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1

76 FR 41859 - Waiver Petition Docket Numbers FRA-2011-0002, CSX Transportation Railroad, and FRA-2004-17565...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Waiver Petition Docket Numbers FRA-2011-0002, CSX Transportation Railroad, and FRA-2004-17565, Union Pacific Railroad; Public Hearing On February 23,...

2011-07-15

2

The transcriptional response to hypoxic insult controlled by FRA-2.  

PubMed

FRA-2 is involved in cellular differentiation and is also upregulated in response to ischemic injury to the brain. To shed light on the function of this transcription factor, a novel microarray analysis was utilized to identify FRA-2-dependent gene expression increased in the hypoxic response. Genes were identified that were upregulated by exposure of neuronally differentiated PC12 cells to hypoxia. Using a dominant negative construct to block FRA-2, a second subset of genes that were FRA-2 dependent was found. Cross comparison then allowed isolation of a list of genes that were induced in response to hypoxia in a FRA-2-dependent manner. These data suggest that FRA-2 is involved in the transcriptional control of neuroprotective genes and in the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. PMID:15892448

Butler, Tanya L; Pennypacker, Keith R

2005-01-01

3

75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger...Frequently Asked Questions regarding Buy America and FRA's High Speed Intercity [[Page...DATES: Written comments on FRA's Buy America Answers to Frequently Asked...

2010-09-27

4

75 FR 34213 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Solicitation of Applications...of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System Issues Research and Development Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA),...

2010-06-16

5

Experimental Investigation on FRA Diagnosis of Transformer Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for economical, reliable and effective delivery of electric power leads to the search for new, efficient and effective methods for diagnosing the high voltage equipments in the industries all over the world. As the average usage period of transformers increases, the necessity to know the internal condition of transformers is increasing. It is therefore critically important to establish monitoring and diagnostic techniques that can perform transformer condition assessment. Frequency response analysis, generally known as FRA, is one of the technologies to diagnose transformers. Using case studies, this paper presents the effectiveness of FRA as measurements for detecting transformer faults. This paper introduces the fact that FRA waveforms have useful information about diagnosis of fault on winding shield and core earths, and that the condition outside transformers can affect frequency response characteristics. The FRA measurement results are further investigated through a simulation study using a computer model.

Sano, Takahiro; Miyagi, Katsunori

6

[Screening of the candidate proteins interacting with TaFRA].  

PubMed

F-box protein is an important subunit of SCF complex, an E3 ligase in ubiquitin system, and its function is determined through mediating the specific recognition and combining with substrate protein. TaFRA (F-box protein related to abiotic stress) was identified by RACE based on the fragments diferently expressing in wheat seedling exposed to salt stress and encodes an F-box protein. In this study, pBD-TaFRA bait expression vector was constructed, and cDNA+pGAD+pBD was directly co-transformed into yeast hybrid system to screen condidate proteins interacting with TaFRA. Fourty-four candidate proteins were obtained, in which 32 were known proteins and transcript factors related to stress tolerance such as thioredoxin, metallothinein, ATP synthase, and serine/threonine protein kinase etc. This indicates that TaFRA participates in stress response through regulating above condidate genes, which will provide basis for revealing the mechanism of TaFRA reaction to abiotic stress. PMID:21377964

Wen, Xiao-Jie; Hao, Chen-Yang; Pu, Wen; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Xue-Yong

2011-01-01

7

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...meet with FRA regional specialists on a regular basis to discuss new regulations, persistent safety concerns, emerging technology, and compliance issues. Also, FRA regional offices hold periodic conferences, in which specific blocks of...

2009-10-01

8

49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate. 219.602 Section 219.602 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA...

2011-10-01

9

Solution structure of the strawberry allergen Fra a 1.  

PubMed

The PR10 family protein Fra a 1E from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is down-regulated in white strawberry mutants, and transient RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated silencing experiments confirmed that Fra a 1 is involved in fruit pigment synthesis. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of Fra a 1E. The protein fold is identical with that of other members of the PR10 protein family and consists of a seven-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet, two short V-shaped ?-helices and a long C-terminal ?-helix that encompass a hydrophobic pocket. Whereas Fra a 1E contains the glycine-rich loop that is highly conserved throughout the protein family, the volume of the hydrophobic pocket and the size of its entrance are much larger than expected. The three-dimensional structure may shed some light on its physiological function and may help to further understand the role of PR10 proteins in plants. PMID:22913709

Seutter von Loetzen, Christian; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwab, Wilfried; Rösch, Paul; Hartl-Spiegelhauer, Olivia

2012-12-01

10

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The mailing address of the Regional Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number...E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov. (6) Region 6...

2011-10-01

11

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The mailing address of the Regional Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number...E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov. (6) Region 6...

2012-10-01

12

Fra-1/AP-1 Transcription Factor Negatively Regulates Pulmonary Fibrosis In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor plays a key role in tumor epithelial cell progression; however, its role in pathogenic lung fibrosis remains unclear. In the present study, using a genetic approach (Fra-1 deficient mice), we have demonstrated a novel regulatory (protective) role for Fra-1 in lung fibrosis. We found greater levels of progressive interstitial fibrosis, characterized by increased levels of inflammation, collagen accumulation, and profibrotic and fibrotic gene expression in the lungs of Fra-1?/? mice than in those of Fra-1+/+ mice following bleomycin treatment. Fra-1 knockdown in human lung epithelial cells caused the upregulation of mesenchymal marker N-cadherin, concomitant with a downregulation of the epithelial phenotype marker E-cadherin, under basal conditions and in response to bleomycin and TGF-?1. Furthermore, Fra-1 knockdown caused an enhanced expression of type 1 collagen and the downregulation of collagenase (MMP-1 and MMP-13) gene expression in human lung epithelial cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Fra-1 mediates anti-fibrotic effects in the lung through the modulation of proinflammatory, profibrotic and fibrotic gene expression, and suggests that the Fra-1 transcription factor may be a potential target for pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive disorder with poor prognosis and treatment.

Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Vaz, Michelle; Reddy, Sekhar P.

2012-01-01

13

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 229 - Form FRA 6180-49A  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Form FRA 6180-49A...21118, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. Copies of Form FRA F6180-49A are available by contacting the Federal...

2012-10-01

14

49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results....

2011-10-01

15

49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results....

2012-10-01

16

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215âFRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

2009-10-01

17

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215âFRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

2010-10-01

18

49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. 228.407...228.407 Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of...

2012-10-01

19

Identification of a pharmacologically tractable Fra-1/ADORA2B axis promoting breast cancer metastasis  

PubMed Central

Metastasis confronts clinicians with two major challenges: estimating the patient's risk of metastasis and identifying therapeutic targets. Because they are key signal integrators connecting cellular processes to clinical outcome, we aimed to identify transcriptional nodes regulating cancer cell metastasis. Using rodent xenograft models that we previously developed, we identified the transcription factor Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) as a key coordinator of metastasis. Because Fra-1 often is overexpressed in human metastatic breast cancers and has been shown to control their invasive potential in vitro, we aimed to assess the implication and prognostic significance of the Fra-1–dependent genetic program in breast cancer metastasis and to identify potential Fra-1–dependent therapeutic targets. In several in vivo assays in mice, we demonstrate that stable RNAi depletion of Fra-1 from human breast cancer cells strongly suppresses their ability to metastasize. These results support a clinically important role for Fra-1 and the genetic program it controls. We show that a Fra-1–dependent gene-expression signature accurately predicts recurrence of breast cancer. Furthermore, a synthetic lethal drug screen revealed that antagonists of the adenosine receptor A2B (ADORA2B) are preferentially toxic to breast tumor cells expressing Fra-1. Both RNAi silencing and pharmacologic blockade of ADORA2B inhibited filopodia formation and invasive activity of breast cancer cells and correspondingly reduced tumor outgrowth in the lungs. These data show that Fra-1 activity is causally involved in and is a prognostic indicator of breast cancer metastasis. They suggest that Fra-1 activity predicts responsiveness to inhibition of pharmacologically tractable targets, such as ADORA2B, which may be used for clinical interference of metastatic breast cancer.

Desmet, Christophe J.; Gallenne, Tristan; Prieur, Alexandre; Reyal, Fabien; Visser, Nils L.; Wittner, Ben S.; Smit, Marjon A.; Geiger, Thomas R.; Laoukili, Jamila; Iskit, Sedef; Rodenko, Boris; Zwart, Wilbert; Evers, Bastiaan; Horlings, Hugo; Ajouaou, Abderrahrim; Zevenhoven, John; van Vliet, Martin; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Peeper, Daniel S.

2013-01-01

20

MicroRNA-34 suppresses breast cancer invasion and metastasis by directly targeting Fra-1.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs have key roles in tumor metastasis. Here, we describe the regulation and function of miR-34a and miR-34c (miR-34a/c) in breast cancer metastasis. Expression analysis verified that miR-34a/c expression is significantly decreased in metastatic breast cancer cells and human primary breast tumors with lymph node metastases. Overexpression of miR-34a/c could inhibit breast cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and distal pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Further studies revealed that Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1 or Fosl1) is a downstream target of miR-34a/c as miR-34a/c bound directly to the 3'untranslated region of Fra-1, subsequently reducing both the mRNA and protein levels of Fra-1. Silencing of Fra-1 recapitulated the effects of miR-34a/c overexpression, whereas enforced expression of Fra-1 reverses the suppressive effects of miR-34a/c. Moreover, significant downregulation of miR-34a in metastatic breast cancer tissues was found to be inversely correlated with Fra-1 expression. Our results demonstrate that miR-34a/c functions as a metastasis suppressor to regulate breast cancer migration and invasion through targeting Fra-1 oncogene and suggest a therapeutic application of miR-34 in breast cancer. PMID:23001043

Yang, S; Li, Y; Gao, J; Zhang, T; Li, S; Luo, A; Chen, H; Ding, F; Wang, X; Liu, Z

2012-09-24

21

Signal-dependent fra-2 regulation in skeletal muscle reserve and satellite cells  

PubMed Central

Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that paradoxically also has some tissue-specific functions. In skeletal muscle cells, we document that the AP-1 subunit, Fra-2, is expressed in the resident stem cells (Pax7-positive satellite cells) and also in the analogous undifferentiated ‘reserve' cell population in myogenic cultures, but not in differentiated myofiber nuclei. Silencing of Fra-2 expression enhances the expression of differentiation markers such as muscle creatine kinase and myosin heavy chain, indicating a possible role of Fra-2 in undifferentiated myogenic progenitor cells. We observed that Fra-2 is a target of cytokine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling in cultured muscle cells, and extensive mass spectrometry and mutational analysis identified S320 and T322 as regulators of Fra-2 protein stability. Interestingly, Fra-2 S320 phosphorylation occurs transiently in activated satellite cells and is extinguished in myogenin-positive differentiating cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated Fra-2 expression and stabilization is linked to regulation of myogenic progenitor cells having implications for the molecular regulation of adult muscle stem cells and skeletal muscle regeneration.

Alli, N S; Yang, E C; Miyake, T; Aziz, A; Collins-Hooper, H; Patel, K; McDermott, J C

2013-01-01

22

Signal-dependent fra-2 regulation in skeletal muscle reserve and satellite cells.  

PubMed

Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that paradoxically also has some tissue-specific functions. In skeletal muscle cells, we document that the AP-1 subunit, Fra-2, is expressed in the resident stem cells (Pax7-positive satellite cells) and also in the analogous undifferentiated 'reserve' cell population in myogenic cultures, but not in differentiated myofiber nuclei. Silencing of Fra-2 expression enhances the expression of differentiation markers such as muscle creatine kinase and myosin heavy chain, indicating a possible role of Fra-2 in undifferentiated myogenic progenitor cells. We observed that Fra-2 is a target of cytokine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling in cultured muscle cells, and extensive mass spectrometry and mutational analysis identified S320 and T322 as regulators of Fra-2 protein stability. Interestingly, Fra-2 S320 phosphorylation occurs transiently in activated satellite cells and is extinguished in myogenin-positive differentiating cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated Fra-2 expression and stabilization is linked to regulation of myogenic progenitor cells having implications for the molecular regulation of adult muscle stem cells and skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23807221

Alli, N S; Yang, E C; Miyake, T; Aziz, A; Collins-Hooper, H; Patel, K; McDermott, J C

2013-06-27

23

Individual variation and specific cognitive deficits in the fra(X) syndrome.  

PubMed

Mental retardation has been associated with fra(X) but comprehensive psychological evaluation has rarely been applied to 2 major behavioral questions 1) the extent of individual variation in IQ among fra(X) males and the possibility of some fra(X) males being of normal IQ; and 2) whether there is a depression in general IQ or whether specific abilities are impaired. The problems of developing an effective battery of tests for assessing fra(X) are discussed. These questions were examined in 54 individuals, comprising fra(X) males, their obligate carrier mothers and those sisters shown to have the fra(X). Among noninstitutionalised males nonverbal IQ as measured on a Block Design test ranged from 100 to 0, and vocabulary scores while generally higher, ranged from 79-33. The males scored low on a digit span memory task, while performance on a memory of objects task was adequate. Despite lower overall scores, a similar pattern and variability emerged in institutionalised males. Daughters were extremely variable in performance and the mothers performed much better, supporting the view that women who have children are a selected subset of fra(X) syndrome individuals. The performance of one male is discussed in detail. His vocabulary and nonverbal IQ scores were normal, despite his having other specific cognitive deficits. The pattern of abilities and behavior seen in fra(X) may result in an overestimation of intelligence and underestimation of penetrance when based on clinical impressions rather than formal psychological assessment. The implications of this for molecular and for population genetic approaches to fra(X) are discussed. PMID:3674104

Theobald, T M; Hay, D A; Judge, C

1987-09-01

24

49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608...

2012-10-01

25

49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608...

2011-10-01

26

49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.103 Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA. (a)...

2012-10-01

27

49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.103 Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA. (a)...

2011-10-01

28

From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special Web feature from the Metropolitan Museum centers around two fifteenth century paintings acquired by two US museums (the Metropolitan and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston) from the Barberini Collection in Rome in the 1930s, that have puzzled scholars for more than a century, and have only recently been identified as the work of Giovanni di Bartolomeo Corradini of Urbino, also known as Fra Carnevale. In addition to investigating the mystery of Fra Carnevale, the Web feature also examines the concepts of artistic identity, in contrast with the Renaissance practice of artworks that issue from the studio of a named artist, that are actually the work of many unnamed artists. To do this, the feature is divided into three sections: "Filippo Lippi", 29 works by Lippi and others trained in his workshop; "An Alternative Vision", seven paintings by artists working within the studio system, but, similar to Fra Carnevale's works, containing unusual elements; and "The Mystery of Fra Carnevale", including the two panels, most likely parts of Fra Carnevale's altarpiece for Santa Maria della Bella in Urbino, The Birth of the Virgin and The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, done in what has come to be recognized as Fra Carnevale's style-paintings so full of architectural details that the figures seem incidental to the architecture.

29

Folate-sensitive fragile site FRA10A is due to an expansion of a CGG repeat in a novel gene, FRA10AC1, encoding a nuclear protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile sites appear visually as nonstaining gaps on chromosomes that are inducible by specific cell culture conditions. Expansion of CGG\\/CCG repeats has been shown to be the molecular basis of all five folate-sensitive fragile sites characterized molecularly so far, i.e., FRAXA, FRAXE, FRAXF, FRA11B, and FRA16A. In the present study we have refined the localization of the FRA10A folate-sensitive fragile

Theologia Sarafidou; Christina Kahl; Isabel Martinez-Garay; Marie Mangelsdorf; Stefan Gesk; Elizabeth Baker; Maria Kokkinaki; Polly Talley; Edna L. Maltby; Lisa French; Lana Harder; Bernd Hinzmann; Carlo Nobile; Kathy Richkind; Merran Finnis; Panagiotis Deloukas; Grant R. Sutherland; Kerstin Kutsche; Nicholas K. Moschonas; Reiner Siebert; Jozef Gécz

2004-01-01

30

The PKC? pathway participates in the aberrant accumulation of Fra-1 protein in invasive ER-negative breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Fra-1 is aberrantly expressed in a large number of cancer cells and tissues, and emerging evidence suggests an important role for this Fos family protein in both oncogenesis and the progression or maintenance of many tumour types. Here, we show that the concentration of Fra-1 is high in invasive oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative (ER?) breast cancer cell lines, regardless of their Ras pathway status. All of the ER? cells express high levels of activated PKC?, and the inhibition of PKC? activity using RNA interference or the expression of a dominant-negative mutant results in a dramatic reduction in Fra-1 abundance. Conversely, the ectopic expression of constitutively active PKC? leads to Fra-1 phosphorylation and accumulation in poorly invasive ER+ cells. This accumulation is due to the stabilisation of the Fra-1 protein through PKC? signalling, whereas other members of the PKC family are ineffective. Both SPAK and ERK1/2, whose activities are up-regulated by PKC?, participate in PKC?-driven Fra-1 stabilisation. Interestingly, their relative contributions appear to be different depending on the cell line studied. ERK1/2 signalling has a major role in ER- MDA-MB-231 cells whereas Fra-1 accumulation occurs mainly through SPAK signalling in ER? BT549 cells. Fra-1 mutational analysis shows that the phosphorylation of S265, T223 and T230 is critical for PKC?-driven Fra-1 stabilisation. Phosphorylation of the protein was confirmed using specific antisera against Fra-1 phosphorylated on T223 or S265. In addition, Fra-1 participates in PKC?-induced cell invasion and is necessary for PKC?-induced cell migration. In summary, we identified PKC? signalling as an important regulator of Fra-1 accumulation in ER- breast cancer cells. Moreover, our results suggest that PKC? could participate in progression of some breast cancers and could be a new therapeutic target.

Belguise, Karine; Milord, Sandrine; Galtier, Florence; Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Piechaczyk, Marc; Chalbos, Dany

2012-01-01

31

HGF Mediates Cell Proliferation of Human Mesothelioma Cells through a PI3K/MEK5/Fra-1 Pathway  

PubMed Central

The ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Met, are highly expressed in most human malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) and may contribute to their increased growth and viability. Based upon our observation that RNA silencing of fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) inhibited c-met expression in rat mesotheliomas (1), we hypothesized that Fra-1 was a key player in HGF-induced proliferation in human MMs. In three of seven human MM lines evaluated, HGF increased Fra-1 levels and phosphorylation of both extracellular signal–regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) and AKT that were inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY290042. HGF-dependent phosphorylation and Fra-1 expression were decreased after knockdown of Fra-1, whereas overexpression of Fra-1 blocked the expression of mitogen/extracellular signal–regulated kinase kinases (MEK)5 at the mRNA and protein levels. Stable MM cell lines using a dnMEK5 showed that basal Fra-1 levels were increased in comparison to empty vector control lines. HGF also caused increased MM cell viability and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression that were abolished by knockdown of MEK5 or Fra-1. Data suggest that HGF-induced effects in some MM cells are mediated via activation of a novel PI3K/ERK5/Fra-1 feedback pathway that might explain tumor-specific effects of c-Met inhibitors on MM and other tumors.

Ramos-Nino, Maria E.; Blumen, Steven R.; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Pass, Harvey; Carbone, Michele; Testa, Joseph R.; Altomare, Deborah A.; Mossman, Brooke T.

2008-01-01

32

Oxidant-Induced Cell Death and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidative Response Are Controlled by Fra-1/AP-1  

PubMed Central

AP-1 (Jun/Fos) transcription factors play key roles in various biological processes, including cell death. Here we report a novel role for Fra-1 in oxidant-induced cell death controlled by modulating antioxidant gene expression. Fra-1-deficient (Fra-1?/?) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and primary lung fibroblasts (PLFs) were remarkably resistant to H2O2- and diquat-induced cell death, compared to their wild-type (Fra-1+/+) counterparts. Fra-1 deficiency ablated oxidant-induced mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis. Fra-1?/? cells had elevated basal levels of antioxidant enzymes and intracellular glutathione (GSH), which were further stimulated by oxidants. Loss of Fra-1 led to an increased half-life of transcription factor Nrf2 and increased recruitment of this protein to the promoters of antioxidant genes and increased their expression. Depletion of intracellular GSH or RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of Nqo1, Hmox1, and Nrf2 restored oxidant-induced cell death in Fra-1?/? cells. Thus, Fra-1 appears to increase susceptibility to oxidants and promotes cell death by attenuating Nrf2-driven antioxidant responses.

Vaz, Michelle; Machireddy, Narsa; Irving, Ashley; Potteti, Haranatha R.; Chevalier, Karinne; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya

2012-01-01

33

Fra proteins influencing filament integrity, diazotrophy and localization of septal protein SepJ in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp.  

PubMed

Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can fix N(2) in differentiated cells called heterocysts, which exchange nutritional and regulatory compounds with the neighbouring photosynthetic vegetative cells. The cells in the filament appear to be joined by some protein structures, of which SepJ (FraG) that is located at the cell poles in the intercellular septa and is needed for filament integrity seems to be a component. Other known proteins required for filament integrity include FraC and FraH. Whereas fraC (alr2392) was constitutively expressed as an operon together with two downstream genes, alr2393 (fraD) and alr2394 (fraE), fraH (alr1603) was induced under nitrogen deprivation. Single mutants of these genes showed filament fragmentation under nitrogen deprivation and did not grow diazotrophically, although they formed heterocysts. The fraC and fraD mutants showed an impaired localization of SepJ at the intercellular septa and were hampered in the intercellular transfer of the fluorescent probe calcein. As shown with GFP fusions, FraC and FraD are also located at the intercellular septa. Therefore, at least three different proteins, SepJ, FraC and FraD, influence the architecture and function of the intercellular septa in the Anabaena filaments. PMID:20487302

Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Mariscal, Vicente; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

2010-03-01

34

Frequency of Fra X syndrome among institutionalized mentally retarded males in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Results of cytogenetic studies, performed in a group of 201 institutionalized mentally retarded males, are presented. At least two cytogenetic methods for eliciting the Xq27.3 fragile site, recommended by the Fourth International Workshop on the Fra X Syndrome were used. A subgroup of 67 out of 201 studied males was also examined using molecular methods. In 6 (2.9%) males fra X syndrome was diagnosed. All cytogenetic positive results were confirmed by molecular analysis. Five patients had full expansion CGG repeats and one had both premutation and full mutation. Postulated frequency of fra X syndrome in Polish population being 0.2-0.4 / 1,000 males seems to be lower than it could be expected on the basis of previous literature data. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Mazurczak, T.; Bocian, E.; Milewski, M. [National Research Inst. of Mother and Child, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

1996-07-12

35

Increased bone formation and osteosclerosis in mice overexpressing the transcription factor Fra-1.  

PubMed

Bone formation by osteoblasts is essential for skeletal growth and remodeling. Fra-1 is a c-Fos-related protein belonging to the AP-1 family of transcription factors. Here we show that transgenic mice overexpressing Fra-1 in various organs develop a progressive increase in bone mass leading to osteosclerosis of the entire skeleton, which is due to a cell-autonomous increase in the number of mature osteoblasts. Moreover, osteoblast differentiation, but not proliferation, was enhanced and osteoclastogenesis was also elevated in vitro. These data indicate that, unlike c-Fos, which causes osteosarcomas, Fra-1 specifically enhances bone formation, which may be exploited to stimulate bone formation in pathological conditions. PMID:10973316

Jochum, W; David, J P; Elliott, C; Wutz, A; Plenk, H; Matsuo, K; Wagner, E F

2000-09-01

36

Implications of FRA 16A structure for the mechanism of chromosomal fragile site genesis  

SciTech Connect

Fragile sites are chemically induced nonstaining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. DNA sequences encompassing and including the rare, autosomal, folate-sensitive fragile site, FRA16A, were isolated by positional cloning. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)[sub n] repeat. This repeat was adjacent to a CpG island that was methylated in fragile site-expressing individuals. The FRA16A locus in individuals who do not express the fragile site is not a site of DNA methylation (imprinting), which suggests that the methylation associated with fragile sites may be a consequence and not a cause of their genesis.

Nancarrow, J.K.; Kremer, E.; Holman, K.; Eyre, H.; Callen, D.F.; Sutherland, G.R.; Richards, R.I. (Centre for Medical Genetics, North Adelaide (Australia)); Doggett, N.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Paslier, D.Le (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain, Paris (France))

1994-06-24

37

49 CFR 214.307 - Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA. 214.307 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214...Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA. (a) Each...

2011-10-01

38

49 CFR 214.307 - Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA. 214.307 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214...Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA. (a) Each...

2012-10-01

39

Expression profiling of genes regulated by Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background The Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor regulates the expression of genes controlling various processes including migration, invasion, and survival as well as extracellular remodeling. We recently demonstrated that loss of Fra-1 leads to exacerbated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, accompanied by enhanced expression of various inflammatory and fibrotic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which Fra-1 confers protection during bleomycin-induced lung injury, genome-wide mRNA expression profiling was performed. Results We found that Fra-1 regulates gene expression programs that include: 1) several cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammation, 2) several genes involved in the extracellular remodeling and cell adhesion, and 3) several genes involved in programmed cell death. Conclusion Loss of Fra-1 leads to the enhanced expression of genes regulating inflammation and immune responses and decreased the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, suggesting that this transcription factor distinctly modulates early pro-fibrotic cellular responses.

2013-01-01

40

Nye unders0kelser og nye tolkninger av det danske eikekistematerialet fra bronsealderen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyvik, G. 2004. Nye undersökelser og nye tolkninger av det danske eikekiste­ materialet fra bronsealderen. (New investigations and interpretations of the Danish Bronze Age oak log coffins.) Fornvännen gg. Stockholm. Some of Denmark's Bronze Age barrows with oak log cjiffins have remarkable conditions for preservation and have been the subject of much research. A thin iron pan encapsulating the cores

Av Gro Kyvik

41

Business Model for Commingled Operations of Freight and Non-FRA-Compliant Passenger Rail Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a challenge to develop a business model of commingled operations of freight and non-FRA-compliant passenger rail services because there are no domestic cases of such operations and the number of cases in which freight and light rail transit (LRT) equipment share tracks on a temporal basis of separation is limited. Greater opportunities for commingling may be created, however,

David O Nelson; Alexander Lu

2009-01-01

42

Habitat use by female desert bighorn sheep in the Fra Cristobal Mountains, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) populations have declined since the 1980s, and restoration efforts are necessary to establish viable populations. Mexican desert bighorn sheep were translocated to the Fra Cristobal Mountains of south-central New Mexico in 1995. We described seasonal habitats used by female desert bighorn sheep by comparing characteristics of radiolocations with random locations within their home

Peter D. Bangs; Paul R. Krausman; Kyran E. Kunkel; Zachary D. Parsons

2005-01-01

43

MicroRNA-34a inhibits migration and invasion of colon cancer cells via targeting to Fra-1.  

PubMed

MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a), a transcriptional target of p53, is a well-known tumor suppressor gene. Here, we identified Fra-1 as a new target of miR-34a and demonstrated that miR-34a inhibits Fra-1 expression at both protein and messenger RNA levels. In addition, we found that p53 indirectly regulates Fra-1 expression via a miR-34a-dependant manner in colon cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-34a strongly inhibited colon cancer cell migration and invasion, which can be partially rescued by forced expression of the Fra-1 transcript lacking the 3'-untranslated region. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9, two enzymes involved in cell migration and invasion, was decreased in miR-34a-transfected cells, and this can be rescued by Fra-1 overexpression. Moreover, we found that miR-34a was downregulated in 25 of 40 (62.5%) colon cancer tissues, as compared with the adjacent normal colon tissues and that the expression of miR-34a was correlated with the DNA-binding activity of p53. Unexpectedly, the DNA-binding activity of p53 was not inversely correlated with Fra-1 expression, and a significant statistical inverse correlation between miR-34a and Fra-1 expression was only observed in 14 of 40 (35%) colon cancer tissues. Taken together, our in vitro data suggest that p53 regulates Fra-1 expression, and eventually cell migration/invasion, via a miR-34a-dependent manner. However, in vivo data indicate that the p53-miR-34a pathway is not the major regulator of Fra-1 expression in human colon cancer tissues. PMID:22198213

Wu, Jianmin; Wu, Gang; Lv, Lu; Ren, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Xue-Jiao; Xue, Yong-Feng; Li, Guiling; Lu, Xincheng; Sun, ZhongSheng; Tang, Kai-Fu

2011-12-22

44

49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes...existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards. 229...SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements §...

2010-10-01

45

49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes...existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards. 229...SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements §...

2009-10-01

46

Pathogenicity Induced by Feline Leukemia Virus, Rickard Strain, Subgroup A Plasmid DNA (pFRA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new provirus clone of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which we named FeLV-A (Rickard) or FRA, was characterized with respect to viral interference group, host range, complete genome sequence, and in vivo pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free newborn cats. The in vitro studies indicated the virus to be an ecotropic subgroup A FeLV with 98% nucleotide sequence homology to another FeLV-A clone

HANG CHEN; MARTA K. BECHTEL; YAN SHI; ANDREW PHIPPS; LAWRENCE E. MATHES; KATHLEEN A. HAYES; PRADIP ROY-BURMAN

1998-01-01

47

Single molecule analysis of the Arabidopsis FRA1 kinesin shows that it is a functional motor protein with unusually high processivity.  

PubMed

The Arabidopsis FRA1 kinesin contributes to the organization of cellulose microfibrils through an unknown mechanism. The cortical localization of this kinesin during interphase raises the possibility that it transports cell wall-related cargoes along cortical microtubules that either directly or indirectly influence cellulose microfibril patterning. To determine whether FRA1 is an authentic motor protein, we combined bulk biochemical assays and single molecule fluorescence imaging to analyze the motor properties of recombinant, GFP-tagged FRA1 containing the motor and coiled-coil domains (designated as FRA1(707)-GFP). We found that FRA1(707)-GFP binds to microtubules in an ATP-dependent manner and that its ATPase activity is dramatically stimulated by the presence of microtubules. Using single molecule studies, we found that FRA1(707)-GFP moves processively along microtubule tracks at a velocity of about 0.4? ?m?s(-1). In addition, we found that FRA1(707)-GFP is a microtubule plus-end-directed motor and that it moves along microtubules as a dimer. Interestingly, our single molecule analysis shows that the processivity of FRA1(707)-GFP is at least twice the processivity of conventional kinesin, making FRA1 the most processive kinesin to date. Together, our data show that FRA1 is a bona fide motor protein that has the potential to drive long-distance transport of cargo along cortical microtubules. PMID:21914648

Zhu, Chuanmei; Dixit, Ram

2011-09-13

48

Expression of AP-1 family transcription factors in the amygdala during conditioned taste aversion learning: role for Fra-2  

PubMed Central

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning occurs after the pairing of a novel taste with a toxin (e.g. sucrose with LiCl). The immediate-early gene c-Fos is necessary for CTA learning, but c-Fos alone cannot be sufficient for consolidation. The expression of other AP-1 proteins from the Fos- and Jun-families may also be required shortly after conditioning for CTA consolidation. To screen for the expression of AP-1 transcription factors within small subregions, RT-PCR analysis was used after laser capture microdissection of the amygdala. Rats were infused intraorally with 5% sucrose (6ml/6min) or injected with LiCl (12ml/kg, 0.15M, i.p.) or given sucrose paired with LiCl (sucrose/LiCl), or not treated; 1 h later their brains were dissected. The lateral (LA), basolateral (BLA), and central (CeA) subnuclei of the amgydala of single 5 ?m sections from individual rats were dissected using the Arcturus PixCell II system. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed the consistent presence of c-Fos, Fra-2, c-Jun, and JunD in the amygdala. In situ hybridization confirmed that c-Fos and Fra-2 mRNA expression was increased in the CeA after LiCl and sucrose/LiCl treatment. Immunohistochemistry for Fra-2 revealed high baseline levels of Fra-2 protein in the BLA and CeA, but also an increase in Fra-2 in the BLA and CeA after LiCl and sucrose/LiCl treatment. The similarity of response in LiCl and sucrose/LiCl treated groups might reflect activation by LiCl in both groups. To control for the effects of LiCl, rats were tested in a learned safety experiment. Fra-2 and c-Fos were examined in response to sucrose/LiCl in rats with prior familiarity with sucrose compared to rats without prior exposure to sucrose. The familiar (pre-exposure) group showed a significantly decreased number of Fra-2-positive cells compared with the novel group in the BLA, but not in the CeA. Because pre-exposure to sucrose attenuates CTA learning, a decreased cellular response in pre-exposed rats suggests a specific correlation with CTA learning. Changes in Fra-2 and c-Fos expression in the BLA and CeA at the time of conditioning, together with constitutive expression of c-Jun and JunD, may contribute to CTA learning.

Kwon, Bumsup; Goltz, Marion; Houpt, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

49

Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

2013-10-01

50

In Viaggio Fra le Stelle: The making of the GSC II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here "IN VIAGGIO FRA LE STELLE" (Journey amongst the Stars), a project to develop an educational application for Microsoft Windows based on multimedia and interactive tools that will be distributed as a CD-ROM. The uniqueness of this project consists in using the making of an astrometric catalogue (GSC II) as its guiding theme in the explanation of many different branches of astronomy from the Solar System to Cosmology. The choice of such a specialized subject, apparently so ill-suited for popularisation at first sight, as the guiding theme, will highlight the process of research instead of focusing only on the final achievements, giving a clear idea of how science evolves in practice. Its modular structure will permit its use as a classical tool for the popularization of the many fields of astronomy and astrophysics.

