Sample records for genstande fra forskningscenter

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters C...Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters The...boundaries of FRA's eight regions and the addresses for the regional headquarters of...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters C...Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters The...boundaries of FRA's eight regions and the addresses for the regional headquarters of...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters C...Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters The...boundaries of FRA's eight regions and the addresses for the regional headquarters of...

  4. Afprvning af leverance af reguleringsydelser fra et

    E-print Network

    Afprøvning af leverance af reguleringsydelser fra et mini KV-anlæg med UPS og TriGen funktionalitet ANTAGELSER 17 DEFINITIONER 19 ANALYSE AF YDELSER FRA ET TRIGEN ANLÆG 22 RESULTATER 24 #12;TEST PLAN 24 TEST at udviklet og afprøve et mini KV-anlæg med UPS og TriGen, arbejdspakke 8 (WP8). Der har i perioden været

  5. Apollo 14 mission to Fra Mauro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Brian D.

    1991-04-01

    The 1971 Apollo 14 Mission to Fra Mauro, a lunar highland area, is highlighted in this video. The mission's primary goal was the collection of lunar rocks and soil samples and lunar exploration. The soil and rock sampling was for the geochronological determination of the Moon's evolution and its comparison with that of Earth. A remote data collection station was assembled on the Moon and left for continuous data collection and surface monitoring experiments. The Apollo 14 astronauts were Alan B. Shepard, Edgar D. Mitchell, and Stuart A. Rossa. Astronauts Shepard and Mitchell landed on the Moon (February 5, 1971) and performed the sampling, the EVA, and deployment of the lunar experiments. There is film-footage of the lunar surface, of the command module's approach to both the Moon and the Earth, Moon and Earth spacecraft launching and landing, in-orbit command- and lunar-module docking, and of Mission Control.

  6. The strawberry fruit Fra a allergen functions in flavonoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Cristina; Hoffmann, Thomas; Escobar, Nieves Medina; Ludemann, Felix; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Schwab, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The strawberry Fra a 1 allergen is a homolog of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. It is synthesized by red ripe fruits of Fragaria x ananassa while white fruits of a mutant genotype, which is known to be tolerated by individuals affected by allergy, are devoid of it. Proteomic analyses have shown that Fra a 1 is down-regulated in the tolerated white-fruited genotype along with enzymes of the anthocyanin pigment pathway. In this study, we report the spatial and temporal expression of three Fra a genes that encode different isoforms, and the transient RNAi-mediated silencing of the Fra a genes in strawberry fruits of the red-fruited cultivar Elsanta with an ihpRNA construct. As a consequence of reduced levels of Fra a mRNAs, fruits were obtained that produced significantly decreased levels of anthocyanins and upstream metabolites. This effect is consistent with the parallel down-regulation of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (FaPAL) and to a lesser extent of the chalcone synthase (FaCHS) transcript levels also found in these fruits. In naturally occurring white-fruited genotypes of F. chiloensis and F. vesca, Fra a transcript levels are higher than those of the red-fruited varieties, likely to compensate for the low expression levels of FaPAL and FaCHS in these mutant genotypes. The results demonstrate that Fra a expression is directly linked to flavonoid biosynthesis and show that the Fra a allergen has an essential biological function in pigment formation in strawberry fruit. PMID:19969523

  7. Mineralogy and origin of Fra Mauro fines and breccias.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaide, W.; Wrigley, R.

    1972-01-01

    Textural features, glassy spherule and glassy aggregate contents, and size-frequency distributions of lithic components of the regolith fines indicate that the Fra Mauro regolith of the smooth terrain is a highly reworked accumulation of debris derived primarily by impact comminution of annealed breccias. Analyses of the glassy spherules suggest that mare-derived debris must amount to less than 5% of the regolith, but exotic materials having the composition of the Fra Mauro breccias (highland-like) cannot be recognized. Breccia samples from the Fra Mauro site include (1) regolith breccias derived by lithification of local regolith material, (2) texturally and compositionally unique white rock breccias that may have been derived from ancient ejecta buried beneath the Fra Mauro formation, and (3) annealed breccias that are excavated samples of the Fra Mauro formation. The latter were deposited as heated impact ejecta, probably by avalanches produced by the Imbrian event and were annealed in situ in a thermal regime perhaps equivalent to that responsible for the pyroxene-hornfels facies of metamorphism in terrestrial rocks.

  8. [Screening of the candidate proteins interacting with TaFRA].

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Jie; Hao, Chen-Yang; Pu, Wen; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Xue-Yong

    2011-01-01

    F-box protein is an important subunit of SCF complex, an E3 ligase in ubiquitin system, and its function is determined through mediating the specific recognition and combining with substrate protein. TaFRA (F-box protein related to abiotic stress) was identified by RACE based on the fragments diferently expressing in wheat seedling exposed to salt stress and encodes an F-box protein. In this study, pBD-TaFRA bait expression vector was constructed, and cDNA+pGAD+pBD was directly co-transformed into yeast hybrid system to screen condidate proteins interacting with TaFRA. Fourty-four candidate proteins were obtained, in which 32 were known proteins and transcript factors related to stress tolerance such as thioredoxin, metallothinein, ATP synthase, and serine/threonine protein kinase etc. This indicates that TaFRA participates in stress response through regulating above condidate genes, which will provide basis for revealing the mechanism of TaFRA reaction to abiotic stress. PMID:21377964

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the strawberry allergens Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 in the presence of catechin

    PubMed Central

    Casañal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Dupeux, Florine; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry Fra a proteins belong to the pathogenesis-related PR-10 protein family and share a common fold with the Bet v 1 major pollen allergen and the START/PYR/PYL proteins, which are characterized by the presence of a central cavity and are often involved in the binding of a variety of natural compounds. The Fra a proteins play a key role in the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in strawberries and are essential for pigment formation in fruits. In order to understand Fra a protein function, full-length Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 cDNAs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were purified to homogeneity using metal-affinity chromatography. Diffraction-quality crystals of Fra a 1E and of Fra a 3 in the presence of (+)-catechin were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data from single crystals of Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 were processed to 2.2 and 3.0?Å resolution in space groups P212121 and P2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.02, b = 74.42, c = 84.04?Å and a = 137.91, b = 206.61, c = 174.7?Å for Fra a 1E and Fra a 3, respectively. PMID:23695565

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the strawberry allergens Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 in the presence of catechin.

    PubMed

    Casañal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Dupeux, Florine; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, Jose A

    2013-05-01

    The strawberry Fra a proteins belong to the pathogenesis-related PR-10 protein family and share a common fold with the Bet v 1 major pollen allergen and the START/PYR/PYL proteins, which are characterized by the presence of a central cavity and are often involved in the binding of a variety of natural compounds. The Fra a proteins play a key role in the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in strawberries and are essential for pigment formation in fruits. In order to understand Fra a protein function, full-length Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 cDNAs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were purified to homogeneity using metal-affinity chromatography. Diffraction-quality crystals of Fra a 1E and of Fra a 3 in the presence of (+)-catechin were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data from single crystals of Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 were processed to 2.2 and 3.0?Å resolution in space groups P212121 and P2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.02, b = 74.42, c = 84.04?Å and a = 137.91, b = 206.61, c = 174.7?Å for Fra a 1E and Fra a 3, respectively. PMID:23695565

  11. Fragile site orthologs FHIT/FRA3B and Fhit/Fra14A2: Evolutionarily conserved but highly recombinogenic

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Ayumi; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Trapasso, Francesco; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Alder, Hansjuerg; Mori, Masaki; Huebner, Kay; Croce, Carlo M.

    2003-01-01

    Common fragile sites are regions that show elevated susceptibility to DNA damage, leading to alterations that can contribute to cancer development. FRA3B, located at chromosome region 3p14.2, is the most frequently expressed human common fragile site, and allelic losses at FRA3B have been observed in many types of cancer. The FHIT gene, encompassing the FRA3B region, is a tumor-suppressor gene. To identify the features of FHIT/FRA3B that might contribute to fragility, sequences of the human FHIT and the flanking PTPRG gene were compared with those of murine Fhit and Ptprg. Human and mouse orthologous genes, FHIT and Fhit, are more highly conserved through evolution than PTPRG/Ptprg and yet contain more sequence elements that are exquisitely sensitive to genomic rearrangements, such as high-flexibility regions and long interspersed nuclear element 1s, suggesting that common fragile sites serve a function. The conserved AT-rich high-flexibility regions are the most characteristic of common fragile sites. PMID:14630947

  12. Compositional data for twenty-one Fra Mauro lunar materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, H. J., Jr.; Cuttitta, F.; Annell, C. S.; Carron, M. K.; Christian, R. P.; Dwornik, E. J.; Greenland, L. P.; Ligon, D. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Major, minor, and trace element analyses are presented for two igneous rocks, six breccias, four microbreccias, two breccia clasts, and six soils, as well as a sample of sawdust from rock 14066. Evaluation of the data suggests that the samples from the Fra Mauro highlands have the same nonterrestrial characteristics shown previously by the samples returned from the mare regions by Apollo 11 and 12 - namely, a high refractory element content, a lower volatile element content, and an excess reducing capacity above that due to FeO. The Fra Mauro soils have higher concentrations of Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O and lower amounts of FeO and TiO2 than do the mare soils. They also show a bimodal distribution of Ni, B, and Nb. The highland breccias are richer in SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, Na2O, and K2O than those returned from the mare lowlands. FeO, TiO2, and MnO are lower in concentration at Fra Mauro, and the highland breccias are more complex mineralogically than those collected previously.

  13. Fra-1 governs cell migration via modulation of CD44 expression in human mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Nino, Maria E; Blumen, Steven R; Pass, Harvey; Mossman, Brooke T

    2007-01-01

    Silencing of Fra-1, a component of the dimeric transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), inhibits mRNA expression of c-met and cd44 in rat mesothelioma cells and is causally linked to maintenance of the transformed phenotype. However, the mechanisms of Fra-1 regulation and Fra-1 regulated gene expression in human malignant mesothelioma (MM) are unclear. We first show in a panel of human MM cells that Fra-1 mRNA expression in MM is complex and regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1, ERK2), Src, and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways in a tumor-specific fashion. Cell lines with PI3K-dependent Fra-1 expression were SV40 positive and expressed the lowest basal Fra-1 levels. Levels of Fra-1 expression correlated with amounts of CD44 expression that were greater in simian virus 40 negative (SV40-) MM cells. Using dominant negative (dn), short hairpin (sh) and small interference (si) RNA constructs, we next demonstrate that expression of CD44, the principal hyaluronic receptor in MMs, correlates with Fra-expression in both simian virus 40 positive (SV40+) and SV40- MMs. Moreover, both Fra-1 and CD44 expression are linked to cell migration in SV40- MM cells. Lastly, in contrast to normal lung tissue, tissue microarrays revealed that Fra-1 was expressed in 33 of 34 human MMs, and that all CD44+ tumors were SV40-. These results suggest that Fra-1 is associated with cell migration in human MMs and that Fra-1 modulation of CD44 may govern migration of selected MMs. PMID:18096084

  14. Fra-1 governs cell migration via modulation of CD44 expression in human mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Nino, Maria E; Blumen, Steven R; Pass, Harvey; Mossman, Brooke T

    2007-01-01

    Silencing of Fra-1, a component of the dimeric transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), inhibits mRNA expression of c-met and cd44 in rat mesothelioma cells and is causally linked to maintenance of the transformed phenotype. However, the mechanisms of Fra-1 regulation and Fra-1 regulated gene expression in human malignant mesothelioma (MM) are unclear. We first show in a panel of human MM cells that Fra-1 mRNA expression in MM is complex and regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1, ERK2), Src, and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways in a tumor-specific fashion. Cell lines with PI3K-dependent Fra-1 expression were SV40 positive and expressed the lowest basal Fra-1 levels. Levels of Fra-1 expression correlated with amounts of CD44 expression that were greater in simian virus 40 negative (SV40-) MM cells. Using dominant negative (dn), short hairpin (sh) and small interference (si) RNA constructs, we next demonstrate that expression of CD44, the principal hyaluronic receptor in MMs, correlates with Fra-expression in both simian virus 40 positive (SV40+) and SV40- MMs. Moreover, both Fra-1 and CD44 expression are linked to cell migration in SV40- MM cells. Lastly, in contrast to normal lung tissue, tissue microarrays revealed that Fra-1 was expressed in 33 of 34 human MMs, and that all CD44+ tumors were SV40-. These results suggest that Fra-1 is associated with cell migration in human MMs and that Fra-1 modulation of CD44 may govern migration of selected MMs. PMID:18096084

  15. Presence of hydroxyl in the Fra Mauro region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, Alexey; Wöhler, Christian; Sinitsyn, Mikhail; Grumpe, Arne; Feoktistova, Ekaterina; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are known to consist of volcanic material (basalt and glass) ejected by eruptions [1]. In the southern part of the crater Fra Mauro, a localised LPD is associated with Rima Parry V [2]. In [3], a suppressed neutron flux is described for the Fra Mauro region based on measurements of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) [4], interpreted as an indicator of hydroxyl (OH). In this study we compare these measurements with NIR hyperspectral data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(3) ) [5] instrument. The suppression factor of the neutron flux is defined according to delta = (N_ref-N_ex)/N_ref [6,7] with N_ex as the average count rate of the omnidirectional sensor (SETN) [8] of LEND for the region under study (here: the Fra Mauro region) and N_ref as the average count rate for a reference area (here: immediately west of Fra Mauro). For Fra Mauro crater, a suppression factor of 2.4% with a standard error of 0.41% was found. The epithermal neutron flux can be assumed to be inversely proportional to the hydrogen content. Hence, the measured positive suppression factor indicates a positive anomaly of the hydrogen content at up to 1 m depth. Under the approximative assumption of a proportional relation between the suppression factor delta and the hydrogen content, the observation in [7] of a suppression factor of 18% in the crater Cabeus associated with a homogeneous hydrogen content of about 500 ppm implies an enrichment in hydrogen by about 70 ppm for the Fra Mauro region. However, these values do not specifically refer to the small Fra Mauro LPD but to a larger area of about 150 km diameter. To identify the LPD-specific suppression factor, it would be necessary to acquire collimated neutron flux measurements. We have complemented the LEND-based measurements by the analysis of spectral reflectance data acquired by the M(3) instrument. The presence of OH in the surface material leads to an absorption band beyond 2700 nm wavelength [9]. Based on the M(3) version V03 radiance data [10] and GLD100 topographic data [11], a topographically and photometrically corrected spectral reflectance data set normalised to 30(°) incidence angle, 0(°) emission angle and 30(°) phase angle [12] has been generated along with a refined DEM of high lateral resolution (cf. [13] for a detailed description of the applied processing steps). The depth of the OH absorption band is indicated by the reflectance ratio between the 2657 nm and 2817 nm bands (M(3) channels 77 and 81). In our map of the 2657/2817 reflectance ratio, the Fra Mauro LPD as well as a similar deposit in the northern part of the crater Bonpland stand out as positive anomalies exhibiting an increase of 2-2.5% with respect to the surrounding crater floor material. This observation indicates the presence of OH in the LPD surface material. Similar absorption depths can be observed for the inner walls and ejecta of a crater of 3 km diameter located north-northwest of the Fra Mauro LPD and of several craters with diameters less than 2 km in the northern floor of Bonpland. This behaviour may indicate the presence of OH also at larger depth below the surface. [1] Gaddis et al. (2003) Icarus 161(2), 262-280 [2] Head, J. W., Wilson, L. (1993) PSS 41(10), 719-727 [3] Sinitsyn et al. (2013) 4th Moscow Solar System Symp., 4MS3-PS14 [4] Mitrofanov et al. (2010a) Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 183-207 [5] Pieters et al. (2009) Current Science 96(4), 500-505 [6] Boynton et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H33 [7] Mitrofanov et al. (2010b) Science 330, 483-485 [8] Litvak et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H22 [9] Clark et al. (2010) LPSC XXXXI, abstract #1533 [10] http://pds-imaging.jpl.nasa.gov/volumes/m3.html [11] Scholten et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H17 [12] Pieters (1999) Workshop on New Views of the Moon II, abstract #8025 [13] Grumpe et al. (2013) Adv. Space Res., in press.

  16. Deformation of silicates in some Fra Mauro breccias.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallemant, H. G. A.; Carter, N. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the studies conducted show that there is no unequivocal evidence for appreciable static deformation (other than annealing) in the Fra Mauro formation. These rocks probably have been derived from depths to about 10 km. It is suggested that there has been no substantial tectonic activity in the range from the surface to 10 km since these rocks and those of the other Apollo sites crystallized some 3 to 4 billion years ago. This negative conclusion implies that at least the outer layer of the moon has been static for this length of time.

  17. Winding movement in power transformers: a comparison of FRA measurement connection methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. S. B. Jayasinghe; Z. D. Wang; P. N. Jarman; A. W. Darwin

    2006-01-01

    Frequency response analysis (FRA) is an effective diagnostic tool for detecting transformer winding movements. Various FRA traces can be measured from a set of transformer winding terminals each of which relate to a different test connection scheme. Practical considerations of test and analysis time dictate that only some of the connections are used, and currently there is no standard test

  18. Apollo 14 - Nature and origin of rock types in soil from the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

    1971-01-01

    Compositions of glasses in the Apollo 14 soil correspond to four types of Fra Mauro basalts, to mare basalts and soils, and, in minor amounts, to gabbroic anorthosite and potash granite. The Fra Mauro basalts can be related by simple low pressure crystal-liquid fractionation that implies a parent composition like that of Apollo 14 sample 14310.

  19. The AP-1 transcription factor Fra1 inhibits follicular B cell differentiation into plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Grötsch, Bettina; Brachs, Sebastian; Lang, Christiane; Luther, Julia; Derer, Anja; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Bozec, Aline; Fillatreau, Simon; Berberich, Ingolf; Hobeika, Elias; Reth, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F; Schett, Georg; Mielenz, Dirk; David, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-20

    The cornerstone of humoral immunity is the differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. This process is tightly controlled by a regulatory gene network centered on the transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1). Proliferation of activated B cells is required to foster Blimp1 expression but needs to be terminated to avoid overshooting immune reactions. Activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors become quickly up-regulated upon B cell activation. We demonstrate that Fra1, a Fos member of AP-1, enhances activation-induced cell death upon induction in activated B cells. Moreover, mice with B cell-specific deletion of Fra1 show enhanced plasma cell differentiation and exacerbated antibody responses. In contrast, transgenic overexpression of Fra1 blocks plasma cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production, which cannot be rescued by Bcl2. On the molecular level, Fra1 represses Blimp1 expression and interferes with binding of the activating AP-1 member c-Fos to the Blimp1 promoter. Conversely, overexpression of c-Fos in Fra1 transgenic B cells releases Blimp1 repression. As Fra1 lacks transcriptional transactivation domains, we propose that Fra1 inhibits Blimp1 expression and negatively controls plasma cell differentiation through binding to the Blimp1 promoter. In summary, we demonstrate that Fra1 negatively controls plasma cell differentiation by repressing Blimp1 expression. PMID:25288397

  20. Sequence conservation at human and mouse orthologous common fragile regions, FRA3B/FHIT and Fra14A2/Fhit.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, T; Druck, T; Mimori, K; Flomenberg, J; Berk, L; Alder, H; Miller, W; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    2001-05-01

    It has been suggested that delayed DNA replication underlies fragility at common human fragile sites, but specific sequences responsible for expression of these inducible fragile sites have not been identified. One approach to identify such cis-acting sequences within the large nonexonic regions of fragile sites would be to identify conserved functional elements within orthologous fragile sites by interspecies sequence comparison. This study describes a comparison of orthologous fragile regions, the human FRA3B/FHIT and the murine Fra14A2/Fhit locus. We sequenced over 600 kbp of the mouse Fra14A2, covering the region orthologous to the fragile epicenter of FRA3B, and determined the Fhit deletion break points in a mouse kidney cancer cell line (RENCA). The murine Fra14A2 locus, like the human FRA3B, was characterized by a high AT content. Alignment of the two sequences showed that this fragile region was stable in evolution despite its susceptibility to mitotic recombination on inhibition of DNA replication. There were also several unusual highly conserved regions (HCRs). The positions of predicted matrix attachment regions (MARs), possibly related to replication origins, were not conserved. Of known fragile region landmarks, five cancer cell break points, one viral integration site, and one aphidicolin break cluster were located within or near HCRs. Thus, comparison of orthologous fragile regions has identified highly conserved sequences with possible functional roles in maintenance of fragility. PMID:11320209

  1. Expression of FRA16D/WWOX and FRA3B/FHIT genes in hematopoietic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hideshi; Vecchione, Andrea; Furukawa, Yutaka; Sutheesophon, Krittaya; Han, Shuang-Yin; Druck, Teresa; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Trapasso, Francesco; Nishimura, Miki; Saito, Yasushi; Ozawa, Keiya; Croce, Carlo M; Huebner, Kay; Furukawa, Yusuke

    2003-11-01

    The WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene was recently identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene at a common fragile site, FRA16D. Because the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, a tumor suppressor gene encompassing the most active, common fragile site FRA3B, is frequently deleted in various cancers, we evaluated the expression of WWOX and FHIT in 74 cases of primary hematopoietic neoplasias and 20 leukemia cell lines. Aberration or absence of WWOX transcripts was detected in 51% of the primary cases and 55% of cell lines, and three WWOX nucleotide variants were detected among the leukemia cell lines. FHIT expression was absent or altered in 36% of the primary cases and 15% of cell lines. The occurrence of aberrant FHIT reverse transcription-PCR products correlated significantly with the occurrence of WWOX alterations. Wild-type transcripts of both genes were expressed in normal hematopoiesis along with a small fraction of short transcripts. A DNA blot study showed that WWOX and FHIT genes were deleted in 2 of 18 cases with primary acute leukemias; both genes were not expressed in the 2 cases. Furthermore, treatment of cells with a demethylating or histone acetylating agent in culture resulted in increased expression of WWOX and FHIT mRNA in leukemia cells. Conclusions are that WWOX expression is frequently altered or absent in hematopoietic disorders, often in association with FHIT alterations, and that alterations of these fragile genes may result not only from genomic deletions but also from epigenetic modifications associated with expression of fragility. PMID:14638866

  2. Sequence of the FRA3B common fragile region: implications for the mechanism of FHIT deletion.

    PubMed

    Inoue, H; Ishii, H; Alder, H; Snyder, E; Druck, T; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1997-12-23

    The hypothesis that chromosomal fragile sites may be "weak links" that result in hot spots for cancer-specific chromosome rearrangements was supported by the discovery that numerous cancer cell homozygous deletions and a familial translocation map within the FHIT gene, which encompasses the common fragile site, FRA3B. Sequence analysis of 276 kb of the FRA3B/FHIT locus and 22 associated cancer cell deletion endpoints shows that this locus is a frequent target of homologous recombination between long interspersed nuclear element sequences resulting in FHIT gene internal deletions, probably as a result of carcinogen-induced damage at FRA3B fragile sites. PMID:9405656

  3. Mikrostrukturen i valset kobber Forskningscenter Ris, Roskilde

    E-print Network

    rolled to low and intermediate strains. The emphasis is on the "high wall density" component of the micro- structure. The experimental techniques used in the thesis are transmission electron microscopy and scanning-cone technique has been used. In the field of scanning electron microscopy the resolution and the reliability

  4. Mikrostrukturen i valset kobber Forskningscenter Ris, Roskilde

    E-print Network

    and intermediate strains. The emphasis is on the "high wall density" component of the micro- structure. The experimental techniques used in the thesis are transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron has been used. In the field of scanning electron microscopy the resolution and the reliability

  5. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. (a) Except as provided...

  6. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate. 219.602 Section 219...DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate. (a) Except as...

  7. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate. 219.602 Section 219...DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate. (a) Except as...

  8. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate. 219.602 Section 219...DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate. (a) Except as...

  9. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. (a) Except as provided...

  10. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. (a) Except as provided...

  11. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608...

  12. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...situations that arise in the course of railroad operations...training sessions in the normal course of their inspection duties. FRA believes that this sort of preventive, rather...civil penalty cases. Long-term solutions to compliance...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...situations that arise in the course of railroad operations...training sessions in the normal course of their inspection duties. FRA believes that this sort of preventive, rather...civil penalty cases. Long-term solutions to compliance...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...situations that arise in the course of railroad operations...training sessions in the normal course of their inspection duties. FRA believes that this sort of preventive, rather...civil penalty cases. Long-term solutions to compliance...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...situations that arise in the course of railroad operations...training sessions in the normal course of their inspection duties. FRA believes that this sort of preventive, rather...civil penalty cases. Long-term solutions to compliance...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...situations that arise in the course of railroad operations...training sessions in the normal course of their inspection duties. FRA believes that this sort of preventive, rather...civil penalty cases. Long-term solutions to compliance...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and...119Defective Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective...beam. 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and...119Defective Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective...beam. 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and...119Defective Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective...beam. 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper...

  1. From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This special Web feature from the Metropolitan Museum centers around two fifteenth century paintings acquired by two US museums (the Metropolitan and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston) from the Barberini Collection in Rome in the 1930s, that have puzzled scholars for more than a century, and have only recently been identified as the work of Giovanni di Bartolomeo Corradini of Urbino, also known as Fra Carnevale. In addition to investigating the mystery of Fra Carnevale, the Web feature also examines the concepts of artistic identity, in contrast with the Renaissance practice of artworks that issue from the studio of a named artist, that are actually the work of many unnamed artists. To do this, the feature is divided into three sections: "Filippo Lippi", 29 works by Lippi and others trained in his workshop; "An Alternative Vision", seven paintings by artists working within the studio system, but, similar to Fra Carnevale's works, containing unusual elements; and "The Mystery of Fra Carnevale", including the two panels, most likely parts of Fra Carnevale's altarpiece for Santa Maria della Bella in Urbino, The Birth of the Virgin and The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, done in what has come to be recognized as Fra Carnevale's style-paintings so full of architectural details that the figures seem incidental to the architecture.

  2. Fra-1 regulation of Matrix Metallopeptidase-1 (MMP-1) in metastatic variants of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Henckels, Eric; Prywes, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Metallopeptidase 1 (MMP-1) expression has repeatedly been correlated to tumorigenesis and metastasis.  Yet, MMP-1 regulation in a metastatic context remains largely unknown.  Here we confirm differential MMP-1 expression in mammary carcinoma cells with varied metastatic potentials. We show that MMP-1 expression is regulated by an AP-1 element in its promoter in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 mammary carcinoma cell derivatives.  Fra-1, an AP-1 family transcription factor, differentially binds this element in highly metastatic cells compared to low metastatic cells and is required for MMP-1 expression.  Overexpression of Fra-1 also caused increased MMP-1 expression. Fra-1 mRNA levels are unchanged in the cell variants, however its protein levels are higher in the metastatic cells. While there was no change in Fra-1 protein degradation rates, protein synthesis of Fra-1 was increased in the metastatic cell variant. These results demonstrate that Fra-1 and MMP-1 levels are differentially regulated in metastatic cell variants at the level of Fra-1 protein translation. Consistent with the importance of Fra-1 for tumor growth, we found that Fra-1 overexpression was sufficient to increase cell motility and anchorage independent growth.  These results suggest that increased Fra-1 translation is critical for regulation of MMP-1 and tumor cell metastasis. PMID:25339983

  3. HGF Mediates Cell Proliferation of Human Mesothelioma Cells through a PI3K/MEK5/Fra-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Nino, Maria E.; Blumen, Steven R.; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Pass, Harvey; Carbone, Michele; Testa, Joseph R.; Altomare, Deborah A.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2008-01-01

    The ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Met, are highly expressed in most human malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) and may contribute to their increased growth and viability. Based upon our observation that RNA silencing of fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) inhibited c-met expression in rat mesotheliomas (1), we hypothesized that Fra-1 was a key player in HGF-induced proliferation in human MMs. In three of seven human MM lines evaluated, HGF increased Fra-1 levels and phosphorylation of both extracellular signal–regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) and AKT that were inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY290042. HGF-dependent phosphorylation and Fra-1 expression were decreased after knockdown of Fra-1, whereas overexpression of Fra-1 blocked the expression of mitogen/extracellular signal–regulated kinase kinases (MEK)5 at the mRNA and protein levels. Stable MM cell lines using a dnMEK5 showed that basal Fra-1 levels were increased in comparison to empty vector control lines. HGF also caused increased MM cell viability and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression that were abolished by knockdown of MEK5 or Fra-1. Data suggest that HGF-induced effects in some MM cells are mediated via activation of a novel PI3K/ERK5/Fra-1 feedback pathway that might explain tumor-specific effects of c-Met inhibitors on MM and other tumors. PMID:17872495

  4. HGF mediates cell proliferation of human mesothelioma cells through a PI3K/MEK5/Fra-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Nino, Maria E; Blumen, Steven R; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Pass, Harvey; Carbone, Michele; Testa, Joseph R; Altomare, Deborah A; Mossman, Brooke T

    2008-02-01

    The ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Met, are highly expressed in most human malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) and may contribute to their increased growth and viability. Based upon our observation that RNA silencing of fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) inhibited c-met expression in rat mesotheliomas (1), we hypothesized that Fra-1 was a key player in HGF-induced proliferation in human MMs. In three of seven human MM lines evaluated, HGF increased Fra-1 levels and phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) and AKT that were inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY290042. HGF-dependent phosphorylation and Fra-1 expression were decreased after knockdown of Fra-1, whereas overexpression of Fra-1 blocked the expression of mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinases (MEK)5 at the mRNA and protein levels. Stable MM cell lines using a dnMEK5 showed that basal Fra-1 levels were increased in comparison to empty vector control lines. HGF also caused increased MM cell viability and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression that were abolished by knockdown of MEK5 or Fra-1. Data suggest that HGF-induced effects in some MM cells are mediated via activation of a novel PI3K/ERK5/Fra-1 feedback pathway that might explain tumor-specific effects of c-Met inhibitors on MM and other tumors. PMID:17872495

  5. FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection.

    PubMed

    Noto, Keith; Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called "normal" instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

  6. [Incidence of oligophrenia with fragile X chromosome (FraXq27)].

