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Sample records for genstande fra forskningscenter

  1. Fra-1 is a key driver of colon cancer metastasis and a Fra-1 classifier predicts disease-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Iskit, Sedef; Schlicker, Andreas; Wessels, Lodewyk; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Fra-1 (Fos-related antigen-1) is a member of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) family of transcription factors. We previously showed that Fra-1 is necessary for breast cancer cells to metastasize in vivo, and that a classifier comprising genes that are expressed in a Fra-1-dependent fashion can predict breast cancer outcome. Here, we show that Fra-1 plays an important role also in colon cancer progression. Whereas Fra-1 depletion does not affect 2D proliferation of human colon cancer cells, it impairs growth in soft agar and in suspension. Consistently, subcutaneous tumors formed by Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells are three times smaller than those produced by control cells. Most remarkably, when injected intravenously, Fra-1 depletion causes a 200-fold reduction in tumor burden. Moreover, a Fra-1 classifier generated by comparing RNA profiles of parental and Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells can predict the prognosis of colon cancer patients. Functional pathway analysis revealed Wnt as one of the central pathways in the classifier, suggesting a possible mechanism of Fra-1 function in colon cancer metastasis. Our results demonstrate that Fra-1 is an important determinant of the metastatic potential of human colon cancer cells, and that the Fra-1 classifier can be used as a prognostic predictor in colon cancer patients. PMID:26646695

  2. Selective Genomic Targeting by FRA-2/FOSL2 Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jeff S.; Klein, David C.; Carter, David A.

    2011-01-01

    FRA-2/FOSL2 is a basic region-leucine zipper motif transcription factor that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. The functional repertoire of this factor is unclear, partly due to a lack of knowledge of genomic sequences that are targeted. Here, we identified novel, functional FRA-2 targets across the genome through expression profile analysis in a knockdown transgenic rat. In this model, a nocturnal rhythm of pineal gland FRA-2 is suppressed by a genetically encoded, dominant negative mutant protein. Bioinformatic analysis of validated sets of FRA-2-regulated and -nonregulated genes revealed that the FRA-2 regulon is limited by genomic target selection rules that, in general, transcend core cis-sequence identity. However, one variant AP-1-related (AP-1R) sequence was common to a subset of regulated genes. The functional activity and protein binding partners of a candidate AP-1R sequence were determined for a novel FRA-2-repressed gene, Rgs4. FRA-2 protein preferentially associated with a proximal Rgs4 AP-1R sequence as demonstrated by ex vivo ChIP and in vitro EMSA analysis; moreover, transcriptional repression was blocked by mutation of the AP-1R sequence, whereas mutation of an upstream consensus AP-1 family sequence did not affect Rgs4 expression. Nocturnal changes in protein complexes at the Rgs4 AP-1R sequence are associated with FRA-2-dependent dismissal of the co-activator, CBP; this provides a mechanistic basis for Rgs4 gene repression. These studies have also provided functional insight into selective genomic targeting by FRA-2, highlighting discordance between predicted and actual targets. Future studies should address FRA-2-Rgs4 interactions in other systems, including the brain, where FRA-2 function is poorly understood. PMID:21367864

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters C Appendix C to Part 241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING OF UNITED STATES RAIL OPERATIONS Pt. 241, App. C Appendix...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters C Appendix C to Part 241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING OF UNITED STATES RAIL OPERATIONS Pt. 241, App. C Appendix...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters C Appendix C to Part 241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING OF UNITED STATES RAIL OPERATIONS Pt. 241, App. C Appendix...

  6. Apollo 14 mission to Fra Mauro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Brian D.

    1991-04-01

    The 1971 Apollo 14 Mission to Fra Mauro, a lunar highland area, is highlighted in this video. The mission's primary goal was the collection of lunar rocks and soil samples and lunar exploration. The soil and rock sampling was for the geochronological determination of the Moon's evolution and its comparison with that of Earth. A remote data collection station was assembled on the Moon and left for continuous data collection and surface monitoring experiments. The Apollo 14 astronauts were Alan B. Shepard, Edgar D. Mitchell, and Stuart A. Rossa. Astronauts Shepard and Mitchell landed on the Moon (February 5, 1971) and performed the sampling, the EVA, and deployment of the lunar experiments. There is film-footage of the lunar surface, of the command module's approach to both the Moon and the Earth, Moon and Earth spacecraft launching and landing, in-orbit command- and lunar-module docking, and of Mission Control.

  7. Tissue-Specific Transgenic Knockdown of Fos-Related Antigen 2 (Fra-2) Expression Mediated by Dominant Negative Fra-2

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Martin; Burke, Zoe; Humphries, Ann; Wells, Tim; Klein, David; Carter, David; Baler, Ruben

    2001-01-01

    Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) is a member of the Fos family of immediate-early genes, most of which are rapidly induced by second messengers. All members of this family act by binding to AP-1 sites as heterodimeric complexes with other proteins. However, each appears to have a distinct role. The role and biology of Fra-2 are less well understood than those of its relatives c-Fos, Fra-1, and FosB; moreover, Fra-2 target genes remain largely unknown, as does the basis of its selective effects on transcriptional activity. To pursue these issues, we created a transgenic rat line (NATDNF2) in which a dominant negative fra-2 (DNF2) gene is strongly expressed in the pineal gland; tissue selectivity was achieved by putting the DNF2 gene under the control of the rat arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) regulatory region, which targets gene expression to a very restricted set of tissues (pineal gland ? retina). Expression of AANAT is normally turned on after the onset of darkness in the rat; as a result, pineal DNF2 expression occurs only at night. This was associated with marked suppression of the nocturnal increase in fra-2 mRNA and protein levels, indicating that DNF2 expression inhibits downstream effects of Fra-2, including the maintenance of high levels of fra-2 gene expression. Analysis of 1,190 genes in the NATDNF2 pineal gland, including the AANAT gene, identified two whose expression is strongly linked to fra-2 expression: the genes encoding type II iodothyronine deiodinase and nectadrin (CD24). PMID:11340164

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the strawberry allergens Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 in the presence of catechin.

    PubMed

    Casañal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Dupeux, Florine; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, Jose A

    2013-05-01

    The strawberry Fra a proteins belong to the pathogenesis-related PR-10 protein family and share a common fold with the Bet v 1 major pollen allergen and the START/PYR/PYL proteins, which are characterized by the presence of a central cavity and are often involved in the binding of a variety of natural compounds. The Fra a proteins play a key role in the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in strawberries and are essential for pigment formation in fruits. In order to understand Fra a protein function, full-length Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 cDNAs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were purified to homogeneity using metal-affinity chromatography. Diffraction-quality crystals of Fra a 1E and of Fra a 3 in the presence of (+)-catechin were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data from single crystals of Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 were processed to 2.2 and 3.0 Å resolution in space groups P212121 and P2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.02, b = 74.42, c = 84.04 Å and a = 137.91, b = 206.61, c = 174.7 Å for Fra a 1E and Fra a 3, respectively. PMID:23695565

  9. 75 FR 34213 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... FRA Railroad System Issues Research and Development Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... 13, 2010 (75 FR 27112), the FRA sought applications from interested and responsible parties for two..., Office of Research and Development, Federal Railroad Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue,...

  10. Solution structure of the strawberry allergen Fra a 1.

    PubMed

    Seutter von Loetzen, Christian; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwab, Wilfried; Rösch, Paul; Hartl-Spiegelhauer, Olivia

    2012-12-01

    The PR10 family protein Fra a 1E from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is down-regulated in white strawberry mutants, and transient RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated silencing experiments confirmed that Fra a 1 is involved in fruit pigment synthesis. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of Fra a 1E. The protein fold is identical with that of other members of the PR10 protein family and consists of a seven-stranded antiparallel β-sheet, two short V-shaped α-helices and a long C-terminal α-helix that encompass a hydrophobic pocket. Whereas Fra a 1E contains the glycine-rich loop that is highly conserved throughout the protein family, the volume of the hydrophobic pocket and the size of its entrance are much larger than expected. The three-dimensional structure may shed some light on its physiological function and may help to further understand the role of PR10 proteins in plants. PMID:22913709

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - FRA Inspection Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Inspection Forms C Appendix C to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. C Appendix...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - FRA Inspection Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Inspection Forms C Appendix C to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. C Appendix...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - FRA Inspection Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Inspection Forms C Appendix C to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. C Appendix...

  14. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... percentage rate for random drug testing must be 50 percent of covered employees. (b) The FRA...

  15. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... percentage rate for random drug testing must be 50 percent of covered employees. (b) The FRA...

  16. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... percentage rate for random drug testing must be 50 percent of covered employees. (b) The FRA...

  17. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... percentage rate for random drug testing must be 50 percent of covered employees. (b) The FRA...

  18. 76 FR 41859 - Waiver Petition Docket Numbers FRA-2011-0002, CSX Transportation Railroad, and FRA-2004-17565...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Register (75 FR 224) announcing the Union Pacific Railroad's request for an amendment to their existing... Administration (FRA) published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 10087) announcing the CSX Transportation... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete...

  19. Compositional data for twenty-one Fra Mauro lunar materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, H. J., Jr.; Cuttitta, F.; Annell, C. S.; Carron, M. K.; Christian, R. P.; Dwornik, E. J.; Greenland, L. P.; Ligon, D. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Major, minor, and trace element analyses are presented for two igneous rocks, six breccias, four microbreccias, two breccia clasts, and six soils, as well as a sample of sawdust from rock 14066. Evaluation of the data suggests that the samples from the Fra Mauro highlands have the same nonterrestrial characteristics shown previously by the samples returned from the mare regions by Apollo 11 and 12 - namely, a high refractory element content, a lower volatile element content, and an excess reducing capacity above that due to FeO. The Fra Mauro soils have higher concentrations of Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O and lower amounts of FeO and TiO2 than do the mare soils. They also show a bimodal distribution of Ni, B, and Nb. The highland breccias are richer in SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, Na2O, and K2O than those returned from the mare lowlands. FeO, TiO2, and MnO are lower in concentration at Fra Mauro, and the highland breccias are more complex mineralogically than those collected previously.

  20. Presence of hydroxyl in the Fra Mauro region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, Alexey; Wöhler, Christian; Sinitsyn, Mikhail; Grumpe, Arne; Feoktistova, Ekaterina; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are known to consist of volcanic material (basalt and glass) ejected by eruptions [1]. In the southern part of the crater Fra Mauro, a localised LPD is associated with Rima Parry V [2]. In [3], a suppressed neutron flux is described for the Fra Mauro region based on measurements of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) [4], interpreted as an indicator of hydroxyl (OH). In this study we compare these measurements with NIR hyperspectral data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(3) ) [5] instrument. The suppression factor of the neutron flux is defined according to delta = (N_ref-N_ex)/N_ref [6,7] with N_ex as the average count rate of the omnidirectional sensor (SETN) [8] of LEND for the region under study (here: the Fra Mauro region) and N_ref as the average count rate for a reference area (here: immediately west of Fra Mauro). For Fra Mauro crater, a suppression factor of 2.4% with a standard error of 0.41% was found. The epithermal neutron flux can be assumed to be inversely proportional to the hydrogen content. Hence, the measured positive suppression factor indicates a positive anomaly of the hydrogen content at up to 1 m depth. Under the approximative assumption of a proportional relation between the suppression factor delta and the hydrogen content, the observation in [7] of a suppression factor of 18% in the crater Cabeus associated with a homogeneous hydrogen content of about 500 ppm implies an enrichment in hydrogen by about 70 ppm for the Fra Mauro region. However, these values do not specifically refer to the small Fra Mauro LPD but to a larger area of about 150 km diameter. To identify the LPD-specific suppression factor, it would be necessary to acquire collimated neutron flux measurements. We have complemented the LEND-based measurements by the analysis of spectral reflectance data acquired by the M(3) instrument. The presence of OH in the surface material leads to an absorption band beyond 2700 nm wavelength [9]. Based on the M(3) version V03 radiance data [10] and GLD100 topographic data [11], a topographically and photometrically corrected spectral reflectance data set normalised to 30(°) incidence angle, 0(°) emission angle and 30(°) phase angle [12] has been generated along with a refined DEM of high lateral resolution (cf. [13] for a detailed description of the applied processing steps). The depth of the OH absorption band is indicated by the reflectance ratio between the 2657 nm and 2817 nm bands (M(3) channels 77 and 81). In our map of the 2657/2817 reflectance ratio, the Fra Mauro LPD as well as a similar deposit in the northern part of the crater Bonpland stand out as positive anomalies exhibiting an increase of 2-2.5% with respect to the surrounding crater floor material. This observation indicates the presence of OH in the LPD surface material. Similar absorption depths can be observed for the inner walls and ejecta of a crater of 3 km diameter located north-northwest of the Fra Mauro LPD and of several craters with diameters less than 2 km in the northern floor of Bonpland. This behaviour may indicate the presence of OH also at larger depth below the surface. [1] Gaddis et al. (2003) Icarus 161(2), 262-280 [2] Head, J. W., Wilson, L. (1993) PSS 41(10), 719-727 [3] Sinitsyn et al. (2013) 4th Moscow Solar System Symp., 4MS3-PS14 [4] Mitrofanov et al. (2010a) Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 183-207 [5] Pieters et al. (2009) Current Science 96(4), 500-505 [6] Boynton et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H33 [7] Mitrofanov et al. (2010b) Science 330, 483-485 [8] Litvak et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H22 [9] Clark et al. (2010) LPSC XXXXI, abstract #1533 [10] http://pds-imaging.jpl.nasa.gov/volumes/m3.html [11] Scholten et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H17 [12] Pieters (1999) Workshop on New Views of the Moon II, abstract #8025 [13] Grumpe et al. (2013) Adv. Space Res., in press.

  1. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol... percentage rate for random alcohol testing must be 25 percent of covered employees. (b) The...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... small entities, FRA will also issue a compliance guide for small entities concerning that rule. It...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... small entities, FRA will also issue a compliance guide for small entities concerning that rule. It...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... small entities, FRA will also issue a compliance guide for small entities concerning that rule. It...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... small entities, FRA will also issue a compliance guide for small entities concerning that rule. It...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... small entities, FRA will also issue a compliance guide for small entities concerning that rule. It...

  7. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol... percentage rate for random alcohol testing must be 25 percent of covered employees. (b) The...

  8. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol... percentage rate for random alcohol testing must be 25 percent of covered employees. (b) The...

  9. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol... percentage rate for random alcohol testing must be 25 percent of covered employees. (b) The...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  14. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... model of human performance and fatigue that has been approved by the Associate Administrator pursuant to... the time frame specified by FRA. (4) FRA will audit railroad work schedules and fatigue mitigation... human performance and fatigue, not previously approved by FRA, for the purpose of making part or all...

  15. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., biomathematical models of human performance and fatigue for the purpose of making the analysis required by... a scientifically valid, biomathematical model of human performance and fatigue that has been... correct any deficiencies identified by FRA within the time frame specified by FRA. (4) FRA will...

  16. Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production

    PubMed Central

    Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2–deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2–overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1α2 (col1α2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os’s) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans. PMID:20837772

  17. Signal-dependent fra-2 regulation in skeletal muscle reserve and satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Alli, N S; Yang, E C; Miyake, T; Aziz, A; Collins-Hooper, H; Patel, K; McDermott, J C

    2013-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that paradoxically also has some tissue-specific functions. In skeletal muscle cells, we document that the AP-1 subunit, Fra-2, is expressed in the resident stem cells (Pax7-positive satellite cells) and also in the analogous undifferentiated ‘reserve' cell population in myogenic cultures, but not in differentiated myofiber nuclei. Silencing of Fra-2 expression enhances the expression of differentiation markers such as muscle creatine kinase and myosin heavy chain, indicating a possible role of Fra-2 in undifferentiated myogenic progenitor cells. We observed that Fra-2 is a target of cytokine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling in cultured muscle cells, and extensive mass spectrometry and mutational analysis identified S320 and T322 as regulators of Fra-2 protein stability. Interestingly, Fra-2 S320 phosphorylation occurs transiently in activated satellite cells and is extinguished in myogenin-positive differentiating cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated Fra-2 expression and stabilization is linked to regulation of myogenic progenitor cells having implications for the molecular regulation of adult muscle stem cells and skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23807221

  18. Programmable fractal zone plates (FraZPs) with foci finely tuned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Haitao; Liu, Jianhua; Xuecheng, Sun; Dejin, Yin

    2008-11-01

    We examined the focusing properties of fractal zone plates (FraZPs) in detail based on a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM). It was shown that the focal length shifted linearly when the lacunarity of first order FraZPs experienced a linear displacement. From the theoretical analysis and the experimental results, we showed the potential to use the FraZPs as a focusing element whose focal length can be tuned finely. In addition, some side effects of this element were also discussed.

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 229 - Form FRA 6180-49A

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... original document, is not carried in the CFR. Copies of Form FRA F6180-49A are available by contacting the Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Standards and Procedures, 1200 New Jersey Avenue,...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 229 - Form FRA 6180-49A

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... original document, is not carried in the CFR. Copies of Form FRA F6180-49A are available by contacting the Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Standards and Procedures, 1200 New Jersey Avenue,...

  1. 75 FR 8785 - Agency Request for Emergency Processing of Collection of Information Associated With FRA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...) hereby gives notice that it has submitted the following information collection request (ICR) to the... Federal Railroad Administration Agency Request for Emergency Processing of Collection of Information Associated With FRA's Positive Train Control Grant Program After Publication of Second Agency...

  2. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... environmentally benign, and can help reduce the railroad industry's dependence on imported oil. The FRA wishes to... lubricant technology, its application(s), and benefits. (4) Define the scope of work for the...

  3. NrrA directly regulates expression of the fraF gene and antisense RNAs for fraE in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Ehira, Shigeki; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2014-05-01

    The heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 grows as linear multicellular filaments that can contain hundreds of cells. Heterocysts, which are specialized cells for nitrogen fixation, are regularly intercalated among photosynthetic vegetative cells, and these cells are metabolically dependent on each other. Thus, multicellularity is essential for diazotrophic growth of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the fraF gene, which is required to limit filament length, is induced by nitrogen deprivation. The fraF transcripts extend to the fraE gene, which lies on the opposite DNA strand and could possess dual functionality, mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE. In the present study, we found that NrrA, a nitrogen-regulated response regulator, directly regulated expression of fraF. Induction of fraF by nitrogen deprivation was abolished by the nrrA disruption. NrrA specifically bound to the promoter region of fraF, and recognized an inverted repeat sequence. Thus, it is concluded that NrrA controls expression of mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE in response to nitrogen deprivation. PMID:24554757

  4. Fra-1 regulation of Matrix Metallopeptidase-1 (MMP-1) in metastatic variants of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Henckels, Eric; Prywes, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Metallopeptidase 1 (MMP-1) expression has repeatedly been correlated to tumorigenesis and metastasis.  Yet, MMP-1 regulation in a metastatic context remains largely unknown.  Here we confirm differential MMP-1 expression in mammary carcinoma cells with varied metastatic potentials. We show that MMP-1 expression is regulated by an AP-1 element in its promoter in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 mammary carcinoma cell derivatives.  Fra-1, an AP-1 family transcription factor, differentially binds this element in highly metastatic cells compared to low metastatic cells and is required for MMP-1 expression.  Overexpression of Fra-1 also caused increased MMP-1 expression. Fra-1 mRNA levels are unchanged in the cell variants, however its protein levels are higher in the metastatic cells. While there was no change in Fra-1 protein degradation rates, protein synthesis of Fra-1 was increased in the metastatic cell variant. These results demonstrate that Fra-1 and MMP-1 levels are differentially regulated in metastatic cell variants at the level of Fra-1 protein translation. Consistent with the importance of Fra-1 for tumor growth, we found that Fra-1 overexpression was sufficient to increase cell motility and anchorage independent growth.  These results suggest that increased Fra-1 translation is critical for regulation of MMP-1 and tumor cell metastasis. PMID:25339983

  5. FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection.

    PubMed

    Noto, Keith; Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called "normal" instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

  6. FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection

    PubMed Central

    Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called “normal” instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

  7. Fra(10)(q25): the BrdU effect is substitution-dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Gollin, S M; Holmquist, G P; Ledbetter, D H

    1985-01-01

    Expression in the majority of fra(10)(q25) cases is either induced or enhanced by the presence of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in the culture medium. BrdU is known to exert its effects on cells via two primary mechanisms: substitution-dependent and concentration-dependent. BrdU incorporation into DNA and BrdU concentration in the culture medium can be resolved as independent variables. The results of such experiments indicate that at three fixed levels of BrdU substitution, 100-fold variation of BrdU concentration had little or no effect on fra(10)(q25) expression. At a fixed BrdU concentration, the level of fra(10)(q25) expression rises as a function of increased BrdU substitution, approaching 100% expression at 100% substitution. Thus, BrdU induction or enhancement of fra(10)(q25) expression is clearly substitution-dependent. Iododeoxyuridine, another halogenated pyrimidine, has a similar effect. The critical time of incorporation is between 8 and 9 hrs before mitosis. After this time, removal of BrdU (and fluorodeoxyuridine [FdU]) from the culture medium followed by addition of deoxythymidine does not reverse the BrdU effect on fra(10)(q25) expression. PMID:3976659

  8. Restraint-induced fra-2 and c-fos expression in the rat forebrain: relationship to stress duration

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Marc S.; Girotti, Milena; Spencer, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The protein product of the fra-2 gene (Fra-2), a fos-family member, can compete with Fos protein for participation in AP-1 transcription factor complexes and each protein can contribute different transactivational consequences to an AP-1 complex. To date, there is limited characterization of fra-2 mRNA expression in the rat forebrain. We examined basal and restraint-induced mRNA expression (in situ hybridization) of fra-2 in the rat forebrain and compared its temporal-spatial pattern to c-fos. In contrast to the very low basal expression of c-fos, fra-2 basal expression was moderately high throughout cortex and some subcortical structures, including prominent basal expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Restraint-induced fra-2 expression was quantified in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), lateral septum (LS) and PVN. Maximal fra-2 gene induction in the PFC and LS was delayed (60 min) after restraint onset with respect to c-fos (15 min), whereas in the PVN, fra-2 mRNA increased within 15 min of restraint. Additionally we compared c-fos and fra-2 gene expression in rats given shorter or longer restraint durations, but equal total time from stress onset to sample collection, to determine the extent to which the kinetics of gene induction matched that of a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormone response. Rats given 45 min recovery after 15 min restraint showed less c-fos expression in the PVN, less fra-2 expression in the prelimbic and infralimbic PFC, and no difference in the LS compared with rats restrained for 60 min. Thus, the expression of both genes was sensitive to stressor duration, but this sensitivity varied with brain region. Differential basal and stress-induced expression patterns of the fra-2 and c-fos genes are likely to have important functional consequences for AP-1 transcription factor dependent regulation of neural plasticity. PMID:17936518

  9. Implications of FRA 16A structure for the mechanism of chromosomal fragile site genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nancarrow, J.K.; Kremer, E.; Holman, K.; Eyre, H.; Callen, D.F.; Sutherland, G.R.; Richards, R.I. ); Doggett, N.A. ); Paslier, D.Le )

    1994-06-24

    Fragile sites are chemically induced nonstaining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. DNA sequences encompassing and including the rare, autosomal, folate-sensitive fragile site, FRA16A, were isolated by positional cloning. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)[sub n] repeat. This repeat was adjacent to a CpG island that was methylated in fragile site-expressing individuals. The FRA16A locus in individuals who do not express the fragile site is not a site of DNA methylation (imprinting), which suggests that the methylation associated with fragile sites may be a consequence and not a cause of their genesis.

  10. Frequency of Fra X syndrome among institutionalized mentally retarded males in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurczak, T.; Bocian, E.; Milewski, M.

    1996-07-12

    Results of cytogenetic studies, performed in a group of 201 institutionalized mentally retarded males, are presented. At least two cytogenetic methods for eliciting the Xq27.3 fragile site, recommended by the Fourth International Workshop on the Fra X Syndrome were used. A subgroup of 67 out of 201 studied males was also examined using molecular methods. In 6 (2.9%) males fra X syndrome was diagnosed. All cytogenetic positive results were confirmed by molecular analysis. Five patients had full expansion CGG repeats and one had both premutation and full mutation. Postulated frequency of fra X syndrome in Polish population being 0.2-0.4 / 1,000 males seems to be lower than it could be expected on the basis of previous literature data. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Role of heterodimerization of c-Fos and Fra1 proteins in osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, Latifa; Takada, Yasunari; Radolf, Martin; Eferl, Robert; Yaniv, Moshe; Wagner, Erwin F; Matsuo, Koichi

    2007-04-01

    Bone resorbing osteoclasts are specialized macrophages that cannot differentiate in the absence of c-Fos, a member of the dimeric transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1). However, osteoclast differentiation in the absence of c-Fos can be rescued in vitro and in vivo by Fra1, a Fos-like protein and transcriptional target of c-Fos. To enable AP-1 proteins binding to DNA, c-Fos or Fra1 must heterodimerize with a partner such as c-Jun, JunB and JunD. In this study, we investigated the dimerization partners of c-Fos and Fra1 required for osteoclast differentiation using synthetic "single-chain" AP-1 dimers in which c-Fos or Fra1 is tethered via a linker to Jun proteins. When c-Fos was analyzed in combination with any Jun protein, including a c-Jun mutant lacking major phosphorylation sites for c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), osteoclasts were efficiently formed from c-Fos-deficient hematopoietic precursors. However, Fra1 in combination with any Jun protein could not rescue osteoclastogenesis. The ability to rescue was compared to transcriptional activity measured in transient transfection assays using promoters driven by consensus AP-1 sites or a composite AP-1/NFAT binding site. These data show that a single Jun/c-Fos dimer is sufficient for osteoclast differentiation, likely due to its transactivation ability for a broader range of promoters, in particular consensus AP-1 sites. We propose that Fra1 together with a dimerization partner different from Jun proteins can rescue osteoclast differentiation in c-Fos-deficient precursors. PMID:17189721

  12. The F8H Glycosyltransferase is a Functional Paralog of FRA8 Involved in Glucuronoxylan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FRAGILE FIBER8 gene was previously shown to be required for the biosynthesis of the reducing end tetrasaccharide sequence of glucuronoxylan (GX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrate that F8H, a close homolog of FRA8, is a functional ortholog of FRA8 involved in GX bi...