Bernardi, G.; Bucciarelli, B.; Ferreri, W.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Morbidelli, R.; Pannunzio, R.; Smart, R. L.; Vecchiato, A.

2005-12-01

51

Matrix attachment region (MAR) properties and abnormal expansion of AT island minisatellites in FRA16B fragile sites in leukemic CEM cells  

PubMed Central

AT-rich minisatellites (AT islands) are sites of genomic instability in cancer cells and targets for extremely lethal AT-specific drugs, such as bizelesin. Here we investigated the AT islands in the FRA16B fragile site region for their possible roles in the organization of DNA on the nuclear matrix. The FRA16B AT island nominally spans ?3 kb of mostly >90% A/T DNA. In silico analysis indicates that this domain exhibits characteristics of nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs): an exceptionally intense computed ‘MAR potential’ and profound duplex destabilization and flexibility. FRA16B repeats specifically bind to isolated nuclear matrices, which indicates their in vitro MAR function. This binding is several-fold greater than that of a known MAR in the c-myc gene. AT islands in fragile sites FRA16B and FRA16D are significantly more abundant in CEM cells that are hypersensitive to bizelesin compared to normal WI-38 cells. FRA16B overabundance in CEM is due to an ?10-fold expansion of FRA16B repeats. The expanded FRA16B minisatellites in CEM cells preferentially localize to the nuclear matrix-associated DNA indicating their in vivo MAR function. The unexpanded repeats in WI-38 cells localize to the loop DNA. The c-myc MAR is also matrix-associated in CEM cells while localizing to loop DNA in WI-38 cells. These results are the first to demonstrate that AT islands in fragile sites can function as MARs both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of FRA16B-mediated MAR sites to rearrange depending on the repeat expansion status could be relevant to both genomic instability of cancer cells and their sensitivity to AT-island targeting drugs.

Jackson, Jennifer A.; Trevino, Alex V.; Herzig, Maryanne C.; Herman, Terence S.; Woynarowski, Jan M.

2003-01-01

52

Breakages at common fragile sites set boundaries of amplified regions in two leukemia cell lines K562 - Molecular characterization of FRA2H and localization of a new CFS FRA2S.  

PubMed

Genome amplification is often observed in human tumors. The breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle is the mechanism that often underlies duplicated regions. Some research has indicated common fragile sites (CFS) as possible sites of chromosome breakages at the origin of BFB cycles. Here we searched two human genome regions known as amplification hot spots for any DNA copy number amplifications by analyzing 21 cancer cell lines to investigate the relationship between genomic fragility and amplification. We identified a duplicated region on a chromosomes der(2) present in the karyotype of two analysed leukemia cell lines K562. The two duplicated regions are organized into large palindromes, which suggests that one BFB cycle has occurred. Our findings show that the three breakpoints are localized in the sequence of three CFSs: FRA2H (2q32.1-q32.2), which here has been characterized molecularly; FRA2S (2q22.3-q23.3), a newly localized aphidicolin inducible CFS; and FRA2G (2q24.3-q31). PMID:20851513

Pelliccia, Franca; Bosco, Nazario; Rocchi, Angela

2010-09-18

53

Analysis of Laramide basement-involved deformation, Fra Cristobal Range, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

In the Fra Cristobal Range near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, 250 to 500 m(820 to 1640 ft) of relative basement uplift is present. The contact between Precambrian crystalline basement and cover strata (Cambrian and younger) is folded along a north-south deformation front defining the margin of the Laramide uplift. The style of deformation changes along strike from an overturned fold to a central domain of imbricate thrusts of Precambrian granite, overlying a gentle anticline of cover strata, and then back to an overturned fold. These changes in style occur across narrow transition zones characterized by transverse folds and tear faults, suggesting some control from basement structure. West-dipping, high-angle reverse faults and south-plunging S-folds on the overturned eastern limb of the south-plunging, basement-involved anticline suggest eastward vergence with the basement, in part forcing the fold in the cover strata. Closely spaced fractures are present in the granite hinge of the main overturned, basement-cored fold. Abundant microfaults with grains visibly offset are present in thin section. These features indicate a cataclastic flow mechanism to accommodate shortening strain in the core of the fold. The structural styles of the basement-involved Laramide deformation are similar to Berg's fold-thrust model; shortening in the basement is accommodated by imbricate thrusting in the central domain and cataclastic flow on a small scale in the basement-cored folds. Preexisting basement structure may have controlled the location of structural transitions within the belt of crustal shortening and uplift, and movement of basement blocks may have in part forced the observed folding.

Chapin, M.A.; Nelson, E.P.

1986-08-01

54

UCSD/FRA non-contact ultrasonic guided-wave system for rail inspection: an update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail defect detection. A prototype has been designed and field tested with the support of Volpe National Transportation Systems Center and ENSCO, Inc. The goal of this project is to develop a rail defect detection system that provides (a) better defect detection reliability (including internal transverse head defects under shelling and vertical split head defects), and (b) higher inspection speed than achievable by current rail inspection systems. This effort is also in direct response to Safety Recommendations issued by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) following the disastrous train derailments at Superior, WI in 1992 and Oneida, NY in 2007 among others. The UCSD prototype uses non-contact ultrasonic probing of the rail head (laser and air-coupled), ultrasonic guided waves, and a proprietary real-time statistical analysis algorithm that maximizes the sensitivity to defects while minimizing false positives. The current design allows potential inspection speeds up to 40 mph, although all field tests have been conducted up to 15 mph so far. This paper summarizes (a) the latest technology development test conducted at the rail defect farm of Herzog, Inc. in St Joseph, MO in June 2010, and (b) the completion of the new Rail Defect Farm facility at the UCSD Camp Elliott Field Station with partial in-kind donations from the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway.

Coccia, Stefano; Phillips, Robert; Nucera, Claudio; Bartoli, Ivan; Salamone, Salvatore; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Fateh, Mahmood; Carr, Gary

2011-03-01

55

Insulin-stimulated expression of c-fos, fra1 and c-jun accompanies the activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex.  

PubMed Central

The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex is made up of members of the Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1, Fra2) and Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) families and is stimulated by insulin in several cell types. The mechanism by which insulin activates this complex is not well understood but it is dependent on the activation of the Erk1 and Erk2 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinases. In the current study we show that the AP-1 complex isolated from insulin-stimulated cells contained c-Fos, Fra1, c-Jun and JunB. The activation of the AP-1 complex by insulin was accompanied by (i) a transient increase in c-fos expression, and the transactivation of the ternary complex factors Elk1 and Sap1a, in an Erk1/Erk2-dependent fashion; (ii) a substantial increase in the expression of Fra1 protein and mRNA, which was preceded by a transient decrease in its electrophoretic mobility upon SDS/PAGE, indicative of phosphorylation; and (iii) a sustained increase in c-jun expression without increasing c-Jun phosphorylation on serines 63 and 73 or activation of the stress-activated kinase JNK/SAPK. In conclusion, insulin appears to stimulate the activity of the AP-1 complex primarily through a change in the abundance of the components of this complex, although there may be an additional role for Fra1 phosphorylation.

Griffiths, M R; Black, E J; Culbert, A A; Dickens, M; Shaw, P E; Gillespie, D A; Tavare, J M

1998-01-01

56

Correlated break at PARK2/FRA6E and loss of AF-6/Afadin protein expression are associated with poor outcome in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Common fragile sites (CFSs) are regions of chromosomal break that may play a role in oncogenesis. The most frequent alteration occurs at FRA3B, within the FHIT gene, at chromosomal region 3p14. We studied a series of breast carcinomas for break of a CFS at 6q26, FRA6E, and its associated gene PARK2, using fluorescence in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays (TMA). We found break of PARK2 in 6% of cases. We studied the PARK2-encoded protein Parkin by using immunohistochemistry on the same TMA. Loss of Parkin was found in 13% of samples but was not correlated with PARK2 break. PARK2 break but not Parkin expression was correlated with prognosis. Alteration of PARK2/FRA6E may cause haplo-insufficiency of one or several telomeric potential tumor suppressor genes (TSG). The AF-6/MLLT4 gene, telomeric of PARK2, encodes the Afadin scaffold protein, which is essential for epithelial integrity. Loss of Afadin was found in 14.5% of cases, and 36% of these cases showed PARK2 break. Loss of Afadin had prognostic impact, suggesting that AF-6 may be a TSG. Loss of Afadin was correlated with loss of FHIT expression, suggesting fragility of FRA6E and FRA3B in a certain proportion of breast tumors. PMID:16819513

Letessier, A; Garrido-Urbani, S; Ginestier, C; Fournier, G; Esterni, B; Monville, F; Adélaïde, J; Geneix, J; Xerri, L; Dubreuil, P; Viens, P; Charafe-Jauffret, E; Jacquemier, J; Birnbaum, D; Lopez, M; Chaffanet, M

2006-07-03

57

Learning-dependent activation of Fra1: Involvement of ventral hippocampus and SNc\\/VTA complex in learning and habit formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of overtraining on learning processes in rats has long been studied, only few studies have specifically assessed the differential involvement of brain areas in habit formation. We used the analysis of expression of the immediate early gene Fra-1 as a tool to differentiate the areas involved in training and overtraining. Behavioural experiments showed that instrumental performance (signalled

Alexis Faure; Françoise Conde; Fabrice Cheruel; Nicole el Massioui

2006-01-01

58

Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A Promotes Invasion of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells through ERK/Fra-1-Mediated Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly metastatic, and this malignant feature may be promoted by an EBV oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A). Acting as a signal regulator, LMP2A can enhance invasiveness and motility of epithelial cells. Downstream from the LMP2A-triggered signaling events, it is largely unknown what key effector proteins are induced and essentially promote cell invasion. In the present study, we found that in NPC cells, LMP2A upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a metastasis-associated protease. LMP2A increased MMP9 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. It also activated the MMP9 promoter, in which two AP-1 elements were required for the promoter activation. Among AP-1 transcription factors, Fra-1 was induced by LMP2A and is essential for LMP2A-triggered MMP9 expression. Induction of Fra-1 was dependent on the LMP2A-activated ERK1/2 pathway, and induction of the ERK1/2–Fra-1–MMP9 axis required PY motifs in the amino-terminal domain of LMP2A. Notably, LMP2A-promoted invasion of NPC cells was blocked when MMP9 expression, Fra-1 induction, or ERK1/2 activation was inhibited. In addition, we found an association of LMP2A with MMP9 expression in NPC tumor biopsy specimens, where Fra-1 was a major mediation factor. This study reveals an underlying mechanism of LMP2A-induced cell invasion, from signal transduction to upregulation of a critical protease. Considering that MMP9 can also be upregulated by another EBV oncoprotein, LMP1, this protease may be a pivotal effector at which the EBV-induced, invasion-promoting mechanisms converge, serving as an attractive therapeutic target for NPC treatment.

Lan, Yu-Yan; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Chang, Jeffrey Shu-Ming; Chen, Chaio-Wei; Lai, Hsiao-Ching; Wu, Shih-Yi; Yeh, Tzu-Hao; Chang, Fang-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen

2012-01-01

59

ATR Preferentially Interacts with Common Fragile Site FRA3B and the Binding Requires its Kinase Activity in Response to Aphidicolin Treatment  

PubMed Central

The instability of common fragile sites (CFSs) contributes to the development of a variety of cancers. The ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint pathway has been implicated in maintaining CFS stability, but the mechanism is incompletely understood. The goal of our study was to elucidate the action of the ATR protein in the CFS-specific ATR-dependent checkpoint response. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that ATR protein preferentially binds (directly or through complexes) to fragile site FRA3B as compared to non-fragile site regions, under conditions of mild replication stress. Interestingly, the amount of ATR protein that bound to three regions of FRA3B peaked at 0.4 ?M aphidicolin (APH) treatment and decreased again at higher concentrations of APH. The total amounts of cellular ATR and several ATR-interacting proteins remained unchanged, suggesting that ATR binding to the fragile site is guided initially by the level of replication stress signals generated at FRA3B due to APH treatment and then sequestered from FRA3B regions by successive signals from other non-fragile site regions, which are produced at the higher concentrations of APH. This decrease in ATR binding to fragile site FRA3B at the higher concentrations of APH may account for the increasing number of chromosome gaps and breaks observed under the same conditions. Furthermore, inhibition of ATR kinase activity by treatment with 2-aminopurine (2-AP) or by over-expression of a kinase-dead ATR mutant showed that the kinase activity is required for the binding of ATR to fragile DNAs in response to APH treatment. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanism for the regulation of fragile site stability by ATR.

Wan, Cheng; Kulkarni, Atul; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

2010-01-01

60

Common chromosome fragile sites in human and murine epithelial cells and FHIT/FRA3B loss-induced global genome instability.  

PubMed

Chromosomal positions of common fragile sites differ in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, with positions dependent on the epigenetically determined density of replication origins at these loci. Because rearrangement of fragile loci and associated loss of fragile gene products are hallmarks of cancers, we aimed to map common fragile sites in epithelial cells, from which most cancers derive. Among the five most frequently activated sites in human epithelial cells were chromosome bands 2q33 and Xq22.1, which are not among top fragile sites identified in lymphoblasts or fibroblasts. FRA16D at 16q23 was among the top three fragile sites in the human epithelial cells examined, as it is in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, while FRA3B at 3p14.2, the top fragile locus in lymphoblasts, was not fragile in most epithelial cell lines tested. Epithelial cells exhibited varying hierarchies of fragile sites; some frequent epithelial cell fragile sites are apparently not frequently altered in epithelial cancers and sites that are frequently deleted in epithelial cancers are not necessarily among the most fragile. Since we have reported that loss of expression of the FRA3B-encoded FHIT protein causes increased replication stress-induced DNA damage, we also examined the effect of FHIT-deficiency on markers of genome instability in epithelial cells. FHIT-deficient cells exhibited increases in fragile breaks and in ?H2AX and 53BP1 foci in G1 phase cells, confirming in epithelial cells that the FHIT gene and encompassing FRA3B, is a "caretaker gene" necessary for maintenance of genome stability. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23929738

Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Horton, Susan; Saldivar, Joshua C; Miuma, Satoshi; Stampfer, Martha R; Heerema, Nyla A; Huebner, Kay

2013-08-09

61

The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3\\/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However, the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which

Haoran Li; Daphne T. Mapolelo; Nin N. Dingra; Sunil G. Naik; Nicolas S. Lees; Brian M. Hoffman; Pamela J. Riggs-Gelasco; Boi Hanh Huynh; Michael K. Johnson; Caryn E. Outten

2009-01-01

62

A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated with oil and animal glue. A large number of overpaintings above the original scheme of polychromy was found, which could be ascribed to almost three different interventions; the absence of modern pigments suggests that they could be realized long ago.

Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

2013-05-01

63

LOXL4 is induced by transforming growth factor ?1 through Smad and JunB/Fra2 and contributes to vascular matrix remodeling.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) is a pleiotropic factor involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling. In search for novel genes mediating the action of TGF-?1 on vascular ECM, we identified the member of the lysyl oxidase family of matrix-remodeling enzymes, lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), as a direct target of TGF-?1 in aortic endothelial cells, and we dissected the molecular mechanism of its induction. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis analysis of the LOXL4 promoter demonstrated the absolute requirement of a distal enhancer containing an activator protein 1 (AP-1) site and a Smad binding element for TGF-?1 to induce LOXL4 expression. Functional cooperation between Smad proteins and the AP-1 complex composed of JunB/Fra2 accounted for the action of TGF-?1, which involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent phosphorylation of Fra2. We furthermore provide evidence that LOXL4 was extracellularly secreted and significantly contributed to ECM deposition and assembly. These results suggest that TGF-?1-dependent expression of LOXL4 plays a role in vascular ECM homeostasis, contributing to vascular processes associated with ECM remodeling and fibrosis. PMID:23572561

Busnadiego, Oscar; González-Santamaría, José; Lagares, David; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Muller, Laurent; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando

2013-04-09

64

The comparative behavior of apatite-zircon U-Pb systems in Apollo 14 breccias: Implications for the thermal history of the Fra Mauro Formation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb analyses of zircon and apatite from four breccia samples from the Apollo 14 landing site. The zircon and apatite grains occur as cogenetic minerals in lithic clasts in two of the breccias and as unrelated mineral clasts in the matrices of the other two. SIMS U-Pb analyses show that the ages of zircon grains range from 4023 ± 24 Ma to 4342 ± 5 Ma, whereas all apatite grains define an isochron corresponding to an age of 3926 ± 3 Ma. The disparity in the ages of cogenetic apatite and zircon demonstrates that the apatite U-Pb systems have been completely reset at 3926 ± 3 Ma, whereas the U-Pb system of zircon has not been noticeably disturbed at this time. The apatite U-Pb age is slightly older than the ages determined by other methods on Apollo 14 materials highlighting need to reconcile decay constants used for the U-Pb, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr systems. We interpret the apatite age as a time of formation of the Fra Mauro Formation. If the interpretation of this Formation as an Imbrium ejecta is correct, apatite also determines the timing of Imbrium impact. The contrast in the Pb loss behavior of apatite and zircon places constraints on the temperature history of the Apollo 14 breccias and we estimate, from the experimentally determined Pb diffusion constants and an approximation of the original depth of the excavated samples in the Fra Mauro Formation, that the breccias experienced an initial temperature of about 1300-1100 °C, but cooled within the first five to ten years.

Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Healy, D.; Grange, M. L.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Vaughan, J.

2009-12-01

65

Knockdown of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus blocks prolactin surges and alters FRA expression in the locus coeruleus of female rats.  

PubMed

The nature of the circadian signal from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) required for prolactin (PRL) surges is unknown. Because the SCN neuronal circadian rhythm is determined by a feedback loop of Period (Per) 1, Per2, and circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock) gene expressions, we investigated the effect of SCN rhythmicity on PRL surges by disrupting this loop. Because lesion of the locus coeruleus (LC) abolishes PRL surges and these neurons receive SCN projections, we investigated the role of SCN rhythmicity in the LC neuronal circadian rhythm as a possible component of the circadian mechanism regulating PRL surges. Cycling rats on proestrous day and estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats received injections of antisense or random-sequence deoxyoligonucleotide cocktails for clock genes (Per1, Per2, and Clock) in the SCN, and blood samples were taken for PRL measurements. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons immunoreactive to Fos-related antigen (FRA) was determined in ovariectomized rats submitted to the cocktail injections and in a 12:12-h light:dark (LD) or constant dark (DD) environment. The antisense cocktail abolished both the proestrous and the estradiol-induced PRL surges observed in the afternoon and the increase of FRA expression in the LC neurons at Zeitgeber time 14 in LD and at circadian time 14 in DD. Because SCN afferents and efferents were probably preserved, the SCN rhythmicity is essential for the magnitude of daily PRL surges in female rats as well as for LC neuronal circadian rhythm. SCN neurons therefore determine PRL secretory surges, possibly by modulating LC circadian neuronal activity. PMID:17726143

Poletini, Maristela O; McKee, De'Nise T; Kennett, Jessica E; Doster, Jamie; Freeman, Marc E

2007-08-28

66

Genes encoding human caveolin-1 and -2 are co-localized to the D7S522 locus (7q31.1), a known fragile site (FRA7G) that is frequently deleted in human cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The (CA)n microsatellite repeat marker D7S522 is located on human chromosome 7q31.1 and is frequently deleted in a variety of human cancers, including squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, prostate cancers, renal cell carcinomas, ovarian adenocarcinomas, colon carcinomas, and breast cancers. In addition, D7S522 spans FRA7G, a known common fragile site on human chromosome 7. Based on these

Jeffrey A Engelman; Xiao Lan Zhang; Michael P Lisanti

1998-01-01

67

A functional activating protein 1 (AP-1) site regulates matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) transcription by cardiac cells through interactions with JunB-Fra1 and JunB-FosB heterodimers.  

PubMed Central

Enhanced synthesis of a specific matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-2, has been demonstrated in experimental models of ventricular failure and in cardiac extracts from patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes were used to analyse the determinants of MMP-2 synthesis, including the effects of hypoxia. Culture of rat cardiac fibroblasts for 24 h in 1% oxygen enhanced MMP-2 synthesis by more than 5-fold and augmented the MMP-2 synthetic responses of these cells to endothelin-1, angiotensin II and interleukin 1beta. A series of MMP-2 promoter-luciferase constructs were used to map the specific enhancer element(s) that drive MMP-2 transcription in cardiac cells. Deletion studies mapped a region of potent transactivating function within the 91 bp region from -1433 to -1342 bp, the activity of which was increased by hypoxia. Oligonucleotides from this region were cloned in front of a heterologous simian-virus-40 (SV40) promoter and mapped the enhancer activity to a region between -1410 and -1362 bp that included a potential activating protein 1 (AP-1)-binding sequence, C(-1394)CTGACCTCC. Site-specific mutagenesis of the core TGAC sequence (indicated in bold) eliminated the transactivating activity within the -1410 to -1362 bp sequence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) using the -1410 to -1362 bp oligonucleotide and rat cardiac fibroblast nuclear extracts demonstrated specific nuclear-protein binding that was eliminated by cold competitor oligonucleotide, but not by the AP-1-mutated oligonucleotide. Antibody-supershift EMSAs of nuclear extracts from normoxic rat cardiac fibroblasts demonstrated Fra1 and JunB binding to the -1410 to -1362 bp oligonucleotide. Nuclear extracts isolated from hypoxic rat cardiac fibroblasts contained Fra1, JunB and also included FosB. Co-transfection of cardiac fibroblasts with Fra1-JunB and FosB-JunB expression plasmids led to significant increases in transcriptional activity. These studies demonstrate that a functional AP-1 site mediates MMP-2 transcription in cardiac cells through the binding of distinctive Fra1-JunB and FosB-JunB heterodimers. The synthesis of MMP-2 is widely considered, in contrast with many members of the MMP gene family, to be independent of the AP-1 transcriptional complex. This report is the first demonstration that defined members of the Fos and Jun transcription-factor families specifically regulate this gene under conditions relevant to critical pathophysiological processes.

Bergman, Marina R; Cheng, Sunfa; Honbo, Norman; Piacentini, Lucia; Karliner, Joel S; Lovett, David H

2003-01-01

68

Fermentering af sukkerstoffer fra lignocellulose (træstof) til ethanol (sprit) og andre værdifulde produkter For at få en økonomisk rentabel proces baseret på lignocellulose er det vigtigt, at både glucose og hemicellulose omdannes til ethanol. Mucor indicus har stort potentiale som mikroorganisme i denne produktion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioethanol (sprit) er det flydende biobrændstof, der produceres mest af i verden. Biobrændstoffer er flydende eller gasformige brændstoffer (bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, planteolie eller biobrint) til transportsektoren fremstillet især ved fermentering. Biobrændstof er en vedvarende energibærer, da energikilden er solenergi lagret i plante-biomasse i form af kemisk energi, især sukkere, hvor kulstoffet er fikseret fra luftens kuldioxid ved fotosyntese. Det resulterer

Af Mette; Hedegaard Thomsen

69

The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial  

PubMed Central

Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

2013-01-01

70

Avloepsvann fra Blekerier (Waste Water from Bleaching Works).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a survey of the literature regarding the bleaching of chemical substances and the compounds which are released from bleaching works. In conventional bleaching with chlorine, a number of chlorinated organic compounds are formed. It has been ...

V. Loras

1976-01-01

71

Skurlastkvalitet fra Sandeskur (Sawn Timber Quality from Sandeskur).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the results from grading of sawn timber from a timber quality called Sandeskur is shown. The timber quality is between pulpwood and the lowest saw wood quality. The sawn timber is graded according to NS-INSTA 142 and the commercial grading ...

A. Ovrum

2002-01-01

72

EXACT: EXercise or Advice after ankle fraCTure. Design of a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Ankle fractures are common. Management of ankle fractures generally involves a period of immobilisation followed by rehabilitation\\u000a to reduce pain, stiffness, weakness and swelling. The effects of a rehabilitation program are still unclear. However, it has\\u000a been shown that important components of rehabilitation programs may not confer additional benefits over exercise alone. The\\u000a primary aim of this trial is to

Paula R Beckenkamp; C Christine Lin; Robert D Herbert; Marion Haas; Kriti Khera; Anne M Moseley

2011-01-01

73

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in: (1) rim, (2) flange, (3) plate or (4) hub area. (E) Wheel chip...or cracked with visible separation of metal. (B) Gouge between wheel seats... (E) Truck bolster and center plate interference preventing...

2012-10-01

74

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in: (1) rim, (2) flange, (3) plate or (4) hub area. (E) Wheel chip...or cracked with visible separation of metal. (B) Gouge between wheel seats... (E) Truck bolster and center plate interference preventing...

2011-10-01

75

L'importanza dei suoni nella vita psichica e nel legame fra madre e figlio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of sounds in our psychic life and in mother-child relationship A child in his mother's womb is immersed in a bath of stimulations (the ones coming from heart beat, blood flow, breathing, sleep-awake cycle, his mother's voice) and he is able to perceive them through amniotic fluid vibrations. De Casper has shown how, soon after birth, newborns recognize

Luigi Gualtieri

76

Familial fragility on chromosome 16 (Fra 16q22) enhanced by both interferon and distamycin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family with a “fragile site” at 16q22, inducible by both interferon and Distamycin A, is reported. Immunological problems were found in the family. In a sibship of ten, eight children had died in infancy. Our study led to the conclusions that interferon and Distamycin A induce fragility at the same site, which has the same characteristics as the spontaneous

Fiorella Shabtai; Dvora Klar; S. Bichacho; J. Hart; I. Halbrecht

1983-01-01

77

[Exact localization of several fragile sites remains uncertain. The example of fra(10) sensitive to folate].  

PubMed

The localization of the folate-sensitive fragile site first proposed to be at 10q24.2 was further assigned to 10q23. The study of one case using several banding techniques, and of 12 other unpublished cases studied with R-banding confirm the original localization, at the junction between 10q24.1 and 10q24.2. Because many reports propose that fragile sites induce further anomalies, we suggest that a re-study of the exact location of these sites with accurate methods is in order if misinterpretations are to be avoided. PMID:3879149

Dutrillaux, B; Muleris, M; Prieur, M

1985-01-01

78

VE-initiativ fra gulvet. (Renewable energy initiatives taken from the scratch).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the project was to stimulate further activity with regard to renewable energy initiatives already begun on the island of Bornholm, Denmark, especially in the case of wind energy. Local authorities provided funding for the establishment of windm...

M. Poulsen N. Vendelbo J. Stenberg

1992-01-01

79

49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employee has a substantially equal statistical chance of being selected within a specified time frame. The method may not permit subjective factors to play a role in selection, i.e., no employee may be selected as a result of the exercise of discretion...

2012-10-01

80

Sulla relazione fra la teoria di Tomonaga-Schwinger e quella di Dirac-Fock-Podolsky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto  Si dimostra, mediante una opportuna estensione covariante di un metodo proposto daBecker eLeibfried, che, per particelle tutte di un solo tipo, la teoria di Dirac-Fock-Podolsky è equivalente a una formulazione della teoria\\u000a di Tomonaga-Schwinger relativa ad un numero finito di particelle.

P. Bocchieri; A. Loinger

1955-01-01

81

49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements...accept responsibility for the training of conductors and thereby obtain authority for that...railroad to initially certify a person as a conductor in an appropriate type of...

2012-10-01

82

Restprodukter fra CFB-anlaeg. Anvendelse af restprodukter fra multi cirkulerende fluid bed. (Residues from a circulating fluidized-bed system. Utilization of residual products from a multi-circulating fluid bed).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In solid fuel combustion processes the residual product is usually left in form of ashes. In the 20 MW multi-circulating fluidized bed demonstration plant of the Aalborg Ciserv Int., designed to combust coal or straw, lime is used to bind sulfur and chlor...

M. Stenholm S. Westborg

1993-01-01

83

Null Drepte i Trafikken-Fra Visjon til Gjennomforbare Tiltak. Sammendragsrapport Fra en Studie av Gjennomforingspotensialet for Mulige tiltak under Null-Visjonen (Zero Killed in Traffic - From Vision to Implementation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The success of vision zero is only possible through the implementation of various strong measures, in road infrastructure, against high speed in sparsely populated areas, in housing areas, in urban settings and through the existence of relatively new tech...

T. Solheim

1999-01-01

84

Alternativ Transportteknologi: Reduserte CO2-Utslipp fra Transportsektoren (Alternative Transport Technology: Reduced CO2 Emissions from the Transport Sector).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose is to shed light on how new transport technology can make a contribution to reducing transport-specific and overall CO2-emissions in Norway. An important question is whether the use of eco-friendly transport technology can reduce the socio-eco...

T. Jensen

1998-01-01

85

The Frankfurt Patient Safety Climate Questionnaire for General Practices (FraSiK): analysis of psychometric properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSafety culture has been identified as having a major impact on how safety is managed in healthcare. However, it has not received much attention in general practices. Hence, no instrument yet exists to assess safety climate—the measurable artefact of safety culture—in this setting. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of a newly developed safety climate questionnaire for use in

Barbara Hoffmann; Olga Maria Domanska; Zeycan Albay; Vera Mueller; Corina Guethlin; Eric J Thomas; Ferdinand M Gerlach

2011-01-01

86

Prikkbelastning for Foererkort: Delutredning 1 og 2 fra en Arbeidsgruppe Oppnevnt av Samferdselsdepartementet (Penalty Point System for Driving Licenses).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report suggests that a penalty point system should be introduced. Three traffic offenses shall lead to a conditional suspension of the driving license. A fourth offense in a test period can lead to unconditional suspension. A computerized record must ...

1987-01-01

87

49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...title, address, telephone number and e-mail address of the primary person to be...title, address, telephone number and e-mail address of the primary person to be...title, address, telephone number and e-mail address of the primary person to...

2012-10-01

88

Afsvovlingsprodukt fra sprayabsorption stabiliseret med sand og flyveaske. (Desulfurization product from spray absorption stabilized with sand and fly ash).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spray-absorption method used in Denmark at the power plant Studstrupvaerket, produces a dry-product containing calcium sulphite as a main ingredient. The yearly production of the dry-product is about 200.000 tons. The purpose of the project was to stu...

B. Thagesen

1990-01-01

89

Il canone di Telecom Italia e lo strano scontro fra Cheli e Monti: una storia, tante morali  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of last year, the Italian incumbent on vocal (fixed) telephony raised private and business monthly connection bills. Due to a complex and controversial regulatory framework, the significant increase obtained by Telecom Italia gave to consumers and observers the impression that nobody was playing its role: why did the incumbent insist in a strategy apparently inconsistent with the

Frova Sandro

2001-01-01

90

76 FR 38456 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Procedures; Part 228.11 Hours of Safety Recordkeeping Requirements; and Part 229.125 Headlights and Auxiliary Headlights Candela Requirements. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2011- 0048. TriMet has petitioned FRA for a waiver of...

2011-06-30

91

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F...McDermott Corp., 1639 Stephen Street, Ridgewood, Long Island, NY 11227. FRA identification Nos....

2012-10-01

92

77 FR 4395 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2011-0101] Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with part 211...part 236. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0101. Metra seeks relief from the 2-year periodic testing...

2012-01-27

94

LE DONNE E LO STUDIO DELLA TORÀ: UNO SCAMBIO EPISTOLARE FRA DINA E RABBI SAMUELE ARCHIVOLTI NELL'ITALIA DEL RINASCIMENTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Torah, and in particular of the so-called Oral Torah, i.e. the Talmud, was traditionally a prerogative of men only, although notable exceptions of learned women are recorded in the course of Jewish history. In modern times the request by women to take full part in the world of Jewish studies has become an important issue, even though

David Gianfranco Di Segni

2001-01-01

95

Yersinia pestis pFra Shows Biovar-Specific Differences and Recent Common Ancestry with a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Plasmid  

PubMed Central

Population genetic studies suggest that Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a clonal pathogen that has recently emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Plasmid acquisition is likely to have been a key element in this evolutionary leap from an enteric to a flea-transmitted systemic pathogen. However, the origin of Y. pestis-specific plasmids remains obscure. We demonstrate specific plasmid rearrangements in different Y. pestis strains which distinguish Y. pestis bv. Orientalis strains from other biovars. We also present evidence for plasmid-associated DNA exchange between Y. pestis and the exclusively human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

Prentice, Michael B.; James, Keith D.; Parkhill, Julian; Baker, Stephen G.; Stevens, Kim; Simmonds, Mark N.; Mungall, Karen L.; Churcher, Carol; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Titball, Richard W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Wain, John; Pickard, Derek; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dougan, Gordon

2001-01-01

96

Byoekologiske anbefalinger. Betaenkning fra Det raadgivende udvalg om byoekologi. (Recommendations on urban ecology. Report from the advisory committee on urban ecology).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations on urban ecology given by an advisory committee under the national planning department of the Danish Ministry of the Environment. Urban ecology is defined as initiatives taken in order to protect/improve the environment in a specified urba...

1994-01-01

97

Aske fra halm- og flisfyrede vaerker til jordbrugsmaessig anvendelse. Forprojekt. (Ashes from straw and wood-chip fired plants for agricultural usage. Pilot project).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The content of nutrients and heavy metals in ashes from the combustion of straw and wood chips at district heating plants is studied, on the basis of results of analyses from Danish municipalities, to determine whether such ashes are suitable for use as f...