    PubMed

    Bliumina, M G

    1987-01-01

    The study of 50 retarded males imbezilitat and idiots, and 100 males with oligophrenia-debilitat in 16-18 years. Severe macroorchism (1.8-4.5 times more, then anthropometric norma for this years) was found at 5 males in first group (10%), and in 8 males in second group (8%). The karyotype was study in 4 males with macroorchism. In 9-15% cells FraX (q27) was found. These data were extrapolated to 600 retarded children preschool and school age. The frequency of oligophrenia with FraX (q27) among all retarded males-8.5 +/- 1.5; retarded heterozygous females among all retarded girls-5.0 +/- 1.3; incidence of oligophrenia with FraX (q27) among all males in population-1:1000; all heterozigous for this gene among all females in population-7:750; retarded heterozygous females in all girls-1:2250 were established. PMID:3817470

  7. Frequency of Fra X syndrome among institutionalized mentally retarded males in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurczak, T.; Bocian, E.; Milewski, M. [National Research Inst. of Mother and Child, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others] [National Research Inst. of Mother and Child, Warsaw (Poland); and others

    1996-07-12

    Results of cytogenetic studies, performed in a group of 201 institutionalized mentally retarded males, are presented. At least two cytogenetic methods for eliciting the Xq27.3 fragile site, recommended by the Fourth International Workshop on the Fra X Syndrome were used. A subgroup of 67 out of 201 studied males was also examined using molecular methods. In 6 (2.9%) males fra X syndrome was diagnosed. All cytogenetic positive results were confirmed by molecular analysis. Five patients had full expansion CGG repeats and one had both premutation and full mutation. Postulated frequency of fra X syndrome in Polish population being 0.2-0.4 / 1,000 males seems to be lower than it could be expected on the basis of previous literature data. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Implications of FRA 16A structure for the mechanism of chromosomal fragile site genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nancarrow, J.K.; Kremer, E.; Holman, K.; Eyre, H.; Callen, D.F.; Sutherland, G.R.; Richards, R.I. (Centre for Medical Genetics, North Adelaide (Australia)); Doggett, N.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Paslier, D.Le (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain, Paris (France))

    1994-06-24

    Fragile sites are chemically induced nonstaining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. DNA sequences encompassing and including the rare, autosomal, folate-sensitive fragile site, FRA16A, were isolated by positional cloning. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)[sub n] repeat. This repeat was adjacent to a CpG island that was methylated in fragile site-expressing individuals. The FRA16A locus in individuals who do not express the fragile site is not a site of DNA methylation (imprinting), which suggests that the methylation associated with fragile sites may be a consequence and not a cause of their genesis.

  9. Investigations on the transformer high frequency transfer function to interpretation of FRA measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Firoozi; M. Kharezi; A. Farshidnia; A. A. Azirani

    2009-01-01

    Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is a powerful technique for condition monitoring and fault diagnosing of power transformers. The challenge in this regard is the analysis of the transformer transfer functions due to different existing faults. In another word, the correlation between different faults and transfer functions is not fully yet known. The main idea in this study is that the

  10. The ages of lunar material from Fra Mauro, Hadley Rille, and Spur Crater.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, L.; Schaeffer, O. A.; Funkhouser, J.; Sutter, J.

    1972-01-01

    Ar-40/Ar-39 dating techniques were applied to estimate the age of twelve crystalline and fragmented Fra Mauro rock samples and six Hadley Rille and Spur Crater rock samples provided by the Apollo 14 and 15 missions. Genesis histories of some associated lunar surface features are traced back on the basis of obtained rock age values.

  11. Lo sviluppo dell'impresa resource - based fra appropriazione e creazione di valore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arabella Mocciaro Li Destri; Giovanni Battista Dagnino

    2003-01-01

    Lo sviluppo dell'impresa resource - based fra appropriazione e creazione di valore (di Arabella Mocciaro Li Destri e Giovanni Battista Dagnino) - ABSTRACT: Various authors have brought forth the idea that the increase in context turbulence and the relentless change in today’s economic and competitive environments have rendered it essential for an effective strategy to combine both value appropriation and

  12. Pre-Imbrian history of the Fra Mauro region and Apollo 14 sample provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Head, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-Imbrian impact structures in a large area surrounding the Apollo 14 site were identified in a study of the pre-Imbrian history of the Fra Mauro region. Calculations suggest that a total ejecta thickness of over 1700 m could have accumulated during Phase I (time prior to the Imbrium event) in the area of the ridge on which the Cone crater later formed. The majority (53%) of the ejecta at the site just prior to the Imbrium event was contributed by the numerous large Phase IB and IC craters in the vicinity and not by the lunar basins. Evidence exists for extensive pre-Imbrian volcanic activity in the Fra Mauro region. Early KREEP volcanic deposits may have existed in the target sites of many Phase IB and IC craters and would have been incorporated into their ejecta.

  13. The role of deletions at the FRA3B/FHIT locus in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huebner, K; Druck, T; Siprashvili, Z; Croce, C M; Kovatich, A; McCue, P A

    1998-01-01

    The FHIT gene, which encodes a 1-kb message and a 16.8-kDa protein that hydrolyses diadenosine triphosphate (ApppA) to ADP and AMP in vitro, covers a megabase genomic region at chromosome band 3p14.2. The gene encompasses the most active of the common human chromosomal fragile regions, FRA3B. Over the years, it has been suggested that fragile sites might be especially susceptible to carcinogen damage and that chromosomal regions of nonrandom alterations in cancer cells may coincide with defined fragile sites. Within the FRA3B region, the characteristic induced chromosome gaps can occur across the entire region, but 60% of the gaps are centered on a 300-kb region flanking FHIT exon 5, the first protein-coding exon. Numerous hemizygous and homozygous deletions, translocations and DNA insertions occur within FHIT in cancer cell lines, uncultured tumors, and even in preneoplastic lesions, especially in tissues such as lung that are targets of carcinogens. This supports the proposed cancer-fragile site connection and suggests that the FHIT gene, expression of which is frequently altered in cells showing FHIT locus damage, is a tumor suppressor gene whose inactivation may drive clonal expansion of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells. Replacement of Fhit expression in Fhit-negative cancer cells abrogates their tumorigenicity in nude mice. Analysis of the approximately 300-kb DNA sequence encompassing FHIT exon 5 in the FRA3B epicenter has provided clues to the mechanism of repair of the fragile site double strand breaks. The mechanism involves recombination between LINE 1 elements with deletion of the intervening sequence, often including FHIT exons. These studies have also shown that FHIT alterations generally entail independent deletion of both FHIT alleles. Future studies will focus on two objectives: study of (1) the in vivo function of the Fhit protein and (2) mechanisms of break and repair in the FRA3B fragile region. PMID:10027001

  14. Chromosomal fragile site, FRA16A: Implications for fragile site genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, R.I.; Nancarrow, J.K.; Mangelsdorf, M. [Women`s and Children`s Hospital, North Adelaide (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Fragile sites are chemically induced non-staining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. The fragile sites sequenced to date (FRAXA and FRAXE) are rare, folate sensitive sites located on the X chromosomes. They have similar DNA sequence composition of a p(CCG)n repeat adjacent to a methylatable CpG island. Individuals expressing the fragile site have an unstable expanded repeat and methylation of the adjacent CpG island. FRAXA is associated with the most common form of familial mental retardation, Fragile X Syndrome. In order to further understand the relationship between the DNA sequence composition, position in the genome, and the chemistry of induction of fragile sites, we have characterized the rare, folate sensitive fragile site on human chromosome 16 referred to as FRA16A. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)n repeat. This repeat was adjacent to a CpG island that was methylated in fragile-site-expressing individuals. The FRA16A locus in individuals who do not express the fragile site is not a site of DNA methylation (imprinting) which suggests that the methylation associated with fragile sites may be a consequence and not a cause of their genesis. We have analyzed the normal repeat copy numbers for the fragile site p(CCG)n repeats in European, Japanese and Indian populations. While the FRAXA and FRAXE repeats show similar distributions of copy numbers, the FRA16A p(CCG)n repeat in Europeans has a greater range and number of alleles (23.7% have n>25) than its Japanese and Indian counterparts. In conjunction with our previous data demonstrating linkage disequilibrium (founder chromosomes) at the FRAXA locus, these data suggest that certain p(CCG)n repeats are inherently unstable.

  15. Off\\/on-line FRA condition monitoring technique for power transformer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Birlasekaran; Fred Fetherston

    1999-01-01

    This letter presents a novel and sensitive frequency response analysis (FRA) technique for off\\/on-line condition monitoring of expensive power apparatus. The main objective is to investigate the applicability of this predictive maintenance technique to diagnosing power transformer failures, to characterize the transformer in a frequency plane for safe operation, and to develop on-line monitoring technique. The effectiveness of this technique

  16. The Strawberry Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) Fra a Proteins Control Flavonoid Biosynthesis by Binding to Metabolic Intermediates*

    PubMed Central

    Casañal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Muñoz, Cristina; Dupeux, Florine; Luque, Irene; Botella, Miguel Angel; Schwab, Wilfried; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins are involved in many aspects of plant biology but their molecular function is still unclear. They are related by sequence and structural homology to mammalian lipid transport and plant abscisic acid receptor proteins and are predicted to have cavities for ligand binding. Recently, three new members of the PR-10 family, the Fra a proteins, have been identified in strawberry, where they are required for the activity of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which is essential for the development of color and flavor in fruits. Here, we show that Fra a proteins bind natural flavonoids with different selectivity and affinities in the low ?m range. The structural analysis of Fra a 1 E and a Fra a 3-catechin complex indicates that loops L3, L5, and L7 surrounding the ligand-binding cavity show significant flexibility in the apo forms but close over the ligand in the Fra a 3-catechin complex. Our findings provide mechanistic insight on the function of Fra a proteins and suggest that PR-10 proteins, which are widespread in plants, may play a role in the control of secondary metabolic pathways by binding to metabolic intermediates. PMID:24133217

  17. Apollo 14 mineral ages and the thermal history of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compston, W.; Vernon, M. J.; Berry, H.; Rudowski, R.; Gray, C. M.; Ware, N.; Chappell, B. W.; Kaye, M.

    1972-01-01

    The thermal inertia of the Fra Mauro formation limits its rate of cooling. The calculations of Jaeger (1961) for the cooling of an extrusive sheet are used to estimate the time required for a central temperature drop of 10%. This time is found to be about 45 years. For a 90% temperature drop, the time is about 200 years. Analytical methods used in the investigations are discussed together with the diffusion of Rb and Sr within lunar basalt. Isochron diagrams for various minerals are presented.

  18. Near vertical view of the Apollo 14 landing site in Fra Mauro highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A photographic illustration showing a near vertical view of the Apollo 14 landing site located in the Fra Mauro highlands on the lunar nearside. The predicted landing point is 17 degrees 29 minutes 46 seconds west longitude and 3 degrees 40 minutes 19 seconds south latitude. Cone Crater is at lower right. North is toward the right side of the picture (Cone Crater being located near the northeast corner of photo). The landing point is between Triplet Crater and Doublet Crater in the center of the picture.

  19. The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe-2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Mapolelo, D; Dingra, N; Naik, S; Lees, N; Hoffman, B; Riggs-Gelasco, P; Huynh, B; Johnson, M; Outten, C

    2009-01-01

    The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However, the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which they control Aft1 localization are unclear. To reconstitute and characterize components of this signaling pathway in vitro, we have overexpressed yeast Fra2 and Grx3/4 in Escherichia coli. We have shown that coexpression of recombinant Fra2 with Grx3 or Grx4 allows purification of a stable [2Fe-2S]{sup 2+} cluster-containing Fra2-Grx3 or Fra2-Grx4 heterodimeric complex. Reconstitution of a [2Fe-2S] cluster on Grx3 or Grx4 without Fra2 produces a [2Fe-2S]-bridged homodimer. UV?visible absorption and CD, resonance Raman, EPR, ENDOR, M{umlt o}ssbauer, and EXAFS studies of [2Fe-2S] Grx3/4 homodimers and the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3/4 heterodimers indicate that inclusion of Fra2 in the Grx3/4 Fe-S complex causes a change in the cluster stability and coordination environment. Taken together, our analytical, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 form a Fe-S-bridged heterodimeric complex with Fe ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. Overall, these results suggest that the ability of the Fra2-Grx3/4 complex to assemble a [2Fe-2S] cluster may act as a signal to control the iron regulon in response to cellular iron status in yeast.

  20. La valutazione dei corsi da parte degli studenti: confronto fra carta e web Lorenzo Bernardi e Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna

    E-print Network

    Cesare, Bernardo

    La valutazione dei corsi da parte degli studenti: confronto fra carta e web Lorenzo Bernardi e procedura informatica di valutazione dei corsi da parte degli studenti. Di concerto con l'Ateneo, la Facoltà sovrapposizione effettiva è di soli 75 insegnamenti, tredici dei quali non considerati in quanto in almeno una

  1. Transcriptional complexity and roles of Fra-1/AP-1 at the uPA/Plau locus in aggressive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Tolza, Claire; Piechaczyk, Marc; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Plau codes for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), critical in cancer metastasis. While the mechanisms driving its overexpression in tumorigenic processes are unknown, it is regulated by the AP-1 transcriptional complex in diverse situations. The AP-1 component Fra-1 being overexpressed in aggressive breast cancers, we have addressed its role in the overexpression of Plau in the highly metastatic breast cancer model cell line MDA-MB231 using ChIP, pharmacological and RNAi approaches. Plau transcription appears controlled by 2 AP-1 enhancers located -1.9 (ABR-1.9) and -4.1 kb (ABR-4.1) upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) of the uPA-coding mRNA, Plau-001, that bind Fra-1. Surprisingly, RNA Pol II is not recruited only at the Plau-001 TSS but also upstream in the ABR-1.9 and ABR-4.1 region. Most Pol II molecules transcribe short and unstable RNAs while tracking down toward the TSS, where there are converted into Plau-001 mRNA-productive species. Moreover, a minority of Pol II molecules transcribes a low abundance mRNA of unknown function called Plau-004 from the ABR-1.9 domain, whose expression is tempered by Fra-1. Thus, we unveil a heretofore-unsuspected transcriptional complexity at Plau in a reference metastatic breast cancer cell line with pleiotropic effects for Fra-1, providing novel information on AP-1 transcriptional action. PMID:25200076

  2. Sedimentology of clastic rocks from the Fra Mauro region of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A thin-section examination of sixteen clastic rock samples returned by the Apollo 14 mission from the Fra Mauro region of the moon suggests the presence of at least two distinctly different lithologies. Five of the samples (group I) are characterized by an abundant glassy matrix and glass particles and lesser amounts of plagioclase and pyroxene grains, and lithic clasts. The other eleven samples (group II) are relatively fine grained, very poorly sorted, and consist largely of pyroxene, plagioclase, and lithic clasts set in an abundant mineralic matrix. Group I and II lithologies were probably both deposited from impact generated base surges. The differences between them stem not as much from the basic sedimentary processes as from the differences in the magnitude of the events generating the base surges and the resultant difference in available detrital materials.

  3. Bulk magnetization properties of the Fra Mauro and Reiner Gamma Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    In the reported investigation, bulk magnetization properties within two lunar surface geologic units have been inferred using low-altitude, high-resolution Apollo 16 subsatellite magnetometer data. On the basis of correlations of mapped anomalies with relatively surficial units on the central near side, a surface plate model with thickness much less than the subsatellite altitude was adopted and was used to represent the sources of largest anomalies. The results strongly suggest that directional coherence of the surface density of magnetization can occur over horizontal scales up to 100 km. Tentative evidence for a lack of directional coherence on scales greater than 100 km was found in the case of the Fra Mauro Formation.

  4. Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

  5. JunD mutants with spontaneously acquired transforming potential have enhanced transactivating activity in combination with Fra-2.

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, T; Akahori, A; Sonobe, M H; Suzuki, T; Endo, T; Iba, H

    1993-01-01

    Although a replication-competent retrovirus that carries junD has no transforming activity in chicken embryo fibroblasts, we have isolated mutant viruses that have spontaneously acquired transforming activity. The molecularly cloned junD genes of three such mutant viruses (T1, T2, and T3) were shown to be responsible for the cellular transformation. DNA sequence analysis indicated that a specific polynucleotide in the junD sequence was tandemly multiplied three times of five times in T1 and T2, respectively. The repeated polynucleotide encodes 16 amino acid residues that are located in a highly conserved region among Jun family proteins. The junD mutation in T3 involved an inversion, a translocation, and nucleotide substitutions that caused drastic amino acid exchanges in another well-conserved region among Jun family proteins. The transcriptional activity of these mutants was analyzed by means of transient expression experiments in F9 cells using a reporter gene containing a single AP-1 binding site. Compared with the wild-type JunD, none of them showed enhanced transactivating activity in the forms of homodimers or of heterodimers with c-Fos or Fra-1. However, they did exhibit much higher transactivating activity than the wild type when they formed heterodimers with Fra-2, indicating that the mutated regions function as transactivation domains in a partner-specific manner. Since we have previously reported that there is a basal level of Fra-2 expression in chicken embryo fibroblasts, the results may indicate that protein complexes between JunD mutants and Fra-2 play a crucial role in the cellular transforming activity. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8415709

  6. Positions of chromosome 3p14.2 fragile sites (FRA3B) within the FHIT gene.

    PubMed

    Zimonjic, D B; Druck, T; Ohta, M; Kastury, K; Croce, C M; Popescu, N C; Huebner, K

    1997-03-15

    The FHIT gene spans approximately 1 Mb of DNA at chromosome band 3p14.2, which includes the familial renal cell carcinoma chromosome translocation breakpoint (between FHIT exons 3 and 4), the most frequently expressed human constitutive chromosomal fragile site (FRA3B, telomeric to the t(3;8) translocation), and numerous homozygous deletions in various human cancers, frequently involving FHIT exon 5. The FRA3B has previously been shown to represent more than one specific site, and some specific representatives of FRA3B breaks have been shown to fall in two regions, which we know to be in FHIT introns 4 and intron 5. Because breakage and integration of exogenous DNA in this chromosome region is frequent in aphidicolin-treated somatic cell hybrids, cancer cells, and, presumably, aphidicolin-treated normal lymphocytes that exhibit gaps or breaks, we determined by one- and two color fluorescence in situ hybridization, using cosmids covering specific regions of the FHIT gene, that most of the aphidicolin-induced gaps at FRA3B fall within the FHIT gene, with the highest frequency of gaps falling in intron 5 of the FHIT gene, less than 30 kb telomeric to FHIT exon 5. Gaps also occur in intron 4, where a human papillomavirus 16 integration site has been localized, and in intron 3, where the t(3;8) break point is located. These results suggest that the cancer-specific deletions, which frequently involve introns 4 and 5, originated through breaks in fragile sites. PMID:9067288

  7. Cancer-specific chromosome alterations in the constitutive fragile region FRA3B.

    PubMed

    Mimori, K; Druck, T; Inoue, H; Alder, H; Berk, L; Mori, M; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1999-06-22

    We have sequenced 870 kilobases of the FHIT/FRA3B locus, from FHIT intron 3 to intron 7. The locus is AT rich (61.5%) and Alu poor (6. 2%), and it apparently does not harbor other genes. In a detailed analysis of the 308-kilobase region between FHIT exon 5 and the telomeric end of intron 3, a region known to encompass a human papillomavirus-16 integration site and two clusters of aphidicolin-induced chromosome 3p14.2 breakpoints, we have precisely mapped 10 deletion and translocation endpoints in cancer-derived cell lines relative to positions of specific repetitive elements, regions of high genome flexibility and aphidicolin-induced breakpoints. Conclusions are (i) that aphidicolin-induced breakpoint clusters fall close to high-flexibility sequences, suggesting that these sequences contribute directly to aphidicolin-induced fragility; (ii) that 9 of the 10 FHIT allelic deletions in cancer cell lines resulted in loss of exons, with 7 deletion endpoints near long interspersed nuclear elements or long terminal repeat elements; and (iii) that cancer-specific deletions encompass multiple high-flexibility genomic regions, suggesting that fragile breaks may occur at these regions, whereas repair of the breaks involves homologous pairing of flanking sequences with concomitant deletion of the damaged fragile sequence. PMID:10377436

  8. Case Study on Fault Diagnosis of the Actual Operating Transformer by FRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Takahiro; Ogawa, Yoshiharu; Shimonosono, Takaaki; Wada, Tadayuki

    A high voltage, large capacity power transformer is one of the most important equipment in electric power system. If a failure occurs in such a transformer, stable power supply may become impossible. In addition, efficient power system operation may become difficult because it takes long time to replace the transformer. To prevent failures that may occur, effective external diagnosis must be performed and the defective portions must be correctly identified. However, such anomalous phenomena are complicated in many cases, and their causes cannot be identified in some cases by using conventional techniques. This paper reports a case study on the fault diagnosis of an oil-immersed power transformer that had a tendency to increase in the total combustible gas (TCG) during a regular operation. Specifying the faulty parts became possible by applying various case of Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) diagnosis though it was impossible by the electrical tests, DGA (Dissolved Gas Analysis), and so on. This transformer was disassembled to investigate the condition and was replaced without causing failure.

  9. Keywords. d(GGC/GCC)5; d(CAG/CTG)5; hairpin structure; model building; molecular mechanics; quadruplex structure Abbreviations used: DM, dystrophia myotonica; FraX, fragile X syndrome; HD, Huntington disease; rms, root mean square.

    E-print Network

    Bansal, Manju

    ; quadruplex structure ________________ Abbreviations used: DM, dystrophia myotonica; FraX, fragile X syndrome myotonica, DM), fragile X syndrome (FraX), Huntington disease (HD), several spinocerebellar ataxias have (CAG)n­ (CTG)n repeats and four fragile-X chromosomal sites contain (GGC)n­(GCC)n repeats

  10. "Pseudo-distanze fra variet`a dotate di funzioni a valori reali" PROGRAMMA DEL CORSO (A.A. 2007/2008)

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    "Pseudo-distanze fra variet`a dotate di funzioni a valori reali" PROGRAMMA DEL CORSO (A.A. 2007/2008) I LEZIONE Definizione di coppia di taglia e di pseudo-distanza naturale. Omeomorfismi e diffeomorfismi ottimali. II LEZIONE Teorema fondamentale sulle pseudo-distanze naturali. Teorema degli

  11. Fasit til eksamen i MEK1100 hst 2006 Det er tilsammen 10 delsprsmal. Hvert delsprsmal honoreres med poengsum fra 0 til

    E-print Network

    Gjevik, Bjørn

    °al honoreres med poengsum fra 0 til 10 (10 for fullstendig svar, 0 for blank). Maksimal oppn°aelig poengsum er 100. Kontroller at du ikke overser noen av spørsm°ala. Oppgave 1 Vi har gitt et vektorfelt v = (x

  12. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  13. [Biological and physico-chemical properties of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis bacterial culture having the fra-operon Yersinia pestis].

    PubMed

    Byvalov, A A; Gavrilov, K E; Krupin, V V; Chebotarev, E V; Zheludkova, E V; Drubkov, V I; Smirnov, A E; Mal'kov, V N; Dupiasheva, T Iu; Pechenkin, D V; Bondarev, V P

    2008-01-01

    The biological and physico-chemical properties of cultures of two isogenous recombinant variants of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were studied. The cell genomes of the cultures are distinguished from one another only by the presence or by the absence of the fra-operon, which is a determined attribute of the plague microbe capsule-forming process. The expression of the attribute is amplified by rising the microbial biomass cultivation temperature and stimulates the decrease in the viability of the bacteria and adaptation potential in vitro. In the warm-blooded owner organism the microbes of the capsule-forming recombinant variant are characterized by the greater residual pathogenicity and immunogenic ability to the experimental plague of the laboratory animals as compared to the reference-variant cells. These specific features could be explained by more expressed colonizing ability of the capsule-forming microbes provided by owner cells' stability to the phagocyte process. PMID:18368776

  14. A comparison of forest cover maps in Mainland Southeast Asia from multiple sources: PALSAR, MERIS, MODIS and FRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Sheldon, S. L.; Biradar, C. M.; Duong, N. D.; Hazarika, M.

    2012-12-01

    The uncertainty in tracking tropical forest extent and changes substantially affects our assessment of the consequences of forest change on the global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Recently cloud-free imagery useful for tropical forest mapping from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has become available. We used PALSAR 50-m Orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 and a decision tree method to conduct land cover classification and generate a 2009 forest map, which was evaluated using 2106 field photos from the Global Geo-referenced Field Photo Library (http://www.eomf.ou.edu/photos). The resulting land cover classification had a high overall accuracy of 93.3 % and a Kappa Coefficient of 0.9. The PALSAR-based forest map was then compared with three existing forest cover products at three scales (regional, national, and continental): the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments (FRA) 2010, Global Land Cover Map with MERIS (GlobCover) 2009, and the MODIS Terra + Aqua Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1) 2009. The intercomparison results show that these four forest datasets differ. The PALSAR-based forest area estimate is within the range (6.1 ~ 9.0 ×105 km2) of the other three products and closest to the FAO FRA 2010 estimate. The spatial disagreements of the PALSAR-based forest, MCD12Q1 forest and GlobCover forest are evident; however, the PALSAR-based forest map provides more detail (50-m spatial resolution) and high accuracy (the Producer's and the User's Accuracies were 88 % and 95 %, respectively) and PALSAR can be used to evaluate MCD12Q1 2009 and GlobCover 2009 forest maps. Given the higher spatial resolution, PALSAR-based forest products could further improve the modeling accuracy of carbon cycle in tropical forests.

  15. Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A Promotes Invasion of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells through ERK/Fra-1-Mediated Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yu-Yan; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Chang, Jeffrey Shu-Ming; Chen, Chaio-Wei; Lai, Hsiao-Ching; Wu, Shih-Yi; Yeh, Tzu-Hao; Chang, Fang-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly metastatic, and this malignant feature may be promoted by an EBV oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A). Acting as a signal regulator, LMP2A can enhance invasiveness and motility of epithelial cells. Downstream from the LMP2A-triggered signaling events, it is largely unknown what key effector proteins are induced and essentially promote cell invasion. In the present study, we found that in NPC cells, LMP2A upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a metastasis-associated protease. LMP2A increased MMP9 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. It also activated the MMP9 promoter, in which two AP-1 elements were required for the promoter activation. Among AP-1 transcription factors, Fra-1 was induced by LMP2A and is essential for LMP2A-triggered MMP9 expression. Induction of Fra-1 was dependent on the LMP2A-activated ERK1/2 pathway, and induction of the ERK1/2–Fra-1–MMP9 axis required PY motifs in the amino-terminal domain of LMP2A. Notably, LMP2A-promoted invasion of NPC cells was blocked when MMP9 expression, Fra-1 induction, or ERK1/2 activation was inhibited. In addition, we found an association of LMP2A with MMP9 expression in NPC tumor biopsy specimens, where Fra-1 was a major mediation factor. This study reveals an underlying mechanism of LMP2A-induced cell invasion, from signal transduction to upregulation of a critical protease. Considering that MMP9 can also be upregulated by another EBV oncoprotein, LMP1, this protease may be a pivotal effector at which the EBV-induced, invasion-promoting mechanisms converge, serving as an attractive therapeutic target for NPC treatment. PMID:22514348

  16. Mental retardation, acromegalic face, and megalotestes in two half-brothers: a specific form of X-linked mental retardation without fra(X) (q)?

    PubMed

    Tariverdian, G; Froster-Iskenius, U; Deuschl, G; Wolff, G

    1991-01-01

    We describe a family with two half-brothers affected with severe mental retardation. The phenotype in the affected individuals is characterized by apparent acromegaly, profound mental retardation, and hyperactivity. The mother has analogous but less severe facial anomalies and mild mental impairment. Screening for fra(X) (q) was negative in peripheral lymphocytes using methotrexate for fra(X) enhancement. The clinical findings in our patients are similar to those described by Fryns et al. [1986] in two patients with acquired lesions of the central nervous system. CT investigations in one of our patients showed areas of hyperdensity in the pontine region and a small subarachnoid cyst. The pedigree suggests X-linked inheritance. The association of apparent acromegaly, CNS anomalies, megalotestes, and mental retardation in this family supports the hypothesis that a distinct syndrome may exist with phenotype anomalies more severe than those characteristic for the Martin-Bell syndrome but without fragile X. PMID:2018059

  17. The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3\\/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haoran Li; Daphne T. Mapolelo; Nin N. Dingra; Sunil G. Naik; Nicolas S. Lees; Brian M. Hoffman; Pamela J. Riggs-Gelasco; Boi Hanh Huynh; Michael K. Johnson; Caryn E. Outten

    2009-01-01

    The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However, the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which

  18. Common Chromosome Fragile Sites in Human and Murine Epithelial Cells and FHIT/FRA3B Loss-Induced Global Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Horton, Susan; Saldivar, Joshua C.; Miuma, Satoshi; Stampfer, Martha R.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Huebner, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal positions of common fragile sites differ in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, with positions dependent on the epigenetically determined density of replication origins at these loci. Because rearrangement of fragile loci and associated loss of fragile gene products are hallmarks of cancers, we aimed to map common fragile sites in epithelial cells, from which most cancers derive. Among the five most frequently activated sites in human epithelial cells were chromosome bands 2q33 and Xq22.1, which are not among top fragile sites identified in lymphoblasts or fibroblasts. FRA16D at 16q23 was among the top three fragile sites in the human epithelial cells examined, as it is in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, while FRA3B at 3p14.2, the top fragile locus in lymphoblasts, was not fragile in most epithelial cell lines tested. Epithelial cells exhibited varying hierarchies of fragile sites; some frequent epithelial cell fragile sites are apparently not frequently altered in epithelial cancers and sites that are frequently deleted in epithelial cancers are not necessarily among the most fragile. Since we have reported that loss of expression of the FRA3B-encoded FHIT protein causes increased replication stress-induced DNA damage, we also examined the effect of FHIT-deficiency on markers of genome instability in epithelial cells. FHIT-deficient cells exhibited increases in fragile breaks and in ?H2AX and 53BP1 foci in G1 phase cells, confirming in epithelial cells that the FHIT gene and encompassing FRA3B, is a “caretaker gene” necessary for maintenance of genome stability. PMID:23929738

  19. Sources of clasts in terrestrial impact melts - Clues to the origin of LKFM. [Low-K Fra Mauro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, K. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Spudis, P. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1989-01-01

    Low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) 'basalt', which is found exclusively as an impact melt rock, cannot be modeled geochemically from its clast population or from any combination of known pristine lunar rock types. To clarify clast/melt relationships, a study was made of impact melt rocks from Mistastin Lake crater, Labrador, where there are only three target rocks: anorthosite, quartz monzonite, and granodiorite. Feldspar compositions in these rocks define distinct fields on the An-Ab-Or ternary diagram, making it possible to identify the source of each feldspar clast. Clasts in the Mistastin impact melts do not reflect the abundance of target rocks melted during the impact. The abundance of anorthosite in the clast population varies from 34 to 100 percent compared to a relatively constant value of 65 percent calculated to be in the melt matrix. Therefore the clasts appear to be derived predominantly from material relatively far removed from the zone of impact melting. Melt-matrix composition is dictated strictly by the composition of the target materials within a small radius around and below the point of impact. This suggests that the LKFM composition was derived from a lower crustal source.