  13. FraH is required for reorganization of intracellular membranes during heterocyst differentiation in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Mariscal, Vicente; Schwarz, Heinz; Maldener, Iris; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

    2011-12-01

    In the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, two different cell types, the CO(2)-fixing vegetative cells and the N(2)-fixing heterocysts, exchange nutrients and regulators for diazotrophic growth. In the model organism Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, inactivation of fraH produces filament fragmentation under conditions of combined nitrogen deprivation, releasing numerous isolated heterocysts. Transmission electron microscopy of samples prepared by either high-pressure cryo-fixation or chemical fixation showed that the heterocysts of a ΔfraH mutant lack the intracellular membrane system structured close to the heterocyst poles, known as the honeycomb, that is characteristic of wild-type heterocysts. Using a green fluorescent protein translational fusion to the carboxyl terminus of FraH (FraH-C-GFP), confocal microscopy showed spots of fluorescence located at the periphery of the vegetative cells in filaments grown in the presence of nitrate. After incubation in the absence of combined nitrogen, localization of FraH-C-GFP changed substantially, and the GFP fluorescence was conspicuously located at the cell poles in the heterocysts. Fluorescence microscopy and deconvolution of images showed that GFP fluorescence originated mainly from the region next to the cyanophycin plug present at the heterocyst poles. Intercellular transfer of the fluorescent tracers calcein (622 Da) and 5-carboxyfluorescein (374 Da) was either not impaired or only partially impaired in the ΔfraH mutant, suggesting that FraH is not important for intercellular molecular exchange. Location of FraH close to the honeycomb membrane structure and lack of such structure in the ΔfraH mutant suggest a role of FraH in reorganization of intracellular membranes, which may involve generation of new membranes, during heterocyst differentiation. PMID:21949079

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C Appendix C to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C Appendix C to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  16. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA. 240.103 Section 240.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of...

  17. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Buy America & FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...'s High Speed Intercity ] Passenger Rail Program. The Answers to Frequently Asked Questions can be... to support intercity passenger rail service (Sec. 301), high-speed corridor development (Sec....

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C Appendix C to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  19. FRA2A Is a CGG Repeat Expansion Associated with Silencing of AFF3

    PubMed Central

    Metsu, Sofie; Rooms, Liesbeth; Rainger, Jacqueline; Taylor, Martin S.; Bengani, Hemant; Wilson, David I.; Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Morrison, Harris; Vandeweyer, Geert; Reyniers, Edwin; Douglas, Evelyn; Thompson, Geoffrey; Haan, Eric; Gecz, Jozef; FitzPatrick, David R.; Kooy, R. Frank

    2014-01-01

    Folate-sensitive fragile sites (FSFS) are a rare cytogenetically visible subset of dynamic mutations. Of the eight molecularly characterized FSFS, four are associated with intellectual disability (ID). Cytogenetic expression results from CGG tri-nucleotide-repeat expansion mutation associated with local CpG hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. The best studied is the FRAXA site in the FMR1 gene, where large expansions cause fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited ID syndrome. Here we studied three families with FRA2A expression at 2q11 associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We identified a polymorphic CGG repeat in a conserved, brain-active alternative promoter of the AFF3 gene, an autosomal homolog of the X-linked AFF2/FMR2 gene: Expansion of the AFF2 CGG repeat causes FRAXE ID. We found that FRA2A-expressing individuals have mosaic expansions of the AFF3 CGG repeat in the range of several hundred repeat units. Moreover, bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing both suggest AFF3 promoter hypermethylation. cSNP-analysis demonstrates monoallelic expression of the AFF3 gene in FRA2A carriers thus predicting that FRA2A expression results in functional haploinsufficiency for AFF3 at least in a subset of tissues. By whole-mount in situ hybridization the mouse AFF3 ortholog shows strong regional expression in the developing brain, somites and limb buds in 9.5–12.5dpc mouse embryos. Our data suggest that there may be an association between FRA2A and a delay in the acquisition of motor and language skills in the families studied here. However, additional cases are required to firmly establish a causal relationship. PMID:24763282

  20. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R.; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N− media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein. PMID:26216997

  1. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-08-11

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N- media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein. PMID:26216997

  2. Chromosomal fragile site, FRA16A: Implications for fragile site genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, R.I.; Nancarrow, J.K.; Mangelsdorf, M.

    1994-09-01

    Fragile sites are chemically induced non-staining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. The fragile sites sequenced to date (FRAXA and FRAXE) are rare, folate sensitive sites located on the X chromosomes. They have similar DNA sequence composition of a p(CCG)n repeat adjacent to a methylatable CpG island. Individuals expressing the fragile site have an unstable expanded repeat and methylation of the adjacent CpG island. FRAXA is associated with the most common form of familial mental retardation, Fragile X Syndrome. In order to further understand the relationship between the DNA sequence composition, position in the genome, and the chemistry of induction of fragile sites, we have characterized the rare, folate sensitive fragile site on human chromosome 16 referred to as FRA16A. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)n repeat. This repeat was adjacent to a CpG island that was methylated in fragile-site-expressing individuals. The FRA16A locus in individuals who do not express the fragile site is not a site of DNA methylation (imprinting) which suggests that the methylation associated with fragile sites may be a consequence and not a cause of their genesis. We have analyzed the normal repeat copy numbers for the fragile site p(CCG)n repeats in European, Japanese and Indian populations. While the FRAXA and FRAXE repeats show similar distributions of copy numbers, the FRA16A p(CCG)n repeat in Europeans has a greater range and number of alleles (23.7% have n>25) than its Japanese and Indian counterparts. In conjunction with our previous data demonstrating linkage disequilibrium (founder chromosomes) at the FRAXA locus, these data suggest that certain p(CCG)n repeats are inherently unstable.

  3. ATF3 and Fra1 have opposite functions in JNK- and ERK-dependent DNA damage responses.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Mohamed; Popeijus, Herman E; Carlotti, Françoise; Janssen, Josephine M; van der Burgt, Corina; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; van de Water, Bob; Hoeben, Rob C; Matsuo, Koichi; van Dam, Hans

    2008-03-01

    JNK and ERK MAP kinases regulate cellular responses to genotoxic stress in a cell type and cell context-dependent manner. However, the factors that determine and execute JNK- and ERK-controlled stress responses are only partly known. In this study, we investigate the roles of the AP-1 components ATF3 and Fra1 in JNK- and ERK-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We show that the anti-cancer drug cisplatin or UV light activates both JNK and ERK in human glioblastoma cells lacking functional p53. Inhibition experiments of JNK or ERK activities revealed that the ERK pathway strongly promotes cisplatin- and UV-induced apoptosis in these glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, JNK but not ERK is required for ATF3 induction, and both ERK and JNK are necessary for post-transcriptional induction of Fra1 in response to cisplatin or UV. Knock-down of ATF3 and Fra1 results in increased and decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, respectively, indicating that ATF3 is an anti-apoptotic JNK effector and Fra1 is a pro-apoptotic ERK/JNK effector. Knock-down experiments also revealed that ATF3 and Fra1, respectively, enhance and reduce S-phase arrest through differential modulation of the Chk1-Cdk2 pathway. Thus, we identify novel reciprocal functions of ATF3 and Fra1 in JNK- and ERK-dependent DNA damage responses. PMID:18249159

  4. Fra-1/AP-1 induces EMT in mammary epithelial cells by modulating Zeb1/2 and TGF? expression.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, L; Macho-Maschler, S; Custic, I; Niemiec, J; Guo-Carrin, A; Hasenfuss, S C; Eger, A; Mller, M; Beug, H; Wagner, E F

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for embryonic morphogenesis and wound healing and critical for tumour cell invasion and dissemination. The AP-1 transcription factor Fra-1 has been implicated in tumorigenesis and in tumour-associated EMT in human breast cancer. We observed a significant inverse correlation between Fra-1 mRNA expression and distant-metastasis-free survival in a large cohort of breast cancer patients derived from multiple array data sets. This unique correlation among Fos genes prompted us to assess the evolutionary conservation between Fra-1 functions in EMT of human and mouse cells. Ectopic expression of Fra-1 in fully polarized, non-tumourigenic, mouse mammary epithelial EpH4 cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype, characterized by a loss of epithelial and gain of mesenchymal markers. Proliferation, motility and invasiveness were also increased in the resulting EpFra1 cells, and the cells were tumourigenic and efficiently colonized the lung upon transplantation. Molecular analyses revealed increased expression of Tgf?1 and the EMT-inducing transcription factors Zeb1, Zeb2 and Slug. Mechanistically, Fra-1 binds to the tgfb1 and zeb2 promoters and to an evolutionarily conserved region in the first intron of zeb1. Furthermore, increased activity of a zeb2 promoter reporter was detected in EpFra1 cells and shown to depend on AP-1-binding sites. Inhibiting TGF? signalling in EpFra1 cells moderately increased the expression of epithelial markers, whereas silencing of zeb1 or zeb2 restored the epithelial phenotype and decreased migration in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Thus Fra-1 induces changes in the expression of genes encoding EMT-related transcription factors leading to the acquisition of mesenchymal, invasive and tumorigenic capacities by epithelial cells. This study defines a novel function of Fra-1/AP-1 in modulating tgfb1, zeb1 and zeb2 expression through direct binding to genomic regulatory regions, which establishes a basis for future in vivo genetic manipulations and preclinical studies using mouse models. PMID:25301070

  5. Dual role for mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk) in insulin-dependent regulation of Fra-1 (fos-related antigen-1) transcription and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Toby W; Culbert, Ainsley A; Webster, Kenneth J; Tavaré, Jeremy M

    2002-01-01

    Insulin regulates the activity of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) transcriptional complex in several cell types. One component of the AP-1 complex is the transcription factor Fra-1 (fos-related antigen-1), and we have demonstrated previously that insulin stimulates the expression of Fra-1 mRNA in CHO.T cells [Griffiths, Black, Culbert, Dickens, Shaw, Gillespie and Tavaré (1998) Biochem. J. 335, 19-26]. Here we demonstrate that insulin stimulates the activity of a fra-1 promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene, indicating that the ability of insulin to induce expression of Fra-1 mRNA is due, at least in part, to an increase in gene transcription. Furthermore, we found that insulin induces the serine phosphorylation of Fra-1 and reduces its mobility during SDS/PAGE as a result of phosphorylation. The ability of insulin to induce the accumulation of Fra-1 mRNA, stimulate the fra-1 promoter and stimulate phosphorylation of Fra-1 all require the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, which leads to the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2. Consequently, our results demonstrate that the Erk cascade plays a dual role in the co-ordinated regulation of the transcription and the phosphorylation of Fra-1 by insulin. PMID:12197835

  6. Enhanced CREB phosphorylation and changes in c-Fos and FRA expression in striatum accompany amphetamine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, S M; Pollack, A E; Fink, J S

    1997-02-21

    Expression in striatum of c-Fos, a 35 kDa Fos-related antigen (FRA) and the phosphorylated form of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (phosphoCREB) was assessed using Western blots in rats that developed behavioral sensitization following repeated amphetamine administration. Treatment with d-amphetamine (5 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days produced behavioral sensitization. Similar to previous observations using chronic cocaine administration, amphetamine sensitized animals had decreased c-Fos and increased FRA proteins in striatum. Supershift analysis with antisera to c-Fos and FRA proteins demonstrated that 4-Fos and the 35 kDa FRA are components of the striatal AP-1 binding complex from sensitized rats. Thus, amphetamine sensitization is accompanied by alterations in the composition of the AP-1 DNA binding complex. An increased amount of phosphoCREB protein was also present in the striatum of amphetamine sensitized rats. These results suggest that alterations in Fos, FRA and CREB transcription factors are common neuronal responses to chronic psychostimulant administration and may contribute to regulation of genes important to the neuroplastic changes underlying psychostimulant sensitization. PMID:9070635

  7. Terminal epidermal differentiation is regulated by the interaction of Fra-2/AP-1 with Ezh2 and ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Stefanie; Zhang, Jisheng; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; García, Fernando; Muñoz, Javier; Bakiri, Latifa; Ezhkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Altered epidermal differentiation characterizes numerous skin diseases affecting >25% of the human population. Here we identified Fra-2/AP-1 as a key regulator of terminal epidermal differentiation. Epithelial-restricted, ectopic expression of Fra-2 induced expression of epidermal differentiation genes located within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC). Moreover, in a papilloma-prone background, a reduced tumor burden was observed due to precocious keratinocyte differentiation by Fra-2 expression. Importantly, loss of Fra-2 in suprabasal keratinocytes is sufficient to cause skin barrier defects due to reduced expression of differentiation genes. Mechanistically, Fra-2 binds and transcriptionally regulates EDC gene promoters, which are co-occupied by the transcriptional repressor Ezh2. Fra-2 remains transcriptionally inactive in nondifferentiated keratinocytes, where it was found monomethylated and dimethylated on Lys104 and interacted with Ezh2. Upon keratinocyte differentiation, Fra-2 is C-terminally phosphorylated on Ser320 and Thr322 by ERK1/2, leading to transcriptional activation. Thus, the induction of epidermal differentiation by Fra-2 is controlled by a dual mechanism involving Ezh2-dependent methylation and activation by ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation. PMID:25547114

  8. Fra a 1.02 Is the Most Potent Isoform of the Bet v 1-like Allergen in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Eberlein, Bernadette; Edelmann, Kathrin; Hücherig, Stephanie; Besbes, Fatma; Darsow, Ulf; Ring, Johannes; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-05-11

    The strawberry fruit proteins Fra a 1.01E-1.08 are homologues of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Three of the proteins are known to have essential biological functions in pigment formation during fruit ripening and seem to be responsible for allergic reactions to strawberry fruit. We evaluated the cross-reactive allergenic potential of these putative strawberry allergens in patients allergic to birch pollen. Activation of basophils of eight atopic patients was studied using different concentrations of Fra a 1 isoforms. Bet v 1a was used as control and as atopic patient selection criterion. Although Fra a 1.01E-1.08 have amino acid sequence identities of 74.5-97.5% with Fra a 1.02, the basophil activation mediated by the eight Fra a 1 proteins differed substantially. Fra a 1.03 and Fra a 1.02 showed the highest activation of basophils, 73 and 66% of total basophils, respectively. On the basis of the high relative expression of the gene Fra a 1.02 in ripe strawberry fruits of allergenic varieties, Fra a 1.02 was identified as the main strawberry allergen of the Bet v 1 superfamily. Knowledge of the allergenic potential of Fra a 1.02/1.03 will help to improve food safety and can serve as a valuable marker for the development of red-fruited hypoallergenic strawberry cultivars. PMID:27086707

  9. Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

  10. fra-1: a serum-inducible, cellular immediate-early gene that encodes a fos-related antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D R; Curran, T

    1988-01-01

    A set of proteins antigenically related to the c-fos protein (Fos) are induced by serum in fibroblasts. To isolate cDNA clones of genes encoding such proteins, a lambda gt11 expression cDNA library constructed from serum-stimulated rat fibroblasts was screened with antibodies raised against a hydrophilic region (amino acids 127 to 152) of Fos. One of the positive clones identified, termed fra-1 (Fos-related antigen) was characterized. It encoded a protein that shared several regions of extensive amino acid homology with Fos (including the region that showed similarity to both the yeast GCN4 regulatory protein and the protein encoded by the jun oncogene), although its nucleotide sequence was considerably diverged from that of the c-fos gene. Only a subset of the agents and conditions that activated c-fos also induced fra-1. Induction of fra-1 expression following serum stimulation was delayed compared with that of c-fos. However, like c-fos, fra-1 was induced rapidly by serum in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Thus, a family of Fos-related, inducible genes are involved in the cellular immediate-early transcriptional response to extracellular stimuli. Images PMID:3133553

  11. Bulk magnetization properties of the Fra Mauro and Reiner Gamma Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    In the reported investigation, bulk magnetization properties within two lunar surface geologic units have been inferred using low-altitude, high-resolution Apollo 16 subsatellite magnetometer data. On the basis of correlations of mapped anomalies with relatively surficial units on the central near side, a surface plate model with thickness much less than the subsatellite altitude was adopted and was used to represent the sources of largest anomalies. The results strongly suggest that directional coherence of the surface density of magnetization can occur over horizontal scales up to 100 km. Tentative evidence for a lack of directional coherence on scales greater than 100 km was found in the case of the Fra Mauro Formation.

  12. Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

  13. SIRT1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in colorectal cancer by regulating Fra-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feifei; Su, Li; Yao, Chao; Liu, Limei; Shen, Junjie; Liu, Chungang; Chen, Xuejiao; Luo, Yongli; Jiang, Lupin; Shan, Juanjuan; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Shao, Jimin; Qian, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis is urgently required for targeted therapy and prognosis of metastatic CRC. In this study, we explored potential effects of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) on CRC metastasis. Our data showed that ectopic expression of SIRT1 markedly increased the migration and invasion of CRC cells. In contrast, silencing SIRT1 repressed this behavior in aggressive CRC cells. Tumor xenograft experiments revealed that knockdown of SIRT1 impaired CRC metastasis in vivo. Silencing SIRT1 in CRC cells induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), which is the reverse process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and characterized by a gain of epithelial and loss of mesenchymal markers. We provided a mechanistic insight toward regulation of Fra-1 by SIRT1 and demonstrated a direct link between the SIRT1-Fra-1 axis and EMT. Moreover, SIRT1 expression correlated positively with Fra-1 expression, metastasis and overall survival in patients with CRC. Taken together, our data provide a novel mechanistic role of SIRT1 in CRC metastasis, suggesting that SIRT1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for metastatic CRC. PMID:26975631

  14. Cocaine up-regulates Fra-2 and sigma-1 receptor gene and protein expression in brain regions involved in addiction and reward.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Chen, Guang-Di; Lerner, Megan R; Brackett, Daniel J; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2005-08-01

    Sigma receptors have recently been implicated in the actions of cocaine, and antagonists of these receptors prevent many acute and subchronic cocaine effects. A previous study revealed that the immediate early gene fra-2 is up-regulated after cocaine administration, and this effect is prevented by the sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1063 [1-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine]. In the present study, the effects of cocaine and BD1063 on the expression of six fos and jun genes were evaluated in mouse brains using cDNA microarrays. Several of these genes were altered by cocaine, but only the alteration in fra-2 was prevented by BD1063. The time courses of fra-2 and sigma-1 receptor gene and protein expression in different brain regions were also determined. Cocaine up-regulated fra-2, which was followed by a later up-regulation of sigma-1 receptors. The cocaine-induced up-regulation of fra-2 and sigma-1 receptor genes and proteins were detected in whole brain, striatum, and cortex, but not in cerebellum. All of these cocaine-induced effects were prevented by BD1063. The interaction between cocaine, fra-2, and sigma-1 receptors involves brain regions that are established components of the neural circuit for reward, suggesting that they may contribute to the enduring changes that underlie the cellular basis of drug abuse. PMID:15879001

  15. Neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells requires the junB and fra-1 gene induction which is dependent on the HMGI-C gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, D; Battista, S; Pierantoni, G M; Fedele, M; Casalino, L; Santoro, M; Viglietto, G; Fusco, A; Verde, P

    1997-01-01

    The expression of the high mobility group I (HMGI)-C chromatin component was shown previously to be essential for the establishment of the neoplastic phenotype in retrovirally transformed thyroid cell lines. To identify possible targets of the HMGI-C gene product, we have analyzed the AP-1 complex in normal, fully transformed and antisense HMGI-C-expressing rat thyroid cells. We show that neoplastic transformation is associated with a drastic increase in AP-1 activity, which reflects multiple compositional changes. The strongest effect is represented by the dramatic junB and fra-1 gene induction, which is prevented in cell lines expressing the antisense HMGI-C. These results indicate that the HMGI-C gene product is essential for the junB and fra-1 transcriptional induction associated with neoplastic transformation. The inhibition of Fra-1 protein synthesis by stable transfection with a fra-1 antisense RNA vector significantly reduces the malignant phenotype of the transformed thyroid cells, indicating a pivotal role for the fra-1 gene product in the process of cellular transformation. PMID:9311991

  16. Correlated break at PARK2/FRA6E and loss of AF-6/Afadin protein expression are associated with poor outcome in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Letessier, A; Garrido-Urbani, S; Ginestier, C; Fournier, G; Esterni, B; Monville, F; Adélaïde, J; Geneix, J; Xerri, L; Dubreuil, P; Viens, P; Charafe-Jauffret, E; Jacquemier, J; Birnbaum, D; Lopez, M; Chaffanet, M

    2007-01-11

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) are regions of chromosomal break that may play a role in oncogenesis. The most frequent alteration occurs at FRA3B, within the FHIT gene, at chromosomal region 3p14. We studied a series of breast carcinomas for break of a CFS at 6q26, FRA6E, and its associated gene PARK2, using fluorescence in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays (TMA). We found break of PARK2 in 6% of cases. We studied the PARK2-encoded protein Parkin by using immunohistochemistry on the same TMA. Loss of Parkin was found in 13% of samples but was not correlated with PARK2 break. PARK2 break but not Parkin expression was correlated with prognosis. Alteration of PARK2/FRA6E may cause haplo-insufficiency of one or several telomeric potential tumor suppressor genes (TSG). The AF-6/MLLT4 gene, telomeric of PARK2, encodes the Afadin scaffold protein, which is essential for epithelial integrity. Loss of Afadin was found in 14.5% of cases, and 36% of these cases showed PARK2 break. Loss of Afadin had prognostic impact, suggesting that AF-6 may be a TSG. Loss of Afadin was correlated with loss of FHIT expression, suggesting fragility of FRA6E and FRA3B in a certain proportion of breast tumors. PMID:16819513

  17. WWOX, the chromosomal fragile site FRA16D spanning gene: its role in metabolism and contribution to cancer.

    PubMed

    Richards, Robert I; Choo, Amanda; Lee, Cheng Shoou; Dayan, Sonia; O'Keefe, Louise

    2015-03-01

    The WWOX gene spans the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D that is located within a massive (780 kb) intron. The WWOX gene is very long, at 1.1 Mb, which may contribute to the very low abundance of the full-length 1.4 kb mRNA. Alternative splicing also accounts for a variety of aberrant transcripts, most of which are devoid of C-terminal sequences required for WWOX to act as an oxidoreductase. The mouse WWOX gene also spans a chromosomal fragile site implying some sort of functional relationship that confers a selective advantage. The encoded protein domains of WWOX are conserved through evolution (between humans and Drosophila melanogaster) and include WW domains, an NAD -binding site, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme and nuclear compartmentalization signals. This homology has enabled functional analyses in D. melanogaster that demonstrate roles for WWOX in reactive oxygen species regulation and metabolism. Indeed the human WWOX gene is also responsive to altered metabolism. Cancer cells typically exhibit altered metabolism (Warburg effect). Many cancers exhibit FRA16D DNA instability that results in aberrant WWOX expression and is associated with poor prognosis for these cancers. It is therefore thought that aberrant WWOX expression contributes to the altered metabolism in cancer. In addition, others have found that a specific (low-expression) allele of WWOX genotype contributes to cancer predisposition. PMID:25595186

  18. Reverse mapping of the gene encoding the human fos-related antigen-1 (fra-1) within chromosome band 11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Sinke, R.J. ); Tanigami, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Kessel, A.G. van )

    1993-10-01

    For the identification of sequence-tagged sites within cosmid clones derived from the q13 region of human chromosome 11, the authors subcloned a number of single copy BamHI fragments in a pT7T3 19U vector. Surprisingly, within one of these subclones, they encountered a stretch of DNA that matches perfectly with 5' end of the known cDNA sequence for the human fos-related antigen. This match comes to an abrupt end at nucleotide 328, which coincides with a perfect splice donor site. At position 231 an ATG codon (translation initiation) was found. From these data they conclude that position 328 marks the boundary of the first exon of the fra-1 gene. Homology of this same region with the rat fra-1 cDNA sequence is [+-]70%. This human fra-1 genomic fragment is contained within cosmid clone cCL11-254 (D11S460), which was previously mapped to region V of a long-range contig map of 11q13. The localization of fra-1 on chromosome 11 was cross-checked and confirmed by hybridizing the fra-1 containing fragment to a panel of somatic cell hybrids, including one line that contains chromosome 11 as its only human constituent. In addition to a cross-hybridizing rodent fragment, a single human-specific band was revealed in all the chromosome 11-containing hybrids. This subchromosomal localization of fra-1 to 11q13 adds yet another proto-oncogene to this restricted genomic region, which appears to be involved in a number of neoplastic disorders, e.g., multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, breast cancer, squamous cell tumors of head and neck, esophageal carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, bladder carcinoma, extragonadal germ cell tumors, and some hematopoietic malignancies. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Copy number and haplotype variation at the VRN-A1 and central FR-A2 loci are associated with frost tolerance in hexaploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Pearce, Stephen; Burke, Adrienne; See, Deven Robert; Skinner, Daniel Z.; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Campbell, Kimberly Garland

    2016-01-01

    Frost tolerance is critical for wheat survival during cold winters. Natural variation for this trait is mainly associated with allelic differences at the VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) and FROST RESISTANCE 2 (FR2) loci. VRN1 regulates the transition between vegetative and reproductive stages and FR2, a locus including several tandemly duplicated C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) transcription factors, regulates the expression of Cold regulated genes. We identified sequence and copy number variation at these two loci among winter and spring wheat varieties and characterized their association with frost tolerance. We identified two FR-A2 haplotypes – ‘FR-A2-S’ and ‘FR-A2-T’ – distinguished by two insertion/deletions and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms within the CBF-A12 and CBF-A15 genes. Increased copy number of CBF-A14 was frequently associated with the FR-A2-T haplotypes and with higher CBF14 transcript levels in response to cold. Factorial ANOVAs revealed significant interactions between VRN1 and FR-A2 for frost tolerance in both winter and spring panels suggesting a crosstalk between vernalization and cold acclimation pathways. The model including these two loci and their interaction explained 32.0 and 20.7% of the variation in frost tolerance in the winter and spring panels, respectively. The interaction was validated in a winter wheat F4:5 population segregating for both genes. Increased VRN-A1 copy number was associated with improved frost tolerance among varieties carrying the FR-A2-T allele but not among those carrying the FR-A2-S allele. These results suggest that selection of varieties carrying the FR-A2-T allele and three copies of the recessive vrn-A1 allele would be a good strategy to improve frost tolerance in wheat. PMID:24626953

  20. Selective participation of c-Jun with Fra-2/c-Fos promotes aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Kaur, Harsimrut; Sharma, Nishi; Saluja, Daman; Bharti, Alok C.; Das, Bhudev C.