M. Morsing S. Westborg

1994-01-01

98

Afgivelse af Metaller (Bly, Cadmium, Kobber, Zink, Nikkel og Krom) fra Husholdningsblendere (Release of Metals (Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Nickel and Chromium) from Kitchen Blenders).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation includes 21 mixers of 8 different makes. Also, 2 different mixer-sticks and 3 food-processors of 2 different makes were investigated. Some of the samples had been used in householdings before the testing. The samples were analyzed for re...

1984-01-01

99

Optimering af stoerre tilslutningsanlaeg for fjernvarme ud fra driftsforsoeg. (Optimization of major house stations for district heating, based on performance testing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The series of tests have taken place in two approximately identical apartment blocks in Broendby. Two district heating house stations with different domestic hot water systems were constructed. In block I the domestic hot water system was constructed as a...

B. Svendsen Libing Yang B. Boehm H. Poulsen A. Lindegaard-Andersen

1994-01-01

100

A major quantitative trait locus for cold-responsive gene expression is linked to frost-resistance gene Fr-A2 in common wheat  

PubMed Central

Low temperature induces expression of Cor (cold-responsive)/Lea (late embryogenesis-abundant) gene family members through C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors in common wheat. However, the relationship between the genetic loci controlling cold-responsive gene expression and freezing tolerance is unclear. In expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis, accumulated transcripts of Cor/Lea and CBF genes were quantified in recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two common wheat cultivars with different levels of freezing tolerance. Four eQTLs controlling five cold-responsive genes were found, and the major eQTL with the greatest effect was located on the long arm of chromosome 5A. At least the 1D and 5A eQTLs played important roles in development of freezing tolerance in common wheat. The chromosomal location of the 5A eQTL, controlling four cold-responsive genes, coincided with a region homoeologous to a frost-tolerance locus (Fr-Am2) reported as a CBF cluster region in einkorn wheat. The 5A eQTL plays a significant role through Cor/Lea gene expression in cold acclimation of wheat. In addition, our results suggest that one or more CBF copies at the Fr-2 region positively regulate other copies, which might amplify the positive effects of the CBF cluster on downstream Cor/Lea gene activation.

Motomura, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Iehisa, Julio C. M.; Takumi, Shigeo

2013-01-01

101

Projektarbejde i fremmedsprogene: Rapport fra seminar pa Roskilde Universitetscenter (Project Work in Foreign Languages: Report from a Seminar at Roskilde University Center). ROLIG-papir 38.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a seminar at Roskilde University Center (Denmark) on project work in foreign languages, which brought together language teachers and theorists from different schools, including universities, business schools, technical schools, merchants schools, and high schools, to discuss their experiences with project work in foreign…

Jakobsen, Karen Sonne, Ed.

102

Zoobenthos in the Littoral and Profundal Zones of Four Faroese Lakes Botndjór í strandaøkinum og profundala økinum í f?ra føroyskum vøtnum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density and species composition of macroinvertebrates in the littoral and profundal zones of the four Faroese lakes Leynavatn, Eystara Mjáavatn, Saksunarvatn and Toftavatn were studied in early August 2000. Mean density of macroinvertebrates on rocky substrate in the littoral zone ranged between 11,272 and 37,239 ind m-2, and mean density in the profundal ranged between 30,199 and 175,387 ind m-2.

Hilmar J. Malmquist; Finnur Ingimarsson; Erlín E. Jóhannsdóttir

103

Rapid Reduction of Tetrachloro(D,L-fraJis)l,2-diaminocyclohexaneplatinum(IV) (Tetraplatin) in RPMI1640 Tissue Culture Medium1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrachloro(D,L-franj)l,2-diaminocyclohexaneplatinum(IV) (tetra- platin) is a new platinum analogue which is less nephrotoxic than cisplatin and is effective in some cell lines which have becomeresistant to cisplatin. Since platinum(IV) compounds are thought to require reduction to their platinum(II) analogues for activity, the biotransformations of tetraplatin and its platinimeli) analogue, dichloro(D,L-rra\\/u)l,2-diaminocyclohex- aneplatinum(II) (PtCl2(rra\\/is-dach)|, were studied. For 1.121(1cells cul tured in RPMI 1640

Gregory R. Gibbons; Steven Wyrick; Stephen G. Chaney

104

Gradert Forekort fra 17 Eller 17 1/2 ar: Beregning av Mulige Effekter pa Ulykker. (Graduated Licensing in Norway: Estimated Effect on Crash Involvement.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimates show possible crash reduction as a result of allowing solo driving from 17 or 1712years of age (compared to the current 18-year age limit) under restrictions like night driving curfew, ban on taking young passengers, and ban on using a telephone...

R. Sagberg T. Bjornskau

2012-01-01

105

Sammenligning af goedningsvirkning og tab af kvaelstof fra ubehandlet og afgasset kvaeggylle. (Comparison of fertilizing effect and loss of nitrogen from untreated and degassed cattle manures).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a period of three years experiments have been carried out in order to compare the fertilizing effect of untreated cattle slurries, and cattle slurries that have been used for the conversion of biomass to methane, on spring barley with undersown gra...

H. Oertenblad E. Hvelplund K. Henriksen

1992-01-01

106

THE DETECTION OF FRA MAURO BASALTS IN THE LUNAR HIGHLANDS BY REMOTE SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE TECHNIQUES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CRUSTAL STRATIGRAPHY 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the lunar highland crust down to 60km accounts for about 10% of the lunar volume, a knowledge of the abundance of elements such as A1 and the rare earths within the crust is critical for theories of lunar petrogenesis and the bulk composition of the moon (1-3). Evidence available from the lunar orbital x-ray and y-ray experiments (4-5) covers

Michael P. Charette; S. Ross; Thomas B. McCord

107

75 FR 27053 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 61] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

2010-05-13

108

77 FR 28421 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257: Notice No. 70] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

2012-05-14

109

Genanvendelse af restprodukter fra affaldsforbraending med kalkbaseret roeggasrensning. Laboratorieundersoegelser af mulighederne for oparbejdning af kalciumklorid fra toerre/semitoerre restprodukter. (Utilization of waste products from waste incineration with a limestone based flue gas cleaning. Bench-scale testing of calcium chloride recovery from dry/semidry residue products).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study has been to explore the technical and economic feasibility of recovering calcium chloride from the acid flue gas cleaning residues produced at those Danish municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) which are equipped with dry ...

H. Birch O. Hjelmar G. Ploug Lorenzen

1993-01-01

110

49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ; (2) Facsimile to FRA at: 202-493-6309; or (3) Mail to FRA at: FRA Docket Clerk, Office of Chief Counsel, RCC-10, Mail Stop 10, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Washington, DC 20590, facsimile no. 202-493-6068. (g) FRA...

2009-10-01

111

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 227 - Audiometric Baseline Revision  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reportable on the Form FRA F 6180.55a. 1 OSHA and FRA use the same definition for Standard...FRA's definition is located in § 227.5. OSHA's definition is located in 29 CFR 1910...corrections are used or not. 2 FRA and OSHA use the same age-correction...

2011-10-01

112

Cluster of genes that encode positive and negative elements influencing filament length in a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis in vegetative cells and nitrogen fixation in heterocysts, and their filaments can be hundreds of cells long. In the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the genes in the fraC-fraD-fraE operon are required for filament integrity mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. The fraC operon transcript partially overlaps gene all2395, which lies in the opposite DNA strand and ends 1 bp beyond fraE. Gene all2395 produces transcripts of 1.35 kb (major transcript) and 2.2 kb (minor transcript) that overlap fraE and whose expression is dependent on the N-control transcription factor NtcA. Insertion of a gene cassette containing transcriptional terminators between fraE and all2395 prevented production of the antisense RNAs and resulted in an increased length of the cyanobacterial filaments. Deletion of all2395 resulted in a larger increase of filament length and in impaired growth, mainly under N2-fixing conditions and specifically on solid medium. We denote all2395 the fraF gene, which encodes a protein restricting filament length. A FraF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein accumulated significantly in heterocysts. Similar to some heterocyst differentiation-related proteins such as HglK, HetL, and PatL, FraF is a pentapeptide repeat protein. We conclude that the fraC-fraD-fraE?fraF gene cluster (where the arrow indicates a change in orientation), in which cis antisense RNAs are produced, regulates morphology by encoding proteins that influence positively (FraC, FraD, FraE) or negatively (FraF) the length of the filament mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. This gene cluster is often conserved in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. PMID:23813733

Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

2013-09-01

113

Karakterisering og behandling af spildevand fra roeggasafsvovling ved vaadabsorptionsprocessen med efterfoelgende oxidation. (Characterization and management of waste water from desulphurization of flue gas by the wet absorption process with following oxidation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of the wet absorption process for the desulphurization of flue gas from coal fired power plants produces calcium sulphate, and waste water containing nitrate, neutral salts and a certain amount of heavy metals. The conditions which influen...

B. Mose Pedersen G. Holm Kristensen

1990-01-01

114

Igor Candido - Il libro della Scrittura, il libro della Natura, il libro della Memoria: l'esegesi dantesca di C.S. Singleton fra tradizione giudaico-cristiana e trascendentalismo emersoniano - MLN 122:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the key function and meaning of Dante's imitation of God's creation through three Books of revelation (Scripture, Nature, History-Memory), as elaborated in Singleton's major critical works on Dante written between 1949 and 1958 (An Essay on the \\

Igor Candido

2007-01-01

115

Biogas af madaffald. Forbehandling, hygiejnisering og udraadning af madaffald fra husholdninger og institutioner i biogasfaellesanlaeg. Forprojekt. (Biogas of food wastes. Preliminary treatment, sanitizing and decomposition of food wastes, from institutions and households, in communal biomass conversion plants. Pilot project).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot project to an experimental project the aim of which was to investigate and test equipment for preliminary treatment and sanitizing of sorted, organic/biological domestic wastes before anaerobic treatment in a communal biomass conversion plant, and...

1990-01-01

116

Logistikk i Fiskeri-og Havbruksnaeringen: Kunnskapsstatus og Forskningsbehov-Innstilling fra Arbeidsgruppen. (Logistics in Fisheries and the Aquaculture Industry: Knowledge and Research Needs-Recommendations from the Working Group.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the work carried out by a Working Group established by the Norwegian Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund (FHF), concerning current knowledge and future research needs within logistics in the fisheries and the aquaculture i...

T. C. Askildsen G. Senneset

2006-01-01

117

Comparisons Between Analogical and Numerical Methods for Studying the Response of an Aircraft to Gusts . Confronti Fra Metodi Analogici E Numerici Per Lo Studio Della Risposta di UN Velivolo Alla Raffica.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two mathematical models for representing nonstationary aerodynamic characteristics of a wing subjected to sharp variations in the angle of attack are used to study the response of an airfoil to ascending vertical gusts. Considering the airfoil to be a rig...

L. Puccinelli

1970-01-01

118

76 FR 50359 - Hours of Service of Railroad Employees; Substantive Regulations for Train Employees Providing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rule. Based on its literature review, FRA is confident...safety benefits FRA was able to quantify...provision effectively created a third category...It is not clear why that number of schedules was chosen, nor why the specific...

2011-08-12

119

77 FR 77183 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting Postponement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 73] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting Postponement AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

2012-12-31

120

76 FR 27171 - Northwestern Pacific Railroad Co.; Notice of Partial Relief from Emergency Order No. 21  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [FRA Emergency Order...Notice No. 4] Northwestern Pacific Railroad Co.; Notice of Partial Relief...Emergency Order No. 21 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA),...

2011-05-10

121

78 FR 42998 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2013-0067...Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials...Safety Administration (PHMSA), Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

2013-07-18

122

78 FR 59754 - Notice of Application for Approval of Railroad Safety Program Plan and Product Safety Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0088...Notice of Application for Approval of Railroad Safety Program Plan and Product Safety...Railway (ATN) petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for approval...

2013-09-27

123

77 FR 52393 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257Notice No. 69] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

2012-08-29

124

78 FR 48931 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Emergency Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 75] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Emergency Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

2013-08-12

125

78 FR 26423 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257: Notice No. 74] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

2013-05-06

126

78 FR 62002 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 76] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

2013-10-10

127

75 FR 44051 - Resolicitation of Applications for the Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program (RS-TEC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2010-005-N-5...Resolicitation of Applications for the Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program (RS-TEC-10-001) AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

2010-07-27

128

75 FR 11992 - Notice of Scheduling of Public Hearing; Association of American Railroads  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2009-0111...Public Hearing; Association of American Railroads In a notice published January 4, 2010, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) announced...

2010-03-12

129

77 FR 73734 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 72] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of...

2012-12-11

130

78 FR 37656 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0059. Applicant: Long Island Rail Road, Mr. Kevin Tomlinson, Chief Engineer, Jamaica Station, Jamaica, New York 11435. LIRR seeks approval of the proposed modification of the...

2013-06-21

131

78 FR 47822 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0082. Applicants: Long Island Rail Road, Mr. Kevin Tomlinson, Chief Engineer, 93-59 183rd Street, Hollis, NY 11428; New York & Atlantic Railway, Mr. Paul Victor,...

2013-08-06

132

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flasher), FRA-MEC-MCD-300-C (steady burn), and FRA-MEC-MCD-300-F (flasher). 3. Manufacturer: American Electronics, Inc., 1 40 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601. 1 Note: Yankee Metal Products Corp. previously produced...

2011-10-01

133

In the Absence of Frazzled Over-Expression of Abelson Tyrosine Kinase Disrupts Commissure Formation and Causes Axons to Leave the Embryonic CNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn the Drosophila embryonic nerve cord, the formation of commissures require both the chemoattractive Netrin receptor Frazzled (Fra) and the Abelson (Abl) cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase. Abl binds to the cytoplasmic domain of Fra and loss-of-function mutations in abl enhance fra-dependent commissural defects. To further test Abl's role in attractive signaling, we over-expressed Abl in Fra mutants anticipating rescue of commissures.Methodology\\/Principal

Joy N. Dorsten; Bridget E. Varughese; Stephanie Karmo; Mark A. Seeger; Mark F. A. Vanberkum; Michael Hendricks

2010-01-01

134

Aberrant Neural Function during Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neurobiological systems which underlie emotion attribution among female patients with Fragile X (FraX) syndrome are examined. Results show that the emotion circuit which regulates responses to facial stimuli is potentially disrupted among female subjects with FraX syndrome. Anterior cingulate cortex activity in female subjects with FraX…

Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

2008-01-01

135

78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2012-0104, Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC44 Signal System Reporting Requirements AGENCY...that each carrier must file with FRA a signal system status report every five years...updated information regarding railroad signal systems to be available to FRA...

2013-06-19

136

49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report. Form FRA F 6180.54 shall be...Grade Crossing Accident/Incident Report. Form FRA F 6180.57 shall be...Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report (Form FRA F 6180.54), in...

2009-10-01

137

49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report. Form FRA F 6180.54 shall be...Grade Crossing Accident/Incident Report. Form FRA F 6180.57 shall be...Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report (Form FRA F 6180.54), in...

2012-10-01

138

49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report. Form FRA F 6180.54 shall be...Grade Crossing Accident/Incident Report. Form FRA F 6180.57 shall be...Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report (Form FRA F 6180.54), in...

2010-10-01

139

Economic Literature for Merchants: Handbooks, Dictionaries and Periodicals on Commerce during the 18th Century in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questo saggio delinea un profile di Daniel de Leon, figura fra le più carismatiche e discusse fra i leaders del socialismo Americano. Si approfondisce il suo contributo al pensiero marxista e radicale negli Stati Uniti fra la fine del 19° secolo e l’inizio del 20° secolo. In particolare questo saggio analizza lo sviluppo della teoria del sindacato di De Leon

Jesùs Astigarraga; Juan Zabalza

2010-01-01

140

76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2010-0174] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as prescribed...FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

2011-06-14

141

Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the milk and that the physiological transfer of FRA occurs from rumen to milk within 6.5 h or the first milking after dosage. Ferulic acid may affect the functionality of milk due to its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Future research will be required to elucidate whether FRA in milk is bioavailable and bioactive, and to evaluate the complete sensory and microbiological effects of increased FRA and FRA degradation products in milk. PMID:22921626

Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

2012-08-23

142

Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of chickpea protein hydrolysate (CPH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea protein hydrolysate (CPH) was fractionated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25. The antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of four CPH fractions (Fra.I, Fra.II, Fra.III, and Fra.IV) were measured using reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation, and 1,1-diphenyl-2- pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH)\\/superoxide\\/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay. The antioxidant activity of Fra.IV (81.13%) was closer to that of ?-tocopherol (83.66%) but lower than that

Yanhong Li; Bo Jiang; Tao Zhang; Wanmeng Mu; Jian Liu

2008-01-01

143

Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.  

PubMed

Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

Olsen, Anya

2012-01-01

144

Abnormalities of Fragile Histidine Triad Genomic and Complementary DNAs in Cervical Cancer: Association With Human Papillomavirus Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chromosome 3p14.2 contains FRA3B, the most active chromosome breakage site in the human genome. The fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, a putative tumor sup- pressor gene, overlaps FRA3B. Human papillomavirus (HPV), a known cofactor in cervical carcinogenesis, can in- tegrate into FRA3B. We examined abnormalities in FHIT and its RNA transcripts in cervical cancer cell lines and tumors. We

Carolyn Y. Muller; John D. O'Boyle; Kwun M. Fong; Ignacio I. Wistuba; Eric Biesterveld; Mohsen Ahmadian; David S. Miller; Adi F. Gazdar; John D. Minna

145

Optimum design and experiment research of S-band hybrid dispersion compensation fiber Raman amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid FRA consists of distributed FRA and discrete FRA. Optimum design of S-band hybrid dispersion compensation fiber Raman amplifier has been researched by OPTIAMP DESIGN 3.3 software (made in Canada Optiwave Corporation) and gain spectrum and gain vs. power of S-band hybrid dispersion compensation fiber Raman amplifier has been researched. The backscattering spectrum of optical fiber has been measured by

Zaixuan Zhang; Shangzhong Jin; Tao Liu; Honglin Liu; Jianfeng Wang

2002-01-01

146

Population cytogenetics of rare fragile sites in Japan.  

PubMed

A population cytogenetic study of three groups of rare fragile sites defined in Human Gene Mapping 8 (HGM8, Berger et al. 1985) has been conducted using peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy Japanese subjects. We have examined 1,022 blood donors for folate-sensitive and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-requiring, and 845 for distamycin A-inducible fragile sites. Out of 17 rare autosomal fragile sites defined in HGM8, the following six were identified in Japan; folate-sensitive fra(2)(q11), fra(11)(q13) and fra(11)(q23), distamycin A-inducible fra(16)(q22) and fra(17)(p12), and BrdU-requiring fra(10)(q25). The incidences of distamycin A-inducible fra(16)(q22) (1.42%) and fra(17)(p12) (3.08%) were considerably higher than those of the other sites in Japan. Furthermore, a folate-sensitive fra(17)(p12) and a distamycin A-inducible fra(8)(q24.1) have been newly found in the present study. Their incidences were 0.10% (1/1,022) and 0.71% (6/845), respectively. Since the expression of this fra(17)(p12) was induced by fluorodeoxyuridine, suppressed by thymidine, but not induced by distamycin A, it can be classified as a folate-sensitive site. The expression of the new distamycin A-inducible fra(8)(q24.1) was also enhanced by treatment with Hoechst 33258, berenil and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). This fragile site fulfils all four classical criteria suggested by Sutherland (1979) and also new criteria for a rare fragile site defined in HGM8 (Berger et al. 1985). PMID:3338799

Takahashi, E; Hori, T; Murata, M

1988-02-01

147

Autistic Behaviors Among Girls with Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of autistic behaviors were examined for 30 school-age girls with fragile X (fraX) and 31 age- and IQ-matched controls through a structured interview administered to each girl's parent(s). IQ scores were obtained for each participant; anxiety, neuroanatomical, and molecular-genetic data were derived for girls with fraX. Girls with fraX had significantly more autistic behaviors than controls. These behaviors were

Michèle M. M. Mazzocco; Wendy R. Kates; Thomas L. Baumgardner; Lisa S. Freund; Allan L. Reiss

1997-01-01

148

75 FR 26843 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Railroad Safety Program Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notification of Petition for Approval; Railroad Safety Program Plan Although not required, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is providing notice that it...

2010-05-12

149

75 FR 65707 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice Regarding...for Financial Assistance Under the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing...RRIF) Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA),...

2010-10-26

150

76 FR 18623 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Railroad Safety Program Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notification of Petition for Approval; Railroad Safety Program Plan Although not required, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is providing notice that it...

2011-04-04

151

75 FR 20038 - Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2010-005-N-5] Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration, Department of Transportation....

2010-04-16

152

Assignment of human KH-box-containing genes by in situ hybridization: HNRNPK maps to 9q21.32-q21.33, PCBP1 to 2p12-p13, and PCBP2 to 12q13.12-q13.13, distal to FRA12A  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the localization of various human KH-box-containing genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Accordingly, HNRNPK was mapped to human chromosome 9q21.32-q21.33, PCBP1 was mapped to human chromosome 2p12-p13, and PCBP2 was mapped to human chromosome 12q13.12-q13.13. These proteins affect RNA-binding capability. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Tommerup, N. [John F. Kennedy Inst., Glostrup (Denmark); Leffers, H. [Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

1996-03-01

153

Aterosclerosi e artrite reumatoide: analisi dei rapporti fra ispessimento intima-media della carotide comune e attività di malattia e disabilità* Atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis: relationships between intima-media thickness of the common carotid arteries and disease activity and disabilty  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objectives. To investigate the intima-media thickness of the common carotid arteries (IMT-CCA) in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), and its relationships with classical atherosclerosis risk factors and disease features i.e. duration, activity and disability. Methods. 48 RA patients (35 F, 13 M; age ed 26-69 years median 55; disease duration 1-18 years, median 8), and 22 controls (16 F,

G. Cuomo; P. Di Micco; A. Niglio; G. La Montagna; G. Valentini

154

Udvikling af smaa ammoniakkoeleanlaeg. Aendring af skaelismaskiner ved overgang fra CFC- og HCFC-koelemidler til ammoniak. (Development of small cooling systems based on the use of ammonia. Retrofitting of scale-ice machines in relation to conversion from the use of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons as refrigerants to the use of ammonia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype scale-ice machine was developed and tested, using ammonia as a refrigerant. If all freezing machines produced at the Danish firm of 'BUUS Koeleteknik A/S' were converted to the use of ammonia as refrigerant, the reduction of chlorofluorocarbon...

G. Minds

1995-01-01

155

49 CFR 212.111 - Monitoring and other inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...is the policy of the FRA to monitor State investigative and surveillance practices at the program level. (b) It is the policy...FRA may conduct such monitoring of State investigative and surveillance practices and such other inspection and investigation as...

2012-10-01

156

49 CFR 212.111 - Monitoring and other inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...is the policy of the FRA to monitor State investigative and surveillance practices at the program level. (b) It is the policy...FRA may conduct such monitoring of State investigative and surveillance practices and such other inspection and investigation as...

2011-10-01

157

49 CFR 209.105 - Notice of probable violation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FRA may change the civil penalty amount proposed to be assessed up to and including the maximum penalty amount of $55,000 for each...if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe...property, FRA may change the penalty amount proposed to be...

2011-10-01

158

49 CFR 209.105 - Notice of probable violation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FRA may change the civil penalty amount proposed to be assessed up to and including the maximum penalty amount of $55,000 for each...if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe...property, FRA may change the penalty amount proposed to be...

2012-10-01

159

Spinal motor actions of the ?-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

For further evaluation of opioidergic spinal motor functions the action of the ?-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO was tested on transmission in different non-nociceptive and nociceptive spinal reflex pathways from flexor reflex afferents (FRA), and in non-FRA reflex pathways in spinal cats. The action of DAMGO was complex, not following a simple pattern with selective depression of nociceptive pathways compared to

Heinz Steffens; Eike D. Schomburg

2011-01-01

160

On the History and Origin of LKFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fra Mauro is the name of a geologic formation surrounding the Imbrium Basin of the Moon as well as the name of the region of the Apollo 14 lunar landing site. The formation was named for a 16th century Italian geographer and cartographer. In its original invocation in 1971 by the Apollo Soil Survey (ASS), Fra Mauro basalt was not

Randy L. Korotev

1998-01-01

161

78 FR 33754 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 [Docket...FRA-2008-0059, Notice No. 7] RIN 2130-AC37 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track...for Roadway Workers AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

2013-06-05

162

77 FR 53164 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 [Docket...FRA-2008-0059, Notice No. 6] RIN 2130-AC37 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track...for Roadway Workers AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

2012-08-31

163

77 FR 13978 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 [Docket...FRA-2008-0059, Notice No. 5] RIN 2130-AB96 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track...for Roadway Workers AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

2012-03-08

164

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...listed below should be used unless otherwise provided. (i) IEEE 1483-2000, Standard for the Verification of Vital Functions...replication by FRA and for public examination in any public proceeding before the FRA to which they are relevant. [70 FR...

2009-10-01

165

78 FR 59086 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and its implementing regulations, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) hereby announces that it is seeking an extension of the following currently approved information collection activities. These information collection activities received a six-month emergency approval from OMB on August 29, 2013. FRA seeks this extension while it is......

2013-09-25

166

Call Level Performance Analysis for Multiservices Wireless Cellular Networks With Adaptive Resource Allocation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel mathematical approach to evaluate the performance of adaptive or flexible resource allocation (FRA) strategies with uniform quality of service (QoS) provisioning in multiservices wireless cellular networks, in terms of the call blocking probabilities and transmission delay, is proposed. FRA strategies improve channel utilization by dynamically adjusting user transmission rates. Based on the available cell capacity,

Lauro Ortigoza-Guerrero; F. A. Cruz-Perez; H. Heredia-Ureta

2005-01-01

167

49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION...In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54...Equipment Accident/Incident Report,â under...append to the Form FRA F 6180.54...Equipment Accident/Incident Report,â any...

2011-10-01

168

49 CFR 225.27 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...12 (Part I of Form FRA F 6180.78...Equipment Accident/Incident Attributed to...Railroad Accident Reportâ), that have...Railroad Accident Reports described in...Part II of Form FRA F 6180.78...Equipment Accident/Incident Attributed to...Railroad Accident Reportâ), that...

2012-10-01

169

49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION...In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54...Equipment Accident/Incident Report,â under...append to the Form FRA F 6180.54...Equipment Accident/Incident Report,â any...

2012-10-01

170

Improving freight rail safety with on-board monitoring and control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is sponsoring a revenue service demonstration of Advanced Train Systems to demonstrate new technologies for improving safety and efficiency in freight train operations. The project, which commenced in 1999, is part of the Rolling Stock Program Element in FRA's Five-Year Strategic Plan for Railroad Research, Development and Demonstrations.

M. C. Edwards; W. M. Zavis; A. Prabhakaran; D. C. Brabb; A. S. Jackson

2005-01-01

171

78 FR 28284 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...April 11, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...Number FRA-2013-0040. Specifically, CP requests relief from 49 CFR 232.205...operating in distributive power (DP) mode. CP requests that FRA allow 90 cubic feet...

2013-05-14

172

75 FR 65398 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2010-0024] The Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) hereby petitions FRA for a temporary waiver...measurement system. Over the course of 6 months, CP intends to test the new system on their...a frequency that is not possible today. CP asserts that the benefits that are...

2010-10-22

173

On the History and Origin of LKFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fra Mauro is the name of a geologic formation surrounding the Imbrium Basin of the Moon as well as the name of the region of the Apollo 14 lunar landing site. The formation was named for a 16th century Italian geographer and cartographer. In its original invocation in 1971 by the Apollo Soil Survey (ASS), Fra Mauro basalt was not a crystalline basalt, but the designation of a "compositional group" of impact glasses found in the Apollo 14 soil that were basaltic in composition. The ASS noted the similarity between the Fra Mauro basalt glass composition and sample 14310, an unbrecciated, crystalline Apollo 14 rock that would now be designated an impact melt rock. In 1972 the term Fra Mauro basalt was first applied to a rock, sample 14310, although in related papers, Fra Mauro basaltic glass was equated with KREEP. In 1973 the ASS noted that a wide range of K concentrations occurred among glasses of Fra Mauro basaltic composition in the Apollo 15 regolith. The terms high-K, moderate-K and low-K Fra Mauro first occurred in that context, but always as an adjective. Lock Fra Mauro glasses were those with 0.12 +/- 0.07% K2O, compared with 0.47 +/- 0.17% and 1.1 +/- 0.4% for moderate and high-K Fra Mauro glasses and 0.6% for Apollo 15 KREEP basalt. An important evolutionary step in the concept of low Fra Mauro basalt occurred in 1973 when the composition was first used as a component in a mass-balance (mixing) model for Apollo 16 soils [8,9] and later average highlands crust, despite that the term had not yet been applied to an actual rock sample. The first use of the acronym LKFM occurred in a 1973 paper describing glass compositions in Apollo 16 soil.

Korotev, Randy L.

1998-01-01

174

Characterization of the Human Folate Receptor Alpha Via Novel Antibody-Based Probes  

PubMed Central

Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a cell surface protein whose aberrant expression in malignant cells has resulted in its pursuit as a therapeutic target and marker for diagnosis of cancer. The development of immune-based reagents that can reproducibly detect FRA from patient tissue processed by varying methods has been difficult due to the complex post-translational structure of the protein whereby most reagents developed to date are highly structure-sensitive and have resulted in equivocal expression results across independent studies. The aim of the present study was to generate novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using modified full length FRA protein as immunogen in order to develop a panel of mAbs to various, non-overlapping epitopes that may serve as diagnostic reagents able to robustly detect FRA-positive disease. Here we report the development of a panel of FRA-specific mAbs that are able to specifically detect FRA using an array of diagnostic platforms and methods. In addition, the methods used to develop these mAbs and their diverse binding properties provide additional information on the three dimensional structure of FRA in its native cell surface configuration.

O'Shannessy, Daniel J.; Somers, Elizabeth B.; Albone, Earl; Cheng, Xin; Park, Young Chul; Tomkowicz, Brian E.; Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Kohl, Thomas O.; Forsyth, Tracy M.; Smale, Robert; Fu, Yao-Shi; Nicolaides, Nicholas C.

2011-01-01

175

Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Induces Fos-Related Antigen-Immunoreactivity Via Activation of Dopaminergic D1 Receptor  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that repeated exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) increases locomotor activity via stimulation of dopaminergic D1 receptor (J. Pharmacol. Sci., 2007;105:367-371). Since it has been demonstrated that activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors, especially 35-kDa fos-related antigen (FRA), play a key role in the neuronal and behavioral adaptation in response to various stimuli, we examined whether repeated ELF-MF exposure induces FRA-immunoreactivity (FRA-IR) in the striatum and nucleus accumbens (striatal complex) of the mice. Repeated exposure to ELF-MF (0.3 or 2.4 mT, 1 h/day, for consecutive fourteen days) significantly induced hyperlocomotor activity and FRA-IR in the striatal complex in a field intensity-dependent manner. ELF-MF-induced FRA-IR lasted for at least 1 year, while locomotor activity returned near control level 3 months after the final exposure to ELF-MF. Pretreatment with SCH23390, a dopaminergic D1 receptor antagonist, but not with sulpiride, a dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated hyperlocomotor activity and FRA-IR induced by ELF-MF. Our results suggest that repeated exposure to ELF-MF leads to prolonged locomotor stimulation and long-term expression of FRA in the striatal complex of the mice via stimulation of dopaminergic D1 receptor.

Shin, Eun-Joo; Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Nguyen, Thuy-Ty Lan; Pham, Diem-Thu

2011-01-01

176

Fructus Aurantii induced antidepressant effect via its monoaminergic mechanism and prokinetic action in rat.  

PubMed

Depression could hardly get a satisfactory effect from the currently available antidepressants. To get a more effective treatment, antidepressant effect and monoaminergic mechanism of Fructus Aurantii (FRA) in the rat forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT), and its prokinetics were examined. FST and OFT were respectively used to evaluate the antidepressant effect and locomotor activity of FRA. We observed the effects of monoamine receptor antagonists on FRA-induced antidepressant effect in rat. The effects of FRA on intestinal transit, gastric emptying and in vitro jejunum contractile activity were assessed. FRA decreased significantly the immobility time (32.6±8.5, 30.3±5.2 vs 56.4±9.4, all p<0.01) in FST, dose-dependent increased the locomotor activity (102±17.5, 120±18.5 vs 89±9.8, p<0.05 or 0.01), significantly accelerated gastric emptying (GE: 48.1±6.3, 39.5±5.7 vs 19.5±3.8, p<0.01) and intestinal transit (IT: 67.3±9.1, 64.2±6.3 vs 49.1±8.2, p<0.01) of the semi-liquid meal, compared with vehicle. And FRA (1 ?M, 10 ?M) significantly increased the mean amplitude (0.24±0.021 and 0.281±0.015) of contraction in jejunum of rat compared with vehicle (0.149±0.011) in vitro. FRA (10 ?M) could induce a largest amplitude (0.281±0.015) of contraction in jejunum. The anti-immobility effect of FRA in FST was prevented by pre-treatment of rat with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester, WAY100635, ketanserin, haloperidol, SCH233390, sulpiride, yohimbine, but not prazosin. FRA could simultaneously induce prokinetics and antidepressant effect, deserves further to investigate. PMID:22770641

Zhang, Ying-Jin; Huang, Wei; Huang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Cheng; Zhong, Bing-Wu; Sheng, Chen-Xia; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Si-Fang; Su, Nan-Xiang; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Ren, Ping

2012-07-05

177

49 CFR 236.903 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...site-specific application programs, run timers, read inputs, drive outputs, perform self-diagnostics, access and check memory, and monitor the execution of the application software to detect unsolicited changes in outputs. FRA means the...