  20. Sources of mineral fragments in impact melts 15445 and 15455 - Toward the origin of low-K Fra Mauro basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Mccormick, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    The compositions of major and minor elements in mineral clasts in low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) are studied in order to gain a deeper understanding of the genesis of LKFM and its primogenitors. The fragments are picked up as the impact melt moves outward from the center of the target. It is suggested that most of the mineral debris found in the melts is derived from troctolites of the Mg-suite. The chemical end member that dominates the LKFM melt matrics is not present as either mineral or lithic clastic debris in these melt rocks. It is proposed that the missing chemical component of LKFM could have been a magma, existing within the crust 3.9 Ga ago, and was either ejected intact to form LKFM melt rocks or was mixed with other shock-melted crusted and mantle rocks to produce the LKFM compositions. Assimilation of lithic and mineral clasts into the melt after breccian assembly is not a significant process and cannot be adduced to explain the LKFM melt/clast dichotomy.

  1. Sources of mineral fragments in impact melts 15445 and 15455 - Toward the origin of low-K Fra Mauro basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; McCormick, K. A.

    The compositions of major and minor elements in mineral clasts in low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) are studied in order to gain a deeper understanding of the genesis of LKFM and its primogenitors. The fragments are picked up as the impact melt moves outward from the center of the target. It is suggested that most of the mineral debris found in the melts is derived from troctolites of the Mg-suite. The chemical end member that dominates the LKFM melt matrics is not present as either mineral or lithic clastic debris in these melt rocks. It is proposed that the missing chemical component of LKFM could have been a magma, existing within the crust 3.9 Ga ago, and was either ejected intact to form LKFM melt rocks or was mixed with other shock-melted crusted and mantle rocks to produce the LKFM compositions. Assimilation of lithic and mineral clasts into the melt after breccian assembly is not a significant process and cannot be adduced to explain the LKFM melt/clast dichotomy.

  2. Scribble Modulates the MAPK/Fra1 Pathway to Disrupt Luminal and Ductal Integrity and Suppress Tumour Formation in the Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Godde, Nathan J.; Sheridan, Julie M.; Smith, Lorey K.; Pearson, Helen B.; Britt, Kara L.; Galea, Ryan C.; Yates, Laura L.; Visvader, Jane E.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2014-01-01

    Polarity coordinates cell movement, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis to build and maintain complex epithelial tissues such as the mammary gland. Loss of polarity and the deregulation of these processes are critical events in malignant progression but precisely how and at which stage polarity loss impacts on mammary development and tumourigenesis is unclear. Scrib is a core polarity regulator and tumour suppressor gene however to date our understanding of Scrib function in the mammary gland has been limited to cell culture and transplantation studies of cell lines. Utilizing a conditional mouse model of Scrib loss we report for the first time that Scrib is essential for mammary duct morphogenesis, mammary progenitor cell fate and maintenance, and we demonstrate a critical and specific role for Scribble in the control of the early steps of breast cancer progression. In particular, Scrib-deficiency significantly induced Fra1 expression and basal progenitor clonogenicity, which resulted in fully penetrant ductal hyperplasia characterized by high cell turnover, MAPK hyperactivity, frank polarity loss with mixing of apical and basolateral membrane constituents and expansion of atypical luminal cells. We also show for the first time a role for Scribble in mammalian spindle orientation with the onset of mammary hyperplasia being associated with aberrant luminal cell spindle orientation and a failure to apoptose during the final stage of duct tubulogenesis. Restoring MAPK/Fra1 to baseline levels prevented Scrib-hyperplasia, whereas persistent Scrib deficiency induced alveolar hyperplasia and increased the incidence, onset and grade of mammary tumours. These findings, based on a definitive genetic mouse model provide fundamental insights into mammary duct maturation and homeostasis and reveal that Scrib loss activates a MAPK/Fra1 pathway that alters mammary progenitor activity to drive premalignancy and accelerate tumour progression. PMID:24852022

  3. A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated with oil and animal glue. A large number of overpaintings above the original scheme of polychromy was found, which could be ascribed to almost three different interventions; the absence of modern pigments suggests that they could be realized long ago.

  4. FRA MAURO FORMATION, APOLLO 14: IV. SYNOPSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF CONSORTIUM STUDIES. D. ~ t 6 fflerl, K.D. ~obel,E.K. ~essber~er', S. ~ i n ~ n e rl, H. palme 3, B. sPettel3, .~tnde-nn2 , and H. ~ S n k e, Institut

    E-print Network

    FRA MAURO FORMATION, APOLLO 14: IV. SYNOPSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF CONSORTIUM STUDIES. D. ~ t 6 fflerl. The aim of this paper is to discuss the results of a consortium study of Apollo 14 rocks (1, 2, 3 assumption that the Fra Muuro formation sampled by the Apollo 14 mission is part of the continuous ejecta

  5. 5th Conference on Pesticides and Related Organic Micropollutants in the Environment, Marseille, FRA, 22-25 Octobre 2008 1 How to mitigate pesticides point sources pollution at the EU level

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    5th Conference on Pesticides and Related Organic Micropollutants in the Environment, Marseille, FRA, 22-25 Octobre 2008 1 How to mitigate pesticides point sources pollution at the EU level Bernard. Keywords Pesticides Point Source Pollution Reduction, Stakeholder Decision, Surveys, Uspcaling Process

  6. Candidate tumor suppressor genes at FRA7G are coamplified with MET and do not suppress malignancy in a gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuang-Yin; Druck, Teresa; Huebner, Kay

    2003-02-01

    Common fragile sites predispose to specific chromosomal breakage associated with deletion, amplification, and/or translocation in certain forms of cancer. Chromosomal fragile sites not only are susceptible to DNA instability in cancer cells, but may also be associated with genes that contribute to the neoplastic process. FRA7G is a common fragile site containing the candidate tumor suppressor genes CAV1, CAV2, and TESTIN (TES). The human gastric cancer cell line GTL-16 has an amplification of this genomic region and was used to seek evidence for the suppressor candidacy of one of these genes. Our results demonstrate that CAV1, CAV2, and TESTIN are coamplified with the MET oncogene and overexpressed in GTL-16. Somatic mutation was not detected in the coding regions of these genes, although they were each overexpressed. The results show that CAV1, CAV2, and TESTIN are not tumor suppressor genes in this gastric cancer. PMID:12620387

  7. The comparative behavior of apatite-zircon U-Pb systems in Apollo 14 breccias: Implications for the thermal history of the Fra Mauro Formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Healy, D.; Grange, M. L.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Vaughan, J.

    2009-12-01

    We report secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb analyses of zircon and apatite from four breccia samples from the Apollo 14 landing site. The zircon and apatite grains occur as cogenetic minerals in lithic clasts in two of the breccias and as unrelated mineral clasts in the matrices of the other two. SIMS U-Pb analyses show that the ages of zircon grains range from 4023 ± 24 Ma to 4342 ± 5 Ma, whereas all apatite grains define an isochron corresponding to an age of 3926 ± 3 Ma. The disparity in the ages of cogenetic apatite and zircon demonstrates that the apatite U-Pb systems have been completely reset at 3926 ± 3 Ma, whereas the U-Pb system of zircon has not been noticeably disturbed at this time. The apatite U-Pb age is slightly older than the ages determined by other methods on Apollo 14 materials highlighting need to reconcile decay constants used for the U-Pb, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr systems. We interpret the apatite age as a time of formation of the Fra Mauro Formation. If the interpretation of this Formation as an Imbrium ejecta is correct, apatite also determines the timing of Imbrium impact. The contrast in the Pb loss behavior of apatite and zircon places constraints on the temperature history of the Apollo 14 breccias and we estimate, from the experimentally determined Pb diffusion constants and an approximation of the original depth of the excavated samples in the Fra Mauro Formation, that the breccias experienced an initial temperature of about 1300-1100 °C, but cooled within the first five to ten years.

  8. Brndselscellers fysik og kemi Anders Smith og Mogens Mogensen, Afdelingen for Materialeforskning, Forskningscenter Ris.

    E-print Network

    Carbonate Fuel Cell", MCFC) og endelig fastoxidbrændselscellen (eng. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell", SOFC), som har brændselscelle, der er tale om. I det følgendebetragter vi en SOFC, men princip- pet er det samme for de andre typer: De iltioner, der dannes p°a katodesiden af SOFC-cellen, vil forbruges p°a anodesiden

  9. Fra Mauro Formation,Apollo 14: 11. ^ ~ r -^ ~ rAges of Apollo 14 Rocks F. J. stadennannl, E. Heusser and E. K. Jessbergcr; Max Planck Institut fur Kemphysik, D-6900

    E-print Network

    Fra Mauro Formation,Apollo 14: 11. ^ ~ r - ^ ~ rAges of Apollo 14 Rocks F. J. stadennannl, E As a contribution to the Cone-Crater-Consortium^Ar-^Ar ages of 21 Apollo-14 samples were determined. Among to 4.11 Ga. The ^Ar-^Ar age of 4.09 Ga is the highest so far found in the Apollo-14 rock

  10. Potential gastrointestinal tumor suppressor locus at the 3p14.2 FRA3B site identified by homozygous deletions in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kastury, K; Baffa, R; Druck, T; Ohta, M; Cotticelli, M G; Inoue, H; Negrini, M; Rugge, M; Huang, D; Croce, C M; Palazzo, J; Huebner, K

    1996-03-01

    A number of DNA fragments, identified by representational difference analysis, which were homozygously deleted in various cancer cell lines were previously mapped to human chromosomal arms. One of these, BE758-6, which was homozygously deleted in a number of colon carcinoma cell lines, had been mapped to chromosome region 3p. We have further localized the probe to 3p14.2, approximately 350kbp telomeric to the 3p14.2 break of the t(3;8) hereditary renal cell carcinoma chromosome translocation, within or near the 3p14.2 FRA3B, the most common human fragile site. We determined the sizes of the homozygous deletions in a number of cancer cell lines after isolation of a yeast artificial chromosome contig and development of STS markers which fall between D3S1234 and D2S1481, which flank the deletions. Homozygous deletions were observed and sized not only in the cell lines originally reported but also in a number of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and a gastric carcinoma cell line. About 50% of uncultured stomach and colon carcinomas were then shown to lose heterozygosity for alleles in the same region, with a common region of loss between the D3S1234 and D3S1481 markers. Thus, it is likely that the homozygous deletion observed in these cancer cell lines harbors an important tumor suppressor gene for several tumor types. PMID:8640789

  11. A Comparison of Forest Cover Maps in China in 2010 from Multi-source: Landsat, PALSAR, MCD12Q1, FAO FRA, and National Forestry Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Zhang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Forests and their changes are quite important to global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecological services. Some uncertainties about forest cover maps still exist in China, so an accurate and updated forest cover distribution map is necessary as a baseline for carbon cycle estimation, especially at a fine spatial resolution. In this study, we developed a decision tree classification algorithm to identify forest and non-forest land cover, based on the signature analysis of 50 m ALOS PLASAR backscatter data in 2010 for a few land cover types. We used MODIS-based NDVI dataset in 2010 (MOD13Q1) to generate a map of annual maximum NDVI and used it to mask out built-up lands, barren lands, and sparsely vegetated lands. We applied the PALSAR-based algorithm and produced a forest cover map in China in 2010. Several comparisons in forest area and spatial distribution between the resultant forest map with other forest maps were carried out. The results show that the total forest area in China from the PALSAR-based forest map in 2010 is close to those of JAXA, FAO FRA, and National Forestry Inventory, and there are good linear relationships between the PALSAR-based forest map with the JAXA, MCD12Q1, and NLCD-China forest areas at province and county scales. All the forest maps have similar forest/non-forest distribution, but our PALSAR-based forest map recognizes well the agro-forests. The results of this study provide a baseline map of forest cover in China in 2010, which can be used for the studies of forest disturbance, carbon cycle, and ecological restoration projects in China.

  12. Astrocytoma-associated antigens - IL13R?2, Fra-1, and EphA2 as potential markers to monitor the status of tumour-derived cell cultures in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The molecular heterogeneity of high-grade astrocytomas underlies the difficulties in the development of representative and valuable in vitro experimental models for their studies. The purpose of our study was to estimate the value of astrocytoma-associated antigens (AAAs) - IL13R?2, Fra-1, EphA2 - and the most common molecular aberrations typical for astrocytomas as potential markers to screen the status of tumour-derived cell cultures in vitro. Methods The tumour-derived cell cultures were established from high-grade astrocytomas. The expression analyses of the tested genes were performed via semi-quantitative real-time PCR and subsequently verified by immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical technique. The analyses of molecular aberrations at DNA level included gene dosage status evaluation based on real-time PCR, sequencing analysis, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assay. Results The expression analyses based on semi-quantitative real-time PCR showed that in the final stage of culture the expression level of all tested AAAs was significantly higher or at least comparable to that of primary tumours; however, two expression patterns were observed during cell culture establishment. Analysis at the single cell level via immunocytochemistry also demonstrated an increase of the level of tested proteins and/or selection of tumour cell populations strongly positive for AAAs vs. other cell types including admixed non-tumoural cells. Confrontation of AAA expression data with the results of molecular analyses at DNA level seems to support the latter, revealing that the expression pattern of astrocytoma-associated antigens in tumour-derived cells in subsequent stages of culture is convergent with changes in the molecular profile of examined cell populations. Conclusions The consistency of the obtained results seems to support the use of the selected AAAs, in particular IL13R?2 and Fra-1, as tools facilitating the establishment of tumour-derived cultures. However, the intratumoural heterogeneity of high-grade astrocytomas may require further detailed characterisation of the molecular profile of a tumour in order to evaluate the value of the experimental model in relation to the individual context of particular studies. PMID:25788865

  13. Apollo 14: Science at Fra Mauro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The many scientific activities and experiments performed during the Apollo 14 Mission are presented in a descriptive, non-technical format. Content relates to experiments on the lunar surface and to those performed while traveling in space, and provides a great deal of information about the flight. Many photographs from the journey, a map of the…

  14. The particle track record of Fra Mauro.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, H. R., Jr.; Comstock, G. M.; Fleischer, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Apollo 14 breccias show a mixture of high and low track densities at most interior positions, indicating that the majority of the tracks have been inherited from the parent ingredients of the breccias. Using the lowest of these track densities as indicative of maximum postbrecciation surface residence times, we find a median 1.35 m.y., much younger than the less friable Apollo 11 and 12 igneous rocks. The igneous rock 14310 is studied as a part of a consortium, the results indicating a complex irradiation history. Soils are extremely variable, median track densities ranging over at least a factor of 200. Individual high density soil grains yield track density gradients having variable slopes, most of which are lower than expected from the Surveyor III filter glass results.

  15. La rivalità fra Lo Surdo e Fermi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Foresta Martin; Geppi Calcara

    \\u000a Nella vulgata della scuola di fisica romana degli anni Trenta Antonino Lo Surdo viene presentato come un professore antiquato,\\u000a ostile a Fermi e ad alcuni suoi giovani collaboratori, di carattere freddo e invidioso. Questi giudizi negativi si basano\\u000a sulle testimonianze scritte di Emilio Segrè, uno dei più brillanti allievi e collaboratori di Enrico Fermi, premio Nobel per\\u000a la Fisica nel

  16. PARSTAT 2273 Advanced Potentiostat/Galvanostat/FRA

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Universität

    systems will be measured. Applications · Research Electrochemistry · Corrosion · Sensors · Batteries Bus (USB), so there is no need for an additional card for your system. Electrochemistry Power for long term, heavy load operations #12;4 Applications Research Electrochemistry The physical nature

  17. Balic, Brun, Dahle, Kalisch, Karlsen, Tucker REFERAT FRA

    E-print Network

    Kalisch, Henrik

    datamaskiner i Alleegaten ? Sak 4. Mote med IT avdeling. Hva onsker vi a legge frem pa dette motet ? Ansatte. Hvordan handterer IT-avdeling problem med ulike versjoner av programvare. Hva om det er en del av

  18. Ancient crustal components in the Fra Mauro breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Texturally pristine clasts preserve primary petrographic relationships and mineral compositions, yielding insights into igneous processes of the early lunar crust that cannot be gained from highly shocked and brecciated 'chemically pristine' samples. The use of texture as a prime criterion allows for expansion of the data base derived solely from chemical criteria, and provides complementary data. Texturally pristine clasts from the Apollo 14 site studied here include anorthosite, troctolites, gabbronorites, and basalts. Alkali anorthosites are plagioclase orthocumulates and may form by flotation in Mg-suite plutons. Ferroan anorthosite was cataclastically deformed and metamorphosed to granulite facies. Troctolites include both 01 + Plg and 01 + En + Plg cumulates. Major and trace element analyses of two troctolites reveal 'eastern' geochemical affinities that contrast other 'western' troctolites. Gabbronorites are Pig + Plg + or - Sp cumulates whose parent magmas may range from high-Al to intermediate-Ti mare basalt. At least three varieties of mare basalt are found at Apollo 14: high-Al, low-Ti; low-Al, intermediate-Ti; and low-Al, Ti VHK basalt. VHK (Very High Potassium) basalt is a new variety indigenous to Apollo 14.

  19. Experimental petrology and origin of Fra Mauro rocks and soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Longhi, J.; Hays, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Results of melting experiments over the pressure range from 0 to 20 kb on Apollo 14 igneous rocks 14310 and 14072, and on comprehensive fines 14259. It is found that low-pressure crystallization of rocks 14310 and 14072 proceeds as predicted from the textural relationships displayed by thin sections of these rocks. The mineralogy and textures of these rocks are the result of near-surface crystallization. The chemical compositions of these lunar samples all show special relationships to multiply saturated liquids in the system anorthite-forsterite-fayalite-silica at low pressure. Partial melting of a lunar crust consisting largely of plagioclase, low-calcium pyroxene, and olivine, followed by crystal fractionation at the lunar surface, is a satisfactory mechanism for the production of the igneous rocks and soil glasses sampled by Apollo 14. The KREEP component of other lunar soils, may have a similar origin.

  20. Vindkraftens betydning for elprisen i Danmark

    E-print Network

    -Wind Forfattere: Poul Alberg Østergaard, Aalborg Universitet Poul Erik Morthorst, Forskningscenter Risø Rune gennem PSO-2 midlerne. Lektor Poul Ahlberg Østergaard, Aalborg Universitet har skrevet afsnittet om Elhandel på Nordpool og prisdannelse af vindkraft-el. Seniorforsker Poul Erik Morthorst, Forskningscenter

  1. D. Ris-M-2830 et Tokamakken

    E-print Network

    o m D. Risø-M-2830 C/) et Tokamakken Jens-Peter Lynov og Poul Michelsen Forskningscenter Risø, 4000 fysikundervisningen i gymnasiet og HF Jens-Peter Lynov og Poul Michelsen Resumé. De store mængder energi, som frigives

  2. Paraje (de Fra Cristobal): investigations of a Territorial period Hispanic village site in southern New Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Douglas Kevin

    1986-01-01

    Figure 6. 27. Profile of Room D. 147 148 149 150 Figure 6. ZB. Profile of unit outside Structure 10. . . Figure 6. Zg. Feature 10-1 151 153 Figure 7. 1. Type 1 coarse earthenware rim forms. . . 161 Figure 7. 2. Type 3 coarse earthenware rim form.... . . Figure 7. 3. Type 4 coarse earthenware rim form. . . 164 165 Figure 8. 1. Assigned provenience locations of excavation units at Structure 1. . . 242 LIST OF TABLES Table 5. 1. Reorganization of Mounted Regiments, August 3, 1861 Page 67 Table 7...

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Fra2, an Additional Member of the Fos Gene Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Nishina; Hironori Sato; Takeshi Suzuki; Moriyuki Sato; Hideo Iba

    1990-01-01

    Antiserum raised against a Fos peptide (amino acids Lys-127 to Arg-140 of chicken c-Fos) recognizes a 46-kDa Fos-related protein in cell lysates of growth-stimulated chicken embryo fibroblasts. Induction of the 46-kDa protein is transient but is slightly prolonged relative to c-Fos following growth stimulation. Using a mixed oligonucleotide probe encoding the peptide antigen, we have cloned the chicken genomic locus

  4. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...grants: (1) To conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and (2) to conduct a Study of...Protection Agency, to conduct a ``Locomotive Biofuel Study.'' This study will focus on determining...other passenger rail operators could use biofuel blends to power locomotives and...

  5. 75 FR 34213 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...responsible parties for two grants: to conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and to conduct a Study of the Use of Bio-based Technologies...for the two grant programs: (1) To conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and (2) to conduct a Study of the Use of...

  6. Maske fra Sri Lanka, brukt i Singalesisk folketeater, innkjpt av Etnografisk museum

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    Hagenbeck i Hamburg i 1887 #12;2 3 JA, VI ELSKER FRIHET Du vet godt når du er fri. Frihet er noe du vet hva til å være den vi ønsker å være. Hva skal til for at akkurat du skal føle deg fri? Har du tenkt på hva alvor. Hva kan vi si offentlig og hva kan vi utsette andre for? Hva kan vi leke med før det blir ufint

  7. The magma ocean from the Fra Mauro shoreline - An overview of the Apollo 14 crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Petrographic and mineralogical studies of coarse grained, polymineralic, texturally monominct igneous clasts from the Apollo 14 breccias show troctolite and troctolitic anorthosite to be the most abundant rock types. The second most abundant group consists of plagioclase cumulates with more evolved mineral compositions than the Mg-rich trend anorthosite cumulates. Coarse grained ilmenite gabbros and mineralogically evolved monzonoritic and granitic clasts are widespread in occurrence, but not abundant. The present data provide further support for widespread regional heterogeneities within the early lunar crust.

  8. Lunar surface closeup stereoscopic photography at Fra Mauro (Apollo 14 site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Heiken, G.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 17-1/2 stereopairs of lunar surface rocks and soil was taken on the Apollo 14 mission. The closeup stereopair photographs are presented with a preliminary interpretation for those interested in lunar soil formation, impact phenomena, and soil mechanics.

  9. Geomorphology of crater and basin deposits - Emplacement of the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. H.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of continuous deposits near lunar craters larger than about 1 km wide are considered, and it is concluded that (1) concentric dunes, radial ridges, and braided lineations result from deposition of the collision products of ejecta from adjacent pairs of similarly oriented secondary-crater chains and are, therefore, concentrations of secondary-crater ejecta; (2) intracrater ridges are produced within preexisting craters surrounding a fresh primary crater by ricocheting and focusing of secondary-crater ejecta from the preexisting craters' walls; and (3) secondary cratering has produced many of the structures of the continuous deposits of relatively small lunar craters and is the dominant process for emplacement of most of the radial facies of the continuous deposits of large lunar craters and basins. The percentages of Imbrium ejecta in deposits and the nature of Imbrium sculpturing are investigated.

  10. On Pu-244 in lunar rocks from Fra Mauro and implications regarding their origin.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Lightner, B. D.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    The evidence for in situ produced fission xenon from Pu-244 in rock 14321 is presented. The inferred abundance ratio Pu-244/U-238 is found to be consistent with values observed in a meteorite. Data from a stepwise release of the xenon permits a characterization of the trapped component, which can be shown to be distinct from solar xenon. We discuss the evidence for the presence of fission gases and of uncorrelated radiogenic argon in this and in other Apollo 14 rocks and some implications regarding their origin.

  11. Exposure ages and neutron capture record in lunar samples from Fra Mauro.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic-ray exposure ages of Apollo 14 rocks and rock fragments obtained by the Kr81-Kr83 method range from 27 to 700 m.y. Rock 14321, collected near the Cone crater rim, is one of the many approximately 27 m.y. old ejecta which were reported at the Third Lunar Science Conference. All the other rocks have considerably higher exposure ages. Isotopic anomalies from neutron capture in gadolinium, bromine, and barium are used to obtain information on the lunar neutron spectrum at various depths below the lunar surface. The flux ratio of resonance and slow (less than 0.3 eV) neutrons is found to be nearly constant in the topmost approximately 100 g/sq cm.

  12. Sintering and hot pressing of Fra Mauro composition glass and the lithification of lunar breccias.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    It is proposed that Apollo 14 type breccias lithify by sintering of particles of matrix glass under stress-free conditions. Meteorite impacts generate the heat necessary for sintering. Compacted angular particles of glass with the composition of an Apollo 14 rock were sintered experimentally. Loose clods of sub 37 micron grains form in several days at 700 C. Synthetic rocks, which texturally resemble the breccias, were produced at 795 C and above in 7.5 hours. Glass devitrified with increasing temperature. At 850 C, devitrification prevents much further densification of the synthetic breccias after 2 hours. Experiments compressing glass at 500 bars at 600 C produced dense vitreous masses which did not resemble lunar breccias. Confining pressure does not play a major role in lithifying the breccias. It is concluded that Apollo 14 type lunar breccias form at shallow depths at 800 C+ in a period of minutes to days.

  13. Servizi per l'infanzia, mutamenti, legami con il territorio fra cultura e controcultura

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Fabbri

    2010-01-01

    Il report analizza le rappresentazioni di insegnanti di scuola dell'infanzia e educa- trici di nido, in relazione ai principali trend di mutamento sociale e istituzionale e ai cambiamenti legati agli stili educativi. Particolarmente significativo risulta su questo versante l'intreccio dinamico tra servizi e territorio: in direzione di sinergia e di collaborazione reciproca in alcune parti del paese; di maggiore attrito

  14. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    (1) To accept responsibility for the training of student engineers and thereby obtain authority for that railroad to initially certify a person as an engineer in an appropriate class of service, or (2) To recertify only engineers previously certified by other...

  15. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    (1) To accept responsibility for the training of student engineers and thereby obtain authority for that railroad to initially certify a person as an engineer in an appropriate class of service, or (2) To recertify only engineers previously certified by other...

  16. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    (1) To accept responsibility for the training of student engineers and thereby obtain authority for that railroad to initially certify a person as an engineer in an appropriate class of service, or (2) To recertify only engineers previously certified by other...