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%). A higher expression and DNA binding activity of AP-1 was observed in tongue tumors and cancer cell lines with c-Fos and Fra-2 as the major binding partners forming the functional AP-1 complex but c-Jun participated only in HPV negative and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Knocking down of Fra-2 responsible for aggressive tongue tumorigenesis led to significant reduction in c-Fos, c-Jun, MMP-9 and HPVE6/E7 expression but Fra-1 and p53 were upregulated. The binding and expression of c-Fos/Fra-2 increased as a function of severity of tongue lesions, yet selective participation of c-Jun appears to promote poor differentiation and aggressive tumorigenesis only in HPV negative cases while HPV infection leads to well differentiation and better prognosis preferably in nonsmokers. PMID:26581505

  1. [Biological and physico-chemical properties of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis bacterial culture having the fra-operon Yersinia pestis].

    PubMed

    Byvalov, A A; Gavrilov, K E; Krupin, V V; Chebotarev, E V; Zheludkova, E V; Drubkov, V I; Smirnov, A E; Mal'kov, V N; Dupiasheva, T Iu; Pechenkin, D V; Bondarev, V P

    2008-01-01

    The biological and physico-chemical properties of cultures of two isogenous recombinant variants of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were studied. The cell genomes of the cultures are distinguished from one another only by the presence or by the absence of the fra-operon, which is a determined attribute of the plague microbe capsule-forming process. The expression of the attribute is amplified by rising the microbial biomass cultivation temperature and stimulates the decrease in the viability of the bacteria and adaptation potential in vitro. In the warm-blooded owner organism the microbes of the capsule-forming recombinant variant are characterized by the greater residual pathogenicity and immunogenic ability to the experimental plague of the laboratory animals as compared to the reference-variant cells. These specific features could be explained by more expressed colonizing ability of the capsule-forming microbes provided by owner cells' stability to the phagocyte process. PMID:18368776

  2. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerde, E. A.; Morris, R. V.; Warren, P. H.

    1990-04-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  3. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  4. Chagas disease-specific antigens: characterization of epitopes in CRA/FRA by synthetic peptide mapping and evaluation by ELISA-peptide assay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of epitopes in proteins recognized by medically relevant antibodies is useful for the development of peptide-based diagnostics and vaccines. In this study, epitopes in the cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi were identified using synthetic peptide techniques and pooled sera from Chagasic patients. The epitopes were further assayed with an ELISA assay based on synthetic peptides. Methods Twenty-two overlapping synthetic peptides representing the coding sequence of the T. cruzi CRA and FRA proteins were assessed by a Spot-synthesis array analysis using sera donated by patients with Chagas disease. Shorter peptides were selected that represented the determined epitopes and synthesized by solid phase synthesis to evaluate the patterns of cross-reactivities and discrimination through an ELISA-diagnostic assay. Results The peptide Spot-synthesis array successfully identified two IgG antigenic determinants in the CRA protein and four in FRA. Bioinformatics suggested that the CRA antigens were unique to T. cruzi while the FRA antigen showed similarity with sequences present within various proteins from Leishmania sp. Subsequently, shorter peptides representing the CRA-1, CRA-2 and FRA-1 epitopes were synthesized by solid phase synthesis and assayed by an ELISA-diagnostic assay. The CRA antigens gave a high discrimination between Chagasic, Leishmaniasis and T. cruzi-uninfected serum. A sensitivity and specificity of 100% was calculated for CRA. While the FRA antigen showed a slightly lower sensitivity (91.6%), its specificity was only 60%. Conclusions The epitopes recognized by human anti-T. cruzi antibodies have been precisely located in two biomarkers of T. cruzi, CRA and FRA. The results from screening a panel of patient sera through an ELISA assay based on peptides representing these epitopes strongly suggest that the sequences from CRA would be useful for the development of diagnostic reagents that could improve upon the sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests. Overall, the results provide further evidence of the usefulness of identifying specific linear B-cell epitopes for improving diagnostic tools. PMID:24299278

  5. A comparison of forest cover maps in Mainland Southeast Asia from multiple sources: PALSAR, MERIS, MODIS and FRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Sheldon, S. L.; Biradar, C. M.; Duong, N. D.; Hazarika, M.

    2012-12-01

    The uncertainty in tracking tropical forest extent and changes substantially affects our assessment of the consequences of forest change on the global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Recently cloud-free imagery useful for tropical forest mapping from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has become available. We used PALSAR 50-m Orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 and a decision tree method to conduct land cover classification and generate a 2009 forest map, which was evaluated using 2106 field photos from the Global Geo-referenced Field Photo Library (http://www.eomf.ou.edu/photos). The resulting land cover classification had a high overall accuracy of 93.3 % and a Kappa Coefficient of 0.9. The PALSAR-based forest map was then compared with three existing forest cover products at three scales (regional, national, and continental): the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments (FRA) 2010, Global Land Cover Map with MERIS (GlobCover) 2009, and the MODIS Terra + Aqua Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1) 2009. The intercomparison results show that these four forest datasets differ. The PALSAR-based forest area estimate is within the range (6.1 ~ 9.0 ×105 km2) of the other three products and closest to the FAO FRA 2010 estimate. The spatial disagreements of the PALSAR-based forest, MCD12Q1 forest and GlobCover forest are evident; however, the PALSAR-based forest map provides more detail (50-m spatial resolution) and high accuracy (the Producer's and the User's Accuracies were 88 % and 95 %, respectively) and PALSAR can be used to evaluate MCD12Q1 2009 and GlobCover 2009 forest maps. Given the higher spatial resolution, PALSAR-based forest products could further improve the modeling accuracy of carbon cycle in tropical forests.

  6. ATR Preferentially Interacts with Common Fragile Site FRA3B and the Binding Requires its Kinase Activity in Response to Aphidicolin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Cheng; Kulkarni, Atul; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    The instability of common fragile sites (CFSs) contributes to the development of a variety of cancers. The ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint pathway has been implicated in maintaining CFS stability, but the mechanism is incompletely understood. The goal of our study was to elucidate the action of the ATR protein in the CFS-specific ATR-dependent checkpoint response. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that ATR protein preferentially binds (directly or through complexes) to fragile site FRA3B as compared to non-fragile site regions, under conditions of mild replication stress. Interestingly, the amount of ATR protein that bound to three regions of FRA3B peaked at 0.4 μM aphidicolin (APH) treatment and decreased again at higher concentrations of APH. The total amounts of cellular ATR and several ATR-interacting proteins remained unchanged, suggesting that ATR binding to the fragile site is guided initially by the level of replication stress signals generated at FRA3B due to APH treatment and then sequestered from FRA3B regions by successive signals from other non-fragile site regions, which are produced at the higher concentrations of APH. This decrease in ATR binding to fragile site FRA3B at the higher concentrations of APH may account for the increasing number of chromosome gaps and breaks observed under the same conditions. Furthermore, inhibition of ATR kinase activity by treatment with 2-aminopurine (2-AP) or by over-expression of a kinase-dead ATR mutant showed that the kinase activity is required for the binding of ATR to fragile DNAs in response to APH treatment. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanism for the regulation of fragile site stability by ATR. PMID:20060399

  7. Insulin-stimulated expression of c-fos, fra1 and c-jun accompanies the activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, M R; Black, E J; Culbert, A A; Dickens, M; Shaw, P E; Gillespie, D A; Tavaré, J M

    1998-01-01

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex is made up of members of the Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1, Fra2) and Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) families and is stimulated by insulin in several cell types. The mechanism by which insulin activates this complex is not well understood but it is dependent on the activation of the Erk1 and Erk2 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinases. In the current study we show that the AP-1 complex isolated from insulin-stimulated cells contained c-Fos, Fra1, c-Jun and JunB. The activation of the AP-1 complex by insulin was accompanied by (i) a transient increase in c-fos expression, and the transactivation of the ternary complex factors Elk1 and Sap1a, in an Erk1/Erk2-dependent fashion; (ii) a substantial increase in the expression of Fra1 protein and mRNA, which was preceded by a transient decrease in its electrophoretic mobility upon SDS/PAGE, indicative of phosphorylation; and (iii) a sustained increase in c-jun expression without increasing c-Jun phosphorylation on serines 63 and 73 or activation of the stress-activated kinase JNK/SAPK. In conclusion, insulin appears to stimulate the activity of the AP-1 complex primarily through a change in the abundance of the components of this complex, although there may be an additional role for Fra1 phosphorylation. PMID:9742208

  8. HDAC inhibitors suppress c-Jun/Fra-1-mediated proliferation through transcriptionally downregulating MKK7 and Raf1 in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaomei; Xia, Yong; He, Guozhen; Min, Zhiqun; Li, Chun; Xiong, Shiqiu; Shi, Zhi; Lu, Yongjian; Yuan, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcriptional factor composed of the dimeric members of bZIP proteins, which are frequently deregulated in human cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to identify an oncogenic AP-1 dimer critical for the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells and to investigate whether histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), a new generation of anticancer agents, could target the AP-1 dimer. We report here that HDACIs including trichostatin A, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid, valproic acid and M344 can transcriptionally suppress both c-Jun and Fra-1, preceding their inhibition of cell growth. c-Jun preferentially interacting with Fra-1 as a heterodimer is responsible for AP-1 activity and critical for cell growth. Mechanistically, HDACIs suppress Fra-1 expression through transcriptionally downregulating Raf1 and subsequently decreasing MEK1/2-ERK1/2 activity. Unexpectedly, HDACI treatment caused MKK7 downregulation at both the protein and mRNA levels. Deletion analysis of the 5′-flanking sequence of the MKK7 gene revealed that a major element responsible for the downregulation by HDACI is located at −149 to −3 relative to the transcriptional start site. Knockdown of MKK7 but not MKK4 remarkably decreased JNK/c-Jun activity and proliferation, whereas ectopic MKK7-JNK1 reversed HDACI-induced c-Jun suppression. Furthermore, suppression of both MKK-7/c-Jun and Raf-1/Fra-1 activities was involved in the tumor growth inhibitory effects induced by SAHA in SH-SY5Y xenograft mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that c-Jun/Fra-1 dimer is critical for neuroblastoma cell growth and that HDACIs act as effective suppressors of the two oncogenes through transcriptionally downregulating MKK7 and Raf1. PMID:26734995

  9. Contribution of REM sleep to Fos and FRA expression in the vestibular nuclei of rat leading to vestibular adaptation during the STS-90 Neurolab Mission.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, O

    2007-01-01

    1. Electrophysical studies performed in ground-based experiments have shown that VN neurons respond to labyrinthine signals following stimulation of macular gravity receptors. Additional evidence indicates that VN neurons may also respond to extralabyrinthine signals of pontine origin, which occur during the PGO waves typical of REM sleep (Bizzi et al., 1964a, b; cf. also Pompeiano, 1967, 1970, 1974 for ref.). 2. In a previous study (Pompeiano et al., 2002) changes in Fos and FRA expression were used to identify the short-term (Fos) and the long-term (FRA) molecular changes which affect the VN neurons at different time points of the space flight. In particular, while Fos protein persists in the brain tissue only for a few hours (6-8 hrs) after its induction, FRA proteins, which can also be induced in the same experimental conditions, persist in the brain tissue for longer periods of time (i.e. from 12/24 hrs to days). 3. In order to relate the changes in gene expression which occurred in the VN during the space flight either to gravity changes or to REM sleep, we investigated in a recent study (Centini et al, 2006) the changes in Fos and FRA expression which occurred in different phases of the sleep-waking cycle, thus being indicative of the animal state. We could then compare the results obtained during the space lab Mission with those previously observed either in ground-based experiments during the physiological state of waking and slow-wave (SWS) or during neurochemically induced episodes of PS, as obtained after microinjection of appropriate agents in dorsal pontine structures of rats. 4. Our findings indicated that a waking state possibly associated with episodes of SWS, occurred at FD2 and FD14, i.e. at launch and after exposure of the animal to microgravity. It appeared also that at the reentry (R + 1) rather than at launch (FD2), an increase in Fos and FRA expression affected the noradrenergic LC neurons, as well as several related structures. These findings probably resulted from the acceleration stress, or immobilization stress as shown by the appearance of a starle reaction (or arrest reaction) which occurred after landing. This condition of stress was followed after landing by an increase in Fos and FRA expression which affected ventromedial medullary reticular structures, whose descending projections are involved in the suppression of postural activity during PS. Moreover, their ascending projections were likely to increase the FRA expression in the neocortex as well as in several regions of the limbic system, such as the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus, which lead to EEG desynchronization and the theta activity during PS. FRA expression affected also at the reentry pontine and diencephalic structures, such as the lateral parabrachial nucleus and the central nucleus of the amygdala, which are known to contribute to the occurrence of pontine waves and the related bursts of REM. 5. Observations made on the various components of the vestibular complex indicated that no Fos and FRA expression occurred in the LVN at the four different mission time points. However, an increase in Fos and FRA expression occurred particularly in the medial (MVN) and spinal vestibular nuclei (SpVN) at FD2 and at R + 1, i.e. 1 day after launch and 12-24 hours after landing, respectively. The pattern of FRA expression observed in the VN during the space flight was generally similar to that of Fos, except at the reentry, when FRA positive cells were observed throughout the whole SpVN, but not the MVN, which showed only a few labeled cells in its rostral part. In contrast to this finding, a prominent Fos expression was found not only in the SpVN, but also throughout the entire MVN. In this case the Fos labeling affected not only the caudal but also the rostral part of this structure, including the dorsal (MVePc) rather than the ventral aspect (MVeMc). Grounded on their different time of persistence, both Fos and FRA expression which occurred in the SpVe could be attributed to the increase in gravity force experienced during take-off and landing, while the Fos pattern which affected particularly the MVN soon after the reentry could additionally be attributed to the rebound episode of PS following the forced period of waking which occurred after landing and after the prolonged (12 days) exposure to microgravity. 6. The results of the present experiments provide the first molecular evidence that pontine activity sources producing rhythmic discharges of vestibulo-ocular neurons during REM sleep may substitute for labyrinthine signals after prolonged (12 days) exposure to microgravity, thus contributing to activity-related plastic changes in the VN leading to readaptation of the vestibular system to 1 G. PMID:17274184

  10. [Fra Dujo Ostojić (1863-1938) and his "Domaći Liečnik - medicus domesticus"].

    PubMed

    Nikic, Andrija

    2010-01-01

    Fra Dujo Ostojić(Bijakovići, 1863 - Humac kod Ljubuškog, 1938) was an educator, teacher, spiritual guide, pastor, cultural, political, charity and welfare activist, a bibliophile, collector, chronicler, and copyist, who worked all over Herzegovina. In 1913, he became Franciscan provincial in Mostar. He was also a member of the Bosnian and Herzegovinian parliament in Sarajevo, where he fervently advocated the rights, identity, and cultural and economic interests of the Croatian people of Herzegovina. At about the same time he bought printing machines from a local printer Dionička tiskara and started a printing office that later became the well known Tiskara FP (FP - Franciscan Province). He continued to write his memoirs, adding new manuscripts to the volume. Two of them are worth of particular mention: "Domaći liečnik - Medicus domesticus" ("People's Doctor", 1146 large format pages) and "Necrologium". There he describes the lives of Franciscan brothers and people he knew who practiced the art of pharmacy and medicine, and expands the recipes collected in healing books of the time. Unlike the manuscripts of some of his brothers, Ostojić's have survived for over seventy years to this day, to reveal his magnificent legacy to the Croatian people. PMID:21192115

  11. Sources of clasts in terrestrial impact melts - Clues to the origin of LKFM. [Low-K Fra Mauro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, K. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Spudis, P. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1989-01-01

    Low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) 'basalt', which is found exclusively as an impact melt rock, cannot be modeled geochemically from its clast population or from any combination of known pristine lunar rock types. To clarify clast/melt relationships, a study was made of impact melt rocks from Mistastin Lake crater, Labrador, where there are only three target rocks: anorthosite, quartz monzonite, and granodiorite. Feldspar compositions in these rocks define distinct fields on the An-Ab-Or ternary diagram, making it possible to identify the source of each feldspar clast. Clasts in the Mistastin impact melts do not reflect the abundance of target rocks melted during the impact. The abundance of anorthosite in the clast population varies from 34 to 100 percent compared to a relatively constant value of 65 percent calculated to be in the melt matrix. Therefore the clasts appear to be derived predominantly from material relatively far removed from the zone of impact melting. Melt-matrix composition is dictated strictly by the composition of the target materials within a small radius around and below the point of impact. This suggests that the LKFM composition was derived from a lower crustal source.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of genes at the human common fragile site FRA1H in tumor-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pelliccia, Franca; Curatolo, Angela; Limongi, Zaira M; Bosco, Nazario; Rocchi, Angela

    2007-10-15

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) are chromosome regions that exhibit gaps and breaks when the cells are exposed to replication stress and to some DNA-binding compounds. In cancer cells, the CFSs are frequently involved in recurrent chromosome rearrangements. Furthermore, altered expression of associated genes, known or potential oncogenes, and tumor-suppressor genes has often been observed. Seventeen of the 88 listed CFSs have been analyzed at the molecular level, but the basis of their fragility has not been clarified. In the present work, the nine genes TGFB2, IARS2, MARK1, TAF1A, TP53BP2, ADPRT, including a very large gene ESRRG and two microRNA genes, MIRN194-1 and MIRN215, localized in the fragile site FRA1H, were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for homozygous deletions and by real-time PCR for modification or loss of gene expression in a panel of 19 cancer cell lines. The expression level of five (ESRRG, TGFB2, MIRN194-1, MIRN215, and MARK1) of the nine genes studied presented significant modifications in some of the 19 examined tumor-derived cell lines compared to their normal control tissues. Because of their function, these genes could have a role in neoplastic transformation. PMID:17954271

  13. Genomic rearrangements at the FRA2H common fragile site frequently involve non-homologous recombination events across LTR and L1(LINE) repeats.

    PubMed

    Brueckner, Lena M; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Hess, Elisa M; Zheglo, Diana; Blumrich, Anne; Schwab, Manfred; Savelyeva, Larissa

    2012-08-01

    Common fragile sites (cFSs) are non-random chromosomal regions that are prone to breakage under conditions of replication stress. DNA damage and chromosomal alterations at cFSs appear to be critical events in the development of various human diseases, especially carcinogenesis. Despite the growing interest in understanding the nature of cFS instability, only a few cFSs have been molecularly characterised. In this study, we fine-mapped the location of FRA2H using six-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation and showed that it is one of the most active cFSs in the human genome. FRA2H encompasses approximately 530 kb of a gene-poor region containing a novel large intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC097500.2). Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridisation, we detected gross and submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements involving FRA2H in a panel of 54 neuroblastoma, colon and breast cancer cell lines. The genomic alterations frequently involved different classes of long terminal repeats and long interspersed nuclear elements. An analysis of breakpoint junction sequence motifs predominantly revealed signatures of microhomology-mediated non-homologous recombination events. Our data provide insight into the molecular structure of cFSs and sequence motifs affected by their activation in cancer. Identifying cFS sequences will accelerate the search for DNA biomarkers and targets for individualised therapies. PMID:22476624

  14. Scribble Modulates the MAPK/Fra1 Pathway to Disrupt Luminal and Ductal Integrity and Suppress Tumour Formation in the Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Godde, Nathan J.; Sheridan, Julie M.; Smith, Lorey K.; Pearson, Helen B.; Britt, Kara L.; Galea, Ryan C.; Yates, Laura L.; Visvader, Jane E.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2014-01-01

    Polarity coordinates cell movement, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis to build and maintain complex epithelial tissues such as the mammary gland. Loss of polarity and the deregulation of these processes are critical events in malignant progression but precisely how and at which stage polarity loss impacts on mammary development and tumourigenesis is unclear. Scrib is a core polarity regulator and tumour suppressor gene however to date our understanding of Scrib function in the mammary gland has been limited to cell culture and transplantation studies of cell lines. Utilizing a conditional mouse model of Scrib loss we report for the first time that Scrib is essential for mammary duct morphogenesis, mammary progenitor cell fate and maintenance, and we demonstrate a critical and specific role for Scribble in the control of the early steps of breast cancer progression. In particular, Scrib-deficiency significantly induced Fra1 expression and basal progenitor clonogenicity, which resulted in fully penetrant ductal hyperplasia characterized by high cell turnover, MAPK hyperactivity, frank polarity loss with mixing of apical and basolateral membrane constituents and expansion of atypical luminal cells. We also show for the first time a role for Scribble in mammalian spindle orientation with the onset of mammary hyperplasia being associated with aberrant luminal cell spindle orientation and a failure to apoptose during the final stage of duct tubulogenesis. Restoring MAPK/Fra1 to baseline levels prevented Scrib-hyperplasia, whereas persistent Scrib deficiency induced alveolar hyperplasia and increased the incidence, onset and grade of mammary tumours. These findings, based on a definitive genetic mouse model provide fundamental insights into mammary duct maturation and homeostasis and reveal that Scrib loss activates a MAPK/Fra1 pathway that alters mammary progenitor activity to drive premalignancy and accelerate tumour progression. PMID:24852022

  15. Serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis can increase PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL expression in MG63 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zaiying; Lin, Dongfang; Qi, Jun; Qiu, Minli; Lv, Qing; Li, Qiuxia; Lin, Zhiming; Liao, Zetao; Pan, Yunfeng; Jin, Ou; Wu, Yuqiong; Gu, Jieruo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis on the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and to assess whether the serum has an osteogenic effect in MG63 cells. METHODS: MG63 cells were cultured with serum from 45 ankylosing spondylitis patients, 30 healthy controls, or 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients. The relative PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Associations between gene expression and patient demographics and clinical assessments were then analyzed. RESULTS: MG63 cells treated with serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients had higher PPARD, fra-1, MMP7 and OPG gene expression than did cells treated with serum from controls or rheumatoid arthritis patients (all p<0.05). RANKL expression was higher in MG63 cells treated with serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis or rheumatoid arthritis than in those treated with serum from controls (both p<0.05). The OPG/RANKL ratio was also higher in MG63 cells treated with serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients than in those treated with serum from controls (p<0.05). No associations were found between the expression of the five genes and the patient demographics and clinical assessments (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS : Serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients increases PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL expression and the OPG/RANKL ratio in MG63 cells; these effects may be due to the stimulatory effect of the serum on the Wnt pathway. PMID:26602520

  16. Forest cover maps of China in 2010 from multiple approaches and data sources: PALSAR, Landsat, MODIS, FRA, and NFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Shimada, Masanobu; Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Chungan; Kou, Weili; Moore, Berrien

    2015-11-01

    Forests and their changes are important to the regional and global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Some uncertainty about forest cover area in China calls for an accurate and updated forest cover map. In this study, we combined ALOS PALSAR orthorectified 50-m mosaic images (FBD mode with HH and HV polarization) and MODIS time series data in 2010 to map forests in China. We used MODIS-based NDVI dataset (MOD13Q1, 250-m spatial resolution) to generate a map of annual maximum NDVI and used it to mask out built-up lands, barren lands, and sparsely vegetated lands. We developed a decision tree classification algorithm to identify forest and non-forest land cover, based on the signature analysis of PALSAR backscatter coefficient data. The PALSAR-based algorithm was then applied to produce a forest cover map in China in 2010. The resulting forest/non-forest classification map has an overall accuracy of 96.2% and a Kappa Coefficient of 0.91. The resultant 50-m PALSAR-based forest cover map was compared to five forest cover databases. The total forest area (2.02 × 106 km2) in China from the PALSAR-based forest map is close to the forest area estimates from China National Forestry Inventory (1.95 × 106 km2), JAXA (2.00 × 106 km2), and FAO FRA (2.07 × 106 km2). There are good linear relationships between the PALSAR-based forest map and the forest maps from the JAXA, MCD12Q1, and NLCD-China datasets at the province and county scales. All the forest maps have similar spatial distributions of forest/non-forest at pixel scale. Our PALSAR-based forest map recognizes well the agro-forests in China. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of integrating PALSAR and MODIS images to map forests in large areas. The resultant map of forest cover in China in 2010 can be used for many studies such as forest carbon cycle and ecological restoration.

  17. LOXL4 Is Induced by Transforming Growth Factor β1 through Smad and JunB/Fra2 and Contributes to Vascular Matrix Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Busnadiego, Oscar; González-Santamaría, José; Lagares, David; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Muller, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic factor involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling. In search for novel genes mediating the action of TGF-β1 on vascular ECM, we identified the member of the lysyl oxidase family of matrix-remodeling enzymes, lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), as a direct target of TGF-β1 in aortic endothelial cells, and we dissected the molecular mechanism of its induction. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis analysis of the LOXL4 promoter demonstrated the absolute requirement of a distal enhancer containing an activator protein 1 (AP-1) site and a Smad binding element for TGF-β1 to induce LOXL4 expression. Functional cooperation between Smad proteins and the AP-1 complex composed of JunB/Fra2 accounted for the action of TGF-β1, which involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent phosphorylation of Fra2. We furthermore provide evidence that LOXL4 was extracellularly secreted and significantly contributed to ECM deposition and assembly. These results suggest that TGF-β1-dependent expression of LOXL4 plays a role in vascular ECM homeostasis, contributing to vascular processes associated with ECM remodeling and fibrosis. PMID:23572561

  18. Multicolor FISH mapping of YAC clones in 3p14 and identification of a YAC spanning both FRA3B and the t(3;8) associated with hereditary renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.M.; Guo, S.W.; Hall, B.K.