2012-10-01

178

49 CFR 236.903 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...site-specific application programs, run timers, read inputs, drive outputs, perform self-diagnostics, access and check memory, and monitor the execution of the application software to detect unsolicited changes in outputs. FRA means the...

2011-10-01

179

49 CFR 209.203 - Notice of investigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Notice of investigation. 209.203 Section 209...Orders § 209.203 Notice of investigation. (a) FRA begins a compliance...proceeding by serving a notice of investigation on the respondent....

2011-10-01

180

Expression of the autosomal folate-sensitive fragile sites in ten kindreds with Martin-Bell syndrome.  

PubMed

The authors analyse the expression of all the folate-sensitive fra sites in a sample of 24 male patients with Martin-Bell syndrome (MBS) and their 12 mothers distributed in 10 kindreds. The cytogenetic results are compared with that of a control group, constituted by 8 unrelated normal subjects. Except for the fra Xq27, there was no autosomal folate-sensitive fra site significantly more expressed in patients with MBS than in the control group. On the basis of the present cytogenetic sample of about 6 500 R-banded mitoses, a list of all the in vitro folate-sensitive fra sites and their relative frequencies is given. PMID:3487280

Ventruto, V; Stabile, M; Gentile, G; de Tollis, G; Colantuoni, M; Sirone, P; Perone, L; Lonardo, F; Della Monica, M; Fiore, M

1986-01-01

181

Progress in Rail Integrity Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the work conducted over the past two decades on rail integrity research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and carried out by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The research has involved both experi...

D. Y. Jeong

2001-01-01

182

75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2010-0020] National Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In...INFORMATION: Background: The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of...

2010-04-05

183

78 FR 57450 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Altamont Corridor Rail Project From Stockton to San Jose, California...statement (EIS) for the Altamont Corridor Rail Project from Stockton to San Jose, California...project sponsor, the California High Speed Rail Authority (Authority). FRA...

2013-09-18

184

77 FR 38388 - Notice of Decision to Grant Buy America Waiver to Washington Department of Transportation to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation to Purchase Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Rail Ties AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...waiver request from the FRA Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act (PRIIA...concrete ties in the Pacific Northwest Rail Corridor high-speed intercity...

2012-06-27

185

78 FR 28940 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Atlanta to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor AGENCY: Federal Rail Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...Statement (Study) to evaluate potential passenger rail improvements between Atlanta, GA and...

2013-05-16

186

77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2012-0066] State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan Guidance...submission, and acceptance of State rail plans. State rail plans are...

2012-08-14

187

77 FR 73456 - Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination (DTC) contract or the Protective Security Service...OTO) personal property movements, regardless of mode...INFORMATION CONTACT: Isis Green, (618) 220-5078...Policy. Background: The following FRA policy...and personal property movements within the United...

2012-12-10

188

75 FR 49551 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Walden's Ridge Railroad Company; Heritage Railroad; Southern Appalachia...Museum [Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0118] The Walden's Ridge Railroad Company (WRRC), Heritage Railroad...

2010-08-13

189

Discrete Simulation of Fractional Order Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fractional calculus has been shown useful for describing many real world systems, and studies are currently underway to generalize control theory to incorporate fractional states. This investigation derives a method for simulating the time response of fra...

J. A. Blank

1991-01-01

190

49 CFR 225.6 - Consolidated reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the following: (1) A list of the subsidiary railroads controlled by the parent corporation... (2) An explanation as to how the subsidiary railroads operate as a single, seamless...agreement with FRA specifying which subsidiaries are included in its railroad...

2011-10-01

191

49 CFR 225.6 - Consolidated reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the following: (1) A list of the subsidiary railroads controlled by the parent corporation... (2) An explanation as to how the subsidiary railroads operate as a single, seamless...agreement with FRA specifying which subsidiaries are included in its railroad...

2012-10-01

192

National Rail Safety Action Plan Progress Report, 2005-2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 16, 2005, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) launched an aggressive and proactive National Rail Safety Action Plan to address important safety issues by: Targeting the most frequent, highest ri...

2007-01-01

193

49 CFR 229.201 - Purpose and scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.201...This subpart prescribes minimum crashworthiness standards for locomotives. It also...obtaining FRA approval of: new locomotive crashworthiness design standards; changes to...

2011-10-01

194

49 CFR 229.201 - Purpose and scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.201...This subpart prescribes minimum crashworthiness standards for locomotives. It also...obtaining FRA approval of: new locomotive crashworthiness design standards; changes to...

2010-10-01

195

49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.205...occupied service must meet the minimum crashworthiness performance requirements set forth... (1) Meeting an FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...

2009-10-01

196

49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.205...occupied service must meet the minimum crashworthiness performance requirements set forth... (1) Meeting an FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...

2010-10-01

197

49 CFR 229.201 - Purpose and scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.201...This subpart prescribes minimum crashworthiness standards for locomotives. It also...obtaining FRA approval of: new locomotive crashworthiness design standards; changes to...

2009-10-01

198

49 CFR 229.201 - Purpose and scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.201...This subpart prescribes minimum crashworthiness standards for locomotives. It also...obtaining FRA approval of: new locomotive crashworthiness design standards; changes to...

2012-10-01

199

49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.205...occupied service must meet the minimum crashworthiness performance requirements set forth... (1) Meeting an FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...

2012-10-01

200

49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and fund any costs associated with environmental/historic preservation...can manage an environmental impact statement...FRA for these costs to the extent...may apply this cost to the 10...beginning any environmental or...

2012-10-01

201

49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and fund any costs associated with environmental/historic preservation...can manage an environmental impact statement...FRA for these costs to the extent...may apply this cost to the 10...beginning any environmental or...

2011-10-01

202

49 CFR 212.225 - Apprentice operating practices inspector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Associate Administrator leading to qualification as an inspector. The apprentice inspector may not participate in investigative and surveillance activities, except as an assistant to a qualified State or FRA inspector while accompanying that qualified...

2011-10-01

203

49 CFR 212.105 - Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...may participate in investigative and surveillance activities is by agreement with FRA...agreement may delegate investigative and surveillance authority with respect to all or any...authority with respect to investigative and surveillance activities; (2) The...

2012-10-01

204

49 CFR 212.229 - Apprentice hazardous materials inspector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Safety leading to qualification as a hazardous materials inspector. The apprentice may not participate in investigative and surveillance activities, except as an assistant to a qualified State or FRA inspector while accompanying that qualified...

2011-10-01

205

49 CFR 212.105 - Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...may participate in investigative and surveillance activities is by agreement with FRA...agreement may delegate investigative and surveillance authority with respect to all or any...authority with respect to investigative and surveillance activities; (2) The...

2011-10-01

206

Nonlinear Analyses for Embedded Cracks Under Pressurized Thermal Shock: Comparisons with FAVOR and Weibull Stress Approaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thick-walled reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) can potentially experience rapid temperature and pressure changes under pressurized thermal shock (PTS) conditions. This work describes progress towards utilization of a Weibull stress approach for cleavage fra...

B. Wasiluk R. H. Dodds X. Qian

2008-01-01

207

49 CFR 224.15 - Special approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of an alternative standard shall be submitted to the Docket Clerk, Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Railroad Administration, RCC-10, Mail Stop 10, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. (c) Notice. FRA will publish a notice...

2009-10-01

208

49 CFR 230.5 - Preemptive effect.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...preempts all State laws or regulations concerning locomotive safety. Napier v. Atlantic Coast Line R.R., 272 U.S. 605 (1926). However, FRA believes Congress did not intend to preempt State laws or regulations concerning rail operations over...

2012-10-01

209

49 CFR 230.5 - Preemptive effect.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...preempts all State laws or regulations concerning locomotive safety. Napier v. Atlantic Coast Line R.R., 272 U.S. 605 (1926). However, FRA believes Congress did not intend to preempt State laws or regulations concerning rail operations over...

2011-10-01

210

Stub Sill Tank Car Research Project Results of a 15,000-Mile Over-the-Road Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) contracted with the Association of American Railroads (AAR), Transportation Test Center (TTC)-now known as the Transportation Technology Center-Pueblo, Colorado, to study in-revenue service loads on stub sill cons...

L. T. Cogburn

1995-01-01

211

Safety of High Speed Ground Transportation Systems: Safety of Advanced Braking Concepts for High Speed Ground Transportation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to develop qualitative and quantitative information on the various braking strategies used in high-speed ground transportation systems in support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The approach employed in this st...

D. P. Wagner D. R. Ahlbeck J. F. Luedeke S. D. Cook M. A. Dielman

1995-01-01

212

76 FR 74585 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...publication. FRA is not authorized to impose a penalty on persons for violating information...214 Occupational safety and health, Penalties, Railroad safety. The Final Rule...Appendix A to Part 214--Schedule of Civil Penalties...

2011-11-30

213

49 CFR 225.25 - Recordkeeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...applicable: (i) Fatalityâenter date of death; (ii) Restricted work; number of...circumstances, FRA will not assess a monetary penalty against the railroad for its failure... (10) If fatalityâenter date of death; (11) Annual average number of...

2011-10-01

214

49 CFR 225.25 - Recordkeeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicable: (i) Fatalityâenter date of death; (ii) Restricted work; number of...circumstances, FRA will not assess a monetary penalty against the railroad for its failure... (10) If fatalityâenter date of death; (11) Annual average number of...

2012-10-01

215

78 FR 5161 - National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INFORMATION: FRA has received written comments from interested parties, including Applied Research Associates, Inc. and Orion's Angels, related to the use of information submitted by railroads to the Crossing Inventory about the highway-rail...

2013-01-24

216

78 FR 21185 - Petition for Amending Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...seek to shield the reporting employee and the railroad from punitive sanctions that would otherwise arise as provided in selected...call event reporting to allow coverage for events involving damage or derailment below the FRA monetary reporting...

2013-04-09

217

Plain Speaking: A Theory and Grammar of Spontaneous Discourse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an abstract process model of 'well formed' discourse. The model is based on a hierarchical segmentation of utterances into distinct, but related and linked, context spaces. Context spaces are characterized by slots similar to case fra...

R. Reichman

1981-01-01

218

Application of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for Rail Flaw Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The average number of Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) reportable broken rail-related derailments between 1995 and 2005 was approximately 28 annually. The annual property damage resulting from the accidents was approximately $35 million. Programs c...

G. Garcia J. Zhang

2006-01-01

219

49 CFR 238.19 - Reporting and tracking of repairs to defective passenger equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of equipment as described in the railroad's inspection, testing, and maintenance plan required by § 238.107. FRA strongly...longer periods of time because they form the basis for future reliability-based decisions concerning test and maintenance...

2011-10-01

220

49 CFR 238.19 - Reporting and tracking of repairs to defective passenger equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of equipment as described in the railroad's inspection, testing, and maintenance plan required by § 238.107. FRA strongly...longer periods of time because they form the basis for future reliability-based decisions concerning test and maintenance...

2012-10-01

221

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FRA proposed this standard of liability when, in 1987, it originally...fines from individuals on a strict liability basis, as the safety statutes...standard, the principles of strict liability and presumed knowledge of...

2010-10-01

222

Adaptive Compliant Wing and Rotor System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Variation in the contours of first and second compliant surfaces is produced by a compliant frame having a first resiliently variable frame element having a corresponding first outer surface and a first inner surface, and a second resiliently variable fra...

J. A. Hetrick S. Kota

2004-01-01

223

75 FR 34200 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number: FRA-2010-0083...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

2010-06-16

224

77 FR 48204 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2012-0064...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...dated July 16, 2012, the Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has petitioned the...

2012-08-13

225

75 FR 70771 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2010-0157...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

2010-11-18

226

77 FR 22840 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2012-0019...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

2012-04-17

227

76 FR 27170 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Application...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System [Docket Number FRA-2010-0163...CSX) and the Allegheny Valley Railroad (AVRR) have jointly petitioned...

2011-05-10

228

76 FR 4276 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 174 [Docket...Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department...

2011-01-25

229

77 FR 9296 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2012-0012...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...January 18, 2012, the Union Pacific Railroad (UP) has petitioned the Federal...

2012-02-16

230

78 FR 12824 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2002-14116...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System or Relief From Requirements...January 21, 2013, the Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company (GTW), which operates...

2013-02-25

231

76 FR 18623 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2011-0023...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

2011-04-04

232

75 FR 71488 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2010-0160...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

2010-11-23

233

78 FR 25344 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0037...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...the Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad, LLC (WNYP) has petitioned the...

2013-04-30

234

76 FR 10086 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2011-0008...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

2011-02-23

235

75 FR 76069 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Docket Number FRA-2010-0154...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

2010-12-07

236

75 FR 34200 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2010-0084...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code...S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

2010-06-16

237

76 FR 34801 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2011-0041...of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part...dated April 22, 2011, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak)...

2011-06-14

238

77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2003-15754...Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal...

2012-08-01

239

75 FR 179 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Compliance and Scheduling of Public Hearing Association of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2009-0111...Public Hearing Association of American Railroads In accordance with part 211 of Title...notice that the Association of American Railroads (AAR) has petitioned the Federal...

2010-01-04

240

49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...signal systems, passenger station and repair tracks, station buildings, platforms, and adjunct facilities such as water, fuel, steam, electric, and air lines. (h) FRA means the Federal Railroad Administration. (i) Railroad...

2012-10-01

241

49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...signal systems, passenger station and repair tracks, station buildings, platforms, and adjunct facilities such as water, fuel, steam, electric, and air lines. (h) FRA means the Federal Railroad Administration. (i) Railroad...

2011-10-01

242

49 CFR 244.19 - Disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FRA approves a Safety Integration Plan, and any amendments...applicant may amend its Safety Integration Plan, from time to time, provided...amend its approved Safety Integration Plan from time to time should...

2010-10-01

243

49 CFR 244.19 - Disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FRA approves a Safety Integration Plan, and any amendments...applicant may amend its Safety Integration Plan, from time to time, provided...amend its approved Safety Integration Plan from time to time should...

2009-10-01

244

49 CFR 236.913 - Filing and approval of PSPs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...role do product users play in the process of safety review? (1) FRA will publish in the Federal Register periodically a topic list including docket numbers for informational filings and a petition summary including docket numbers for petitions for...

2011-10-01

245

75 FR 3782 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2010. The designated ERD for calendar year 2010 is docket number...

2010-01-22

246

77 FR 5293 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2012. The designated ERD for calendar year 2012 is docket number...

2012-02-02

247

76 FR 1209 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2011. The designated ERD for calendar year 2011 is docket number...

2011-01-07

248

78 FR 3964 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2013. The designated ERD for calendar year 2013 is docket number...

2013-01-17

249

49 CFR 209.321 - Hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...raised therein. (c) FRA has the burden of proof, by a preponderance of the evidence...be required for a full disclosure of the material facts. Respondent has the burden of proof, by a preponderance of the...

2011-10-01

250

A Bibliography on Rail Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rail technology review provides assistance to a number of rail technology programs initiated by the Transportation Systems Center (TSC) for the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The results of a search and review in four specific areas in the fie...

W. E. Chapin R. D. King H. C. Pestel R. H. Breslin

1977-01-01

251

75 FR 38170 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nature of the relief being requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Vreeland Rail, LLC [Docket Number FRA-2009-0110] The Vreeland Rail, LLC of Superior, Wisconsin, has petitioned for a permanent waiver of...

2010-07-01

252

Integrated Track Infrastructure Assessment Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Research and Development sponsored a project to further the development of a mobile track surveying system that utilizes Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology for comparing track alignments over time...

R. Begley

2011-01-01

253

67 FR 19970 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...destination not being the principal purpose.'' FRA...destination as its principal purpose. However...Section 238.15 Movement of Passenger Equipment...destination not being the principal purpose. Train movements of new passenger...

2002-04-23

254

65 FR 41284 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...testing, maintenance, and movement of defective equipment provisions...testing, and maintenance; and movement of defective equipment. The...requirements regarding the movement of defective equipment, the...letter, FRA noted that its principal concern in granting any...

2000-07-03

255

75 FR 49552 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Bluewater Michigan Chapter, Inc. [Docket Number FRA-2009-0081] The Bluewater Michigan Chapter, Inc. National Railway Historical Society (Bluewater), requests a waiver from compliance...

2010-08-13

256

78 FR 33146 - Importance of Clear Safety Procedures for Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...However, under certain circumstances, particularly where human error is involved, the fail-safe features can be deactivated...and false proceed signal failures have occurred due to human error. FRA acknowledges that the railroad industry has...

2013-06-03

257

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...problem with the equipment that might impact the transit system's operations on the general system. Similarly, where human error might be a factor, FRA may want to determine whether the employee potentially at fault also has safety...

2010-10-01

258

49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party Verification and Validation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exception that consideration of the methodology used in the risk assessment (§ 236.913(g)(2)(vii)) shall apply only to the extent that a comparative risk assessment was required. To the extent practicable, FRA...

2012-10-01

259

49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party Verification and Validation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exception that consideration of the methodology used in the risk assessment (§ 236.913(g)(2)(vii)) shall apply only to the extent that a comparative risk assessment was required. To the extent practicable, FRA...

2011-10-01

260

49 CFR 236.1019 - Main line track exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...iii) Passenger service is operated under a risk mitigation plan submitted by all railroads...joint operation and approved by FRA. The risk mitigation plan must be supported by a risk assessment establishing that the proposed...

2011-10-01

261

49 CFR 236.1019 - Main line track exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...iii) Passenger service is operated under a risk mitigation plan submitted by all railroads...joint operation and approved by FRA. The risk mitigation plan must be supported by a risk assessment establishing that the proposed...

2012-10-01

262

75 FR 60860 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...arguments in favor of relief. Port Manatee Railroad [Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0091] The Port Manatee Railroad (PMRR) seeks a waiver of...terminal- switching railway operated on Manatee County Authority property at Port...

2010-10-01

263

76 FR 81012 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Maryland Transit Administration (MTA) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0094. MTA seeks a permanent waiver of compliance from...locomotives are intended for operation by MTA's Maryland Area Regional Commuter...

2011-12-27

264

Mhost Finite Element Program: 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components. Volume 1: Theoretical Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formulations and algorithms implemented in the MHOST finite element program are discussed. The code uses a novel concept of the mixed iterative solution technique for the efficient 3-D computations of turbine engine hot section components. The general fra...

S. Nakazawa

1991-01-01

265

78 FR 21185 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

2013-04-09

266

78 FR 12823 - Notice of Joint Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Olson, Chief Engineer Communication and Signals, 500 Water Street, Speed Code...

2013-02-25

267

77 FR 74736 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

2012-12-17

268

78 FR 14874 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...proposed temporary discontinuance of the signal system at the Randolph Street...

2013-03-07

269

77 FR 65935 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

2012-10-31

270

78 FR 46679 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

2013-08-01

271

78 FR 47822 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...be discontinued and all associated signal equipment consisting of Power Switch...

2013-08-06

272

78 FR 34151 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal...seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number...

2013-06-06

273

49 CFR 225.35 - Access to records and reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Access to records and reports. 225.35 Section... RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND...copy of any record and report required under this part...after the request. The Form FRA F 6180.107 or...

2012-10-01

274

49 CFR 225.13 - Late reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...its regular monthly accident/incident report, a report covering this accident/incident together with a letter of explanation...Statement Supplementing Railroad Accident Report (part II of Form FRA F 6180.78), in response to a...

2012-10-01

275

49 CFR 225.13 - Late reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...its regular monthly accident/incident report, a report covering this accident/incident together with a letter of explanation...Statement Supplementing Railroad Accident Report (part II of Form FRA F 6180.78), in response to a...

2011-10-01

276

49 CFR 225.23 - Joint operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...maintenance of, the track on which the accident/incident occurred, and any other railroad directly involved in the accident/incident, each must report the accident/incident on Form FRA F 6180.54. [39 FR 43224,...

2011-10-01

277

49 CFR 225.23 - Joint operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maintenance of, the track on which the accident/incident occurred, and any other railroad directly involved in the accident/incident, each must report the accident/incident on Form FRA F 6180.54. [39 FR 43224,...

2012-10-01

278

75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific Northwest...1999)), the FRA and the Washington State Department of Transportation...improvements program to the Washington State portion of the Pacific...

2010-11-30

279

75 FR 60860 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...was built in 1969. Since FRA's long-standing definition of ``antiquated'' is being built prior to the end of World War II, even though this equipment is used on in tourist/excursion/educational service, relief from the Federal...

2010-10-01

280

75 FR 52060 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...equipment. FRA's long-standing definition of ``antiquated'' applies to equipment to built prior to the end of World War II. In this case, even though the above listed equipment is used on in tourist/excursion/ educational service,...

2010-08-24

281

Fire Safety of Passenger Trains Phase II: Application of Fire Hazard Analysis Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 12, 1999, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) issued regulations for passenger rail equipment safety standards that included small-scale fire tests and performance criteria to evaluate the flammability and smoke characteristics of individual ...

R. D. Peacook P. A. Reneke J. D. Averill R. W. Bukowski J. H. Klote

2001-01-01

282

Neutron Emission in Heavy Ion Reactions as Measure for the Excitation Energy and the Transfer of Linear Momentum - Experiments with a 4 pi -Scintillator Tank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present thesis the measurement parameter 'neutrons multiplicity' is introduced for experiments with heavy ions by a 4 pi scintillator tank for the first time inclusive multiplicity distributions were measured in coincidence with projectile-like fra...

G. Ingold

1985-01-01

283

Safety of High Speed Guided Ground Transportation Systems. Magnetic and Electric Field Testing of the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) Rail Systems. Volume 2. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). A franchise has been awarded to the Texas High Speed Rail Corp...

F. M. Dietrich W. E. Jacobs

1993-01-01

284

75 FR 15484 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ACTION: Notice of Funds Availability, Solicitation...000 in Federal funds. This grant program...solicitation close date. Selection announcements will...FRA, Program Manager- Advanced Technologies...PTC communications infrastructure and spectrum. Priority...other projects. Selection Criteria:...

2010-03-29

285

49 CFR 229.315 - Operations and maintenance manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.315 Operations and...inspection, and testing, and for inspection by FRA. (2...detailed information necessary for the proper maintenance, repair...management control plan. (e) A railroad shall...

2012-10-01

286

49 CFR 224.15 - Special approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...written or electronic form consistent with the standards and requirements established by the Federal Docket Management System and posted on its Web site at http://www.regulations.gov . (3) In the event FRA determines that it requires...

2012-10-01

287

49 CFR 224.15 - Special approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...written or electronic form consistent with the standards and requirements established by the Federal Docket Management System and posted on its Web site at http://www.regulations.gov . (3) In the event FRA determines that it requires...

2011-10-01

288

49 CFR 238.21 - Special approval procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...written or electronic form consistent with the standards and requirements established by the Federal Docket Management System and posted on its web site at http://www.regulations.gov. (g) Disposition of petitions. (1) FRA will...

2012-10-01

289

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Schedule of Civil Penalties 1 A Appendix A to Part 231 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS Pt. 231, App. A Appendix A to Part 231âSchedule of Civil Penalties 1 FRA safety...

2010-10-01

290

Laboratory Tests of Two 100-Ton Covered Hopper Cars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Association of American Railroads (AAR) have jointly sponsored an experimental program to study the 100-ton covered hopper car with the end objective of improving its safety performance. The total program ...

G. Kachadourian

1985-01-01

291

49 CFR 225.35 - Access to records and reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...representative, has centralized access to a copy of any record...other authorized representative access to relevant medical...circumstances outside the railroad's control preclude it from fulfilling...records, failure to provide FRA access to such records would not...

2011-10-01

292

75 FR 39616 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...relief being requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Pan Am Railways [Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0107] The Pan Am Railways (Pan Am) seeks a waiver of compliance with the Locomotive Safety Standards,...

2010-07-09

293

U.S. Rail Equipment Crashworthiness Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1999 the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) issued new regulations and the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) issued new standards for rail passenger equipment crashworthiness. These new regulations...

D. C. Tyrell

2001-01-01

294

49 CFR 229.29 - Biennial tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...all valves, valve portions, MU locomotive brake cylinders and electric-pneumatic master controllers in the air brake system...date and place of the cleaning, repairing, and testing shall be recorded on Form FRA F...

2011-10-01

295

75 FR 60165 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...projects best further those goals, FRA will give priority to investments that do the following: Reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and otherwise improve energy efficiency of rail operations; reduce air pollutant emissions from rail...

2010-09-29

296

49 CFR 213.234 - Automated inspection of track constructed with concrete crossties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall not exceed five feet; and (3) Calibration procedures and parameters assigned...and make available to FRA documented calibration procedures of the measurement system...shall not exceed five feet; and (3) Calibration procedures and parameters...

2011-10-01

297

Mapping the human alpha globin gene complex to 16p13.2----pter.  

PubMed Central

The regional localisation of the alpha globin (HBA) complex on the short arm of chromosome 16 was investigated by in situ hybridisation, Southern blot analysis, and linkage analysis using the fragile site at 16p12.3 (FRA16A) and translocation breakpoints within band 16p13.1. HBA was found to be distal to the two translocation breakpoints within band 16p13.1 and not closely linked to FRA16A. In situ hybridisation to the distal portion of the fragment on metaphase chromosomes expressing the fragile site and the observation of considerable recombination between FRA16A and HBA supports a localisation for HBA closer to the telomere than to FRA16A, at 16p13.2----pter. Images

Simmers, R N; Mulley, J C; Hyland, V J; Callen, D F; Sutherland, G R

1987-01-01

298

Fiber Raman laser and amplifier pumped by Nd3+:YVO4 solid state laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumping source is the key technology of fiber Raman amplifiers (FRA) which are important for ultra long haul and high bit rate dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. In this paper the research work of the project, \\

Deming Liu; Minming Zhang; Shuang Liu; Mingju Nie; Ying Wang

2005-01-01

299

49 CFR 236.1019 - Main line track exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (iii) Passenger service is operated under a risk mitigation plan submitted by all railroads involved in the joint operation and approved by FRA. The risk mitigation plan must be supported by a risk assessment...

2010-10-01

300

Anthology of Rail Dynamics Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is intended to provide the railroad industry and other interested parties with an anthology of recent technical information of long term value which has resulted from FRA-sponsored studies of rail system dynamics. This anthology includes brief...

S. E. Shladover

1982-01-01

301

49 CFR 242.5 - Effect and construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS General § 242.5 Effect and construction. (a) FRA does not intend, by use of the term conductor in this part, to alter the terms, conditions, or...

2012-10-01

302

77 FR 6482 - Conductor Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2009-0035, Notice No. 3; 2130-AC36] Conductor Certification AGENCY: Federal Railroad...prescribed regulations for certification of conductors as required by the Rail Safety Improvement...requiring the certification of train conductors. The Secretary delegated this...

2012-02-08

303

78 FR 25347 - Petition for Amending Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations contained at 49 CFR Part 242, Conductor Certification, in Docket Number FRA-2012-0054...sections of 49 CFR 242.403 to encourage conductor reporting of close calls, and to protect conductors and Amtrak from discipline or...

2013-04-30

304

75 FR 3959 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Improvement Act of 2008 (RSIA): Positive Train Control, Passenger Hours of Service, Railroad Bridge Safety Management, and Conductor Certification. FRA may offer a new task on Minimum Training Standards for Safety-Related Railroad Employees, as...

2010-01-25

305

49 CFR 242.109 - Determinations required for certification and recertification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements...certifying or recertifying any person as a conductor, shall, in accordance with its FRA-approved...license in order to become a certified conductor. (g) Nothing in this...

2012-10-01

306

75 FR 16552 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applicants can satisfy these minimum requirements, the term...demonstrating the fulfillment of the minimum qualifications described...funds. FRA acknowledges the complexity of the work required for PE...necessary for the project. At a minimum, the budget should...

2010-04-01

307

Expression of fos-related antigen-2 in rat hippocampus after middle cerebral arterial occlusion.  

PubMed

AP-1 transcription factors have been shown to be induced in the brain after ischemic injury. However, their roles in neuronal survival or death have yet to be defined. Here, we report the discovery of elevated nuclear levels of fos-related antigen-2 (FRA-2) in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons seven days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Expression of FRA-2 and AP-1 DNA binding activity is elevated in hippocampi ipsilateral as well as contralateral to MCAO. Using Fluoro-Jade staining as a marker of neurodegeneration, FRA-2 was not found to be expressed in degenerating neurons. Thus, FRA-2 is expressed in neurons that survive ischemic insult suggesting a role for this transcription factor in neuronal adaptation to the post-injury state. PMID:10899394

Pennypacker, K R; Eidizadeh, S; Kassed, C A; O'Callaghan, J P; Sanberg, P R; Willing, A E

2000-07-28

308

Temporal and regional expression of Fos-related proteins in response to ischemic injury.  

PubMed

The AP-1 transcription factor family has been widely studied in the response to ischemic brain injury. The data to date have demonstrated a complex involvement that depends on stimulus, subunit composition and brain region. One member in particular, the Fos-related antigen FRA-2, has demonstrated a potential for controlling neuroprotective gene expression. This study characterized the temporal and regional expression of a variety of proteins following ischemic injury induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. The results demonstrated upregulation of both c-Fos and FRA-2 in penumbral regions that preceded upregulation of the classic injury-associated proteins expressed by astrocytes and microglia and, in the case of FRA-2, appeared to correlate with neuronal survival. A further, previously undescribed, expression of FRA-2 in endothelial cells of the core ischemic region was also demonstrated. PMID:15121240

Butler, Tanya L; Pennypacker, Keith R

2004-03-01

309

Voltage- and time dependence of apical membrane conductance during current clamp in Necturus gallbladder epithelium.  

PubMed

The effects of short (1 sec) and long (1 min) transepithelial current clamps on membrane voltages and resistances of Necturus gallbladder were investigated. Transepithelial and cell membrane current-voltage relationships determined from 1-sec clamps revealed that: a) depolarization of the apical membrane voltage (Vmc) results in a marked decrease in apical membrane fractional resistance (fRa), whereas hyperpolarization of Vmc results in either no change in fRa or a small increase, and b) the voltage-dependent changes in fRa are essentially complete within 500 msec. Exposure of the tissue to 5 mM TEA+ on the mucosal side caused no significant change in baseline Vmc (-69 +/- 2 mV) and yet virtually abolished the voltage dependence of fRa. A possible interpretation of these results is that two types of K+ channels exist in the apical membrane, with different voltage dependencies and TEA+ sensitivities. Acidification or Ba2+ addition to the mucosal solution also reduced the voltage-dependent changes in fRa. The time courses of the changes in fRa and in the cable properties of the epithelium were assessed during 1-min transepithelial current clamps (+/- 200 microA/cm2). No secondary change in fRa was observed with mucosa-to-serosa currents, but a slow TEA+-sensitive decrease in fRa (half-time of seconds) was evident with serosa-to-mucosa currents. Cable analysis experiments demonstrated that the initial (less than 500 msec) voltage-dependent decrease in fRa is due to a fall in apical membrane resistance. The later decrease in fRa is due to changes in both cell membrane resistances attributable to the increase in transcellular current flow resulting from a fall in paracellular conductance. The voltage dependence of the apical membrane conductance is a more significant problem in estimating fRa than the current-induced effects on the lateral intercellular spaces. In principle, TEA+ can be used to prevent the nonlinear behavior of Ra during measurements of the voltage divider or membrane resistance ratio. PMID:2460628

Stoddard, J S; Reuss, L

1988-07-01

310

Focal retrograde amnesia and the episodic—semantic distinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a review of focal retrograde amnesia (FRA), or the phenomenon of organically based severe memory loss\\u000a restricted to retrograde, or pretraumatic, memory. Cases of FRA are classified according to the type of memory loss: episodic,\\u000a semantic, or both. A few different clusters of the disorder were identified. Lesions to either the anterior temporal lobes\\u000a or the posterior\\/visual

Mark A. Wheeler; Corey T. Mcmillan

2001-01-01

311

Task-switching deficits and repetitive behaviour in genetic neurodevelopmental disorders: Data from children with Prader–Willi syndrome chromosome 15 q11–q13 deletion and boys with Fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) and Fragile X syndrome (FraX) are associated with distinctive cognitive and behavioural profiles. We examined whether repetitive behaviours in the two syndromes were associated with deficits in specific executive functions. PWS, FraX, and typically developing (TD) children were assessed for executive functioning using the Test of Everyday Attention for Children and an adapted Simon spatial interference task.