  17. I prodotti editoriali nella rete-mercato fra editori e consumatori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richeri Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The article analyze the main sectors of the publishing industry highlighting major features and factors that encourage or curb the shift from physical to intangible. To-day publishers are able to find a very wild on-line market for their products that offer the possibility to change in deep the organizational and costing structure, the time to market of the editorial contents

  18. FraNtiC: A Fractal Geometric Framework for Mesh-Based Wireless Access Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samik Ghosh; Kalyan Basu; Sajal K. Das

    2005-01-01

    The design of the access networks of next generation broadband wireless systems requires special attention in the light of changing network characteristics. In this paper, we present a mesh-based distributed radio access network (RAN) framework for future wireless systems. Using short, high bandwidth optical wireless links to interconnect the various network elements, we identify a generic fractal or self-similar structure

  19. Valutazione clinica comparativa fra due collutori agli oli essenziali con e senza alcol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Basso; J. Nowakowska; G. Bordini; S. Corbella

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesEssential oils have been used for years as components of mouthwashes. Although their antiseptic potency is inferior to that of chlorhexidine, they can be used daily as an adjunct to daily oral hygiene and as a treatment for halitosis. The aim of this prospective, double-blind, comparative study was to evaluate the efficacy of two mouthwashes containing essential oils, one without

  20. Human Chromosomal Fragile Site FRA16B Is an Amplified AT-Rich Minisatellite Repeat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sui Yu; Marie Mangelsdorf; Duncan Hewett; Lynne Hobson; Elizabeth Baker; Helen J Eyre; Naras Lapsys; Denis Le Paslier; Norman A Doggett; Grant R Sutherland; Robert I Richards

    1997-01-01

    Fragile sites are nonstaining gaps in chromosomes induced by specific tissue culture conditions. They vary both in population frequency and in the culture conditions required for induction. Folate-sensitive fragile sites are due to expansion of p(CCG)n trinucleotide repeats; however, the relationship between sequence composition and the chemistry of induction of fragile sites is unclear. To clarify this relationship, the distamycin

  1. Oncogene . Author manuscript The PKC pathway participates in the aberrant accumulation of Fra-1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Oncogene . Author manuscript Page /1 13 The PKC pathway participates in the aberrant accumulation-Serine-Threonine Kinases ; metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos ; metabolism ; Receptors, Estrogen ; metabolism

  2. Fra molekyl til prosess Beregning av likevekt og transport med de sm systemers metode

    E-print Network

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Kjelstrup Institutt for kjemi NKS Landsmøte, Lillestrøm, 29.30 oktober, 2014 #12;2 Tilegnet alle mine dr standard tilstand! Fult dekket overflate 300 K: 12.5 molekyl/(nm)² #12;Reservoar: 168 Å x 216 Å x 336 Å L Standard kjemisk potensial, entropi og entalpi for lagene 298 K Lag 1+2 Lag 1 Lag 2 CO2 gass µ0 kJ/mol 47

  3. Fri prosjektsttte: Nye prosjekter innenfor matematikk, naturvitenskap og teknologi (FRINATEK) fra 2014 Prosjekt Tittel Prosjektansvarlig

    E-print Network

    Brandenburg, Axel

    Corroles as a Platform for Fundamental Transition Metal Chemistry, with Emphasis on Heavy Elements (EME) Farmasøytisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo 231741 Modeling of obstructive sleep apnea by fluid

  4. FL/FRA Liste de priodiques 06.03.2008 1

    E-print Network

    Genève, Université de

    (1979)-63(1990) L'Ane : le magazine freudien. - Paris : Analyse Nouvelle Expérience, 1981->. - No 1(1981)->. 0531508 Romanicum : nuova rivista di filologia romanza. - Genève : L.S. Olschki ; [poi] Firenze : Bibliopolis. - Vol

  5. FRA3B and other common fragile sites: the weakest links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Huebner; Carlo M. Croce

    2001-01-01

    In 1979, the first chromosome alteration associated with familial cancer was reported. Five years later, a fragile site was observed in the same chromosome region. The product of the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, which encompasses this fragile site, is partially or entirely lost in most human cancers, indicating that it has a tumour-suppressor function. Inactivation of only one FHIT

  6. Decreto n. 427 IL DRETTORE AMMINISTRATIVO

    E-print Network

    Malerba, Donato

    CULTURACIVILTÀ E CULTURACIVILTÀ E CULTURA SCRITTA FRA TARDA ANSCRITTA FRA TARDA ANSCRITTA FRA TARDA ANSCRITTA FRA CONFERIMENTO DEL TITOLO DI DOTTORE DI RICERCA IN civiltà e cultura scritta fra tardaciviltà e cultura scritta fra tardaciviltà e cultura scritta fra tardaciviltà e cultura scritta fra tarda #12;antichità e

  7. Rettevejledning, obl. opg. 2 Opgaven er anderledes fra den frste obligatoriske opgave derved at den er langt

    E-print Network

    Eilers, Søren

    /e96/46/BD&SE #12; 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 ­3 ­2 ­1 0 1 2 3 x Figur 1: Grafen for s 3 #12; 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 ­3 ­2 ­1 0 1 2 3 x Figur 2: Grafen for s 7 #12; 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 ­3 ­2 ­1 0 1 2 3 x Figur 3: Grafen for s 20 #12;

  8. The Frankfurt Patient Safety Climate Questionnaire for General Practices (FraSiK): analysis of psychometric properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Hoffmann; Olga Maria Domanska; Zeycan Albay; Vera Mueller; Corina Guethlin; Eric J Thomas; Ferdinand M Gerlach

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundSafety culture has been identified as having a major impact on how safety is managed in healthcare. However, it has not received much attention in general practices. Hence, no instrument yet exists to assess safety climate—the measurable artefact of safety culture—in this setting. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of a newly developed safety climate questionnaire for use in

  9. The Frankfurt Patient Safety Climate Questionnaire for General Practices (FraSiK): analysis of psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Domanska, Olga Maria; Albay, Zeycan; Mueller, Vera; Guethlin, Corina; Thomas, Eric J; Gerlach, Ferdinand M

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND Safety culture has been identified as having a major impact on how safety is managed in healthcare. However, it has not received much attention in general practices. Hence, no instrument yet exists to assess safety climate-the measurable artefact of safety culture-in this setting. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of a newly developed safety climate questionnaire for use in German general practices. METHODS The existing Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, Ambulatory Version, was considerably modified and enhanced in order to be applicable in general practice. After pilot tests and its application in a random sample of 400 German practices, a first psychometric analysis led to modifications in several items. A further psychometric analysis was conducted with an additional sample of 60 practices and a response rate of 97.08%. Exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal varimax rotation was carried out and the internal consistency of the identified factors was calculated. RESULTS Nine factors emerged, representing a wide range of dimensions associated with safety culture: teamwork climate, error management, safety of clinical processes, perception of causes of errors, job satisfaction, safety of office structure, receptiveness to healthcare assistants and patients, staff perception of management, and quality and safety of medical care. Internal consistency of factors is moderate to good. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates the development of a patient safety climate instrument. The questionnaire displays established features of safety climate and additionally contains features that might be specific to small-scale general practices. PMID:21571753

  10. The ICT SCRM CoMMunITy FRaMewoRk DevelopMenT pRojeCT

    E-print Network

    by the National Science and Technology Council: "The national interest in some emerging areas of standardization of the President's CNCI Program, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been tasked Technology (ICT). To support NIST's work, the Supply Chain Management Center of the Robert H. Smith School

  11. Fra Den evige fred til Empire—et essay om ret, fred og frihed i lyset af globaliseringen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Teilberg Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Immanuel Kant lancerede med sin korte tekst Til den evige fred i 1795 udtrykket kosmopolitisk ret. I dag—200 år senere—ser en række politologiske teoretikere den kantianske kosmopolitanisme som den medicin, der skal helbrede verdenen for de dårligdomme, globaliseringen har påført den. I denne artikel argumenteres for, at selvom den kantianske kosmopolitanisme kan skabe øget fred og sikkerhed, så rummer den

  12. June 18, 2008 16:28 International Journal of Control KriBroFra International Journal of Control

    E-print Network

    Broucke, Mireille E.

    of satellites currently visible; during periods of dense cloud cover, in urban areas, and under dense vegetation. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G4, Canada; (June devices with computing, communications, and sensing capabilities. Such devices are currently commercially

  13. International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (FraMCoS-V), April 2004, Vail, Colorado

    E-print Network

    Mobasher, Barzin

    : The role of fibers on the tensile stress strain response and the fracture toughness of cement based debonding and pullout of fibers as closing pressure distribution which is expressed as tensile stress crack on glass fiber composites. Keywords: R-Curves, fiber reinforced concrete, closing pressure, stress

  14. Diagnosing Shorted Turns on the Windings of Power Transformers Based Upon Online FRA Using Capacitive and Inductive Couplings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vahid Behjat; Abolfazl Vahedi; Alireza Setayeshmehr; Hossein Borsi; Ernst Gockenbach

    2011-01-01

    Interturn faults are a significant problem in power transformers that can eventually burgeon into catastrophic faults and likely result in an overall network failure. The main problem with SFRA as one of the well-recognized diagnostic tools for detecting winding faults is its restriction to the domain of offline testing since the method requires injection of a test signal into the

  15. IMPLEMENTATION TECHNIQUES FOR MAIN MEMORY DATABASE SYBTEMS Davvld J Dew& Randy H Kat62, Fra$i Olken3,

    E-print Network

    Scheuermann, Peter

    paper we conMder the changed necessary to pemut a relattonal database system to take advantage of krge an advantageous for large memory situation6 Key Word6 end Phrorcr &III Memory Databa666, Acce66 Methods, JamDE-AC66.76SFoOOO6,#W-74ObmC-46, 66d by the .4~ Porn O&6 d 6cidfic Ruurch under Grmt 6~0021 Penmsslon

  16. Forgasning af biomasse Den skjulte kemi

    E-print Network

    Forgasning af biomasse Den skjulte kemi Helge Egsgaard Afdelingen for Planteforskning, Forskningscenter Risø Roskilde, Denmark #12;Forgasning af biomasse Biomassens hovedbestanddele · Cellulose · Hemi-cellulose Lignin #12;Forgasning af biomasse Lignin ­ en hypotetisk delstruktur CH HC OH CH3O O CH CH2OH HC O OH CH

  17. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236 Transportation...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation (a) This appendix provides minimum...of PTC system safety verification and validation pursuant to subpart H or I of...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236 Transportation...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation (a) This appendix provides minimum...of PTC system safety verification and validation pursuant to subpart H or I of...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236 Transportation...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation (a) This appendix provides minimum...of PTC system safety verification and validation pursuant to subpart H or I of...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236 Transportation...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation (a) This appendix provides minimum...of PTC system safety verification and validation pursuant to subpart H or I of...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236 Transportation...of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation (a) This appendix provides minimum...of PTC system safety verification and validation pursuant to subpart H or I of...

  2. Yersinia pestis pFra Shows Biovar-Specific Differences and Recent Common Ancestry with a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Plasmid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL B. PRENTICE; KEITH D. JAMES; JULIAN PARKHILL; STEPHEN G. BAKER; KIM STEVENS; MARK N. SIMMONDS; KAREN L. MUNGALL; CAROL CHURCHER; PETRA C. F. OYSTON; RICHARD W. TITBALL; BRENDAN W. WREN; JOHN WAIN; DEREK PICKARD; TRAN TINH HIEN; JEREMY J. FARRAR; GORDON DOUGAN

    2001-01-01

    Population genetic studies suggest that Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a clonal pathogen that has recently emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Plasmid acquisition is likely to have been a key element in this evolutionary leap from an enteric to a flea-transmitted systemic pathogen. However, the origin of Y. pestis-specific plasmids remains obscure. We demonstrate specific plasmid rearrangements in different

  3. Petrogenesis of the western highlands of the moon - Evidence from a diverse group of whitlockite-rich rocks from the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    A group of KREEPy basalts has been discovered in Apollo 14 soils. These samples exhibit similarities to both HA and VHK basalts, albeit with much higher REE abundances, and contain up to 2 vol pct whitlockite and can be explained by assimilation of a K-, REE- and P-rich fluids by an original HA or VHK basalt. This KREEP component could have been produced late in the evolution of the lunar magma ocean and is similar in composition to QMD at Apollo 14. Two rocks have trace element compositions that are representative of actual KREEP. One of the samples appears to be petrographically pristine and could represent an actual KREEP basalt rock. Five subophitic high-Al basalts represent sampling of either a slowly cooled impact melt sheet or, more likely, the same basalt flow. Two 'quasi-pristine' highland rocks confirm the postulate of a connection between KREEP and the alkali suite. A newly discovered alkali anorthosite is a plagioclase cumulate with about 15 percent trapped KREEPy liquid.

  4. Petrogenesis of the western highlands of the moon - Evidence from a diverse group of whitlockite-rich rocks from the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1992-01-01

    A group of KREEPy basalts has been discovered in Apollo 14 soils. These samples exhibit similarities to both HA and VHK basalts, albeit with much higher REE abundances, and contain up to 2 vol pct whitlockite and can be explained by assimilation of a K-, REE- and P-rich fluids by an original HA or VHK basalt. This KREEP component could have been produced late in the evolution of the lunar magma ocean and is similar in composition to QMD at Apollo 14. Two rocks have trace element compositions that are representative of actual KREEP. One of the samples appears to be petrographically pristine and could represent an actual KREEP basalt rock. Five subophitic high-Al basalts represent sampling of either a slowly cooled impact melt sheet or, more likely, the same basalt flow. Two 'quasi-pristine' highland rocks confirm the postulate of a connection between KREEP and the alkali suite. A newly discovered alkali anorthosite is a plagioclase cumulate with about 15 percent trapped KREEPy liquid.

  5. Ideo Population: how much do numbers count?____~ _il_l_a_ss_i,_n(_)!~ivi Bacc,: Fra~Jle number th~()reJJ'--___________ :10

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    ~()reJJ'--___________ :10 ___How m~ny people cOl':!. the planet ho_l.':~ 4.0Joel E. Cohen~~ Carlo St.agnaro The ultimate___ 1:18 Bra./una Chellaney Asia's Great Game 14-5 #12;Joel E, Cohen How many peQRle the planet liolat people will oulnum!)cr young people. Joel E. Cohen is Abby Rockefeller Mauze Until approximately 2007

  6. Tur-retur. Rumsonden Hayabusa er netop landet efter en syvrig mission til den kartoffelformede asteroide Itokawa. Forhbentlig vil prverne fra overfladen give ny

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Anja C.

    Hayabusa. Itokawas bane omkring Solen krydser to gange Jordens bane og to gange Mars' i løbet af de 556 6. september 2005 og blev parkeret i en bane 20 kilometer over asteroidens overflade. Denne bane længe nok til, at dens bane kan bestemmes så godt, at det vil være muligt at finde præcis den samme

  7. Brandon J. Van Dyk, Marcus S. Dersch, Ryan G. Kernes, and J. Riley Edwards FRA Tie and Fastener BAA Industry Partners Meeting

    E-print Network

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    it is affected by speed · Use quantitative understanding of loading conditions to improve design of concrete crossties and fastening systems (mechanistic design) #12;Slide 4Concrete Crossties and Fastening Systems conditions ­ Concrete ties and premium ballast ­ Well-compacted subgrade (possibly hot mix asphalt

  8. Simon FraSer UniverSity, vancoUver, canada GRCNEWSthe newSletter oF the GerontoloGy reSearch centre

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Richard "Hao"

    volUme 30 no.1 2011 Tips: Technolology for injury prevenTion in seniors Why global Warming should: exploring the interface Between Population aging and Global Warming ­ May 25-26, 2011. Please see ourEl pRoGRam of CollaboRativE RESEaRCh by Fabio Feldman, (co-leader, TIPS Co-Investigator, Fraser Health

  9. Vr beskrivelse av bevegelser og deformasjon av Jordens ytterste skall har i lpet av et rhundre utviklet seg fra kontinentaldrift (~1915), til havbunnspredning

    E-print Network

    Steinberger, Bernhard

    Vår beskrivelse av bevegelser og deformasjon av Jordens ytterste skall har i løpet av et århundre). Platetektonikk har hatt suksess, både teoretisk og praktisk, og den har dannet et vitenskapelig rammeverk for en millioner år siden. Senere har geologene kartlagt noen av disse glasiale avsetningene nær ekvator, og han

  10. COMPITO PER CASA per il 10 DICEMBRE 2013 Domanda 1. Qual la differenza principale fra le due proposizioni (a) e (b)?

    E-print Network

    Bellin, Gianluigi

    . Bertrand Russell traduce le descrizioni definite in una forma suscettibile di formalizzazione nel" Come tradurrebbe Bertrand Russell l'espressione m)? Domanda 10. Tuttavia l'uomo che si trova a quella linguaggio del calcolo dei predicati del I ordine. Come traduce Russell la seguente espressione, proferita

  11. R I S N Y T N O 2 2 0 0 6 S I D E 1 4

    E-print Network

    fra Poul Johansen Maskiner A/S skulle bestille en efteruddannelsesdag på Risø. Men fra virksomhedens teknologichef tog imod de mange oplysninger med åbent sind. Medarbejderne fra Poul Johansen Maskiner A/S lytter

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

  13. Cbf genes of the FrA2 allele are differentially regulated between long-term cold acclimated crown tissue of freeze-resistant and – susceptible, winter wheat mutant lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fedora Sutton; Ding-Geng Chen; Xijin Ge; Don Kenefick

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to identify genes that might confer and maintain freeze resistance of winter wheat, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed between control and 4 wk cold-acclimated crown tissue of two winter wheat lines that differ in field freeze survival. The lines, generated by azide mutagenesis of the winter wheat cultivar 'Winoka' were designated FR (75% survival) and FS

  14. 78 FR 26110 - Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...have to go between equipment. (3) Review with...employees, including management employees, SOFA Safety...entering between rolling equipment exists. FRA recommends...characteristics of the type of equipment being switched, particularly...including railroad management. FRA encourages...

  15. 75 FR 9018 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...relief being requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Genesis Worldwide Logistics [Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0008] The Genesis Worldwide Logistics (GWWL) has petitioned FRA for a waiver of compliance...

  16. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...addition, under FRA's environmental procedures, FRA is required to issue a reevaluation of the adequacy, accuracy and validity of a final EIS in certain circumstances, which the agency has also done for this project. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  17. 76 FR 27170 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System [Docket Number FRA-2010-0163...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Chief Engineer, Communications and Signals, CSX Transportation, Inc., 500...

  18. Recensioni 321 schi di povert derivanti dall'aumento

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Milano-Bicocca L'educazione, la pedagogia e l'in- tervento sociale godono di brutta fama fra i rom e fra «pedagogia zingara» che si è sviluppa- ta negli anni sessanta a partire dalle interpretazioni della «crisi

  19. Norges teknisk naturvitenskapelige universitet

    E-print Network

    Malinnikova, Eugenia

    en ny maskin koster kr. 2000,-. d) I det lange løp, hva blir gjennomsnittlig bruttoinntekt fra maskinen pr. dag? I det lange løp, hva blir gjennomsnittlig nettoinntekt fra maskinen pr. dag? Oppgave 2 En

  20. 78 FR 14876 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2013-0012...December 10, 2012, the Temple and Central Texas Railway (TC) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for a waiver of...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...flasher), FRA-MEC-MCD-300-C (steady burn), and FRA-MEC-MCD-300-F (flasher). 3. Manufacturer: American Electronics, Inc., 1 40 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601. 1 Note: Yankee Metal Products Corp. previously produced...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...flasher), FRA-MEC-MCD-300-C (steady burn), and FRA-MEC-MCD-300-F (flasher). 3. Manufacturer: American Electronics, Inc., 1 40 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601. 1 Note: Yankee Metal Products Corp. previously produced...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...flasher), FRA-MEC-MCD-300-C (steady burn), and FRA-MEC-MCD-300-F (flasher). 3. Manufacturer: American Electronics, Inc., 1 40 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601. 1 Note: Yankee Metal Products Corp. previously produced...

  4. 78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...FRA-2012-0104, Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC44 Signal System Reporting Requirements AGENCY...that each carrier must file with FRA a signal system status report every five years...updated information regarding railroad signal systems to be available to FRA...

  5. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...FRA-2010-0174] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as prescribed...FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

  6. 49 CFR 225.23 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...operations must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the employing railroad. (b) In...railroad must report on Form FRA F 6180.55a the casualties to all persons on its...equipment must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the railroad whose train or...

  7. 49 CFR 225.23 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...operations must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the employing railroad. (b) In...railroad must report on Form FRA F 6180.55a the casualties to all persons on its...equipment must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the railroad whose train or...

  8. 49 CFR 225.23 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...operations must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the employing railroad. (b) In...railroad must report on Form FRA F 6180.55a the casualties to all persons on its...equipment must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the railroad whose train or...

  9. 49 CFR 225.23 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...operations must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the employing railroad. (b) In...railroad must report on Form FRA F 6180.55a the casualties to all persons on its...equipment must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the railroad whose train or...

  10. 49 CFR 225.23 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...operations must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the employing railroad. (b) In...railroad must report on Form FRA F 6180.55a the casualties to all persons on its...equipment must be reported on Form FRA F 6180.55a by the railroad whose train or...

  11. 74 FR 35950 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-07-21

    ...received and understood. Taking syntactic and semantic interoperability together, FRA expects...PTCDP, or PTCSP, FRA posts on its public Web site notice of receipt and reference...PTCDP, or PTCSP, FRA posts on its public Web site notice of receipt and reference...

  12. Aberrant Neural Function during Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological systems which underlie emotion attribution among female patients with Fragile X (FraX) syndrome are examined. Results show that the emotion circuit which regulates responses to facial stimuli is potentially disrupted among female subjects with FraX syndrome. Anterior cingulate cortex activity in female subjects with FraX…

  13. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Circadian Rhythmicity and Memory Consolidation

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    causes fragile X syndrome (FraX), the most commonly inherited form of mental retardation and autism in establishing and maintaining neural circuit function. Keywords Fragile X syndrome . Learning . Memory is clearly evident when this regulation becomes compromised, as in fragile X syndrome (FraX). FraX is caused

  14. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the milk and that the physiological transfer of FRA occurs from rumen to milk within 6.5 h or the first milking after dosage. Ferulic acid may affect the functionality of milk due to its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Future research will be required to elucidate whether FRA in milk is bioavailable and bioactive, and to evaluate the complete sensory and microbiological effects of increased FRA and FRA degradation products in milk. PMID:22921626

  15. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

  16. ERK-MAPK signaling coordinately regulates activity of Rac1 and RhoA for tumor cell motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Vial; Erik Sahai; Christopher J. Marshall

    2003-01-01

    We describe two signaling events downstream of ERK-MAP kinase contributing to cell motility in colon carcinoma cells. The Fos family member Fra-1 is expressed in an ERK-dependent manner. Silencing of Fra-1 expression with short interfering RNAs leads to losses of cell polarization, motility, and invasiveness in vitro. These effects of ablating Fra-1 are a consequence of activation of a RhoA-ROCK

  17. Et introduksjonskurs EndNote X6 introduksjon Liv Brynhild Aspaas og Jo Forthun -NTNU UB, jan. 2013 2

    E-print Network

    Malinnikova, Eugenia

    ..................................................................................................................................... 11 Eksempel 3: ISI Web of Science.................................................................................................................................. 19 EndNote Web (http://myendnoteweb.com/) ............................................................................ 20 Eks) Fra ISI Web of Science til EndNote Web

  18. UNIVERSITA' DEGLI STUDI DI ROMA "LA SAPIENZA" D.R. n. 001048

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    e preventivi, per migliorare la qualità degli interventi, in base alle evidenze scientifiche, all organizzativi ed assistenziali, basati su evidenze scientifiche, favorendo processi di integrazione fra le

  19. Identification of unstable sequences within the common fragile site at 3p14.2: implications for the mechanism of deletions within fragile histidine triad gene/common fragile site at 3p14.2 in tumors.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Shantel; Neilly, Mary E; Espinosa, Rafael; Davis, Elizabeth M; McKeithan, Timothy W; Le Beau, Michelle M

    2002-06-15

    The FRA3B, at 3p14.2, lies within the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene and is the most highly expressed of the common fragile sites observed when DNA replication is perturbed by aphidicolin. Common fragile sites are highly unstable regions of the genome. Large intragenic deletions within FHIT, localized within the FRA3B sequences, have been identified in a variety of tumor cells. To characterize the FRA3B deletions in tumor cells and identify FRA3B sequences that are required for fragile site induction, we used microcell-mediated chromosome transfer to isolate hybrid cell clones that retain chromosome 3 homologues with various deletions within FRA3B. Detailed molecular mapping of the FHIT/FRA3B locus in the resultant hybrid cells revealed a complex pattern of instability within FRA3B. Each tumor cell line contained multiple chromosome 3 homologues with variable deletion patterns, often with discontinuous deletions, suggesting that the process of breakage and repair within FRA3B is an ongoing one. By comparing the approximate location of the breakpoints in the hybrid clones, we identified 11 recurring breakpoint/repair regions within the FRA3B. A comparison of the frequency of breaks/gaps within FRA3B in the hybrid clones with various deletions of FRA3B sequences revealed that the loss of FRA3B sequences does not reduce the overall rate of breakage and instability within the remaining FRA3B sequences. The majority of breaks occurred in the proximal portion of the FRA3B, in a 300-kb interval between exon 4 and the proximal 50 kb of intron 5. Our observations suggest that there is no single sequence within the FRA3B that influences breakage or recombination within this region; however, we cannot rule out the presence of multiple "hot spots" within the FHIT/FRA3B locus. Together, the results suggest that factors other than the DNA sequence per se are responsible for the formation of DNA breaks/gaps. PMID:12067991

  20. ELFOR dansk eldistribution PSO 2002 F&U

    E-print Network

    ELFOR ­ dansk eldistribution PSO 2002 ­ F&U Energieffektiv intern materialetransport i industri "Energieffektiv intern materialetransport i industrien", der gennemføres med økonomisk støtte fra ELFORs PSO

  1. HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL Johnston Gate

    E-print Network

    Chou, James

    Baldwin School Sacramento Field IRVINGSTREET TROWBRIDGESTREET BEACO N STREET KENTSTREET SACRAMEN CONCORD A Y GARDENS CENTRE GRANT STREET FRA WESTERN AVENUE BRIDGE COWPERTHWAITE STREET HARVARD WAY LARZ

  2. Assignment of human KH-box-containing genes by in situ hybridization: HNRNPK maps to 9q21.32-q21.33, PCBP1 to 2p12-p13, and PCBP2 to 12q13.12-q13.13, distal to FRA12A

    SciTech Connect

    Tommerup, N. [John F. Kennedy Inst., Glostrup (Denmark)] [John F. Kennedy Inst., Glostrup (Denmark); Leffers, H. [Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the localization of various human KH-box-containing genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Accordingly, HNRNPK was mapped to human chromosome 9q21.32-q21.33, PCBP1 was mapped to human chromosome 2p12-p13, and PCBP2 was mapped to human chromosome 12q13.12-q13.13. These proteins affect RNA-binding capability. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Infection with retroviral vectors leads to perturbed DNA replication increasing

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    and constrictions in metaphase chromosomes from cells grown under mild replication stress conditions1 . These sites on metaphase chromosomes (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene), but the exact repertoire of common fragile sites molecularly cloned a new CFS, FRA11H, in 11q13. The genomic region of FRA11H harbors a hotspot of chromosomal

  4. Rail-car impact tests with steel coil: car crush

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eloy Martinez; David Tyrell; John Zolock

    2003-01-01

    Two grade-crossing impact tests were conducted in June 2002 at the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA's) Transportation Technology Center in Pueblo, Colorado as part of the FRA's research into passenger equipment crashworthiness. In both of these tests a cab car moving at approximately 14 mph impacted a standing coil of steel supported by a frangible table. The coil was positioned such

  5. The fragile Fiber1 kinesin contributes to cortical microtubule-mediated trafficking of cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I; McClosky, Daniel D; Anderson, Charles T; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard; Dixit, Ram

    2015-03-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  6. 21RIS N Y T 4/01 Studier af strukturerne i planter og

    E-print Network

    af blændens lille åbning. Kun en lille del af lyset slipper igennem og foto- graferes af detektoren A4. Fluorescens signal fra plantecellen i laserstrålens fokuspunkt slipper gennem blændens lille. Fluorescens signalet fra molekyler OVER fokusplanen stoppes af blændens lille åbning. Kun en lille del af

  7. 49 CFR 209.105 - Notice of probable violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...FRA may change the civil penalty amount proposed to be assessed up to and including the maximum penalty amount of $55,000 for each...if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe...property, FRA may change the penalty amount proposed to be...

  8. Finite Rank Approximation based method for solving the RTE in stellar atmospheres and application to an inverse problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Ossesyand; Olivier Titaudz

    The Finite Rank Approximation (FRA) based method is well known in op- erator approximation theory but it is also useful for suggesting numerical methods for solving integral equations. In this document we describe two FRA methods for the nu- merical resolution of the integral formulation of the 1D Radiative Transfert Equation (RTE) posed in a static slab; we browse some

  9. Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 7989, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, June 23-25 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-print Network

    transformation. Experiments on FraCaS and PASCAL RTE datasets show promising results. 1 Introduction Dependency considered as syntactic rewriting rules. We test our system on FraCaS (Cooper et al., 1996) and PASCAL RTE- based RTE system; and (iii) a result that outper- forms state-of-the-art RTE system on RTE5 data. Our

  10. Dokumentasjon av engelskkunnskaper Ved gjennomgangen av de enkelte lands utdanninger, er nivet i engelsk vurdert spesielt. For hvert

    E-print Network

    Fomin, Fedor V.

    Mars 2007 Språkkrav Dokumentasjon av engelskkunnskaper Ved gjennomgangen av de enkelte lands utdanninger, er nivået i engelsk vurdert spesielt. For hvert land er det anført om det er krav til engelsk, samt et tall. Tallet angir hvilke søkergrupper fra vedkommende land som kan fritas: 1) Søkere fra land

  11. Add/drop Semi-Analytic Gain Tilt Control Algorithm for the Fiber Raman Amplifier under

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    Add/drop Semi-Analytic Gain Tilt Control Algorithm for the Fiber Raman Amplifier under Dynamic. - (FRA : Fiber Raman Amplifier) add/drop . add/drop FRA Tilt [1-2]. add@stargate.snu.ac.kr Abstract : A semi-analytic gain-clamping algorithm for the deeply saturated, multi-pump fiber Raman

  12. On the development of transfer function method for fault identification in large power transformers on load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Pinhas; Syed Islam; John Hullett

    2000-01-01

    Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is now established as a proven tool in identifying some typical mechanical faults in power transformers. However, all FRA measurements so far have been off-line. An on-line technique is very much desired by the utilities, as this will prevent continued operation of the transformer while it is carrying a fault to failure stage. In this paper,

  13. Improving freight rail safety with on-board monitoring and control systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Edwards; W. M. Zavis; A. Prabhakaran; D. C. Brabb; A. S. Jackson

    2005-01-01

    The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is sponsoring a revenue service demonstration of Advanced Train Systems to demonstrate new technologies for improving safety and efficiency in freight train operations. The project, which commenced in 1999, is part of the Rolling Stock Program Element in FRA's Five-Year Strategic Plan for Railroad Research, Development and Demonstrations.

  14. Is the Interior of South Pole-Aitken Basin Spectrally Similar to Apollo 14?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Holtzmann, J.; Hawke, B. R.

    2001-03-01

    Both Fra Mauro (Apollo 14 region) and SPA are examples of high-iron highlands, therefore the Apollo 14 samples may help to understand the composition of SPA. The Clementine UVVIS spectral properties of SPA show both similarities and differences with Fra Mauro.

  15. Af projektleder, seniorforsker, adjungeret professor, ph.d. Stiig Markager, DMU

    E-print Network

    dybder, fordelt på 128 prøver fra dybe CTD-kast (maksimum dybde over 400 m), 770 prøver fra lave CTD viser, at dette ikke har været noget problem. Undervejs har problemer med den lange CTD-wire på at anvende det multikanalsfluo- rometer, som var planlagt til at være en integreret del af alle CTD-kast. Når

  16. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...train miles, and other train miles run during the month. (c) Form FRA 6180.55a—Railroad Injury and Illness (Continuation Sheet). Form FRA 6180.55a shall be used to report all reportable fatalities, injuries and occupational...

