, proteins, sulfate and uronic acid), whereas their average molecular weights were estimated by high performance gel permeation chromatography. The monosaccharide analysis detected galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, rhamnose and arabinose in the four polysaccharide samples. Antiherpetic in vitro assays showed that B1 and B2 inhibited Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) when added simultaneously to viral infection affording selectivity indices (SI=CC50/EC50) higher than 20. Investigation of the mechanism of action indicated that B1 and B2 act on the initial steps of HSV replication, mainly inhibiting viral adsorption but also viral penetration into the cells. PMID:24608026

Malagoli, Bruna G; Cardozo, Francielle T G S; Gomes, Jose Hugo S; Ferraz, Vany P; Simões, Cláudia M O; Braga, Fernão C

2014-05-01

457

Safety of high-speed magnetic-levitation transportation systems. Magnetic-field testing of the TR07 maglev vehicle and system. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report Jun 91-Mar 92  

SciTech Connect

The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposures to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Volume I-Analysis summarizes the experimental findings and compares results to common home, work, and power lines emissions for selected spectral bands.

Dietrich, F.; Feero, W.E.

1992-04-01

458

Safety of high-speed magnetic-levitation transportation systems. Magnetic-field testing of the TR07 maglev vehicle and system. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report Jun 91-Mar 92  

SciTech Connect

The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposures to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Volume II-Appendices catalogs and documents detailed magnetic field data files and their specifics (static fields, spectral waveforms, temporal and spatial information) by location.

Dietrich, F.; Robertson, D.; Steiner, G.

1992-04-01

459

Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Magnetic field testing of the TR07 Maglev vehicle and system. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating current (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposures to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Appendices include catalogs and documents detailing magnetic field data files and their specifics (static fields, spectral waveforms, and temporal and spatial information) by location.

Dietrich, Fred; Robertson, David; Steiner, George

1992-04-01

460

Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Magnetic field testing of the TR07 Maglev vehicle and system. Volume 1: Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic field (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposure to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Analysis summarizes the experimental findings and compares results to common home, work, and power lines emissions for selected spectral bands.

Dietrich, Fred; Feero, William E.

1992-04-01

461

ORNL RAIL BARGE DB  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database. The database consists of 96 subnetworks. Each of the subnetworks represent an individual railroad, a waterway system, or a composite group of small railroads. Two subnetworks represent waterways; one being barge/intercoastal, and the other coastal merchant marine with access through the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, the Panama Canal, and Pacific Coast. Two other subnetworks represent small shortline railroads and terminal railroad operations. One subnetwork is maintained for the representation of Amtrak operations. The remaining 91 subnetworks represent individual or corporate groups of railroads. Coordinate locations are included as part of the database. The rail portion of the database is similar to the original FRA rail network. The waterway coordinates are greatly enhanced in the current release. Inland waterway representation was extracted from the 1:2,000,000 United States Geological Survey data. An important aspect of the database is the transfer file. This file identifies where two railroads interline traffic between their systems. Also included are locations where rail/waterway intermodal transfers could occur. Other files in the database include a translation table between Association of American Railroad (AAR) codes to the 96 subnetworks in the database, a list of names of the 96 subnetworks, and a file of names for a large proportion of the nodes in the network.

Johnson, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-07-01

462

Alternative Fuels for Medium-Speed Diesel Engines (AFFMSDE) Project: a baseline program planning concept for review and revision. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide some suggestions and recommendations for the long-term continuation of the Alternative Fuels for Medium Speed Diesel Engines (AFFMSDE) Program as program support transitions from government to industry. This program was initially funded by the Non-Highway Transportation Systems Branch of the US DOE in 1978 to identify means of conserving railway-used petroleum resources through the use of petroleum-based fuels with properties deviating significantly from conventional specification diesel fuels and/or through the use of fossil fuels not derived from petroleum. In 1979, the Federal Railroad Administration of the US Department of Transportation (DOT/FRA) and the Association of American Railroads (AAR) joined the program effort providing additional financial support. Continuing funding support of the AFFMSDE Program by DOE and DOT/FRA is being curtailed. The program will be continued by the AAR and its member lines. The Multi-Year approach to Program Management Planning presented here is a suggested baseline concept. If it is subjected to review, revision, and expansion in detail by all program participants, it might provide some assistance in developing long-term, planned, support, and continuity of management that programs of this type require. (LCL)

Not Available

1982-06-01

463

AP1 Factor Inactivation in the Suprabasal Epidermis Causes Increased Epidermal Hyperproliferation and Hyperkeratosis but Reduced Carcinogen-Dependent Tumor Formation  

PubMed Central

AP1 (jun/fos) factors comprise a family of transcriptional regulators (c-jun, junB, junD, c-fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2) that are key controllers of epidermal keratinocyte survival and differentiation, and are important drivers of cancer development. Understanding the role of these factors in epidermis is complicated by the fact that each member is expressed in defined cell layers during epidermal differentiation, and because AP1 factors regulate competing processes (i.e., proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation). We have proposed that AP1 factors function differently in basal versus suprabasal epidermis. To test this, we inactivated suprabasal AP1 factor function in mouse epidermis by targeted expression of dominant-negative c-jun (TAM67) which inactivates function of all AP1 factors. This produces increased basal keratinocyte proliferation, delayed differentiation, and extensive hyperkeratosis. These findings contrast with previous studies showing that basal layer AP1 factor inactivation does not perturb resting epidermis. It is interesting that in spite of extensive keratinocyte hyperproliferation, susceptibility to carcinogen-dependent tumor induction is markedly attenuated. These novel observations strongly suggest that AP1 factors have distinct roles in the basal versus suprabasal epidermis, confirm that AP1 factor function is required for normal terminal differentiation, and suggest that AP1 factors play a different role in normal epidermis versus in cancer progression.