Kate A. Woodcock; Chris Oliver; Glyn W. Humphreys

2009-01-01

312

Fronto-striatal dysfunction and potential compensatory mechanisms in male adolescents with fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response inhibition is an important facet of executive function. Fragile X syndrome (FraX), with a known genetic etiology (fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) mutation) and deficits in response inhibition, may be an ideal condition for elucidating interactions among gene-brain-behavior relationships. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown evidence of aberrant neural activity when individuals with FraX perform executive function

Fumiko Hoeft; Arvel Hernandez; Sudharshan Parthasarathy; Christa L. Watson; Scott S. Hall; Allan L. Reiss

2007-01-01

313

The Drosophila Fragile X Gene Negatively Regulates Neuronal Elaboration and Synaptic Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. The disease is caused by the silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene, which encodes the RNA binding translational regulator FMRP [1–4]. In FraX patients and fmr1 knockout mice, loss of FMRP causes denser and morphologically altered postsynaptic dendritic spines [5–7]. Previously, we established

Luyuan Pan; Yong Q. Zhang; Elvin Woodruff; Kendal Broadie

2004-01-01

314

Cerebral growth in Fragile X syndrome: Review and comparison with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroimaging studies have shown selective changes in brain size in Fragile X syn- drome (FraX), which include reductions in the posterior cerebellar vermis, age-dependent increases in hippocampal volume, and enlarged caudate nucleus and thalamus. Contrasting with these limbic and subcortical anomalies, much less is known about the neocortex in FraX. The present study attempted to examine cerebral and lobar-level volumetric

Wendy R. Kates; Bradley S. Folley; Diane C. Lanham; George T. Capone; Walter E. Kaufmann

2002-01-01

315

Design and spectral characteristics of gain-flattened tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and the spectral gain and noise figure (NF) characteristics of tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs), which are tellurite FRAs (T-FRAs) or hybrid tellurite\\/silica FRAs (hybrid FRAs), are described. Propagation equations for a multiwavelength (multi-?)-pumped T-FRA that include the pump interaction terms are presented, with which the gain and NF of the T-FRA can be calculated. Tellurite fiber (TF)

Hiroji Masuda; Atsushi Mori; Koji Shikano; Makoto Shimizu

2006-01-01

316

High-frequency response analysis via algebraic substructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY High-frequency response analysis (Hi-FRA) of large-scale dynamical systems is critical to predict the resonant behavior of modern micro-devices and systems operated over MHz or GHz frequency range. Algebraic substructuring (AS) is a powerful technique to extract a large number of natural frequencies. In this work, we extend the AS technique for FRA between two specified cutoff frequencies min and

Jin Hwan Ko; Zhaojun Bai

2008-01-01

317

Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of gene expression by Jun, Fos and Krox, and CREB\\/ATF proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews findings up to the end of 1997 about the inducible transcription factors (ITFs) c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2, Krox-20 (Egr-2) and Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1, Zif268); and the constitutive transcription factors (CTFs) CREB, CREM, ATF-2 and SRF as they pertain to gene expression in the mammalian nervous system. In the first part we consider basic facts

T. Herdegen; J. D. Leah

1998-01-01

318

Autism spectrum disorder in fragile X syndrome: Communication, social interaction, and specific behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study extends our previous work on social behavior impairment in young males with fragile X syndrome (FraX). Specifically, we evalu- ated whether the autistic phenomenon in FraX is expressed as a range of behavioral impairments as in idiopathic autism (Aut). We also examined whether there are behaviors, identified as items of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI- R), that

Walter E. Kaufmann; Ranon Cortell; Alice S. M. Kau; Irena Bukelis; Elaine Tierney; Robert M. Gray; Christiane Cox; George T. Capone; Pia Stanard

2004-01-01

319

Expression of immediate early genes in the hippocampal formation of the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) during a food-hoarding task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-capped chickadees store food in many different locations in their home range and are able to accurately remember these locations. We measured the number of cells immunopositive for three different Immediate Early Gene products (Fra-1, c-Fos and ZENK) to map neuronal activity in the chickadee Hippocampal Formation (HF) during food storing and retrieval. Fra-1-like immunoreactivity is downregulated in the dorsal

Tom V. Smulders; Timothy J. Devoogd

2000-01-01

320

The Drosophila Netrin receptor frazzled/DCC functions as an invasive tumor suppressor  

PubMed Central

Background Loss of heterozygosity at 18q, which includes the Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) gene, has been linked to many human cancers. However, it is unclear if loss of DCC is the specific underlying cause of these cancers. The Drosophila imaginal discs are excellent systems in which to study DCC function, as it is possible to model human tumors through the generation of somatic clones of cells bearing multiple genetic lesions. Here, these attributes of the fly system were utilized to investigate the potential tumor suppressing functions of the Drosophila DCC homologue frazzled (fra) during eye-antennal disc development. Results Most fra loss of function clones are eliminated during development. However, when mutant clone cells generated in the developing eye were rescued from death, partially differentiated eye cells were found outside of the normal eye field, and in extreme cases distant sites of the body. Characterization of these cells during development indicates that fra mutant cells display characteristics of invasive tumor cells, including increased levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, and Mmp-1, changes in cadherin expression, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and loss of polarity. Mutation of fra promotes basement membrane degradation and invasion which are repressed by inhibition of Rho1 signaling. Although inhibition of JNK signaling blocks invasive phenotypes in some metastatic cancer models in flies, blocking JNK signaling inhibits fra mutant cell death, thereby enhancing the fra mutant phenotype. Conclusions The results of this investigation provide the first direct link between point mutations in fra/DCC and metastatic phenotypes in an animal model and suggest that Fra functions as an invasive tumor suppressor during Drosophila development.

2011-01-01

321

Molecular phenotype of Fragile X syndrome: FMRP, FXRPs, and protein targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is one of the most prevalent genetic causes of mental retardation. FraX is associated with an unstable expansion of a polymorphism within the 5 untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. The main consequence of this mutation is a reduction in the levels of the gene product (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein with multiple spliced variants

Walter E. Kaufmann; Sonia Cohen; Hong-Tao Sun; George Ho

2002-01-01

322

3D pattern of brain abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome visualized using tensor-based morphometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X syndrome (FraX), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, results in impaired cognition with particular deficits in executive function and visuo-spatial skills. Here we report the first detailed 3D maps of the effects of the Fragile X mutation on brain structure, using tensor-based morphometry. TBM visualizes structural brain deficits automatically, without time-consuming specification of regions-of-interest. We compared 36 subjects with FraX

Agatha D. Lee; Alex D. Leow; Allen Lu; Allan L. Reiss; Scott Hall; Ming-Chang Chiang; Arthur W. Toga; Paul M. Thompson

2007-01-01

323

Genotype–phenotype relationship in female carriers of the premutation and full mutation of FMR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present French–German cooperative study focuses on the genotype–phenotype relationship of mutations of the FMR-1 gene and psychiatric conditions in mothers with a full mutation in the FMR-1 gene of fra-X children (n=13), mothers with a premutation in the FMR-1 gene of fra-X children (n=61), as well as premutated siblings of these mothers without affected children (n=17) and two non-mutated

Petra Franke; Marion Leboyer; Michael Gänsicke; Olaf Weiffenbach; Valerie Biancalana; Pascale Cornillet-Lefebre; Marie Françoise Croquette; Ursula Froster; Sibylle G. Schwab; Fritz Poustka; Martin Hautzinger; Wolfgang Maier

1998-01-01

324

Co-localisation of CCG repeats and chromosome deletion breakpoints in Jacobsen syndrome: evidence for a common mechanism of chromosome breakage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate-sensitive fragile sites are associated with the expansion and hypermethylation of CCG-repeats. The fragile site in 11q23.3, FRA11B, has been shown to cause chromosome deletions in vivo, its expression being associated with Jacobsen (11q-) syndrome. However, the majority of Jacobsen deletions are distal to FRA11B and are not related to its expression. To test the hypothesis that other unidentified fragile

Christopher Jones; Roman Müllenbach; Paul Grossfeld; Rebecca Auer; Remi Favier; Ken Chien; Michael James; Alan Tunnacliffe; Finbarr Cotter

2000-01-01

325

Expression of fos-related antigen-2 in rat hippocampus after middle cerebral arterial occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

AP-1 transcription factors have been shown to be induced in the brain after ischemic injury. However, their roles in neuronal survival or death have yet to be defined. Here, we report the discovery of elevated nuclear levels of fos-related antigen-2 (FRA-2) in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons seven days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Expression of FRA-2 and AP-1

Keith R Pennypacker; Shabnam Eidizadeh; Cheryl A Kassed; James P O'Callaghan; Paul R Sanberg; Alison E Willing

2000-01-01

326

Insular Volume Reduction in Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental deficit and is caused by mutations of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. While males and females with the full FMR1 mutation are affected differently because the disorder is X-linked, both suffer from varying degrees of cognitive impairment, attention deficits and social anxiety. The insula is a sensory integrative region that has been increasingly suggested as a critical area involved in anxiety manifestation. The current study was designed to examine possible changes in insular volume in FraX compared to age- and gender-matched typically developing healthy controls (HC) as well as age, gender-, and intelligence-matched developmentally delayed controls (DD). An established native-space, manual morphometry method was utilized to quantify total and regional insular volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Total, anterior and posterior insular volumes were found to be reduced in FraX compared to both HC and DD. The current data add to a growing literature concerning brain abnormalities in FraX and suggests that significant volume reduction of the insula is a component of the FraX neuroanatomical phenotype. This finding also provides an intriguing potential neural correlate for hyperarousal and gaze aversion, which are prominent behavioral symptoms of FraX.

Cohen, Jeremy D.; Nichols, Taylor; Brignone, Laura; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

2011-01-01

327

Intraglomerular deposition of fibrin/fibrinogen-related antigen in children with various renal diseases.  

PubMed Central

The localization of intraglomerular deposits of fibrin (Fb)/fibrinogen (Fg)-related antigen (FRA) in children with various glomerular diseases was determined by an immunohistopathologic method using an anti-Fg antibody capable of detecting FRA, an anti-D-dimer antibody capable of detecting crosslinked Fb (XLFb) and its derivatives (XLFbDP), and by a method using the effect of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) treatment on kidney sections. In proliferative glomerulonephritis (PGN), XLFbs were detected within the capillaries and extension beyond the mesangium was seen in severe PGN. The FRA within the mesangium of minimal or mild PGN was composed of the non-XLFb substance. The FRA within Bowman's space of most PGN had disappeared after MCA treatment, suggesting a non-XLFb substance. The presence of FRA within electron-dense deposits (EDD) suggested that FRA deposits are associated with immune-complex deposits in the glomeruli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8

Kamitsuji, H.; Sakamoto, S.; Matsunaga, T.; Taira, K.; Kawahara, S.; Nakajima, M.

1988-01-01

328

Amplification effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering in the S-band forward G652 fiber Raman amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amplification effects on forward and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) lines in the forward pumped S-band distributed G652 fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) have been studied. There is a pump threshold power of Stokes backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (B-SBS) line in the forward pumped G652 FRA, it is about 1 mW. The Stokes B-SBS lines are amplified by FRA and fiber Brillouin amplifier (FBA). The gain of amplification is given as Ga = GR GB where GR is Raman gain and GB is Brillouin gain. In experimental work, the saturation gain of the first order Stokes backward SBS line is about 58 dB and the saturation gain of 25-km G652 forward FRA is about 25 dB, so the gain of FBA is about 33 dB. The forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (F-SBS) is generated and amplified in S-band G652 FRA. The stimulated threshold powers of the forward first order Stokes SBS (SB-1), second order Stokes SBS (SB-2), and third order SBS (SB-3) in the forward pumped FRA are 2.3, 1.6, and 1.6 mW, respectively. In experimental work, the saturation gains of SB-1, SB-2, and SB-3 are about 38, 62, and 60 dB, respectively. The saturation Raman gain of 25-km G652 forward FRA is about 8.8 dB, so the Brillouin gains of SB-1, SB-2, and SB-3 are about 29.2, 53.2, and 51.2 dB, respectively. The forward and backward cascaded SBS lines have been observed.

Zhang, Zaixuan; Dai, Bizhi; Li, Laixiao; Xu, Haifeng; Liu, Honglin; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Chenxia; Kim, Insoo S.

2005-11-01

329

Spinal motor actions of the ?-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO in the cat.  

PubMed

For further evaluation of opioidergic spinal motor functions the action of the ?-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO was tested on transmission in different non-nociceptive and nociceptive spinal reflex pathways from flexor reflex afferents (FRA), and in non-FRA reflex pathways in spinal cats. The action of DAMGO was complex, not following a simple pattern with selective depression of nociceptive pathways compared to non-nociceptive ones. Monosynaptic reflexes of the flexor posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBSt) and transmission in nociceptive as well as non-nociceptive excitatory FRA pathways to PBSt were depressed, while the specific excitatory nociceptive non-FRA pathway from the central foot pad to foot extensors was mainly not depressed but rather facilitated by DAMGO. DAMGO caused a facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes to the extensor gastrocnemius soleus (GS) and partly a reversal of inhibitory to excitatory conditioning effects from cutaneous afferents to GS. FRA interneurones could show either an increase or a cessation of their spontaneous activity, but responsiveness to nociceptive and non-nociceptive afferent activation was blocked by DAMGO. The main DAMGO action is generated via interneuronal systems rather than on motoneurones themselves. The results indicate that opioidergic spinal functions are extensively involved in spinal motor control exceeding a mere suppression of nociceptive motor withdrawal reactions. PMID:21276826

Steffens, Heinz; Schomburg, Eike D

2011-01-27

330

Variation at the fragile X locus does not influence susceptibility to bipolar disorder  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years several pedigrees have been reported which are suggestive of linkage between susceptibility to bipolar disorder and markers on chromosome Xq28. Other workers have failed to replicate these reports and the methodology of the positive reports has been criticized. Recently there have been several reports of an association between fragile X (FRA(X)) and affective disorder within families and in unrelated individuals compared with controls. Such reports could be consistent with the Xq28 marker reports because FRA(X) maps to Xq27.3. We report a study at the FRA(X) CGG repeat locus in 79 unrelated Caucasian bipolar probands without fragile X syndrome and 77 unrelated controls. We found no evidence that variation at this locus confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder. 28 refs., 1 fig.

Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; McGuffin, P. [Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-06-15

331

The use of testicular volume as a clinical marker for cytogenetic disorders in mentally retarded males.  

PubMed

The testicular volumes (V) of 817 adult (non-Down's syndrome) institutionalized males were calculated. The mean testicular volume was 19.5 +/- 15.8 ml, comparable to the normal adult male mean of 17-19 ml. However, the number of institutionalized males with V greater than or equal to 25 ml and V less than or equal to 10 ml was increased approximately fourfold over the normal male population. Resident adult males were grouped into three categories based on their testicular volumes: (1) V greater than or equal to 25 ml (macro-orchid); (2) V less than or equal to 15 ml (micro-orchid); and (3) 15 less than V less than 25 ml ('normal'). An equal number of randomly selected males from each category were cytogenetically screened for the fra(X) syndrome as well as for non-fra(X) chromosome abnormalities. The overall frequencies of these disorders were 3.1% and 3.9%, respectively. The fra(X) syndrome was found in a significantly higher percentage of macro-orchid males (10.3%) as compared to males with either micro-orchidism (1.2%) or normal testicular volume (1.2%). There was no significant difference in the distribution of either fra(X) negative non-specific XLMR or non-fra(X) chromosome abnormalities among resident males from these three categories. Testicular volumes greater than or equal to 25 ml, especially those exceeding 40 ml, were thus shown to be useful clinical markers in the diagnosis of the fra(X) syndrome. Reduced testicular volume was not a useful clinical marker in the evaluation of other non-Down's syndrome chromosome abnormalities. PMID:2896248

Kirkilionis, A J; Pozsonyi, J; Sergovich, F R

1988-02-01

332

Amplification effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering in the forward-pumped S-band discrete DCF fibers Raman amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amplification effect on forward and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering lines in the forward pumped S band discrete DCF fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) has been studied. The pumped threshold power of the forward first order Stokes SBS (FSB1- ), second order Stokes SBS (FSB2-) and third order SBS (FSB3-) in the forward pumped FRA are 1.5 mW, 1.4 mW and 1.7 mW respectively. The Stokes SBS lines are amplified by FRA and fiber Brillouin amplifier (FBA) at the same time. The gain of amplification is given as GA=GR multiplied by GB where GR is Raman gain and GB is Brillouin gain. In the experiments, the saturation gain of FSB1-, FSB2- and FSB3- are about 52dB, 65dB and 65dB respectively. The saturation Raman gain of 10km DCF forward FRA is about 14dB, so the Brillouin gain of FSB1- , FSB2- and FSB3- are about 38dB, 51dB and 51dBrespectively. There are pumped threshold power of the first order, second order and third order Stokes backward SBS (B-SBS) line BSB1-, BSB2- and BSB3- in the forward pumped discrete DCF FRA, and they are about 4.7mW, 17.1mW and 67mW respectively. The saturation gain of the first order, second and third Stokes backward SBS line BSB1-, BSB2-and BSB3- are about 60dB and the saturation gain of 10km DCF forward pumped FRA is about 27dB, so the gain of FBA is about 33dB. The forward and backward cascaded SBS lines have been observed.

Zhang, Zaixuan; Dai, Bizhi; Li, Laixiao; Xu, Haifeng; Liu, Hongling; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Chenxia; Kim, Insoo S.

2005-11-01

333

Induction of the fragile X on BrdU-substituted chromosomes with direct visualization of sister chromatid exchanges on banded chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  After incorporation of BrdU for one or more replication cycles, the fragile site at Xq27 [fra(X)] was induced by a late pulse\\u000a with excess thymidine (dT), resulting in the simultaneous visualization of G bands and differentially stained sister chromatids.\\u000a The degree of BrdU substitution (uni- vs bifilarly substituted DNA) did not affect the expression of the fra(X). Without addition\\u000a of

Niels Tommerup

1989-01-01

334

Regulation of Bovine Tumor Necrosis Factor Induced Protein 6 in Ovarian Follicles during the Ovulatory Process and Promoter Activation in Granulosa Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

(CREB) inhibited forskolin-inducible promoter activity. DNA binding assays demonstrated the importance of AP1 and CRE foractivityandidentifiedJunD,FosB,Fra2,CREB1,andCREB2 asbeingpartoftheAP1complex,andFosB,Fra2,andCREB1for the CRE complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays con- firmedbindingoftheseproteinswithendogenousTNFAIP6pro- moter. Treatment with forskolin, prostaglandin E2, and cata- lytic subunit protein kinase (cPKA) stimulated, but H89, PKA inhibitor peptide, and indomethacin inhibited, TNFAIP6 pro- moter activity and gene expression in granulosa cells. Collec- tively, this

Khampoune Sayasith; Nadine Bouchard; Monique Dore; Jean Sirois

2008-01-01

335

Petrology of Apollo 14 regolith breccias and ion microprobe studies of glass beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral chemistries, glass chemistries, and bulk compositions of Apollo 14 regolith beccias are used to study the regolith evolution at the Apollo 14 site and on the moon in general. Major changes in the regolith since the formation of the breccias include an increase in maturity, an increase in glasses with the Fra Mauro basalt composition, and decreases in feldspathic

S. B. Simon; J. J. Papike; C. K. Shearer; S. S. Hughes; R. A. Schmitt

1989-01-01

336

Mapping the Geography of Hope  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the nature of humankind's relationship with the natural world? To what extent can social science shed light on this relationship? What are the most pressing research questions? What limitations present themselves? Drawing from the experi- ences of a 16th century cartographer, Fra Mauro, the author addresses the prospects for successfully mapping the meaning of wilderness in contemporary life.

Daniel L. Dustin

2000-01-01

337

75 FR 2597 - Positive Train Control Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission at the time FRA was created, has had preemptive effect...indicating that a joint filing was not possible and an explanation of why the subject railroads could...that the railroad explain why such a deployment was not practical and the...

2010-01-15

338

Characterization of the base collection strains preserved in the Marine Microorganism Division, a sub-bank of the Microbial Culture Collections, Fish Research Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

*3 Abstract The Applied Microbiology Section in the National Research Institute of Fish- eries Science is nominated as a Microbial Culture Collections Sub-Bank of the Gene Bank in the Fisheries Research Agency (FRA) and keeps a collection of fifty strains of bacteria and yeast as of May 2002, that are in preparation to be utilized as open cultures. Microbiological characterization

Motoharu UCHIDA; Yoko SATO; Masakazu MURATA; Ryoji MATSUSHIMA

339

Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

340

Lunar materials: Their mineralogy, petrology and chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manned Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 and the automated Luna 16 lunar missions have provided us with lunar rock and regolith (soil) samples from a number of geologically distinct sites. The mare regions were sampled by Apollo 11, 12 and Luna 16, whereas Apollo 14 landed on a terrain with more relief, the Fra Mauro Formation which represents

Cornelis Klein

1972-01-01

341

76 FR 34138 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by ensuring that all locomotive crew members have access to toilet/sanitary facilities--on as needed basis--which are functioning...by FRA to ensure that railroads repair defective locomotive toilet/sanitary facilities within 10 calendar days of the date...

2011-06-10

342

49 CFR 269.7 - Petitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...after FRA provides notice of the Secretary's certification pursuant to § 269.3(a) of this part using the following method: email to Priia214@dot.gov; (2) Describe the petition as a âPetition to Provide Passenger Rail Service under 49 CFR part...

2012-10-01

343

49 CFR 269.9 - Bid process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...petition relates no later than 60 days after the petition deadline established by § 269.7 of this part using the following method: email to Priia214@dot.gov. Each such bid must: (1) Provide FRA with sufficient information to evaluate the level...

2012-10-01

344

FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the first binding international legal instrument that deals directly with climate change. The Convention was adopted on 9 May 1992 after negotiations by the UN-sponsored Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Fra...

345

An Aggregated Information Technology Checklist for Operational Risk Management An Aggregated Information Technology Checklist for Operational Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the issue of the Information Technology (IT) Governance fra- meworks and standards that respond to different levels of operational risks, especially those caused by the information systems and technology infrastructure. A require- ment analysis regarding Basel II is conducted, a gap analysis between the Information Control Models (ICMs) is performed, and the aggregated IT checklist for Operational

Mehmet Zeki Önal

346

76 FR 55622 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings AGENCY: Federal...notification of unsafe conditions at highway-rail and pathway grade crossings. FRA is announcing...further development of the regulation. The Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008...

2011-09-08

347

Fremtiden - visioner og forudsigelser: Klimaforandringer  

Microsoft Academic Search

En af de forudsigelser, der har domineret mediebilledet og skabt mest debat de senere år, er klimaforandringerne. Klimadebatten har de seneste år for alvor bredt sig fra universiteterne ud i stuerne bl.a. på grund af tidligere vicepræsident Al Gores An Inconvenient Truth (2006), hvor Al Gore tegner en dystopisk forestilling om fremtiden på baggrund af de klimaforandringer, som kloden ifølge

Tine Vedel Eriksen; Kristine Ahlmann; Birgitte Nordentoft

348

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tampered-with unit. The most common occurrence addressed...individuals clearly had actual knowledge of the disabled device and...train notwithstanding that knowledge. Therefore, FRA will not...absent a showing of such actual knowledge of the facts. Actual,...

2011-10-01

349

O3, CO2 and chemical fractionation in ponderosa pine saplings  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental factors can affect plant tissue quality which is important for quality of organic matter inputs into soil food webs and decomposition of soil organic matter. Thus the effects of increases in CO2 and O3 and their interactions were determined for various chemical fra...

350

Review of Rail Transport Research Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a follow-up of a Transportation Research Board (TRB) study on rail transport research needs conducted in 1975. The 1975 study was sponsored by the Association of American Railroads (AAR) and the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and was ...

1980-01-01

351

77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

2012-12-26

352

76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 15] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

2011-12-27

353

Using IT to Improve Medication Safety for Rural Elders. Grant Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of this project was to enable clinicians to be on the same page about their patients medications. We initially proposed to implement and evaluate a patient centered medication information system, RxSafe, that could improve the care of fra...

K. Ordelheide P. N. Gorman

2008-01-01

354

77 FR 75696 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012, Capital Passenger Car, Inc. (CPC) of Orrville, OH, has petitioned the...petition Docket Number FRA-2012-0072. CPC has petitioned for a permanent waiver of...inch pane of Duplate ASI PPG Safety Glass. CPC states that barring one incident of...

2012-12-21

355

Interannual, seasonal, and diel variability in the carbon isotope composition of respiration in a C3/C4 agricultural ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stable carbon isotope ratio 13CO2/12CO2 is a valuable tool for understanding the processes controlling the autotrophic (FRa) and heterotrophic (FRh) contributions to ecosystem respiration (FR) as well as influences of photosynthesis on respiration. There is increasing interest in the temporal va...

356

Expression of common fragile sites in two Ceboidea species: Saimiri boliviensis and Alouatta caraya (Primates: Platyrrhini)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile sites are points of preferential breakage that may be involved in chromosome rearrangements. Induction of common fragile sites (c-fra) and spontaneous breakage were analyzed in two New World Monkeys species: Saimiri boliviensis (SBO) and Alouatta caraya (ACA). Spontaneous chromosome aberrations were analyzed on untreated lymphocyte cultures with Brögger's formula (1977). SBO presented a low level of spontaneous breakage, while

Ariela Fundia; María Gorostiaga; Marta Mudry

2000-01-01

357

Influence of cooling conditions and amount of retained austenite on the fracture of austempered ductile iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEM Analysis of fracture surfaces from tensile test specimens of thick-walled, austempered ductile irons (diameter 160 mm) shows different fra- cture behavior depending on the austenite retained in the matrix. The results show ductile fractures only in areas containing retained austenite sections. In section areas without or with a very low content of retained austenite, only brit- tle fracture without

Vyacheslav Goryany; Eckart Hofmann; Josef Mauk

2008-01-01

358

75 FR 82140 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA Rail Integrity managers. The nonstop continuous high-speed rail test vehicle will be a self- propelled/railbound ultrasound/induction flaw detection vehicle operating at speeds up to 30 mph. This vehicle will make runs every 2 weeks over the...

2010-12-29

359

76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...violation of any such provision. Civil penalties associated with the failure to follow...provision. As with Sec. 231.33, civil penalties will be assessed using the applicable...publication. FRA is not authorized to impose a penalty on persons for violating...

2011-04-28

360

75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...violation of any such provision. Civil penalties associated with the failure to follow...provision. As with Sec. 231.33, civil penalties will be assessed using the applicable...proposal. FRA is not authorized to impose a penalty on persons for violating...

2010-07-02

361

76 FR 11992 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11- year period from 1999-2009, 22 deaths and 13 injuries resulted from accidents...proposal. FRA is not authorized to impose a penalty on persons for violating information collection...Subjects in 49 CFR Part 234 Highway safety; Penalties; Railroad safety; and Reporting...

2011-03-04

362

75 FR 3784 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...this car to FRA Type I and II glazing are in the range of $20,000 to $30,000, which is the approximate value of the railcar. Interested parties are invited to participate in these proceedings by submitting written views, data, or comments....

2010-01-22

363

Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

2009-01-01

364

Determining the dispersion characteristics of rivers from the frequency response of the system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of determining the parameters of an aggregated dead zone model (ADZ) to predict longitudinal dispersion in rivers is presented. The method is based on the frequency response analysis (FRA) of observed field tests, which consist of tracer injections (input) and measurement of tracer in downstream sampling points (output) located downstream from the injection point. The ADZ is a combination of plug and completely mixed flow compartments. The ADZ parameters (number of compartments, mean residence time, and delay time) are evaluated by means of Bode plots that give the system order (number of compartments), gain, time constant (mean residence time of each compartment) and delay time. The FRA-ADZ method was checked with tracer data runs in two Spanish rivers, the Tagus and the Ebro rivers. The experimental tracer concentration versus time distributions were compared with the ADZ predicted curves, which were calculated using parameters obtained from the FRA method, and with curves predicted by several classical models. The residence time of several reaches within the two studied rivers was predicted by the FRA-ADZ method with a relative error lower than 10%. The method is generally applicable to ideal and nonideal inputs and is particularly well suited to arbitrary-shaped initial source concentration distributions.

Lambertz, Peter; Palancar, MaríA. C.; Aragón, José M.; Gil, Roberto

2006-09-01

365

49 CFR 228.19 - Monthly reports of excess service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...24-hour period at an office where two or more shifts are employed. (2) A dispatching service...24-hour period at any office where one shift is employed. (e) For signal employees...F-6180-3 may be provided to FRA by means of an electronic signature provided...

2012-10-01

366

49 CFR 228.19 - Monthly reports of excess service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...24-hour period at an office where two or more shifts are employed. (2) A dispatching service...24-hour period at any office where one shift is employed. (e) For signal employees...F-6180-3 may be provided to FRA by means of an electronic signature provided...

2011-10-01

367

Offset Distortion Traces for Trace-Based Evaluation of Video Quality after Network Transport (Extended Version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video traces containing the sizes and (PSNR) qualities of the individual fra mes of a video encoding are a convenient video representation for the evaluation of video networking mechanisms. These video traces can be used to find the frame loss probabilities of a lossy networking mechanism, but can not give the PSNR video quality after lossy network transport. To date

Patrick Seeling; Martin Reisslein; Frank H. P. Fitzek

2005-01-01

368

Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

369

49 CFR 214.503 - Good-faith challenges; procedures for notification and resolution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.503...operating an on-track roadway maintenance machine or hi-rail vehicle shall inform the...a good-faith determination that the machine or vehicle does not comply with FRA...

2011-10-01

370

49 CFR 214.503 - Good-faith challenges; procedures for notification and resolution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.503...operating an on-track roadway maintenance machine or hi-rail vehicle shall inform the...a good-faith determination that the machine or vehicle does not comply with FRA...

2012-10-01

371

Freight Car Scheduling Benefit Projection on Conrail: The Pittsburgh to St. Louis Corridor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Missouri Pacific Railroad (MoPac) developed a computerized system called Freight Car Scheduling (FCS) to provide railroad management with a tool to improve the utilization of freight cars. A previous report (FRA-ORRT-81-3) described an evaluation of t...

G. F. List H. L. Bongaardt

1981-01-01

372

A 2 MW flywheel for hybrid locomotive power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics (UT-CEM) is currently developing an Advanced Locomotive Propulsion System (ALPS) as part of the Next Generation High-Speed Rail program sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The ALPS consists of a gas turbine and synchronous alternator, combined with an induction motor coupled flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The prime power and

R. F. Thelen; J. D. Herbst; M. T. Caprio

2003-01-01

373

Impact Fragmentation of Lead and Uranium Plates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of high-velocity impact experiments on lead and uranium plates has been performed in support of the Plutonium Dispersal Studies Program (PDSP). The test geometry and loading conditions were selected to create a diverging hydrodynamic flow and fra...

D. E. Grady T. K. Bergstresser J. M. Taylor

1985-01-01

374

Convergence of excitatory and inhibitory action on interneurones in the lumbosacral cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular recording has been made in spinal cats from more than 100 interneurones in the dorsal horn and intermediary region of the lumbosacral spinal cord. The majority of interneurones receive not only EPSPs but also IPSPs from primary afferents. The IPSPs are evoked from three different systems, group I muscle afferents (probably Ib), low threshold cutaneous afferents and the FRA.

T. Hongo; E. Jankowska; A. Lundberg

1966-01-01

375

An empirical study of the effects of social security reforms on benefit claiming behavior and receipt using public-use administrative microdata.  

PubMed

In the past few years, the Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance benefit system in the United States has undergone some of the most significant changes since its inception. In a short period of time, we have seen the implementation of the phased increase in the full retirement age (FRA) with the resulting increase in the penalty for claiming benefits early, the elimination of the earnings test for those above the FRA, and the incremental increase in the delayed retirement credit (DRC) for those claiming benefits after the FRA. Because these changes have taken place only recently, there is relatively little research using household-level data that analyzes the consequences of all these changes. Using the public-use microdata extract from the Master Beneficiary Record, we are able to uncover a number of interesting trends in benefit claiming behavior and level of benefit receipt, which can help us understand how the changes in the system are shaping the retirement benefit claiming behavior of older Americans. We find evidence of substantial effects of the removal of the earnings test and the increase in the FRA, but evidence of very small effects as a result of the increases in the DRC. PMID:19961065

Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Yin, Na

2009-01-01

376

49 CFR 209.321 - Hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...raised therein. (c) FRA has the burden of proof, by a preponderance of the evidence, as to the facts alleged in the notice...Respondent has the burden of proof, by a preponderance of the evidence, as to any affirmative defense,...

2012-10-01

377

Application of AC-Impedance Method on Determination of Corrosion Rate of Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AC-impedance technique was experimentally evaluated as one of the in-situ measuring means to determine the corrosion rate of metals immersed in aqueous solutions. Surface impedance of corroding metals was measured by both the FET and FRA methods using...

M. Suzuki

1987-01-01

378

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...intensity, beam arc width, color, and flash rate characteristics...crewmembers are safe from the effects of objects striking a light...reporting area would have no effect on FRA's authority to...employees in order to minimize the effects of fatigue on their job...

2011-10-01

379

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...intensity, beam arc width, color, and flash rate characteristics...crewmembers are safe from the effects of objects striking a light...reporting area would have no effect on FRA's authority to...employees in order to minimize the effects of fatigue on their job...

2012-10-01

380

Adjusting Social Security for Increasing Life Expectancy: Effects on Progressivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving long-run Social Security solvency requires addressing rising life expectancy. Increasing the Full Retirement Age (FRA), while holding the Early Entitlement Age (EEA) fixed, could be effective but eventually will result in replacement rates that are viewed by many as too low. A possible policy to prop up replacement rates is to raise the EEA, which has been age 62

Courtney Monk; John A. Turner; Natalia A. Zhivan

2010-01-01

381

Fractional Cable Models for Spiny Neuronal Dendrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable equations with fractional order temporal operators are introduced to model electrotonic prop- erties of spiny neuronal dendrites. These equations are derived from Nernst-Planck equations with fra- ctional order operators to model the anomalous subdiffusion that arises from trapping properties of dendritic spines. The fractional cable models predict that postsynaptic potentials propagating along den- drites with larger spine densities can

B. I. Henry; T. A. M. Langlands; S. L. Wearne

2008-01-01

382

77 FR 19413 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Number FRA- 2012-0023. UP seeks to use an automated sound measurement system (ASMS) to test locomotive horns...in 49 CFR 229.129(b). The ASMS uses a Class 1 sound-level measuring instrument that is permanently mounted in a...