  17. The Fragile Fiber1 Kinesin Contributes to Cortical Microtubule-Mediated Trafficking of Cell Wall Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I.; McClosky, Daniel D.; Anderson, Charles T.; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A.; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  18. 75 FR 39325 - Notice of Draft Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the FRA's Procedures...was split into three Service Blocks, and identified incremental...in two of the three service blocks. In June 2009, the FRA released...that are described as Service Blocks 1, 2, and 3 in the EA,...

  19. Research Paper Organization and Content Mary Westervelt

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    correlation between FRA3B expression and cigarette smoking", Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer 34:333-340, 2002 The coincidence of a chromosomal fragile site, FRA3B, at a common chromosomal breakpoint in lung cancer has at 3p14, are well documented in lung tumors. 2 Intro to the hypothesis under investigation

  20. Marcus S. Dersch, J. Riley Edwards, Ryan G. Kernes, Bassem O. Andrawes, David A. Lange, and Daniel Kuchma

    E-print Network

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Mix Design Rail Seat Surface Treatments Pad / Insulator Materials Components Fastener Yield Stress Insulator Post Compression Concrete Prestress Design System Finite Element Modeling Full-Scale Laboratory Kuchma UIUC FRA Concrete Tie and Fastener BAA October 2013 Program Update FRA Tie and Fastener BAA

  1. Proceedings of CELLmicrocosmos neXt 2014 (DOI: 10.2390/biecoll-next2014-8) 18 Towards Pathway Prediction and Subcellular Localization by

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    addressed this problem by developing a powerful framework. FraMeTex (Framework for Medical Text mining database integration and text mining methods for the prediction of biological networks. However, we can use­4]. Here, we discuss how this approach can be extended by using the new FraMeTex text mining framework. 2

  2. Fathoming fragile X in fruit flies Yong Q. Zhang and Kendal Broadie

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    37235-1634, USA Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is the most common inherited mental retardation disease architectural complexity. Fragile X syndrome (FraX), one of the most common genetic diseases, is an XFathoming fragile X in fruit flies Yong Q. Zhang and Kendal Broadie Department of Biological

  3. Carrier detection and X-inactivation studies in the fragile X syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Brøndum Nielsen; N. Tommerup; Hanne Poulsen; Petrea Jacobsen; Bente Beck; Margareta Mikkelsen

    1983-01-01

    Cytogenetic investigations by three different lymphocyte culture methods in 63 obligate and potential carriers of the fragile X [fra(X)] are reported. A difference was observed between normal and retarded carriers in the manifestation of the fra(X). An inverse relationship between percentage positive cells and age was demonstrated in normal carriers, whereas retarded carriers generally showed higher percentages at all ages.

  4. Factors Associated with Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CINDY JOHNSTON; DAVID HESSL; CHRISTINE BLASEY; HEATHER ERBA; D. JENNIFER DYER-FRIEDMAN; BRONWYN GLASER

    2003-01-01

    Whereas previous research has demonstrated elevated levels of parenting stress in parents of children with general developmental disability, there has been little investigation of stress in parents of children specifically affected by the common neurogenetic disorder fragile X syndrome (FraX). This study elucidates stress profiles in mothers of children with FraX and delineates the contribution of child characteristics, home environment,

  5. The fragile X syndrome: no evidence for any recent mutations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A P Smits; J C Dreesen; J G Post; D F Smeets; C de Die-Smulders; T Spaans-van der Bijl; L C Govaerts; S T Warren; B A Oostra; B A van Oost

    1993-01-01

    Fragile X (fra(X)) syndrome, the most common form of familial mental retardation, is caused by heritable unstable DNA composed of CGG repeats. As reproductive fitness of fra(X) patients is severely compromised, a high mutation rate has been proposed to explain the high prevalence. However, we have been unable to show any new mutation for 84 probands referred to us to

  6. 75 FR 65398 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...FRA-2010-0024] The Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) hereby petitions FRA for a temporary waiver...measurement system. Over the course of 6 months, CP intends to test the new system on their...a frequency that is not possible today. CP asserts that the benefits that are...

  7. 78 FR 28284 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...April 11, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...Number FRA-2013-0040. Specifically, CP requests relief from 49 CFR 232.205...operating in distributive power (DP) mode. CP requests that FRA allow 90 cubic feet...

  8. Detection of minor winding deformation fault in high frequency range for power transformer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Tang; A. Shintemirov; Q. H. Wu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified distributed parameter model for minor winding deformation fault analysis of power transformers on the basis of frequency response analysis (FRA). The FRA data of an experimental transformer is employed as a reference trace, which are compared with the simulations of the simplified distributed parameter model concerning minor winding deformation faults. In order to perform quantitative

  9. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    (b) The information required in paragraph (a) of this section must be located permanently in the locomotive cab or be provided within two business days upon request of FRA or an FRA-certified State inspector. [71 FR 36914, June 28,...

  10. On the History and Origin of LKFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    Fra Mauro is the name of a geologic formation surrounding the Imbrium Basin of the Moon as well as the name of the region of the Apollo 14 lunar landing site. The formation was named for a 16th century Italian geographer and cartographer. In its original invocation in 1971 by the Apollo Soil Survey (ASS), Fra Mauro basalt was not a crystalline basalt, but the designation of a "compositional group" of impact glasses found in the Apollo 14 soil that were basaltic in composition. The ASS noted the similarity between the Fra Mauro basalt glass composition and sample 14310, an unbrecciated, crystalline Apollo 14 rock that would now be designated an impact melt rock. In 1972 the term Fra Mauro basalt was first applied to a rock, sample 14310, although in related papers, Fra Mauro basaltic glass was equated with KREEP. In 1973 the ASS noted that a wide range of K concentrations occurred among glasses of Fra Mauro basaltic composition in the Apollo 15 regolith. The terms high-K, moderate-K and low-K Fra Mauro first occurred in that context, but always as an adjective. Lock Fra Mauro glasses were those with 0.12 +/- 0.07% K2O, compared with 0.47 +/- 0.17% and 1.1 +/- 0.4% for moderate and high-K Fra Mauro glasses and 0.6% for Apollo 15 KREEP basalt. An important evolutionary step in the concept of low Fra Mauro basalt occurred in 1973 when the composition was first used as a component in a mass-balance (mixing) model for Apollo 16 soils [8,9] and later average highlands crust, despite that the term had not yet been applied to an actual rock sample. The first use of the acronym LKFM occurred in a 1973 paper describing glass compositions in Apollo 16 soil.

  11. Myeloid-Specific Fos-Related Antigen-1 Regulates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Inflammation, Not Emphysema, in Mice.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Michelle; Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Potteti, Haranatha R; Reddy, Sekhar P

    2015-07-01

    Heightened lung inflammation is a cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced macrophage recruitment and activation, accompanied by abnormal secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, play a major role in the pathophysiology of COPD. The Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) transcription factor differentially regulates several cellular processes that are implicated in COPD, such as inflammation and immune responses, cell proliferation and death, and extracellular remodeling. Although CS stimulates Fra-1 expression in the lung, the precise role of this transcription factor in the regulation of CS-induced lung inflammation in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we report that myeloid-specific Fra-1 signaling is important for CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammatory response. In response to chronic CS exposure, mice with Fra-1 specifically deleted in myeloid cells showed reduced levels of CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammation, accompanied by decreased expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared with their wild-type counterparts. Consistent with this result, bone marrow-derived Fra-1-null macrophages treated with CS showed decreased levels of proinflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases. Interestingly, deletion of Fra-1 in myeloid cells did not affect the severity of emphysema. We propose that Fra-1 plays a key role in promoting chronic CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammation in vivo, and that targeting this transcription factor may be useful in dampening persistent lung inflammation in patients with COPD. PMID:25489966

  12. Characterization of the Human Folate Receptor Alpha Via Novel Antibody-Based Probes

    PubMed Central

    O'Shannessy, Daniel J.; Somers, Elizabeth B.; Albone, Earl; Cheng, Xin; Park, Young Chul; Tomkowicz, Brian E.; Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Kohl, Thomas O.; Forsyth, Tracy M.; Smale, Robert; Fu, Yao-Shi; Nicolaides, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a cell surface protein whose aberrant expression in malignant cells has resulted in its pursuit as a therapeutic target and marker for diagnosis of cancer. The development of immune-based reagents that can reproducibly detect FRA from patient tissue processed by varying methods has been difficult due to the complex post-translational structure of the protein whereby most reagents developed to date are highly structure-sensitive and have resulted in equivocal expression results across independent studies. The aim of the present study was to generate novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using modified full length FRA protein as immunogen in order to develop a panel of mAbs to various, non-overlapping epitopes that may serve as diagnostic reagents able to robustly detect FRA-positive disease. Here we report the development of a panel of FRA-specific mAbs that are able to specifically detect FRA using an array of diagnostic platforms and methods. In addition, the methods used to develop these mAbs and their diverse binding properties provide additional information on the three dimensional structure of FRA in its native cell surface configuration. PMID:22204844

  13. Multilocus analysis of the fragile X syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Brown; A. Gross; C. Chan; E. C. Jenkins; J. L. Mandel; I. Oberlé; B. Arveiler; G. Novelli; S. Thibodeau; R. Hagerman; K. Summers; G. Turner; B. N. White; L. Mulligan; C. Forster-Gibson; J. J. A. Holden; B. Zoll; M. Krawczak; P. Goonewardena; K. H. Gustavson; U. Pettersson; G. Holmgren; C. Schwartz; P. N. Howard-Peebles; P. Murphy; W. R. Breg; H. Veenema; N. J. Carpenter

    1988-01-01

    A multilocus analysis of the fragile X (fra(X)) syndrome was conducted with 147 families. Two proximal loci, DXS51 and F9, and two distal loci, DXS52 and DXS15, were studied. Overall, the best multipoint distances were found to be DXS51-F9, 6.9%, F9-fra(X), 22.4%; fra(X)-DXS52, 12.7%; DXS52-DXS15, 2.2%. These distances can be used for multipoint mapping of new probes, carrier testing and

  14. 76 FR 55819 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...2011). The design and practicality of all automated and autonomous geometry measurement systems is a supplement to visual inspection...seat deterioration conditions. FRA's automated inspection vehicle uses rail cant to indicate areas of rail seat...

  15. INSTITUT FOR DATALOGI, AARHUS UNIVERSITET Science and Technology

    E-print Network

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    orienterede graf. Det antages, at grafen er givet ved incidenslister, hvor incidenslisterne er sorteret grafen og m antallet af kanter. Givet et heltal k, ønsker vi i denne opgave at finde korteste stier fra

  16. Lunar laser ranging data deposited in the National Space Science Data Center: Filtered observations for January - June 1971 and unfiltered photon detections for July - December 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The filtered data are discussed which were obtained during laser ranging operations with Apollo reflectors placed on the moon at Tranquility Base, Fra Mauro, and Hadley. Unfiltered photon detections are described.

  17. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...modification of an existing industry safety appliance standard...modification of an approved industry standard under paragraph...the FRA Docket Clerk, West Building Third Floor, Office of Chief...modification of an existing industry safety appliance...

  18. 76 FR 34683 - Withdrawal of Notices Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...International Studies and Foreign Language (UISFL) Program; International...International Studies and Foreign Language (UISFL) Program; International...Program; Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad (FRA) Fellowship...International and Foreign Language Education (IFLE):...

  19. RIS-M-2408 Forsgsanlg RIS Juni 1984

    E-print Network

    vesteuropæiske varker fordeler sig med 4 i Vesttysk- land, 2 i Holland, et i Belgien 2 i Schweiz samt 4 i "Manchester-Milano-balte", strækkende sig fra England gennem Holland-Belgien, Vesttysk- land og Schweiz til

  20. 77 FR 22841 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...from a portion of the railroad safety glazing standards, 49 CFR Section...installation of thicker FRA Type II glass without significant modifications...side-facing windows currently consist of safety type glass that is in good condition,...

  1. 78 FR 9107 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...regulations contained at 49 CFR part 223 (Safety Glazing Standards-- Locomotives...existing railroad without compliant FRA safety glazing, as required by 49 CFR part...currently equipped with shatterproof safety glass. Locomotive KJR 7135, an ALCO...

  2. 78 FR 41991 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...provisions of the Federal railroad safety regulations contained at 49 CFR section...and continues to have an excellent safety record, due in part to the operating...windshield-grade, laminated safety glass. FRA Type II polycarbonate...

  3. 75 FR 9636 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...the requirements of the Railroad Safety Glazing Standards, 49 CFR part 223...glazed with \\1/ 4\\'' laminated safety glass that is in good condition with no...caboose to comply with FRA glazing safety standards will impose an undue...

  4. Referat af SU mde d. 9. juni 2010 Deltagere

    E-print Network

    , Astrid Hornbech Svendsen (fra HRafdelingen på NAT), Mikkel Baun Kjærgaard, Marianne Dammand Iversen. Sygefraværssamtaler (ved Astrid ) 8. Eventuelt 1. Godkendelse af referat Referatet blev enstemmigt godkendt 2 ser ud i fremtiden. 7. Sygefraværssamtaler (ved Astrid Hornbech Svendsen ) Astrid orienterer om

  5. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...minutes, appendixes, working papers, drafts, studies, agenda, or other documents which were made available...with the Federal Records Act (FRA), 44 U.S.C. Chapters 21, 29-33, and regulations issued by the National...

  6. 77 FR 43902 - Notice of Availability of a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the California...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ...Bakersfield Section of the California High- Speed Train (HST) Project (Project). FRA is the lead Federal...contemporary safety, signaling, and automated train-control systems, with trains capable of operating up to 220 miles per...

  7. R I S N Y T N O 1 2 0 0 6 S I D E 1 2

    E-print Network

    roller, både forskere, ledere, forretningsudviklere og sekretærer fra for- skellige afdelinger, til- ristiske design er lavet af planter, og den kan ende sine dage på komposten uden at skade miljøet. Stolen

  8. 49 CFR 225.27 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...that the railroad submits to FRA on optical media (CD-ROM) or electronically...following system requirements: (1) Design Requirements. Any electronic record...by this part shall meet the following design parameters: (i) The...

  9. 78 FR 25344 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...discontinuance of the remaining automatic block signal, interlocking, and traffic control...

  10. 78 FR 46679 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

  11. 77 FR 9296 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...discontinuance of the automatic block signal (ABS) system between Control...

  12. 78 FR 12823 - Notice of Joint Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Olson, Chief Engineer Communication and Signals, 500 Water Street, Speed Code...

  13. 77 FR 65935 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

  14. 78 FR 77787 - Notice of Joint Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Olson, Chief Engineer Communication and Signals, 500 Water Street, Speed Code...

  15. 78 FR 14874 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...proposed temporary discontinuance of the signal system at the Randolph Street...

  16. 77 FR 74736 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition docket...the proposed discontinuance of automatic signals within traffic control signal...

  17. 78 FR 34151 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal...seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number...

  18. 78 FR 12824 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...Administration [Docket Number FRA-2002-14116] Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System or Relief From Requirements In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and 49...

  19. 78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Olson, Chief Engineer Communications and Signals, 500 Water Street, Speed Code...

  20. 78 FR 68147 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Olson, Chief Engineer Communications & Signals, 500 Water Street, Speed Code...

  1. 77 FR 69923 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...11--Requirements for existing locomotives and 49 CFR 223.13--Requirements...petitioned FRA for a waiver for one American Locomotive Company Model S-4, 1000-horsepower diesel electric locomotive numbered 5109 (TLEW 5109)....

  2. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...pursuant to OMB Circular A-87, ``Cost Principles for State, Local, and Indian Tribal...accordance with applicable OMB cost principles cited above. FRA will also consider...allowable under the applicable cost principles. Section 4: Application...

  3. siVilingenirutdanning Datateknikk

    E-print Network

    Malinnikova, Eugenia

    datasikkerhet for besøkende fra videregående skole. Foto: Kai T. Dragland #12;hva er Datateknikk? Datateknikk er underholdning. Intelligente klær er kanskje daglig- dags innen du er ferdigutdannet. Hva framtiden vil bringe

  4. 49 CFR 229.309 - Safety-critical changes and failures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Notify FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety of the design changes made by the product supplier; (2) Ensure that the SA is updated as required; (3) Conduct all safety-critical changes in a manner that allows the change to be...

  5. Rediscovery of Salamandra algira Bedriaga, 1883 from the Beni Snassen massif (Morocco) and phylogenetic relationships of

    E-print Network

    Carranza, Salvador

    , Barcelona, Spain mar.comasmanresa@alum.uca.es 3 - C. San Vicente 3, Jerez de la Fra, E-11408 Cadiz, Spain besides a man-made fountain. The adult specimen was found on land near the fountain. The adult specimen

  6. 49 CFR 236.1001 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...S.C. 20157, this subpart, or an FRA order, including requirements to ensure that the development, functionality, architecture, installation, implementation, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of...

  7. Wireless Network Esercitazioni

    E-print Network

    Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

    sincronizzazione fra le stazioni Notare che in modo infrastrutturato, solo gli Access Point possono inviare i beacons #12;Reti Ad Hoc (IBSS) Le altre stazioni della rete Ad Hoc si uniranno alla rete dopo aver

  8. 78 FR 36817 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...solutions to the problems of grade crossing...Railroad Police Officers. OMB Control...designated police officers who are discharging...verify proper police authority...FRA Desk Officer. Comments...information technology. A...

  9. 76 FR 34289 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...Toone, Office of Information Technology, RAD-20, Federal Railroad...Applications under the Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program (Form FRA F 6180...OMB No. 2130-0537, Railroad Police Officers (49 CFR part 207). The...

  10. 76 FR 18294 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...Operational Tests/Insp. --FRA Disapproval of RR 687 railroads....... 20 supporting...Tests/ documents. Insp. & Response by RR. --Amended Prog. Docs...040,000 Employees. employees. --New RR & Copy of Program of 20 new...

  11. Comparison of Zircon U-Pb Ages of Apollo 14 Breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, R. E.; Grange, M. L.; Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.

    2012-09-01

    We determinated U-Pb ages on zircons from the two breccia units of the Fra Mauro Formation (Apollo 14 landing site). Our initial study indicates that these two units are not that dissimilar with respect to their provenance.

  12. 77 FR 30048 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...that by a document dated January 6, 2012, the Cass Scenic Railroad State Park (CASS) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...Docket Number FRA-2012-0022. Specifically, CASS seeks a waiver of compliance for five freight...

  13. 75 FR 67451 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ...petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Austin & Texas Central Railroad (Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0149) The Austin & Texas Central Railroad (ATCX), a Class III railroad, seeks a...

  14. 76 FR 1209 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2011. The designated ERD for calendar year 2011 is docket number...

  15. 75 FR 3782 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2010. The designated ERD for calendar year 2010 is docket number...

  16. 77 FR 5293 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2012. The designated ERD for calendar year 2012 is docket number...

  17. 78 FR 3964 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2013. The designated ERD for calendar year 2013 is docket number...

  18. Automatisk Webbaseret Opdateringssystem Bo S. Christensen

    E-print Network

    , with Bent Frøhlke Nielsen from IMM as supervisor. The updating system is capable of keeping installations 2005 til 6. februar 2006, med Bent Frøhlke Nielsen som vejleder fra Institut for Matematiske Modelering

  19. 78 FR 48765 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...consists of representatives from Class I railroads, labor unions, car builders, private car owners, and shippers, along with ergonomics experts and government representatives from FRA and Transport Canada who participate as non-voting members. The Task...

  20. Influence of planting treatments on American chestnut (Castanea dentata)

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    replaced www.epa.gov #12;4/25/2009 2 Historic surface mining reclamation practices Left "as is" Valleys and Reclamation Act of 1977 Compaction Erosion Heavy Liming Grass Planted The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA

  1. 75 FR 27053 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter Renewal of the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee...SUMMARY: FRA announces the charter renewal of the RSAC, a Federal Advisory...

  2. 77 FR 28421 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter Renewal of the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee...SUMMARY: FRA announces the charter renewal of the RSAC, a Federal Advisory...

  3. 77 FR 19054 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...provided by the Track Safety Standards, Critical Incident, Dark Territory, Fatigue Management, Risk Reduction, Electronic...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  4. 75 FR 73158 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...Development, Use, and Implementation of Rail Safety Technology in Dark Territory. This agenda is subject to change, including the...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  5. 76 FR 24561 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...Hours of Service, Training Standards, Track Safety Standards, Dark Territory, Passenger Safety, and Medical Standards Working...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  6. 76 FR 67020 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...Device Distraction, Critical Incident, Track Safety Standards, Dark Territory, Passenger Safety, and Medical Standards Working...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  7. 75 FR 44046 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...Conductor Certification, and a possible new task regarding Dark Territory may be presented to the committee for approval. This...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  8. 78 FR 47822 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Mr. Ron Groves, PE, Senior Civil Engineer, Engineering Division, 425 South Palos...

  9. 78 FR 42998 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Pipeline...meeting addressing the transportation of hazardous materials by rail. FRA and...q). The Federal hazardous materials transportation laws, 49...

  10. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...providing at least an equivalent level of safety if approved by FRA under § 238.21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the requirements contained in Appendix D to this part. (b) Internal...

  11. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...providing at least an equivalent level of safety if approved by FRA under § 238.21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the requirements contained in Appendix D to this part. (b) Internal...

  12. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...providing at least an equivalent level of safety if approved by FRA under § 238.21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the requirements contained in Appendix D to this part. (b) Internal...

  13. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...providing at least an equivalent level of safety if approved by FRA under § 238.21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the requirements contained in appendix D to this part. (b) Internal...

  14. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...providing at least an equivalent level of safety if approved by FRA under § 238.21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the requirements contained in Appendix D to this part. (b) Internal...

  15. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  16. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  17. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  18. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2003-15754] Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad...

  19. Adult fragile X syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Rudelli; W. T. Brown; K. Wisniewski; E. C. Jenkins; M. Laure-Kamionowska; F. Connell; H. M. Wisniewski

    1985-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome [fra (X)] is currently accepted as the second most frequent chromosomal disorder associated with developmental disability. Although next to Down syndrome in frequency, no postmortem studies of confirmed adult cases had been reported.

  20. 75 FR 36551 - State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...from the estimated sum of the original burden submission from the ten identified States and the burden resubmission from the quantum that may not comply during the initial submission. FRA considers $259,000 to represent the aggregated State burden...

  1. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  2. 49 CFR 228.201 - Electronic recordkeeping; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...security program adequate to ensure the integrity of the system, including the prevention of unauthorized access to the program logic or individual records. (6) FRA's Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety/Chief Safety Officer may prohibit or...

  3. 78 FR 28012 - Tier One Environmental Impact Statement for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...variations in train frequency, and trip time. FRA is issuing this Notice to invite...the connection to the Twin Cities. A trip by automobile between the Twin Cities... Improve safety, convenience and time of travel Complement the plans...

  4. 77 FR 49856 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Salinas to San Luis Obispo Portion of the Coast Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...corridor, including variations in train frequency, trip time, and on- time performance. FRA is also issuing this notice to solicit...scheduled on August 28 and August 29, 2012 at the times and locations identified in the Addresses section...

  5. 77 FR 74736 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...Regulations (CFR), this document provides the public notice that by a document dated November 13, 2012, the San Diego Trolley Incorporated (SDTI) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for a waiver of compliance from certain...

  6. 78 FR 25347 - Petition for Amending Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...regulations contained at 49 CFR Part 242, Conductor Certification, in Docket Number FRA-2012-0054...sections of 49 CFR 242.403 to encourage conductor reporting of close calls, and to protect conductors and Amtrak from discipline or...

  7. 75 FR 3959 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...Improvement Act of 2008 (RSIA): Positive Train Control, Passenger Hours of Service, Railroad Bridge Safety Management, and Conductor Certification. FRA may offer a new task on Minimum Training Standards for Safety-Related Railroad Employees, as...

  8. Relation between plasmatic and cerebrospinal fluid oxidative stress biomarkers and intrathecal Ig synthesis in Multiple Sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Livia; Pecori, Chiara; Chico, Lucia; Iudice, Alfonso; Siciliano, Gabriele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oxidative stress biomarkers were related to plasmatic levels and to intrathecal Ig synthesis in 51 patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Plasmatic and CSF ferric reducing ability (FRA) showed a significant positive correlation (? 0.28, p=0.04), while advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) did not. A negative correlation was found between IgG synthesis index and CSF FRA levels. No difference in CSF AOPPs or FRA was observed between patients with and without intrathecal IgM synthesis. Our results indicate that plasmatic and CSF FRA are strictly linked, while CSF oxidative stress biomarkers are not related to intrathecal Ig synthesis. PMID:26004154

  9. 75 FR 26842 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...relief being requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Metro-North Railroad [Docket Number FRA-2007-0006] The Metro-North Railroad (Metro-North) seeks a permanent waiver of compliance from certain specific...

  10. P trods af at plantefibre har vret i forskernes sgelys siden 1930'erne,

    E-print Network

    forskningsafdelinger arbejder sam- men om at finde optimale måder at isolere og anvende fibre fra hør, hamp og jute på meget høj styrke," fortæller Hans Lilholt. Planter som hamp, hør og jute har et højt indhold af

  11. 49 CFR 236.917 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an...

  12. 49 CFR 236.917 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an...

  13. 49 CFR 238.211 - Collision posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...required to withstand. For analysis purposes, the required forces...ends of a semi-permanently coupled consist of articulated units...21 a documented engineering analysis establishing that the articulated...and (2) FRA finds the analysis persuasive. [75 FR...

  14. 49 CFR 238.211 - Collision posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...required to withstand. For analysis purposes, the required forces...ends of a semi-permanently coupled consist of articulated units...21 a documented engineering analysis establishing that the articulated...and (2) FRA finds the analysis persuasive. [75 FR...

  15. 49 CFR 238.211 - Collision posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...required to withstand. For analysis purposes, the required forces...ends of a semi-permanently coupled consist of articulated units...21 a documented engineering analysis establishing that the articulated...and (2) FRA finds the analysis persuasive. [75 FR...

  16. For students starting in Fall 2014 BA Double Major Teaching English as a Second Language and Secondary Education

    E-print Network

    Technology in the Classroom 3 Options - one of: EDU 324 - Teaching English to Adults, EDU 325 - Selected Topics in Teaching ESL, FRA 227- Initiation à la traduction I, PSY 286 - Psychology of Language 3 EDU 406

  17. Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of gene expression by Jun, Fos and Krox, and CREB\\/ATF proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Herdegen; J. D. Leah

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews findings up to the end of 1997 about the inducible transcription factors (ITFs) c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2, Krox-20 (Egr-2) and Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1, Zif268); and the constitutive transcription factors (CTFs) CREB, CREM, ATF-2 and SRF as they pertain to gene expression in the mammalian nervous system. In the first part we consider basic facts

  18. Fully Integrated Impedance Spectroscopy Systems for Biochemical Sensor Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Yang; Daniel Rairigh; Andrew Mason

    2007-01-01

    With rapid progress in the miniaturization of biosensors, array microsystems utilizing impedance spectroscopy (IS) are of emerging interest. Focused on the electronics portion of such IS microsystems, this paper analyzes FFT-based and frequency response analyzer (FRA)-based approaches and compares them for hardware efficiency in array applications. For the chosen FRA-based approach, two possible systems are described and their circuit-level realizations

  19. Theoretical studies on the interaction of partial agonists with the 5HT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Elena Silva; Ralf Heim; Andrea Strasser; Sigurd Elz; Stefan Dove

    2011-01-01

    A series of 51 5-HT2A partial agonistic arylethylamines (primary or benzylamines) from different structural classes (indoles, methoxybenzenes,\\u000a quinazolinediones) was investigated by fragment regression analysis (FRA), docking and 3D-QSAR approaches. The data, pEC50 values and intrinsic activities (Emax) on rat arteries, show high variability of pEC50 from 4 to 10 and of Emax from 15 to 70%. FRA indicates which substructures

  20. Virulent non-capsulate Yersinia pestis variants constructed by insertion mutagenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Drozdov; A. P. ANISIMOVP; S. V. Samoilova; I. N. Yezhov; S. A. Yeremin; A. V. Karlyshev; V. M. Krasilnikova; V. I. Kravchenko

    1995-01-01

    Summary. Insertion mutagenesis with the help of the plasmid pFS23 was used to generate Yersinia pestis fra mutants. The results of pFra- strain production under non-selective conditions suggested that such Y. pestis variants may be generated in natural plague foci at high frequency and may participate in supporting the epizootic process. Present data suggest that the reduction of virulence in

  1. Fractal generalized zone plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omel Mendoza-Yero; Mercedes Fernández-Alonso; Gladys Mínguez-Vega; Jesús Lancis; Vicent Climent; Juan A. Monsoriu

    2009-01-01

    The construction of fractal generalized zone plates (FraGZPs) from a set of periodic diffractive optical elements with circular symmetry is proposed. This allows us to increase the number of foci of a conventional fractal zone plate (FraZP), keeping the self-similarity property within the axial irradiance. The focusing properties of these fractal diffractive optical elements for points not only along but

  2. Detailed Simulation of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Bracuto; Gabriele D'Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present WiFra, a new framework for the detailed simulation of very large-scale wireless networks. WiFra is based on the parallel and distributed simulation approach and provides high scalability in terms of size of simulated networks and number of execution units running the simulation. In order to improve the performance of distributed simulation, additional techniques are proposed.