    1994-07-15

    Human chromosome band 3p14 contains two tightly linked cytogenetic markers of broad interest, FRA3B and the t(3;8) breakpoint associated with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The common fragile site at 3p14.2 (FRA3B) is the most sensitive site on normal human chromosomes to breakage when DNA replication is perturbed by aphidicolon or folate stress. The t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1) translocation segregates with RCC in a large family and could mark the location of a tumor suppressor gene involved in renal cancers. In studies aimed at positional cloning of FRA3B and the t(3;8) breakpoint, the authors have used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) on metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei to order 14 yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in 3p14. The YACs used in this study were identified by a group of unordered lambda clones that had been previously localized to the 3p14 region and mapped proximal or distal to the t(3;8) breakpoint. FISH analysis was used to order the YACs and to map them in relation both to the t(3;8) translocation breakpoint and to FRA3B induced on normal chromosomes by treatment with aphidicolin. YACs that closely flanked both the t(3;8) translocation breakpoint and the fragile site were identified. A YAC walk from the closest distal YAC allowed the identification of a 1.3-Mb YAC derived from the CEPH large insert YAC library that spans both the FRA3B and the t(3;8) breakpoint. The order of the YACs and cytogenetic landmarks in 3p14 is cen-(126E1/230B9)-181H6-B15-D20F4-258B7-280D2-70E12-168S8-403B2-143C5-413C6-468B10-[850A6/t(3;8)/FRA3B]-74B2. The location of FRA3B and the t(3;8) translocation within the same YAC supports previous cytogenetic studies indicating that these two sites are very closely linked and provides a resource for their molecular analyses. 42 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. DNA structure and the Werner protein modulate human DNA polymerase delta-dependent replication dynamics within the common fragile site FRA16D

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sandeep N.; Opresko, Patricia L.; Meng, Xiao; Lee, Marietta Y. W. T.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFS) are chromosomal regions that exhibit instability during DNA replication stress. Although the mechanism of CFS expression has not been fully elucidated, one known feature is a severely delayed S-phase. We used an in vitro primer extension assay to examine the progression of DNA synthesis through various sequences within FRA16D by the replicative human DNA polymerases ? and ?, and with human cell-free extracts. We found that specific cis-acting sequence elements perturb DNA elongation, causing inconsistent DNA synthesis rates between regions on the same strand and complementary strands. Pol ? was significantly inhibited in regions containing hairpins and microsatellites, [AT/TA]24 and [A/T]1928, compared with a control region with minimal secondary structure. Pol ? processivity was enhanced by full length Werner Syndrome protein (WRN) and by WRN fragments containing either the helicase domain or DNA-binding C-terminal domain. In cell-free extracts, stalling was eliminated at smaller hairpins, but persisted in larger hairpins and microsatellites. Our data support a model whereby CFS expression during cellular stress is due to a combination of factorsdensity of specific DNA secondary-structures within a genomic region and asymmetric rates of strand synthesis. PMID:19969545

  20. A C-terminal domain in FosB, absent in FosB/SF and Fra-1, which is able to interact with the TATA binding protein, is required for altered cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Metz, R; Kouzarides, T; Bravo, R

    1994-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes is thought to occur through interactions between specific transcription factors and the general transcription machinery. We show that the regulatory protein FosB, but not FosB/SF or Fra-1, specifically and stably associates with the TATA box binding protein (TBP) and the multiprotein complex TFIID. The binding to TBP is specified by the last 55 C-terminal amino acids of FosB, requiring a small amino acid sequence, termed the 'TBP binding motif' (TBM). Deletion of the TBM affects transcriptional activity slightly, but it is adjacent to a proline-rich sequence which constitutes the major transactivation domain. However, both regions are required for the transformation of Rat-1A cells by FosB. Transfection experiments demonstrate that inhibition of transactivation due to excess levels of Gal4-FosB (squelching) can be partially relieved by the co-expression of TBP, which establishes that TFIID is a functional target of FosB. Since TBP binding is not exhibited by FosB/SF or Fra-1, we suggest that the activity mediated by the TBP interaction is one differentiating characteristic that distinguishes the FosB functions from those of FosB/SF and Fra-1. Images PMID:8070410

  1. Variations in the FRA10AC1 Fragile Site and 15q21 Are Associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ1-42 Level

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingqin S.; Parrado, Antonio R.; Samtani, Mahesh N.; Narayan, Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Proteolytic fragments of amyloid and post-translational modification of tau species in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as cerebral amyloid deposition are important biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease. We conducted genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors influencing CSF biomarker level, cerebral amyloid deposition, and disease progression. The genome-wide association study was performed via a meta-analysis of two non-overlapping discovery sample sets to identify genetic variants other than APOE ε4 predictive of the CSF biomarker level (Aβ1–42, t-Tau, p-Tau181P, t-Tau:Aβ1–42 ratio, and p-Tau181P:Aβ1–42 ratio) in patients enrolled in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Loci passing a genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5 x 10−8 were followed-up for replication in an independent sample set. We also performed joint meta-analysis of both discovery sample sets together with the replication sample set. In the discovery phase, we identified variants in FRA10AC1 associated with CSF Aβ1–42 level passing the genome-wide significance threshold (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.1 x 10−9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 3.5 x 10−10), rs116953792 (Pone-sided = 0.04) achieved replication. This association became stronger in the joint meta-analysis (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.7 x 10−9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 7.6 x 10−11). Additionally, we identified locus 15q21 (imputed SNV rs1503351 PFE = 4.0 x 10−8) associated with CSF Aβ1–42 level. No other variants passed the genome-wide significance threshold for other CSF biomarkers in either the discovery sample sets or joint analysis. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested that targeted genes mediated by miR-33, miR-146, and miR-193 were enriched in various GWAS analyses. This finding is particularly important because CSF biomarkers confer disease susceptibility and may be predictive of the likelihood of disease progression in Alzheimer’s Disease. PMID:26252872

  2. Fra leggi fisiche ed equazioni matematiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldi, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    The author deals with the common names usually given to mathematical expressions. Newton's law of universal gravitation was never expressed by Newton in the complete form presented below as equation number 1. A different case is represented by Kepler's equation indicated here as equation number 4. That formula contains the definition of a uniform angular motion for the mean anomaly, which Kepler constantly refused and substituted with an area measure for this anomaly. The author would like to suggest two names to be remembered for these mathematical expressions: Henry Cavendish, for the first, and Leonard Euler, for the second.

  3. Apollo 14: Science at Fra Mauro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The many scientific activities and experiments performed during the Apollo 14 Mission are presented in a descriptive, non-technical format. Content relates to experiments on the lunar surface and to those performed while traveling in space, and provides a great deal of information about the flight. Many photographs from the journey, a map of the…

  4. The particle track record of Fra Mauro.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, H. R., Jr.; Comstock, G. M.; Fleischer, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Apollo 14 breccias show a mixture of high and low track densities at most interior positions, indicating that the majority of the tracks have been inherited from the parent ingredients of the breccias. Using the lowest of these track densities as indicative of maximum postbrecciation surface residence times, we find a median 1.35 m.y., much younger than the less friable Apollo 11 and 12 igneous rocks. The igneous rock 14310 is studied as a part of a consortium, the results indicating a complex irradiation history. Soils are extremely variable, median track densities ranging over at least a factor of 200. Individual high density soil grains yield track density gradients having variable slopes, most of which are lower than expected from the Surveyor III filter glass results.

  5. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  6. Ancient crustal components in the Fra Mauro breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Texturally pristine clasts preserve primary petrographic relationships and mineral compositions, yielding insights into igneous processes of the early lunar crust that cannot be gained from highly shocked and brecciated 'chemically pristine' samples. The use of texture as a prime criterion allows for expansion of the data base derived solely from chemical criteria, and provides complementary data. Texturally pristine clasts from the Apollo 14 site studied here include anorthosite, troctolites, gabbronorites, and basalts. Alkali anorthosites are plagioclase orthocumulates and may form by flotation in Mg-suite plutons. Ferroan anorthosite was cataclastically deformed and metamorphosed to granulite facies. Troctolites include both 01 + Plg and 01 + En + Plg cumulates. Major and trace element analyses of two troctolites reveal 'eastern' geochemical affinities that contrast other 'western' troctolites. Gabbronorites are Pig + Plg + or - Sp cumulates whose parent magmas may range from high-Al to intermediate-Ti mare basalt. At least three varieties of mare basalt are found at Apollo 14: high-Al, low-Ti; low-Al, intermediate-Ti; and low-Al, Ti VHK basalt. VHK (Very High Potassium) basalt is a new variety indigenous to Apollo 14.

  7. Geomorphology of crater and basin deposits - Emplacement of the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. H.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of continuous deposits near lunar craters larger than about 1 km wide are considered, and it is concluded that (1) concentric dunes, radial ridges, and braided lineations result from deposition of the collision products of ejecta from adjacent pairs of similarly oriented secondary-crater chains and are, therefore, concentrations of secondary-crater ejecta; (2) intracrater ridges are produced within preexisting craters surrounding a fresh primary crater by ricocheting and focusing of secondary-crater ejecta from the preexisting craters' walls; and (3) secondary cratering has produced many of the structures of the continuous deposits of relatively small lunar craters and is the dominant process for emplacement of most of the radial facies of the continuous deposits of large lunar craters and basins. The percentages of Imbrium ejecta in deposits and the nature of Imbrium sculpturing are investigated.

  8. 49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.103 Approval of design of individual railroad programs... the training of conductors and thereby obtain authority for that railroad to initially certify a person as a conductor in an appropriate type of service; or (2) To recertify only conductors...

  9. 49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.103 Approval of design of individual railroad programs... the training of conductors and thereby obtain authority for that railroad to initially certify a person as a conductor in an appropriate type of service; or (2) To recertify only conductors...

  10. 49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.103 Approval of design of individual railroad programs... the training of conductors and thereby obtain authority for that railroad to initially certify a person as a conductor in an appropriate type of service; or (2) To recertify only conductors...

  11. On Pu-244 in lunar rocks from Fra Mauro and implications regarding their origin.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Lightner, B. D.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    The evidence for in situ produced fission xenon from Pu-244 in rock 14321 is presented. The inferred abundance ratio Pu-244/U-238 is found to be consistent with values observed in a meteorite. Data from a stepwise release of the xenon permits a characterization of the trapped component, which can be shown to be distinct from solar xenon. We discuss the evidence for the presence of fission gases and of uncorrelated radiogenic argon in this and in other Apollo 14 rocks and some implications regarding their origin.

  12. Lunar surface closeup stereoscopic photography at Fra Mauro (Apollo 14 site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Heiken, G.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 17-1/2 stereopairs of lunar surface rocks and soil was taken on the Apollo 14 mission. The closeup stereopair photographs are presented with a preliminary interpretation for those interested in lunar soil formation, impact phenomena, and soil mechanics.

  13. Exposure ages and neutron capture record in lunar samples from Fra Mauro.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic-ray exposure ages of Apollo 14 rocks and rock fragments obtained by the Kr81-Kr83 method range from 27 to 700 m.y. Rock 14321, collected near the Cone crater rim, is one of the many approximately 27 m.y. old ejecta which were reported at the Third Lunar Science Conference. All the other rocks have considerably higher exposure ages. Isotopic anomalies from neutron capture in gadolinium, bromine, and barium are used to obtain information on the lunar neutron spectrum at various depths below the lunar surface. The flux ratio of resonance and slow (less than 0.3 eV) neutrons is found to be nearly constant in the topmost approximately 100 g/sq cm.

  14. "Speech Act" Fra Teoria e Prassi Didattica. (The Speech Act between Theory and Pedagogical Practice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minardi, Giovanni

    1982-01-01

    The author traces the development of speech act theory from Wittgenstein and Austin through Searle to Grice and shows how their work led to the notional functional approach to language teaching, which is based on the learner and his/her communicative needs. (CFM)

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... width or more; (3) 13/4″ in length and 3/4″ in width or more. (F) Wheel has slid flat spot or shelled spot: (1) 21/2″ in length or more; (2) Has two adjoining flat spots each of which is 2″ in length or greater; (3) A single flat spot 3″ in length or more; (4) Has two adjoining flat spots one of which is...

  16. Sintering and hot pressing of Fra Mauro composition glass and the lithification of lunar breccias.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    It is proposed that Apollo 14 type breccias lithify by sintering of particles of matrix glass under stress-free conditions. Meteorite impacts generate the heat necessary for sintering. Compacted angular particles of glass with the composition of an Apollo 14 rock were sintered experimentally. Loose clods of sub 37 micron grains form in several days at 700 C. Synthetic rocks, which texturally resemble the breccias, were produced at 795 C and above in 7.5 hours. Glass devitrified with increasing temperature. At 850 C, devitrification prevents much further densification of the synthetic breccias after 2 hours. Experiments compressing glass at 500 bars at 600 C produced dense vitreous masses which did not resemble lunar breccias. Confining pressure does not play a major role in lithifying the breccias. It is concluded that Apollo 14 type lunar breccias form at shallow depths at 800 C+ in a period of minutes to days.

  17. FRA -- A computer program that uses a fractal methodology to calculate the volume and number of undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C.C.; Troussov, G.L. )

    1996-01-01

    A new method based on fractal geometry has been developed and computerized for assessing the size, number, and total volume of undiscovered, conventionally recoverable hydrocarbon accumulations based on fitting a truncated fractal (power-law) distribution to a log-log plot of the cumulative size-frequency distribution of discovered accumulations in a play or other geologically or geographically defined region.

  18. FRA -- A computer program that uses a fractal methodology to calculate the volume and number of undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C.C.; Troussov, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    A new method based on fractal geometry has been developed and computerized for assessing the size, number, and total volume of undiscovered, conventionally recoverable hydrocarbon accumulations based on fitting a truncated fractal (power-law) distribution to a log-log plot of the cumulative size-frequency distribution of discovered accumulations in a play or other geologically or geographically defined region.

  19. The Frankfurt Patient Safety Climate Questionnaire for General Practices (FraSiK): analysis of psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Domanska, Olga Maria; Albay, Zeycan; Mueller, Vera; Guethlin, Corina; Thomas, Eric J; Gerlach, Ferdinand M

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND Safety culture has been identified as having a major impact on how safety is managed in healthcare. However, it has not received much attention in general practices. Hence, no instrument yet exists to assess safety climate-the measurable artefact of safety culture-in this setting. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of a newly developed safety climate questionnaire for use in German general practices. METHODS The existing Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, Ambulatory Version, was considerably modified and enhanced in order to be applicable in general practice. After pilot tests and its application in a random sample of 400 German practices, a first psychometric analysis led to modifications in several items. A further psychometric analysis was conducted with an additional sample of 60 practices and a response rate of 97.08%. Exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal varimax rotation was carried out and the internal consistency of the identified factors was calculated. RESULTS Nine factors emerged, representing a wide range of dimensions associated with safety culture: teamwork climate, error management, safety of clinical processes, perception of causes of errors, job satisfaction, safety of office structure, receptiveness to healthcare assistants and patients, staff perception of management, and quality and safety of medical care. Internal consistency of factors is moderate to good. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates the development of a patient safety climate instrument. The questionnaire displays established features of safety climate and additionally contains features that might be specific to small-scale general practices. PMID:21571753

  20. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) issued on July 15, 2009, by Fatigue Science, Inc. (with a fatigue threshold for the purpose of this... subject to this subpart shall consult with, employ good faith, and use its best efforts to reach...

  1. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) issued on July 15, 2009, by Fatigue Science, Inc. (with a fatigue threshold for the purpose of this... subject to this subpart shall consult with, employ good faith, and use its best efforts to reach...

  2. Methotrexate treatment of FraX fibroblasts results in FMR1 transcription but not in detectable FMR1 protein levels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome is caused by the loss of FMRP expression due to methylation of the FMR1 promoter. Treatment of fragile X syndrome patients’ lymphoblastoid cells with 5-azadeoxycytidine results in demethylation of the promoter and reactivation of the gene. The aim of the study was to analyze if methotrexate, an agent which also reduces DNA methylation but with less toxicity than 5-azadeoxycytidine, has therapeutic potential in fragile X syndrome. Methods Fibroblasts of fragile X syndrome patients were treated with methotrexate in concentrations ranging from 1 to 4 μg/ml for up to 14 days. FMR1 and FMRP expression were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blotting. Results FMR1 mRNA was detected and levels correlated positively with methotrexate concentrations and time of treatment, but western blotting did not show detectable FMRP levels. Conclusions We show that it is possible to reactivate FMR1 transcription in fibroblasts of fragile X syndrome patients by treatment with methotrexate. However, we were not able to show FMRP expression, possibly due to the reduced translation efficacy caused by the triplet repeat extension. Unless FMR1 reactivation is more effective in vivo our results indicate that methotrexate has no role in the treatment of fragile X syndrome. PMID:24020679

  3. Yersinia pestis pFra Shows Biovar-Specific Differences and Recent Common Ancestry with a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Michael B.; James, Keith D.; Parkhill, Julian; Baker, Stephen G.; Stevens, Kim; Simmonds, Mark N.; Mungall, Karen L.; Churcher, Carol; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Titball, Richard W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Wain, John; Pickard, Derek; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dougan, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Population genetic studies suggest that Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a clonal pathogen that has recently emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Plasmid acquisition is likely to have been a key element in this evolutionary leap from an enteric to a flea-transmitted systemic pathogen. However, the origin of Y. pestis-specific plasmids remains obscure. We demonstrate specific plasmid rearrangements in different Y. pestis strains which distinguish Y. pestis bv. Orientalis strains from other biovars. We also present evidence for plasmid-associated DNA exchange between Y. pestis and the exclusively human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. PMID:11274119

  4. Projektarbejde i fremmedsprogene: Rapport fra seminar pa Roskilde Universitetscenter (Project Work in Foreign Languages: Report from a Seminar at Roskilde University Center). ROLIG-papir 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Karen Sonne, Ed.

    This report describes a seminar at Roskilde University Center (Denmark) on project work in foreign languages, which brought together language teachers and theorists from different schools, including universities, business schools, technical schools, merchants schools, and high schools, to discuss their experiences with project work in foreign

  5. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manufacturer's utilization of safety design practices during the PTC system's development and testing phases... identified in paragraphs (c) through (g) of this appendix. However, the reviewer should not engage in design... the reviewer requests and attendance at any design review or walkthrough that the reviewer...

  6. Bringing Chemistry to Life: From Matter to Man (by R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasfeld, Arthur

    2001-04-01

    Literature Cited

    1. Reviewed by Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1559.
    2. Zubay, G. Origins of Life on the Earth and in the Cosmos, 2nd ed.; Academic: New York, 2000.
    3. Schultz, E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1001.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vulnerabilities which are not adequately mitigated by the supplier's (or user's) processes. Finally, the reviewer... these estimates; (2) PTC system vulnerabilities, potentially hazardous failure modes, or potentially... mitigated; (3) A clear statement of position for all parties involved for each PTC system...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vulnerabilities which are not adequately mitigated by the supplier's (or user's) processes. Finally, the reviewer... these estimates; (2) PTC system vulnerabilities, potentially hazardous failure modes, or potentially... mitigated; (3) A clear statement of position for all parties involved for each PTC system...

  9. Heritable fragile sites on human chromosomes. VII. Children homozygous for the BrdU-requiring fra(10)q25 are phenotypically normal

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Grant R.

    1981-01-01

    A brother and sister have been detected who are homozygous for the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-requiring fragile site at 10q25. The children are phenotypically normal, indicating that homozygosity for this fragile site is harmless, at least during childhood. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:7325157

  10. Petrogenesis of the western highlands of the moon - Evidence from a diverse group of whitlockite-rich rocks from the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1992-01-01

    A group of KREEPy basalts has been discovered in Apollo 14 soils. These samples exhibit similarities to both HA and VHK basalts, albeit with much higher REE abundances, and contain up to 2 vol pct whitlockite and can be explained by assimilation of a K-, REE- and P-rich fluids by an original HA or VHK basalt. This KREEP component could have been produced late in the evolution of the lunar magma ocean and is similar in composition to QMD at Apollo 14. Two rocks have trace element compositions that are representative of actual KREEP. One of the samples appears to be petrographically pristine and could represent an actual KREEP basalt rock. Five subophitic high-Al basalts represent sampling of either a slowly cooled impact melt sheet or, more likely, the same basalt flow. Two 'quasi-pristine' highland rocks confirm the postulate of a connection between KREEP and the alkali suite. A newly discovered alkali anorthosite is a plagioclase cumulate with about 15 percent trapped KREEPy liquid.

  11. Copy number and haplotype variation at the VRN-A1 and central FR-A2 loci are associated with frost tolerance in hexaploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frost tolerance is a key trait to ensure winter wheat survival. Natural variation for this trait is mainly associated with allelic differences at the VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) and FROST RESISTANCE 2 (FR2) loci. VRN1 regulates the transition between vegetative and reproductive stages and FR2, a locus in...

  12. La ténorraphie percutanée dans les ruptures fraîches du tendon calcanéen: à propos de 67 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bessam, Aman; Hassani, Zouhir Ameziane; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Steinmetz, Alain

    2014-01-01

    La rupture du tendon calcanéen est une des lésions les plus fréquentes en pathologie du sport, les deux options thérapeutiques classiques sont le traitement orthopédique et la chirurgie à ciel ouvert. Dans le but de minimiser ces complications, des techniques mini-invasives de ténorraphie percutanée ont été proposées dont les résultats sont encourageants. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective d'une série de cas de rupture sous cutanée du tendon d'Achille s’étalant de Avril 2005 au Juin 2012 concernant 67 patients; 11 femmes et 56 hommes avec un âge moyen de 41 ans. La cause principale était un accident de sport dans 45 cas. Le diagnostic était évident à l'examen chez tous les patients. Dans deux cas il s'agissait d'une rerupture survenant à 1 et 5 ans d'un traitement orthopédique. Dans un cas il s'agissait d'une rerupture survenant après une ténorraphie percutanée. Dans deux cas il s'agissait d'une rupture sur tendinopathie chronique. Tous les patients avaient bénéficié d'une radio de la cheville qui avait montré une horizontalisation du calcanéum chez 5 patients et surtout elle n'avait pas montré de fracture associée, alors que 15 patients avaient bénéficié d'une échographie qui a confirmé le diagnostic. Tous les patients avaient été opérés dans un délai de moins de 48 heures Une ténorraphie percutanée a été pratiqué chez tous les patients. Le recul moyen est de 43 mois, trois patients ont été perdus de vue Nous avons noté une reprise des activités professionnelle effective en moyen 90 jours après l'intervention et celle des activités sportive à 6 mois en moyenne L’état cutané local a été jugée bon dans 63 cas. Par ailleurs les complications ont été marquées par un seul cas d'infection ayant nécessité une reprise chirurgical a été noté mise à plat, trois cas de rerupture repris par suture à ciel ouvert, un cas d'algodystrophie et un cas de tendinopathie Il n'y a eu aucune complication thromboembolique ni neurologique. Il n'existe pas de réel consensus concernant la prise en charge des ruptures du tendon calcanéen. Ainsi, La ténorraphie percutanée du tendon calcanéen est une méthode simple rapide et efficace, elle allie les avantages de la chirurgie à ciel ouvert en termes de pourcentage de rerupture et les avantages du traitement fonctionnel en rapport avec un faible risque infectieux. PMID:25332749

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  14. 77 FR 37737 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Northeast Corridor Between Washington, DC, New York, NY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... overall scope, alternatives, approach and business case for proposed service and improvements. As part of... accordance with FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts, 64 FR 28454 (FRA...

  15. Cluster of Genes That Encode Positive and Negative Elements Influencing Filament Length in a Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Herrero, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis in vegetative cells and nitrogen fixation in heterocysts, and their filaments can be hundreds of cells long. In the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the genes in the fraC-fraD-fraE operon are required for filament integrity mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. The fraC operon transcript partially overlaps gene all2395, which lies in the opposite DNA strand and ends 1 bp beyond fraE. Gene all2395 produces transcripts of 1.35 kb (major transcript) and 2.2 kb (minor transcript) that overlap fraE and whose expression is dependent on the N-control transcription factor NtcA. Insertion of a gene cassette containing transcriptional terminators between fraE and all2395 prevented production of the antisense RNAs and resulted in an increased length of the cyanobacterial filaments. Deletion of all2395 resulted in a larger increase of filament length and in impaired growth, mainly under N2-fixing conditions and specifically on solid medium. We denote all2395 the fraF gene, which encodes a protein restricting filament length. A FraF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein accumulated significantly in heterocysts. Similar to some heterocyst differentiation-related proteins such as HglK, HetL, and PatL, FraF is a pentapeptide repeat protein. We conclude that the fraC-fraD-fraE←fraF gene cluster (where the arrow indicates a change in orientation), in which cis antisense RNAs are produced, regulates morphology by encoding proteins that influence positively (FraC, FraD, FraE) or negatively (FraF) the length of the filament mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. This gene cluster is often conserved in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. PMID:23813733

  16. Cluster of genes that encode positive and negative elements influencing filament length in a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

    2013-09-01

    The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis in vegetative cells and nitrogen fixation in heterocysts, and their filaments can be hundreds of cells long. In the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the genes in the fraC-fraD-fraE operon are required for filament integrity mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. The fraC operon transcript partially overlaps gene all2395, which lies in the opposite DNA strand and ends 1 bp beyond fraE. Gene all2395 produces transcripts of 1.35 kb (major transcript) and 2.2 kb (minor transcript) that overlap fraE and whose expression is dependent on the N-control transcription factor NtcA. Insertion of a gene cassette containing transcriptional terminators between fraE and all2395 prevented production of the antisense RNAs and resulted in an increased length of the cyanobacterial filaments. Deletion of all2395 resulted in a larger increase of filament length and in impaired growth, mainly under N2-fixing conditions and specifically on solid medium. We denote all2395 the fraF gene, which encodes a protein restricting filament length. A FraF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein accumulated significantly in heterocysts. Similar to some heterocyst differentiation-related proteins such as HglK, HetL, and PatL, FraF is a pentapeptide repeat protein. We conclude that the fraC-fraD-fraE←fraF gene cluster (where the arrow indicates a change in orientation), in which cis antisense RNAs are produced, regulates morphology by encoding proteins that influence positively (FraC, FraD, FraE) or negatively (FraF) the length of the filament mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. This gene cluster is often conserved in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. PMID:23813733

  17. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  18. 77 FR 49856 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Salinas to San Luis Obispo Portion of the Coast Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Resources Code; and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). FRA... upgrades. Installation of Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) and power switches. New or upgraded...

  19. 49 CFR 225.27 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Summary,” that the railroad submits to FRA on optical media (CD-ROM) or electronically via the Internet to... opts to submit the report to FRA electronically via the internet, the railroad must also retain a...