Rorke, Ellen A.; Adhikary, Gautam; Jans, Ralph; Crish, James F.; Eckert, Richard L.

2010-01-01

464

AP1 transcription factors in epidermal differentiation and skin cancer.  

PubMed

AP1 (jun/fos) transcription factors (c-jun, junB, junD, c-fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) are key regulators of epidermal keratinocyte survival and differentiation and important drivers of cancer development. Understanding the role of these factors in epidermis is complicated by the fact that each protein is expressed, at different levels, in multiple cells layers in differentiating epidermis, and because AP1 transcription factors regulate competing processes (i.e., proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation). Various in vivo genetic approaches have been used to study these proteins including targeted and conditional knockdown, overexpression, and expression of dominant-negative inactivating AP1 transcription factors in epidermis. Taken together, these studies suggest that individual AP1 transcription factors have different functions in the epidermis and in cancer development and that altering AP1 transcription factor function in the basal versus suprabasal layers differentially influences the epidermal differentiation response and disease and cancer development. PMID:23762562

Eckert, Richard L; Adhikary, Gautam; Young, Christina A; Jans, Ralph; Crish, James F; Xu, Wen; Rorke, Ellen A

2013-01-01

465

Conformational study of an axially chiral Salen ligand in solution using two-photon circular dichroism and the fragment-recombination approach.  

PubMed

Herein we report on the conformational study of a chiral Salen ligand, AFX-155, in THF solution using two-photon absorption (TPA) and, even more importantly, two-photon circular dichroism (TPCD). The fragment-recombination approach (FRA), employed to perform computations on half-AXF-155 (AXF-169') and the center (C-AXF-155), allowed us to overcome the current computational limitations found in calculations of the TPCD spectra of large molecules. The comparative experimental-theoretical analysis of AXF-155 showed that its TPA is mainly determined by AXF-169' and validated, through TPCD, the presence of the two dominant Trans_R-Intra(NHB)//Trans_R-Extra(HB) and Trans_R-Intra(NHB)//Trans_R-Extra(NHB) structure in THF with a ?? propeller chirality on the diphenylamine moieties at the end of each AXF-169'. The application of FRA for the analysis of the TPCD spectra of large chiral molecules has been proven to be effective. PMID:23937607

Díaz, Carlos; Echevarria, Lorenzo; Hernández, Florencio E

2013-09-01

466

Pan-Tropical Forest Mapping by Exploiting Textures of Multi-Temporal High Resolution SAR Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol is in the offing, there is still a strong demand for profound, reliable, and up to date information in order to bridge the gap of knowledge of the land cover conversion. Despite the fact that land use change is one of the largest carbon contribution factors, it is still poorly quantified. This is particularly true for many tropical forest areas worldwide. Here, preservation of such pristine forest areas is critically endangered. Enormous population growth, the increasing global demand for various resources, and the ongoing unsustainable management practices put the remaining tropical forests under a huge pressure. Yet, only the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) report provides the crucial quantitative information every 5 years on a regional scale. Nonetheless, the assembled information of the FRA reports bear the burden of ambiguity and vagueness, because they were compiled based on autonomously gathered statistics, which are usually driven by the individual country needs. There is a broad consensus among the different scientific disciplines, that only the remote sensing technology allows for a large scale robust monitoring of these widespread, and remote forest areas. Consequently, the FAO decided to supplementary analyze remote sensing data for the present (2010) and upcoming FRAs. However, it is also widely accepted that currently only microwave remote sensing techniques allow for an all-day, weather independent monitoring of the frequently cloud-covered tropics. In this context, high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the German satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X have been investigated within the pan-tropics to support the latest FRA 2010 report. Data of more than 304 predominantly cloud-covered sites in Latin America (188), Central Africa (45) and Southeast Asia (71) have been acquired. Upon delivery, the corresponding radar images were processed using an operational processing chain that includes radiometric transformation, noise reduction, and georeferencing of the SAR data. In places with pronounced topography both satellites were used as single pass interferometer to derive a digital surface model in order to perform an orthorectification followed by a topographic normalization of the SAR backscatter values. As prescribed by the FAO, the final segment-based classification algorithm was fed by multi-temporal backscatter information, a set of textural features, and information on the degree of coherence between the multi-temporal acquisitions. Validation with available high resolution optical imagery suggests that the produced forest maps possess an overall accuracy of 75 percent or higher.

Knuth, R.; Eckardt, R.; Richter, N.; Schmullius, C.

2012-12-01

467

Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded from the result of this study that climate classification can improve the result of monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast models in South-eastern and eastern Australia. Also, the number of sub-regions is one of the important parameters in ranking predictors at the modeling stage, and allows elucidation of climate influences for different sub regions. Classification of stations helps FRA to capture variations in Australian rainfall in space without influence of the rainfall seasonal cycle and regimes.

Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

2014-05-01

468

Optimized Li-Ion Electrolytes Containing Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame-Retardant Additive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of future NASA missions involving the exploration of the Moon and Mars will be human-rated and thus require high-specific-energy rechargeable batteries that possess enhanced safety characteristics. Given that Li-ion technology is the most viable rechargeable energy storage device for near-term applications, effort has been devoted to improving the safety characteristics of this system. There is also a strong desire to develop Li-ion batteries with improved safety characteristics for terrestrial applications, most notably for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) automotive applications. Therefore, extensive effort has been devoted recently to developing non-flammable electrolytes to reduce the flammability of the cells/battery. A number of electrolyte formulations have been developed, including systems that (1) incorporate greater concentrations of the flame-retardant additive (FRA); (2) use di-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (DTFEC) as a co-solvent; (3) use 2,2,2- trifluoroethyl methyl carbonate (TFEMC); (4) use mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as a co-solvent and/or a replacement for ethylene carbonate in the electrolyte mixture; and (5) utilize vinylene carbonate as a "SEI promoting" electrolyte additive, to build on the favorable results previously obtained. To extend the family of electrolytes developed under previous work, a number of additional electrolyte formulations containing FRAs, most notably triphenyl phosphate (TPP), were investigated and demonstrated in experimental MCMB (mesocarbon micro beads) carbon- LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 cells. The use of higher concentrations of the FRA is known to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte solution, thus, a concentration range was investigated (i.e., 5 to 20 percent by volume). The desired concentration of the FRA is the highest amount tolerable without adversely affecting the performance in terms of reversibility, ability to operate over a wide temperature range, and the discharge rate capability. The use of fluorinated carbonates, much in the same manner as the incorporation of fluorinated ester-based solvents, was employed to reduce the inherent flammability of mixtures. Thus, electrolyte formulations that embody both approaches are anticipated to have much lower flammability, resulting in enhanced safety.

Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Krause, Frederick C.

2011-01-01

469

Conditional inactivation of the mouse Wwox tumor suppressor gene recapitulates the null phenotype†  

PubMed Central

WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is highly conserved in both humans and murine. WWOX spans the second most common human chromosomal fragile site, FRA16D, and is commonly inactivated in multiple human cancers. Modeling WWOX inactivation in mice revealed a complex phenotype including postnatal lethality, defects in bone metabolism and steroidogenesis and tumor suppressor function resulting in osteosarcomas. For better understanding of WWOX roles in different tissues at distinct stages of development and in pathological conditions, Wwox conditional knockout mice were generated in which loxp sites flank exon 1 in the Wwox allele. We demonstrated that Cre-mediated recombination using EIIA-Cre, a Cre line expressed in germline, results in postnatal lethality by age of three weeks and decreased bone mineralization resembling total ablation of WWOX as in conventional null mice. This animal model will be useful to study distinct roles of WWOX in multiple tissues at different ages.

Abdeen, Suhaib K.; Mare, Sara Del; Hussain, Sadeeq; Remaileh, Muhannad Abu; Salah, Zaidoun; Hagan, John; Rawahneh, Maysoon; Pu, Xin-an; Russell, Stacey; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Lian, Jane B.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

2013-01-01

470

Non-contact rail flaw detection system: first field test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers at UCSD, with the initial support of NSF and the current support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), have been working on a flaw detection prototype for rails that uses non-contact ultrasonic probing and robust data processing algorithms to provide high speed and high reliability defect detection in these structures. Besides the obvious advantages of non-contact probing, the prototype uses ultrasonic guided waves able to detect and quantify transverse cracks in the rail head, notoriously the most dangerous of all rail track defects. This paper will report on the first field test which was conducted in Gettysburg, PA in March 2006 with the technical support of ENSCO, Inc. Good results were obtained for the detection of both surface-breaking and internal cracks ranging in size from 2% cross-sectional head area (H.A.) reduction to 80% H.A. reduction.

Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Coccia, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Bartoli, Ivan; Fateh, Mahmood

2007-05-01

471

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of fragaceatoxin C, a pore-forming toxin from the sea anemone Actinia fragacea  

PubMed Central

Sea anemones produce water-soluble toxins that have the ability to interact with cell membranes and form pores within them. The mechanism of pore formation is based on an initial binding step followed by oligomerization and membrane insertion. Although the final structure of the pore remains unclear, biochemical studies indicate that it consists of a tetramer with a functional radius of ?1.1?nm. Since four monomers seem to be insufficient to build a pore of this size, the currently accepted model suggests that lipids might also participate in its structure. In this work, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of two crystal forms of fragaceatoxin C (FraC), a newly characterized actinoporin from Actinia fragacea, are described. The crystals diffracted up to 1.8?Å resolution and the preliminary molecular-replacement solution supports an oligomeric structure of about 120?Å in diameter.

Mechaly, A. E.; Bellomio, A.; Morante, K.; Gonzalez-Manas, J. M.; Guerin, D. M. A.