  3. Detailed Simulation of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Bracuto; Gabriele D'Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we presentWiFra, a new framework for the detailed simulation of very large-scale wireless networks. WiFra is based on the parallel and distributed simulation approach and provides high scalability in terms of size of simulated networks and number of execution units running the simulation. In order to improve the performance of distributed simulation, additional techniques are proposed. Their

  4. Cortisol and social stressors in children with fragile X: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wisbeck, J M; Huffman, L C; Freund, L; Gunnar, M R; Davis, E P; Reiss, A L

    2000-08-01

    Evidence of neuroendocrine dysfunction, behavioral features of social anxiety and avoidance, and neuroanatomical abnormalities suggest that abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function may be a component of the fragile X (fra X) syndrome. In this preliminary study, salivary cortisol levels of males (n = 8, mean age = 13.5 yr) and females (n = 7, mean age = 13.9 yr) with the fra X full mutation were studied for 3 days. Day 1 was an experimental day, during which subjects experienced a Social Stressor task midmorning. Days 2 and 3 were routine days, during which the subjects were engaged in their typical activities. Saliva samples were collected before breakfast, lunch, dinner, and bedtime. On the experimental day, the prelunch sample collection occurred 30 and 90 minutes after the Social Stressor task. Compared with children's norms, the combined group of males and females with fra X had significantly higher cortisol levels in the prelunch and the prebedtime samples for the routine days. Comparisons between the two fra X groups for the experimental day revealed similar diurnal patterns for cortisol level. However, compared with females with fra X, males with fra X had significantly higher cortisol levels at two points during the day: 30 minutes after the social stressor and at bedtime. These preliminary data suggest that individuals with fra X have abnormal HPA function. Understanding the relations among HPA dysfunction, abnormalities in brain structure and/or function, and maladaptive behavior and cognition in fra X could inform the design of early interventions using pharmacological or environmental measures designed to normalize neuroendocrine function. PMID:10972251

  5. Model-comparison Games with Algebraic Rules

    E-print Network

    -Fraïssé game Fixed-point logic Pebble game #12;Games in nite model theory Logic Corresponding game First, bijection game Fixed-point logic with matrix rank Matrix-rank game #12;Games in nite model theory Logic-order logic Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé game Fixed-point logic Pebble game Fixed-point logic with counting Counting

  6. Further evidence for genetic heterogeneity in the fragile X syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Brown; E. C. Jenkins; A. C. Gross; C. B. Chan; M. S. Krawczun; C. J. Duncan; S. L. Sklower; G. S. Fisch

    1987-01-01

    The X-linked fragile X[fra(X)] syndrome, associated with a fragile site at Xq27.3, is the most common Mendeban inherited form of mental deficiency. Approximately 1 in 1060 males and 1 in 677 females carry the fra (X) chromosome. However, diagnosis of carrier status can be difficult since about 20% of males and 44% of females are nonpenetrant for mental impairment and\\/or

  7. Autism spectrum disorder in fragile X syndrome: Communication, social interaction, and specific behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter E. Kaufmann; Ranon Cortell; Alice S. M. Kau; Irena Bukelis; Elaine Tierney; Robert M. Gray; Christiane Cox; George T. Capone; Pia Stanard

    2004-01-01

    The present study extends our previous work on social behavior impairment in young males with fragile X syndrome (FraX). Specifically, we evalu- ated whether the autistic phenomenon in FraX is expressed as a range of behavioral impairments as in idiopathic autism (Aut). We also examined whether there are behaviors, identified as items of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI- R), that

  8. Expression of immediate early genes in the hippocampal formation of the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) during a food-hoarding task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom V. Smulders; Timothy J. Devoogd

    2000-01-01

    Black-capped chickadees store food in many different locations in their home range and are able to accurately remember these locations. We measured the number of cells immunopositive for three different Immediate Early Gene products (Fra-1, c-Fos and ZENK) to map neuronal activity in the chickadee Hippocampal Formation (HF) during food storing and retrieval. Fra-1-like immunoreactivity is downregulated in the dorsal

  9. Immunoelectron Microscopic Localization of Fibrin-Related Antigen in Human Glomerular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiko Ono; Kazuro Kanatsu; Toshio Doi; Ken-Ichi Sekita; Hiroyuki Nagai; Eri Muso; Haruyoshi Yoshida; Tadao Tamura; Chuichi Kawai

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of fibrin-related antigen (FRA) in glomeruli was examined by immunoelectron microscopy in 9 patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN), 8 patients with minimal-change nephrotic syndrome, and 10 patients with IgA nephropathy (IgA-N), using antisera against human ?-chain, ?-chain, ?-chain, and fibrinogen. Electron-dense reaction products of FRA were observed in the endothelium, subendothelium, and\\/or in electron-dense deposits (EDD). Among

  10. Molecular insights into frataxin-mediated iron supply for heme biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Mielcarek, Andreas; Blauenburg, Bastian; Miethke, Marcus; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    Iron is required as an element to sustain life in all eukaryotes and most bacteria. Although several bacterial iron acquisition strategies have been well explored, little is known about the intracellular trafficking pathways of iron and its entry into the systems for co-factor biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the iron-dependent process of heme maturation in Bacillus subtilis and present, for the first time, structural evidence for the physical interaction of a frataxin homologue (Fra), which is suggested to act as a regulatory component as well as an iron chaperone in different cellular pathways, and a ferrochelatase (HemH), which catalyses the final step of heme b biogenesis. Specific interaction between Fra and HemH was observed upon co-purification from crude cell lysates and, further, by using the recombinant proteins for analytical size-exclusion chromatography. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments identified the landscape of the Fra/HemH interaction interface and revealed Fra as a specific ferrous iron donor for the ferrochelatase HemH. The functional utilisation of the in vitro-generated heme b co-factor upon Fra-mediated iron transfer was confirmed by using the B. subtilis nitric oxide synthase bsNos as a metabolic target enzyme. Complementary mutational analyses confirmed that Fra acts as an essential component for maturation and subsequent targeting of the heme b co-factor, hence representing a key player in the iron-dependent physiology of B. subtilis. PMID:25826316

  11. Limitedly selective action of a delta-agonistic leu-enkephalin on the transmission in spinal motor reflex pathways in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, P F; Schomburg, E D; Steffens, H

    1991-01-01

    1. The influence of the delta-opioid receptor agonist (D-Ser2)-leu-enkephalin (Thr6) (DSLET) on different spinal reflex pathways was investigated in anaemically decapitated, high spinal cats. Monosynaptic reflexes were tested to analyse excitatory and inhibitory flexor reflex afferent (FRA) pathways from nociceptive (from the skin of the central pad) and non-nociceptive (from skin, joint or group II muscle) afferents, as well as an excitatory nociceptive non-FRA pathway from the central pad to plantaris and intrinsic foot extensors and the inhibitory pathway from Ib muscle afferents. 2. DSLET suffused over the spinal cord (concentration 10(-3)-10(-6) M) caused a concentration-dependent depression of transmission in nociceptive and non-nociceptive FRA pathways. The excitatory FRA pathways including those from group II muscle afferents were more sensitive than the inhibitory ones. The nociceptive non-FRA pathway from the central pad to plantaris and intrinsic foot extensors was less affected than the FRA pathways. The inhibitory pathway from Ib muscle afferents remained almost unaffected. 3. Intravenous injection of DSLET (0.5-3.6 mg/kg) induced dose-dependent effects similar to those from local spinal application. The main difference was that I.V. injection more readily caused depression of the inhibitory FRA pathways to extensors. 4. The effects of local spinal application and of I.V. injection of DSLET were antagonized by I.V. injection of naloxone (0.1-1 mg/kg). 5. The effects of DSLET on spinal reflex pathways in many respects resemble that of monoamines. Possibly there is an interaction and a co-operation of enkephalins and monoamines in motor control. PMID:1665854

  12. Fronto-striatal dysfunction and potential compensatory mechanisms in male adolescents with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Hernandez, Arvel; Parthasarathy, Sudharshan; Watson, Christa L; Hall, Scott S; Reiss, Allan L

    2007-06-01

    Response inhibition is an important facet of executive function. Fragile X syndrome (FraX), with a known genetic etiology (fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) mutation) and deficits in response inhibition, may be an ideal condition for elucidating interactions among gene-brain-behavior relationships. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown evidence of aberrant neural activity when individuals with FraX perform executive function tasks, though the specific nature of this altered activity or possible compensatory processes has yet to be elucidated. To address this question, we examined brain activation patterns using fMRI during a go/nogo task in adolescent males with FraX and in controls. The critical comparison was made between FraX individuals and age, gender, and intelligent quotient (IQ)-matched developmentally delayed controls; in addition to a control group of age and gender-matched typically developing individuals. The FraX group showed reduced activation in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and right caudate head, and increased contralateral (left) VLPFC activation compared with both control groups. Individuals with FraX, but not controls, showed a significant positive correlation between task performance and activation in the left VLPFC. This potential compensatory activation was predicted by the interaction between FMR1 protein (FMRP) levels and right striatal dysfunction. These results suggest that right fronto-striatal dysfunction is likely an identifiable neuro-phenotypic feature of FraX and that activation of the left VLPFC during successful response inhibition may reflect compensatory processes. We further show that these putative compensatory processes can be predicted by a complex interaction between genetic risk and neural function. PMID:17437282

  13. Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

    2004-08-01

    Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28°C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37°C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

  14. Assessment of Fracture Risk in A Population of Postmenopausal Italian Women: A Comparison of Two Different Tools.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Gloria; Fila, Enrica; Cervellati, Carlo; Romani, Arianna; Giganti, Melchiore; Rossini, Maurizio; Greco, Pantaleo; Massari, Leo

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare in the assessment of risk of fractures in postmenopausal women two algorithms for 10-year fracture risk evaluation, the WHO-endorsed FRAX(®) and the Italian FRAX-derived version (DeFRA), which considers BMD of different bone sites and allows the inclusion of other data. In a secondary analysis, we compared the performance of the tools in discriminating subjects who sustained previous major fractures from those who did not. The 10-year fracture risk score was evaluated in a sample of 989 climacteric women using FRAX and DeFRA tools. Bone mineral density was also included in the calculation of these algorithms. Comparing how the subjects were assigned to different risk classes by the two tools, we found that DeFRA attributed higher risk categories than FRAX, among women in the subgroups between 50 and 59 and, mostly, 60-69 years of age. ROC curve analysis showed that DeFRA had the same discriminative ability to identify previous major osteoporotic fractures compared to FRAX (AUC = 0.74 for both). If confirmed by prospective studies, our findings would suggest that DeFRA might be ascribed as at least equivalent to FRAX or perhaps slightly most appropriate in the categorization of the fracture risk, particularly in women aged 60-69 years, a period in which bone densitometry analysis is highly recommended. PMID:25939647

  15. Fractal Generalized Zone Plates

    E-print Network

    Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Minguez-Vega, Gladys; Lancis, Jesus; Climent, Vicent; Monsoriu, Juan A

    2008-01-01

    The construction of fractal generalized zone plates (FraGZPs) from a set of periodic diffractive optical elements with circular symmetry is proposed. This allows us to increase the number of foci of a conventional fractal zone plate (FraZP), keeping the self-similarity property within the axial irradiance. The focusing properties of these fractal diffractive optical elements for points not only along but also in the close vicinity of the optical axis are investigated. In both cases analytical expressions for the irradiance are derived. Numerical simulations of the energetic efficiency of FraGZPs under plane wave illumination are carried out. In addition, some effects on the axial irradiance caused by the variation in area of their transparent rings are shown.

  16. Effect of ginsenoside Rd on nitric oxide system induced by lipopolysaccharide plus TNF-alpha in C6 rat glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Soo; Lee, Jin-Koo; Han, Eun-Jung; Han, Ki-Jung; Lee, Han-Kyu; Lee, Jongho; Suh, Hong-Won

    2003-05-01

    Effects of ginsenosides on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide plus TNF-alpha (LNT) were examined in C6 rat glioma cells. Among several ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rd showed a complete inhibition against LNT-induced NO production. Ginsenoside Rd attenuated LNT-induced increased phosphorylation of ERK. Among several immediate early gene products, only Jun B and Fra-1 protein levels were increased by LNT, and ginsenoside Rd attenuated Jun B and Fra-1 protein levels induced by LNT. Furthermore, LNT increased AP-1 DNA binding activities, which were partially inhibited by ginsenoside Rd. Our results suggest that ginsenoside Rd exerts an inhibitory action against NO production via blocking phosphorylation of ERK, in turn, suppressing immediate early gene products such as Jun B and Fra-1 in C6 glioma cells. PMID:12785733

  17. Realistic Transverse Images of the Proton Charge and Magnetic Densities

    E-print Network

    Siddharth Venkat; John Arrington; Gerald A. Miller; Xiaohui Zhan

    2010-11-05

    We develop a technique, denoted as the finite radius approximation (FRA), that uses a two-dimensional version of the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem to determine transverse densities and their uncertainties from experimental quantities. Uncertainties arising from experimental uncertainties on the form factors and lack of measured data at high $Q^2$ are treated. A key feature of the FRA is that a form factor measured at a given value of $Q^2$ is related to a definite region in coordinate space. An exact relation between the FRA and the use of a Bessel series is derived. The proton Dirac form factor is well enough known such that the transverse charge density is very accurately known except for transverse separations $b$ less than about 0.1 fm. The Pauli form factor is well known to $Q^2$ of about 10 GeV$^2$, and this allows a reasonable, but improvable, determination of the anomalous magnetic moment density.

  18. Variation at the fragile X locus does not influence susceptibility to bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; McGuffin, P. [Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-15

    Over the last 20 years several pedigrees have been reported which are suggestive of linkage between susceptibility to bipolar disorder and markers on chromosome Xq28. Other workers have failed to replicate these reports and the methodology of the positive reports has been criticized. Recently there have been several reports of an association between fragile X (FRA(X)) and affective disorder within families and in unrelated individuals compared with controls. Such reports could be consistent with the Xq28 marker reports because FRA(X) maps to Xq27.3. We report a study at the FRA(X) CGG repeat locus in 79 unrelated Caucasian bipolar probands without fragile X syndrome and 77 unrelated controls. We found no evidence that variation at this locus confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  19. A cascade of iron-containing proteins governs the genetic iron starvation response to promote iron uptake and inhibit iron storage in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Encinar del Dedo, Javier; Gabrielli, Natalia; Carmona, Mercè; Ayté, José; Hidalgo, Elena

    2015-03-01

    Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters. PMID:25806539

  20. Intercellular Diffusion of a Fluorescent Sucrose Analog via the Septal Junctions in a Filamentous Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Nürnberg, Dennis J.; Mariscal, Vicente; Bornikoel, Jan; Nieves-Morión, Mercedes; Krauß, Norbert; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many filamentous cyanobacteria produce specialized nitrogen-fixing cells called heterocysts, which are located at semiregular intervals along the filament with about 10 to 20 photosynthetic vegetative cells in between. Nitrogen fixation in these complex multicellular bacteria depends on metabolite exchange between the two cell types, with the heterocysts supplying combined-nitrogen compounds but dependent on the vegetative cells for photosynthetically produced carbon compounds. Here, we used a fluorescent tracer to probe intercellular metabolite exchange in the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We show that esculin, a fluorescent sucrose analog, is incorporated by a sucrose import system into the cytoplasm of Anabaena cells. The cytoplasmic esculin is rapidly and reversibly exchanged across vegetative-vegetative and vegetative-heterocyst cell junctions. Our measurements reveal the kinetics of esculin exchange and also show that intercellular metabolic communication is lost in a significant fraction of older heterocysts. SepJ, FraC, and FraD are proteins located at the intercellular septa and are suggested to form structures analogous to gap junctions. We show that a ?sepJ ?fraC ?fraD triple mutant shows an altered septum structure with thinner septa but a denser peptidoglycan layer. Intercellular diffusion of esculin and fluorescein derivatives is impaired in this mutant, which also shows a greatly reduced frequency of nanopores in the intercellular septal cross walls. These findings suggest that FraC, FraD, and SepJ are important for the formation of junctional structures that constitute the major pathway for feeding heterocysts with sucrose. PMID:25784700

  1. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Pathway Regulates Breast Cancer Cell Migration by Maintaining slug Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoming; Zhu, Genfeng; Li, Yong; Padia, Ravi N.; Dong, Zheng; Pan, Zhixing K.; Liu, Kebin; Huang, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    Cell migration is a critical step in cancer cell invasion. Recent studies have implicated the importance of the ERK signaling pathway in cancer cell migration. However, the mechanism associated with ERK-regulated cell migration is poorly understood. Using a panel of breast cancer cell lines, we detected an excellent correlation between ERK activity and cell migration. Interestingly, we noticed that a 48-hr treatment with U0126 (specific MEK1/2 inhibitor) was needed to significantly inhibit breast cancer cell migration while this inhibitor blocked ERK activity within 1 hr. This observation suggests that ERK-dependent gene expression rather than direct ERK signaling is essential for cell migration. In further study, we found that ERK activity promoted the expression of AP1 components Fra-1 and c-Jun, both of which were necessary for cell migration. Combination of U0126 treatment and Fra-1/c-Jun knockdown did not yield further reduction in cell migration than either alone, indicating that ERKs and Fra-1/c-Jun act in the same mechanism to facilitate cell migration. In an attempt to investigate the role of Fra-1/c-Jun in cell migration, we found that ERK-Fra-1/c-Jun axis regulated slug expression in an AP1-dependent manner. Moreover, the occurrence of U0126-induced migratory inhibition coincided with slug reduction, and silencing slug expression abrogated breast cancer cell migration. These results suggest an association between ERK-regulated cell migration and slug expression. Indeed, cell migration was not significantly inhibited by U0126 treatment or Fra-1/c-Jun silencing in cells expressing slug transgene. Our study suggests that the ERK pathway regulates breast cancer cell migration by maintaining slug expression. PMID:19920183

  2. 20,29 19,30 14,15 13,16 3,182,3121,28

    E-print Network

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    ACt 4 sFBCt 1 sFBCDEt 3 sFBCADEt 3a Lav k + 1 kopier af grafens knuder, dvs. for en knude v i input grafen har vi knuder v0, v1, . . . , vk. For en kant (u, v) med vægt w laver vi kanter (ui, vi+1), dvs for at finde afstanden fra s0 til tk. Tid O((n + m)k). 3b Udvid grafen fra a) med kanter (uk, vk) med vægt w

  3. Major element chemistry of glasses in Apollo 14 soil 14156.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Jakes, P.

    1973-01-01

    Glasses in a soil sample (14156) from the middle layer of the trench at the Fra Mauro landing site show a wide range of compositions clustered around certain preferred compositions. Ninety per cent of the glasses are of two major types - Fra Mauro basalt (63%) with high K and 17 wt % Al2O3 and Highland basalt or anorthositic gabbro (27%) with low K and 25 to 26 wt % Al2O3. The glass population is almost identical with that of the comprehensive soil 14259.

  4. 49 CFR 268.11 - Project eligibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...revenue-producing passenger transportation service between...a projection of system capital costs...conduct an EA in support of the project...the grantee's decision to pursue the...documentation by FRA to support selection of one...compared to other transportation...

  5. AN EXTENSION OF THE ELIMINATION METHOD FOR A SPARSE ...

    E-print Network

    2011-09-20

    f,f1,...,fm, the problem is to detect whether f is nonnegative over the set D := {x ?. Rn | f1(x) ? 0,...,fm(x) ... Ramana et al. [17] showed that FRA .... Then, f is in ?G if and only if there exists a positive semidefinite matrix V ? S#(G). + such that f(x) ...

  6. 49 CFR 216.14 - Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment. 216.14 Section 216.14 Transportation...PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs § 216.14 Special notice for repairs—passenger equipment. (a) When an FRA Motive Power...

  7. 49 CFR 216.14 - Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment. 216.14 Section 216.14 Transportation...PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs § 216.14 Special notice for repairs—passenger equipment. (a) When an FRA Motive Power...

  8. 49 CFR 216.14 - Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment. 216.14 Section 216.14 Transportation...PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs § 216.14 Special notice for repairs—passenger equipment. (a) When an FRA Motive Power...

  9. 49 CFR 216.14 - Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment. 216.14 Section 216.14 Transportation...PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs § 216.14 Special notice for repairs—passenger equipment. (a) When an FRA Motive Power...

  10. 49 CFR 216.14 - Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-passenger equipment. 216.14 Section 216.14 Transportation...PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs § 216.14 Special notice for repairs—passenger equipment. (a) When an FRA Motive Power...

  11. 49 CFR 219.211 - Analysis and follow-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...report the results of each review to the Associate Administrator...writing, the Medical Review Officer may not disclose to FRA the underlying physical condition for which any...the railroad Medical Review Officer's determination...respond may do so by letter addressed to the...

  12. 49 CFR 219.211 - Analysis and follow-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...report the results of each review to the Associate Administrator...writing, the Medical Review Officer may not disclose to FRA the underlying physical condition for which any...the railroad Medical Review Officer's determination...respond may do so by letter addressed to the...

  13. 49 CFR 219.211 - Analysis and follow-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...report the results of each review to the Associate Administrator...writing, the Medical Review Officer may not disclose to FRA the underlying physical condition for which any...the railroad Medical Review Officer's determination...respond may do so by letter addressed to the...

  14. Algoritmer og Datastrukturer 2 (Sommer 2004) n = rk + 2.

    E-print Network

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    s t P°a grafen er angivet "Dijkstra's afstand / rigtige afstand". 1c Da en kryds-graf er acyklisk, kan ). 2b Lad G være grafen G med kanten (t, s) fjernet. Afstanden fra u til v i grafen G kan beregnes som

  15. DATALOGISK INSTITUT, AARHUS UNIVERSITET Det Naturvidenskabelige Fakultet

    E-print Network

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    to knuder s og t, finder den kortest vej i grafen fra s til t hvor der indg°ar højst k stiplede kanter der i grafen kanterne (vL, uL) og (vR, uR) Vi antager at kanterne er vægtede med positive og negative

  16. NATURE'S BUILDING CODE : THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF CELL DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Boal, David

    NATURE'S BUILDING CODE : THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF CELL DESIGN by David H. Boal LA PHYSIQUE ET L the materials are subject to stress or failure, they must be easy to repair. Design - The design of market'ÉDUCATION ( NATURE'S BUILDING CODE ... ) Prof. D.H. Boal , Dept. of Physics, Simon Fra- ser University

  17. 77 FR 26703 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...No. FRA-2004-17529; Notice No. 9] RIN 2130-AB94 Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty...published a final rule, pursuant to the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, which increased the aggravated...

  18. LENA FJELDHEIM GOURSAUD -TEKST OG FOTO Marianne Espeland

    E-print Network

    Espeland, Marianne

    LENA FJELDHEIM GOURSAUD - TEKST OG FOTO Marianne Espeland fra Kydland skal i tre år forske på Salomonøyene (foto: privat). Under feltarbeidet treffer Marianne på mange ulike og flotte insekter. Her to fargerike øyenstikkere på Salomonøyene (foto: privat). Marianne har alltid med seg lokale hjelpere. Her er

  19. CEESCENTER for ENVIRONMENTALand ESTUARINESTUDIES UN/VRS/TYof MARYLAND SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    CEESCENTER for ENVIRONMENTALand ESTUARINESTUDIES UN/VRS/TYof MARYLAND SYSTEM USA LEVEL ONE REPORT MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT MARYLAND CHESAPEAKE BAY WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAMProgram R.M. Stankelisl Sr FRA, FieldProgram Universityof MarylandSystem Center for Environmental& Estuarine

  20. Federal Register / Vol. 57, No. 221 / Monday, November 16, 1992 / Proposed Rules will be mandatory until such approval

    E-print Network

    on the states, on the relationship between the national government and the states, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government will be determined once FRA evaluates to the FMP (57 FR 43926, September 23, 1992) expire at the end of 1992. Unless regulations authorized under

  1. Interannual, seasonal, and diel variability in the carbon isotope composition of respiration in a C3/C4 agricultural ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable carbon isotope ratio 13CO2/12CO2 is a valuable tool for understanding the processes controlling the autotrophic (FRa) and heterotrophic (FRh) contributions to ecosystem respiration (FR) as well as influences of photosynthesis on respiration. There is increasing interest in the temporal va...

  2. Atti dei convegni Lincei, 217, 259300, 2006. Sulla Meccanica in Italia dal 1860 al 1922

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Atti dei convegni Lincei, 217, 259­300, 2006. Sulla Meccanica in Italia dal 1860 al 1922 Giovanni Meccanica Celeste in Italia fra la fine '800 e gli anni '20 del XX secolo" all' Accademia dei Lincei Istoria, disciplina che identifico con la Meccanica (del punto, dei punti, dei continui, Statistica, Celeste...), nel

  3. ALLEGATO A (D.R. n. 661 del 16.9.2011) AREA SCIENTIFICO DISCIPLINARE SCIENZE FISICHE

    E-print Network

    Genova, Università degli Studi di

    RICERCA N. 1 Affissione dei criteri per la valutazione dei titoli e del colloquio: il giorno 14 novembre dei risultati della valutazione dei titoli nonché l'indicazione dei candidati ammessi al colloquio: il fra 0.2 e 2 THz è uno dei campi di ricerca che sta suscitando notevole interesse per la varietà di

  4. 77 FR 31429 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...proposed discontinuance of an automatic block signal (ABS) system and a traffic control...

  5. 78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...with electronic control equipment and new signals arranged to the existing track...

  6. 78 FR 47822 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...discontinuance of the automatic block signal (ABS) system on Main Line 1 and...

  7. 78 FR 59754 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...discontinuance and removal of the automatic block signal (ABS) system between Southaven,...

  8. 78 FR 77787 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Phillip A. Danner, AVP Engineering-Signal, 1400 Douglas Street, MS 0910,...

  9. 76 FR 34801 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...decrease of limits consists of moving the 2S signal on the siding south to the clearance...

  10. 78 FR 77786 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Purcell, Acting Chief Engineer--Signals, One Penn Plaza East, Newark, NJ...

  11. 78 FR 46678 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...will be discontinued, and all associated signal equipment and Crossover 83 will be...

  12. 78 FR 37656 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...proposed modification of the railroad signal interlocking systems at DB & Cabin M...

  13. 78 FR 77785 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...Phillip A. Danner, AVP Engineering-Signal, 1400 Douglas Street, MS 0910,...

  14. 78 FR 9106 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...these proposed changes to modernize its signal equipment and install Positive Train...

  15. 77 FR 48204 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of...the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition docket...Phillip A. Danner, AVP Engineering-Signal, 1400 Douglas Street, MS 0910,...

  16. MODELING OF SPINEL SETTLING IN WASTE GLASS MELTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The topic of this multi-institutional bi-national research is the formation and settling of spinel, the most common crystalline phase that precipitates in molten high-level waste HLW) glass. For the majority of HLW streams, spinel formation in the HLW melter limits the waste fra...

  17. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...use the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by 49...may also use the electronic version of the MIS form provided by the DOT. The Administrator...Internet), other than hard-copy, for MIS form submission to FRA. For...

  18. 67 FR 16032 - Locomotive Cab Sanitation Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-04-04

    ...toilet seats, poor ventilation, offensive odors, and lack of toilet paper. In very cold...constitute a health hazard; and persistent odor sufficient to deter normal use of the facility...discharges of gases or persistent offensive odors. FRA developed this definition with...

  19. Submillimeter-Scale Topography of the Lunar Regolith

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Helfenstein; Michael K. Shepard

    1999-01-01

    We have applied computer stereophotogrammetry to Apollo Lunar Surface Closeup Camera (ALSCC) pictures of the lunar surface to construct the first-ever digital topographic relief maps of undisturbed lunar soil over spatial scales from 85 ?m to 8.5 cm. Using elevation histograms, fractal analysis, and Hapke's photometric roughness model we show that Apollo 14 (Fra Mauro) Imbrium ejecta is rougher than

  20. Recessive allele l codes for lactose intolerance. People who are recessive homozygots (ll) can not digest milk; dominant homozygots (LL) and

    E-print Network

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina

    develop as females until puberty low activity of this enzyme in homozygotes #12;2 Guevedoces = "penis of population size allele freq. time 1 0 25 individuals 100 individuals Probability of Allele Fixation and Population Size #12;3 Probability of allele fixation fr(A) = 0.5, fr (a) = 0.5 N=8 What is the probability (P

  1. New approaches to improve the performance of the PEM based fuel cell power systems 

    E-print Network

    Choi, Woojin

    2005-11-01

    Membrane Fuel Cell Stack (PEMFCS) is first proposed. This equivalent circuit model of the fuel cell stack is derived by a frequency response analysis (FRA) technique to evaluate the effects of the ripple current generated by the power-conditioning unit...