  20. 49 CFR 225.27 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Summary,” that the railroad submits to FRA on optical media (CD-ROM) or electronically via the Internet to... opts to submit the report to FRA electronically via the internet, the railroad must also retain a...

  1. 78 FR 76191 - Operational Tests and Inspections for Compliance With Maximum Authorized Train Speeds and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Train Speeds and Other Speed Restrictions AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of... maximum authorized train speeds and other speed restrictions. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2013... and applicable railroad operating rules regarding maximum authorized train speed limits and...

  2. 49 CFR 212.115 - Enforcement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Director for Railroad Safety for the FRA region in which the State is located. (2) Requests for the institution of injunctive actions shall be submitted simultaneously to— (i) The FRA Regional Director...

  3. 49 CFR 212.115 - Enforcement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Director for Railroad Safety for the FRA region in which the State is located. (2) Requests for the institution of injunctive actions shall be submitted simultaneously to— (i) The FRA Regional Director...

  4. 49 CFR 212.115 - Enforcement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Director for Railroad Safety for the FRA region in which the State is located. (2) Requests for the institution of injunctive actions shall be submitted simultaneously to— (i) The FRA Regional Director...

  5. 78 FR 28012 - Tier One Environmental Impact Statement for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28546) (Environmental Procedures), in... Twin Cities, Minnesota Passenger Rail Corridor AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S... for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota Passenger Rail Corridor (the Corridor)...

  6. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  7. Serum folate receptor alpha as a biomarker for ovarian cancer: Implications for diagnosis, prognosis and predicting its local tumor expression.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Akira; Hasegawa, Kosei; Kato, Tomomi; Abe, Kenji; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Miyara, Akiko; O'Shannessy, Daniel J; Somers, Elizabeth B; Yasuda, Masanori; Sekino, Tetsuo; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2016-04-15

    Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a GPI-anchored glycoprotein and encoded by the FOLR1 gene. High expression of FRA is observed in specific malignant tumors of epithelial origin, including ovarian cancer, but exhibits very limited normal tissue expression, making it as an attractive target for the ovarian cancer therapy. FRA is known to shed from the cell surface into the circulation which allows for its measurement in the serum of patients. Recently, methods to detect the soluble form of FRA have been developed and serum FRA (sFRA) is considered a highly promising biomarker for ovarian cancer. We prospectively investigated the levels of sFRA in patients clinically suspected of having malignant ovarian tumors. A total of 231 patients were enrolled in this study and analyzed for sFRA as well as tumor expression of FRA by immunohistochemistry. High sFRA was predominantly observed in epithelial ovarian cancer patients, but not in patients with benign or borderline gynecological disease or metastatic ovarian tumors from advanced colorectal cancers. Levels of sFRA were highly correlated to clinical stage, tumor grade and histological type and demonstrated superior accuracy for the detection of ovarian cancer than did serum CA125. High sFRA was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival in both early and advanced ovarian cancer patients. Finally, tumor FRA expression status was strongly correlated with sFRA levels. Taken together, these data suggest that sFRA might be a useful noninvasive serum biomarkers for future clinical trials assessing FRA-targeted therapy. PMID:26595060

  8. 78 FR 57450 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is issuing this notice to advise the public that FRA is rescinding the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Altamont Corridor Rail Project from Stockton to San Jose, California Project in cooperation with the project sponsor, the California High Speed Rail Authority (Authority). FRA published the......

  9. 78 FR 57449 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is issuing this notice to advise the public that FRA is rescinding the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) for the California-Nevada Interstate Maglev Project in cooperation with the project sponsor, the Nevada Department of Transportation. FRA published the original NOI in the Federal Register on May......

  10. 78 FR 2713 - Update to NEPA Implementing Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... Environmental Impacts (FRA Environmental Procedures), 64 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999), which are available on the... June 13, 2012, FRA published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 35471) advising the public of FRA... structures, electronics, photonics, and communications systems and equipment, equipment mounts, towers...

  11. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following forms and copies of the “FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports” may be obtained from... the form and in the current “FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports.” The form shall be... Inquiry Form.—Form FRA F 6180.150 shall be sent to every potentially injured highway user, or...

  12. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following forms and copies of the “FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports” may be obtained from... the form and in the current “FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports.” The form shall be... Inquiry Form.—Form FRA F 6180.150 shall be sent to every potentially injured highway user, or...

  13. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following forms and copies of the “FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports” may be obtained from... the form and in the current “FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports.” The form shall be... Inquiry Form.—Form FRA F 6180.150 shall be sent to every potentially injured highway user, or...

  14. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following forms and copies of the “FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports” may be obtained from... the form and in the current “FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports.” The form shall be... Inquiry Form.—Form FRA F 6180.150 shall be sent to every potentially injured highway user, or...

  15. 77 FR 546 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Locomotive Horns at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings,'' was amended, the NSRT was 17,030 (71 FR 47614, August 17, 2006). In 2007, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be 19,047 (72 FR 14850, March 29, 2007). In 2008, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be 17,610 (73 FR 30661, May 28, 2008). In 2009, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be...

  16. 75 FR 82136 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Locomotive Horns at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings,'' was amended, the NSRT was 17,030 (71 FR 47614, August 17, 2006). In 2007, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be 19,047 (72 FR 14850, March 29, 2007). In 2008, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be 17,610 (73 FR 30661, May 28, 2008). In 2009, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be...

  17. 76 FR 16199 - Hours of Service of Railroad Employees; Substantive Regulations for Train Employees Providing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... must be demonstrated to be consistent with currently established science in the area of human... science, and sought input from FRA's Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC). Based on FRA's understanding of current fatigue science, and information received through RSAC, FRA determined that...

  18. 76 FR 50359 - Hours of Service of Railroad Employees; Substantive Regulations for Train Employees Providing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... model must be demonstrated to be consistent with currently established science in the area of human... comments in response to FRA's March 22, 2011 proposed rule in this rulemaking (76 FR 16200), FRA issues... will be discussed further below, FRA reviewed the applicable fatigue science, and sought input from...

  19. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Injury and Illness Summary. Form FRA F 6180.55 must be filed each month, even though no reportable...—Railroad Injury and Illness (Continuation Sheet). Form FRA 6180.55a shall be used to report all reportable fatalities, injuries and occupational illnesses that occurred during the preceding month. (d) Form FRA...

  20. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...This final rule is intended to further the safety of passenger train occupants through both enhancements and additions to FRA's existing requirements for emergency systems on passenger trains. In this final rule, FRA is adding requirements for emergency passage through vestibule and other interior passageway doors and enhancing emergency egress and rescue access signage requirements. FRA is......

  1. 78 FR 16051 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... vehicle/track interaction safety, see 75 FR 25928, FRA issues this final rule amending the Track Safety... granted to FRA comprehensive authority over ``all areas of railroad safety.'' See 36 FR 20336. FRA... 22, 1998, see 63 FR 33992, which, effective September 21, 1998, revised the Track Safety Standards...

  2. 77 FR 43646 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... February 28, 2012, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... System (C3RS) pilot project for the CP Portage, WI, terminal was initially approved by FRA on March 3, 2008. In Docket Number FRA-2007-0008, CP requested and received a waiver of compliance from...

  3. 78 FR 28284 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... April 11, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Equipment; End-of-Train Devices. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0040. Specifically,...

  4. Aberrant Neural Function during Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological systems which underlie emotion attribution among female patients with Fragile X (FraX) syndrome are examined. Results show that the emotion circuit which regulates responses to facial stimuli is potentially disrupted among female subjects with FraX syndrome. Anterior cingulate cortex activity in female subjects with FraX…

  5. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the milk and that the physiological transfer of FRA occurs from rumen to milk within 6.5 h or the first milking after dosage. Ferulic acid may affect the functionality of milk due to its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Future research will be required to elucidate whether FRA in milk is bioavailable and bioactive, and to evaluate the complete sensory and microbiological effects of increased FRA and FRA degradation products in milk. PMID:22921626

  6. Fe2+ chelator proferrorosamine A: a gene cluster of Erwinia rhapontici P45 involved in its synthesis and its impact on growth of Erwinia amylovora CFBP1430.

    PubMed

    Born, Yannick; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Bieri, Marco; Kamber, Tim; Piel, Jörn; Pelludat, Cosima

    2016-02-01

    Proferrorosamine A (proFRA) is an iron (Fe2+) chelator produced by the opportunistic plant pathogen Erwinia rhapontici P45. To identify genes involved in proFRA synthesis, transposon mutagenesis was performed. The identified 9.3 kb gene cluster, comprising seven genes, designated rosA-rosG, encodes proteins that are involved in proFRA synthesis. Based on gene homologies, a biosynthetic pathway model for proFRA is proposed. To obtain a better understanding of the effect of proFRA on non-proFRA producing bacteria, E. rhapontici P45 was co-cultured with Erwinia amylovora CFBP1430, a fire-blight-causing plant pathogen. E. rhapontici P45, but not corresponding proFRA-negative mutants, led to a pink coloration of E. amylovora CFBP1430 colonies on King's B agar, indicating accumulation of the proFRA-iron complex ferrorosamine, and growth inhibition in vitro. By saturating proFRA-containing extracts with Fe2+, the inhibitory effect was neutralized, suggesting that the iron-chelating capability of proFRA is responsible for the growth inhibition of E. amylovora CFBP1430. PMID:26732708

  7. Aberrant Neural Function During Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects With Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fragile X (FraX) syndrome is caused by mutations of the FraX mental retardation–1 gene—a gene responsible for producing FraX mental retardation protein. The neurocognitive phenotype associated with FraX in female subjects includes increased risk for emotional disorders including social anxiety, depression, and attention deficit. Here, the authors investigated the neurobiological systems underlying emotion attribution in female subjects with FraX syndrome. Method While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, 10 high-functioning female subjects with FraX syndrome and 10 typically developing (TD) female subjects were presented with photographs of happy, sad, and neutral faces and instructed to determine the facial emotion. Results No significant group differences were found for the recognition of happy faces, although the FraX group showed a trend toward a significant difference for the recognition of sad faces and significantly poorer recognition of neutral faces. Controlling for between-group differences in IQ and performance accuracy, the TD group had greater activation than the FraX group in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for neutral faces compared with scrambled faces and the caudate for sad faces compared with scrambled faces (but not for sad faces compared with neutral faces). In the FraX group, FraX mental retardation protein levels positively correlated with activation in the dorsal ACC for neutral, happy, and sad faces when independently compared with scrambled faces. Significantly greater negative correlation between IQ and insula activation for neutral faces relative to scrambled faces was observed in the FraX group compared with the TD group. Significantly greater positive correlation between IQ and ACC activation for neutral faces relative to scrambled faces was observed in the TD group compared with the FraX group. Conclusions Although emotion recognition is generally spared in FraX syndrome, the emotion circuit (i.e., ACC, caudate, insula) that modulates emotional responses to facial stimuli may be disrupted. PMID:18981933

  8. A current review of folate receptor alpha as a potential tumor target in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huan; Guo, Jun; Li, Changzheng; Wang, Zhehai

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading common cause of cancer-related death, with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 80% of all cases. To date, platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, these agents have limited use in patients who have relapsed and have metastatic disease. Therefore, novel strategies are required to improve the clinical outcome. Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is overexpressed in the majority of NSCLC, particularly in lung adenocarcinomas. FRA is largely absent from normal tissue, making it an attractive therapeutic target. In this review, we discuss FRA expression in NSCLC, conjugated FRA agents, monoclonal antibody, and FRA-specific T-cell-based therapeutic strategies aiming to improve the cure rate of FRA-expressing NSCLC. PMID:26357465

  9. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

  10. 78 FR 70623 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... calculated to be 17,030 (71 FR 47614, August 17, 2006). In 2007, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be 19,047 (72 FR 14850, March 29, 2007). In 2008, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be 17,610 (73 FR 30661, May 28, 2008). In 2009, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be 18,775 (74 FR 45270, September 1, 2009). In 2010,...

  11. 78 FR 70888 - Need for Agency Approval of a Railroad's Use of Certain Technology That Has Been Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...FRA is providing interim guidance on a railroad's use of processor-based signal or train control technology subject to the requirements of 49 CFR part 236, subpart H, in the situation where the railroad has not previously obtained FRA's approval to use the technology, but a different railroad has already received FRA's approval to do so. Under these regulations, any railroad seeking to use......

  12. 78 FR 76190 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... used by railroads to move freight traffic. FRA recently revised this Information Collection Request... economic conditions, and the various States need for immediate assistance to vital freight...

  13. 78 FR 77553 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... move freight traffic. FRA recently revised this Information Collection Request (ICR) to allow for the... various States need for immediate assistance to vital freight transportation pathways and the...

  14. 76 FR 414 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Los Angeles to San Luis Obispo (LOSSAN North) Rail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...), Division 13, Public Resources Code; and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545...-through tracks. Pedestrian crossing upgrades. Installation of Centralized Traffic Control (CTC)....

  15. 78 FR 57447 - Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...FRA is issuing this notice to advise other agencies and the public that FRA and the San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission (SJRRC) will jointly prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the Altamont Corridor Express (ACE) program also known as the ACEforward Program in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the......

  16. 77 FR 68883 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... safety regulations contained at 49 CFR part 215. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2012-0067. Caltrain seeks a waiver of compliance from the Railroad Freight Car Safety Standards contained in 49 CFR...-straight deck cars (Car Numbers JPBX 711 and JPBX 712). Caltrain also requested a Special Approval...

  17. 76 FR 64172 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the activities identified below... any or all of the following proposed activities by mail to either: Mr. Robert Brogan, Office of Safety... extraterritorial dispatchers comply with applicable safety regulations. FRA estimates that approximately one...

  18. 78 FR 22364 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC, on April 8, 2013. Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate... January 24, 2013, Steam Into History, Inc. (Steam) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0069. Kloke Locomotive Works is constructing for Steam a...

  19. 77 FR 73456 - Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ..., regardless of mode. SDDC will not pay a FRA for any type of rail shipment. SDDC will not pay FRA on... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge...

  20. 77 FR 24415 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... $650, the ordinary maximum of $25,000, and the aggravated maximum CMP of $100,000). See 73 FR 79698...-adjusted $550. 69 FR 30591 (May 28, 2004) and 69 FR 62817 (Oct. 28, 2004). (In 2004, FRA had determined, by... should be increased to $650. 73 FR 79698 (Dec. 30, 2008). In 2009, FRA also published a...

  1. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System... alcohol program data taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator..., 1994 (59 FR 62218), FRA announced that it will set future minimum random drug and alcohol testing...

  2. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    .... SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System annual reports, FRA has determined that the 2009... taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator publishes a... Drug and Alcohol Testing Rates In a final rule published on December 2, 1994 (59 FR 62218),...

  3. 77 FR 64249 - Track Safety Standards; Improving Rail Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... railroad safety.'' See 36 FR 20336. FRA envisioned the new Standards to be an evolving set of safety... the Standards in 1998. See 63 FR 34029, June 22, 1998; 63 FR 54078, Oct. 8, 1998. Pursuant to 49 U.S.C... track constructed with concrete crossties. See 76 FR 18073. FRA received two petitions...

  4. 49 CFR 241.7 - Waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Canada or Mexico pursuant to regulations contained in 49 CFR part 241, revised as of October 1, 2002, may... CFR part 241, revised as of October 1, 2002. FRA will notify the railroad if FRA determines that the... regulations contained in 49 CFR part 241, revised as of October 1, 2002, the route miles shall be the...

  5. 76 FR 55335 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... procedures. See 44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979. FRA ] has prepared and placed in the docket a regulatory...,000 or less. See 68 FR 24891 (May 9, 2003) (codified at Appendix C to 49 CFR part 209). The $20... Impacts'' (FRA's Procedures) (64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999) as required by the National Environmental...

  6. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) published on September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55335), FRA proposed an alternate... 44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979. FRA has prepared and placed in the docket a regulatory impact... jurisdictions that serve populations of 50,000 or less. See 68 FR 24891 (May 9, 2003) (codified at Appendix C...

  7. The fragile Fiber1 kinesin contributes to cortical microtubule-mediated trafficking of cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I; McClosky, Daniel D; Anderson, Charles T; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard; Dixit, Ram

    2015-03-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  8. 77 FR 6411 - Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...FRA proposes regulations establishing minimum training standards for each category and subcategory of safety-related railroad employee, as required by the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008. The proposed rule would require each railroad or contractor that employs one or more safety-related railroad employee to develop and submit a training program to FRA for approval and to designate the......

  9. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0 percent for the last two years. FRA's Administrator has therefore determined that the minimum annual random drug testing rate for the period January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2014, will remain at 25 percent of covered railroad employees. In addition,......

  10. 77 FR 19413 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... than 8 hours, as clarified in 71 FR 47626, to a period of no more than 6 months. ] UP also requests FRA... at 49 CFR 229.129(b) and (c), and which pertain to railroad locomotive horn testing. FRA assigned the... horn blasts and the resulting impact on the surrounding community and personnel is reduced),...

  11. 49 CFR 225.25 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... code; (11) Job title of railroad employee; (12) Department assigned; (13) Specific site where accident... Equipment Accident/Incident Record (Form FRA F 6180.97) or an alternative railroad-designed record as... Initial Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Record (Form FRA F 6180.97). Any such alternative record...

  12. 78 FR 33146 - Importance of Clear Safety Procedures for Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...FRA is issuing this Safety Advisory 2013-04 to reemphasize the importance of clear and precise railroad safety procedures to ensure the safety of the traveling public and railroad employees when highway- rail grade crossing warning systems and wayside signal systems are temporarily removed from service for purposes of testing, inspection, maintenance, or repair. FRA previously made related......

  13. 76 FR 30855 - Accident/Incident Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... regulations and to enhance the quality of information available for railroad casualty analysis. See 73 FR... recording standards and guidance. See 75 FR 68862. Following the publication of the final rule, FRA received... related to the railroad's rail transportation business. 68 FR 10108-09, March 3, 2003 (FRA's 2003...

  14. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... accidents (50 FR 31508, August 2, 1985). If an accident meets FRA's criteria for post-accident testing (see... prescription and OTC drug use by their safety-sensitive employees. See 63 FR 71334, December 24, 1998. After... Order 12866 and 13563 and DOT policies and procedures. See 44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979. FRA...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  17. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be as follows: (1) In accordance with 49 CFR 244.17, FRA will provide its findings and conclusions...

  18. 78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... modernize our regulatory system and to reduce unjustified regulatory burdens and costs.'' See 77 FR 28469... annually. See 61 FR 33871 (July 1, 1996). FRA determined that a five-year reporting period would...). In 1984, FRA amended its Signal and Train Control Regulations, including 49 CFR Part 233. See 49...

  19. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reduction in track classification as specified in FRA track safety standards (49 CFR part 213), or any other... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., and air lines. (h) FRA means the Federal Railroad Administration. (i) Railroad means a...

  20. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  1. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  2. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  3. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  4. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  5. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2012-01 to remind shippers and consignees of railroad tank cars containing odorized liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), of the importance of taking actions to ensure that a sufficient level of odorant remains in the LPG throughout the entire transportation cycle. FRA is issuing this notice to raise awareness within the hazardous materials community, of the potential......

  6. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... implementing NEPA and the FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts as set forth in 64 FR 28545... Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln, Creek, and Tulsa Counties, OK AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Investment Plan in Oklahoma, Lincoln, Creek, and Tulsa counties, Oklahoma. The EIS will evaluate...

  7. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... civil monetary penalties per the Inflation Act. See 74 FR 68701 (December 29, 2009). FRA's maximum and... materials violation was $275. 69 FR 30590, May 28, 2004. To implement these SAFETEA-LU amendments to the maximum and minimum penalties, FRA issued a final rule that was published on December 26, 2006, 71...

  8. 49 CFR 229.211 - Processing of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Docket Management System and posted on its Web site at http://www.regulations.gov. (3) In the event FRA..., FRA will consider proper documentation of competent engineering analysis, or practical demonstrations, or both which may include validated computer modeling, structural crush analysis, component...

  9. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be as follows: (1) In accordance with 49 CFR 244.17, FRA will provide its findings and conclusions...

  10. The Fragile Fiber1 Kinesin Contributes to Cortical Microtubule-Mediated Trafficking of Cell Wall Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I.; McClosky, Daniel D.; Anderson, Charles T.; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A.; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  11. 77 FR 40701 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Informational Filing and Request for Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... conduct a high-speed rail (HSR) demonstration project. FRA has assigned the petition Docket Number FRA.... Louis, MO, as part of the high-speed rail program. The demonstration segments are on UP's Joliet... High Speed Rail 2A Route Construction Contract (the ``2A Agreement'') dated March 4, 2011, as...

  12. 77 FR 38388 - Notice of Decision to Grant Buy America Waiver to Washington Department of Transportation to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... high-speed intercity passenger rail program funded by FRA grants. The waiver also covers three other high-speed intercity passenger rail projects being undertaken on BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) owned... FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program, as well as projects receiving HSIPR...

  13. 76 FR 18298 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the DesertXpress High-Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... passenger rail transportation between southern California and Las Vegas using proven high-speed rail... DesertXpress High-Speed Passenger Train Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United... High-Speed Passenger Train Project (DesertXpress project). FRA is the Lead Agency for the...

  14. 77 FR 64183 - Notice of Availability of a Final General Conformity Determination for the California High-Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... General Conformity requirements. The California High Speed Rail Authority (Authority), as the Project... California High-Speed Train System Merced to Fresno Section AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Section of the California High-Speed Train (HST) System on September 18, 2012. FRA is the lead...

  15. 78 FR 77601 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... 61 FR 60632 (Nov. 29, 1996). In 2005, FRA again amended its method for calculating the reporting... Surface Transportation Board for the BLS data that was no longer collected (70 FR 75414 (Dec. 20, 2005... threshold was revised. 77 FR 71354 (November 30, 2012). Consequently, FRA has recalculated the threshold,...

  16. 76 FR 2199 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... October 19, 2007 (72 FR 59216). FRA continued to utilize the RSAC process to address additional locomotive... locomotive operations. See 66 FR 10340, Notice of Safety Advisory 2001-01, Docket No. FRA-2000-7325. By... awareness. See 71 FR 60372 (2006). During several productive meetings, the Working Group identified...

  17. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by means of electronic submission via the Internet: (1) The Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report... Crossing Accident/Incident Report (Form FRA F 6180.57); and (5) The Employee Human Factor Attachment (Form... Summary (Form FRA F 6180.55) in .pdf or .jpg format only; and (2) The completed accident/incident...

  18. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by means of electronic submission via the Internet: (1) The Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report... Crossing Accident/Incident Report (Form FRA F 6180.57); and (5) The Employee Human Factor Attachment (Form... Summary (Form FRA F 6180.55) in .pdf or .jpg format only; and (2) The completed accident/incident...

  19. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by means of electronic submission via the Internet: (1) The Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report... Crossing Accident/Incident Report (Form FRA F 6180.57); and (5) The Employee Human Factor Attachment (Form... Summary (Form FRA F 6180.55) in .pdf or .jpg format only; and (2) The completed accident/incident...

  20. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by means of electronic submission via the Internet: (1) The Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report... Crossing Accident/Incident Report (Form FRA F 6180.57); and (5) The Employee Human Factor Attachment (Form... Summary (Form FRA F 6180.55) in .pdf or .jpg format only; and (2) The completed accident/incident...

  1. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... hazards faced by roadway workers. 57 FR 54038. ] FRA held workshops to solicit the views of the railroad... regulatory negotiation. 59 FR 42200. The FAC was tasked with submitting a report, including proposed... as the basis for FRA's first RWP NPRM, which was published on March 14, 1996. 61 FR 10528....

  2. 76 FR 72850 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... reporting threshold was revised. 75 FR 75911 (December 7, 2010). Consequently, FRA has recalculated the... published December 20, 2005, 70 FR 75414. FRA has found that both the current cost data inserted into this... addition to DOT policies and procedures (44 FR 11034 (Feb. 26, 1979)). Regulatory Flexibility Act...

  3. 75 FR 75911 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... reporting threshold was revised. 74 FR 65458 (December 10, 2009). Consequently, FRA has recalculated the... final rule published December 20, 2005, 70 FR 75414. FRA has found that both the current cost data... both Executive Order 12866 and DOT policies and procedures (44 FR 11034 (Feb. 26, 1979))....

  4. 77 FR 71354 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... reporting threshold was revised. 76 FR 72850 (November 28, 2011). Consequently, FRA has recalculated the... final rule published December 20, 2005, 70 FR 75414. FRA has found that both the current cost data... 12866 and 13563 in addition to DOT policies and procedures (44 FR 11034 (Feb. 26, 1979))....

  5. 75 FR 73158 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...FRA announces the forty-third meeting of the RSAC, a Federal advisory committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC meeting topics will include opening remarks from the FRA Administrator, and status reports will be provided by the Passenger Hours of Service, Training Standards, Track Safety Standards, Passenger Safety, and Medical Standards Working......

  6. 75 FR 60863 - Safety Advisory 2010-02

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2010-02 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Safety Advisory; Signal Recording Devices for Highway.... SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2010-02 to address Safety Recommendations I-96-10 and...

  7. 75 FR 63893 - Safety Advisory 2010-03

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2010-03 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Safety Advisory; staying alert and situational awareness. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2010-03 to remind railroads and their employees of...

  8. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Process. See 66 FR 4104, 4198 (January 17, 2001). To FRA's knowledge this requirement has not presented... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 231 RIN 2130-AB97 Railroad Safety Appliance Standards AGENCY...: FRA is amending the regulations related to safety appliance arrangements on railroad equipment....

  9. 75 FR 3784 - Safety Advisory 2009-03

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2009-03 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Safety Advisory; Identification and Handling of Highway-Rail Grade Crossings with Vertical Profile Conditions. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory...

  10. 76 FR 75945 - Safety Advisory 2011-03

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2011-03 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Safety Advisory; Bridge Walkway Hazards. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2011-03 to remind each railroad bridge worker, railroad, and contractor...

  11. 76 FR 19518 - Safety Advisory 2011-01

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2011-01 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Safety Advisory; equipment fouling adjacent tracks. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2011-01 to remind each railroad and railroad employees of...

  12. 77 FR 75045 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... of a product's capability do not require a full safety analysis.'' See 77 FR 21331. FRA's intent in... proceeding on January 12, 2011. See 76 FR 2199. The specific regulatory language recommended by the RSAC was... comments FRA issued a final rule on April 9, 2012. See 77 FR 21312. In accordance with the provisions...

