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1

Forskningscenter Ris Ris-R-1310(DA)  

E-print Network

blik for omkostninger · 14 Industriel teknologi · 17 Grundforskningscenter for studier af metaller · 17 efterfølgende tilfredsstillende forhandlinger med Ministeriet for Viden- skab, Teknologi og Udvikling om en ny

2

The strawberry fruit Fra a allergen functions in flavonoid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The strawberry Fra a 1 allergen is a homolog of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. It is synthesized by red ripe fruits of Fragaria x ananassa while white fruits of a mutant genotype, which is known to be tolerated by individuals affected by allergy, are devoid of it. Proteomic analyses have shown that Fra a 1 is down-regulated in the tolerated white-fruited genotype along with enzymes of the anthocyanin pigment pathway. In this study, we report the spatial and temporal expression of three Fra a genes that encode different isoforms, and the transient RNAi-mediated silencing of the Fra a genes in strawberry fruits of the red-fruited cultivar Elsanta with an ihpRNA construct. As a consequence of reduced levels of Fra a mRNAs, fruits were obtained that produced significantly decreased levels of anthocyanins and upstream metabolites. This effect is consistent with the parallel down-regulation of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (FaPAL) and to a lesser extent of the chalcone synthase (FaCHS) transcript levels also found in these fruits. In naturally occurring white-fruited genotypes of F. chiloensis and F. vesca, Fra a transcript levels are higher than those of the red-fruited varieties, likely to compensate for the low expression levels of FaPAL and FaCHS in these mutant genotypes. The results demonstrate that Fra a expression is directly linked to flavonoid biosynthesis and show that the Fra a allergen has an essential biological function in pigment formation in strawberry fruit. PMID:19969523

Muoz, Cristina; Hoffmann, Thomas; Escobar, Nieves Medina; Ludemann, Felix; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Schwab, Wilfried

2010-01-01

3

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the strawberry allergens Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 in the presence of catechin.  

PubMed

The strawberry Fra a proteins belong to the pathogenesis-related PR-10 protein family and share a common fold with the Bet v 1 major pollen allergen and the START/PYR/PYL proteins, which are characterized by the presence of a central cavity and are often involved in the binding of a variety of natural compounds. The Fra a proteins play a key role in the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in strawberries and are essential for pigment formation in fruits. In order to understand Fra a protein function, full-length Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 cDNAs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were purified to homogeneity using metal-affinity chromatography. Diffraction-quality crystals of Fra a 1E and of Fra a 3 in the presence of (+)-catechin were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data from single crystals of Fra a 1E and Fra a 3 were processed to 2.2 and 3.0? resolution in space groups P212121 and P2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.02, b = 74.42, c = 84.04? and a = 137.91, b = 206.61, c = 174.7? for Fra a 1E and Fra a 3, respectively. PMID:23695565

Casaal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Dupeux, Florine; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, Jose A

2013-05-01

4

Solution structure of the strawberry allergen Fra a 1  

PubMed Central

The PR10 family protein Fra a 1E from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is down-regulated in white strawberry mutants, and transient RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated silencing experiments confirmed that Fra a 1 is involved in fruit pigment synthesis. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of Fra a 1E. The protein fold is identical with that of other members of the PR10 protein family and consists of a seven-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet, two short V-shaped ?-helices and a long C-terminal ?-helix that encompass a hydrophobic pocket. Whereas Fra a 1E contains the glycine-rich loop that is highly conserved throughout the protein family, the volume of the hydrophobic pocket and the size of its entrance are much larger than expected. The three-dimensional structure may shed some light on its physiological function and may help to further understand the role of PR10 proteins in plants. PMID:22913709

Seutter von Loetzen, Christian; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwab, Wilfried; Rosch, Paul; Hartl-Spiegelhauer, Olivia

2012-01-01

5

The Fos-related antigen Fra-1 is an activator of bone matrix formation  

PubMed Central

Ectopic expression of the transcription factor Fra-1 in transgenic mice leads to osteosclerosis, a bone disorder characterized by increased bone mass. The molecular basis for this phenotype is unknown and Fra-1 functions cannot be studied by a conventional loss-of-function approach, since fra-1-knockout mice die in utero likely due to placental defects. Here we show that the lethality of fra-1-knockout mice can be rescued by specific deletion of Fra-1 only in the mouse embryo and not in the placenta. Mice lacking Fra-1 (fra-1?/?) are viable and develop osteopenia, a low bone mass disease. Long bones of fra-1?/? mice appear to have normal osteoclasts but express reduced amounts of bone matrix components produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes such as osteocalcin, collagen1a2 and matrix Gla protein. The gene for matrix Gla protein seems to be a specific target of Fra-1 since its expression was markedly increased in the long bones of fra-1-transgenic mice. These results uncover a novel function of Fra-1 in regulating bone mass through bone matrix production by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. PMID:15229648

Eferl, Robert; Hoebertz, Astrid; Schilling, Arndt F; Rath, Martina; Karreth, Florian; Kenner, Lukas; Amling, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

2004-01-01

6

Materialeforsker fra Ris tog springet og startede verdens frste virksom-  

E-print Network

, at friction stir welding til aluminium i dag er standard. En række store producenter af aluminium samt en friction stir welding - svejsning ved hjælp af omrørings-friktion - en ny teknolo- gi, som han tror så, ville det ikke have gjort den store forskel. Med friction stir welding er støj, røg og kraftigt lys fra

7

September 2012 Informasjonsbrev fra Helseunderskelsen i Nord-Trndelag (HUNT)  

E-print Network

September 2012 Informasjonsbrev fra Helseundersøkelsen i Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT) Det gjennomføres stadig nye forskningsprosjekter med utgangspunkt i HUNT, og det er viktig for oss å informere dere som mer om hvilken forskning som pågår og om forskningsresultater basert på HUNT-data på vår hjemmeside

Malinnikova, Eugenia

8

Fri prosjektsttte: Nye prosjekter innenfor matematikk, naturvitenskap og teknologi (FRINATEK) fra 2014 Prosjekt Tittel Prosjektansvarlig  

E-print Network

Fri prosjektstøtte: Nye prosjekter innenfor matematikk, naturvitenskap og teknologi (FRINATEK) fra Institutt for fysikk og teknologi, Universitetet i Bergen 231491 Developments in Optical Measurement

Brandenburg, Axel

9

Fra-1/AP-1 Transcription Factor Negatively Regulates Pulmonary Fibrosis In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor plays a key role in tumor epithelial cell progression; however, its role in pathogenic lung fibrosis remains unclear. In the present study, using a genetic approach (Fra-1 deficient mice), we have demonstrated a novel regulatory (protective) role for Fra-1 in lung fibrosis. We found greater levels of progressive interstitial fibrosis, characterized by increased levels of inflammation, collagen accumulation, and profibrotic and fibrotic gene expression in the lungs of Fra-1?/? mice than in those of Fra-1+/+ mice following bleomycin treatment. Fra-1 knockdown in human lung epithelial cells caused the upregulation of mesenchymal marker N-cadherin, concomitant with a downregulation of the epithelial phenotype marker E-cadherin, under basal conditions and in response to bleomycin and TGF-?1. Furthermore, Fra-1 knockdown caused an enhanced expression of type 1 collagen and the downregulation of collagenase (MMP-1 and MMP-13) gene expression in human lung epithelial cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Fra-1 mediates anti-fibrotic effects in the lung through the modulation of proinflammatory, profibrotic and fibrotic gene expression, and suggests that the Fra-1 transcription factor may be a potential target for pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive disorder with poor prognosis and treatment. PMID:22911824

Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Vaz, Michelle; Reddy, Sekhar P.