  2. Transcriptional repression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene in macrophages: a novel atherosclerotic effect of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Takata, Yasunori; Chu, Van; Collins, Alan R; Lyon, Christopher J; Wang, Wei; Blaschke, Florian; Bruemmer, Dennis; Caglayan, Evren; Daley, William; Higaki, Jitsuo; Fishbein, Michael C; Tangirala, Rajendra K; Law, Ronald E; Hsueh, Willa A

    2005-10-28

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a powerful accelerator of atherosclerosis. Herein, we describe a novel transcription mechanism through which Ang II inhibits macrophage expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key regulator of reverse cholesterol transport. We demonstrate that chronic Ang II infusion substantially promotes macrophage infiltration, foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice and significantly reduces ABCA1 expression in peripheral macrophages. Administration of the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker valsartan inhibited Ang II-induced ABCA1 mRNA repression, macrophage cholesterol accumulation, and atherosclerosis. Ang II treatment reduced ABCA1 promoter activity of in vitro cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages, inducing fos-related antigen 2 (Fra2) protein binding to an ABCA1 promoter E-box motif, a site known to negatively regulate macrophage ABCA1 transcription. Valsartan pretreatment blocked Fra2 binding to the ABCA1 promoter, and Fra2 small interfering RNA pretreatment attenuated Ang II-mediated ABCA1 transcriptional inhibition, confirming the role of Fra2 in this process. This new evidence suggests that Ang II, a well-known proinflammatory and pro-oxidative factor, alters macrophage cholesterol homeostasis by repressing ABCA1 to promote foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. PMID:16224068

  3. Forenklet, men presis beskrivelse av objekter Ragnhild Kobro Runde og Olaf Owe

    E-print Network

    Runde, Ragnhild Kobro

    intuitiv. Vi fokuserer derfor p°a observerbarhet, det vil si p°a hva som skjer i kommunikasjonen mellom de involvert i, slik at vi kan spesifisere neste mulige hendelser ut fra hva som har skjedd tidligere. Vi har annet at vi ikke ser p°a implementasjons- detaljer, men istedenfor konsentrerer oss om hva som skjer i

  4. Side 1 av 9 NTNU Fakultet for informasjonsteknologi,

    E-print Network

    Langseth, Helge

    - er I ABCD.= Hva er henholdsvis generatoren og resolusjonen til designet? Sett opp alias-strukturen og forklar kort hva denne uttrykker. Under hvilke betingelser om samspillene kan vi estimere alle de fire til 5%?0H Bruk opplysningen fra MINITAB-kjøringen til å finne verdien på testobservatoren. Hva blir

  5. Noen konkrete anvendelser i Bayesiansk statistikk -Notat til STK4020

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    notatet er at det skal gi en smakebit p°a hva som er mulig °a utføre innenfor Bayesiansk analyse og gi en fordelingen. Ulike m°al kan trekkes ut fra denne avhengig av hva man er ute etter. Hvis for eksempel en er ute

  6. NETTAVISEN, tv2 (Norwegian TV company) web site, 23 June 2006 Unike bilder av havet

    E-print Network

    National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

    kjempeblekkspruter. Se hva de fant! BORERIGGEN «EIRIK RAUDE» (TV 2): Forskerne fra anerkjente National Oceanography undervannsroboter får vi en ide om hva slags organismer som lever på sjøbunnen og hvordan de oppfører seg, sier har vi funnet en del krepsedyr vi ikke er helt sikre på hva er. Dessuten er det en del akkarer her

  7. Prosjektoppgaver om diusjonsprosesser og diusjonstilnrmelse

    E-print Network

    Tufto, Jarle

    skal det skrives litt om hva diusjonsprosesser er, hvilke spesielle resultater fra diusjonsteorien man skal se nærmere på i oppgaven, og hva som menes med diusjonstilnærmelse. De teoretiske resultatene sammenliknes med de resultatene man nner ved å benytte diusjonstilnærmelsen. Prøv å nne ut hva som skal til

  8. Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of "antiandrogens" on male rat reproductive development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although risk assessments are typically conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis, the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act requires the USEPA to consider cumulative risk of chemicals that act via a common mechanism of toxicity. To this end, we are conducting studies to provide a fra...

  9. Variation in crustal structure in Iran and the surrounding region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rham; M. Tatar; M. Ashtiany; M. Mokhtari; K. Priestley; A. Paul

    2007-01-01

    We present a model for the topography of the Moho discontinuity for Iran and its surrounding regions. This is produced using data from field deployments within Iran by the University of Cambridge (UK) and the Universite Joseph-Fourier (FRA) in conjunction with International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Iran), in addition to data from IRIS and Geofone. We determine tomographic

  10. 49 CFR 229.311 - Review of SAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...identify the location where the complete SA documentation described in § 229.307...maintained. (b) FRA may review or audit the SA within 60 days of receipt of the notification...railroad of its intent to review or audit the SA within the 60-day period, the...

  11. 49 CFR 229.311 - Review of SAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...identify the location where the complete SA documentation described in § 229.307...maintained. (b) FRA may review or audit the SA within 60 days of receipt of the notification...railroad of its intent to review or audit the SA within the 60-day period, the...

  12. 49 CFR 229.311 - Review of SAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...identify the location where the complete SA documentation described in § 229.307...maintained. (b) FRA may review or audit the SA within 60 days of receipt of the notification...railroad of its intent to review or audit the SA within the 60-day period, the...

  13. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  14. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  15. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  16. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  17. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairs—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

  18. Rapid Prototyping for Fuzzy Systems # Chantana Chantrapornchai Sissades Tongsima Edwin H.M. Sha

    E-print Network

    Sha, Edwin

    in control systems. In these sys­ tems, a consequence is inferred using rule base so that a con­ trol action, the implementation of fuzzy rule base system is partitioned into two portions: hard­ ware and software. Fuzzy rule Fuzzy Rule­based Automata (FRA), is pro­ posed to simplify fuzzy rule base. Since most rule base

  19. Norwegian Information Security Conference Norsk Informasjonssikkerhetskonferanse

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -stiftelsen og Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2010 ISBN 978-82-519-2705-5 Det må ikke kopieres fra denne boka ut over University College Tapir Akademisk Forlag har som målsetting å bidra til å utvikle gode læremidler og alle utgivelsen: Lasse.Postmyr@tapirforlag.no Tapir Akademisk Forlag 7005 TRONDHEIM Tlf.: 73 59 32 10 Faks: 73 59

  20. Semi-Analytic Gain Control Algorithm for the Fiber Raman Amplifier under Dynamic Channel Reconfiguration

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    Semi-Analytic Gain Control Algorithm for the Fiber Raman Amplifier under Dynamic Channel Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 140.4480 Optical amplifiers, (190.5650) Raman effect, (060 method for an FRA (fiber Raman amplifier) to cope with input power variation induced by WDM channel add

  1. 126 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 30, No. 2 / January 15, 2005 Adiabatic, closed-form approach to the highly efficient

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    to the highly efficient analysis of a fiber Raman amplifier problem Lark Kwon Choi, Pilhan Kim, Jaehyoung Park, 2004 We propose a novel framework for the solution of a general fiber Raman amplifier problem by use bandwidth and in- trinsically low noise, the fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) has become indispensable in today

  2. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 10, MAY 15, 2006 1125 Gain and Noise Figure Spectrum Control

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    Spectrum Control Algorithm for Fiber Raman Amplifiers Jaehyoung Park, Student Member, IEEE, Jonghan Park--In this letter, a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) design method enabling the simultaneous control of the gain is demonstrated for various shapes of target spectra. Index Terms--Fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs), iterative method

  3. Designing Raman amplified transmission systems -what's there and how to

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    Designing Raman amplified transmission systems - what's there and how to Namkyoo Park, Jonghan Park@plaza.snu.ac.kr, T : +82-2-880-1820, F : +82-2-885-5284). ABSTRACT Transmission systems employing Raman amplifier building block - a unit of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA), the designer have to struggle with the problems

  4. 768 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 4, APRIL 2005 Semianalytic Dynamic Gain-Clamping Method for

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    -Clamping Method for the Fiber Raman Amplifier Pilhan Kim, Student Member, IEEE, and Namkyoo Park, Member, IEEE Raman amplifier (FRA) to cope with possible wavelength-division-multiplexing channel add Abstract--We present a physically meaningful semianalytic gain-clamping algorithm for multipump Raman fiber

  5. JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2006 1257 Nonlinear Phase Shift Scanning Method

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    quality factor (Q) for a Raman amplified transmission system is presented. Taking the nonlinear phase the optimum (Q) factor, the multiparameter, time-consuming fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) system design process (DRS), fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs), nonlinear phase shift (NPS), optical fiber communications

  6. Integral equation approach for the analysis of high-power semiconductor optical amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    , W. J. Lee, and N. Park, "Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average. Choi, "Integral form expansion of fiber Raman amplifier problem," Opt. Fiber Technol., 11, 111 on coupled differential equations, other types of optical amplifiers (e.g., fiber Raman amplifier, FRA) [5

  7. Complete characterization of various noise components in Raman Amplifier using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    Complete characterization of various noise components in Raman Amplifier using Optical Time Domain characterization of different noise components in the Raman Amplifier under single experimental set-up, utilizing functionality, there have been increased, extensive research efforts for Fiber Raman Amplifiers (FRA)[1]. Recent

  8. Traffic Control Devices and Barrier Systems at Grade Crossings: Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Yeh; Jordan Multer

    2007-01-01

    Accidents at grade crossings are a significant concern to the railroad industry, and a large proportion of these accidents are the result of driver error. To understand drivers’ decisions and actions, FRA sponsored the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center in the conduct of a literature review of research from 1990 to 2006 examining driver behavior at grade crossings. This review

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE NUCLEAR SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF NEUTRON-RICH He AND Li ISOTOPES

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    of the fragment separator FRS. Isotopes of helium and lithium nuclei produced by fra176 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE NUCLEAR SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF NEUTRON-RICH He AND Li ISOTOPES G) in these neutron-rich exotic nuclei. In nuclei near the drip-line, the separation energy of the last nucleon

  10. 49 CFR 180.509 - Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Administrator for Railroad Safety, FRA...a hydrostatic pressure test and visual...or a thermal protection system...including reclosing pressure relief devices...Administrator for Railroad Safety...with a thermal protection system shall...periodic hydrostatic pressure test...

  11. 49 CFR 180.509 - Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Administrator for Railroad Safety, FRA...a hydrostatic pressure test and visual...or a thermal protection system...including reclosing pressure relief devices...Administrator for Railroad Safety...with a thermal protection system shall...periodic hydrostatic pressure test...

  12. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION ON U.S. RAILROADS: APPLICATION OF RISK ANALYSIS METHODS TO DECISION MAKING IN DEVELOPMENT OF REGULATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phani Raj; Edward Pritchard

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Safety of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is responsible for ensuring public and personnel safety in U.S. railroad operations. This office ensures the safe rail transportation of hazardous materials by conducting inspections of railroad operations and equipment, including tank cars, and developing safety-related regulations. In the past few years, the Office of Safety has been using risk

  13. 49 CFR 180.509 - Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Administrator for Railroad Safety, FRA...a hydrostatic pressure test and visual...or a thermal protection system...including reclosing pressure relief devices...Administrator for Railroad Safety...with a thermal protection system shall...periodic hydrostatic pressure test...

  14. Weapons from the Heart of Europe. On Czechoslovak Arms Exports in the Interwar Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skrivan Ales

    2011-01-01

    Nel confronto con la situazione che precedette la Prima guerra mondiale, nel periodo fra le due guerre la Cecoslovacchia dipendeva principalmente dalle esportazioni. Per la qualità dei suoi prodotti e per altri motivi il paese divenne un esportatore di armi su scala globale. Esportava fucili, mitragliatrici, cannoni e altri armamenti in numerosi paesi (principalmente gli alleati nella Piccola Intesa). Segnatamente

  15. 77 FR 39795 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...FRA-2012-0050] Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice...CFR 231.30 regarding their locomotive, LRY 2809, a 1985 EMD Model GP49. As stated by the petitioner, this locomotive...

  16. Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management

    EPA Science Inventory

    River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

  17. Social Escape Behaviors in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott; DeBernardis, Marie; Reiss, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors…

  18. 49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...that is added to a docket. (For example, the first document submitted to the docket in 2009 will be identified as FRA-2009-XXX-1.) Thus, each petition submitted to the ERD will have a unique document number which should be identified on all...

  19. 49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...that is added to a docket. (For example, the first document submitted to the docket in 2009 will be identified as FRA-2009-XXX-1.) Thus, each petition submitted to the ERD will have a unique document number which should be identified on all...

  20. 49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...that is added to a docket. (For example, the first document submitted to the docket in 2009 will be identified as FRA-2009-XXX-1.) Thus, each petition submitted to the ERD will have a unique document number which should be identified on all...

  1. DPSK Modulated (Tbit/s) Transmission Incorporating Dispersion-compensated Hybrid Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Gautam, Sunil

    2013-12-01

    The simulative implementation of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulated data transmission incorporating single-pump highly efficient dispersion compensated Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier is demonstrated. The simulative results are discussed to compare two different types of configurations of dispersion compensated 16-channel wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system to achieve transmission of Tbit/s data. In pre-compensation technique, dispersion compensated fiber (DCF) is used prior to fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) (Type I) and in post-compensation technique; the DCF is used after FRA (Type II) in a WDM optical communication system. The pumped dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) is in use to act as FRA amplifier. The performance characteristics such as Q factor, BER and eye closure penalty are premeditated to realize the ultra high speed WDM systems by employing DCF based FRA together with DPSK modulation. From simulated results, it is recommended to implement Type I over Type II to realize the feasibility of such high speed WDM systems.

  2. Apollo 14 Impact Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for Regional Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.

    2002-03-01

    Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar impact glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro region consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP impact glasses may possess a memory of impacts prior to 3.9 Ga ago.

  3. Correction of Lunar Prospector Elemental Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, A. A.; Gasnault, O.; Hasebe, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michael, G.

    2006-03-01

    Lunar Prospector Si content is underestimated, while Mg and Al contents are overestimated in Fra Mauro region. Corrected Si, Mg, and Al data were obtained and analyzed. Petrologic technique was used for checking the quality of Mg and Al elemental maps.

  4. Apollo 14 Impact Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for Regional Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.

    2002-01-01

    Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar impact glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro region consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP impact glasses may possess a memory of impacts prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. SCUOLA NORMALE SUPERIORE DI PISA Laboratorio di Storia, Archeologia e Topografia del Mondo Antico

    E-print Network

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    (unapartedellatradizio- ne) postula fra Arcadi e Troiani6. Dardano viene dall'Arcadia; Enea lasciando Troia ripristina ­ secondo alcuni ­ le relazioni con gli Arcadi; in Arcadia fonda Kapyai il cui nome rivivrebbe, attraverso Arcadi. Quelle che abbiamo appena evocato non sono semplicemente costruzioni tardive. Ad esempio, Dardano

  6. Mise jour le 13 dcembre 2013 1/6 BOURSES DE RECHERCHE DE 1er

    E-print Network

    Leclercq, Remi

    ://www.nserc- crsng.gc.ca/Students-Etudiants/UG-PC/USRA-BRPC_fra.asp#indemnites. DURÉE La durée du stage est subvention active du CRSNG (incluant les chercheurs de sciences infirmières, optométrie, médecine, nutrition ne peuvent PAS recevoir cette bourse. (Optométrie ­ Sciences infirmières ­ Médecine ­ Nutrition). Un

  7. Fifteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (Hypertext 2004), August 913, Santa Cruz, California Head-Tail Display: a Lightweight Approach

    E-print Network

    Berleant, Daniel

    is passed, as parameters, the user's query and the original hyperlink. Example: the hyperlink Nepal=rigorousness&url=http://asiatravel.com/nepalinfo.html&fra meOn=yes>Nepal. The list of modified hyperlinks is then forwarded to the user's browser. Referring to the modified example, if the user clicks on the Nepal link, the SplitWin servlet is called

  8. Variation of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Group Velocity Dispersion in Iran and the Surrounding Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Rham; K. Preistley; M. Tatar; A. Paul

    2006-01-01

    We present group velocity dispersion results from a study of regional fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves propagating across Iran and the surrounding region. Data for these measurements comes from field deployments within Iran by the University of Cambridge (GBR) and the Universite Joseph-Fourier (FRA) in conjunction with International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Iran), in addition to data

  9. Variation of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion in Iran and the surrounding region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rham; K. Priestley; M. Tatar; A. Paul; D. Hatzfeld; A. Radjaee; G. Nowrouzi; A. Kaviani; C. Tiberi

    2005-01-01

    We present group velocity dispersion results from a study of regional fundamental mode Rayleigh waves propagating across Iran and the surrounding region. Data for these measurements come from field deployments within Iran by the University of Cambridge (UK) and the Universite Joseph-Fourier (FRA) in conjunction with International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Iran), within Oman by the Universite Pierre

  10. Aktuel Naturvidenskab 5 2012 20 N O B E L P R I S E N I F Y S I O L O G I O G M E D I C I N

    E-print Network

    , nemlig stamceller, hvis virkelige værdi, vi hverken helt har forstået endsige set endnu. Et fundamentalt pionerarbejde med stamceller. celler fra haletudser. Disse celler er nemt tilgængelige og deler sig gerne, men differentiering ­ f.eks. blev DNA-sekventering først udviklet omkring 10 år efter. I første omgang blev Gurdons

  11. Corso di Chimica e Fisica Generali per Biotecnologie Esame scritto, modulo di Fisica 1 1 Luglio 2011

    E-print Network

    Giannozzi, Paolo

    punti a e b? 2. Supponiamo che la differenza di potenziale fra a e b valga Vab = 10 V. Quanto vale la.04) = 12.5 2. I1 = Vab/R1 = 0.2 A ; I2 = I3 = Vab/(R2 + R3) = 0.2 A ; I4 = Vab/R4 = 0.4 A. 3. Risposta

  12. 49 CFR 269.9 - Bid process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...petition relates no later than 60 days after the petition deadline established by § 269.7 of this part using the following method: email to Priia214@dot.gov. Each such bid must: (1) Provide FRA with sufficient information to evaluate the level...

  13. Molecular analysis of the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) tumor suppressor gene in vesical tumors of cattle with chronic enzootic hematuria (CEH)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Guidi; C. Uboldi; L. Ferretti

    2008-01-01

    The FHIT (fragile histidine triad) gene is a tumor suppressor gene known to be inactivated in many tumors including bladder tumors and is spanning FRA3B, a very active common fragile site in the human genome. We have recently isolated the bovine gene, and the aim of this study was to test whether FHIT presents altered expression patterns in vesical tumors

  14. A numerical simulation of wheel wear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Magel; Joe Kalousek; Robert Caldwell

    2005-01-01

    The conditions at the wheel\\/rail contact have a dramatic impact on safety, ride quality and cost of maintenance. Appreciating its importance, the US Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) initiated a project to improve both the understanding of and application of an improved wheel\\/rail interaction on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor. One item delivered as part of this programme is an improved wheel profile.

  15. PRODOTTI INFINITI Data una famiglia {Y : } di spazi topologici, consideriamo il prodotto cartesiano Y = Y e

    E-print Network

    Marconi, Umberto

    PRODOTTI INFINITI Data una famiglia {Y : } di spazi topologici, consideriamo il prodotto cartesiano Y = Y e la famiglia delle proiezioni {pr : }. La topologia prodotto su Y `e la topologia meno sottoinsiemi finiti di e W fra gli aperti di Y. Proposizione 1 La famiglia di tutti gli insiemi della forma W

  16. 77 FR 12407 - Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as Amended; Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ...must give the employee off duty before the employee may go on duty again. In issuing this interpretation, FRA...Limitations on Time on Duty in a May not remain or go on May not remain or go on May not remain or go on Single Tour. duty in...

  17. Impedimetric evaluation for diagnosis of Chagas’ disease: antigen–antibody interactions on metallic eletrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flamarion B. Diniz; Roseli R. Ueta; Alziana M. da C. Pedrosa; Madalena da C. Areias; Valéria R. A. Pereira; Edimilson D. Silva; José Godinho da Silva; Antônio G. P. Ferreira; Yara M. Gomes

    2003-01-01

    A polypeptide chain formed by recombinant antigens, cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) (CF-Chimera) of Trypanosoma cruzi, was adsorbed on gold and platinum electrodes and investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on phosphate buffer saline solutions (PBS) containing a redox couple. It was found that the adsorption is strongly sensitive to the oxide layer on the electrode surface.

  18. Intercity rail-passenger car ride quality test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharr, R. L.; Owings, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration's research and development program relating to intercity rail-passenger ride quality focuses on developing ride quality design criteria and specifications. The FRA ride quality test program and some of the techniques being used to analyze and evaluate the design criteria of the program are discussed.

  19. Watershed Central: An Integrated Watershed Assessment and Management Website (MO presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA?s Office of Water (OW), Office of Research and Development (ORD), and Office of Environmental Information (OEI) have teamed together with other Federal Agencies, state and local agencies, tribal agencies, and non-government organizations, to develop an integrated fra...

  20. 76 FR 11417 - Public Workshop and Hearing for Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...Federal motor vehicle safety standard on rearview...a vehicle to detect pedestrians in the area immediately...Kids Transportation Safety Act of 2007 (75 FR...a vehicle striking a pedestrian while performing a...

  1. La cittadinanza dell'Unione europea e il federalismo fiscale Relazione tenuta dal prof. Ruggiero Cafari Panico

    E-print Network

    Romeo, Alessandro

    La cittadinanza dell'Unione europea e il federalismo fiscale Relazione tenuta dal prof. Ruggiero Cafari Panico al convegno "Identità europea e cittadinanza dell'Unione" (Verona 7 novembre 2008) Sommario fra Corte costituzionale e Corte di giustizia - 5. La cittadinanza dell'Unione europea e le situazioni

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... This part provides that passenger car windows be equipped with FRA-certified glazing...passengers from the breakage and shattering of windows and avoid ejection of passengers from...the existence of at least four emergency windows, also requires window markings and...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... This part provides that passenger car windows be equipped with FRA-certified glazing...passengers from the breakage and shattering of windows and avoid ejection of passengers from...the existence of at least four emergency windows, also requires window markings and...

  4. 76 FR 48941 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Product Safety Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...FRA) approval of a Product Safety Plan (PSP) submitted pursuant to 49 CFR part 236...Marquette submitted a petition for approval of a PSP for the Railsoft TrackAccess System. The...railroad productivity. Marquette asserts the PSP demonstrates that the TrackAccess...

  5. 49 CFR 236.901 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...does not exempt a railroad from compliance with the requirements of subparts A through G of this part, except to the extent a PSP explains to FRA Associate Administrator for Safety's satisfaction the following: (i) How the objectives of any such...

  6. 49 CFR 236.901 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...does not exempt a railroad from compliance with the requirements of subparts A through G of this part, except to the extent a PSP explains to FRA Associate Administrator for Safety's satisfaction the following: (i) How the objectives of any such...

  7. 49 CFR 236.901 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...does not exempt a railroad from compliance with the requirements of subparts A through G of this part, except to the extent a PSP explains to FRA Associate Administrator for Safety's satisfaction the following: (i) How the objectives of any such...

  8. 49 CFR 236.901 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...does not exempt a railroad from compliance with the requirements of subparts A through G of this part, except to the extent a PSP explains to FRA Associate Administrator for Safety's satisfaction the following: (i) How the objectives of any such...

  9. 75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the FRA's Procedures for...Recovery Act was split into three Service Blocks, and identified incremental service benefits...projects contained in two of the three service blocks. In order to comply with the...

  10. IL POPULISMO E LA SCIENZA POLITICA: COME LIBERARSI DEL «COMPLESSO DI CENERENTOLA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Tarchi

    Prediletto fino all'abuso dai commentatori giornalistici e dagli «opinio- nisti», il concetto di populismo ha sempre faticato ad imporsi in sede scientifica. La difficoltà di definirne un'essenza e di circoscriverne il raggio di applicazione ne ha determinato fra politologi, sociologi, filosofi e storici un destino contraddittorio, fatto di improvvise fiammate di popolarità e lunghi periodi di oblio, intervallati da rivisitazioni

  11. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Equipment § 238.423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator...equivalent to a fuel tank that complies with the external fuel tank requirements in § 238.223(a)....

  12. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Equipment § 238.423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator...equivalent to a fuel tank that complies with the external fuel tank requirements in § 238.223(a)....

  13. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Equipment § 238.423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator...equivalent to a fuel tank that complies with the external fuel tank requirements in § 238.223(a)....

  14. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Equipment § 238.423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator...equivalent to a fuel tank that complies with the external fuel tank requirements in § 238.223(a)....

  15. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Equipment § 238.423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator...equivalent to a fuel tank that complies with the external fuel tank requirements in § 238.223(a)....

  16. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

  17. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 15] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

  18. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 17] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

  19. 76 FR 70532 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...Status: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection. Pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 3507(a) and 5 CFR 1320.5(b), 1320.8(b)(3)(vi), FRA informs all interested parties that it may not conduct or sponsor, and a respondent is not...

  20. Bearing defect detection using on-board accelerometer measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Dicus

    2002-01-01

    Vibration signatures of defective roller bearings on railroad freight cars were analyzed in an effort to develop an algorithm for detecting bearing defects. The effort is part of a project to develop an on-board condition monitoring system for freight trains. The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is sponsoring the project. The measurements were made

  1. ACTA DE RESOLUCI DE LA XXI CONVOCATRIA DE BEQUES PER REALITZAR PRCTIQUES EN PASOS EMPOBRITS

    E-print Network

    Oro, Daniel

    les beques a les persones següents: Referència A. Xarxa de les Escoles Alternatives del Perú 1. Sra. Sara Luna Fra 2. Sra. Alícia Aguilera Flage Referència B. Centre educatiu per a nins sords Effetah, Marroc 1. Sra. Antònia Maria Català Morro 2. Sra. Andrea Vallori Pizarro Referència C. Centro de Apoyo

  2. 75 FR 180 - Notice of Public Hearing; Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ...contact FRA's Docket Clerk, Michelle Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing...days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows...202-493-6030; e-mail: michelle.silva@dot.gov. The hearing will be...

  3. 75 FR 179 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Compliance and Scheduling of Public Hearing Association of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ...notify FRA's Docket Clerk, Michelle Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing...days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows...202-493-6030; e-mail michelle.silva@dot.gov. For information on...

  4. 76 FR 9401 - Union Pacific Railroad Company; Notice of Public Hearing and Extension of Public Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...contact FRA's Docket Clerk, Michelle Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing...days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows...202-493-6030; e-mail michelle.silva@dot.gov. The informal hearing...

  5. 76 FR 40320 - Risk Reduction Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ...notify FRA's Docket Clerk, Michelle Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing...days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows...202-493-6030; e-mail: michelle.silva@dot.gov. For information on...

  6. 75 FR 11992 - Notice of Scheduling of Public Hearing; Association of American Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...notify FRA's Docket Clerk, Ms. Michelle Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing...days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows...202-493-6030; e-mail michelle.silva@dot.gov. For information on...

  7. 78 FR 5161 - National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...the public hearing should notify Michelle Silva in FRA's Office of Chief Counsel by telephone...days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows...202-493-6030; email: michelle.silva@dot.gov. For information on...

  8. 77 FR 68722 - National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...technical symposium should notify Michelle Silva in FRA's Office of Chief Counsel by telephone...prior to the date of the symposium. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows...202-493-6030; email: michelle.silva@dot.gov. For information on...

  9. Master of Science Fixed Income

    E-print Network

    Brigo, Damiano

    of financial math. Building Blocks: Money Market Rates, TBills, FRA, Eurofutures, Swaps. Lecture 2: Yield Curve Stripping. Caps and Swaptions. Lecture 3: Stochastic Calculus. Lecture 3: The Black Model. Lecture 4 Securities, Wiley Finance, 2003. 4 Reference papers 1. Black, F., Derman, E. and Toy, W. 1990 A one

  10. Further segregation analysis of the fragile X syndrome with special reference to transmitting males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Sherman; P. A. Jacobs; N. E. Morton; U. Froster-Iskenius; P. N. Howard-Peebles; K. B. Nielsen; M. W. Partington; G. R. Sutherland; G. Turner; M. Watson

    1985-01-01

    A new series of 96 pedigrees with the fra(X) syndrome was analysed using complex segregation analysis with pointers, defining affection as any degree of mental impairment. These families were found to exhibit the same segregation pattern as the first series of 110 pedigrees (Sherman et al. 1984). The best estimate for penetrance of mental impairment in males was 79% and

  11. Protein Expression Profiling of the Drosophila Fragile X Mutant Brain Reveals Up-regulation

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    'Donnell , and Kendal Broadie** Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation, associated:278­290, 2005. Fragile X syndrome (FraX)1 is a common form of inherited mental retardation manifesting a rangeProtein Expression Profiling of the Drosophila Fragile X Mutant Brain Reveals Up

  12. Autistic Behavior in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald B. Bailey; Gary B. Mesibov; Deborah D. Hatton; Renee D. Clark; Jane E. Roberts; Lisa Mayhew

    1998-01-01

    A sample of 57 boys with fragile X syndrome (fraX) between the ages of 24 and 133 months was rated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) to assess the extent to which autism and autistic features were evident in a young population. Fourteen subjects (approximately 25% of the sample) scored above the cutoff for autism, suggesting a relatively high

  13. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  14. Divisional Managers and Internal Capital Markets Ran Duchin Denis Sosyura

    E-print Network

    University of Technology, Sydney

    on investment efficiency depends on the tradeoff between agency and information asymmetry. When governance information asymmetry is high, managerial ties increase investment efficiency and firm value by facilitating at the 2010 Financial Research Association (FRA) Annual Meeting, the 2011 Society for Financial Studies (SFS

  15. Shrinking Games and Local Formulas H. Jerome Keisler

    E-print Network

    Keisler, H. Jerome

    Shrinking Games and Local Formulas H. Jerome Keisler Dept. of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin Ehrenfeucht-Fra¨iss´e type games with a "shrinking horizon" to get a spectrum of normal form theorems of the Gaifman type, depending on the rate of shrinking. This spectrum includes the result of Lifsches and Shelah

  16. Shrinking Games and Local Formulas H. Jerome Keisler

    E-print Network

    Keisler, H. Jerome

    Shrinking Games and Local Formulas H. Jerome Keisler Dept. of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin Ehrenfeucht­FraË?�ssâ??e type games with a ``shrinking horizon'' to get a spectrum of normal form theorems of the Gaifman type, depending on the rate of shrinking. This spectrum includes the result of Lifsches and Shelah

  17. Shrinking Games and Local Formulas H. Jerome Keisler

    E-print Network

    Keisler, H. Jerome

    Shrinking Games and Local Formulas H. Jerome Keisler-Fra"iss'e type games with a "shrinking horizon" to get a spectrum of normal form theorems of the Gaifman ty* *pe, depending on the rate of shrinking. This spectrum includes the result of Lifsch* *es and Shelah

  18. A 2 MW flywheel for hybrid locomotive power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Thelen; J. D. Herbst; M. T. Caprio

    2003-01-01

    The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics (UT-CEM) is currently developing an Advanced Locomotive Propulsion System (ALPS) as part of the Next Generation High-Speed Rail program sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The ALPS consists of a gas turbine and synchronous alternator, combined with an induction motor coupled flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The prime power and

  19. 75 FR 82140 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...of Class 1 yard tracks: 1. Compound fissure: Note B, no change. Note A2, change... Note A, no change. 2. Transverse fissure, detail fracture, engine burn fracture...interested party desires an opportunity for oral comment, they should notify FRA,...

  20. 78 FR 48766 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...June 24, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...Number FRA-2003-15010. In its petition, CP requests an extension of its existing waiver...of a single dispatching desk, located in CP's Network Management Center in...