2009-01-01

472

Common Chromosomal Fragile Site Gene WWOX in Metabolic Disorders and Tumors  

PubMed Central

WWOX, a gene that spans the second most common chromosomal fragile site (FRA16D), often exhibits homozygous deletions and translocation breakpoints under multiple cellular stresses induced by extrinsic or intrinsic factors, such as hypoxia, UV, and DNA damage regents. Loss of WWOX is closely related to genomic instability, tumorigenesis, cancer progression and therapy resistance. WWOX heterozygous knockout mice show an increased incidence of spontaneous or induced tumors. WWOX can interact via the WW domain with proteins that possess proline PPxY motifs and is involved in a variety of cellular processes. Accumulating evidence has shown that WWOX that contains a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) domain is involved in steroid metabolism and bone development. Reduced or lost expression of WWOX will lead to development of metabolic disease. In this review, we focus on the roles of WWOX in metabolic disorders and tumors.

Li, Juan; Liu, Jie; Ren, Yu; Yang, Jin; Liu, Peijun

2014-01-01

473

Common Chromosomal Fragile Site Gene WWOX in Metabolic Disorders and Tumors.  

PubMed

WWOX, a gene that spans the second most common chromosomal fragile site (FRA16D), often exhibits homozygous deletions and translocation breakpoints under multiple cellular stresses induced by extrinsic or intrinsic factors, such as hypoxia, UV, and DNA damage regents. Loss of WWOX is closely related to genomic instability, tumorigenesis, cancer progression and therapy resistance. WWOX heterozygous knockout mice show an increased incidence of spontaneous or induced tumors. WWOX can interact via the WW domain with proteins that possess proline PPxY motifs and is involved in a variety of cellular processes. Accumulating evidence has shown that WWOX that contains a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) domain is involved in steroid metabolism and bone development. Reduced or lost expression of WWOX will lead to development of metabolic disease. In this review, we focus on the roles of WWOX in metabolic disorders and tumors. PMID:24520212

Li, Juan; Liu, Jie; Ren, Yu; Yang, Jin; Liu, Peijun

2014-01-01

474

The supposed tumor suppressor gene WWOX is mutated in an early lethal microcephaly syndrome with epilepsy, growth retardation and retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background WWOX, encoding WW domain-containing oxidoreductase, spans FRA16D, the second most common chromosomal fragile site frequently altered in cancers. It is therefore considered a tumor suppressor gene, but its direct implication in cancerogenesis remains controversial. Methods and results By whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous WWOX nonsense mutation, p.Arg54*, in a girl from a consanguineous family with a severe syndrome of growth retardation, microcephaly, epileptic seizures, retinopathy and early death, a phenotype highly similar to the abormalities reported in lde/lde rats with a spontaneous functional null mutation of Wwox. As in rats, no tumors were observed in the patient or heterozygous mutation carriers. Conclusions Our finding, a homozygous loss-of-function germline mutation in WWOX in a patient with a lethal autosomal recessive syndrome, supports an alternative role of WWOX and indicates its importance for human viability.

2014-01-01

475

Lunar glass compositions - Apollo 16 core sections 60002 and 60004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 500 glasses between 1 mm and 125 microns in size have been analyzed from fourteen samples from the Apollo 16 core sections 60002 and 60004. The majority of glasses have compositions comparable to those found in previous studies of lunar surface soils; however, two new and distinct glass compositions that are probably derived in part from mare material occur in the core samples. The major glass composition in all samples is that of Highland Basalt glass, but it also appears that high-K Fra Mauro Basalt (KREEP) glass is more common at the Apollo 16 site than was previously thought. The relative abundance of glasses within the core samples is random in distribution: each sample is characterized by a particular assemblage and distribution of the constituent glass compositions.

Meyer, H. O. A.; Tsai, H.-M.

1975-01-01

476

Equilibration and ages - Rb-Sr studies of breccias 14321 and 15265  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have previously demonstrated that the Rb-Sr system of Fra Mauro breccia 14321 did not completely equilibrate at the time of assembly. Basalt and microbreccia clasts, with approximately the same internal isochron ages (about 4.0 b.y.) have distinctly different initial ratios. This result did not preclude the possibility that individual clast ages were reset by short range diffusion in a hot ejecta blanket. We now demonstrate that equilibration between basalt and adjacent microbreccia did not occur at about 4 b.y. on a 1 mm scale. The internal isochron ages of the clasts therefore probably date pre-assembly (possibly pre-Imbrium) magmatic and impact events. We also report the presence of a mare basalt clast in relatively KREEP-rich breccia 15265, indicating formation of such breccias after the basin-forming events.

Mark, R. K.; Lee-Hu, C.-N.; Wetherill, G. W.

1974-01-01

477

Chronic dopaminergic signaling in the basal ganglia: a damage perspective on kinases and fos-related antigens.  

PubMed

Abstract Specific protein phosphorylation pathways have been shown to play a role in cellular adaptation responses underlying addiction to psychostimulants such as methamphetamine and cocaine. Transcriptional regulation through fos-related antigens constitutes one element through which these dopaminergic agonists exert their persistent actions. In addition to their addictive properties, amphetamines are known to damage dopaminergic nerve terminals. Although not widely appreciated, protein phosphorylation cascades and fos-related antigens also may play a role in the neurotoxic actions of substituted amphetamines such as methamphetamine. Here we document the involvement of the dopaminoceptive phosphoprotein, DARPP-32, the fos-related antigen, FRA-2, and the growth associated protein kinase, MAP kinase, in the neurotoxic action of known dopaminergic neurotoxicants, including methamphetamine. The addictive and neurotoxic properties of psychostimulants may share some molecular signaling mechanisms. PMID:20575854