2012-01-01

10

Presence of hydroxyl in the Fra Mauro region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are known to consist of volcanic material (basalt and glass) ejected by eruptions [1]. In the southern part of the crater Fra Mauro, a localised LPD is associated with Rima Parry V [2]. In [3], a suppressed neutron flux is described for the Fra Mauro region based on measurements of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) [4], interpreted as an indicator of hydroxyl (OH). In this study we compare these measurements with NIR hyperspectral data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(3) ) [5] instrument. The suppression factor of the neutron flux is defined according to delta = (N_ref-N_ex)/N_ref [6,7] with N_ex as the average count rate of the omnidirectional sensor (SETN) [8] of LEND for the region under study (here: the Fra Mauro region) and N_ref as the average count rate for a reference area (here: immediately west of Fra Mauro). For Fra Mauro crater, a suppression factor of 2.4% with a standard error of 0.41% was found. The epithermal neutron flux can be assumed to be inversely proportional to the hydrogen content. Hence, the measured positive suppression factor indicates a positive anomaly of the hydrogen content at up to 1 m depth. Under the approximative assumption of a proportional relation between the suppression factor delta and the hydrogen content, the observation in [7] of a suppression factor of 18% in the crater Cabeus associated with a homogeneous hydrogen content of about 500 ppm implies an enrichment in hydrogen by about 70 ppm for the Fra Mauro region. However, these values do not specifically refer to the small Fra Mauro LPD but to a larger area of about 150 km diameter. To identify the LPD-specific suppression factor, it would be necessary to acquire collimated neutron flux measurements. We have complemented the LEND-based measurements by the analysis of spectral reflectance data acquired by the M(3) instrument. The presence of OH in the surface material leads to an absorption band beyond 2700 nm wavelength [9]. Based on the M(3) version V03 radiance data [10] and GLD100 topographic data [11], a topographically and photometrically corrected spectral reflectance data set normalised to 30() incidence angle, 0() emission angle and 30() phase angle [12] has been generated along with a refined DEM of high lateral resolution (cf. [13] for a detailed description of the applied processing steps). The depth of the OH absorption band is indicated by the reflectance ratio between the 2657 nm and 2817 nm bands (M(3) channels 77 and 81). In our map of the 2657/2817 reflectance ratio, the Fra Mauro LPD as well as a similar deposit in the northern part of the crater Bonpland stand out as positive anomalies exhibiting an increase of 2-2.5% with respect to the surrounding crater floor material. This observation indicates the presence of OH in the LPD surface material. Similar absorption depths can be observed for the inner walls and ejecta of a crater of 3 km diameter located north-northwest of the Fra Mauro LPD and of several craters with diameters less than 2 km in the northern floor of Bonpland. This behaviour may indicate the presence of OH also at larger depth below the surface. [1] Gaddis et al. (2003) Icarus 161(2), 262-280 [2] Head, J. W., Wilson, L. (1993) PSS 41(10), 719-727 [3] Sinitsyn et al. (2013) 4th Moscow Solar System Symp., 4MS3-PS14 [4] Mitrofanov et al. (2010a) Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 183-207 [5] Pieters et al. (2009) Current Science 96(4), 500-505 [6] Boynton et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H33 [7] Mitrofanov et al. (2010b) Science 330, 483-485 [8] Litvak et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H22 [9] Clark et al. (2010) LPSC XXXXI, abstract #1533 [10] http://pds-imaging.jpl.nasa.gov/volumes/m3.html [11] Scholten et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H17 [12] Pieters (1999) Workshop on New Views of the Moon II, abstract #8025 [13] Grumpe et al. (2013) Adv. Space Res., in press.

Berezhnoy, Alexey; Whler, Christian; Sinitsyn, Mikhail; Grumpe, Arne; Feoktistova, Ekaterina; Shevchenko, Vladislav

11

Apollo 14 - Nature and origin of rock types in soil from the Fra Mauro formation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compositions of glasses in the Apollo 14 soil correspond to four types of Fra Mauro basalts, to mare basalts and soils, and, in minor amounts, to gabbroic anorthosite and potash granite. The Fra Mauro basalts can be related by simple low pressure crystal-liquid fractionation that implies a parent composition like that of Apollo 14 sample 14310.

Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

1971-01-01

12

Widespread FRA1-Dependent Control of Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation Programs in Colorectal Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Tumor invasion and metastasis involves complex remodeling of gene expression programs governing epithelial homeostasis. Mutational activation of the RAS-ERK is a frequent occurrence in many cancers and has been shown to drive overexpression of the AP-1 family transcription factor FRA1, a potent regulator of migration and invasion in a variety of tumor cell types. However, the nature of FRA1 transcriptional targets and the molecular pathways through which they promote tumor progression remain poorly understood. We found that FRA1 was strongly expressed in tumor cells at the invasive front of human colorectal cancers (CRCs), and that its depletion suppressed mesenchymal-like features in CRC cells in vitro. Genome-wide analysis of FRA1 chromatin occupancy and transcriptional regulation identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes as a major class of direct FRA1 targets in CRC cells. Expression of the pro-mesenchymal subset of these genes predicted adverse outcomes in CRC patients, and involved FRA-1-dependent regulation and cooperation with TGF? signaling pathway. Our findings reveal an unexpectedly widespread and direct role for FRA1 in control of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in CRC cells, and suggest that FRA1 plays an important role in mediating cross talk between oncogenic RAS-ERK and TGF? signaling networks during tumor progression. PMID:24658684

Diesch, Jeannine; Sanij, Elaine; Gilan, Omer; Love, Christopher; Tran, Hoanh; Fleming, Nicholas I.; Ellul, Jason; Amalia, Marcia; Haviv, Izhak; Pearson, Richard B.; Tulchinsky, Eugene; Mariadason, John M.

2014-01-01

13

Transformer winding movement monitoring in service - key factors affecting FRA measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data from a study conducted to identify the key factors that contribute to frequency response analysis (FRA) measurement results. The results show that the lower the shunt impedance, the higher the sensitivity of the FRA measurement for the detection of winding movement. On transformers with large bushings, the bushings can mask the detection of winding movement. To

M. Wang; A. J. Vandermaar; K. D. Srivastava

2004-01-01

14

Winding movement in power transformers: a comparison of FRA measurement connection methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency response analysis (FRA) is an effective diagnostic tool for detecting transformer winding movements. Various FRA traces can be measured from a set of transformer winding terminals each of which relate to a different test connection scheme. Practical considerations of test and analysis time dictate that only some of the connections are used, and currently there is no standard test

J. A. S. B. Jayasinghe; Z. D. Wang; P. N. Jarman; A. W. Darwin

2006-01-01

15

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

2010-10-01

16

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

2012-10-01

17

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

2013-10-01

18

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The...

2011-10-01

19

ERK signaling regulates tumor promoter induced c-Jun recruitment at the Fra-1 promoter  

PubMed Central

Fra-1 as an integral part of AP-1 (Jun/Fos) drives transcriptional programs involved in several physiologic and pathologic processes. It is also critical for tumor cell motility and metastasis. We have previously shown that two critical elements of Fra-1 promoter, the upstream TPA response element (TRE) and the SRE are necessary for its induction in response to phorbol esters in human pulmonary epithelial cell lines. Here, we have investigated the roles of various MAP kinases in regulating Fra-1 expression in response to TPA. Using pharmacologic and genetic tools, we demonstrate a prominent role for ERK1/2, but not JNK1/2 and p38, signaling in the TPA-induced activation of specific transcription factors that bind to the AP1 site and the SRE. Inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway suppresses Elk1 activation, and c-Jun and Fra-2 recruitment to the promoter. PMID:18435914

Adiseshaiah, Pavan; Li, Jinfang; Vaz, Michelle; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.; Reddy, Sekhar P.

2008-01-01

20

49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs 219.608...

2010-10-01

21

49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs 219.608...

2013-10-01

22

49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs 219.608...

2012-10-01

23

49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate. 219.608 Section 219.608...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs 219.608...