2012-03-30

383

Variation of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion in Iran and the surrounding region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present group velocity dispersion results from a study of regional fundamental mode Rayleigh waves propagating across Iran and the surrounding region. Data for these measurements come from field deployments within Iran by the University of Cambridge (UK) and the Universite Joseph-Fourier (FRA) in conjunction with International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Iran), within Oman by the Universite Pierre

D. Rham; K. Priestley; M. Tatar; A. Paul; D. Hatzfeld; A. Radjaee; G. Nowrouzi; A. Kaviani; C. Tiberi

2005-01-01

384

Mapping and monitoring deforestation and forest degradation in Sumatra (Indonesia) using Landsat time series data sets from 1990 to 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

As reported by FAO (2005 State of the World’s Forests (Rome: UNFAO), 2010 Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010\\/095 (Rome: UNFAO)), Indonesia experiences the second highest rate of deforestation among tropical countries. Hence, timely and accurate forest data are required to combat deforestation and forest degradation in support of climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation policy initiatives. Within Indonesia, Sumatra Island

Belinda Arunarwati Margono; Svetlana Turubanova; Ilona Zhuravleva; Peter Potapov; Alexandra Tyukavina; Alessandro Baccini; Scott Goetz; Matthew C Hansen

2012-01-01

385

Transformer diagnosis using frequency response analysis: results from fault simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment of which faults can be detected using frequency response analysis (FRA) and how different faults may be distinguished. The test method and the method used by the author for presenting the results are described. The results of an extensive fault simulation programme on a 100 kVA distribution transformer are presented and discussed. The faults simulated

Simon A. Ryder

2002-01-01

386

MODELING OF SPINEL SETTLING IN WASTE GLASS MELTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The topic of this multi-institutional bi-national research is the formation and settling of spinel, the most common crystalline phase that precipitates in molten high-level waste HLW) glass. For the majority of HLW streams, spinel formation in the HLW melter limits the waste fra...

387

77 FR 31429 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...proposed discontinuance of an automatic block signal (ABS) system and a traffic control...

2012-05-25

388

78 FR 46678 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...will be discontinued, and all associated signal equipment and Crossover 83 will be...

2013-08-01

389

78 FR 59754 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...discontinuance and removal of the automatic block signal (ABS) system between Southaven,...

2013-09-27

390

78 FR 9106 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...these proposed changes to modernize its signal equipment and install Positive Train...

2013-02-07

391

78 FR 17282 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...modifications that it will make to the signal system at the A&R crossing in...

2013-03-20

392

75 FR 26841 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...definition of ``antiquated'' is being built prior to the end of World War II, even though this equipment is used in tourist...comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and specify the basis for...

2010-05-12

393

78 FR 65422 - Agency Request for Emergency Processing of Collections of Information Associated With Today's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...calling FRA's Clearance Officer, Mr. Robert Brogan (tel. (202) 493-6292...electronically by contacting Mr. Brogan at robert.brogan@dot.gov. Comments and questions...January 1, 2008, under Title IV of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and...

2013-10-31

394

Threshold level and gain of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in a forward pumped s-band discrete DCF fibers Raman amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplification effect of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) lines on the forward pumped s-band discrete DCF fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) has been studied. Pump threshold power of the forward first order Stokes SBS (FSB1-), second order Stokes SBS (FSB2-) and third order SBS (FSB3-) in the forward pumped FRA are 1.5 mW, 1.4 mW and 1.7 mW, respectively. The Stokes SBS lines are amplified by FRA and fiber Brillouin amplifier (FBA) at the same time. Gain of amplification is given as GA=GR · GB, where GR is Raman gain and GB is Brillouin gain. Saturation gain of FSB1-, FSB2- and FSB3- are about 52 dB, 65 dB and 65 dB, respectively. The saturation Raman gain of 10 km DCF forward FRA is about 14 dB, so Brillouin gain of FSB1-, FSB2- and FSB3- are about 38 dB, 51 dB and 51 dB, respectively. The forward cascaded SBS lines have been observed.

Wang, Jian-Feng; Xuan, Zhangzai; Dai, Bi-Zhi; Li, Chen-Xia; Kim, Insoo S.

2006-05-01

395

Intrinsic firing dynamics of vestibular nucleus neurons.  

PubMed

Individual brainstem neurons involved in vestibular reflexes respond to identical head movements with a wide range of firing responses. This diversity of firing dynamics has been commonly assumed to arise from differences in the types of vestibular nerve inputs to vestibular nucleus neurons. In this study we show that, independent of the nature of inputs, the intrinsic membrane properties of neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus substantially influence firing response dynamics. Hyperpolarizing and depolarizing inputs evoked a markedly heterogenous range of firing responses. Strong postinhibitory rebound firing (PRF) was associated with strong firing rate adaptation (FRA) and occurred preferentially in large multipolar neurons. In response to sinusoidally modulated input current, these neurons showed a pronounced phase lead with respect to neurons lacking strong PRF and FRA. A combination of the hyperpolarization-activated H current and slow potassium currents contributed to PRF, whereas FRA was predominantly mediated by slow potassium currents. An integrate-and-fire-type model, which simulated FRA and PRF, reproduced the phase lead observed in large neurons and showed that adaptation currents were primarily responsible for variations in response phase. We conclude that the heterogeneity of firing dynamics observed in response to head movements in intact animals reflects intrinsic as well as circuit properties. PMID:11896148

Sekirnjak, Chris; du Lac, Sascha

2002-03-15

396

Development and Pilot Testing of Crew Resource Management Training Program for Railroad Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 2001 and 2005, a research team at the Texas Transportation Institute worked with FRA and the BNSF Railway (formerly the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway) to develop a training course in improved crew resource management (CRM) for use in the U.S. rail industry. Initial tasks included site visits to a cross section of railroad types in various U.S. locations,

Curtis Alan Morgan; Leslie E Olson; Tobin B Kyte

2007-01-01

397

Characterization and Classification of Strains of Francisella Tularensis Isolated in the Central Asian Focus of the Soviet Union and in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment which suggests that classification of strains of Francisella on the basis of 16S rRNA analysis may be preferable to classification on the basis of biochemical analysis is described and results and conclusions given. The two subspecies of Fra...

G. Sandstroem A. Sjoestedt M. Forsman N. V. Pavlovich B. N. Mishankin

1992-01-01

398

Resistance of a freight train to forward motion. Volume III. Economic analysis and correlation of predictions with field data. Final report, February 1979July 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report is a supplement to two earlier FRA reports on train resistance and its impact upon fuel consumption. The portion of this effort reported was partly directed toward detailed correlation of predictions of fuel consumption from simulated runs with actual field measurement. In addition, computer simulations were made in an effort to corroborate some theoretical curves set forth

Muhlenberg

1981-01-01

399

Performance of an on-board monitoring system in a revenue service demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is sponsoring a revenue service demonstration of an on-board condition monitoring system for freight trains. The objective of the system is to improve railroad safety and efficiency through continuous monitoring of mechanical components to detect defects before they cause breakdowns and accidents. The project, which commenced in June

M. C. Edwards; M. H. Filkins; S. K. Punwani; M. F. Stewart; D. G. Toth; W. M. Zavis

2005-01-01

400

Lifetime embrittlement of reactor core materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over a core lifetime, the reactor materials Zircaloy-2, Zircaloy-4, and hafnium may become embrittled due to the absorption of corrosion- generated hydrogen and to neutron irradiation damage. Results are presented on the effects of fast fluence on the fra...

P. H. Kreyns W. F. Bourgeois P. L. Charpentier B. F. Kammenzind D. G. Franklin

1994-01-01

401

A cytogenetic study of mentally retarded school children in taiwan with special reference to the fragile X chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cytogenetic study was made on 341 mentally retarded children in the Provincial Nantou Rehabilitation Center for the Mentally Retarded and the St. Raphael Opportunity Center in Tainan. Of the 89 mentally retarded children with chromosomal abnormalities, 63 had Down syndrome, 13 had the fragile X [fra(X)] syndrome, and the remaining had other aneuploid constitutions. Family studies were possible for

Shuan-Yow Li; Chin-Chu Tsai; Ming-Yung Chou

1988-01-01

402

Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 Progress Towards Sustainable Forest Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FRA 2005 examines current status and recent trends for about 40 variables, covering the extent, condition, uses and values of forests and other wooded land, with the aim of assessing all benefits from forest resources. In the main section of this report, ...

2006-01-01

403

Synthesis of Distributed Algorithms Using Asynchronous Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the theory of asynchronous automata to the syn- thesis problem of closed distributed systems. We use safe asynchronous automata as implementation model, and characterise the languages they accept. We analyze the complexity of the synthesis problem in our fra- mework. Theorems by Zielonka and Morin are then used to develop and implement a synthesis algorithm. Finally, we apply

Alin Stefanescu; Javier Esparza; Anca Muscholl

2003-01-01

404

75 FR 68861 - Miscellaneous Amendments to the Federal Railroad Administration's Accident/Incident Reporting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particularly in the case of musculoskeletal disorders. See 68 FR 10107, 10118, March...Record'' for any abnormal condition or disorder of a railroad employee that causes or...discernable cause of the abnormal condition or disorder. (4) Form FRA F 6180.55....

2010-11-09

405

77 FR 76597 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...components be considered to have the same standard life expectancy as determined by the M7 waiver (Docket Number FRA-2004-17099...year per car, which delineates a similar wear and life expectancy to that of the M7. MNR proposes to test only...

2012-12-28

406

49 CFR 229.123 - Pilots, snowplows, end plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maintained in the cab of the locomotive. (4) Pilot, snowplow, or end plate clearance above 6 inches shall be noted in the remarks section of Form FRA 6180-49a. (5) Locomotives with a pilot, snowplow, or end plate clearance above 6 inches...

2012-10-01

407

In situ solid state electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of NiO scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

NiO scales thermally grown on pure nickel were characterised by in situ solid state electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Possible sources of error including the amplitude of the applied sine wave signals, the input impedance of FRA, as well as the residence time at the measuring temperature were examined. Specimens oxidised in air for 6, 24 and 120 h at 800°C

H Liu; C Mojica-Calderon; S. B Lyon; M. M Stack

1999-01-01

408

Una rivista, lungo un quarto di secolo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questo numero della Rivista di Storia Economica coincide con il compiersi del venticinquesimo anno della sua Seconda serie. La Prima serie, curata da Luigi Einaudi, era apparsa fra il 1936 e il 1943. Il numero si apre con un editoriale, dovuto a Pierluigi Ciocca e Gianni Toniolo, che riconsidera sinteticamente l'indirizzo di metodo e di contenuto seguito dalla Rivista nei

Ciocca Pierluigi; Toniolo Gianni

2009-01-01

409

Low-Energy Transitions from the Deexcitation of Spontaneous Fission Fragments of 252Cf.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-energy gamma rays, in the range from 45 to 230 keV, following the spontaneous fission of 252Cf, are observed with a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector (full width at half maximum (FWHM) 500 eV at 81 keV), in coincidence with K x rays from the fission fra...

F. F. Hopkins G. W. Phillips J. R. White C. F. Moore P. Richard

1971-01-01

410

Lack of association between mutation size and cognitive/behavior deficits in fragile X males: A brief report  

SciTech Connect

Previously, researchers reported molecular-neurobehavioral or molecular-cognitive associations in individuals with fra(X) (fragile X) mutation. However, not all investigators have noted molecular-behavioral relationships. Consequently, we examined prospectively 30 fra(X) males age 3-15 years from four testing sites to determine whether there was a relationship between mutation size and degree of either cognitive or adaptive behavior deficit. To measure cognitive abilities, all individuals were administered the Stanford-Binet (4th edition) IQ test. To evaluate adaptive behavior (DQ) skills, all individuals were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. To determine fra(X) status, genomic DNA from all individuals was extracted and digested with EcoRI and EagI restriction enzymes. Southern blots were prepared and hybridized with the pE5.1 probe. The Pearson correlation coefficient between full mutation size and composite IQ score revealed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P > .76). The Pearson coefficient between mutation size and DQ also showed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P >.73). We conclude that while fra(X) mutation produces cognitive and behavior deficits in males who inherit the defective gene, there is no relationship between mutation size and degree of deficit. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Fisch, G.S. [SUNY/Health Science Center and Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Carpenter, N. [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States); Simensen, R. [Greenwood Genetics Center, SC (United States)] [and others

1996-08-09

411

Defeating Surprise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surprise is an extremely useful technique to employ in warfare. Historically, it has been used with varying degrees of success at the operational level of warfare. In addition, it has normally been reviewed from the view of the attacker. By building a fra...

G. A. Niederhauser

1994-01-01

412

77 FR 43646 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...February 28, 2012, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...Reporting System (C3RS) pilot project for the CP Portage, WI, terminal was initially approved...2008. In Docket Number FRA-2007-0008, CP requested and received a waiver of...

2012-07-25

413

77 FR 4396 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012, the Valley Railroad Company (VALE) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...Number FRA-2011-0088. Specifically, VALE seeks a waiver of compliance from the Railroad...docket as this notice. As information, VALE also requested Special Approval to...

2012-01-27

414

The quantitative estimation of the changes induced by benzydamine in the mitochondria of developing mouse hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto Gli autori hanno studiato l'effetto della Benzidamina sui mitocondri di epatociti di topo dal 3‡ al 5‡ giorno di vita. é stato introdotto un coefficiente? per la valutazione quantitativa delle alterazioni. La Benzidamina provoca un aumento del rapporte fra il volume delle «cristae» e il volume dei mitocondri corrispondenti.

W. Djaczenko; J. Grabska; A. Benedetto; G. Mescolini; R. Pezzi

1969-01-01

415

49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairsârailroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

2011-10-01

416

78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2013-0064] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake test procedures located in AAR...System Tests for Freight Equipment-- Single Car Test, and required pursuant to 49 CFR...

2013-07-23

417

49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairsârailroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

2012-10-01

418

49 CFR 238.111 - Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the criteria to be used to measure or determine the success or failure of the tests. If acceptance is to be based on...cause stated following FRA review of the results of the test program. This section does not restrict a railroad from...

2011-10-01

419

78 FR 37657 - Petition for a Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Qualification and Certification of Conductors, at two of its maintenance operations...Docket Number FRA-2013-0014. The conductor certification regulations provide that...Definitions, are required to have a certified conductor as a member of the crew and, in...

2013-06-21

420

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...initial adjustment. Accordingly, FRA's minimum and maximum civil monetary penalties have...30, 2008 final rule also adjusted the minimum civil penalty from $550 to $650 pursuant...freight railroad would be for a very short distance and solely for the purpose of...

2012-10-01

421

Catalog of 'Common Use' Rail Corridors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a catalog of 'common use' rail corridors. These are defined as corridors where non-Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)-compliant light rail or rail rapid transit vehicles operate adjacent to, or on track shared with, rail freight or passe...

R. R. Resor

2003-01-01

422

Expression of AP-1 transcription factors in rat hippocampus and cerebellum after trimethyltin neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Neurotoxic insult causes neurons to degenerate due to necrosis or apoptosis. After this neurodegenerative phase, gene expression in surviving neurons is altered to undergo regeneration and repair to adapt to changes in the cellular environment. In this study, we examined the expression of four AP-1 transcription factors, Jun, JunB, JunD and FRA-2, and AP-1 DNA binding activity in the rat hippocampus to examine changes during the periods of degeneration and then of regeneration and repair after TMT-induced neurotoxicity. The expression of these factors in the cerebellum was examined as a control since this brain region is not grossly affected by TMT. AP-1 DNA binding slowly increased in both the cerebellum and hippocampus from one hour to eight days after TMT exposure. Levels of Jun in the hippocampus significantly increased at 12 hours after TMT while JunB and JunD expression did not change. On the other hand, FRA-2 was induced at 8 days in the hippocampus after TMT treatment and was expressed only in hippocampi containing neurodegeneration as gauged by elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels. FRA-2 immunoreactivity was detected in the AP-1 DNA binding complex only in hippocampal extracts from rats after eight days post-trimethyltin administration. Thus, FRA-2 is a component of the AP-1 DNA binding complex suggesting that it is involved in regulating genes during a later stage of TMT neurotoxicity. PMID:10591512

Xiao, Y; Harry, G J; Pennypacker, K R

1999-10-01

423

Anti-Terror Strategy, the 9/11 Commission Report & Terrorism Financing: Implications for U.S. Policymakers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout the course of history, few, if any, wars against groups using terrorist-type tactics have been won by defensive operations. Accordingly, United States anti-terrorism strategy relies heavily on the doctrine of preemption. As a subset of this fra...

R. Perl

2005-01-01

424

Cerebral folate receptor autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically caused by folate receptor autoantibodies (FRAs) that interfere with folate transport across the blood–brain barrier. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and improvements in ASD symptoms with leucovorin (folinic acid) treatment have been reported in some children with CFD. In children with ASD, the prevalence of FRAs and the response to leucovorin in FRA-positive children has not been systematically investigated. In this study, serum FRA concentrations were measured in 93 children with ASD and a high prevalence (75.3%) of FRAs was found. In 16 children, the concentration of blocking FRA significantly correlated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-methyltetrahydrofolate concentrations, which were below the normative mean in every case. Children with FRAs were treated with oral leucovorin calcium (2?mg?kg?1 per day; maximum 50?mg per day). Treatment response was measured and compared with a wait-list control group. Compared with controls, significantly higher improvement ratings were observed in treated children over a mean period of 4 months in verbal communication, receptive and expressive language, attention and stereotypical behavior. Approximately one-third of treated children demonstrated moderate to much improvement. The incidence of adverse effects was low. This study suggests that FRAs may be important in ASD and that FRA-positive children with ASD may benefit from leucovorin calcium treatment. Given these results, empirical treatment with leucovorin calcium may be a reasonable and non-invasive approach in FRA-positive children with ASD. Additional studies of folate receptor autoimmunity and leucovorin calcium treatment in children with ASD are warranted.

Frye, R E; Sequeira, J M; Quadros, E V; James, S J; Rossignol, D A

2013-01-01

425

Expression of common fragile sites in two Ceboidea species: Saimiri boliviensis and Alouatta caraya (Primates: Platyrrhini)  

PubMed Central

Fragile sites are points of preferential breakage that may be involved in chromosome rearrangements. Induction of common fragile sites (c-fra) and spontaneous breakage were analyzed in two New World Monkeys species: Saimiri boliviensis (SBO) and Alouatta caraya (ACA). Spontaneous chromosome aberrations were analyzed on untreated lymphocyte cultures with Brögger's formula (1977). SBO presented a low level of spontaneous breakage, while higher frequencies were detected in ACA in which bands 1q23; 2q13 and 11q19 were significantly affected (p < 0.01). The populational distribution of c-fra was analyzed by the Chi2 test in FUdR plus caffeine treated cultures. A total of 21 c-fra was identified in SBO and 24 in ACA. Fragile sites A1q33, B1p21, B4p14, C3q23 and C5q22 were identified in all analyzed SBO specimens. The most frequent c-fra identified in ACA specimens were 1q23, 1q31, 1q33, 2q22, 8q14, 12q31, 13q22, 14q15 and Xq22. Fragile sites A1q31, A1q33, B1q14, B3q13, B4q21 and Xq22 identified in SBO and 1q31, 1q33, 2q22, 4q21, 6q13, 13q22 and Xq22 from ACA were the most conserved sites. A low coincidence between the location of c-fra and that of heterochromatin and breakpoints involved in euchromatic rearrangements known for these genera, was established.

Fundia, Ariela; Gorostiaga, Maria; Mudry, Marta

2000-01-01

426

Expression of common fragile sites in two Ceboidea species: Saimiri boliviensis and Alouatta caraya (Primates: Platyrrhini).  

PubMed

Fragile sites are points of preferential breakage that may be involved in chromosome rearrangements. Induction of common fragile sites (c-fra) and spontaneous breakage were analyzed in two New World Monkeys species: Saimiri boliviensis (SBO) and Alouatta caraya (ACA). Spontaneous chromosome aberrations were analyzed on untreated lymphocyte cultures with Brögger's formula (1977). SBO presented a low level of spontaneous breakage, while higher frequencies were detected in ACA in which bands 1q23; 2q13 and 11q19 were significantly affected (p<0.01). The populational distribution of c-fra was analyzed by the Chi2 test in FUdR plus caffeine treated cultures. A total of 21 c-fra was identified in SBO and 24 in ACA. Fragile sites A1q33, B1p21, B4p14, C3q23 and C5q22 were identified in all analyzed SBO specimens. The most frequent c-fra identified in ACA specimens were 1q23, 1q31, 1q33, 2q22, 8q14, 12q31, 13q22, 14q15 and Xq22. Fragile sites A1q31, A1q33, B1q14, B3q13, B4q21 and Xq22 identified in SBO and 1q31, 1q33, 2q22, 4q21, 6q13, 13q22 and Xq22 from ACA were the most conserved sites. A low coincidence between the location of c-fra and that of heterochromatin and breakpoints involved in euchromatic rearrangements known for these genera, was established. PMID:14736409

Fundia, A; Gorostiaga, M; Mudry, M

427

Cerebral folate receptor autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically caused by folate receptor autoantibodies (FRAs) that interfere with folate transport across the blood-brain barrier. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and improvements in ASD symptoms with leucovorin (folinic acid) treatment have been reported in some children with CFD. In children with ASD, the prevalence of FRAs and the response to leucovorin in FRA-positive children has not been systematically investigated. In this study, serum FRA concentrations were measured in 93 children with ASD and a high prevalence (75.3%) of FRAs was found. In 16 children, the concentration of blocking FRA significantly correlated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-methyltetrahydrofolate concentrations, which were below the normative mean in every case. Children with FRAs were treated with oral leucovorin calcium (2?mg?kg(-1) per day; maximum 50?mg per day). Treatment response was measured and compared with a wait-list control group. Compared with controls, significantly higher improvement ratings were observed in treated children over a mean period of 4 months in verbal communication, receptive and expressive language, attention and stereotypical behavior. Approximately one-third of treated children demonstrated moderate to much improvement. The incidence of adverse effects was low. This study suggests that FRAs may be important in ASD and that FRA-positive children with ASD may benefit from leucovorin calcium treatment. Given these results, empirical treatment with leucovorin calcium may be a reasonable and non-invasive approach in FRA-positive children with ASD. Additional studies of folate receptor autoimmunity and leucovorin calcium treatment in children with ASD are warranted. PMID:22230883

Frye, R E; Sequeira, J M; Quadros, E V; James, S J; Rossignol, D A

2012-01-10

428

Diluting segment in kidney of dogfish shark. II. Electrophysiology of apical membranes and cellular resistances.  

PubMed

Diluting segments from the bundle zone of the dogfish shark kidney were perfused in vitro and the electrophysiological characteristics of this segment investigated using conventional microelectrodes and cable analysis. In 21 tubules perfused with symmetrical Ringer solutions the average transepithelial voltage (Vte), transepithelial conductance (Gte), and equivalent short circuit current (Isc) were 8.7 +/- 0.6 mV, 91.3 +/- 10.2 mS/cm2, and 641 +/- 48 microA/cm2, respectively. Microelectrode impalements in 52 cells yielded values for the basolateral membrane voltage (Vb) and an estimated apical membrane fractional resistance (fRa) of -57.5 +/- 1.3 mV and 0.896 +/- 0.008, respectively. All of these parameters were distributed in a Gaussian manner. Liminal furosemide (10(-4) M) abolished Isc, hyperpolarized apical membrane voltage (Va) and Vb, increased Gte, and reduced fRa. The apical membrane was predominantly conductive to K+: increasing luminal K+ from 5 to 49.7 mM resulted in an apical depolarization of 41.2 mV and a fall in fRa and luminal Ba2+ (1 mM) depolarized Va by 14.3 mV and increased fRa. The apical transference number for K+ was 0.74 +/- 0.07. The cellular and paracellular resistances were estimated from the effects of luminal Ba2+ on fRa and Gte. The cell conductance represented approximately 45% of Gte, with the primary resistance barrier located at the apical membrane: apical membrane resistance was 59.7 +/- 16.0 and basolateral membrane resistance was 5.9 +/- 2.3 omega.cm2. From these resistance values together with the passive permeability (PNa/PCl) of 2.5 determined previously, the ratio of net Cl- absorption to net transcellular Na+ absorption was determined to be 2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2309934

Hebert, S C; Friedman, P A

1990-02-01

429

Electrophysiological effects of basolateral [Na+] in Necturus gallbladder epithelium.  

PubMed

In Necturus gallbladder epithelium, lowering serosal [Na+] ([Na+]s) reversibly hyperpolarized the basolateral cell membrane voltage (Vcs) and reduced the fractional resistance of the apical membrane (fRa). Previous results have suggested that there is no sizable basolateral Na+ conductance and that there are apical Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels. Here, we studied the mechanisms of the electrophysiological effects of lowering [Na+]s, in particular the possibility that an elevation in intracellular free [Ca2+] hyperpolarizes Vcs by increasing gK+. When [Na+]s was reduced from 100.5 to 10.5 mM (tetramethylammonium substitution), Vcs hyperpolarized from -68 +/- 2 to a peak value of -82 +/- 2 mV (P less than 0.001), and fRa decreased from 0.84 +/- 0.02 to 0.62 +/- 0.02 (P less than 0.001). Addition of 5 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA+) to the mucosal solution reduced both the hyperpolarization of Vcs and the change in fRa, whereas serosal addition of TEA+ had no effect. Ouabain (10(-4) M, serosal side) produced a small depolarization of Vcs and reduced the hyperpolarization upon lowering [Na+]s, without affecting the decrease in fRa. The effects of mucosal TEA+ and serosal ouabain were additive. Neither amiloride (10(-5) or 10(-3) M) nor tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M) had any effects on Vcs or fRa or on their responses to lowering [Na+]s, suggesting that basolateral Na+ channels do not contribute to the control membrane voltage or to the hyperpolarization upon lowering [Na+]s. The basolateral membrane depolarization upon elevating [K+]s was increased transiently during the hyperpolarization of Vcs upon lowering [Na+]s. Since cable analysis experiments show that basolateral membrane resistance increased, a decrease in basolateral Cl- conductance (gCl-) is the main cause of the increased K+ selectivity. Lowering [Na+]s increases intracellular free [Ca2+], which may be responsible for the increase in the apical membrane TEA(+)-sensitive gK+. We conclude that the decrease in fRa by lowering [Na+]s is mainly caused by an increase in intracellular free [Ca2+], which activates TEA(+)-sensitive maxi K+ channels at the apical membrane and decreases apical membrane resistance. The hyperpolarization of Vcs is due to increase in: (a) apical membrane gK+, (b) the contribution of the Na+ pump to Vcs, (c) basolateral membrane K+ selectivity (decreased gCl-), and (d) intraepithelial current flow brought about by a paracellular diffusion potential. PMID:1613485

Altenberg, G A; Stoddard, J S; Reuss, L

1992-02-01

431

Lunar Highlands Volcanism: The View from a New Millenium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Apollo era, the search for highlands volcanism has focused on selected light plains deposits as well as a class of spectral anomalies known as Red Spots. These spectral anomalies have spectra that are characterized by very strong ultraviolet absorptions. UV-IR color difference photographs were used to identify and characterize Red Spots on the lunar nearside. This suggested that these anomalously red areas may have compositions that are substantially different from those of typical highlands. In the immediate post-Apollo era, several workers presented evidence that at least some Red Spots were produced by highlands volcanism and suggested a connection with KREEP basalts (Medium-K Fra Mauro basalt) or even more evolved highlands compositions (e.g., High-K Fra Mauro basalt, dacite, rhyolite).

Hawke, B. R.; Lawrence, D. J.; Blewett, D. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Smith, G. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Spudis, P. D.

2002-01-01

432

A frazzled/DCC-dependent transcriptional switch regulates midline axon guidance.  

PubMed

Precise wiring of the nervous system depends on coordinating the action of conserved families of proteins that direct axons to their appropriate targets. Slit-roundabout repulsion and netrin-deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) (frazzled) attraction must be tightly regulated to control midline axon guidance in vertebrates and invertebrates, but the mechanism mediating this regulation is poorly defined. Here, we show that the Fra receptor has two genetically separable functions in regulating midline guidance in Drosophila. First, Fra mediates canonical chemoattraction in response to netrin, and, second, it functions independently of netrin to activate commissureless transcription, allowing attraction to be coupled to the down-regulation of repulsion in precrossing commissural axons. PMID:19325078

Yang, Long; Garbe, David S; Bashaw, Greg J

2009-03-26

433

In-home fall risk assessment and detection sensor system.  

PubMed

Falls are a major problem in older adults. A continuous, unobtrusive, environmentally mounted (i.e., embedded into the environment and not worn by the individual), in-home monitoring system that automatically detects when falls have occurred or when the risk of falling is increasing could alert health care providers and family members to intervene to improve physical function or manage illnesses that may precipitate falls. Researchers at the University of Missouri Center for Eldercare and Rehabilitation Technology are testing such sensor systems for fall risk assessment (FRA) and detection in older adults' apartments in a senior living community. Initial results comparing ground truth (validated measures) of FRA data and GAITRite System parameters with data captured from Microsoft(®) Kinect and pulse-Doppler radar are reported. PMID:23675644

Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie; Abbott, Carmen; Galambos, Colleen; Pak, Youngju; Ho, Dominic K C; Stone, Erik E; Rui, Liyang; Back, Jessica; Miller, Steven J

2013-05-15

434

Modeling behavioral responses to eliminating the retirement earnings test.  

PubMed

The retirement earnings test (RET) is an often-misunderstood aspect of the Social Security program. Proposed RET reforms meant to encourage working at older ages could also cause earlier benefit claiming. We use Modeling Income in the Near Term data to analyze the complete repeal of the earnings test for beneficiaries aged 60 or older, first assuming no behavioral responses to repeal and secondly assuming changes to benefit claiming and workforce participation behaviors. We find that beneficiaries affected by RET repeal would generally receive significantly higher benefits when they are younger than the full retirement age (FRA), and somewhat lower benefits after reaching FRA. RET repeal would not significantly change individuals' lifetime benefits and we find no significant changes in the overall poverty rate under either scenario. We find that assumed behavioral responses-particularly the benefit claiming change--have a bigger effect on lifetime benefits than the RET policy change itself. PMID:23687741

Olsen, Anya; Romig, Kathleen

2013-01-01

435

Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Regulates RhoA Activation and Tumor Cell Plasticity by Inhibiting Guanine Exchange Factor H1 Activity.  