O'Callaghan, J P; Miller, D B; Pennypacker, K R

2000-07-01

478

Dispersion analysis of fiber Raman amplifier for WDM system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the effect of dispersion in fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) by propagating two channels together through the same backward pumped Raman fiber. We have investigated the quality factor and gain for different values of dispersion up to third order. The optimum value of second and third order dispersion has been evaluated for different channel spacing. It is observed that for a channel spacing of 50 GHz, the optimum value of dispersion (D) for a 10 km Raman fiber is 2 ps/nm/km and second order dispersion ?2 is -2.551 ps2/km. The third order dispersion parameter ?3 is also analyzed for different channel spacing from 50 GHz to 20 GHz and we have obtained its optimum value as -0.10967 ps3/km for both 50 GHz and 25 GHz, whereas for channel spacing of 20 GHz, the optimum value of ?3 comes out to be -0.1469 ps3/km.

Bindal, Adish; Singh, Surinder

2014-06-01

479

Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Safety of advanced braking concepts for high speed ground transportation systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop qualitative and quantitative information on the various braking strategies used in high-speed ground transportation systems in support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The approach employed in this study is composed of two steps: first, build a technical understanding of the various braking strategies, and second, perform a safety analysis for each system. The systems considered in this study include seven operating high-speed rail transportation systems and three existing magnetic levitation systems. The principal technique used in the system safety analysis is Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), an inductive approach to identifying system failure modes that depends on a thorough understanding of the system design and operation. Key elements derived from the system safety analysis are the fault-tolerant and fail-safe characteristics of the braking systems. The report concludes with recommended guidance on the structure of potential future regulations governing high-speed rail braking systems.

Wagner, D.P.; Ahlbeck, D.R.; Luedeke, J.F.; Cook, S.D.; Dielman, M.A.

1995-09-01

480

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems: Magnetic and electric field testing of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) urban transit system. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, September 1992-March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). Plans for near future US applications include maglev projects (e.g. in Orlando, FL and Pittsburgh, PA) and high speed rail (the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle). The report provides the Analysis (Vol. I) of results, and detailed data and statistical summaries (Vol. II, Appendices) of representative EMF profiles on vehicles and facilities typical of electrotechnologies used in the transit system (3rd rail dc, catenary with pantograph, trolley bus). Each electrotechnology has specific EMF frequency signatures. EMF data represent a range of system operating conditions and locations (in vehicles, stations and waysides), as well as traffic control and electrical power supply facilities.

Jacobs, W.L.; Robertson, D.C.; Steiner, G.A.

1993-06-01

481

A mathematical modeling approach to resource allocation for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades.  

PubMed

State Departments of Transportation (S-DOT's) periodically allocate budget for safety upgrades at railroad-highway crossings. Efficient resource allocation is crucial for reducing accidents at railroad-highway crossings and increasing railroad as well as highway transportation safety. While a specific method is not restricted to S-DOT's, sorting type of procedures are recommended by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation for the resource allocation problem. In this study, a generic mathematical model is proposed for the resource allocation problem for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades. The proposed approach is compared to sorting based methods for safety upgrades of public at-grade railroad-highway crossings in Tennessee. The comparison shows that the proposed mathematical modeling approach is more efficient than sorting methods in reducing accidents and severity. PMID:23253628

Konur, Dinçer; Golias, Mihalis M; Darks, Brandon

2013-03-01

482

Luna 24: 90-150 micrometer fraction - Implications for remote sampling of regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the mineral grains and glasses found in the 90 to 150 micron fraction of the Luna 24 core sample is presented and implications for the automatic collection of planetary and asteroidal regoliths are discussed. Electron microprobe analysis for pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, opaque minerals and glass in samples at various depths indicate that polymineralic grains have compositions similar to those of gabbroic and basaltic fragments from coarser samples, while monomineralic grains contain an additional population of Mg-rich olivines and pyroxene. Most of the glasses are found to be related to mare basalts or local regolith, with nonmare material represented by glasses of highland basalt and low K Fra Mauro composition. It is concluded that as regards mineralogy and petrology, a single grab sample would have been as useful and a series of grab samples on a long traverse would have been more useful than the Luna 24 core sample, with the fine sample being more informative than the coarse.

Papp, H. A.; Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.

1978-01-01

483

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of fragaceatoxin C, a pore-forming toxin from the sea anemone Actinia fragacea.  

PubMed

Sea anemones produce water-soluble toxins that have the ability to interact with cell membranes and form pores within them. The mechanism of pore formation is based on an initial binding step followed by oligomerization and membrane insertion. Although the final structure of the pore remains unclear, biochemical studies indicate that it consists of a tetramer with a functional radius of approximately 1.1 nm. Since four monomers seem to be insufficient to build a pore of this size, the currently accepted model suggests that lipids might also participate in its structure. In this work, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of two crystal forms of fragaceatoxin C (FraC), a newly characterized actinoporin from Actinia fragacea, are described. The crystals diffracted up to 1.8 A resolution and the preliminary molecular-replacement solution supports an oligomeric structure of about 120 A in diameter. PMID:19342779

Mechaly, A E; Bellomio, A; Morante, K; González-Mañas, J M; Guérin, D M A

2009-04-01

484

National MAGLEV initiative. Moving America: New directions, new opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities carried out since the National Maglev Initiative (NMI) inception are summarized. The NMI is a cooperative effort of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) of the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the Dept. of Energy (DOE), with support from other Federal agencies. This interagency partnership is conducting studies to evaluate the potential for magnetically levitated high speed ground transportation (maglev) systems in the U.S., to complement existing transportation systems and help meet transportation demand with an environmentally sound alternative, independent of petroleum based fuels. A major purpose of these studies is to address the opportunities for the U.S. to be a supplier of maglev rather than simply a customer of internationally developed maglev systems.