2011-10-01

24

NrrA directly regulates expression of the fraF gene and antisense RNAs for fraE in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed

The heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 grows as linear multicellular filaments that can contain hundreds of cells. Heterocysts, which are specialized cells for nitrogen fixation, are regularly intercalated among photosynthetic vegetative cells, and these cells are metabolically dependent on each other. Thus, multicellularity is essential for diazotrophic growth of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the fraF gene, which is required to limit filament length, is induced by nitrogen deprivation. The fraF transcripts extend to the fraE gene, which lies on the opposite DNA strand and could possess dual functionality, mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE. In the present study, we found that NrrA, a nitrogen-regulated response regulator, directly regulated expression of fraF. Induction of fraF by nitrogen deprivation was abolished by the nrrA disruption. NrrA specifically bound to the promoter region of fraF, and recognized an inverted repeat sequence. Thus, it is concluded that NrrA controls expression of mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE in response to nitrogen deprivation. PMID:24554757

Ehira, Shigeki; Ohmori, Masayuki

2014-05-01

25

Fra-1 regulation of Matrix Metallopeptidase-1 (MMP-1) in metastatic variants of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Matrix Metallopeptidase 1 (MMP-1) expression has repeatedly been correlated to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Yet, MMP-1 regulation in a metastatic context remains largely unknown. Here we confirm differential MMP-1 expression in mammary carcinoma cells with varied metastatic potentials. We show that MMP-1 expression is regulated by an AP-1 element in its promoter in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 mammary carcinoma cell derivatives. Fra-1, an AP-1 family transcription factor, differentially binds this element in highly metastatic cells compared to low metastatic cells and is required for MMP-1 expression. Overexpression of Fra-1 also caused increased MMP-1 expression. Fra-1 mRNA levels are unchanged in the cell variants, however its protein levels are higher in the metastatic cells. While there was no change in Fra-1 protein degradation rates, protein synthesis of Fra-1 was increased in the metastatic cell variant. These results demonstrate that Fra-1 and MMP-1 levels are differentially regulated in metastatic cell variants at the level of Fra-1 protein translation. Consistent with the importance of Fra-1 for tumor growth, we found that Fra-1 overexpression was sufficient to increase cell motility and anchorage independent growth. These results suggest that increased Fra-1 translation is critical for regulation of MMP-1 and tumor cell metastasis. PMID:25339983

Henckels, Eric; Prywes, Ron

2013-01-01

26

FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection  

PubMed Central

Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called normal instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

2011-01-01

27

Expression profiling of genes regulated by Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background The Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor regulates the expression of genes controlling various processes including migration, invasion, and survival as well as extracellular remodeling. We recently demonstrated that loss of Fra-1 leads to exacerbated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, accompanied by enhanced expression of various inflammatory and fibrotic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which Fra-1 confers protection during bleomycin-induced lung injury, genome-wide mRNA expression profiling was performed. Results We found that Fra-1 regulates gene expression programs that include: 1) several cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammation, 2) several genes involved in the extracellular remodeling and cell adhesion, and 3) several genes involved in programmed cell death. Conclusion Loss of Fra-1 leads to the enhanced expression of genes regulating inflammation and immune responses and decreased the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, suggesting that this transcription factor distinctly modulates early pro-fibrotic cellular responses. PMID:23758685

2013-01-01

28

The ages of lunar material from Fra Mauro, Hadley Rille, and Spur Crater.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ar-40/Ar-39 dating techniques were applied to estimate the age of twelve crystalline and fragmented Fra Mauro rock samples and six Hadley Rille and Spur Crater rock samples provided by the Apollo 14 and 15 missions. Genesis histories of some associated lunar surface features are traced back on the basis of obtained rock age values.

Husain, L.; Schaeffer, O. A.; Funkhouser, J.; Sutter, J.

1972-01-01

29

Fra viden til faktura p energiomrdet Indlg ved kick-off mdet for Energi Industriens innovationsnetvrk  

E-print Network

for Energy Technology Policy, OECD/IEA, Paris (p28) #12;0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Globalcum & documentation Attractive & competitive Analysis Development Innovation Industrial partners IncentivesFra viden til faktura på energiområdet Indlæg ved kick-off mødet for Energi Industriens

30

Uniparental disomy (UPD) for fra(X) in a 47,XXY male  

SciTech Connect

We report a 4-year-old hyperactive, mentally retarded male with 47,XXY and UPD for fra(X). Speech and motor delay were first noted at age 15 months. He has no dysmorphic features, normal ears, hyperextensible joints, small testes, and no history of seizures. His mother has prominent lowest ears, a long midface, anteverted nostrils, hyperextensible joints, malocclusion, and had learning problems in school. Routine chromosome analysis revealed the proband to be 47,XXY. Parental chromosomes were normal in number. The proband was fra(X) positive [30/160 cells, 18%]. No cells had two expressed fra(X)s; however, this may be a function of the low level of expression and the number of cells scored. Maternal cells were also fra(X) positive [19/205, 9.2%]. Southern analysis demonstrated the mother to be heterozygous for a methylated, full mutation (>220 repeats); her normal FMR-1 gene was disproportionately unmethylated. The proband had two fully expanded and methylated FMR-1 genes, one the same size as the maternal gene and the other >620 repeats. RFLP analysis revealed a maternal meiotic II error, the result of which was UPD of the X chromosome.

Torfs, C.P.; Christianson, R.E.; Amos, J.A.; Huang, X.L.; Kang, X.Z. [Center for Human Genetics Boston Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

31

Elevated ERK-MAP kinase activity protects the FOS family member FRA-1 against proteasomal degradation in colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The AP-1 (activator protein-1) complex, which consists of proteins of the Fos and Jun families, is thought to play an important role in the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, the response to genotoxic stress and cell transformation. In cells containing oncogenic Ras, the major components of AP-1 are Fra-1 and c-Jun. Signalling from Ras to AP-1 is through the Raf/MEK[mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase]/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) MAP kinase pathway as sustained activation of Raf1 or Mek1 modifies AP-1 composition and activity. To analyse the potential link between the ERK-MAPK pathway and AP-1 in colon cancer, in which RAS and BRAF mutations are frequent, we have studied the regulation of AP-1 in colon carcinoma cell lines. We show that c-JUN and FRA-1 expression is dependent on ERK activity and that different thresholds of ERK activity control the expression of FRA-1. A basal activity is required to induce transcription of the FRA-1 gene, but additional higher levels of activity stabilize FRA-1 against proteasome-dependent degradation. These results provide a clear-cut example that the magnitude of ERK signalling affects the cellular response. Although we find no contribution of FRA-1 towards cell proliferation of adherent tumour cells, the high levels of FRA-1 in cells where elevated ERK activity leads to protein stabilization provide survival signals for tumour cells removed from the extracellular matrix. PMID:14625389

Vial, Emmanuel; Marshall, Christopher J

2003-12-15

32

Estrogen-induced Expression of Fos-related Antigen 1 (FRA-1) Regulates Uterine Stromal Differentiation and Remodeling*  

PubMed Central

Concerted actions of estrogen and progesterone via their cognate receptors orchestrate changes in the uterine tissue, regulating implantation during early pregnancy. The uterine stromal cells undergo steroid-dependent differentiation into morphologically and functionally distinct decidual cells, which support embryonic growth and survival. The hormone-regulated pathways underlying this unique cellular transformation are not fully understood. Previous studies in the mouse revealed that, following embryo attachment, de novo synthesis of estrogen by the decidual cells is critical for stromal differentiation. In this study we report that Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1), a member of the Fos family of transcription factors, is a downstream target of regulation by intrauterine estrogen. FRA-1 expression was localized in the differentiating uterine stromal cells surrounding the implanted embryo. Attenuation of estrogen receptor ? (Esr1) expression by siRNA mediated silencing in primary uterine stromal cells suppressed FRA-1 expression. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated direct recruitment of ESR1 to an estrogen response element in the Fra-1 promoter. Down-regulation of Fra-1 expression during in vitro decidualization blocked stromal differentiation and resulted in a marked decrease in stromal cell migration. Interestingly, FRA-1 controls the expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP9 and MMP13, which are critical modulators of stromal extracellular matrix remodeling. Collectively, these results suggest that FRA-1, induced in response to estrogen signaling via ESR1, is a key regulator of stromal differentiation and remodeling during early pregnancy. PMID:22514284

Das, Amrita; Li, Quanxi; Laws, Mary J.; Kaya, Hatice; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

2012-01-01

33

MicroRNA-34a inhibits migration and invasion of colon cancer cells via targeting to Fra-1.  