  13. Autistic Behaviors among Girls with Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Kates, Wendy R.; Baumgardner, Thomas L.; Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with parents of 30 school-age girls with fragile X syndrome (fraX) and 31 age- and IQ-matched controls concerning autistic behaviors found that girls with fraX had significantly more autistic behaviors than controls, but incidence of autistic behaviors was not correlated with IQ. Anxiety and posterior cerebellar area measures were also…

  14. 77 FR 53164 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... 76 FR 74586. In response, FRA received two petitions for reconsideration (Petitions) that raised... order to permit interested parties an opportunity to respond to the Petitions. See 77 FR 13978. FRA... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 RIN 2130-AC37 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track...

  15. 49 CFR 262.9 - Criteria for selection of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evidence sufficient for the FRA to determine whether projects proposed for Federal investment are cost... improvement project. In evaluating applications, FRA will consider the following factors in determining... line relocation project without Federal grant funding; (b) The requirement and limitation relating...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  19. 75 FR 73158 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Compliance; Notice of Petition for Statutory Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Statutory Exemption In accordance with 49 U.S.C. 21102(b), Cargill Incorporated (CI), on behalf of its... certain provisions of the HSL. Specifically, CI requests an exemption from the requirements of 49 U.S.C... petition, which CI requests that FRA consider in the event that FRA ] denies its exemption petition,...

  20. 12 CFR 211.41 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 211.41 Section... et seq.) (FRA), and the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.) (BHC... the FRA (12 U.S.C. 601 through 604a) (Agreement Corporations); and bank holding companies (as...

  1. 12 CFR 211.41 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 211.41 Section... et seq.) (FRA), and the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.) (BHC... the FRA (12 U.S.C. 601 through 604a) (Agreement Corporations); and bank holding companies (as...

  2. 12 CFR 211.41 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 211.41 Section... et seq.) (FRA), and the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.) (BHC... the FRA (12 U.S.C. 601 through 604a) (Agreement Corporations); and bank holding companies (as...

  3. 12 CFR 211.41 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 211.41 Section... et seq.) (FRA), and the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.) (BHC... the FRA (12 U.S.C. 601 through 604a) (Agreement Corporations); and bank holding companies (as...

  4. 77 FR 20691 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    .... The individual petition is described below, including the party seeking relief, the regulatory provisions involved, the nature of the relief being requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. FRA has assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0050. The Alaska Railroad Corporation...

  5. Personal independence of adult mentally retarded men with fragile-X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maes, B; Fryns, J P; Van Walleghem, M; Van den Berghe, H

    1994-01-01

    In a large study of the psychosocial functioning of mentally retarded adults with fra(X) syndrome we also evaluated their personal independence. 58 mentally retarded adult men with a cytogenetically confirmed diagnosis of fra(X) syndrome and 58 fra(X) negative control persons with a comparable age, level of cognitive development, actual living conditions and length of institutionalization were evaluated with three Dutch standardized behavioral scales. In spite of comparable social competency scores in both research groups, two significant different aspects were found: 1) Fra(X) men obtained a higher level of elementary knowledge and skillfulness in rudimentary dealing with personal needs and household tasks in daily life in comparison with the control group; 2) moderately mentally retarded fra(X) adults were practising more preacademic reading, calculating and writing skills in daily life than control persons. PMID:7917120

  6. On the History and Origin of LKFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    Fra Mauro is the name of a geologic formation surrounding the Imbrium Basin of the Moon as well as the name of the region of the Apollo 14 lunar landing site. The formation was named for a 16th century Italian geographer and cartographer. In its original invocation in 1971 by the Apollo Soil Survey (ASS), Fra Mauro basalt was not a crystalline basalt, but the designation of a "compositional group" of impact glasses found in the Apollo 14 soil that were basaltic in composition. The ASS noted the similarity between the Fra Mauro basalt glass composition and sample 14310, an unbrecciated, crystalline Apollo 14 rock that would now be designated an impact melt rock. In 1972 the term Fra Mauro basalt was first applied to a rock, sample 14310, although in related papers, Fra Mauro basaltic glass was equated with KREEP. In 1973 the ASS noted that a wide range of K concentrations occurred among glasses of Fra Mauro basaltic composition in the Apollo 15 regolith. The terms high-K, moderate-K and low-K Fra Mauro first occurred in that context, but always as an adjective. Lock Fra Mauro glasses were those with 0.12 +/- 0.07% K2O, compared with 0.47 +/- 0.17% and 1.1 +/- 0.4% for moderate and high-K Fra Mauro glasses and 0.6% for Apollo 15 KREEP basalt. An important evolutionary step in the concept of low Fra Mauro basalt occurred in 1973 when the composition was first used as a component in a mass-balance (mixing) model for Apollo 16 soils [8,9] and later average highlands crust, despite that the term had not yet been applied to an actual rock sample. The first use of the acronym LKFM occurred in a 1973 paper describing glass compositions in Apollo 16 soil.

  7. Characterization of the Human Folate Receptor Alpha Via Novel Antibody-Based Probes

    PubMed Central

    O'Shannessy, Daniel J.; Somers, Elizabeth B.; Albone, Earl; Cheng, Xin; Park, Young Chul; Tomkowicz, Brian E.; Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Kohl, Thomas O.; Forsyth, Tracy M.; Smale, Robert; Fu, Yao-Shi; Nicolaides, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a cell surface protein whose aberrant expression in malignant cells has resulted in its pursuit as a therapeutic target and marker for diagnosis of cancer. The development of immune-based reagents that can reproducibly detect FRA from patient tissue processed by varying methods has been difficult due to the complex post-translational structure of the protein whereby most reagents developed to date are highly structure-sensitive and have resulted in equivocal expression results across independent studies. The aim of the present study was to generate novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using modified full length FRA protein as immunogen in order to develop a panel of mAbs to various, non-overlapping epitopes that may serve as diagnostic reagents able to robustly detect FRA-positive disease. Here we report the development of a panel of FRA-specific mAbs that are able to specifically detect FRA using an array of diagnostic platforms and methods. In addition, the methods used to develop these mAbs and their diverse binding properties provide additional information on the three dimensional structure of FRA in its native cell surface configuration. PMID:22204844

  8. Cognitive functioning and information processing of adult mentally retarded men with fragile-X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maes, B; Fryns, J P; Van Walleghem, M; Van den Berghe, H

    1994-04-01

    The present study describes cognitive skills and information processing strategies of mentally retarded fra(X) men. Fifty-eight fra(X) positive and 58 fra(X) negative adults, matched on sex, chronological age, length of institutionalisation, general cognitive level, and living conditions, were evaluated with the Bayley or McCarthy Scales of Mental Abilities. Mental ages were mostly situated in the severe mental handicap category and were found to be negatively influenced by chronological age. A relative strength in perceptual performance and non-verbal reasoning and a deficit in sequential information processing turned out to be typical of all mentally retarded subjects, irrespective of fra(X) or control status. Fra(X) adults could be significantly differentiated from control persons on the ground of a higher level of acquired knowledge because of better vocabulary and verbal-expressive skills. On the other hand, they were less able to imitate non-verbal patterns, had more difficulty with visual-motor integration and co-ordination, and applied less efficient general mental processing skills in solving new problems. The memory profile of fra(X) adults was strongly determined by the meaning and the complexity of the information that has to be reproduced. In this article the profile of cognitive strengths and weaknesses in the fra(X) group will be discussed and some general advice for training is suggested. PMID:8010351

  9. Myeloid-specific Fos-related antigen-1 regulates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, not emphysema, in mice.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Michelle; Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Potteti, Haranatha R; Reddy, Sekhar P

    2015-07-01

    Heightened lung inflammation is a cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced macrophage recruitment and activation, accompanied by abnormal secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, play a major role in the pathophysiology of COPD. The Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) transcription factor differentially regulates several cellular processes that are implicated in COPD, such as inflammation and immune responses, cell proliferation and death, and extracellular remodeling. Although CS stimulates Fra-1 expression in the lung, the precise role of this transcription factor in the regulation of CS-induced lung inflammation in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we report that myeloid-specific Fra-1 signaling is important for CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammatory response. In response to chronic CS exposure, mice with Fra-1 specifically deleted in myeloid cells showed reduced levels of CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammation, accompanied by decreased expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared with their wild-type counterparts. Consistent with this result, bone marrow-derived Fra-1-null macrophages treated with CS showed decreased levels of proinflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases. Interestingly, deletion of Fra-1 in myeloid cells did not affect the severity of emphysema. We propose that Fra-1 plays a key role in promoting chronic CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammation in vivo, and that targeting this transcription factor may be useful in dampening persistent lung inflammation in patients with COPD. PMID:25489966

  10. A new method of charged particle identification based on frequency spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin-Tao, Zhu; Guo-Fu, Liu; Jun, Yang; Xiao-Liang, Luo; Lei, Zhang; Li-Feng, Ji

    2016-03-01

    A new frequency domain method for charged particle identification, called Frequency Ratio Analysis (FRA), is proposed by analyzing the frequency spectra of proton pulses and alpha pulses acquired from a totally depleted Si detector. Identification performance of the FRA method is evaluated and compared with two time domain methods, the current pulse amplitude method and the second moment method. The results show that the FRA method is not only feasible and effective but also superior to the two time domain methods, as it achieves an obvious increase in value of the figure-of-merit (FOM). Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175254, 11375264)

  11. 49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR Part 212 must have access to hours of service...

  12. 49 CFR 228.19 - Monthly reports of excess service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electronic record; and (iii) Allows FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR part 212...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records and Reporting § 228.19 Monthly reports of excess service. (a) In general....

  13. 49 CFR 228.19 - Monthly reports of excess service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electronic record; and (iii) Allows FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR part 212...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records and Reporting § 228.19 Monthly reports of excess service. (a) In general....

  14. 49 CFR 228.19 - Monthly reports of excess service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electronic record; and (iii) Allows FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR part 212...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records and Reporting § 228.19 Monthly reports of excess service. (a) In general....

  15. 49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR Part 212 must have access to hours of service...

  16. 49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR Part 212 must have access to hours of service...

  17. 78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety, Chief Safety Officer. BILLING CODE 4910-06-P ... petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0114. Applicant: Norfolk Southern Corporation, Mr. Brian L. Sykes,...

  18. 49 CFR 242.5 - Effect and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS General § 242.5 Effect and construction. (a) FRA does not intend, by use of the term conductor in this part, to alter the...

  19. 49 CFR 242.5 - Effect and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS General § 242.5 Effect and construction. (a) FRA does not intend, by use of the term conductor in this part, to alter the...

  20. 75 FR 3959 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Federal Register on March 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740), for additional information about the RSAC. Issued in..., Railroad Bridge Safety Management, and Conductor Certification. FRA may offer a new task on...

  1. 49 CFR 242.5 - Effect and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS General § 242.5 Effect and construction. (a) FRA does not intend, by use of the term conductor in this part, to alter the...

  2. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  3. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reduction in track classification as specified in FRA track safety standards (49 CFR part 213), or any other... repair tracks, station buildings, platforms, and adjunct facilities such as water, fuel, steam,...

  4. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reduction in track classification as specified in FRA track safety standards (49 CFR part 213), or any other... repair tracks, station buildings, platforms, and adjunct facilities such as water, fuel, steam,...

  5. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reduction in track classification as specified in FRA track safety standards (49 CFR part 213), or any other... repair tracks, station buildings, platforms, and adjunct facilities such as water, fuel, steam,...

  6. 12 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance Corporation acting pursuant to authority delegated by the Board of Directors as provided in 12 CFR...) of the HOLA (12 U.S.C. 1467(a)); (4) Any organization operating under section 25 of the FRA (12...

  7. 76 FR 71433 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the... Brogan, Office of Safety, Planning and Evaluation Division, RRS-21, Federal Railroad Administration,...

  8. 75 FR 11992 - Notice of Scheduling of Public Hearing; Association of American Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Scheduling of Public Hearing; Association of American Railroads... Association of American Railroads (AAR) had petitioned FRA for a waiver of compliance from...

  9. 12 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Insurance Corporation acting pursuant to authority delegated by the Board of Directors as provided in 12 CFR...) of the HOLA (12 U.S.C. 1467(a)); (4) Any organization operating under section 25 of the FRA (12...

  10. 12 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Insurance Corporation acting pursuant to authority delegated by the Board of Directors as provided in 12 CFR...) of the HOLA (12 U.S.C. 1467(a)); (4) Any organization operating under section 25 of the FRA (12...

  11. 49 CFR 239.7 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rail modes of transportation means other railroads, trolleys, light rail, heavy transit, and other vehicles operating on rails or electromagnetic guideways which are expressly identified in a railroad's... emergency situation. FRA means the Federal Railroad Administration. Joint operations means rail...

  12. 49 CFR 239.7 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rail modes of transportation means other railroads, trolleys, light rail, heavy transit, and other vehicles operating on rails or electromagnetic guideways which are expressly identified in a railroad's... emergency situation. FRA means the Federal Railroad Administration. Joint operations means rail...

  13. 49 CFR 239.7 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rail modes of transportation means other railroads, trolleys, light rail, heavy transit, and other vehicles operating on rails or electromagnetic guideways which are expressly identified in a railroad's... emergency situation. FRA means the Federal Railroad Administration. Joint operations means rail...

  14. 49 CFR 268.3 - Different phases of the Maglev Deployment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., a system safety plan (including supporting analysis), and other information in support of the... raised by FRA's review of system safety plans (including supporting analysis). They will also initiate... project description, supporting preconstruction planning reports, and an EA. Supporting reports...

  15. 76 FR 78732 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA has assigned the petition... bridge to be safely operated for boat and rail traffic, while reducing the personal safety...

  16. Hourly Illumination of Shackleton Crater - Duration: 59 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Illumination of Shackleton crater, a 21-km-diameter (12.5 mile-diameter) structure situated adjacent to the Moon’s south pole. The resolution is 30 meters (approximately 100 feet) per pixel. Fra...

  17. Fuzzy Risk Analyzer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-03-04

    FRA is a general purpose code for risk analysis using fuzzy, not numeric, attributes. It allows the user to evaluate the risk associated with a composite system on the basis of the risk estimates of the individual components.

  18. 78 FR 13747 - Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity of Underground Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) issued an advisory bulletin in the Federal Register (77 FR 45417... of Underground Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation... the derailment site was a 12-inch diameter underground natural gas transmission pipeline operated...

  19. Relation between plasmatic and cerebrospinal fluid oxidative stress biomarkers and intrathecal Ig synthesis in Multiple Sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Livia; Pecori, Chiara; Chico, Lucia; Iudice, Alfonso; Siciliano, Gabriele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oxidative stress biomarkers were related to plasmatic levels and to intrathecal Ig synthesis in 51 patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Plasmatic and CSF ferric reducing ability (FRA) showed a significant positive correlation (ρ 0.28, p=0.04), while advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) did not. A negative correlation was found between IgG synthesis index and CSF FRA levels. No difference in CSF AOPPs or FRA was observed between patients with and without intrathecal IgM synthesis. Our results indicate that plasmatic and CSF FRA are strictly linked, while CSF oxidative stress biomarkers are not related to intrathecal Ig synthesis. PMID:26004154

  20. 76 FR 71116 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ..., FRA published a final rule (FR) with procedures and requirements to cover applications of financial... freight railroads other than Class I carriers. The Secretary of Transportation has delegated his...

  1. 78 FR 65422 - Agency Request for Emergency Processing of Collections of Information Associated With Today's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ..., may be obtained by calling FRA's Clearance Officer, Mr. Robert Brogan (tel. (202) 493-6292). These numbers are not toll-free. A copy of this ICR may also be obtained electronically by contacting Mr....

  2. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Tier I... the features inspected. (2) A railroad may, upon written notification to FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety, adopt and comply with alternative periodic mechanical inspection intervals for...

  3. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... system failure reports. Each railroad shall report to FRA within 15 days each activation failure of a... System Failure Report,” shall be used for this purpose and completed in accordance with...

  4. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system failure reports. Each railroad shall report to FRA within 15 days each activation failure of a... System Failure Report,” shall be used for this purpose and completed in accordance with...

  5. 49 CFR 233.7 - Signal failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... carrier shall report within 15 days each failure of an appliance, device, method, or system to function or... other condition hazardous to the movement of a train. Form FRA F6180-14, “Signal Failure Report,”...

  6. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... system failure reports. Each railroad shall report to FRA within 15 days each activation failure of a... System Failure Report,” shall be used for this purpose and completed in accordance with...

  7. 49 CFR 228.19 - Monthly reports of excess service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... electronic record; and (iii) Allows FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR part 212... section, each railroad, or a contractor or a subcontractor of a railroad, shall report to the...

  8. 75 FR 33299 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice Of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...: Thomas Hudson 707-574- 6233. Revision to FR Notice Published 06/04/2010: Due to Non-Distribution of EIS... EIS, FRA, PA, Pennsylvania High-Speed Maglev Project, Construction between Pittsburgh...

  9. 75 FR 9018 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington, DC, on... relief. Genesis Worldwide Logistics The Genesis Worldwide Logistics (GWWL) has petitioned FRA for...

  10. 49 CFR 225.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concerning the hazards and risks that exist on the Nation's railroads. FRA needs this information to... information for determining comparative trends of railroad safety and to develop hazard elimination and...

  11. Network II Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  12. 77 FR 28421 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Register on March 11, 1996, 61 FR 9740, for additional information about the RSAC. Dated: Issued... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter...

  13. 49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hearing pursuant to the provisions contained in 49 CFR part 211; or (3) Determine that a public hearing is... document submitted to the docket in 2009 will be identified as FRA-2009-XXX-1.) Thus, each...

  14. 49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hearing pursuant to the provisions contained in 49 CFR part 211; or (3) Determine that a public hearing is... document submitted to the docket in 2009 will be identified as FRA-2009-XXX-1.) Thus, each...

  15. 49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hearing pursuant to the provisions contained in 49 CFR part 211; or (3) Determine that a public hearing is... document submitted to the docket in 2009 will be identified as FRA-2009-XXX-1.) Thus, each...

  16. 49 CFR 238.211 - Collision posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... required to withstand. For analysis purposes, the required forces may be assumed to be evenly distributed... engineering analysis establishing that the articulated connection is capable of preventing disengagement and... contained in this subpart; and (2) FRA finds the analysis persuasive....

  17. 49 CFR 244.1 - Scope, application, and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approval by the Surface Transportation Board. See 49 CFR part 1106. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD... part prescribes requirements for filing and implementing a Safety Integration Plan with FRA whenever...

  18. 49 CFR 244.1 - Scope, application, and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approval by the Surface Transportation Board. See 49 CFR part 1106. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD... part prescribes requirements for filing and implementing a Safety Integration Plan with FRA whenever...

  19. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  20. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  1. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  2. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  3. Lunar laser ranging data deposited in the National Space Science Data Center: Filtered observations for January - June 1971 and unfiltered photon detections for July - December 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The filtered data are discussed which were obtained during laser ranging operations with Apollo reflectors placed on the moon at Tranquility Base, Fra Mauro, and Hadley. Unfiltered photon detections are described.

  4. 77 FR 67362 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...: Andrea Martin 202-493-6201. EIS No. 20120355, Final EIS, FRA, 00, Chicago to St. Louis High Speed Rail..., 00, Chicago to Council Bluffs--Omaha Regional Passenger Rail System Planning Study Tier 1...

  5. 77 FR 53252 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL, to Detroit-Pontiac, MI, Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... NEPA and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). The Tier 1... can make additional accommodations for persons with disabilities, and/or limited English...

  6. 75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Quality NEPA implementing regulations, 40 CFR parts 1500-1508, and the FRA NEPA procedures, 64 FR 28545... Federal Railroad Administration Moynihan Station Development Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad... comment period for the Moynihan Station Development Project Environmental Assessment. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 75 FR 60740 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... research and focus on one of the following fields or topics: Environmental Science, Economics, Public... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad... Purpose of Program: The Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad (FRA) Fellowship Program...

  8. 77 FR 20690 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast... will include: Positive Train Control update presentations from NEC railroads, Transportation...

  9. 76 FR 32391 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast... of Transportation. DATES: The meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee is scheduled...

  10. 77 FR 74737 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... October 26, 2012, the Port Manatee Railroad (PMRR) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... performed within the confines of Port Manatee, which consists of slow speed yard tracks. Additionally,...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye...-4412, and FRA-ATSF-TL-200. 2. Carrier: Amtrak—National Railroad Passenger Corporation, 400...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye...-4412, and FRA-ATSF-TL-200. 2. Carrier: Amtrak—National Railroad Passenger Corporation, 400...

  13. 78 FR 77550 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Non- Substantive Change to Loco. FRA-Approved Crashworthiness Manufacturers. Design Standard. 229.209..., 2013. Rebecca Pennington, Chief Financial Officer. BILLING CODE 4910-06-P ... Federal Railroad Administration Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request...

  14. 78 FR 42998 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials, Safety Administration (PHMSA... participate in a public meeting addressing the transportation of hazardous materials by rail. FRA and...

  15. 77 FR 77181 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... regulations, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) hereby announces that it is seeking approval of the... seeking approval for reinstatement or renewal by OMB. 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A); 5 CFR 1320.8(d)(1),...

  16. Fragile X-Linked Mental Retardation and Macro-orchidism

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Byron C.; Glover, Thomas W.; Kaiser-McCaw, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick

    1982-01-01

    A fragile site near the end of the long arm (q) of the X chromosome appears to be directly related to the gene responsible for the mental retardation found among males and some females who possess this variant X chromosome. Macro-orchidism is present in most males studied. Other mild phenotypic similarities may exist. The expression of the fragile X (fra[X]) chromosome is dependent on the concentration of folic acid and thymidine in the culture medium, which partly explains why fra(X) was not noted earlier and connected promptly with X-linked mental retardation. Whereas prenatal diagnosis is now possible, genetic counseling is complicated by recent reports of intellectually normal fra(X) males. Further studies are needed to form solid conclusions about intellectual deficits, learning behavior or personality characteristics of fra(X) persons. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7179944

  17. 75 FR 26838 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot... below. Docket Number FRA-2010-0023 Applicant: Union Pacific Railroad Company, Mr. William E. Van...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fairly complex system. FRA therefore recommends that designated supervisors of locomotive engineers... any case the engineer's judgment, to apply or not apply a braking system at a given location,...