485

Replicative Stress and the FHIT Gene: Roles in Tumor Suppression, Genome Stability and Prevention of Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

The fragile FHIT gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA3B, is an early target of DNA damage in precancerous cells. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, FHIT protein expression is essential to protect from DNA damage-induced cancer initiation and progression by modulating genome stability, oxidative stress and levels of accumulating DNA damage. Thus, FHIT, whose expression is lost or reduced in many human cancers, is a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. Ongoing studies are seeking more detailed understanding of the role of FHIT in the cellular response to oxidative damage. This review discusses the relationship between FHIT, reactive oxygen species production, and DNA damage in the context of cancer initiation and progression.

Karras, Jenna R.; Paisie, Carolyn A.; Huebner, Kay

2014-01-01

486

Spectrographic evaluation of patch test reactions by NIR FT Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study is to examine the availability of NIR FT Raman spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of positive allergic and irritant or doubtful patch test reactions. Instrumental measurements at 42 positive patch test sites in 16 patients were compared visually and evaluated at 48 h and 72 h in order to examine the sensitivity of this method to detect the biochemical changes occurring at the sites of the patches. Raman spectra of normal control skin and skin reacting to patches on the back were obtained with an FRA 106 Raman module on a Bruker IFS 66 optics system (Bruker, Karlsruhe, Germany). The most significant changes in the spectra were detected in the region specific for water content and protein structure in both types of reactions at 48 h and 72 h, compared to normal skin.

Skrebova, Natalja

2000-07-01

487

Discrimination of Beef Samples by Electronic Nose and Pattern Recognition Techniques Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a study about the possibility of beef characterization with electronic nose is presented. Three beef classes were compared: Piemontese (PIE), Limousin (FRA) and meat from Argentine (ARG). 150 meat samples were put in glass vials and analysed with a commercial electronic nose instrument based on 10 metal oxide semiconductor sensors. Sensors response of beef classes seemed to be different. Different supervised and unsupervised pattern recognition procedures were applied to sensors signal: principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Multivariate analysis pointed out promising classification and prediction results. Three clusters (according to the beef classes) can be clearly discriminated in PCA score plot. Statistical parameters from calibration, validation and prediction of PLS-DA model revealed themselves to be indices of a good model. These results demonstrate that electronic nose technology with multivariate analysis models is promising for the rapid determination of differences in meat aroma.

Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

2009-05-01

488

Folate Receptor Alpha, Mesothelin and Megakaryocyte Potentiating Factor as Potential Serum Markers of Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Renal disease is the eighth leading cause of death in the United States. Early diagnosis is usually based on the detection of proteinuria or elevated serum creatinine, a relatively poor biomarker that does not accurately predict renal disease progression. As a result, more predictive biomarkers of renal function are sought. We present preliminary data on three protein biomarkers, folate receptor alpha (FRA), mesothelin (MSLN), and megakaryocyte potentiating factor (MPF), currently being pursued for applications in oncology diagnostics, and evaluate serum and urine levels in subjects with renal disease. Compared to healthy subjects, a significant (P < 0.0001) increase in all three biomarkers in both serum and urine of subjects with renal disease was demonstrated. Further, serum levels of these three protein biomarkers increased with increasing stage of disease suggesting their potential value in predicting progression in subjects with renal disease and raising caution in interpretation of data in oncology applications.

Somers, Elizabeth B; O'Shannessy, Daniel J

2014-01-01

489

Apollo 17 KREEPy basalt - A rock type intermediate between mare and KREEP basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 17 KREEPy basalt is a unique lunar volcanic rock, observed only as clasts in the light friable breccia matrix (72275) of Boulder 1, Station 2 at Taurus-Littrow. Its status as a volcanic rock is confirmed by the absence of any meteoritic contamination, a lack of cognate inclusions or xenocrystal material, and low Ni contents in metal grains. The basalt was extruded 4.01 + or - 0.04 b.y. ago, approximately contemporaneously with the high-alumina mare basalts at Fra Mauro; shortly afterwards it was disrupted, probably by the Serenitatis impact, and its fragments emplaced in the South Massif. The basalt, which is quartz-normative and aluminous, is chemically and mineralogically intermediate between the Apollo 15 KREEP basalts and the high-alumina mare basalts in most respects. It consists mainly of plagioclase and pigeonitic pyroxene in approximately equal amounts, and 10-30% of mesostatis.

Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Wood, J. A.

1977-01-01

490

Photogeology: Part A: relative ages of some near-side and far-side terra plains based on Apollo 16 metric photography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The materials of most light or terra plains predate the lunar maria and postdate the Imbrian event. In the vicinity of the Imbrium Basin, these materials have been called the Cayley Formation (ref. 29-3) but because of the subtle diversity of the terra plains over the near side, Whilhelms and McCauley (ref. 29-4) simply called these materials Imbrian plains (Ip). The age relationships between the light plains and the Fra Mauro Formation are of principal importance in placing the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 samples in a regional context and in understanding the transitional period between the enhanced cratering rate of pre-Imbrian time and the comparatively quiescent period of impact cratering since the generation of mare surfaces.