PubMed

MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a), a transcriptional target of p53, is a well-known tumor suppressor gene. Here, we identified Fra-1 as a new target of miR-34a and demonstrated that miR-34a inhibits Fra-1 expression at both protein and messenger RNA levels. In addition, we found that p53 indirectly regulates Fra-1 expression via a miR-34a-dependant manner in colon cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-34a strongly inhibited colon cancer cell migration and invasion, which can be partially rescued by forced expression of the Fra-1 transcript lacking the 3'-untranslated region. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9, two enzymes involved in cell migration and invasion, was decreased in miR-34a-transfected cells, and this can be rescued by Fra-1 overexpression. Moreover, we found that miR-34a was downregulated in 25 of 40 (62.5%) colon cancer tissues, as compared with the adjacent normal colon tissues and that the expression of miR-34a was correlated with the DNA-binding activity of p53. Unexpectedly, the DNA-binding activity of p53 was not inversely correlated with Fra-1 expression, and a significant statistical inverse correlation between miR-34a and Fra-1 expression was only observed in 14 of 40 (35%) colon cancer tissues. Taken together, our in vitro data suggest that p53 regulates Fra-1 expression, and eventually cell migration/invasion, via a miR-34a-dependent manner. However, in vivo data indicate that the p53-miR-34a pathway is not the major regulator of Fra-1 expression in human colon cancer tissues. PMID:22198213

Wu, Jianmin; Wu, Gang; Lv, Lu; Ren, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Xue-Jiao; Xue, Yong-Feng; Li, Guiling; Lu, Xincheng; Sun, ZhongSheng; Tang, Kai-Fu

2012-03-01

34

RESTRAINT-INDUCED fra-2 AND c-fos EXPRESSION IN THE RAT FOREBRAIN: RELATIONSHIP TO STRESS DURATION  

E-print Network

and Pennypacker, 2004), photoperiod phase shift (Engel et al., 2005), and recovery from sleep deprivation (Terao min recovery after 15 min restraint showed less c-fos expression in the PVN, less fra-2 expression

Spencer, Robert L.

35

Chromosomal fragile site, FRA16A: Implications for fragile site genesis  

SciTech Connect

Fragile sites are chemically induced non-staining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. The fragile sites sequenced to date (FRAXA and FRAXE) are rare, folate sensitive sites located on the X chromosomes. They have similar DNA sequence composition of a p(CCG)n repeat adjacent to a methylatable CpG island. Individuals expressing the fragile site have an unstable expanded repeat and methylation of the adjacent CpG island. FRAXA is associated with the most common form of familial mental retardation, Fragile X Syndrome. In order to further understand the relationship between the DNA sequence composition, position in the genome, and the chemistry of induction of fragile sites, we have characterized the rare, folate sensitive fragile site on human chromosome 16 referred to as FRA16A. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)n repeat. This repeat was adjacent to a CpG island that was methylated in fragile-site-expressing individuals. The FRA16A locus in individuals who do not express the fragile site is not a site of DNA methylation (imprinting) which suggests that the methylation associated with fragile sites may be a consequence and not a cause of their genesis. We have analyzed the normal repeat copy numbers for the fragile site p(CCG)n repeats in European, Japanese and Indian populations. While the FRAXA and FRAXE repeats show similar distributions of copy numbers, the FRA16A p(CCG)n repeat in Europeans has a greater range and number of alleles (23.7% have n>25) than its Japanese and Indian counterparts. In conjunction with our previous data demonstrating linkage disequilibrium (founder chromosomes) at the FRAXA locus, these data suggest that certain p(CCG)n repeats are inherently unstable.

Richards, R.I.; Nancarrow, J.K.; Mangelsdorf, M. [Women`s and Children`s Hospital, North Adelaide (Australia)] [and others

1994-09-01

36

R E G I S T R A R I A T FRA.10P(hiv)  

E-print Network

R E G I S T R A R I A T FRA.10P(hiv) (09-2008) Rév : (10-2013) test de francais_hiv_avis.doc AVIS E G I S T R A R I A T FRA.10P(hiv) (09-2008) Rév : (10-2013) test de francais_hiv_avis.doc LISTE DES

Skorobogatiy, Maksim

37

The Strawberry Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) Fra a Proteins Control Flavonoid Biosynthesis by Binding to Metabolic Intermediates*  

PubMed Central

Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins are involved in many aspects of plant biology but their molecular function is still unclear. They are related by sequence and structural homology to mammalian lipid transport and plant abscisic acid receptor proteins and are predicted to have cavities for ligand binding. Recently, three new members of the PR-10 family, the Fra a proteins, have been identified in strawberry, where they are required for the activity of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which is essential for the development of color and flavor in fruits. Here, we show that Fra a proteins bind natural flavonoids with different selectivity and affinities in the low ?m range. The structural analysis of Fra a 1 E and a Fra a 3-catechin complex indicates that loops L3, L5, and L7 surrounding the ligand-binding cavity show significant flexibility in the apo forms but close over the ligand in the Fra a 3-catechin complex. Our findings provide mechanistic insight on the function of Fra a proteins and suggest that PR-10 proteins, which are widespread in plants, may play a role in the control of secondary metabolic pathways by binding to metabolic intermediates. PMID:24133217

Casanal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Munoz, Cristina; Dupeux, Florine; Luque, Irene; Botella, Miguel Angel; Schwab, Wilfried; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, Jose A.

2013-01-01

38

Structural Organization of the pFra Virulence-Associated Plasmid of Rhamnose-Positive Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

The 137,036-bp plasmid pG8786 from rhamnose-positive Yersinia pestis G8786 isolated from the high mountainous Caucasian plague focus in Georgia is an enlarged form of the pFra virulence-associated plasmid containing genes for synthesis of the antigen fraction 1 and phospholipase D. In addition to the completely conserved genes of the pFra backbone, pG8786 contains two large regions consisting of 4,642 and 32,617 bp, designated regions 1 and 2, respectively. Region 1 retains a larger part of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi plasmid pHCM2 resembling the backbone of pFra replicons, while region 2 contains 25 open reading frames with high levels of similarity to the transfer genes of the F-like plasmids. Surprisingly, region 1 is also present in the pFra plasmid of avirulent Y. pestis strain 91001 isolated in Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. Despite the fact that some genes typically involved in conjugative transfer of the F-like replicons are missing in pG8786, we cannot exclude the possibility that pG8786 might be transmissive under certain conditions. pG8786 seems to be an ancient form of the pFra group of plasmids that were conserved due to the strict geographical isolation of rhamnose-positive Y. pestis strains in the high mountainous Caucasian plague locus. PMID:15385458

Golubov, Andrey; Neubauer, Heinrich; Nolting, Christina; Heesemann, Jurgen; Rakin, Alexander

2004-01-01

39

The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe-2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation  

SciTech Connect

The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However, the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which they control Aft1 localization are unclear. To reconstitute and characterize components of this signaling pathway in vitro, we have overexpressed yeast Fra2 and Grx3/4 in Escherichia coli. We have shown that coexpression of recombinant Fra2 with Grx3 or Grx4 allows purification of a stable [2Fe-2S]{sup 2+} cluster-containing Fra2-Grx3 or Fra2-Grx4 heterodimeric complex. Reconstitution of a [2Fe-2S] cluster on Grx3 or Grx4 without Fra2 produces a [2Fe-2S]-bridged homodimer. UV?visible absorption and CD, resonance Raman, EPR, ENDOR, M{umlt o}ssbauer, and EXAFS studies of [2Fe-2S] Grx3/4 homodimers and the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3/4 heterodimers indicate that inclusion of Fra2 in the Grx3/4 Fe-S complex causes a change in the cluster stability and coordination environment. Taken together, our analytical, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 form a Fe-S-bridged heterodimeric complex with Fe ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. Overall, these results suggest that the ability of the Fra2-Grx3/4 complex to assemble a [2Fe-2S] cluster may act as a signal to control the iron regulon in response to cellular iron status in yeast.

Li, H.; Mapolelo, D; Dingra, N; Naik, S; Lees, N; Hoffman, B; Riggs-Gelasco, P; Huynh, B; Johnson, M; Outten, C

2009-01-01

40

Cloning and sequencing of the Bet v 1-homologous allergen Fra a 1 in strawberry ( Fragaria ananassa) shows the presence of an intron and little variability in amino acid sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fra a 1 allergen in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) is homologous to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, which has numerous isoforms differing in terms of amino acid sequence and immunological impact. To map the extent of sequence differences in the Fra a 1 allergen, PCR cloning and sequencing was applied. Several genomic sequences of Fra a 1,