  1. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...impacts of State rail plan implementation should be analyzed and added emphasis about the...with whom State rail plan development should...Response: FRA has added focus on engaging...Language has been added clarifying that updates of State rail plans may be submitted...

  2. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  3. 8 RIS N Y T 2/00 Riss kemikere har kon-

    E-print Network

    8 RISØ N Y T 2/00 Risøs kemikere har kon- strueret en sensor, der kan genkende ephedrin, som står fundet et stof, der pas- ser perfekt sammen med ephedrin. Dermed har de udviklet en sensor, der kan afsløre ephedrin i en blodprøve. Ephedrin er i sig selv interessant. Stoffet, der udvindes fra planter

  4. Selv om fremstilling og bearbejdning af metaller har vret kendt helt tilbage

    E-print Network

    Selv om fremstilling og bearbejdning af metaller har været kendt helt tilbage fra jernalderen, har påvirkninger som fx tryk og varme. Nu har for- skerne et redskab til at kigge ind i selve metallets Gitte Willumsen RISØNYT N O 12003 GRUNDFORSKNING ER VIGTIG #12;Metaller har været kendt i mange tusinder

  5. MONS: Technical development and groundbased support observations Sren Frandsen

    E-print Network

    Frandsen, Søren

    desuden to 'Star trackers' (kameraer) ombord til at styre satellittens orientering i rummet meget præcist spektrografens og har en projiceret diameter pša 1.4'' pša himmelen. Desuden kombineres fiberen fra teleskopet. Hele designet er meget robust og skulle gøre det simpelt at anvende spektrografen uden problem med

  6. Ris har udgivet en rapport om moderne bioenergi. Den slr fast, at biomasse er en

    E-print Network

    Risø har udgivet en rapport om moderne bioenergi. Den slår fast, at biomasse er en ligeså værdifuld skal til for at udnytte hele dens potentiale. Der er ikke noget nyt i at bruge biomasse til energi' er et spørgsmål om at udnytte ny teknologi til at gøre energi fra biomasse endnu mere rentabel og

  7. SAFETY ANALYSIS ON RAIL HIGHWAY AT-GRADE CROSSING IN ALABAMA

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Crossing Handbook (1986) ** Accident Prediction and Resource Allocation Procedure Normalizing Constants Administration (FRA) database · Highway-rail crossing inventory · Highway-rail crossing history file · Highway-rail crossing accident database Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) database · Rail-highway at

  8. 76 FR 53998 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...February 4, 2011, and considered FRA-2010-0010 closed. CSX has, in the enclosure to the July 11...automatically for train movements once the bridge has been closed and locked and an approach circuit is occupied. A copy of the petition, as...

  9. ATTIVIT SPORTIVE DEL POLITECNICO 2 Trofeo dei Poli regionali

    E-print Network

    Leonardo, la parigina Eleonore Delattre studentessa Erasmus di Design, Marco Ferrario di Architettura della 36a Course Croisiere Edhec nella rada di Brest. Ecco i partecipanti, tutti del Politecnico: Marco Lecco fra la rappresentativa del Polo di Como (in blu) e Leonardo, poi vincitore con i `Biggols'. Altre

  10. O3, CO2 and chemical fractionation in ponderosa pine saplings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors can affect plant tissue quality which is important for quality of organic matter inputs into soil food webs and decomposition of soil organic matter. Thus the effects of increases in CO2 and O3 and their interactions were determined for various chemical fra...

  11. Comparison of the resistance to sympatric and allopatric isolates of Haemonchus contortus of Black Belly sheep in Guadeloupe (FWI) and of INRA 401 sheep in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Aumont; L. Gruner; G. Hostache

    2003-01-01

    The resistance of a tropical breed of sheep towards the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus (Hc) was compared to that of a European breed after artificial infection with the parasite following a 2×2×2 experimental design: two isolates (Hc Gua from Guadeloupe versus Hc Fra from France), two breeds each reared in their native habitats (Black Belly (BB) in Guadeloupe, FWI, INRA

  12. 78 FR 37657 - Petition for a Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...Qualification and Certification of Conductors, at two of its maintenance operations...Docket Number FRA-2013-0014. The conductor certification regulations provide that...Definitions, are required to have a certified conductor as a member of the crew and, in...

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARKING OF A 1ST HT-PEM/LI-ION HYBRID MOTIVE POWER SYSTEM FOR FORKLIFTS

    E-print Network

    HyLIFT-0 »DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARKING OF A 1ST GEN. HT-PEM/LI-ION HYBRID MOTIVE POWER SYSTEM aktører, om midler fra EUDP programmet til udvikling og benchmark af HT-PEM/Li-Ion brændselscelle, ba- seret på ny HT-PEM brændselscelleteknologi kombineret med avancerede Li-Ion batterier, samt

  14. 49 CFR 214.503 - Good-faith challenges; procedures for notification and resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.503...operating an on-track roadway maintenance machine or hi-rail vehicle shall inform the...a good-faith determination that the machine or vehicle does not comply with FRA...

  15. 49 CFR 214.503 - Good-faith challenges; procedures for notification and resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.503...operating an on-track roadway maintenance machine or hi-rail vehicle shall inform the...a good-faith determination that the machine or vehicle does not comply with FRA...

  16. Om plutoniums giftighed Inden for de seneste mneder har sagen om

    E-print Network

    1 Om plutoniums giftighed Inden for de seneste måneder har sagen om Thule-arbejderne nået sit plutonium-239, der blev spredt på isen ved flystyrtet. Plutonium og kræftsygdomme Plutonium er et stof, man tungt opløselig form. Da plutonium kun udsender alfa-stråling er det - set fra et helsefysisk synspunkt

  17. 75 FR 75448 - Revised Proposal for Revisions to the Schedules of Civil Penalties for a Violation of a Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...determine if they match the severity-scale criteria, which are also listed in...review the penalties in the severity scale and to identify and comment more fully...in its opinion satisfy the severity-scale criteria. FRA also seeks further...

  18. Cerebral folate receptor autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Frye, R E; Sequeira, J M; Quadros, E V; James, S J; Rossignol, D A

    2013-03-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically caused by folate receptor autoantibodies (FRAs) that interfere with folate transport across the blood-brain barrier. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and improvements in ASD symptoms with leucovorin (folinic acid) treatment have been reported in some children with CFD. In children with ASD, the prevalence of FRAs and the response to leucovorin in FRA-positive children has not been systematically investigated. In this study, serum FRA concentrations were measured in 93 children with ASD and a high prevalence (75.3%) of FRAs was found. In 16 children, the concentration of blocking FRA significantly correlated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-methyltetrahydrofolate concentrations, which were below the normative mean in every case. Children with FRAs were treated with oral leucovorin calcium (2?mg?kg(-1) per day; maximum 50?mg per day). Treatment response was measured and compared with a wait-list control group. Compared with controls, significantly higher improvement ratings were observed in treated children over a mean period of 4 months in verbal communication, receptive and expressive language, attention and stereotypical behavior. Approximately one-third of treated children demonstrated moderate to much improvement. The incidence of adverse effects was low. This study suggests that FRAs may be important in ASD and that FRA-positive children with ASD may benefit from leucovorin calcium treatment. Given these results, empirical treatment with leucovorin calcium may be a reasonable and non-invasive approach in FRA-positive children with ASD. Additional studies of folate receptor autoimmunity and leucovorin calcium treatment in children with ASD are warranted. PMID:22230883

  19. The Peptidoglycan-Binding Protein SjcF1 Influences Septal Junction Function and Channel Formation in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena

    PubMed Central

    Rudolf, Mareike; Tetik, Nalan; Ramos-León, Félix; Flinner, Nadine; Ngo, Giang; Stevanovic, Mara; Burnat, Mireia; Pernil, Rafael; Flores, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria exchange nutrients and regulators between cells for diazotrophic growth. Two alternative modes of exchange have been discussed involving transport either through the periplasm or through septal junctions linking adjacent cells. Septal junctions and channels in the septal peptidoglycan are likely filled with septal junction complexes. While possible proteinaceous factors involved in septal junction formation, SepJ (FraG), FraC, and FraD, have been identified, little is known about peptidoglycan channel formation and septal junction complex anchoring to the peptidoglycan. We describe a factor, SjcF1, involved in regulation of septal junction channel formation in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. SjcF1 interacts with the peptidoglycan layer through two peptidoglycan-binding domains and is localized throughout the cell periphery but at higher levels in the intercellular septa. A strain with an insertion in sjcF1 was not affected in peptidoglycan synthesis but showed an altered morphology of the septal peptidoglycan channels, which were significantly wider in the mutant than in the wild type. The mutant was impaired in intercellular exchange of a fluorescent probe to a similar extent as a sepJ deletion mutant. SjcF1 additionally bears an SH3 domain for protein-protein interactions. SH3 binding domains were identified in SepJ and FraC, and evidence for interaction of SjcF1 with both SepJ and FraC was obtained. SjcF1 represents a novel protein involved in structuring the peptidoglycan layer, which links peptidoglycan channel formation to septal junction complex function in multicellular cyanobacteria. Nonetheless, based on its subcellular distribution, this might not be the only function of SjcF1. PMID:26126850

  20. Later cART Initiation in Migrant Men from Sub-Saharan Africa without Advanced HIV Disease in France

    PubMed Central

    de Monteynard, Laure-Amélie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; de Truchis, Pierre; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Khuong-Josses, Marie-Aude; Gilquin, Jacques; Rey, David; Simon, Anne; Pavie, Juliette; Mahamat, Aba; Matheron, Sophie; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the time from entry into care for HIV infection until combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation between migrants and non migrants in France, excluding late access to care. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals newly enrolled in the FHDH cohort between 2002–2010, with CD4 cell counts >200/?L and no previous or current AIDS events were included. In three baseline CD4 cell count strata (200–349, 350-499, ?500/?L), we examined the crude time until cART initiation within three years after enrolment according to geographic origin, and multivariable hazard ratios according to geographic origin, gender and HIV-transmission group, with adjustment for baseline age, enrolment period, region of care, plasma viral load, and HBV/HBC coinfection. Results Among 13338 individuals, 9605 (72.1%) were French natives (FRA), 2873 (21.4%) were migrants from sub-Saharan Africa/non-French West Indies (SSA/NFW), and 860 (6.5%) were migrants from other countries. Kaplan-Meier probabilities of cART initiation were significantly lower in SSA/NFW than in FRA individuals throughout the study period, regardless of the baseline CD4 stratum. After adjustment, the likelihood of cART initiation was respectively 15% (95%CI, 1–28) and 20% (95%CI, 2–38) lower in SSA/NFW men than in FRA men who had sex with men (MSM) in the 350-499 and ?500 CD4 strata, while no difference was observed between other migrant groups and FRA MSM. Conclusion SSA/NFW migrant men living in France with CD4 >350/?L at entry into care are more likely to begin cART later than FRA MSM, despite free access to treatment. Administrative delays in obtaining healthcare coverage do not appear to be responsible. PMID:25734445

  1. A chemical potentiator of copper-accumulation used to investigate the iron-regulons of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W; Dainty, Samantha J; Patterson, Carl J; Pohl, Ehmke; Blackburn, Hannah; Wilson, Clare; Hess, Corinna R; Rutherford, Julian C; Quaranta, Laura; Corran, Andy; Robinson, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    The extreme resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to copper is overcome by 2-(6-benzyl-2-pyridyl)quinazoline (BPQ), providing a chemical-biology tool which has been exploited in two lines of discovery. First, BPQ is shown to form a red (BPQ)2Cu(I) complex and promote Ctr1-independent copper-accumulation in whole cells and in mitochondria isolated from treated cells. Multiple phenotypes, including loss of aconitase activity, are consistent with copper-BPQ mediated damage to mitochondrial iron–sulphur clusters. Thus, a biochemical basis of copper-toxicity in S. cerevisiae is analogous to other organisms. Second, iron regulons controlled by Aft1/2, Cth2 and Yap5 that respond to mitochondrial iron–sulphur cluster status are modulated by copper-BPQ causing iron hyper-accumulation via upregulated iron-import. Comparison of copper-BPQ treated, untreated and copper-only treated wild-type and fra2? by RNA-seq has uncovered a new candidate Aft1 target-gene (LSO1) and paralogous non-target (LSO2), plus nine putative Cth2 target-transcripts. Two lines of evidence confirm that Fra2 dominates basal repression of the Aft1/2 regulons in iron-replete cultures. Fra2-independent control of these regulons is also observed but CTH2 itself appears to be atypically Fra2-dependent. However, control of Cth2-target transcripts which is independent of CTH2 transcript abundance or of Fra2, is also quantified. Use of copper-BPQ supports a substantial contribution of metabolite repression to iron-regulation. PMID:24895027

  2. Genetic structure of the European Charolais and Limousin cattle metapopulations using pedigree analyses.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, A; Venot, E; Laloë, D; Forabosco, F; Fogh, A; Pabiou, T; Moore, K; Eriksson, J-Å; Renand, G; Phocas, F

    2011-06-01

    Pedigree collected by the Interbeef service allowed genetic diversity to be assessed by using pedigree analyses for the European Charolais (CHA) and Limousin (LIM) cattle populations registered in national herdbooks in Denmark (DNK), France (FRA), Ireland (IRL), Sweden (SWE), and, solely for the LIM breed, the United Kingdom (UK). The CHA data set included 2,563,189 calves with weaning performance, of which 96.1% were recorded in FRA, 3.0% in SWE, 0.5% in IRL, and 0.4% in DNK. The LIM data set included 1,652,734 calves with weaning performance, of which 91.9% were recorded in FRA, 4.9% in UK, 1.8% in DNK, 0.9% SWE, and 0.5% in IRL. Pedigree files included 3,191,132 CHA and 2,409,659 LIM animals. Gene flows were rather limited between populations, except from FRA toward other countries. Pedigree completeness was good in all subpopulations for both breeds and allowed the pedigree to be traced back to the French population. A relatively high level of genetic diversity was assessed in each CHA and LIM subpopulation by estimating either effective population sizes (N(e) >244 and N(e) >345 in the CHA and LIM subpopulations, respectively), relationship coefficients within subpopulations (<1.3% in both breeds), or probability of gene origins. However, in each subpopulation, it was shown that founders and also ancestors had unbalanced genetic contributions, leading to a moderate but continuous reduction in genetic diversity. Analyses between populations suggested that all European CHA and LIM populations were differentiated very little. The Swedish CHA population was assessed as genetically more distant from the other CHA populations because of fewer gene flows from other countries and because of the use of North American sires to introgress the polled phenotype. In each European subpopulation, most of the main ancestors, which explained 50% of gene origin, were born in FRA. However, those main ancestors were different between countries. Moreover, in both breeds, the main ancestors, which explained 50% of the gene origin in DNK, IRL, SWE, and UK for the LIM breed, were found to be infrequently used in FRA. Those results were consistent with the low relationship coefficients estimated between subpopulations (<0.6% in both the CHA and LIM breeds). Therefore, in both breeds, each subpopulation may constitute a reservoir of genetic diversity for the other ones. PMID:21606443

  3. Structural basis for self-assembly of a cytolytic pore lined by protein and lipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Koji; Caaveiro, Jose M. M.; Morante, Koldo; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-02-01

    Pore-forming toxins (PFT) are water-soluble proteins that possess the remarkable ability to self-assemble on the membrane of target cells, where they form pores causing cell damage. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of action of the haemolytic protein fragaceatoxin C (FraC), a ?-barrel PFT, by determining the crystal structures of FraC at four different stages of the lytic mechanism, namely the water-soluble state, the monomeric lipid-bound form, an assembly intermediate and the fully assembled transmembrane pore. The structure of the transmembrane pore exhibits a unique architecture composed of both protein and lipids, with some of the lipids lining the pore wall, acting as assembly cofactors. The pore also exhibits lateral fenestrations that expose the hydrophobic core of the membrane to the aqueous environment. The incorporation of lipids from the target membrane within the structure of the pore provides a membrane-specific trigger for the activation of a haemolytic toxin.

  4. The regolith at the Apollo 15 site and its stratigraphic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Meyer, C.E.

    1974-01-01

    Regolith samples from the Apollo 15 landing site are described in terms of two major fractions, a homogeneous glass fraction and a non-homogeneous glass fraction. The proportions of different components in the homogeneous glass fraction were determined directly by chemical analyses of individual particles. They are mainly green glass, a mare-like glass, and different types of Fra Mauro and Highland type glasses. The proportions of various components in the remainder of each of the soils were determined indirectly by finding the mix of components that best fits their bulk compositions. The mixing model suggests that the Apennine Front consists mainly of rocks of low-K Fra Mauro basalt composition. These may overlie rocks with the composition of anorthositic gabbro. Green glass, which occurs widely throughout the site is believed to be derived from a green glass layer which darkens upland surfaces and lies beneath the local mare surface. ?? 1974.

  5. The amnestic syndrome: applying the Rorschach Inkblot method for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth; Kedem, Sagit; Hadar, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative processes were investigated in a man diagnosed with focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) following a traumatic head injury without any anterograde memory deficit. Findings were derived from the Rorschach Inkblot method, which was administered together with other performance-based tests and a self-report inventory for evaluating dissociative proneness in personality functioning. A substantial set of behavioral and test response variables indicated dissociation proneness and the activation of dissociative mechanisms. This conception was supported a few months following the evaluation when the patient reported a total spontaneous recovery of the memory deficit. The interplay between neurological and functional factors in FRA is discussed with a view for creating an integrated model. PMID:23985019

  6. Extralunar materials in cone-crater soil 14141.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Chou, C.-L.; Bild, R. W.; Baedecker, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Cd, In, Ir, and Au in duplicate samples of lunar soil 14141 and in one additional replicate each of soils 14163 and 14259. The concentrations of extralunar trace elements Ni, Ge, Ir, and Au in 14141 and 14163 are, respectively, about 69 and 82% as high as those in 14259. Although most of the mass of 14141 appears to be ejecta from Cone Crater, a sizable contamination by mature Fra Mauro soil such as 14259 is also present. The siderophilic-element concentrations of the subregolith Fra Mauro materials are estimated to be 25 plus or minus 25% of those observed in 14259.

  7. Major element composition of glasses in three Apollo 15 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Warner, J.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 180 glasses in each of three Apollo 15 soils have been analyzed for nine elements. Cluster analysis techniques allow the recognition of preferred glass compositions that are equated with parent rock compositions. Green glass rich in Fe and Mg, poor in Al and Ti may be derived from deep-seated pyroxenitic material now present at the Apennine Front. Fra Mauro basalt (KREEP) is most abundant in the LM soil and is tentatively identified as ray material from the Aristillus-Autolycus area. Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro), believed to be derived from the lunar highlands, has the same composition as at other landing sites, but is less abundant. The Apennine Front is probably not true highland material but may contain a substantial amount of material with the composition of Fra Mauro basalt, but lacking the high-K content.

  8. Fhit modulates the DNA damage checkpoint response.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hideshi; Mimori, Koshi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Inageta, Taeko; Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Semba, Shuho; Druck, Teresa; Trapasso, Francesco; Tani, Kenzaburo; Vecchione, Andrea; Croce, Carlo M; Mori, Masaki; Huebner, Kay

    2006-12-01

    In preneoplastic lesions, the DNA damage checkpoint is induced and loss of heterozygosity at the FRA3B/FHIT common chromosome fragile region precedes or is coincident with activation of the checkpoint response in these early stages. Introduction of exogenous Fhit into cells in vitro led to modulation of expression of checkpoint proteins Hus1 and Chk1 at mid-S checkpoint, a modulation that led to induction of apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells but not in noncancerous primary cultures. Mutation of the conserved Fhit tyrosine 114 resulted in failure of this function, confirming the importance of this residue. The results suggest that the DNA damage-susceptible FRA3B/FHIT chromosome fragile region, paradoxically, encodes a protein that is necessary for protecting cells from accumulation of DNA damage through its role in modulation of checkpoint proteins, and inactivation of Fhit contributes to accumulation of abnormal checkpoint phenotypes in cancer development. PMID:17145874

  9. Lunar Highlands Volcanism: The View from a New Millenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Lawrence, D. J.; Blewett, D. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Smith, G. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Spudis, P. D.

    2002-01-01

    Since the Apollo era, the search for highlands volcanism has focused on selected light plains deposits as well as a class of spectral anomalies known as Red Spots. These spectral anomalies have spectra that are characterized by very strong ultraviolet absorptions. UV-IR color difference photographs were used to identify and characterize Red Spots on the lunar nearside. This suggested that these anomalously red areas may have compositions that are substantially different from those of typical highlands. In the immediate post-Apollo era, several workers presented evidence that at least some Red Spots were produced by highlands volcanism and suggested a connection with KREEP basalts (Medium-K Fra Mauro basalt) or even more evolved highlands compositions (e.g., High-K Fra Mauro basalt, dacite, rhyolite).

  10. The case for a younger Imbrium basin - New Ar-40 - Ar-39 ages of Apollo 14 rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadermann, Frank J.; Heusser, Erhard; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Lingner, Stephan; Stoeffler, Dieter

    1991-08-01

    Results are reported on Ar-40/Ar-39 age determinations of Apollo-14 rocks, which were carried out to investigate the local geological history of the Apollo-14 landing site, to assess the subregolith basement of the Fra Mauro Formation, and to determine the composition of the pre-Imbrian lunar crust. Samples represented two different formations at the Apollo-14 site: (1) two small lithic clasts from fragmental breccia 14063 ejected from the 26-Ma-old Cone crater and one clast from Cone crater soil 14140, and (2) large rock samples collected throughout the regolith of the landing site. The ages of these clasts confirm suggestions by Deutsch and Stoeffler (1987) and Stoeffler et al. (1989) that the Fra Mauro Formation and, therefore, the Imbrium basin, is only 3.75 Ga old and not 3.85 Ga old, as commonly assumed.

  11. Chemical composition and origin of Apollo 15 impact melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Spudis, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen Apollo 15 impact melt rocks were analyzed for major (fused bead microprobe) and trace element (INAA) abundances, and the compositions of these Apennine Front rocks were compared with samples from other landing sites. The rocks show a wide range in trace element abundances, although all but one have a typical KREEP incompatible element pattern and have low-K Fra Mauro basaltic or medium-K Fra Mauro basaltic compositions. The melt chemistries appear to form five groups (labeled A to E in order of decreasing incompatible elements), with the compositions unlike nearly all other impact melts and regoliths from highland sites. All groups except Group A may represent single impact events (either Imbrian or post-Imbrian). One unique sample has a non-KREEP incompatible element pattern, with low abundances and a positive Eu anomaly. Its target is believed to be either a pre-Imbrian melt or exotic.

  12. Ledelsessekretariatet Campusvej 55

    E-print Network

    Michelsen, Claus

    ) Velkomst og godkendelse af referat fra Repræsentantskabsmødet den 10. marts 2010 v/formand Poul Erik Madsen Oddershede 6) Formandsskabet 7) Det skæve Danmark v/professor Flemming Just 8) Eventuelt v/formand Poul Erik stede: · Politidirektør Poul Bjørnholdt Løhde, Fyns Politi · Adm. direktør Lars Hedal, Hedal Kruse

  13. {A, B, D, E, G, H, J}, {C}, {F, I} Maximal strmning = 2.

    E-print Network

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    gitterpunkt. For hver celle check om den er fri. Hvis cellen er fri tilføj til grafen kanterne der svarer til allerede er indsat i grafen - hvis den er, s°a indsættes kanten ikke igen. Grafen indeholder (n + 1 ved at køre BFS p°a grafen med s som startknude og rapportere stien i BFS træet fra s til t. Da grafen

  14. Skriftlig Eksamen Algoritmer og Datastrukturer (dADS)

    E-print Network

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    grafens knuder svarer til web­siderne og hvor der findes en kant fra en knude u til en knude v hvis og kun i opgaven. Vi antager i det følgende at grafen er givet ved adjacency list repræsentationen og at der som sædvanligt er henholdsvis n knuder og m kanter i grafen. Længden af en sti i grafen er som

  15. Direct cloning of DNA sequences from the common fragile site region at chromosome band 3p14.2

    SciTech Connect

    Rassool, F.V.; Le Beau, M.M.; Espinosa, R. III [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); and others

    1996-07-01

    Despite several lines of evidence suggesting that common chromosomal fragile sites are biologically important as hot spots for recombination, their structure remains unknown. We showed previously that the plasmid pSV2neo preferentially integrates into bands containing fragile sites in cells transfected under conditions of fragile site induction. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the DNA sequences from two such independent integrations into 3p14.2, a common fragile site (FRA3B). These FRA3B region sequences were shown to lie within a 1330-kb YAC, 850A6, approximately 350 kb telomeric of the breakpoint of t(3;8), a constitutional rearrangement. The two integration sites are 10 kb apart, but each integration is associated with a deletion. We have constructed a partial genomic contig of the integration sites and deleted regions spanning approximately 85 kb. Analysis of the DNA sequences immediately surrounding the plasmid integrations revealed no known coding sequences or repeat structures resembling the (CGG){sub n} motif characteristic of the rare fragile sites. In addition, by Southern blotting analysis, none of the phage clones isolated from the FRA3B region were found to contain CGG repeats. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of genomic clones from this contig to metaphase cells induced to express breaks demonstrated hybridization adjoining the chromosome breaks, and occasionally the hybridization signal spanned the break. The results imply that breakage occurs at variable positions within a large region (at least on the order of 85 kb). Together, these data suggest that the structure of FRA3B differs from that of rare fragile sites. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Human ImmunodeficiencyVirus Type 1 tat Gene Up-regulates Interleukin 4 Receptors on a Human B-Lymphoblastoid Cell Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj K. Puri; Bharat B. Aggarwal

    1992-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) regulatory gene, tat III, is a powerful fra\\/is-activator of gene expression from the viral long terminal repeat and is essential for HIV replication. In addition, tat III protein has been shown to be immunosuppressive as indicated by the inhibition of antigen mediated T-cell proliferation. To further test whether tat III might play a

  17. The Requirement for and Changing Composition of the Activating Protein-1 Transcription Factor during Differentiation of Human Leukemia HL60 Cells Induced by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuening; Studzinski, George P.

    2010-01-01

    The activating protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex is a heterogeneous entity, composed in mammalian cells of dimers chosen from a group of at least eight proteins belonging to three families: jun, fos, and activating transcription factor (ATF). The AP-1 complexes participate in diverse biological processes that include cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. These seemingly contrasting functions have been attributed to the intensity and duration of the signals provided by AP-1, but the biological consequences of changing composition of the AP-1 complex have not been fully explored. Here, we show that functional AP-1 is required for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D)-induced monocytic differentiation, and that the composition of the AP-1 protein complex that binds TRE, its cognate DNA element, changes as cells differentiate. In HL60 cells in an early stage of differentiation, the principal AP-1 components detected by gel shift analysis include c-jun, ATF-2, fos-B, fra-1, and fra-2. In cells with a more established monocytic phenotype, the demonstrable AP-1 components are c-jun, ATF-2, jun-B, and fos-B. Following the addition of 1 nmol/L of 1,25D, the cellular content of each of these four proteins markedly increased in a sustained manner, whereas the increases in c-fos, fra-1, fra-2, and jun-D were minimal, if any. Small increases in mRNA levels encoding all AP-1 component proteins, except c-fos, were also noted. These findings provide a basis for the previously found participation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway in 1,25D-induced differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells, and direct attention to jun-B and fos-B as new cellular therapeutic targets, that may promote replicative quiescence associated with differentiation of malignant cells. PMID:16618766

  18. The requirement for and changing composition of the activating protein-1 transcription factor during differentiation of human leukemia HL60 cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuening; Studzinski, George P

    2006-04-15

    The activating protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex is a heterogeneous entity, composed in mammalian cells of dimers chosen from a group of at least eight proteins belonging to three families: jun, fos, and activating transcription factor (ATF). The AP-1 complexes participate in diverse biological processes that include cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. These seemingly contrasting functions have been attributed to the intensity and duration of the signals provided by AP-1, but the biological consequences of changing composition of the AP-1 complex have not been fully explored. Here, we show that functional AP-1 is required for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D)-induced monocytic differentiation, and that the composition of the AP-1 protein complex that binds TRE, its cognate DNA element, changes as cells differentiate. In HL60 cells in an early stage of differentiation, the principal AP-1 components detected by gel shift analysis include c-jun, ATF-2, fos-B, fra-1, and fra-2. In cells with a more established monocytic phenotype, the demonstrable AP-1 components are c-jun, ATF-2, jun-B, and fos-B. Following the addition of 1 nmol/L of 1,25D, the cellular content of each of these four proteins markedly increased in a sustained manner, whereas the increases in c-fos, fra-1, fra-2, and jun-D were minimal, if any. Small increases in mRNA levels encoding all AP-1 component proteins, except c-fos, were also noted. These findings provide a basis for the previously found participation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway in 1,25D-induced differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells, and direct attention to jun-B and fos-B as new cellular therapeutic targets, that may promote replicative quiescence associated with differentiation of malignant cells. PMID:16618766

  19. SCHEDA N. 6: CLUSTER ANALYSIS La statistica multivariata

    E-print Network

    Rogantin, Maria Piera

    coordinate: (8.60, 4.2, 8.68, 298.2, 35.5) La distanza fra le prime due regioni è quindi: Regione medici.6 8 Emilia-Romagna 8.29 5.4 10.54 387.6 50.6 9 Toscana 8.73 4.9 9.64 325.3 43.3 10 Umbria 9.97 4.3 11

  20. Review of severe deformation recommended practice through analyses comparison of two cab car end frame designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eloy Martinez; D. Tyrell; John Zolock

    2005-01-01

    Non-linear large deformation analyses have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the cab car corner and collision posts of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) sponsored state-of-the-art (SOA) end frame design and the Bombardier M7 design under quasi-static and dynamic test conditions. Pre-test analysis predictions of the dynamic performance of the SOA corner post closely match test measurements. A similar