Soderblom, Laurence A.; Boyce, Joseph M.

1972-01-01

491

On the frequency of the fragile X premutation in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Inactivation of the FMR1 gene is the molecular basis of the fraX syndrome, the most common heritable cause of neurodevelopemental disability; it occurs in around 1 in 1200 male and 1 in 2000 female births. Inactivation is caused by expansion of a CGG repeat in the 5{prime} untranslated portion of the FMR1 transcript. In regard to the CGG unstable triplets at the FMR1 locus, individuals can be divided into three groups according to the number of repeats: (i) about 6 to 50 are found in the general population, (ii) approximately 52 to 200 (= premutations) predispose female carriers to bearing children with fraX syndrome, (iii) sizes over 200 (full mutation) exceeding 1000 repeats in affected individuals. Prevalence figures for the FMR1 mutation in different populations are only rarely available, if at all. A few studies suggest frequencies for the premutation to be about 1 in 500 to 1000 X chromosomes. In the present investigation, 1075 X chromosomes from 644 genetically unrelated individuals from Thailand (431 females and 213 males) from families unselected for mental retardation or fragile X were analyzed by Southern blot analysis for the presence of FMR1 mutations. In addition, the size of small premutation allele was determined. In three females, triplet repeat numbers on their X chromosomes were 54/30, 30/130 and 24/120; two males were found with 54 and 52 repeats, respectively. Thus, among 1075 X chromosomes, two definitive premutations and three alleles with CGG repeat numbers of borderline premutation size have been detected.

Zygulska, M.; Eigel, A.; Dolscheid, T. [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Muenster (Germany)] [and others

1994-09-01

492

Degradation of atrazine by Frankia alni ACN14a: gene regulation, dealkylation, and dechlorination.  

PubMed

Atrazine is transformed to N-isopropylammelide through hydroxyatrazine as an intermediate as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy in culture filtrates of Frankia alni ACN14a and Frankia sp. EuI1c. Both Frankia strains have the ability to degrade atrazine via dechlorination and dealkylation and, subsequently, may be using it as a nitrogen and carbon source as detected here by increasing their growth patterns. Bioinformatic analysis of the Frankia genomes revealed that a potential gene cluster involved in atrazine decomposition contains three genes, namely, trzN (FRAAL1474 and FraEuI1c_5874), atzB (FRAAL1473 and FraEuI1c_5875), and atzR (FRAAL1471). The relative messenger RNA gene expression of the former genes was examined by qRT-PCR. The LysR-type transcriptional regulator atzR (FRAAL1471), which is expected to control the cluster expression, showed a 13-fold increase in the expression level under atrazine stress. Moreover, the putative adenosine aminohydrolase 3 atzB (FRAAL1473), which is expected to dealkylate the N-ethyl group of atrazine, showed also an increased expression by factor 16 with increased exposure. Eventually, the trzN (FRAAL1474) gene, which is predicted to encode a putative amidohydrolase catalyzing atrazine dechlorination, exhibited 31-fold increased expression. To our best knowledge, this is the first report about adenosine aminohydrolase 3 function in the dealkylation of the N-ethyl group from atrazine. PMID:24676750

Rehan, Medhat; Kluge, Martin; Fränzle, Stefan; Kellner, Harald; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin

2014-07-01

493

NF-?B and AP-1 Connection: Mechanism of NF-?B-Dependent Regulation of AP-1 Activity  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors regulate many important biological and pathological processes. Activation of NF-?B is regulated by the inducible phosphorylation of NF-?B inhibitor I?B by I?B kinase. In contrast, Fos, a key component of AP-1, is primarily transcriptionally regulated by serum responsive factors (SRFs) and ternary complex factors (TCFs). Despite these different regulatory mechanisms, there is an intriguing possibility that NF-?B and AP-1 may modulate each other, thus expanding the scope of these two rapidly inducible transcription factors. To determine whether NF-?B activity is involved in the regulation of fos expression in response to various stimuli, we analyzed activity of AP-1 and expression of fos, fosB, fra-1, fra-2, jun, junB, and junD, as well as AP-1 downstream target gene VEGF, using MDAPanc-28 and MDAPanc-28/I?B?M pancreatic tumor cells and wild-type, IKK1?/?, and IKK2?/? murine embryonic fibroblast cells. Our results show that elk-1, a member of TCFs, is one of the NF-?B downstream target genes. Inhibition of NF-?B activity greatly decreased expression of elk-1. Consequently, the reduced level of activated Elk-1 protein by extracellular signal-regulated kinase impeded constitutive, serum-, and superoxide-inducible c-fos expression. Thus, our study revealed a distinct and essential role of NF-?B in participating in the regulation of elk-1, c-fos, and VEGF expression.

Fujioka, Shuichi; Niu, Jiangong; Schmidt, Christian; Sclabas, Guido M.; Peng, Bailu; Uwagawa, Tadashi; Li, Zhongkui; Evans, Douglas B.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Chiao, Paul J.