Anna Musidlowska-Persson; Rikard Alm; Cecilia Emanuelsson

2007-01-01

41

Transcriptional complexity and roles of Fra-1/AP-1 at the uPA/Plau locus in aggressive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Plau codes for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), critical in cancer metastasis. While the mechanisms driving its overexpression in tumorigenic processes are unknown, it is regulated by the AP-1 transcriptional complex in diverse situations. The AP-1 component Fra-1 being overexpressed in aggressive breast cancers, we have addressed its role in the overexpression of Plau in the highly metastatic breast cancer model cell line MDA-MB231 using ChIP, pharmacological and RNAi approaches. Plau transcription appears controlled by 2 AP-1 enhancers located -1.9 (ABR-1.9) and -4.1 kb (ABR-4.1) upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) of the uPA-coding mRNA, Plau-001, that bind Fra-1. Surprisingly, RNA Pol II is not recruited only at the Plau-001 TSS but also upstream in the ABR-1.9 and ABR-4.1 region. Most Pol II molecules transcribe short and unstable RNAs while tracking down toward the TSS, where there are converted into Plau-001 mRNA-productive species. Moreover, a minority of Pol II molecules transcribes a low abundance mRNA of unknown function called Plau-004 from the ABR-1.9 domain, whose expression is tempered by Fra-1. Thus, we unveil a heretofore-unsuspected transcriptional complexity at Plau in a reference metastatic breast cancer cell line with pleiotropic effects for Fra-1, providing novel information on AP-1 transcriptional action. PMID:25200076

Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Tolza, Claire; Piechaczyk, Marc; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle

2015-01-01

42

The ICT SCRM CoMMunITy FRaMewoRk DevelopMenT pRojeCT  

E-print Network

with supporting federal policy development in Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) for Information CommunicationsThe ICT SCRM CoMMunITy FRaMewoRk DevelopMenT pRojeCT FInal RepoRT The Supply Chain Management Technology (ICT). To support NIST's work, the Supply Chain Management Center of the Robert H. Smith School

43

Sjaggeren, der hopper rundt i haven og spiser af vinterens udbud af rdne bler, er ankommet fra  

E-print Network

Sjaggeren, der hopper rundt i haven og spiser af vinterens udbud af rådne æbler, er ankommet fra Norge eller Sverige. Samtidig er havens yngle- par af Solsorte forsvundet. Måske huserer de nu et andet danske fuglefauna er enorme. Forårets og sommerens myriader af sangfugle trækker om efteråret til

Thorup, Kasper

44

10-1 (6/24/02) 10.15 FRA TERNITY A ND SORORITY HOUSING POLICY  

E-print Network

10-1 (6/24/02) 10.15 FRA TERNITY A ND SORORITY HOUSING POLICY I. STATEMENT OF A UTHORITY A ND of residence halls specifically dedicated to fraternity and sorority organizations. This policy shall supersede recognizes that the presence of fraternity and sorority organizations at CSM has a beneficial effect upon

45

FRA2 is a STAT5 target gene regulated by IL-2 in human CD4 T cells.  

PubMed

Signal transducers and activators of transcription 5(STAT5) are cytokine induced signaling proteins, which regulate key immunological processes, such as tolerance induction, maintenance of homeostasis, and CD4 T-effector cell differentiation. In this study, transcriptional targets of STAT5 in CD4 T cells were studied by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Genomic mapping of the sites cloned and identified in this study revealed the striking observation that the majority of STAT5-binding sites mapped to intergenic (>50 kb upstream) or intronic, rather than promoter proximal regions. Of the 105 STAT5 responsive binding sites identified, 94% contained the canonical (IFN-? activation site) GAS motifs. A number of putative target genes identified here are associated with tumor biology. Here, we identified Fos-related antigen 2 (FRA2) as a transcriptional target of IL-2 regulated STAT5. FRA2 is a basic -leucine zipper (bZIP) motif 'Fos' family transcription factor that is part of the AP-1 transcription factor complex and is also known to play a critical role in the progression of human tumours and more recently as a determinant of T cell plasticity. The binding site mapped to an internal intron within the FRA2 gene. The epigenetic architecture of FRA2, characterizes a transcriptionally active promoter as indicated by enrichment for histone methylation marks H3K4me1, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, and transcription/elongation associated marks H2BK5me1 and H4K20me1. FRA2 is regulated by IL-2 in activated CD4 T cells. Consistently, STAT5 bound to GAS sequence in the internal intron of FRA2 and reporter gene assays confirmed IL-2 induced STAT5 binding and transcriptional activation. Furthermore, addition of JAK3 inhibitor (R333) or Daclizumab inhibited the induction in TCR stimulated cells. Taken together, our data suggest that FRA2 is a novel STAT5 target gene, regulated by IL-2 in activated CD4 T cells. PMID:24587342

Rani, Aradhana; Greenlaw, Roseanna; Runglall, Manohursingh; Jurcevic, Stipo; John, Susan

2014-01-01

46

Sedimentology of clastic rocks from the Fra Mauro region of the moon.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin-section examination of sixteen clastic rock samples returned by the Apollo 14 mission from the Fra Mauro region of the moon suggests the presence of at least two distinctly different lithologies. Five of the samples (group I) are characterized by an abundant glassy matrix and glass particles and lesser amounts of plagioclase and pyroxene grains, and lithic clasts. The other eleven samples (group II) are relatively fine grained, very poorly sorted, and consist largely of pyroxene, plagioclase, and lithic clasts set in an abundant mineralic matrix. Group I and II lithologies were probably both deposited from impact generated base surges. The differences between them stem not as much from the basic sedimentary processes as from the differences in the magnitude of the events generating the base surges and the resultant difference in available detrital materials.

Lindsay, J. F.

1972-01-01

47

Matrix attachment region (MAR) properties and abnormal expansion of AT island minisatellites in FRA16B fragile sites in leukemic CEM cells  

PubMed Central

AT-rich minisatellites (AT islands) are sites of genomic instability in cancer cells and targets for extremely lethal AT-specific drugs, such as bizelesin. Here we investigated the AT islands in the FRA16B fragile site region for their possible roles in the organization of DNA on the nuclear matrix. The FRA16B AT island nominally spans ?3 kb of mostly >90% A/T DNA. In silico analysis indicates that this domain exhibits characteristics of nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs): an exceptionally intense computed MAR potential and profound duplex destabilization and flexibility. FRA16B repeats specifically bind to isolated nuclear matrices, which indicates their in vitro MAR function. This binding is several-fold greater than that of a known MAR in the c-myc gene. AT islands in fragile sites FRA16B and FRA16D are significantly more abundant in CEM cells that are hypersensitive to bizelesin compared to normal WI-38 cells. FRA16B overabundance in CEM is due to an ?10-fold expansion of FRA16B repeats. The expanded FRA16B minisatellites in CEM cells preferentially localize to the nuclear matrix-associated DNA indicating their in vivo MAR function. The unexpanded repeats in WI-38 cells localize to the loop DNA. The c-myc MAR is also matrix-associated in CEM cells while localizing to loop DNA in WI-38 cells. These results are the first to demonstrate that AT islands in fragile sites can function as MARs both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of FRA16B-mediated MAR sites to rearrange depending on the repeat expansion status could be relevant to both genomic instability of cancer cells and their sensitivity to AT-island targeting drugs. PMID:14576323

Jackson, Jennifer A.; Trevino, Alex V.; Herzig, Maryanne C.; Herman, Terence S.; Woynarowski, Jan M.

2003-01-01

48

J. Phys. III FraJice 6 (1996) 1811-1834 DECEMBER1996, PAGE 1811 1. Rheology of Weakly Flocculated Suspensions of Rigid Particles  

E-print Network

J. Phys. III FraJice 6 (1996) 1811-1834 DECEMBER1996, PAGE 1811 1. Rheology of Weakly Flocculated-Newtonian behavior of flocculated suspensions such as yield stress and shear thinning results from the rupture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agreed to with FRA. Based on these analyses, the reviewer shall identify...Log and/or any other hazard analysis documents for comprehensiveness...The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure Mode and...

2011-10-01

50

49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agreed to with FRA. Based on these analyses, the reviewer shall identify...Log and/or any other hazard analysis documents for comprehensiveness...The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure Mode and...

2012-10-01

51

49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agreed to with FRA. Based on these analyses, the reviewer shall identify...Log and/or any other hazard analysis documents for comprehensiveness...The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure Mode and...

2010-10-01

52

The common fragile site FRA16D gene product WWOX: roles in tumor suppression and genomic stability.  