PubMed

In certain Ras mutant cell lines, the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling increases RhoA activity and inhibits cell motility, which was attributed to a decrease in Fra-1 levels. Here we report a Fra-1-independent augmentation of RhoA signaling during short-term inhibition of ERK signaling. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we identified guanine exchange factor H1 (GEF-H1) as mediating this effect. ERK binds to the Rho exchange factor GEF-H1 and phosphorylates it on S959, causing inhibition of GEF-H1 activity and a consequent decrease in RhoA activity. Knockdown experiments and expression of a nonphosphorylatable S959A GEF-H1 mutant showed that this site is crucial in regulating cell motility and invasiveness. Thus, we identified GEF-H1 as a critical ERK effector that regulates motility, cell morphology, and invasiveness. PMID:24043311

von Thun, Anne; Preisinger, Christian; Rath, Oliver; Schwarz, Juliane P; Ward, Chris; Monsefi, Naser; Rodríguez, Javier; Garcia-Munoz, Amaya; Birtwistle, Marc; Bienvenut, Willy; Anderson, Kurt I; Kolch, Walter; von Kriegsheim, Alex

2013-09-16

436

Da Bhopal a Porto Marghera: la responsabilità ambientale delle compagnie transnazionali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sommario: La notte fra il 2 e il 3 dicembre 1984 quaranta tonnellate di una miscela di gas tossici fuoriuscirono dall'impianto di produzione di pesticidi della Union Carbide a Bhopal, in India. Questo incidente rappresenta il più grande disastro nella storia dell'industria chimica, per il quale oggi si contano almeno 20.000 vittime e circa mezzo milione di persone ne subiscono

Vittoria Polidori

437

DEFINIZIONE DI UNA PROVA DI ACCETTAZIONE SEMPLIFICATA ED ANALISI STATISTICA DEL COMPORTAMENTO VIBROACUSTICO DI RUOTE FERROVIARIE SMORZATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sommario Nel presente lavoro viene illustrata una procedura di accettazione di ruote ferroviarie trattate, nelle quali la ridotta emissione acustica è ottenuta mediante l'applicazione di uno smorzamento a strato vincolato mediante l'interposizione di un polimero viscoelastico fra il centro ruota ed un pannello di lamiera opportunamente sagomato. La procedura proposta è basata esclusivamente sull'analisi delle ampiezze di vibrazione in condizioni

A. Bracciali; S. Cervello; A. Rossi

438

La seconda vita di Polimorfus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le nuvole basse riflettevano ?aurora quando Polimorfus ricominciò a vivere. Il frastuono delle onde era già cessato e a centinaia\\u000a le oche selvatiche si erano radunate su u?altura. Più giù, il mare sfiorava ?erba e rauchi gabbiani zigzagavano fra i cespugli\\u000a ?erica. Anche il vento si era ormai placato e tutto sembrava meravigliosamente calmo. Solo a tratti un refolo piegava

Luca Sciortino

439

La seconda vita di Polimorfus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le nuvole basse riflettevano ?aurora quando Polimorfus ricominciò a vivere. Il frastuono delle ondeera già cessato e a centinaia\\u000a le oche selvatiche si erano radunate su un’altura. Più giù, il mare sfiorava ?erba e rauchi gabbiani zigzagavano fra i cespugli\\u000a ?erica. Anche il vento si era ormai placato e tutto sembrava meravigliosamente calmo. Solo a tratti un refolo piegava le

Luca Sciortino

440

Retinoic Acid Receptors Inhibit AP1 Activation by Regulating Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase and CBP Recruitment to an AP1Responsive Promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway (MAPKERK) is characterized, in intact cells, by a switch from a fra2-junD dimer to a junD-fosB dimer loading on its promoter and by simultaneous recruitment of ERKs, CREB-binding protein (CBP), and RNA polymerase II. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) receptor (RAR) was tethered constitutively to the AP1 promoter. AP1 transrepression by retinoic acid was concomitant to

Madjid Benkoussa; Céline Brand; Marie-Hélène Delmotte; Pierre Formstecher; Philippe Lefebvre

2002-01-01

441

Ectomycorrhiza formation and willow growth promotion as affected by associated bacteria: role of microbial metabolites and use of C sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic interactions affect the impact of potential plant growth promoting microorganisms in the rhizosphere, but their magnitude\\u000a and fundamentals are often hardly known. In a pot experiment, two physiologically different strains of the ectomycorrhizal\\u000a fungus Paxillus involutus (GUL and FRA) were tested separately and in combination with associated bacteria (Sphingomonas paucimobilis 1 L, Ralstonia pickettii 16 B, Sphingomonas sp. 23 L) on their

Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz; Agnieszka Ciesielska; Ingeborg Haug; Christel Baum

2010-01-01

442

TRUFFLER: Programs to Study Microbial Community Composition and Flux from Fluorescent DNA Fingerprinting Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal-Restriction Fra gment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Length Heter ogeneity-Polymerase Chain Reaction (LH-PCR) ar eD NA f i ngerprinting technologies whic hu se PCR amplification of a g ene of inter est e.g. small subunit rRN Ag ene ,t os tudy microbial community structur ea nd dynamics. Either one or both of the forward and reverse str and primer su

Michael J. Wise; A. Mark Osborn

2001-01-01

443

Fresh Kids: the efficacy of a Health Promoting Schools approach to increasing consumption of fruit and water in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fresh Kids programme utilized the Health Promoting Schools (HPSs) framework to design a whole-of-school, multifaceted intervention targeting specific behaviours to promote healthy eating and reduce the risk factors associated with childhood obesity. The aim of the pro- gramme was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HPS fra- mework to increase fruit and water consumption among primary school-aged children over

S. Laurence; R. Peterken; C. Burns

2007-01-01

444

NUOVI RITROVAMENTI DI PITTURE RUPESTRI E GRAFFITI IN ERITREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuove pitture e graffiti rupestri, rappresentanti animali e esseri umani eseguiti secondo tipi differenti di disegno, sono stati ritrovati, dal 1961 al 1964, nelle zone del T?m?zz?? (Ser?y?), Deggi'?n e Merett?? Sebene (Akkelè Guzáy). Fra gli animali compare, per la prima volta nelle figurazioni rupestri dell'Eritrea, anche la giraffa. De nouvelles peintures et gravures rupestres ont été découvertes, pendant les

VINCENZO FRANCHINI

1964-01-01

445

A new method for measuring guanidine in uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto Si descrive un metodo per la determinazione della guanidine nei liquidi biologici e si rileva che essa aumenta nel siero uremico fino a 30 volte la norma (valore medio normale: 1.41±0.49 ?g\\/100 ml) e che nei cani uremici la concentrazione muscolare è di quasi 3 volte superiore a quella plasmatica. La eliminazione urinaria non è diversa fra normali ed

G. C. Menichini; S. Giovannetti; S. Lupetti

1973-01-01

446

Prevalence of rabies specific antibodies in the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) at Lava Cave, New Mexico.  

PubMed

Adult female and juvenile Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) were collected bimonthly at Lava Cave, New Mexico from May through September. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of active rabies infection as well as to determine individual immune status in these hosts. All bats were bled and examined for rabies antibody (total antibody versus IgM) utilizing a modified serum neutralization test. The brains were removed and examined by the fluorescent rabies antibody (FRA) test. No significant difference was observed in the number of adults with rabies neutralizing antibody (total) over the study period. Significant differences in rabies neutralizing antibody (total) were observed among the juveniles sampled during July and August. The number of adults with IgM specific antibody was low (15 of 750, 2%) and did not fluctuate significantly. However, the number of juveniles with IgM antibody did show increased levels in August and September. The number of adults positive by the FRA was low (4 of 750, less than 1%) and did not appear to fluctuate significantly over the study period. The number of juveniles positive by the FRA was three and one-half times higher than observed for the adults (14 of 600, 2%). These results indicate that the Mexican free-tailed bat appears to be exposed to rabies virus shortly after birth as evident by its immune status. The low prevalence (4 of 750, less than 1%) of active infection as determined by the FRA and mouse inoculation and the high prevalence (514 of 750, 69%) of IgG antibody in the adult females indicate that the Mexican free-tailed bat recovers from rabies virus infection. PMID:2681843

Steece, R; Altenbach, J S

1989-10-01

447

Conductive properties of the rabbit outer medullary collecting duct: outer stripe.  

PubMed

Segments of the outer medullary collecting duct were dissected from the outer stripe of the rabbit kidney (OMCDo) and perfused in vitro. The conductive properties of the tubule epithelium and individual cell membranes were determined by means of cable analysis and intracellular voltage-recording microelectrodes. The transepithelial voltage (VT) and resistance (RT) averaged -10.7 +/- 2.5 mV, lumen negative, and 28.5 +/- 2.9 k omega X cm (n = 27), respectively. Two cell types could be defined by their electrophysiological properties. One cell type (n = 7) had a mean basolateral membrane voltage (Vbl) of -30.1 +/- 2.4 mV, a fractional resistance of the apical membrane (fRa = Ra/Ra + Rbl) near unity (0.99 +/- 0.01), and a predominantly Cl(-)-selective basolateral cell membrane. The second cell type (n = 27) had a mean Vbl of -63.7 +/- 2.7 mV, a fRa of 0.81 +/- 0.02, and a predominantly K+-selective basolateral cell membrane. The present study focused on defining the conductive properties of this latter cell type. Amiloride (10(-5) M) and BaCl2 (2 mM) were used as probes of apical cell membrane Na+ and K+ conductive pathways, respectively. Amiloride increased fRa from 0.80 +/- 0.02 to 0.98 +/- 0.01 (n = 12), whereas BaCl2 increased fRa from 0.77 +/- 0.03 to 0.82 +/- 0.03 (n = 9). The conductive properties of the basolateral cell membrane were assessed by ion substitutions of the bath solution. A 10-fold increase in the bath [K+] depolarized Vbl by 34.9 +/- 1.9 mV (n = 16) in less than 1 s, indicating that this membrane was predominantly K+ selective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3942227

Koeppen, B M

1986-01-01

448

Bulbospinal control of spinal cord pathways generating locomotor extensor activities in the cat  

PubMed Central

Intracellular recording of lumbosacral motoneurones in the decerebrate and partially spinalized cat injected with nialamide and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) was used to investigate the interneuronal convergence of two bulbospinal pathways and of the segmental pathways involved with the generation of extensor activities during locomotion. Deiter's nucleus (DN) or the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) was stimulated in alternation with, and in combination with, stimulation of group I afferents from extensor muscles or of contralateral flexor reflex afferents (coFRA). The evoked polysynaptic EPSPs were recorded in extensor motoneurones when long-latency, long-lasting discharges were evoked by the stimulation of coFRA and when the group I autogenetic inhibition in extensors was reversed to polysynaptic excitation. Spatial facilitation was inferred when the amplitude of the EPSPs evoked by the combined stimuli was notably larger than the algebraic sum of the EPSPs evoked by individual stimulation. Both DN (16 motoneurones) and MLF inputs (8 motoneurones) showed spatial facilitation when preceded by coFRA stimuli and both could reset the rhythm of fictive stepping by triggering a precocious extensor phase. MLF showed spatial facilitation with extensor group I inputs in 69 % of trials but DN failed to show spatial facilitation in any cells. These results indicate that DN and MLF project to the coFRA pathways of the extensor half-centre for locomotion and MLF, but not DN, converge on segmental interneurones of the extensor group I pathways. The implications of such convergence patterns on the functional organization of the extensor half-centre are discussed.

Leblond, Hugues; Menard, Ariane; Gossard, Jean-Pierre

2000-01-01

449

Characteristics of micromorphology and element distribution of iron–manganese cutans in typical soils of subtropical China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of iron–manganese cutans and to observe information of their pedogenic processes and certain environmental condition changes in the pedogenic process of subtropical Chinese soils. The characteristics of micromorphology of iron–manganese cutans and element distribution with linear microprofiles (i.e., the vertical microprofile from cutan to matrix soil) in Fragiudalfs (FRA), Ferrudalfs

Li Huang; Jun Hong; Wenfeng Tan; Hongqing Hu; Fan Liu; Mingkuang Wang

2008-01-01

450

Sull’ allargamento delle righe per risuonanza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunto. - Si dimostra che l’ allargamento di una riga in emissione varia come la radice quadrata della concentrazione e che\\u000a la distribuzione delle intensità segue una legge esponenziale. Queste due leggi sono state ricavate dall’ Holtzmark dalla\\u000a teoria dell’assorbimento basato sull’ azione mutua dei risuonatori uguali fra di loro, e questa teoria risulta quindi verificata\\u000a dall’ esperienza potendosi dunque

A. Carrelli

1929-01-01

451

Alterations in the common fragile site gene Parkin in ovarian and other cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cloning and characterization of the common fragile site (CFS) FRA6E (6q26) identified Parkin, the gene involved in the pathogenesis of many cases of juvenile, early-onset and, rarely, late-onset Parkinson's disease, as the third large gene to be localized within a large CFS. Initial analyses of Parkin indicated that in addition to playing a role in Parkinson's disease, it might

Stacy R Denison; Fang Wang; Nicole A Becker; Birgitt Schüle; Norman Kock; Leslie A Phillips; Christine Klein; David I Smith; DI Smith

2003-01-01

452

Fragile X chromosome and X-linked mental retardation.  

PubMed Central

A family is described in which three normal females transmitted to seven males X-linked mental retardation associated with macro-orchidism and a fragile site on the long arm of the X chromosome -- fra(X)(q27). The affected males also had minor clinical features in common: a large forehead, long face, large ears, a long upper lip and large extremities. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3

Larbrisseau, A.; Jean, P.; Messier, B.; Richer, C. L.

1982-01-01

453

Clinical significance of Caveolin-1, Caveolin-2 and HER2\\/neu mRNA expression in human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caveolin-1 and -2 (CAV1, CAV2) are closely linked genes localised to the fragile region of 7q31 (FRA7G), and loss of heterozygosity involving this region has been reported in breast cancer. Several studies have suggested that CAV1 is a negative regulator of HER2\\/neu signal transduction in vitro. However, the clinical significance of CAV1 in breast cancer has not yet been clarified.

Y Sagara; K Mimori; K Yoshinaga; F Tanaka; K Nishida; S Ohno; H Inoue; M Mori

2004-01-01

454

PHILOSOPHY FOR CHILDREN E SCIENZE MOTORIE : UNA CONCILIAZIONE IMPOSSIBILE ? IL CORPO E IL MOVIMENTO NEL CURRICOLO DELLA P4C  

Microsoft Academic Search

La presente ricerca è indirizzata all'individuazione di una possibile area di intersezione fra il curricolo della P4C e il mondo delle scienze motorie. Il percorso è tracciato sostanzialmente su due filoni. Quello principale è rivolto all'analisi della persona intesa come corpo vivente, come corpo proprio che si estrinseca attraverso movimenti caratterizzati da razionalità e intenzionalità. In particolar modo ci si

Stefano Scarpa

455

Assistenza ventilatoria cronica nel paziente ospedalizzato* Quindici anni di esperienza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obiettivi dello studio: I pazienti ventilati che non sono in grado di lasciare i reparti di terapia intensiva possono essere trasferiti ad un'unità per l'assistenza ventilatoria cronica (CAVC) con l'obiettivo di ottimizzare le loro capacità funzionali. In questo studio abbiamo riportato i risul- tati ottenuti in tutti i pazienti ricoverati in un'unità CAVC fra il 1986 ed il 2001. Pazienti

Peter J. Wijkstra; Monica A. Avendaño; Roger S. Goldstein

2003-01-01

456

Escape and transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry  

SciTech Connect

An improved technique for the generation of escape and transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry was applied to the existing resonance cross section processing code ROLAIDS. The algorithm of Hwang and Toppel, (ANL-FRA-TM-118) (with modifications) was employed. The probabilities generated were found to be as accurate as those given by the method previously applied in ROLAIDS, while requiring much less computer core storage and CPU time. (RWR)

Bjerke, M.A.

1980-01-01

457

Black and White or Technicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the repression of a signifying elements like color in the art of the late medieval period and coordinates\\u000a it with the rise of text, sovereignty and legal order in the 16th century. It uses Deleuze’s notions of life and the virtual\\u000a as a springboard for an analysis of the power of color in Giotto, Fra Angelico, Grunewald,

Marty Slaughter

2007-01-01

458

The FHIT Gene, Spanning the Chromosome 3p14.2 Fragile Site and Renal Carcinoma–Associated t(3;8) Breakpoint, Is Abnormal in Digestive Tract Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 200–300 kb region of chromosome 3p14.2, including the fragile site locus FRA3B, is homozygously deleted in multiple tumor-derived cell lines. Exon amplification from cosmids covering this deleted region allowed identification of the human FHIT gene, a member of the histidine triad gene family, which encodes a protein with 69% similarity to an S. pombe enzyme, diadenosine 5?, 5??? P1,

Masataka Ohta; Hiroshi Inoue; Maria Grazia Cotticelli; Kumar Kastury; Raffaele Baffa; Juan Palazzo; Zurab Siprashvili; Masaki Mori; Peter McCue; Teresa Druck; Carlo M Croce; Kay Huebner

1996-01-01

459

Competitive interaction of the antitumor drug daunorubicin and the fluorescence probe ethidium bromide with DNA as studied by resolving trilinear fluorescence data: the use of PARAFAC and its modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competitive interaction with DNA of daunorubicin (DR), being present in the clinical anti-tumor drug daunoblastina, and the fluorescence probe ethidium bromide (EB) has been studied by parallel-factor analysis (PARAFAC) and full-rank parallel-factor analysis (FRA-PARAFAC) of a fluorescence excitation-emission three-way data array. The PARAFAC algorithm can furnish stable resolution results for the data array studied, if the estimated number of

Hong Ping Xie; Jian Hui Jiang; Xia Chu; Hui Cui; Hai Long Wu; Guo Li Shen; Ru Qin Yu

2002-01-01

460

Sul principio della scelta ed alcuni problemi dell’ infinito  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunto  L’autore illustra i ragionamenti fondati su l’uso di scelte arbitrarie: siano queste in numero finito oppure in numero infinito.\\u000a \\u000a Osserva — forse per la prima volta — la differenza essenziale fra sceltesuccessive e sceltecontemporanee. Accennato all’ufficio, alla storia ed alle celebri discussioni sul principio della scelta, passa ad analizzare le forme\\u000a principali che esso può assumere. Infine espone alcune proposizioni

U. Cassina

1936-01-01

461

Further delineation of X-linked mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal, clinical, and psychological data are presented on members of six families with X-linked mental retardation. Affected males in three of these families express the fra(X)(q28) marker, while the retarded males in the other three do not. Similar variable physical and psychological charateristics, such as lop ears, large testes, and perseverative speech, are present in affected males in all six

D. S. Herbst; H. G. Dunn; F. J. Dill; D. K. Kalousek; L. W. Krywaniuk

1981-01-01

462

Mapping the human alpha globin gene complex to 16p13.2----pter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional localisation of the alpha globin (HBA) complex on the short arm of chromosome 16 was investigated by in situ hybridisation, Southern blot analysis, and linkage analysis using the fragile site at 16p12.3 (FRA16A) and translocation breakpoints within band 16p13.1. HBA was found to be distal to the two translocation breakpoints within band 16p13.1 and not closely linked to

R N Simmers; J C Mulley; V J Hyland; D F Callen; G R Sutherland

1987-01-01

463

Quando la contaminazione da Ogm è \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’introduzione, nella disciplina comunitaria sull’etichettatura di alimenti e mangimi GM, di una eccezione per il caso in cui vi sia una presenza di materiale Ogm nell’alimento o nel mangime entro lo 0,9% è all’origine delle regole di coesistenza fra produzioni transgeniche, convenzionali e biologiche. Nel momento in cui le Regioni italiane si apprestano ad introdurre siffatte regole è necessario un

Eleonora Sirsi

2009-01-01

464

Methamphetamine-induced changes in AP-1 binding and dynorphin in the striatum: correlated, not causally related events?  

PubMed

Activation of D1 dopamine (DA) receptors in the striatum increases the expression of the opioid neuropeptide, dynorphin (DYN). While cAMP is generally accepted as a second messenger in this signal transduction pathway, the role of Fos/FRA proteins and AP-1 binding in mediating D1 receptor-induced changes in DYN expression remains uncertain. In this study, DYN peptide and mRNA levels, as well as Fos/FRA proteins and AP-1 DNA binding activity, were measured in individual animals following acute challenge with the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). METH caused an initial decrease in striatal levels of DYN A, reflecting increased peptide release. Six hours postinjection, DYN mRNA levels were significantly elevated by METH as compared to vehicle-injected controls. At the same time, these drugs increased the expression of Fos/FRA-ir proteins, in particular the 35- and 40-kDa molecular weight species, and increased binding to the AP-1 DNA element. Analyses of the time course of METH's effects revealed that DYN mRNA levels, Fos/FRA proteins and AP-1 binding activity showed variable increases by 3 h but all were significantly elevated above control levels by 6 h posttreatment. The D1-specific antagonist, SCH 23390, completely blocked the METH-induced changes in DYN peptide and mRNA levels while a D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride) had little or no effect. These data indicate that stimulant drugs such as METH increase the expression of DYN and AP-1 factors in the striatum via a D1 receptor-mediated mechanism. However, the finding that AP-1 binding merely paralleled, but did not precede, the increase in DYN expression, as would be expected if it were mediating increased gene transcription, suggests these may be correlative, not causally related events. PMID:9116798

Bronstein, D M; Pennypacker, K R; Lee, H; Hong, J S

465

Transcription factors in primary glial cultures: changes with neuronal interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several astrocyte gene products, such as enkephalin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), are expressed at higher levels under in vitro conditions relative to in vivo. We have observed that cultured glial cells express high basal levels of transcription factors, such as fos-related antigens (Fra), c-Jun, JunD, and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB). When neuronal cells are plated on

K. R. Pennypacker; J. S. Hong; S. B. Mullis; P. M. Hudson; M. K. McMillian

1996-01-01

466

Realistic transverse images of the proton charge and magnetization densities  

SciTech Connect

We develop a technique, denoted as the finite radius approximation (FRA), that uses a two-dimensional version of the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem to determine transverse densities and their uncertainties from experimental quantities. Uncertainties arising from experimental uncertainties on the form factors and lack of measured data at high Q{sup 2} are treated. A key feature of the FRA is that a form factor measured at a given value of Q{sup 2} is related to a definite region in coordinate space. An exact relation between the FRA and the use of a Bessel series is derived. The proton Dirac form factor is sufficiently well known such that the transverse charge density is very accurately known except for transverse separations b less than about 0.1 fm. The Pauli form factor is well known to Q{sup 2} of about 10 GeV{sup 2}, and this allows a reasonable, but improvable, determination of the anomalous magnetic moment density.

Venkat, Siddharth [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0002 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Arrington, John; Zhan Xiaohui [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Miller, Gerald A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

2011-01-15

467

Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 1990s.  

PubMed

Carbon fluxes from tropical deforestation and regrowth are highly uncertain components of the contemporary carbon budget, due in part to the lack of spatially explicit and consistent information on changes in forest area. We estimate fluxes for the 1980s and 1990s using subpixel estimates of percent tree cover derived from coarse (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite data in combination with a terrestrial carbon model. The satellite-derived estimates of change in forest area are lower than national reports and remote-sensing surveys from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) in all tropical regions, especially for the 1980s. However, our results indicate that the net rate of tropical forest clearing increased approximately 10% from the 1980s to 1990s, most notably in southeast Asia, in contrast to an 11% reduction reported by the FRA. We estimate net mean annual carbon fluxes from tropical deforestation and regrowth to average 0.6 (0.3-0.8) and 0.9 (0.5-1.4) petagrams (Pg).yr(-1) for the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Compared with previous estimates of 1.9 (0.6-2.5) Pg.yr(-1) based on FRA national statistics of changes in forest area, this alternative estimate suggests less "missing" carbon from the global carbon budget but increasing emissions from tropical land-use change. PMID:12384569

DeFries, Ruth S; Houghton, Richard A; Hansen, Matthew C; Field, Christopher B; Skole, David; Townshend, John

2002-10-16

468

The PIAS-Like Protein Zimp10 Is Essential for Embryonic Viability and Proper Vascular Development?  

PubMed Central

Members of the PIAS (for protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family play critical roles in modulating the activity of a variety of transcriptional regulators. Zimp10, a novel PIAS-like protein, is a transcriptional coregulator and may be involved in the modification of chromatin through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes. Here, we investigate the biological role of Zimp10 in zimp10-deficient mice. Homozygosity for the Zimp10-targeted allele resulted in developmental arrest at approximately embryonic day 10.5. Analysis of knockout embryos revealed severe defects in the reorganization of the yolk sac vascular plexus. No significant abnormality in hematopoietic potential was observed in zimp10 null mice. Microarray and quantified reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that the expression of the Fos family member Fra-1, which is involved in extraembryonic vascular development, was reduced in yolk sac tissues of zimp10 null embryos. Using fra-1 promoter/reporter constructs, we further demonstrate the regulatory role of Zimp10 on the transcription of Fra-1. This study provides evidence to demonstrate a crucial role for Zimp10 in vasculogenesis.

Beliakoff, Jason; Lee, Jane; Ueno, Hiroo; Aiyer, Aparna; Weissman, Irving L.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Cardiff, Robert D.; Sun, Zijie

2008-01-01

469

The PIAS-like protein Zimp10 is essential for embryonic viability and proper vascular development.  

PubMed

Members of the PIAS (for protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family play critical roles in modulating the activity of a variety of transcriptional regulators. Zimp10, a novel PIAS-like protein, is a transcriptional coregulator and may be involved in the modification of chromatin through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes. Here, we investigate the biological role of Zimp10 in zimp10-deficient mice. Homozygosity for the Zimp10-targeted allele resulted in developmental arrest at approximately embryonic day 10.5. Analysis of knockout embryos revealed severe defects in the reorganization of the yolk sac vascular plexus. No significant abnormality in hematopoietic potential was observed in zimp10 null mice. Microarray and quantified reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that the expression of the Fos family member Fra-1, which is involved in extraembryonic vascular development, was reduced in yolk sac tissues of zimp10 null embryos. Using fra-1 promoter/reporter constructs, we further demonstrate the regulatory role of Zimp10 on the transcription of Fra-1. This study provides evidence to demonstrate a crucial role for Zimp10 in vasculogenesis. PMID:17967885

Beliakoff, Jason; Lee, Jane; Ueno, Hiroo; Aiyer, Aparna; Weissman, Irving L; Barsh, Gregory S; Cardiff, Robert D; Sun, Zijie

2007-10-29

470

The fragile X syndrome in a large family. III. Investigations on linkage of flanking DNA markers with the fragile site Xq27.  

PubMed Central

In a large family with the fragile X syndrome, we performed linkage investigations with six probes, detecting RFLPs at both sides of the fragile site Xq27. The nearest flanking markers were cX55.7 (DXS105) on the centromeric side (theta = 0.04, lod 5.0) and St14 (DXS52) on the telomeric side (theta = 0.08, lod 4.0). Non-penetrance could be shown by the presence of the grandpaternal X chromosome in three mentally retarded fra(X) positive males. A second non-penetrant male in this family had inherited an abnormal grandmaternal X chromosome. His carrier mother had two retarded fra(X) positive brothers. Intermediate between the non-penetrant and fully penetrant males was a non-retarded male, who expressed the fragile site in 6% of his cells. His X chromosome showed the same polymorphisms as were found in his seven severely retarded brothers. In five fra(X) negative females the presence of an abnormal X chromosome could be demonstrated. Despite the existence of non-penetrance in this pedigree, there was no close linkage between a factor IX polymorphism and the fragile site (theta = 0.16, lod 1.9). However, in six descendants of a non-penetrant male, the change to penetrance appeared to be accompanied by a low recombination frequency for flanking markers.

Veenema, H; Carpenter, N J; Bakker, E; Hofker, M H; Ward, A M; Pearson, P L

1987-01-01

471

Rater reliability of fragile X mutation size estimates: A multilaboratory analysis  

SciTech Connect

Notwithstanding the use of comparable molecular protocols, description and measurement of the fra(X) (fragile X) mutation may vary according to its appearance as a discrete band, smear, multiple bands, or mosaic. Estimation of mutation size may also differ from one laboratory to another. We report on the description of a mutation size estimate for a large sample of individuals tested for the fra(X) pre- or full mutation. Of 63 DNA samples evaluated, 45 were identified previously as fra(X) pre- or full mutations. DNA from 18 unaffected individuals was used as control. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and DNA fragments from each of four laboratories were sent to a single center where Southern blots were prepared and hybridized with the pE5.1 probe. Photographs from autoradiographs were returned to each site, and raters blind to the identity of the specimens were asked to evaluate them. Raters` estimates of mutation size compared favorably with a reference test. Intrarater reliability was good to excellent. Variability in mutation size estimates was comparable across band types. Variability in estimates was moderate, and was significantly correlated with absolute mutation size and band type. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Fisch, G.S. [Kings County Hospital Center and SUNY/Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Carpenter, N. [Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States); Maddalena, A. [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others

1996-08-09

472

'I start my day by thinking about what we're going to have for dinner'--a qualitative study on approaches to food-related activities among elderly men with somatic diseases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to address the question of how older men with somatic diseases living in their own home approach the question of food-related activities (FRA). Further, any adaptations of these activities necessitated by effects of diseases and of altered life circumstances were explored. Interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 18 co-living and single-living men, 64-84 years old. They were diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke. In the analysis, a thematic framework was used. The findings revealed three food-related approaches, namely 'Cooking as a pleasure', describing joy in cooking; 'Cooking as a need', indicating no habits or skills in cooking; and 'Food is served', that is, being served meals by a partner. It was found that gender-related roles in particular, but also changed life circumstances, activity limitations, personal interests, and a wish to maintain continuity and independence, affected the men's approaches to these activities. This knowledge may be useful in attempts to facilitate and support FRA among elderly men with diseases. Health care efforts to promote FRA should preferably be individualised in respect to older men's approaches to these activities. PMID:20659309

Kullberg, Kerstin; Björklund, Anita; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Åberg, Anna Cristina

2010-07-26

473

Serum Response Factor Regulates Expression of PTEN through a Micro-RNA Network in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Serum response factor (SRF) is a critical transcription factor in smooth muscle cells (SMC) controlling differentiation and proliferation. Our previous work demonstrated that depleting SRF in cultured SMC decreased expression of SMC markers, but increased proliferation and inflammatory mediators. A similar phenotype has been observed in SMC silenced for PTEN, suggesting that SRF and PTEN may lie on a common pathway. Our goal was to determine the effect of SRF depletion on PTEN levels, and define mechanisms mediating this effect. Methods and Results In SRF-silenced SMC, PTEN protein, but not mRNA levels were decreased, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. Re-introduction of PTEN into SRF-depleted SMC reversed increases in proliferation and cytokine/chemokine production, but had no effect on SMC marker expression. SRF-depleted cells showed decreased levels of miR-143, and increased miR-21, which was sufficient to suppress PTEN. Increased miR-21 expression was dependent on induction of FRA-1, which is a direct target of miR-143. Introducing miR-143 into SRF-depleted SMC reduced FRA-1 expression and miR-21 levels and restored PTEN expression. Conclusions SRF regulates PTEN expression in SMC through a miR network involving miR-143, targeting FRA-1, which regulates miR-21. Cross talk between SRF and PTEN likely represents a critical axis in phenotypic remodeling of SMC.

Horita, Henrick N; Simpson, Peter A.; Ostriker, Allison; Furgeson, Seth; Van Putten, Vicki; Weiser-Evans, Mary C.M.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.

2011-01-01

474

Preferential integration of marker DNA into the chromosomal fragile site at 3p14: An approach to cloning fragile sites  

SciTech Connect

Fragile sites are specific regions of chromosomes that are prone to breakage. In cells cultured under conditions that induce fragile site expression, high levels of inter- and intrachromosomal recombination have been observed involving chromosomal bands containing fragile sites. To determine whether expression of specific fragile sites would facilitate preferential integration of exogenous DNA at these recombination hot spots, the vector pSV2Neo was transfected into a Chinese hamster-human somatic cell hybrid containing a derivative chromosome 3 as its only human component. Chromosome 3 contains a common fragile site at band 3p14.2 (FRA3B) that is induced by aphidicolin. Both cells induced to express FRA3B and the uninduced control cells induced to express FRA3B and the uninduced control cells were transfected with the pSV2Neo selectable plasmid. In situ hybridization of a biotin-labeled pSV2Neo selectable plasmid. In situ hybridization of a biotin-labeled pSV2Neo probe to metaphase chromosomes revealed one to three integration sites in each stably transfected clone. These results suggest that preferential integration of marker DNA into human and Chinese hamster fragile sites occurs with exposure to aphidicolin. The nature of the DNA sequences at fragile sites is unknown and, despite a number of approaches, these sequences have not yet been isolated; this procedure may represent an approach to the cloning of fragile sites.

Rassool, F.V.; McKeithan, T.W.; Neilly, M.E.; Van Melle, E.; Espinosa, R. III; Le Beau, M.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

1991-08-01

475

Water quality characteristics of discharge from reforested loose-dumped mine spoil in eastern Kentucky.  

PubMed

Surface mining is a common method for extracting coal in the coal fields of eastern Kentucky. Using the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), which emphasizes the use of minimally compacted or loose-dumped spoil as a growth medium for trees, reclamation practitioners are successfully reestablishing forests. Yet, questions remain regarding the effects FRA has on the quality of waters discharged to receiving streams. To examine the effect of FRA on water quality, this study compared waters that were discharged from three types of spoils: predominantly brown, weathered sandstone (BROWN); predominantly gray, unweathered sandstone (GRAY); and an equal mixture of both aforementioned sandstones and shale (MIXED). The water quality parameters pH, EC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, NO-N, NH-N, SO, Cl, TC, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), settleable solids (SS), and turbidity were monitored over a 2-yr period on six 0.4-ha plots (two replications per spoil type). Generally, levels of Cl, SO, Ca, NO-N, NH-N, SS, SSC, and turbidity decreased over time. The pH for all spoils increased from about 7.5 to 8.5. The EC remained relatively level in the BROWN spoil, whereas the GRAY and MIXED spoils had downward trajectories that were approaching 500 ?S cm. The value of 500 ?S cm has been reported as the apparent threshold at which certain taxa such as Ephemeroptera (e.g., Mayfly) recolonize disturbed headwater streams of eastern Kentucky and adjacent coal-producing Appalachian states. PMID:22370409

Agouridis, Carmen T; Angel, Patrick N; Taylor, Timothy J; Barton, Christopher D; Warner, Richard C; Yu, Xia; Wood, Constance

476

Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein developmentally regulates activity-dependent axon pruning.  