  19. Frontostriatal deficits in fragile X syndrome: relation to FMR1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Menon, V; Leroux, J; White, C D; Reiss, A L

    2004-03-01

    Fragile X syndrome (fraX) is the most common known cause of inherited developmental disability. fraX is associated with a CGG expansion in the FMR1 gene on the long arm of the X chromosome. Behavioral deficits, including problems with impulse control and distractibility, are common in fraX. We used functional brain imaging with a Go/NoGo task to examine the neural substrates of response inhibition in females with fraX (ages 10-22) and age- and gender-matched typically developing subjects. Although subjects with fraX had significantly lower IQ scores, as a group their performance on the Go/NoGo task was equivalent to that of the typically developing group. However, females with fraX showed abnormal activation patterns in several cortical and subcortical regions, with significantly reduced activation in the supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate and midcingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and hippocampus. An important finding of our study is that neural responses in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the left and right striatum were correlated with the level of FMR1 gene expression. Our findings support the hypothesis that frontostriatal regions typically associated with response inhibition are dysfunctional in females with fraX. In addition to task-related activation deficits, reduced levels of "deactivation" were observed in the ventromedial PFC, and, furthermore, these reductions were correlated with the level of FMR1 gene expression. The ventromedial PFC is a key node in a "default mode" network that monitors mental and physiological states; we suggest that self-monitoring processes may be aberrant in fraX. PMID:14993603

  20. Insular Volume Reduction in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeremy D.; Nichols, Taylor; Brignone, Laura; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental deficit and is caused by mutations of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. While males and females with the full FMR1 mutation are affected differently because the disorder is X-linked, both suffer from varying degrees of cognitive impairment, attention deficits and social anxiety. The insula is a sensory integrative region that has been increasingly suggested as a critical area involved in anxiety manifestation. The current study was designed to examine possible changes in insular volume in FraX compared to age- and gender-matched typically developing healthy controls (HC) as well as age, gender-, and intelligence-matched developmentally delayed controls (DD). An established native-space, manual morphometry method was utilized to quantify total and regional insular volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Total, anterior and posterior insular volumes were found to be reduced in FraX compared to both HC and DD. The current data add to a growing literature concerning brain abnormalities in FraX and suggests that significant volume reduction of the insula is a component of the FraX neuroanatomical phenotype. This finding also provides an intriguing potential neural correlate for hyperarousal and gaze aversion, which are prominent behavioral symptoms of FraX. PMID:21291994

  1. Molecular Insights into Frataxin-Mediated Iron Supply for Heme Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Andreas; Blauenburg, Bastian; Miethke, Marcus; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is required as an element to sustain life in all eukaryotes and most bacteria. Although several bacterial iron acquisition strategies have been well explored, little is known about the intracellular trafficking pathways of iron and its entry into the systems for co-factor biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the iron-dependent process of heme maturation in Bacillus subtilis and present, for the first time, structural evidence for the physical interaction of a frataxin homologue (Fra), which is suggested to act as a regulatory component as well as an iron chaperone in different cellular pathways, and a ferrochelatase (HemH), which catalyses the final step of heme b biogenesis. Specific interaction between Fra and HemH was observed upon co-purification from crude cell lysates and, further, by using the recombinant proteins for analytical size-exclusion chromatography. Hydrogen–deuterium exchange experiments identified the landscape of the Fra/HemH interaction interface and revealed Fra as a specific ferrous iron donor for the ferrochelatase HemH. The functional utilisation of the in vitro-generated heme b co-factor upon Fra-mediated iron transfer was confirmed by using the B. subtilis nitric oxide synthase bsNos as a metabolic target enzyme. Complementary mutational analyses confirmed that Fra acts as an essential component for maturation and subsequent targeting of the heme b co-factor, hence representing a key player in the iron-dependent physiology of B. subtilis. PMID:25826316

  2. Frazzled/DCC facilitates cardiac cell outgrowth and attachment during Drosophila dorsal vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Macabenta, Frank D.; Jensen, Amber G.; Cheng, Yi-Shan; Kramer, Joseph J.; Kramer, Sunita G.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila embryonic dorsal vessel (DV) morphogenesis is a highly stereotyped process that involves the migration and morphogenesis of 52 pairs of cardioblasts (CBs) in order to form a linear tube. This process requires spatiotemporally-regulated localization of signaling and adhesive proteins in order to coordinate the formation of a central lumen while maintaining simultaneous adhesion between CBs. Previous studies have shown that the Slit/Roundabout and Netrin/Unc5 repulsive signaling pathways facilitate site-specific loss of adhesion between contralateral CBs in order to form a luminal space. However, the concomitant mechanism by which attraction initiates CB outgrowth and discrete localization of adhesive proteins remains poorly understood. Here we provide genetic evidence that Netrin signals through DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma)/UNC-40/Frazzled (Fra) to mediate CB outgrowth and attachment and that this function occurs prior to and independently of Netrin/UNC-5 signaling. fra mRNA is expressed in the CBs prior to and during DV morphogenesis. Loss-of-fra-function results in significant defects in cell shape and alignment between contralateral CB rows. In addition, CB outgrowth and attachment is impaired in both fra loss- and gain-of-function mutants. Deletion of both Netrin genes (NetA and NetB) results in CB attachment phenotypes similar to fra mutants. Similar defects are also seen when both fra and unc5 are deleted. Finally we show that Fra accumulates at dorsal and ventral leading edges of paired CBs, and this localization is dependent upon Netrin. We propose that while repulsive guidance mechanisms contribute to lumen formation by preventing luminal domains from coming together, site-specific Netrin/Frazzled signaling mediates CB attachment. PMID:23685255

  3. The marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A exhibits activity in vitro and in vivo in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S; Venz, Simone; Rast, Stefanie; Amann, Kerstin; Hauschild, Jessica; Otte, Katharina; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Alsdorf, Winfried; Madanchi, Ramin; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo; Walther, Reinhard; Aminin, Dmitry L; Fedorov, Sergey N; Shubina, Larisa K; Stonik, Valentin A; Balabanov, Stefan; Honecker, Friedemann; von Amsberg, Gunhild

    2016-05-15

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), outcome of patients remains poor due to the development of drug resistance. Thus, new drugs are urgently needed. We investigated efficacy, toxicity and mechanism of action of marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A (FrA) using CRPC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. FrA revealed high efficacy in human prostate cancer cells, while non-malignant cells were less sensitive. Remarkably, proliferation and colony formation of cells resistant to enzalutamide and abiraterone (due to the androgen receptor splice variant AR-V7) were also significantly inhibited by FrA. The marine compound caused cell type specific cell cycle arrest and induction of caspase-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Up-regulation or induction of several pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bad, PTEN), cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and Bcl-2) were detected in treated cells. Global proteome analysis revealed regulation of proteins involved in formation of metastases, tumor cell invasion, and apoptosis, like keratin 81, CrkII, IL-1β and cathepsin B. Inhibition of pro-survival autophagy was observed following FrA exposure. In vivo, FrA inhibited tumor growth of PC-3 and DU145 cells with a notable reduction of lung metastasis, as well as circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood. Increased lymphocyte counts of treated animals might indicate an immune modulating effect of FrA. In conclusion, our results suggest that FrA is a promising new drug for the treatment of mCRPC. Induction of apoptosis, inhibition of pro-survival autophagy, and immune modulatory effects are suspected modes of actions. PMID:26695519

  4. Frazzled/DCC facilitates cardiac cell outgrowth and attachment during Drosophila dorsal vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Macabenta, Frank D; Jensen, Amber G; Cheng, Yi-Shan; Kramer, Joseph J; Kramer, Sunita G

    2013-08-15

    Drosophila embryonic dorsal vessel (DV) morphogenesis is a highly stereotyped process that involves the migration and morphogenesis of 52 pairs of cardioblasts (CBs) in order to form a linear tube. This process requires spatiotemporally-regulated localization of signaling and adhesive proteins in order to coordinate the formation of a central lumen while maintaining simultaneous adhesion between CBs. Previous studies have shown that the Slit/Roundabout and Netrin/Unc5 repulsive signaling pathways facilitate site-specific loss of adhesion between contralateral CBs in order to form a luminal space. However, the concomitant mechanism by which attraction initiates CB outgrowth and discrete localization of adhesive proteins remains poorly understood. Here we provide genetic evidence that Netrin signals through DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma)/UNC-40/Frazzled (Fra) to mediate CB outgrowth and attachment and that this function occurs prior to and independently of Netrin/UNC-5 signaling. fra mRNA is expressed in the CBs prior to and during DV morphogenesis. Loss-of-fra-function results in significant defects in cell shape and alignment between contralateral CB rows. In addition, CB outgrowth and attachment is impaired in both fra loss- and gain-of-function mutants. Deletion of both Netrin genes (NetA and NetB) results in CB attachment phenotypes similar to fra mutants. Similar defects are also seen when both fra and unc5 are deleted. Finally we show that Fra accumulates at dorsal and ventral leading edges of paired CBs, and this localization is dependent upon Netrin. We propose that while repulsive guidance mechanisms contribute to lumen formation by preventing luminal domains from coming together, site-specific Netrin/Frazzled signaling mediates CB attachment. PMID:23685255

  5. Anthropometric and craniofacial patterns in mentally retarded males with emphasis on the fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, M G; Pratesi, R; Watson, M S; Breg, W R; Singh, D N

    1993-09-01

    Anthropometric and craniofacial profile patterns indicating the percent difference from the overall mean were developed on 34 physical parameters with 31 white, mentally retarded males (23 adults and 8 children) with the fra(X) syndrome matched for age with 31 white, mentally retarded males without a known cause of their retardation. The fra(X) syndrome males consistently showed larger dimensions for all anthropometric variables, with significant differences for height, sitting height, arm span, hand length, middle finger length, hand breadth, foot length, foot breadth, and testicular volume. A craniofacial pattern did emerge between the two groups of mentally retarded males, but with overlap of several variables. Significant differences were noted for head circumference, head breadth, lower face height, bizygomatic diameter, inner canthal distance, ear length and ear width, with the fra(X) syndrome males having larger head dimensions (head circumference, head breadth, head length, face height and lower face height), but smaller measurements for minimal frontal diameter, bizygomatic diameter, bigonial diameter, and inner canthal distance. Several significant correlations were found with the variables for both mentally retarded males with and without the fra(X) syndrome. In a combined anthropometric and craniofacial profile of 19 variables comparing 26 white fra(X) syndrome males (13 with high expression (> 30%) and 13 with low expression (< 30%), but matched for age), a relatively flat profile was observed with no significant differences for any of the variables. Generally, fra(X) syndrome males with increased fragile X chromosome expression have larger amplifications of the CGG trinucleotide repeat of the FMR-1 gene. No physical differences were detectable in our study between fra(X) males with high expression and apparently larger amplifications of the CGG trinucleotide repeats compared with those patients with low expression. Our research illustrates the use of anthropometry in identifying differences between mentally retarded males with or without the fra(X) syndrome and offers a comprehensive approach for screening males for the fra(X) syndrome and selecting those individuals for cytogenetic and/or molecular genetic testing. PMID:8275570

  6. Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

    2004-08-01

    Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28°C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37°C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

  7. Preliminary communication: neuroanatomical variations of the posterior fossa in men with the fragile X (Martin-Bell) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reiss, A L; Patel, S; Kumar, A J; Freund, L

    1988-10-01

    Four men with fragile X (fra (X], or Martin-Bell, syndrome were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether detectable abnormalities of the cerebellum were present. The cerebellum was chosen because of the apparently increased tendency for fra (X) patients to demonstrate autistic behavior and accumulating evidence implicating cerebellar abnormalities in autism. Compared with a control group of four normal men, fra (X) patients had a significantly decreased area of the cerebellar vermis, particularly the posterior portion, on planimetric analysis in the midsagittal plane. The pons and fourth ventricular areas also were decreased and increased, respectively, in the fra (X) men. Neuroanatomical and animal research increasingly implicates the cerebellar vermis as an important component in functional brain systems subserving sensory and motor integration, learning, and modulation of affect, motivation, and social behavior. Thus, vermis dysfunction could account for many of the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities observed in fra (X) males, particularly those which overlap with the behavioral syndrome of autism. PMID:3232704

  8. Variation at the fragile X locus does not influence susceptibility to bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; McGuffin, P.

    1994-06-15

    Over the last 20 years several pedigrees have been reported which are suggestive of linkage between susceptibility to bipolar disorder and markers on chromosome Xq28. Other workers have failed to replicate these reports and the methodology of the positive reports has been criticized. Recently there have been several reports of an association between fragile X (FRA(X)) and affective disorder within families and in unrelated individuals compared with controls. Such reports could be consistent with the Xq28 marker reports because FRA(X) maps to Xq27.3. We report a study at the FRA(X) CGG repeat locus in 79 unrelated Caucasian bipolar probands without fragile X syndrome and 77 unrelated controls. We found no evidence that variation at this locus confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Newsom, David L.; González, Juan F.; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L.; Smith, Jenee N.; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J.; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10−/− mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1− SPI2− or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies. PMID:24967579

  10. Safety recommendations and responses availability. [Tank car safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-28

    Documents available from the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) include a response by the US Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) to NTSB's report, ''The Accident Performance of Tank Car Safeguards''. FRA has agreed to extend the requirements for top-and-bottom shelf couplers to all tank cars used to transport hazardous materials, and those for head shields and thermal protection to new and rebuilt specification DOT 105 tank cars; to examine the protection afforded to ''nonpressure'' tank cars used to transport specialty products and Class A poisons; to study the ways in which to minimize the damage to the top fittings and bottom outlet valves following train accidents and incorporate these with new car construction; to collect data on tank car derailment behavior to identify breach mechanisms (FRA work in progress); and to conduct studies to evaluate the safe positions in freight trains for placarded hazardous materials rail cars.

  11. Experimental investigation on amplification and coherence properties of a single-frequency and dual-single-frequency narrow-linewidth fiber Raman amplifier employing a switchable narrow-linewidth seed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiangming; Wu, Wuming; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Hou, Jing

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate a narrow-linewidth fiber Raman amplifier (NL-FRA) operating at single-frequency (SF) and dual-single-frequency (DSF) to study the amplification and coherence properties. A switchable NL seed laser at a central wavelength of 1079.7 nm is utilized to provide SF and DSF signal light for FRA. The signal light is Raman amplified to 791 mW and 1.07 W, respectively. Measurements of spectrum and frequency spectrum indicate that there is no significant indication of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and four-wave mixing (FWM). The experimental investigation on coherence properties of SF and DSF NL-FRA indicates that the optical-path-difference-control and control-servomechanism-system for coherent beam combination (CBC) of DSF NL-FRAs are more strictly required, but still feasible.

  12. Regulation of Heart Rate in Drosophila via Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Stefanie Mares; Joardar, Archi; Gregorio, Carol C.; Zarnescu, Daniela C.

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding proteins play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, however little is understood about their role in cardiac function. The Fragile X (FraX) family of RNA binding proteins is most commonly studied in the context of neurological disorders, as mutations in Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) are the leading cause of inherited mental retardation. More recently, alterations in the levels of Fragile X Related 1 protein, FXR1, the predominant FraX member expressed in vertebrate striated muscle, have been linked to structural and functional defects in mice and zebrafish models. FraX proteins are established regulators of translation and are known to regulate specific targets in different tissues. To decipher the direct role of FraX proteins in the heart in vivo, we turned to Drosophila, which harbors a sole, functionally conserved and ubiquitously expressed FraX protein, dFmr1. Using classical loss of function alleles as well as muscle specific RNAi knockdown, we show that Drosophila FMRP, dFmr1, is required for proper heart rate during development. Functional analyses in the context of cardiac-specific dFmr1 knockdown by RNAi demonstrate that dFmr1 is required cell autonomously in cardiac cells for regulating heart rate. Interestingly, these functional defects are not accompanied by any obvious structural abnormalities, suggesting that dFmr1 may regulate a different repertoire of targets in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that dFmr1 protein is essential for proper cardiac function and establish the fly as a new model for studying the role(s) of FraX proteins in the heart. PMID:26571124

  13. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Pathway Regulates Breast Cancer Cell Migration by Maintaining slug Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoming; Zhu, Genfeng; Li, Yong; Padia, Ravi N.; Dong, Zheng; Pan, Zhixing K.; Liu, Kebin; Huang, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    Cell migration is a critical step in cancer cell invasion. Recent studies have implicated the importance of the ERK signaling pathway in cancer cell migration. However, the mechanism associated with ERK-regulated cell migration is poorly understood. Using a panel of breast cancer cell lines, we detected an excellent correlation between ERK activity and cell migration. Interestingly, we noticed that a 48-hr treatment with U0126 (specific MEK1/2 inhibitor) was needed to significantly inhibit breast cancer cell migration while this inhibitor blocked ERK activity within 1 hr. This observation suggests that ERK-dependent gene expression rather than direct ERK signaling is essential for cell migration. In further study, we found that ERK activity promoted the expression of AP1 components Fra-1 and c-Jun, both of which were necessary for cell migration. Combination of U0126 treatment and Fra-1/c-Jun knockdown did not yield further reduction in cell migration than either alone, indicating that ERKs and Fra-1/c-Jun act in the same mechanism to facilitate cell migration. In an attempt to investigate the role of Fra-1/c-Jun in cell migration, we found that ERK-Fra-1/c-Jun axis regulated slug expression in an AP1-dependent manner. Moreover, the occurrence of U0126-induced migratory inhibition coincided with slug reduction, and silencing slug expression abrogated breast cancer cell migration. These results suggest an association between ERK-regulated cell migration and slug expression. Indeed, cell migration was not significantly inhibited by U0126 treatment or Fra-1/c-Jun silencing in cells expressing slug transgene. Our study suggests that the ERK pathway regulates breast cancer cell migration by maintaining slug expression. PMID:19920183

  14. Intercellular Diffusion of a Fluorescent Sucrose Analog via the Septal Junctions in a Filamentous Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Nürnberg, Dennis J.; Mariscal, Vicente; Bornikoel, Jan; Nieves-Morión, Mercedes; Krauß, Norbert; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many filamentous cyanobacteria produce specialized nitrogen-fixing cells called heterocysts, which are located at semiregular intervals along the filament with about 10 to 20 photosynthetic vegetative cells in between. Nitrogen fixation in these complex multicellular bacteria depends on metabolite exchange between the two cell types, with the heterocysts supplying combined-nitrogen compounds but dependent on the vegetative cells for photosynthetically produced carbon compounds. Here, we used a fluorescent tracer to probe intercellular metabolite exchange in the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We show that esculin, a fluorescent sucrose analog, is incorporated by a sucrose import system into the cytoplasm of Anabaena cells. The cytoplasmic esculin is rapidly and reversibly exchanged across vegetative-vegetative and vegetative-heterocyst cell junctions. Our measurements reveal the kinetics of esculin exchange and also show that intercellular metabolic communication is lost in a significant fraction of older heterocysts. SepJ, FraC, and FraD are proteins located at the intercellular septa and are suggested to form structures analogous to gap junctions. We show that a ΔsepJ ΔfraC ΔfraD triple mutant shows an altered septum structure with thinner septa but a denser peptidoglycan layer. Intercellular diffusion of esculin and fluorescein derivatives is impaired in this mutant, which also shows a greatly reduced frequency of nanopores in the intercellular septal cross walls. These findings suggest that FraC, FraD, and SepJ are important for the formation of junctional structures that constitute the major pathway for feeding heterocysts with sucrose. PMID:25784700

  15. Amplification effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering in the forward-pumped S-band discrete DCF fibers Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Dai, Bizhi; Li, Laixiao; Xu, Haifeng; Liu, Hongling; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Chenxia; Kim, Insoo S.

    2005-11-01

    The amplification effect on forward and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering lines in the forward pumped S band discrete DCF fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) has been studied. The pumped threshold power of the forward first order Stokes SBS (FSB I - ), second order Stokes SBS (FSB II -) and third order SBS (FSB 3 -) in the forward pumped FRA are 1.5 mW, 1.4 mW and 1.7 mW respectively. The Stokes SBS lines are amplified by FRA and fiber Brillouin amplifier (FBA) at the same time. The gain of amplification is given as G A=G R multiplied by G B where G R is Raman gain and G B is Brillouin gain. In the experiments, the saturation gain of FSB I -, FSB II - and FSB 3 - are about 52dB, 65dB and 65dB respectively. The saturation Raman gain of 10km DCF forward FRA is about 14dB, so the Brillouin gain of FSB I - , FSB II - and FSB 3 - are about 38dB, 51dB and 51dBrespectively. There are pumped threshold power of the first order, second order and third order Stokes backward SBS (B-SBS) line BSB I -, BSB II - and BSB 3 - in the forward pumped discrete DCF FRA, and they are about 4.7mW, 17.1mW and 67mW respectively. The saturation gain of the first order, second and third Stokes backward SBS line BSB I -, BSB II -and BSB 3 - are about 60dB and the saturation gain of 10km DCF forward pumped FRA is about 27dB, so the gain of FBA is about 33dB. The forward and backward cascaded SBS lines have been observed.

  16. 76 FR 53308 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...We are revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 150F, 150G, 150H, 150J, 150K, 150L, 150M, A150K, A150L, A150M, F150F, F150G, F150H, F150J, F150K, F150L, F150M, FA150K, FA150L, FRA150L, FA150M, FRA150M, 152, A152, F152, and FA152 airplanes. That AD currently requires either installing a placard prohibiting spins and other acrobatic......

  17. APOLLO 14: Docking trouble (pt 2/2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: At last the crew is able to mate the command and lunar modules. But the hitch has raised some serious issues.. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  18. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  19. APOLLO 14: Docking trouble (pt 1/2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The crew are having problems docking the command module to the lunar module: the locking mechanism will not engage. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  20. Major element chemistry of glasses in Apollo 14 soil 14156.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Jakes, P.

    1973-01-01

    Glasses in a soil sample (14156) from the middle layer of the trench at the Fra Mauro landing site show a wide range of compositions clustered around certain preferred compositions. Ninety per cent of the glasses are of two major types - Fra Mauro basalt (63%) with high K and 17 wt % Al2O3 and Highland basalt or anorthositic gabbro (27%) with low K and 25 to 26 wt % Al2O3. The glass population is almost identical with that of the comprehensive soil 14259.

  1. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  2. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  3. 75 FR 27053 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ....gov/ . Please refer to the notice published in the Federal Register on March 11, 1996, 61 FR 9740, for... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal... of the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC). SUMMARY: FRA announces the charter renewal of...

  4. 77 FR 52393 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    .../ . Please refer to the notice published in the Federal Register on March 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740), for... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  5. 75 FR 42476 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  6. Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of "antiandrogens" on male rat reproductive development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although risk assessments are typically conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis, the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act requires the USEPA to consider cumulative risk of chemicals that act via a common mechanism of toxicity. To this end, we are conducting studies to provide a fra...

  7. 78 FR 13154 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Railroad System by Light Rail and Conventional Equipment, 65 FR 42529 (July 10, 2000). See also Joint... Conventional Railroads and Light ] Rail Transit Systems, 65 FR 42626 (July 10, 2000).) FRA assigned the... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC,...

  8. 77 FR 50760 - Notice and request for comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... agency was seeking OMB approval. 77 FR 37092. FRA received no comments after issuing this 60- day notice... 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs the... before it renders a decision. 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. Therefore, respondents should submit...

  9. 75 FR 3275 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    .... Before submitting these information collection requirements for clearance by the Office of Management and... accidents, injuries, and fatalities of the nature already experienced and further reduce the risk of a truly catastrophic accident. Finally, FRA analyzes the data provided in the Management Information System...

  10. Determining the dispersion characteristics of rivers from the frequency response of the system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambertz, Peter; Palancar, MaríA. C.; Aragón, José M.; Gil, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    A new method of determining the parameters of an aggregated dead zone model (ADZ) to predict longitudinal dispersion in rivers is presented. The method is based on the frequency response analysis (FRA) of observed field tests, which consist of tracer injections (input) and measurement of tracer in downstream sampling points (output) located downstream from the injection point. The ADZ is a combination of plug and completely mixed flow compartments. The ADZ parameters (number of compartments, mean residence time, and delay time) are evaluated by means of Bode plots that give the system order (number of compartments), gain, time constant (mean residence time of each compartment) and delay time. The FRA-ADZ method was checked with tracer data runs in two Spanish rivers, the Tagus and the Ebro rivers. The experimental tracer concentration versus time distributions were compared with the ADZ predicted curves, which were calculated using parameters obtained from the FRA method, and with curves predicted by several classical models. The residence time of several reaches within the two studied rivers was predicted by the FRA-ADZ method with a relative error lower than 10%. The method is generally applicable to ideal and nonideal inputs and is particularly well suited to arbitrary-shaped initial source concentration distributions.

  11. 77 FR 25610 - Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as Amended; Delay of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Chapter II Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the... Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Statement of agency policy and... statement of agency policy and interpretation published February 29, 2012, at 77 FR 12408, and...

  12. 78 FR 49323 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... ICR for which the agency was seeking OMB approval. 78 FR 29203. FRA received no comments in response....S.C. 3507 (b)-(c); 5 CFR 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that... adequate time to digest public comments before it renders a decision. 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995....

  13. 75 FR 23839 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... excuses 15 minutes .5 Asking to be Excused from Random Alcohol Testing. 219.903--Retention of Urine Drug 2... dispatching service employees testing positive for unauthorized use of alcohol and drugs are removed from...--evidence of unauthorized use of drugs and alcohol--is used by FRA to help prevent accidents/incidents...

  14. 78 FR 54951 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... safety regulations contained at 49 CFR Part 215-Railroad Freight Car Safety Standards. FRA assigned the... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC. Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate... restricted operation of the car. The petition concerns one caboose, numbered RERX 5404, and four freight...

  15. 75 FR 52059 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...--Railroad Freight Car Safety Standards. Specifically, BRG seeks relief to permit trains transferred by the... Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver of compliance from certain requirements of its safety...) seeks a waiver of compliance with certain requirements of 49 CFR part 232 --Brake System...

  16. 77 FR 4396 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ..., VALE seeks a waiver of compliance from the Railroad Freight Car Safety Standards, 49 CFR 215.303, which... Administration (FRA) for a waiver of compliance from certain provisions of the Federal railroad safety... maximum load that each car would be permitted to carry, if any, is stated in Exhibit A (mentioned...

  17. 77 FR 65764 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... (FRA) for a waiver of compliance from certain provisions of the Federal railroad safety regulations contained at 49 CFR parts 215-Railroad Freight Car Safety Standards; 223-Safety Glazing Standards... railroad freight car safety standards contained at 49 CFR 215.303, which requires stenciling on...

  18. 76 FR 57796 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... requirements of 49 CFR part 232, Brake System Safety Standards for Freight and Other Non-Passenger Trains and Equipment; End-of-Train Devices and 49 CFR part 215, Railroad Freight Car Safety Standards. Presently, BRG's... provisions of the Federal railroad safety regulations contained at 49 CFR parts 232 and 215. FRA assigned...

  19. 78 FR 37657 - Petition for a Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477..., Qualification and Certification of Conductors, at two of its maintenance operations. BTNA's first operation... assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0014. The conductor certification regulations provide...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 242 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Pt. 242, App. C Appendix C to Part 242—Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor... him or her certification or recertification as a conductor. To fulfill that obligation, a railroad... privileges, FRA places responsibility on individuals, who want to serve as conductors to request that...

  1. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  2. 75 FR 20037 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  3. 75 FR 6256 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a...

  4. An integrated spectroscopic and wet chemical approach to investigate grass litter decomposition chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Litter decomposition is a key process for soil organic matter formation and terrestrial biogeochemistry. Yet we still lack complete understanding of the chemical transformations which occur in the litter residue as it decomposes. A number of methods such as bulk nutrient concentrations, chemical fra...

  5. 78 FR 18285 - Direct Final Rulemaking Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Transportation's (DOT) complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... would be useful to its rulemaking activities. \\1\\ 69 FR 4455. \\2\\ See 70 FR 67318 (FTA), 72 FR 10086 (FRA), and 75 FR 29915 (FMCSA). Notice and comment rulemaking procedures are not required under...

  6. 49 CFR 209.101 - Civil penalties generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil... procedure for the assessment of civil penalties pursuant to the Federal hazardous materials transportation safety law, 49 U.S.C. Chapter 51. (b) When the FRA has reason to believe that a person has...

  7. 49 CFR 209.101 - Civil penalties generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil... procedure for the assessment of civil penalties pursuant to the Federal hazardous materials transportation safety law, 49 U.S.C. Chapter 51. (b) When the FRA has reason to believe that a person has...

  8. 49 CFR 209.101 - Civil penalties generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil... procedure for the assessment of civil penalties pursuant to the Federal hazardous materials transportation safety law, 49 U.S.C. Chapter 51. (b) When the FRA has reason to believe that a person has...

  9. 49 CFR 209.101 - Civil penalties generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil... procedure for the assessment of civil penalties pursuant to the Federal hazardous materials transportation safety law, 49 U.S.C. Chapter 51. (b) When the FRA has reason to believe that a person has...

  10. 49 CFR 209.101 - Civil penalties generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil... procedure for the assessment of civil penalties pursuant to the Federal hazardous materials transportation safety law, 49 U.S.C. Chapter 51. (b) When the FRA has reason to believe that a person has...

  11. 49 CFR 209.405 - Reporting of remedial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... received, the railroad shall be presumed to have received the notification five business days following the date of mailing. (2) Completion of Form FRA F 6180.96, including selection of railroad remedial action... form. The railroad shall select the one remedial action code on the reporting form that most...

  12. 76 FR 68260 - Notice of Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... public notice seeking comments from interested parties (See 76 FR 48941 (August 9, 2011)). After... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing The Marquette Rail, LLC (MQT), by a May 23, 2011, document, has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) seeking the approval of a Product...

  13. 75 FR 61386 - Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... this section of the RSIA to the Administrator of FRA. 74 FR 26981, 26982, June 5, 2009, 49 CFR 1.49(oo.... See 73 FR 75207, December 10, 2008, re Docket No. HHS-OS-2009-0025 at http://www.regulations.gov . The... respirators are supplied. See also 74 FR 23815, May 21, 2009, which reopened the comment period until...