PubMed

The fragile WWOX gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, is frequently altered in human cancers. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, recent evidence has shown that the WWOX protein is essential for proper DNA damage response (DDR). Furthermore, the gene product, WWOX, has been associated with multiple protein networks, highlighting its critical functions in normal cell homeostasis. Targeted deletion of Wwox in murine models suggests its in vivo requirement for proper growth, metabolism, and survival. Recent molecular and biochemical analyses of WWOX functions highlighted its role in modulating aerobic glycolysis and genomic stability. Cumulatively, we propose that the gene product of FRA16D, WWOX, is a functionally essential protein that is required for cell homeostasis and that its deletion has important consequences that contribute to the neoplastic process. This review discusses the essential role of WWOX in tumor suppression and genomic stability and how its alteration contributes to cancer transformation. PMID:25245215

Aqeilan, Rami I; Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Abu-Odeh, Mohammad

2014-12-01

53

[Fra Dujo Ostoji? (1863-1938) and his "Doma?i Lie?nik - medicus domesticus"].  

PubMed

Fra Dujo Ostoji?(Bijakovi?i, 1863 - Humac kod Ljubukog, 1938) was an educator, teacher, spiritual guide, pastor, cultural, political, charity and welfare activist, a bibliophile, collector, chronicler, and copyist, who worked all over Herzegovina. In 1913, he became Franciscan provincial in Mostar. He was also a member of the Bosnian and Herzegovinian parliament in Sarajevo, where he fervently advocated the rights, identity, and cultural and economic interests of the Croatian people of Herzegovina. At about the same time he bought printing machines from a local printer Dioni?ka tiskara and started a printing office that later became the well known Tiskara FP (FP - Franciscan Province). He continued to write his memoirs, adding new manuscripts to the volume. Two of them are worth of particular mention: "Doma?i lie?nik - Medicus domesticus" ("People's Doctor", 1146 large format pages) and "Necrologium". There he describes the lives of Franciscan brothers and people he knew who practiced the art of pharmacy and medicine, and expands the recipes collected in healing books of the time. Unlike the manuscripts of some of his brothers, Ostoji?'s have survived for over seventy years to this day, to reveal his magnificent legacy to the Croatian people. PMID:21192115

Nikic, Andrija

2010-01-01

54

A 19S proteasomal subunit cooperates with an ERK MAPK-regulated degron to regulate accumulation of Fra-1 in tumour cells.  

PubMed

Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) is a member of the Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor superfamily that is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including colon, breast, lung, bladder and brain. High Fra-1 levels are associated with enhanced cell proliferation, survival, migration and invasion. Despite its frequent overexpression, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the accumulation of Fra-1 proteins in tumour cells are not well understood. Here, we show that turnover of Fra-1, which does not require ubiquitylation, is cooperatively regulated by two distinct mechanisms-association with the 19S proteasomal subunit, TBP-1, and by a C-terminal degron, which acts independently of TBP-1, but is regulated by RAS-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signalling. TBP-1 depletion stabilized Fra-1 and further increased its levels in tumour cells expressing RAS-ERK pathway oncogenes. These effects correlated with increased AP-1 transcriptional activity. We suggest that during Fra-1 degradation, association with TBP-1 provides a mechanism for ubiquitin-independent proteasomal recognition, while the C terminus of the protein regulates its subsequent proteolytic processing. PMID:21874050

Pakay, J L; Diesch, J; Gilan, O; Yip, Y-Y; Sayan, E; Kolch, W; Mariadason, J M; Hannan, R D; Tulchinsky, E; Dhillon, A S

2012-04-01

55

Expression of Common Chromosomal Fragile Site Genes, WWOX/FRA16D and FHIT/FRA3B is Downregulated by Exposure to Environmental Carcinogens, UV, and BPDE but not by IR  

PubMed Central

Common chromosomal fragile sites are unstable genomic loci susceptible to breakage, rearrangement, and are highly recombinogenic. Frequent alterations at these loci in tumor cells led to the hypothesis that they may contribute to cancer development. The two most common chromosomal fragile sites FRA16D and FRA3B which harbor WWOX and FHIT genes, respectively, are frequently altered in human cancers. Here we report that environmental carcinogens, ultraviolet (UV) light, and Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), significantly downregulate expression of both genes. On the other hand, we observe that ionizing radiation (IR) does not affect expression of these genes, suggesting that the effect of repression exerted by UV and BPDE is not just a consequence of DNA damage but may be a result of different signaling pathways triggered by specific DNA lesions. Such downregulation correlates with an induction of an S-phase delay in the cell cycle. Treatment of UV-irradiated cells with caffeine abrogates the S-phase delay while concomitantly overcoming the repression phenomenon. This suggests the involvement of unique cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms in the observed repression. Therefore, it is hypothesized that protracted downregulation of the putative tumor suppressor genes WWOX and FHIT by environmental carcinogens may constitute an additional mechanism of relevance in the initiation of tumorigenesis. PMID:16187332

Thavathiru, Elangovan; Ludes-Meyers, John H.; MacLeod, Michael C.; Aldaz, C. Marcelo

2014-01-01

56

Fra-1 regulates vimentin during Ha-RAS-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in human colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The process of epithelial mesenchymal transition, whereby cells acquire molecular alterations and fibroblastic features, is a fundamental process of embryogenesis and cancer invasion/metastasis. The mechanisms responsible for epithelial mesenchymal transition remain elusive. Human tumors frequently establish constitutively activated RAS signaling, which contributes to the malignant phenotype. In an effort to dissect distinct RAS isoform specific functions, we previously established human colon cell lines stably overexpressing activated Harvey-RAS (Ha-RAS) and Kirsten-RAS (Ki-RAS). Using these, we observed that only oncogenic Ha-RAS overexpression resulted in morphologic and molecular changes suggestive of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We showed that vimentin, a key molecule of epithelial mesenchymal transition, was differentially regulated between Ha-RAS and Ki-RAS leading to a Ha-RAS specific induction of a migratory phenotype and eventually epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We demonstrated that the AP-1 sites in vimentin promoter could be involved in this regulation. A potential role of FRA-1 was suggested in the regulation of vimentin during the Ha-RAS-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition, in association with colon cell migration. Our results therefore propose that in colon cells, the induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition by oncogenic Ha-RAS could occur through the overexpression of proteins like FRA-1 and vimentin. PMID:18098284

Andreolas, Chrysovalantis; Kalogeropoulou, Margarita; Voulgari, Angeliki; Pintzas, Alexander

2008-04-15

57

Adaptive Flexibility in the Foraging Behavior of Fishes' Simon Fra.~erUniversity, Departsnent of Biological Sciences, Bui-naby, B.C. V5A IS6  

E-print Network

Adaptive Flexibility in the Foraging Behavior of Fishes' Simon Fra.~erUniversity, Departsnent of Biological Sciences, Bui-naby, B.C. V5A IS6 DILL,L. M. 1983. Adaptive flexibility in the foraging behavior of fishes. Can. 5. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40: 398-408. Flexibility is an important adaptive feature

Dill, Lawrence M.

58

Tur-retur. Rumsonden Hayabusa er netop landet efter en syvrig mission til den kartoffelformede asteroide Itokawa. Forhbentlig vil prverne fra overfladen give ny  

E-print Network

Tur-retur. Rumsonden Hayabusa er netop landet efter en syvårig mission til den kartoffelformede overflademateriale fra asteroiden Itokawa. Hayabusa er en ubemandet rumsonde på godt 500 kilo, der blev opsendt den 9 270 x 210 meter, så det er en forholdsvis lille asteroide med form som en uregelmæssig kartoffel. En

Andersen, Anja C.

59

Chagas disease-specific antigens: characterization of epitopes in CRA/FRA by synthetic peptide mapping and evaluation by ELISA-peptide assay  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of epitopes in proteins recognized by medically relevant antibodies is useful for the development of peptide-based diagnostics and vaccines. In this study, epitopes in the cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi were identified using synthetic peptide techniques and pooled sera from Chagasic patients. The epitopes were further assayed with an ELISA assay based on synthetic peptides. Methods Twenty-two overlapping synthetic peptides representing the coding sequence of the T. cruzi CRA and FRA proteins were assessed by a Spot-synthesis array analysis using sera donated by patients with Chagas disease. Shorter peptides were selected that represented the determined epitopes and synthesized by solid phase synthesis to evaluate the patterns of cross-reactivities and discrimination through an ELISA-diagnostic assay. Results The peptide Spot-synthesis array successfully identified two IgG antigenic determinants in the CRA protein and four in FRA. Bioinformatics suggested that the CRA antigens were unique to T. cruzi while the FRA antigen showed similarity with sequences present within various proteins from Leishmania sp. Subsequently, shorter peptides representing the CRA-1, CRA-2 and FRA-1 epitopes were synthesized by solid phase synthesis and assayed by an ELISA-diagnostic assay. The CRA antigens gave a high discrimination between Chagasic, Leishmaniasis and T. cruzi-uninfected serum. A sensitivity and specificity of 100% was calculated for CRA. While the FRA antigen showed a slightly lower sensitivity (91.6%), its specificity was only 60%. Conclusions The epitopes recognized by human anti-T. cruzi antibodies have been precisely located in two biomarkers of T. cruzi, CRA and FRA. The results from screening a panel of patient sera through an ELISA assay based on peptides representing these epitopes strongly suggest that the sequences from CRA would be useful for the development of diagnostic reagents that could improve upon the sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests. Overall, the results provide further evidence of the usefulness of identifying specific linear B-cell epitopes for improving diagnostic tools. PMID:24299278

2013-01-01

60

[Biological and physico-chemical properties of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis bacterial culture having the fra-operon Yersinia pestis].  