PubMed

Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder with symptoms ranging from hyperexcitability to mental retardation and autism. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene product, the mRNA-binding translational regulator FMRP, causes structural over-elaboration of dendritic and axonal processes, as well as functional alterations in synaptic plasticity at maturity. It is unclear, however, whether FraX is primarily a disease of development, a disease of plasticity or both: a distinction that is vital for engineering intervention strategies. To address this crucial issue, we have used the Drosophila FraX model to investigate the developmental function of Drosophila FMRP (dFMRP). dFMRP expression and regulation of chickadee/profilin coincides with a transient window of late brain development. During this time, dFMRP is positively regulated by sensory input activity, and is required to limit axon growth and for efficient activity-dependent pruning of axon branches in the Mushroom Body learning/memory center. These results demonstrate that dFMRP has a primary role in activity-dependent neural circuit refinement during late brain development. PMID:18321984

Tessier, Charles R; Broadie, Kendal

2008-03-05

477

Fragile X syndrome in incestuous families  

SciTech Connect

Reed suggested the investigation of children 219 from incestuous unions as a method for calculation of the detrimental heterozygosity of man. Some studies of latent genetics load in man have been based on the comparison of health status of incestuous children with their half-sibs born to the same mothers in matings with nonconsanguineous partners. These studies were limited to the detection of autosomal-recessive genes leading to abnormal phenotypes or mental deficiency in homozygotes. The highest coefficient of inbreeding in human beings is 1/4 in offspring of incestuous matings: hence, the high proportion of affected homozygotes and low incidence of affected individuals among their maternal half-sibs. Mental deficiency in incestuous children represents not only cases of simple recessive inheritance. Recently, we observed three incestuous families in which fragile X syndrome was detected. The fra(X) children were born to carriers from incestuous unions as well as to unrelated partners. Therefore, we recommend use of incestuous children and their maternal half-sibs as a control group for studies estimating latent genetic load after investigation for fra(X). The incidence of fra(X) syndrome is high, and mental retardation in heterozygotes is uncommon. Both of these factors can play a role in the occurrence of incest, and in pregnancy at young age, as well as in multiple partnerships. Families of heterozygotes for fragile X should be excluded from the material for the calculation of human latent detrimental (autosomal-recessive) genetic load. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Seemanova, E. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

1996-11-11

478

Molecular fragil X screening in normal populations  

SciTech Connect

In December, 1993, we initiated a pilot project in which DNA fragile X (fraX) testing was offered during routine prenatal or genetic counseling to all pregnant women seen at the Genetics & IVF Institute, most of whom were referred for the indication of advanced maternal age. A brochure on fragile X syndrome was sent to each patient prior to her appointment and was reviewed by a counselor or physician during the counseling session. As of June 1995, 3,345 patients were offered testing; 474 women with no identified family history of mental retardation or learning disability and 214 women with a positive family history accepted the test on a self-pay basis. The second population screened was 271 potential donors in our anonymous egg donor program. DNA from blood was tested by Southern blot using EcoRI/EagI and StB12.3. If an expansion was detected, CGG repeat number was determined by PCR-based analysis. Among the 474 patients with unremarkable family histories, three fraX carriers were identified (repeat sizes = 60+), whereas none were found in the 214 patients with a positive family history. Among the potential egg donors, two high borderline patients were identified (repeat sizes = between 50 and 59). Our ongoing study indicates that screening of pregnant or preconceptual populations for fraX carrier status using DNA testing is accepted by many patients and is an important addition to current medical practice. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Spence, W.C.; Black, S.H.; Fallon, L. [Genetics & IVF Inst., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others

1996-07-12

479

Neuropsychological profiles of three sisters homozygous for the fragile X premutation  

SciTech Connect

Fragile X syndrome (fraX) is associated with an amplification of a CGG repeat within the fraX mental retardation (FMR-1) gene. We describe an exceptional family in which 3 adult sisters are homozygous for the FMR-1 premutation. Each sister inherited 2 premutation alleles (ca. 80 CGG repeats) from their biologically unrelated parents. The 3 sisters were administered measures of executive function, visual spatial, memory, and verbal skills. Deficiencies in the first 2 of these domains have been reported among females with the full mutation. The sisters` performances were compared with available normative data and with published group means for females affected by fraX. These women did not appear to have verbal or memory difficulties. None of the women demonstrated a global executive function deficit, and none had global deficits in spatial ability. The profiles of these sisters are consistent with reports that the fragile X premutation does not affect cognitive performance. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Mazzocco, M.M.M. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Holden, J.J.A. [Ongwanada Resource Centre, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

1996-08-09

480

3D PATTERN OF BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN FRAGILE X SYNDROME VISUALIZED USING TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome (FraX), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, results in impaired cognition with particular deficits in executive function and visuo-spatial skills. Here we report the first detailed 3D maps of the effects of the Fragile X mutation on brain structure, using tensor-based morphometry. TBM visualizes structural brain deficits automatically, without time-consuming specification of regions-of-interest. We compared 36 subjects with FraX (age: 14.66+/?1.58SD, 18 females/18 males), and 33 age-matched healthy controls (age: 14.67+/?2.2SD, 17 females/16 males), using high-dimensional elastic image registration. All 69 subjects' 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs were spatially deformed to match a high-resolution single-subject average MRI scan in ICBM space, whose geometry was optimized to produce a minimal deformation target. Maps of the local Jacobian determinant (expansion factor) were computed from the deformation fields. Statistical maps showed increased caudate (10% higher; p=0.001) and lateral ventricle volumes (19% higher; p=0.003), and trend-level parietal and temporal white matter excesses (10% higher locally; p=0.04). In affected females, volume abnormalities correlated with reduction in systemically measured levels of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP; Spearman's rFraX and its treatment.

Lee, Agatha D.; Leow, Alex D.; Lu, Allen; Reiss, Allan L.; Hall, Scott; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

2007-01-01

481

Characterization of apical and basolateral membrane conductances of rat inner medullary collecting duct.  

PubMed

Initial segments of the inner medullary collecting duct of the rat were perfused in vitro, and the electrophysiological properties of the apical and basolateral membranes were examined with KCl-filled microelectrodes. The fractional resistance of the apical membrane (FRa = Ra/Ra + Rbl) and the transepithelial resistance (RT) were estimated by cable analysis. In control tubules the transepithelial voltage (VT) averaged -2.2 mV, and the voltage across the basolateral membrane (Vbl) averaged -51.1 mV. RT was 11.9 k omega.cm (72.8 omega.cm2), and FRa was 0.94. Pretreatment of the rats with deoxycorticosterone (DOC)-pivalate for 7-10 days did not alter these electrophysiological properties. In control tubules, amiloride in the lumen (10(-5) M) changed VT from -3.0 to +1.4 mV and increased Vbl from -49.4 to -53.8 mV, RT from 12.5 to 13.6 k omega.cm, and FRa from 0.92 to 0.98. Thus the apical membrane is conductive to Na+. An increase of the bath K+ concentration from 4 to 15 mM caused an 18.8 mV depolarization of Vbl: barium in the bath also depolarized Vbl. A fivefold decrease in the [HCO3-] in the bath depolarized Vbl by 13.1 mV. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) blocked this depolarization. Thus the basolateral membrane is conductive to K+ and HCO3-. Experiments with ouabain revealed a Na+-K+-ATPase in the basolateral membrane. Taken together, the results support a model in which electrogenic Na+ absorption is driven by the Na+-K+-ATPase in the basolateral membrane, with passive movement of Na+ occurring through an amiloride-sensitive conductive pathway in the apical membrane. PMID:2719119

Stanton, B A

1989-05-01

482

Serotonin-dependent collagenase transcription in myometrial cells requires extended AP-1 site.  

PubMed

Primary cultures of uterine smooth muscle cells from post-partum rats express interstitial collagenase in response to serotonin and the serotonin-dependent production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) [Wilcox, B.D., Dumin, J.A. and Jeffrey, J.J. Serotonin regulation of interleukin-1 messenger RNA in rat uterine smooth muscle cells. Relationship to the production of interstitial collagenase J. Biol. Chem., 269, (1994a), 29658]. Transient transfections of these cells indicate that rat collagenase transcription is regulated via a proximal consensus AP-1 site within an extended palindrome. Mutation of either the AP-1 site or extended palindrome (EP) decreases promoter activity to approximately 30% of the wild-type. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal the binding of smooth muscle cell nuclear proteins to the AP-1 EP. This binding is barely detectable after mutation of the EP and is completely eliminated by mutation of the AP-1 heptamer. Competition experiments demonstrate that binding to the AP-1 EP is specific and of higher affinity than binding to oligonucleotides containing a mutated EP. Binding to the AP-1 EP is higher when smooth muscle cells are cultured in the presence of serotonin than in its absence. Although IL-1 is required for collagenase transcription, binding to the AP-1 EP appears to be IL-1-independent. FosB, Fra-2, c-Jun, JunB and, most abundantly, JunD bind the AP-1 EP in the absence and presence of serotonin. In contrast, Fra-1 expression and binding are serotonin-dependent suggesting that the activation of Fra-1 may be a key component of collagenase transcriptional activation. PMID:11162889

Wilcox, C B; Weisberg, E; Dumin, J A; Wilcox, B D; Jeffrey, J J

2000-12-22

483

Analysis of AP-1 function in cellular transformation pathways.  

PubMed Central

To understand the role of endogenous AP-1 activity in cellular transformation induced by oncogenes, we have made use of a fos mutant (supfos-1) and a jun mutant (supjun-1), either of which can function as a transdominant inhibitor of AP-1-mediated transcriptional regulation. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with a series of transforming retroviruses were doubly infected with retrovirus carrying supfos-1 or supjun-1, and suppression of cellular transformation was monitored in terms of reversion to normal cellular morphology or acquisition of anchorage-dependent growth. Cellular transformation induced by several exogenously expressed transforming genes of the fos or jun family was efficiently suppressed, as expected. CEF transformed by v-src, v-yes, v-fps, c-Ha-ras, and N-terminally truncated c-raf were also induced to revert to the normal phenotype by these transdominant mutants, suggesting that functional transcription factor AP-1 activity is essential for the cellular transformation induced by these oncogenes. The suppression is not attributable to nonspecific inhibition of cellular proliferation, because CEF transformed by v-ros or v-myc were not induced to revert to the normal phenotype. We next analyzed changes in all known components of chicken AP-1 induced by v-src, c-Ha-ras, or activated c-raf transformation. The levels of both Fra-2 and c-Jun expression were elevated two- to fourfold, and hyperphosphorylation of Fra-2 was also observed. We further showed that Fra-2-c-Jun heterodimer is mainly responsible for the elevated AP-1 DNA-binding activity in these transformed cells, and we propose that this heterodimer play a crucial role in the transformation induced by these oncogenes. Images

Suzuki, T; Murakami, M; Onai, N; Fukuda, E; Hashimoto, Y; Sonobe, M H; Kameda, T; Ichinose, M; Miki, K; Iba, H

1994-01-01

484

Quantifying uncertainty inherent to state-of-the-art flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Referring to state-of-the-art flood risk assessment (FRA), flood hazard is typically characterised by three normatively defined scenarios. In the frame of this paper this widely accepted and applied standardized FRA approach considers the scenarios HQ30, HQ100 and HQ300 with respect to the EU Floods Directive. This range of scenarios typically does not cover the required range of scenarios from "no damage" to "worst case" leading to an underestimation of the overall flood risk. Additionally, flood vulnerability is analysed based on Corine Land Cover data and the digital cadastral land register, respectively. This simplified approach enables just a generalised examination of human exposure, exposed structures and potentially affected environmental properties. However, the high variability in most relevant processes (hydrology, hydrodynamics) or some processes themselves (e.g. sediment transport) are generally neglected. Therefore, the reliability of risk assessment is highly dependent on data availability and data accuracy. Especially, an increase in data accuracy (considered scenarios, topographical data, simulation results and vulnerability data) enables a more robust calculation of hazard and vulnerability. Therefore, benefits of integrating additional data sources and processes to standardised FRA are analysed based on case studies in Austria. These sources and processes are (1) the consideration of a broadened range of scenarios from "no damage" to "worst case" (2) the consideration of morphological river bed variability (3) the definition and evaluation of failure scenarios and (4) the implementation of in-field mapping information and interviews. Results indicate that due to the proposed additional analyses more robust results can be expected. However, much more time, data and resources are needed. Therefore, this revised flood risk assessment concept is only appropriately applicable on detailed studies or rivers where reliable data is available.

Neuhold, C.

2012-04-01

485

Temporal requirements of the fragile X mental retardation protein in the regulation of synaptic structure.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome (FraX), caused by the loss-of-function of one gene (FMR1), is the most common inherited form of both mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders. The FMR1 product (FMRP) is an mRNA-binding translation regulator that mediates activity-dependent control of synaptic structure and function. To develop any FraX intervention strategy, it is essential to define when and where FMRP loss causes the manifestation of synaptic defects, and whether the reintroduction of FMRP can restore normal synapse properties. In the Drosophila FraX model, dFMRP loss causes neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapse over-elaboration (overgrowth, overbranching, excess synaptic boutons), accumulation of development-arrested satellite boutons, and altered neurotransmission. We used the Gene-Switch method to conditionally drive dFMRP expression to define the spatiotemporal requirements in synaptic mechanisms. Constitutive induction of targeted neuronal dFMRP at wild-type levels rescues all synaptic architectural defects in Drosophila Fmr1 (dfmr1)-null mutants, demonstrating a presynaptic requirement for synapse structuring. By contrast, presynaptic dFMRP expression does not ameliorate functional neurotransmission defects, indicating a postsynaptic dFMRP requirement. Strikingly, targeted early induction of dFMRP effects nearly complete rescue of synaptic structure defects, showing a primarily early-development role. In addition, acute dFMRP expression at maturity partially alleviates dfmr1-null defects, although rescue is not as complete as either early or constitutive dFMRP expression, showing a modest capacity for late-stage structural plasticity. We conclude that dFMRP predominantly acts early in synaptogenesis to modulate architecture, but that late dFMRP introduction at maturity can weakly compensate for early absence of dFMRP function. PMID:18579676

Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal

2008-06-25

486

Enhanced serum response element binding activity correlates with down-regulation of c-fos mRNA expression in the rat brain following repeated cortical lesions.  

PubMed

Repeated lesions of rat cerebral cortex result in transient peaks in the level of the c-fos transcript, but after the second lesion, this peak is substantially diminished. Using this lesion paradigm, we have analyzed the participation of the c-fos promoter elements SRE and DSE in the regulation of c-fos transcription. Following a single lesion, SRE/DSE binding activity peaked at 2 h, subsequent to the maximal levels of c-fos mRNA and parallel to the peak of c-Fos protein. After a second lesion (reinduction), 4 h following the initial lesion, SRE/DSE binding activity peaked after only 30 min and was significantly higher than following the first lesion. Once again, this peak occurred after the peak of c-fos mRNA expression and parallel with the second peak of c-Fos protein expression. These results suggested that the SRE and DSE promoter elements participated in the induction and down-regulation of c-fos transcription in vivo and suggested the possible involvement of Fos protein in its own regulation. The ability of Fos/Fra proteins to participate in a transcriptional complex was confirmed in gel-shift experiments with an AP-1 element, and the biphasic trend of binding activity was observed. Supershift experiments were performed to directly determine whether Fos protein was participating in SRE and/or DSE transcriptional complexes. No alterations in the position or intensity of the shifted band were observed using Fos/Fra antiserum suggesting that Fos/Fra proteins could be involved in c-fos down-regulation through mechanisms other than direct participation in the SRE/DSE transcription complex. PMID:9450678

Ivkovic, S; Kanazir, S; Rakic, L; Ehrlich, M E; Ruzdijic, S

1997-12-01

487

Apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sources in lower Fox River, USA, sediments by a chemical mass balance model  

SciTech Connect

Four sediment cores were collected from the lower Fox River, Wisconsin, USA, to identify possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a chemical mass balance model. The cores, which were obtained in 1995 from areas close to Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA, had total PAH concentrations between 19.3 and 0.34 ppm. To determine historical trends of PAH inputs, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs dating was used, and elemental carbon particle analysis was done to characterize particles from the combustion of coal, wood, and petroleum. Source fingerprints were taken from the literature. Their results indicate that coke oven emissions, highway dust, coal gasification, and wood burning are likely sources of PAHs in the lower Fox River. Coke oven emissions are in the range of 40 to 90% of total PAHs, and this fraction decreases from 1930 to 1990, except in core Fox River-A (FR-A). The overall highway dust (HWY) contribution is between 10 and 75%, and this fraction increases from 1930 to present, except in core FR-A. The wood burning (WB) contribution is less than 7% in cores FR-B, FR-C, and FR-D. In core FR-A, a maximum ({approximately}23%) is found around 1960. The contribution of wood burning has changed from less than 6% in 1950 to between 3 and 10% in 1995. Evidence of aerobic biodegradation or photolysis in the sediment of phenanthrene, with a half-life of approximately 0.5 years has been found at the site of core FR-D, which is the shallowest (1.1 m) of the four core sites.

Su, M.C.; Christensen, E.R.; Karls, J.F.; Kosuru, S.; Imamoglu, I.

2000-06-01

488

Induction of gene expression via activator protein-1 in the ascorbate protection against UV-induced damage.  

PubMed Central

UV irradiation is a major insult to the skin. We have shown previously that exogenous vitamin C (ascorbate) accumulates in HaCaT keratinocytes, thus conferring the ability to prevent radical formation and cell death elicited by UV-B. Here, we have investigated the potential mechanisms accounting for the cytoprotective effects exerted by this antioxidant. Using a cDNA microarray hybridization, we identified several genes whose expression was up-regulated by ascorbate. We focused on the fra-1 gene, a member of the Fos family of transcription factors that down-regulates activator protein-1 (AP-1) target genes. Both in HaCaT and in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, we found Fra-1 mRNA induction as early as 2 h after ascorbate loading. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and antibody supershift analysis revealed that ascorbate modulates AP-1 DNA-binding activity and that Fra-1 is in AP-1 complexes in treated cells. Furthermore, transient-transfection studies, using an AP-1 reporter construct, showed that ascorbate was able to inhibit both basal and UV-B-induced AP-1-dependent transcription. Ascorbate also modulates UV-B-induced AP-1 activity by preventing the phosphorylation and activation of the upstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), thus inhibiting phosphorylation of the endogenous c-Jun protein. These data suggest that ascorbate mediates cellular responses aimed at counteracting UV-mediated cell damage and cell death by interfering at multiple levels with the activity of the JNK/AP-1 pathway and modulating the expression of AP-1-regulated genes.

Catani, M V; Rossi, A; Costanzo, A; Sabatini, S; Levrero, M; Melino, G; Avigliano, L

2001-01-01

489

NGA Streaming Slideshow: The Adoration of the Magi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This streaming audio/slide show is the latest creation from the National Gallery of Art (NGA). The presentation consists of an in-depth examination and explanation of The Adoration of the Magi, the colorful painting by Fra Angelico and Filippo Lippi. The painting is from the early Italian Renaissance and represents the three kings bringing gifts to the Christ Child twelve days after his birth. The slide show is narrated by NGA director, Earl A. Powell, III, and also contains a text transcription.

2002-01-01

490

Discrepancy between radiographic shoulder balance and cosmetic shoulder balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with double thoracic curve  

PubMed Central

Shoulder balance is one of the key components to the body deformity in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with double thoracic curve and shoulder cosmesis plays an important role in patients’ satisfaction of surgical outcomes. Up to now, only radiographic parameters were used to evaluate the shoulder balance in literatures; no corresponding cosmetic parameters have been developed to evaluate the cosmetic shoulder balance. Meanwhile, we often confronted that perfect radiographic shoulder balance was achieved, but the patients complained about the residual cosmetic deformity. This phenomenon implied that discrepancy may exist between radiographic shoulder balance and cosmetic shoulder balance. The present study was carried out to investigate the correlation between radiographic and clinical cosmetic shoulder balance in AIS patients with double thoracic curve. Thirty-four AIS patients were recruited for this study. All the patients had a double thoracic curve. Six cosmetic parameters––inner shoulder height (SHi), outer shoulder height (SHo), shoulder area index 1 (SAI1), shoulder area index 2 (SAI2), shoulder angle (?1) and axilla angle (?2) were developed and measured on the standing photographs. Also, seven radiographic parameters––T1 tilting (T1), first rib angle (FRA), clavicle angle (CA), coracoid process height (CPH), clavicle-rib cage intersection (CRCI), first rib–clavicle height (FRCH), trapezius length (TL) were measured on the standing posterior–anterior radiographs. Correlation analysis was made between cosmetic parameters and radiographic parameters. SHi was found to be significantly correlated with T1, FRA, CA, CPH, CRCI (P < 0.05), among which FRA had the highest correlation coefficient. SHo was found to be significantly correlated with T1, FRA, CA, CPH, CRCI, FRCH (P < 0.05), among which CRCI had the highest correlation coefficient. However, none of the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.8. The correlation coefficients between radiographic parameters and SAI1, SAI2, ?1, ?2 were also below 0.8 that were similar with SH. The results indicated that radiographic parameters could only partially reflect the shoulder cosmetic appearances. However, none of the existing parameters can accurately reflect the shoulder cosmetic appearance. As cosmesis is critical important to patients’ satisfaction, spine surgeons should pay more attention to the cosmetic shoulder balance rather than radiographic shoulder balance.

Qiu, Xu-sheng; Ma, Wei-wei; Li, Wei-guo; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ze-zhang; Qian, Bang-ping; Zhu, Feng; Sun, Xu; Ng, Bobby K. W.; Cheng, Jack C. Y.

2008-01-01

491

Discrepancy between radiographic shoulder balance and cosmetic shoulder balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with double thoracic curve.  

PubMed

Shoulder balance is one of the key components to the body deformity in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with double thoracic curve and shoulder cosmesis plays an important role in patients' satisfaction of surgical outcomes. Up to now, only radiographic parameters were used to evaluate the shoulder balance in literatures; no corresponding cosmetic parameters have been developed to evaluate the cosmetic shoulder balance. Meanwhile, we often confronted that perfect radiographic shoulder balance was achieved, but the patients complained about the residual cosmetic deformity. This phenomenon implied that discrepancy may exist between radiographic shoulder balance and cosmetic shoulder balance. The present study was carried out to investigate the correlation between radiographic and clinical cosmetic shoulder balance in AIS patients with double thoracic curve. Thirty-four AIS patients were recruited for this study. All the patients had a double thoracic curve. Six cosmetic parameters--inner shoulder height (SHi), outer shoulder height (SHo), shoulder area index 1 (SAI1), shoulder area index 2 (SAI2), shoulder angle (alpha1) and axilla angle (alpha2) were developed and measured on the standing photographs. Also, seven radiographic parameters--T1 tilting (T1), first rib angle (FRA), clavicle angle (CA), coracoid process height (CPH), clavicle-rib cage intersection (CRCI), first rib-clavicle height (FRCH), trapezius length (TL) were measured on the standing posterior-anterior radiographs. Correlation analysis was made between cosmetic parameters and radiographic parameters. SHi was found to be significantly correlated with T1, FRA, CA, CPH, CRCI (P < 0.05), among which FRA had the highest correlation coefficient. SHo was found to be significantly correlated with T1, FRA, CA, CPH, CRCI, FRCH (P < 0.05), among which CRCI had the highest correlation coefficient. However, none of the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.8. The correlation coefficients between radiographic parameters and SAI1, SAI2, alpha1, alpha2 were also below 0.8 that were similar with SH. The results indicated that radiographic parameters could only partially reflect the shoulder cosmetic appearances. However, none of the existing parameters can accurately reflect the shoulder cosmetic appearance. As cosmesis is critical important to patients' satisfaction, spine surgeons should pay more attention to the cosmetic shoulder balance rather than radiographic shoulder balance. PMID:19043746

Qiu, Xu-sheng; Ma, Wei-wei; Li, Wei-guo; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ze-zhang; Qian, Bang-ping; Zhu, Feng; Sun, Xu; Ng, Bobby K W; Cheng, Jack C Y; Qiu, Yong

2008-11-29

492

Variability in the heterochromatin regions of the chromosomes and chromosomal anomalies in children with autism: Identification of genetic markers of autistic spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of children with autism (90 subjects) and their mothers (18 subjects) is presented.\\u000a Anomalies and fragility were found in chromosome X in four cases of autism: mos 47,XXX[98]\\/46, XX[2]; 46,XY,r(22)(p11q13);\\u000a 46,XY,inv(2)(p11.2q13),16qh-; and 46,Y,fra(X)(q27.3),16qh-. C staining and quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization\\u000a (FISH) were used to demonstrate a significant increase in the frequency of variations in

S. G. Vorsanova; I. Yu. Yurov; I. A. Demidova; V. Yu. Voinova-Ulas; V. S. Kravets; I. V. Solov’ev; N. L. Gorbachevskaya; Yu. B. Yurov

2007-01-01

493

Dependence of cell membrane conductances on bathing solution HCO3-/CO2 in Necturus gallbladder.  

PubMed

The effects of bathing solution HCO3-/CO2 concentrations on baseline cell membrane voltages and resistances were measured in Necturus gallbladder epithelium with conventional intracellular microelectrode techniques. Gallbladders were bathed in either low HCO3-/CO2 Ringer's solutions (2.4 mM HCO3-/air or 1 mM HEPES/air) or a high HCO3-/CO2 Ringer's (10 mM HCO3-/1% CO2). The principal finding of these studies was that the apical membrane fractional resistance (fRa) was higher in tissues bathed in the 10 mM HCO3-/CO2 Ringer's, averaging 0.87 +/- 0.06, whereas fRa averaged 0.63 +/- 0.07 and 0.48 +/- 0.08 in 2.4 mM HCO3- and 1 mM HEPES, respectively. Intraepithelial cable analysis was employed to obtain estimates of the individual apical (Ra) and basolateral membrane (Rb) resistances in tissues bathed in 10 mM HCO3-/1% CO2 Ringer's. Compared to previous resistance measurements obtained in tissues bathed in a low HCO3-/CO2 Ringer's, the higher value of fRa was found to be due to both an increase in Ra and a decrease in Rb. The higher values of fRa and lower values of Rb confirm the recent observations of others. To ascertain the pathways responsible for these effects, cell membrane voltages were measured during serosal solution K+ and Cl- substitutions. The results of these studies suggest that an electrodiffusive Cl- transport mechanism exists at the basolateral membrane of tissues bathed in a 10 mM HCO3-/1% CO2 Ringer's, which can explain in part the fall in Rb. The above observations are discussed in terms of a stimulatory effect of solution [HCO3-]/PCO2 on transepithelial fluid transport, which results in adaptive changes in the conductive properties of the apical and basolateral membranes. PMID:3138415

Stoddard, J S; Reuss, L

1988-05-01

494

Argon-40-argon-39 dating of apollo sample 15555.  

PubMed

An age of 3.33+/-0.05x10(9) years was obtained for Apollo 15 sample 15555 by argon40-argon-39 dating. The age of rock 15555, a basalt from the rim of Hadley Rille, establishes an upper limit to the age of the rille. The basalt flows filling the Hadley Rille section of the Imbrium basin postdate the formation of the basin-as measured by the Apollo 14 samples of the Fra Mauro formation-by at least 500x10(6) years. Therefore, the mare basalts cannot be simple impact melts but rather must result from some igneous activity on the moon. PMID:17731360

Alexander, E C; Davis, P K; Lewis, R S

1972-01-28

495

Cadmium induces phosphorylation and stabilization of c-Fos in HK-2 renal proximal tubular cells  

SciTech Connect

We examined the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) exposure on the expression and phosphorylation status of members of the Fos family, components of the activator protein-1 transcription factor, in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Following the exposure to CdCl{sub 2}, the expression of c-fos, fosB, fra-1, and fra-2 increased markedly, with different magnitudes and time courses. The levels of Fos family proteins (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) also increased in response to CdCl{sub 2} exposure. Although the elevation of c-fos transcripts was transient, c-Fos protein levels increased progressively with lower electrophoretic mobility, suggesting stabilization of c-Fos through post-translational modifications. Consistently, we observed phosphorylation of c-Fos at Ser362 and Ser374 in HK-2 cells treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Phosphorylated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase, and p38-increased after CdCl{sub 2} exposure, whereas treatment with the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126 and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 suppressed the accumulation and phosphorylation of c-Fos. We mutated Ser362 to alanine (S362A), Ser374 to alanine (S374A), and both residues to alanines (S362A/S374A) to inhibit potential phosphorylation of c-Fos at these sites. S374A or double S362A/S374A mutations reduced c-Fos level markedly, but S362A mutation did not. On the other hand, S362A/S374A mutations induced a more pronounced reduction in c-Fos DNA-binding activity than S374A mutation. These results suggest that while Ser374 phosphorylation seems to play a role in c-Fos stabilization, phosphorylation at two C-terminal serine residues is required for the transcriptional activation of c-Fos in HK-2 cells treated with CdCl{sub 2}.

Iwatsuki, Mamiko; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Matsuoka, Masato, E-mail: matsuoka@research.twmu.ac.jp

2011-03-15

496

Fire risk analysis for a chemical agent disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Defense (DOD) was directed by the Congress in the DOD Authorization Act of 1986 to destroy the nation's stockpile of lethal unitary chemical warfare agents and munitions. The stockpile consists of nerve agents and a blister agent in bulk storage containers, bombs, rockets, mines, projectiles, and mortar rounds stored at eight locations in the continental US and at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. The chemical agent disposal facility is designed to destroy the agents safely. Serious fires in the facility can cause munition explosions, major equipment damages, and the damage of safety control systems whose functions are crucial in preventing agent release. A fire risk assessment is conducted to investigate frequencies, consequences, and mitigation methods of fires to enhance the design safety features of the agent disposal facility. This paper describes the fire risk analysis (FRA) performed in the system hazard analysis task for the facility and also presents highlights of the FRA results. Application can be made to the nuclear industry.

Chang, J. (Ralph M. Parsons Co., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Ho, V. (Pickard, Lowe and Garrick, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)); Douthat, D. (Army Engineer Div., Juntsville, AL (United States))

1992-01-01

497

Fractal diffraction elements with variable transmittance and phase shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new type of diffraction fractal elements is presented and optical fields properties, obtained from these elements are discussed. Fractal diffraction elements based on well-known fractals, possess exact or statistical selfsimilarity, but have managed amplitude transmittance and phase shift, which are correlated with fractal spatial characteristics. The fractal dimension is not enough for these objects description, and the correlation coefficient between phase/amplitude and spatial characteristic is needed. For this reason the fractal objects were called multifractal structures (MFS). It is shown that the MFS diffraction spectrum possess prevailing power of high frequencies in comparison with spectra of regular two-dimensional or fractal structures with binary transmittance and phase shift. This property could be applied for spatial filtering and transparent objects phase heterogeneities detection. Modeling results for different MFS types are presented and it is shown that MFS application allows detecting the value of initial object distortion with high accuracy. The description of fractal zone plates (FraZP) with variable transmittance and/or phase shift is also presented. The results of Fresnel diffraction modeling from FraZPs with MFS show that the correlation coefficient value has influence on the focal point position.

Muzychenko, Ya. B.; Zinchik, A. A.; Stafeev, S. C.; Tomilin, M. G.

2011-08-01

498

AP1 Factor Inactivation in the Suprabasal Epidermis Causes Increased Epidermal Hyperproliferation and Hyperkeratosis but Reduced Carcinogen-Dependent Tumor Formation  

PubMed Central

AP1 (jun/fos) factors comprise a family of transcriptional regulators (c-jun, junB, junD, c-fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2) that are key controllers of epidermal keratinocyte survival and differentiation, and are important drivers of cancer development. Understanding the role of these factors in epidermis is complicated by the fact that each member is expressed in defined cell layers during epidermal differentiation, and because AP1 factors regulate competing processes (i.e., proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation). We have proposed that AP1 factors function differently in basal versus suprabasal epidermis. To test this, we inactivated suprabasal AP1 factor function in mouse epidermis by targeted expression of dominant-negative c-jun (TAM67) which inactivates function of all AP1 factors. This produces increased basal keratinocyte proliferation, delayed differentiation, and extensive hyperkeratosis. These findings contrast with previous studies showing that basal layer AP1 factor inactivation does not perturb resting epidermis. It is interesting that in spite of extensive keratinocyte hyperproliferation, susceptibility to carcinogen-dependent tumor induction is markedly attenuated. These novel observations strongly suggest that AP1 factors have distinct roles in the basal versus suprabasal epidermis, confirm that AP1 factor function is required for normal terminal differentiation, and suggest that AP1 factors play a different role in normal epidermis versus in cancer progression.

Rorke, Ellen A.; Adhikary, Gautam; Jans, Ralph; Crish, James F.; Eckert, Richard L.

2010-01-01

499

Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of gene expression by Jun, Fos and Krox, and CREB/ATF proteins.  

PubMed

This article reviews findings up to the end of 1997 about the inducible transcription factors (ITFs) c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2, Krox-20 (Egr-2) and Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1, Zif268); and the constitutive transcription factors (CTFs) CREB, CREM, ATF-2 and SRF as they pertain to gene expression in the mammalian nervous system. In the first part we consider basic facts about the expression and activity of these transcription factors: the organization of the encoding genes and their promoters, the second messenger cascades converging on their regulatory promoter sites, the control of their transcription, the binding to dimeric partners and to specific DNA sequences, their trans-activation potential, and their posttranslational modifications. In the second part we describe the expression and possible roles of these transcription factors in neural tissue: in the quiescent brain, during pre- and postnatal development, following sensory stimulation, nerve transection (axotomy), neurodegeneration and apoptosis, hypoxia-ischemia, generalized and limbic seizures, long-term potentiation and learning, drug dependence and withdrawal, and following stimulation by neurotransmitters, hormones and neurotrophins. We also describe their expression and possible roles in glial cells. Finally, we discuss the relevance of their expression for nervous system functioning under normal and patho-physiological conditions. PMID:9858769

Herdegen, T; Leah, J D

1998-12-01

500

Normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene and abnormal incorporation of fibrillin into the extracellular matrix in Lujan Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Lujan syndrome is an X-linked condition that includes mild-to-moderate mental retardation, poor social integration, normal secondary sexual development with normal testicular size, generalized hypotonia, hypernasal voice and dolichostenomelia. Major cardiac complications and lens dislocation have not been reported although severe myopia may occur. All reported cases have had negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome but establishing this constellation of findings as a distinctive entity has been difficult. We report 4 males in two sibships with clinical findings consistent with Lujan syndrome, normal karyotypes, negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome and a normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene. Dermal fibroblasts explanted from one of the affected males were used to study fibrillin synthesis secretion and extracellular matrix incorporation into microfibrils. Cells from the affected individual showed normal synthesis and secretion of fibrillin when compared to control cells, but the fibrillin was not incorporated into the extracellular matrix. These results suggest the presence of a gene on the X chromosome which may play a role in microfibril assembly and when deficient may disrupt the incorporation of fibrillin into microfibrils. This may be important not only in normal body morphogenesis but also in the development/function of the brain. More affected individuals are needed to investigate these findings further.

Greenhaw, G.A.; Stone, C.; Milewicz, D. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-09-01