  14. 77 FR 40144 - Adoption of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Participation in the Section 106...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ..., 64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999. First, FRA's review concluded that the action encompassed by the MTA RRIF... facilities, and new storage and maintenance facilities. Analysis of environmental effects from the East Side.... 3, 2010. Street Entrances, July 30, 2009. 5. Redundant Elevator for East Side Access...

  15. 49 CFR 238.107 - Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan. 238.107... Requirements § 238.107 Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan. (a) General. Beginning on January 1, 2002... develop, and provide to FRA upon request, a detailed inspection, testing, and maintenance plan...

  16. 75 FR 55632 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  17. 77 FR 61656 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Approval from FRA. MCHF/BSFSRY states that it is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit organization. This tourist... of MCHF. BSFSRY is a non-insular tourist operation and does not interchange any of the equipment subject to this petition with the general system of railroads. MCHF was incorporated in Kentucky in...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 240 - Procedures for Submission and Approval of Locomotive Engineer Qualification Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to address both loss of retention of knowledge and changed circumstances, and this section of the... to be tested and the weight or possible score that each skill will be given. The section should also... and 240.129). lt also contains guidance on how FRA will exercise its review and...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 240 - Procedures for Submission and Approval of Locomotive Engineer Qualification Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to address both loss of retention of knowledge and changed circumstances, and this section of the... to be tested and the weight or possible score that each skill will be given. The section should also... and 240.129). lt also contains guidance on how FRA will exercise its review and...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 240 - Procedures for Submission and Approval of Locomotive Engineer Qualification Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to address both loss of retention of knowledge and changed circumstances, and this section of the... to be tested and the weight or possible score that each skill will be given. The section should also... and 240.129). lt also contains guidance on how FRA will exercise its review and...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 240 - Procedures for Submission and Approval of Locomotive Engineer Qualification Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to address both loss of retention of knowledge and changed circumstances, and this section of the... to be tested and the weight or possible score that each skill will be given. The section should also... and 240.129). lt also contains guidance on how FRA will exercise its review and...

  2. 75 FR 54223 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) received a request for a waiver...

  3. 78 FR 14874 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... the petition Docket Number FRA-2012-0005. NJT states that its primary maintenance facility for rail vehicles is the Meadows Maintenance Complex. This facility was heavily damaged by flood waters as a result...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR...

  4. Interannual, seasonal, and diel variability in the carbon isotope composition of respiration in a C3/C4 agricultural ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable carbon isotope ratio 13CO2/12CO2 is a valuable tool for understanding the processes controlling the autotrophic (FRa) and heterotrophic (FRh) contributions to ecosystem respiration (FR) as well as influences of photosynthesis on respiration. There is increasing interest in the temporal va...

  5. 75 FR 34802 - Notice and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... collection of information was published on April 8, 2010 (75 FR 18012). DATES: Comments must be submitted on... this ICR that the agency was seeking OMB approval. 75 FR 18012. FRA received no comments in response to....S.C. 3507 (b)-(c); 5 CFR 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes...

  6. 75 FR 40020 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... approval. 75 FR 23839. FRA received no comments after issuing this notice. Accordingly, DOT announces that... information was published on May 4, 2010 (75 FR 23839). DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before August... 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30-day notice informs the...

  7. 49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party verification and validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that consideration of the methodology used in the risk assessment (§ 236.913(g)(2)(vii)) shall apply only to the extent that a comparative risk assessment was required. To the extent practicable, FRA... system supplier and vendor. An entity that is owned or controlled by the supplier or vendor, that...

  8. 77 FR 68203 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the... Brogan, Office of Safety, Planning and Evaluation Division, RRS-21, Federal Railroad Administration, 1200... performing safety-sensitive service in the rail industry for violations of safety rules,...

  9. 78 FR 18672 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the activities... Safety, Planning and Evaluation Division, RRS-21, Federal Railroad Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave... notification requests promotes safety by minimizing mental lapses of workers who are simultaneously...

  10. 75 FR 32981 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the activities identified below... or all of the following proposed activities by mail to either: Mr. Robert Brogan, Office of Safety... unauthorized alcohol or drug use--is used to prevent accidents by screening personnel who perform...

  11. 76 FR 71432 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the... Brogan, Office of Safety, Planning and Evaluation Division, RRS-21, Federal Railroad Administration, 1200... unauthorized alcohol or drug use--is used to prevent accidents by screening personnel who perform...

  12. 78 FR 11948 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the activities... Safety, Planning and Evaluation Division, RRS-21, Federal Railroad Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave... Control Number: 2130-0533. Abstract: Section 4 of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 1988 (RSIA),...

  13. 77 FR 69918 - Notice and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... approval. 75 FR 58439. FRA received no comments after issuing this 60-day notice. Accordingly, DOT...(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs the... before it renders a decision. 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. Therefore, respondents should submit...

  14. 76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Federal Register on November 10, 2010. See 75 FR 69166. In the NPRM, FRA solicited public comment on the... (75 FR 69166, 69170 (Nov. 10, 2010)) and in the section-by-section analysis to this final rule: Under... railroad of the deterioration.'' 75 FR 69166, 69176 (Nov. 10, 2010) (emphasis added). Because the...

  15. 76 FR 49975 - Inspection of Towing Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D... Administration FR Federal Register FRA Federal Railroad Administration GAO Government Accountability Office gpm... public meetings titled ``Inspection of Towing Vessels'' in the Federal Register (69 FR 78471). The...

  16. 77 FR 15450 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, Illinois, to Omaha, Nebraska, Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28454) (Environmental Procedures), in... telephone (515) 239-1052 or (800) 488-7119. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Andrea Martin... (515) 239-1052 or (800) 488-7119. Information and documents regarding the environmental review...

  17. 75 FR 63535 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... System by Light Rail and Conventional Equipment, 65 FR 42529 (July 10, 2000); see also Joint Statement of... Railroads and Light Rail Transit Systems, 65 FR 42626 (July 10, 2000). On August 19, 1999, UTA filed a... the FRA Railroad Safety Board on August 19, 1999, for the Sandy/Salt Lake TRAX Light Rail Transit...

  18. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    .... Mark Werner, Rail Division, Texas Department of Transportation, 125 E. 11th Street, Austin, TX 78701... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service...

  19. 78 FR 18671 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...); see also 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. The summaries below describe the nature of the information... approval. 78 FR 1930. FRA received no comments in response to this notice. Before OMB decides whether to... also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30-day notice informs the...

  20. 78 FR 18674 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...); see also 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. The summaries below describe the nature of the information... approval. 78 FR 4978. FRA received no comments after issuing this notice. Accordingly, DOT announces that... 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs the...

  1. 77 FR 26703 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... changes to the numerical amounts at ``213.146.A'' in appendix A to part 231. See 77 FR 24416. The final... authority. See 77 FR 24416. In preparing that final ] rule for publication, three errors were made as... 24, 2012. See 77 FR 24416. FRA failed to account for an October 31, 2011 amendment to 49 CFR part...

  2. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”) (42 U.S.C. 4332 et seq.), Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 303(c)), the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), the Coastal... Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ Regulation”) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  3. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531). Appropriate environmental... Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Protection of Historic Properties regulation (36 CFR part 800) will govern FRA's compliance with applicable...

  4. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”) (42 U.S.C. 4332 et seq.), Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 303(c)), the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), the Coastal... Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ Regulation”) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  5. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531). Appropriate environmental... Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Protection of Historic Properties regulation (36 CFR part 800) will govern FRA's compliance with applicable...

  6. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531). Appropriate environmental... Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Protection of Historic Properties regulation (36 CFR part 800) will govern FRA's compliance with applicable...

  7. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”) (42 U.S.C. 4332 et seq.), Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 303(c)), the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), the Coastal... Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ Regulation”) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  8. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be filed with FRA pursuant to § 234.9 of this part (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure..., STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents...

  9. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be filed with FRA pursuant to § 234.9 of this part (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure..., STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents...

  10. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be filed with FRA pursuant to § 234.9 of this part (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure..., STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents...

  11. 76 FR 67073 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... the hours of service laws at 49 U.S.C. 21106). See notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), 76 FR 64... the responsibility to carry out his responsibilities under RSIA to the Administrator of FRA. 74 FR... FR 30892 (July 27, 1990), codified at 49 CFR part 228, app. C. In developing new subpart E,...

  12. 75 FR 2597 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... ] benefits. The report outlined an aggressive Action Plan implementing a public-private sector partnership to... control systems without impairing technological development. 70 FR 11,052 (Mar. 7, 2005). FRA intended... ACSES. See 63 FR 39,343 (July 22, 1998). ACSES was installed between 2000 and 2002, and has...

  13. Third Lunar Science Conference.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A.; Burnett, D.; Doe, B.; Gault, D.; Haskin, L.; Schnoes, H.; Heymann, D.; Melson, W.; Papike, J.; Tilling, R.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the nature and properties of lunar rock as deduced from the examination of Apollo lunar rock samples. The topics include the lunar crust, the Fra Mauro formation, the interior of the moon, lunar chronology, surface processes, and earth-moon environment.

  14. 49 CFR 269.11 - Evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluation. 269.11 Section 269.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATE PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM § 269.11 Evaluation. FRA will select a...

  15. 49 CFR 269.11 - Evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evaluation. 269.11 Section 269.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATE PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM § 269.11 Evaluation. FRA will select a...

  16. 49 CFR 269.11 - Evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evaluation. 269.11 Section 269.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATE PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM § 269.11 Evaluation. FRA will select a...

  17. 77 FR 68722 - National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...). ACTION: Announcement of technical symposium and extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On October 18, 2012... Reporting Requirements. In the NPRM, FRA announced that it would schedule a technical symposium to give... scheduling of the technical symposium. This notice also extends the NPRM comment period to allow time...

  18. 49 CFR 213.333 - Automated vehicle-based inspection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... calendar year with at least 170 days between inspections. The lateral capacity of the track structure shall... section, a vehicle having dynamic response characteristics that are representative of other vehicles... section. Based on a review of the report, FRA may require that an instrumented vehicle having...

  19. 49 CFR 213.333 - Automated vehicle-based inspection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... calendar year with at least 170 days between inspections. The lateral capacity of the track structure shall... section, a vehicle having dynamic response characteristics that are representative of other vehicles... section. Based on a review of the report, FRA may require that an instrumented vehicle having...

  20. 49 CFR 236.913 - Filing and approval of PSPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... amendments concerning installation of new or next-generation train control systems. All other actions that result in the creation of a PSP or PSP amendment require an informational filing and are handled... Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 232 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... $105,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Failure to...—Introduction of New Brake System Technology 232.503Process to introduce new technology: (b) Failure to obtain....503 (failure to get FRA approval before introducing new technology) with respect to a single unit...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 232 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... $105,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Failure to...—Introduction of New Brake System Technology 232.503Process to introduce new technology: (b) Failure to obtain....503 (failure to get FRA approval before introducing new technology) with respect to a single unit...

  3. 49 CFR 236.913 - Filing and approval of PSPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... amendments concerning installation of new or next-generation train control systems. All other actions that result in the creation of a PSP or PSP amendment require an informational filing and are handled... Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC...

  4. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  5. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  6. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  7. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  8. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  9. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random.... According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive... (Administrator) has therefore determined that the minimum annual random drug testing rate for the period...

  10. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... random drug testing ] positive rate has remained below 1.0 percent for the last two years. The Federal Railroad Administrator (Administrator) has therefore determined that the minimum annual random drug...

  11. 78 FR 35659 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC, on June 10, 2013. Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate... regulations contained at 49 CFR Part 219, Subpart G, Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs. FRA assigned... intermittently adjust UP's random drug and alcohol testing rates at specific locations based on...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... publications: Summary of the DOT Rail-Highway Crossings Resource Allocation Procedure—Revised, June 1987, and the Rail-Highway Crossing Resource Allocation Procedure: User's Guide, Third Edition, August 1987... rail car that entered the crossing. FRA believes that sounding the train horn would not be...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... publications: Summary of the DOT Rail-Highway Crossings Resource Allocation Procedure—Revised, June 1987, and the Rail-Highway Crossing Resource Allocation Procedure: User's Guide, Third Edition, August 1987... rail car that entered the crossing. FRA believes that sounding the train horn would not be...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... publications: Summary of the DOT Rail-Highway Crossings Resource Allocation Procedure—Revised, June 1987, and the Rail-Highway Crossing Resource Allocation Procedure: User's Guide, Third Edition, August 1987... rail car that entered the crossing. FRA believes that sounding the train horn would not be...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... publications: Summary of the DOT Rail-Highway Crossings Resource Allocation Procedure—Revised, June 1987, and the Rail-Highway Crossing Resource Allocation Procedure: User's Guide, Third Edition, August 1987... rail car that entered the crossing. FRA believes that sounding the train horn would not be...

  16. 49 CFR 174.104 - Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car... 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and certification. (a... service and complies with the FRA Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215) and with the...

  17. 49 CFR 174.104 - Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car... 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and certification. (a... service and complies with the FRA Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215) and with the...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 180 - Hazardous Materials Corrosive to Tanks or Service Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in 49 CFR 172.101 or shipped under an “n.o.s.” shipping description that, under certain conditions... cautioned that this list may not be inclusive. Tank car owners and operators are reminded of their duty to... this subchapter. See § 180.509(f)(3). In addition, FRA states a tank car owner must designate...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 180 - Hazardous Materials Corrosive to Tanks or Service Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in 49 CFR 172.101 or shipped under an “n.o.s.” shipping description that, under certain conditions... cautioned that this list may not be inclusive. Tank car owners and operators are reminded of their duty to... this subchapter. See § 180.509(f)(3). In addition, FRA states a tank car owner must designate...

  20. 49 CFR 174.104 - Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car... 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and certification. (a... and complies with the FRA Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215) and with the requirements...

  1. 49 CFR 174.104 - Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car... 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and certification. (a... and complies with the FRA Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215) and with the requirements...

  2. 49 CFR 174.104 - Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car... 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and certification. (a... service and complies with the FRA Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215) and with the...

  3. 49 CFR 236.1023 - Errors and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... recommended mitigation actions to be taken pending determination of the root cause and final corrective... appropriate risk analysis, the railroad shall: (1) Notify the applicable vendor or supplier and FRA of the... safety-critical PTC system, subsystem, or component fails to perform its intended function, the...

  4. 49 CFR 236.1023 - Errors and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recommended mitigation actions to be taken pending determination of the root cause and final corrective... appropriate risk analysis, the railroad shall: (1) Notify the applicable vendor or supplier and FRA of the... safety-critical PTC system, subsystem, or component fails to perform its intended function, the...

  5. 75 FR 71487 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 235 and 49 U.S.C. 20502... for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system, as detailed below. Docket Number FRA-2010... 49 CFR 235.5 to expedite successful installation of Positive Train Control (PTC) mandated by the...

  6. 75 FR 49551 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance Pursuant to title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 235 and 49 U.S.C. 20502(a), the following railroad has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)...

  7. 75 FR 76069 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... modification of the signal system on the Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line from milepost (MP) 1.4 Swift Interlocking... Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR... Administration (FRA) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of the signal system as...

  8. 77 FR 48204 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or online at www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington... Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and 49 U.S... approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition docket...

  9. 78 FR 36817 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... collections of information was published on March 27, 2013 (78 FR 18668). DATES: Comments must be submitted on... seeking OMB approval. See 78 FR 18668. FRA received no comments after issuing this notice. Accordingly... 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs the...

  10. 76 FR 8397 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Program Corridor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). The FRA and IDOT will ] use a tiered process, as provided for in 40... mph project concept, including ] development of an investment-grade business plan and the preparation... Springfield, and for the approach to St. Louis, MO. DATES: Two agency scoping meetings and five public...

  11. 75 FR 76345 - Risk Reduction Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Secretary has since delegated those responsibilities to the FRA Administrator. See 49 CFR 1.49(oo); 74 FR... within a risk reduction framework? 33. What are practical ways a small business could apply the elements of an RRP? 34. What business benefits are created by a risk reduction program? 35. Are there...

  12. 76 FR 34683 - Withdrawal of Notices Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Program. SUMMARY: On September 17, 2010 (75 FR 57000) (DDRA); October 1, 2010 (75 FR 60740) (FRA); January 13, 2011 (76 FR 2349) (BIE) and (76 FR 2353) (IRS); January 25, 2011 (76 FR 4330) (AORC); February 8, 2011 (76 FR 6769) (UISFL); and March 22, 2011 (76 FR 15956) (Comprehensive Program), the...

  13. 75 FR 65399 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... unattended equipment. UP states that the Continuous Speed Control System is unique from conventional hump... petitioned FRA for a determination that the engineering principles used in its design of its Continuous Speed... retarders) are strategically located to control each freight car's speed to deliver into its assigned...

  14. 76 FR 41555 - Tupelo, Mississippi Railroad Relocation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Relocation Project'' in the subject heading, or Mr. John Winkle, Transportation Industry Analyst, Office of... Environmental Quality NEPA implementing regulations, 40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, and the FRA NEPA procedures, 64 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. Fungal trunk diseases: A problem beyond grapevines?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are caused by a range of taxonomically unrelated fungi, which occur wherever grapes are grown and are the main biotic factor limiting vineyard productivity and longevity. GTDs cause untenable economic losses. For example, they are considered a “national crisis” in Fra...

  16. 75 FR 15484 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Applications. SUMMARY: The Rail Safety Technology Program is a newly authorized program under the Rail Safety... ), or Mr. David Blackmore, FRA, Program Manager- Advanced Technologies (Phone: (312) 835-3903,...

  17. 49 CFR 234.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices addresses standards and guides for flaggers and flagging equipment for highway traffic control, FRA recommends that railroads be aware of the standards and... crossing, supplied by a railroad employee, law enforcement officer, highway traffic official, or...

  18. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  19. O3, CO2 and chemical fractionation in ponderosa pine saplings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors can affect plant tissue quality which is important for quality of organic matter inputs into soil food webs and decomposition of soil organic matter. Thus the effects of increases in CO2 and O3 and their interactions were determined for various chemical fra...

  20. 77 FR 14976 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; 110(a)(1) and (2) Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... NSR Update) recognizing nitrogen oxide (NOx) as an ozone precursor, among other elements. See 70 FR...(a)(2)(C) and (J) for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS by March 1, 2008. See 73 FR 16205. Specifically... May 28, 2009, SIP revision. See 77 FR 6016. The May 28, 2009, submission was one of two required...

  1. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the

  2. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a... locomotive crashworthiness designs which are not consistent with any FRA-approved locomotive...

  3. 77 FR 35471 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or visit... Register on May 26, 1999 (64 FR 28545) and are available on the agency's Web site at http://www.fra.dot.gov... Federal Railroad Administration National Environmental Policy Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  7. 49 CFR 212.113 - Program termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Program termination. 212.113 Section 212.113..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State/Federal Roles § 212.113 Program... provided by the FRA for guidance of the program; and (3) The rule of national uniformity of laws,...

  8. 49 CFR 212.113 - Program termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program termination. 212.113 Section 212.113..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State/Federal Roles § 212.113 Program... provided by the FRA for guidance of the program; and (3) The rule of national uniformity of laws,...

  9. 49 CFR 212.113 - Program termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Program termination. 212.113 Section 212.113..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State/Federal Roles § 212.113 Program... provided by the FRA for guidance of the program; and (3) The rule of national uniformity of laws,...

  10. 49 CFR 212.113 - Program termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program termination. 212.113 Section 212.113..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State/Federal Roles § 212.113 Program... provided by the FRA for guidance of the program; and (3) The rule of national uniformity of laws,...

  11. 77 FR 75698 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Railway. There are no end windows except for the end doors. The left side of the car contains six windows while the right side contains seven windows. No Type I or Type II FRA-certified glazing is currently installed in the car. All windows have two panes. Except for the end windows and four emergency windows,...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 223 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., 21304, and 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a... convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 223 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., 21304, and 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a... convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 223 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., 21304, and 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a... convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of...

  15. 77 FR 55265 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Northeast Corridor Between Washington, DC, New York, NY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Washington, DC, New York, NY, and Boston, MA AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S. Department... potential passenger rail improvements between Washington, DC, New York City, and Boston, MA was published in... Scoping meetings held from August 13th through August 22nd at nine different venues between Washington,...

  16. 49 CFR 219.4 - Recognition of a foreign railroad's workplace testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognition of a foreign railroad's workplace... General § 219.4 Recognition of a foreign railroad's workplace testing program. (a) General. A foreign railroad may petition the FRA Associate Administrator for Safety for recognition of a workplace...

  17. 78 FR 7857 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...); see also 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. The summary below describes the nature of the information... agency was seeking OMB approval. 77 FR 68203. FRA received one comment in response to this notice. On... also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs the...

  18. 78 FR 65421 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... this ICR that the agency was seeking OMB approval. 78 FR 49321. FRA received no comments in response to....S.C. 3507 (b)-(c); 5 CFR 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that... adequate time to digest public comments before it renders a decision. 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995....

  19. 78 FR 49322 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... ICR that the agency was seeking OMB approval. 78 FR 32005. FRA received no comments in response to....S.C. 3507 (b)-(c); 5 CFR 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that... adequate time to digest public comments before it renders a decision. 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995....

  20. 76 FR 15362 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... soliciting comments on the following collection of information was published on January 13, 2011 (76 FR 2441... approval. 76 FR 2441. FRA received no comments in response to this notice. Before OMB decides whether to... also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs the...

  1. 77 FR 3837 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... 16, 2011 (76 FR 221). DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before February 24, 2012. FOR FURTHER... Federal Register soliciting comments on an ICR that the agency was seeking OMB approval. 76 FR 221. FRA...-day notice is published. 44 U.S.C. 3507 (b)-(c); 5 CFR 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983,...

  2. 76 FR 82036 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 63990). DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before January 30, 2012. FOR FURTHER... seeking OMB approval. 76 FR 63990. FRA received no comments in response to this notice. Before OMB decides...(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs...

  3. 75 FR 8180 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... comments on the following collections of information was published on December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66722... Register soliciting comment on ICRs that the agency was seeking OMB approval. 74 FR 66722. FRA received no... published. 44 U.S.C. 3507 (b)-(c); 5 CFR 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995....

  4. 77 FR 37092 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... are part of the general railroad system of transportation and primarily used by railroads to move freight traffic. FRA anticipates that no further public notification will be made with respect to...

  5. 78 FR 22363 - Environmental Impact Statement for the All Aboard Florida Miami-Orlando Passenger Rail Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    .... 4321 et seq.) (NEPA) and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545, May 26... Federal Railroad Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the All Aboard Florida Miami-- Orlando... service proposed by the private company, All Aboard Florida--Operations LLC (AAF), between Miami...

  6. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in a passenger train as required by this section or as... components or equipment in lieu of the requirements of this section. Any alternative interval must be based... implementation and compliance with any alternative interval adopted. FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety...

  7. 75 FR 80014 - Drivers of CMVs: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316). II. Abbreviations AAMVA... Motor Carrier Safety Regulations FONSI Finding of No Significant Impact FR Federal Register FRA Federal... 31136(e) (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations; General, 53 FR 18042-18043, 18053 (May 19, 1988)...

  8. 77 FR 12407 - Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as Amended; Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... policy and interpretation (Interim Interpretations) and its proposed interpretation, 74 FR 30665, FRA... an on-duty period.'' This earlier definition of ``work'' also led some commenters to be confused... with respect to the hours of service laws as amended by the RSIA (the new hours of service laws). 74...

  9. 49 CFR 230.40 - Time and method of staybolt testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) of this section. All staybolts also shall be hammer tested under hydrostatic pressure any time hydrostatic pressure above the MAWP specified on the boiler specification form (FRA Form No. 4... of hammer testing. If staybolts are tested while the boiler contains water, the hydrostatic...

  10. 49 CFR 230.40 - Time and method of staybolt testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) of this section. All staybolts also shall be hammer tested under hydrostatic pressure any time hydrostatic pressure above the MAWP specified on the boiler specification form (FRA Form No. 4... of hammer testing. If staybolts are tested while the boiler contains water, the hydrostatic...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... similar contexts. (See 49 CFR 107.299, defining “knowingly” under the Hazardous Materials Transportation... subject to sanction. However, as a matter of enforcement policy, application of a negligence standard in... operating. Also, unlike the case where willfulness must be shown (see FRA's statement of policy at 49...

  12. 75 FR 39615 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with part 211 of title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  13. 75 FR 20035 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with part 211 of title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  14. 49 CFR 268.17 - Project selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... criteria will govern FRA's selection of projects to receive funding under the Maglev Deployment Program. (a... are to be expected in the United States. (4) The degree to which the project will augment a Maglev... development status of the Maglev technology selected by the applicant for the project. (c) Benefits for...

  15. 49 CFR 268.17 - Project selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... criteria will govern FRA's selection of projects to receive funding under the Maglev Deployment Program. (a... are to be expected in the United States. (4) The degree to which the project will augment a Maglev... development status of the Maglev technology selected by the applicant for the project. (c) Benefits for...

  16. 49 CFR 268.17 - Project selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... criteria will govern FRA's selection of projects to receive funding under the Maglev Deployment Program. (a... are to be expected in the United States. (4) The degree to which the project will augment a Maglev... development status of the Maglev technology selected by the applicant for the project. (c) Benefits for...

  17. 77 FR 19054 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... responsibilities. See the RSAC Web site for details on prior RSAC activities and pending tasks at: http://rsac.fra.dot.gov/ . Please refer to the notice published in the Federal Register on March 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740... the Track Safety Standards, Critical Incident, Dark Territory, Fatigue Management, Risk...

  18. 76 FR 67020 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    .... See the RSAC Web site for details on prior RSAC activities and pending tasks at: http://rsac.fra.dot.gov/ . Please refer to the notice published in the Federal Register on March 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740... the Electronic Device Distraction, Critical Incident, Track Safety Standards, Dark...

  19. 77 FR 4271 - Special Permit Marking Removal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 179 Special Permit Marking Removal AGENCY: Federal Railroad... that had an established safety record. 75 FR 27205. The final rule amended the HMR to allow, upon the... Register notice providing such approval for certain tank cars. 76 FR 4250. In that notice, FRA stated...

  20. 77 FR 40700 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a...) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition... in General Code of Operating Rules 6.21, when a severe weather event is encountered during the...