PubMed

The biological and physico-chemical properties of cultures of two isogenous recombinant variants of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were studied. The cell genomes of the cultures are distinguished from one another only by the presence or by the absence of the fra-operon, which is a determined attribute of the plague microbe capsule-forming process. The expression of the attribute is amplified by rising the microbial biomass cultivation temperature and stimulates the decrease in the viability of the bacteria and adaptation potential in vitro. In the warm-blooded owner organism the microbes of the capsule-forming recombinant variant are characterized by the greater residual pathogenicity and immunogenic ability to the experimental plague of the laboratory animals as compared to the reference-variant cells. These specific features could be explained by more expressed colonizing ability of the capsule-forming microbes provided by owner cells' stability to the phagocyte process. PMID:18368776

Byvalov, A A; Gavrilov, K E; Krupin, V V; Chebotarev, E V; Zheludkova, E V; Drubkov, V I; Smirnov, A E; Mal'kov, V N; Dupiasheva, T Iu; Pechenkin, D V; Bondarev, V P

2008-01-01

61

WWOX, the common fragile site FRA16D gene product, regulates ATM activation and the DNA damage response.  

PubMed

Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer. The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor spanning the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D. Here, we report a direct role of WWOX in DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that Wwox deficiency results in reduced activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase, inefficient induction and maintenance of ?-H2AX foci, and impaired DNA repair. Mechanistically, we show that, upon DNA damage, WWOX accumulates in the cell nucleus, where it interacts with ATM and enhances its activation. Nuclear accumulation of WWOX is regulated by its K63-linked ubiquitination at lysine residue 274, which is mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH. These findings identify a novel role for the tumor suppressor WWOX and show that loss of WWOX expression may drive genomic instability and provide an advantage for clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. PMID:25331887

Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Herbel, Christoph; Hofmann, Thomas G; Aqeilan, Rami I

2014-11-01

62

Human Papillomavirus Type 8 E2 Protein Unravels JunB/Fra-1 as an Activator of the ?4-Integrin Gene in Human Keratinocytes ?  

PubMed Central

The papillomavirus life cycle parallels keratinocyte differentiation in stratifying epithelia. We have previously shown that the human papillomavirus type 8 (HPV8) E2 protein downregulates ?4-integrin expression in normal human keratinocytes, which may trigger subsequent differentiation steps. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA binding domain of HPV8 E2 is sufficient to displace a cellular factor from the ?4-integrin promoter. We identified the E2-displaceable factor as activator protein 1 (AP-1), a heteromeric transcription factor with differentiation-specific expression in the epithelium. ?4-Integrin-positive epithelial cells displayed strong AP-1 binding activity. Both AP-1 binding activity and ?4-integrin expression were coregulated during keratinocyte differentiation suggesting the involvement of AP-1 in ?4-integrin expression. In normal human keratinocytes the AP-1 complex was composed of JunB and Fra-1 subunits. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that JunB/Fra-1 proteins interact in vivo with the ?4-integrin promoter and that JunB/Fra-1 promoter occupancy is reduced during keratinocyte differentiation as well as in HPV8 E2 positive keratinocytes. Ectopic expression of the tethered JunB/Fra-1 heterodimer in normal human keratinocytes activated the ?4-integrin promoter, while coexpression of HPV8 E2 reverted the JunB/Fra-1 effect. In summary, we identified a novel mechanism of human ?4-integrin regulation that is specifically targeted by the HPV8 E2 protein mimicking transcriptional conditions of differentiation. This may explain the early steps of how HPV8 commits its host cells to the differentiation process required for the viral life cycle. PMID:19923172

Oldak, Monika; Maksym, Radoslaw B.; Sperling, Tanya; Yaniv, Moshe; Smola, Hans; Pfister, Herbert J.; Malejczyk, Jacek; Smola, Sigrun

2010-01-01

63

Cloning and sequencing of the Bet v 1-homologous allergen Fra a 1 in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) shows the presence of an intron and little variability in amino acid sequence.  

PubMed

The Fra a 1 allergen in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) is homologous to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, which has numerous isoforms differing in terms of amino acid sequence and immunological impact. To map the extent of sequence differences in the Fra a 1 allergen, PCR cloning and sequencing was applied. Several genomic sequences of Fra a 1, with a length of either 584, 591 or 594 nucleotides, were obtained from three different strawberry varieties. All contained one intron, with the length of either 101 or 110 nucleotides. By sequencing 30 different clones, eight different DNA sequences were obtained, giving in total five potential Fra a 1 protein isoforms, with high sequence similarity (>97% sequence identity) and only seven positions of amino acid variability, which were largely confirmed by mass spectrometry of expressed proteins. We conclude that the sequence variability in the strawberry allergen Fra a 1 is small, within and between strawberry varieties, and that multiple spots, previously detected in 2DE, are presumably due to differences in post-translational modification rather than differences in amino acid sequence. The most abundant Fra a 1 isoform sequence, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli after removal of the intron, was recognized by IgE from strawberry allergic patients. It cross-reacted with antibodies to Bet v 1 and the homologous apple allergen Mal d 1 (61 and 78% sequence identity, respectively), and will be used in further analyses of variation in Fra a 1-expression. PMID:16945416

Musidlowska-Persson, Anna; Alm, Rikard; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

2007-02-01

64

Common chromosome fragile sites in human and murine epithelial cells and FHIT/FRA3B loss-induced global genome instability.  

PubMed

Chromosomal positions of common fragile sites differ in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, with positions dependent on the epigenetically determined density of replication origins at these loci. Because rearrangement of fragile loci and associated loss of fragile gene products are hallmarks of cancers, we aimed to map common fragile sites in epithelial cells, from which most cancers derive. Among the five most frequently activated sites in human epithelial cells were chromosome bands 2q33 and Xq22.1, which are not among top fragile sites identified in lymphoblasts or fibroblasts. FRA16D at 16q23 was among the top three fragile sites in the human epithelial cells examined, as it is in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, while FRA3B at 3p14.2, the top fragile locus in lymphoblasts, was not fragile in most epithelial cell lines tested. Epithelial cells exhibited varying hierarchies of fragile sites; some frequent epithelial cell fragile sites are apparently not frequently altered in epithelial cancers and sites that are frequently deleted in epithelial cancers are not necessarily among the most fragile. Since we have reported that loss of expression of the FRA3B-encoded FHIT protein causes increased replication stress-induced DNA damage, we also examined the effect of FHIT-deficiency on markers of genome instability in epithelial cells. FHIT-deficient cells exhibited increases in fragile breaks and in ?H2AX and 53BP1 foci in G1 phase cells, confirming in epithelial cells that the FHIT gene and encompassing FRA3B, is a "caretaker gene" necessary for maintenance of genome stability. PMID:23929738

Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Horton, Susan; Saldivar, Joshua C; Miuma, Satoshi; Stampfer, Martha R; Heerema, Nyla A; Huebner, Kay

2013-11-01

65

Scribble modulates the MAPK/Fra1 pathway to disrupt luminal and ductal integrity and suppress tumour formation in the mammary gland.  