2004-01-01

494

Variation of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion in Iran and the surrounding region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present group velocity dispersion results from a study of regional fundamental mode Rayleigh waves propagating across Iran and the surrounding region. Data for these measurements come from field deployments within Iran by the University of Cambridge (UK) and the Universite Joseph-Fourier (FRA) in conjunction with International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Iran), within Oman by the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris (FRA), in addition to data from IRIS and Geofone. 1D path-averaged dispersion measurements have been made for ~800 source-receiver paths using multiple filter analysis. We combine these observations in a tomographic inversion to produce group velocity images between 15 and 60~s period. Because of the dense path coverage, these images have substantially higher lateral resolution for this region than is currently available from global and regional group velocity studies. We observe variations in short-period group velocity which is consistent with the surface geology. Low group velocity (2.45-2.55~km/s) at short periods (15-20~s) is observed beneath the south Caspian Basin, northern Iran, the Persian Gulf, the Zagros, the Makran, northern Afghanistan and southern Pakistan. Somewhat higher group velocity (2.60-2.70~km/s) at these periods occurs in central Iran. At intermediate periods (30-40~s) group velocities over most of the region are low (2.90-3.10~km/s) compared to Arabia. At longer periods (50-60~s) group velocities remain low (3.35-3.45~km/s) over most of Iran but there is a suggestion of higher group velocities beneath the northern and central Zagros.

Rham, D.; Priestley, K.; Tatar, M.; Paul, A.; Hatzfeld, D.; Radjaee, A.; Nowrouzi, G.; Kaviani, A.; Tiberi, C.

2005-12-01

495

Inhibition of AP-1 Transcriptional Activity Blocks the Migration, Invasion, and Experimental Metastasis of Murine Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

A well-characterized murine osteosarcoma model for metastasis and invasion was used in this study to determine the role of AP-1 in the progression of this disease. We analyzed K12 and K7M2 cells, two clonally related murine osteosarcoma cell lines that have been characterized as low metastatic or high metastatic, respectively, for AP-1 components and activity. AP-1 DNA binding was similar between the two cell lines; however AP-1 transcriptional activity was enhanced by 3- to 5-fold in K7M2 cells relative to that in K12 cells. The AP-1 complexes in K12 and K7M2 cells was composed primarily of cJun, JunD, FosB, Fra1, and Fra2, with the contribution of individual components in the complex varying between the two cell lines. In addition, an increase in phosphorylated cJun, JNK activity, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was associated with the more metastatic osteosarcoma phenotype. The significance of AP-1 activation was confirmed by conditional expression of TAM67, a dominant negative mutant of cJun. Under conditions where TAM67 inhibited AP-1 activity in K7M2 cells, migration and invasion potential was significantly blocked. Tam67 expression in aggressive osteosarcoma cells decreased long-term in vivo experimental metastasis and increased survival of mice. This study shows that differences in metastatic activity can be due to AP-1 activation. The inhibition of AP-1 activity may serve as a therapeutic tool in the management of osteosarcoma.

Leaner, Virna D.; Chick, Jeffrey F.; Donninger, Howard; Linniola, Ilona; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Khanna, Chand; Birrer, Michael J.

2009-01-01

496

AP-1 regulates {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} integrin expression by ERK-dependent signals during megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells  

SciTech Connect

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been implicated as regulators of cellular differentiation. The biological effect of MAPK signaling in the nucleus is achieved by signal-responsive transcription factors. Here, we have investigated the connection of MAPKs, transcription factor AP-1, and {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} integrin expression in K562 cells undergoing differentiation along the megakaryocytic pathway. We report that three distinct MAPKs, ERK, JNK, and p38, are activated during the TPA-induced megakaryocytic differentiation. Activation of MAPK pathways is followed by acquisition of the AP-1 DNA-binding and transactivation capacities. AP-1 DNA-binding activity consists primarily of JunD, c-Fos, and Fra-1, and is accompanied with the increased expression and phosphorylation of these subunits. While inhibition of JNK mainly prevents expression and phosphorylation of JunD and c-Jun, inhibition of the ERK pathway suppresses both phosphorylation and expression of Jun proteins, and expression of c-Fos and Fra-1. Furthermore, only the activity of the ERK pathway is essential for the differentiation response, as determined by expression of {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} (CD49b) integrin. The importance of AP-1 as a mediator ERK signaling during differentiation is demonstrated by the findings that expression of c-fos siRNA and dominant negative AP-1/c-Jun{sup bZIP} downregulate the TPA- and ERK-induced expression of {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} integrin mRNAs and proteins. Conversely, coexpression of JunD or c-Jun and c-Fos can induce {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} integrin expression independently of upstream signals. Taken together, the results show that AP-1 is a nuclear target of the ERK-pathway and mediates {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} integrin expression during megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells.

Eriksson, Minna [Molecular Cancer Biology Research Program, Biomedicum Helsinki and Haartman Institute, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 180, FIN-00029 HUCH (Finland); Arminen, Laura [Molecular Cancer Biology Research Program, Biomedicum Helsinki and Haartman Institute, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 180, FIN-00029 HUCH (Finland); Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa [University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Leppae, Sirpa [Molecular Cancer Biology Research Program, Biomedicum Helsinki and Haartman Institute, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland) and Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 180, FIN-00029 HUCH (Finland)]. E-mail: sirpa.leppa@hus.fi

2005-03-10