PubMed

Polarity coordinates cell movement, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis to build and maintain complex epithelial tissues such as the mammary gland. Loss of polarity and the deregulation of these processes are critical events in malignant progression but precisely how and at which stage polarity loss impacts on mammary development and tumourigenesis is unclear. Scrib is a core polarity regulator and tumour suppressor gene however to date our understanding of Scrib function in the mammary gland has been limited to cell culture and transplantation studies of cell lines. Utilizing a conditional mouse model of Scrib loss we report for the first time that Scrib is essential for mammary duct morphogenesis, mammary progenitor cell fate and maintenance, and we demonstrate a critical and specific role for Scribble in the control of the early steps of breast cancer progression. In particular, Scrib-deficiency significantly induced Fra1 expression and basal progenitor clonogenicity, which resulted in fully penetrant ductal hyperplasia characterized by high cell turnover, MAPK hyperactivity, frank polarity loss with mixing of apical and basolateral membrane constituents and expansion of atypical luminal cells. We also show for the first time a role for Scribble in mammalian spindle orientation with the onset of mammary hyperplasia being associated with aberrant luminal cell spindle orientation and a failure to apoptose during the final stage of duct tubulogenesis. Restoring MAPK/Fra1 to baseline levels prevented Scrib-hyperplasia, whereas persistent Scrib deficiency induced alveolar hyperplasia and increased the incidence, onset and grade of mammary tumours. These findings, based on a definitive genetic mouse model provide fundamental insights into mammary duct maturation and homeostasis and reveal that Scrib loss activates a MAPK/Fra1 pathway that alters mammary progenitor activity to drive premalignancy and accelerate tumour progression. PMID:24852022

Godde, Nathan J; Sheridan, Julie M; Smith, Lorey K; Pearson, Helen B; Britt, Kara L; Galea, Ryan C; Yates, Laura L; Visvader, Jane E; Humbert, Patrick O

2014-05-01

66

Scribble Modulates the MAPK/Fra1 Pathway to Disrupt Luminal and Ductal Integrity and Suppress Tumour Formation in the Mammary Gland  

PubMed Central

Polarity coordinates cell movement, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis to build and maintain complex epithelial tissues such as the mammary gland. Loss of polarity and the deregulation of these processes are critical events in malignant progression but precisely how and at which stage polarity loss impacts on mammary development and tumourigenesis is unclear. Scrib is a core polarity regulator and tumour suppressor gene however to date our understanding of Scrib function in the mammary gland has been limited to cell culture and transplantation studies of cell lines. Utilizing a conditional mouse model of Scrib loss we report for the first time that Scrib is essential for mammary duct morphogenesis, mammary progenitor cell fate and maintenance, and we demonstrate a critical and specific role for Scribble in the control of the early steps of breast cancer progression. In particular, Scrib-deficiency significantly induced Fra1 expression and basal progenitor clonogenicity, which resulted in fully penetrant ductal hyperplasia characterized by high cell turnover, MAPK hyperactivity, frank polarity loss with mixing of apical and basolateral membrane constituents and expansion of atypical luminal cells. We also show for the first time a role for Scribble in mammalian spindle orientation with the onset of mammary hyperplasia being associated with aberrant luminal cell spindle orientation and a failure to apoptose during the final stage of duct tubulogenesis. Restoring MAPK/Fra1 to baseline levels prevented Scrib-hyperplasia, whereas persistent Scrib deficiency induced alveolar hyperplasia and increased the incidence, onset and grade of mammary tumours. These findings, based on a definitive genetic mouse model provide fundamental insights into mammary duct maturation and homeostasis and reveal that Scrib loss activates a MAPK/Fra1 pathway that alters mammary progenitor activity to drive premalignancy and accelerate tumour progression. PMID:24852022

Godde, Nathan J.; Sheridan, Julie M.; Smith, Lorey K.; Pearson, Helen B.; Britt, Kara L.; Galea, Ryan C.; Yates, Laura L.; Visvader, Jane E.; Humbert, Patrick O.

2014-01-01

67

NYT................................................. FRA BJERGET  

E-print Network

by the confinements of theology. Roughly at the same time, or a little later, Freud was discovering the subconscious. Moreover, men and women alike were supposed to have subconscious layers unknown to them, governed largely decades with its emphasis on `making literature new', new themes, new forms, as we saw it initially among

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

An Akt- and Fra-1-Dependent Pathway Mediates Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Induced Expression of Thrombomodulin, a Novel Regulator of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Overdistension of hollow organs evokes pathological changes characterized by smooth muscle remodeling. Mechanical stimuli induce smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth through acute activation of signaling cascades and by increased expression of soluble mitogens. Physical forces have also been implicated in ligand-independent activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, including the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor, although the extent to which this occurs in intact tissue is unknown. Previously, we implicated Akt and activator protein-1 (AP-1) as mediators of growth and gene expression in SMC exposed to cyclic stretch or PDGF. Here we show that bladder wall distension leads to PDGFR activation and identify thrombomodulin (TM) as an Akt and AP-1 target in SMC. We demonstrate that TM, also induced by bladder stretch injury, is regulated at the transcriptional level by the AP-1 components c-jun and Fra1. Mutation of an AP-1 motif at ?2010/?2004 abolished both AP-1 binding and PDGF responsiveness of the TM promoter. Fra1 silencing diminished PDGF-induced TM expression and SMC cell cycle transit. In contrast, TM knockdown did not affect cell growth but attenuated PDGF-stimulated SMC migration. Taken together, these results reveal new facets of TM regulation in SMC and provide the first demonstration of a role for endogenous TM in PDGF-induced cell migration. Moreover, TM induction on bladder injury suggests that it may be a biomarker for pathological smooth muscle remodeling. PMID:20472895

Ramachandran, Aruna; Ranpura, Sandeep A.; Gong, Edward M.; Mulone, Michelle; Cannon, Glenn M.; Adam, Rosalyn M.

2010-01-01

69

LOXL4 Is Induced by Transforming Growth Factor ?1 through Smad and JunB/Fra2 and Contributes to Vascular Matrix Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) is a pleiotropic factor involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling. In search for novel genes mediating the action of TGF-?1 on vascular ECM, we identified the member of the lysyl oxidase family of matrix-remodeling enzymes, lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), as a direct target of TGF-?1 in aortic endothelial cells, and we dissected the molecular mechanism of its induction. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis analysis of the LOXL4 promoter demonstrated the absolute requirement of a distal enhancer containing an activator protein 1 (AP-1) site and a Smad binding element for TGF-?1 to induce LOXL4 expression. Functional cooperation between Smad proteins and the AP-1 complex composed of JunB/Fra2 accounted for the action of TGF-?1, which involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent phosphorylation of Fra2. We furthermore provide evidence that LOXL4 was extracellularly secreted and significantly contributed to ECM deposition and assembly. These results suggest that TGF-?1-dependent expression of LOXL4 plays a role in vascular ECM homeostasis, contributing to vascular processes associated with ECM remodeling and fibrosis. PMID:23572561

Busnadiego, Oscar; Gonzalez-Santamaria, Jose; Lagares, David; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Muller, Laurent

2013-01-01

70

Retinoblastoma Protein and MyoD Function Together to Effect the Repression of Fra-1 and in Turn Cyclin D1 during Terminal Cell Cycle Arrest Associated with Myogenesis.  

PubMed

The acquisition of skeletal muscle-specific function and terminal cell cycle arrest represent two important features of the myogenic differentiation program. These cellular processes are distinct and can be separated genetically. The lineage-specific transcription factor MyoD and the retinoblastoma protein pRb participate in both of these cellular events. Whether and how MyoD and pRb work together to effect terminal cell cycle arrest is uncertain. To address this question, we focused on cyclin D1, whose stable repression is required for terminal cell cycle arrest and execution of myogenesis. MyoD and pRb are both required for the repression of cyclin D1; their actions, however, were found not to be direct. Rather, they operate to regulate the immediate early gene Fra-1, a critical player in mitogen-dependent induction of cyclin D1. Two conserved MyoD-binding sites were identified in an intronic enhancer of Fra-1 and shown to be required for the stable repression of Fra-1 and, in turn, cyclin D1. Localization of MyoD alone to the intronic enhancer of Fra-1 in the absence of pRb was not sufficient to elicit a block to Fra-1 induction; pRb was also recruited to the intronic enhancer in a MyoD-dependent manner. These observations suggest that MyoD and pRb work together cooperatively at the level of the intronic enhancer of Fra-1 during terminal cell cycle arrest. This work reveals a previously unappreciated link between a lineage-specific transcription factor, a tumor suppressor, and a proto-oncogene in the control of an important facet of myogenic differentiation. PMID:25006242

Rajabi, Hasan N; Takahashi, Chiaki; Ewen, Mark E

2014-08-22

71

FRA MAURO FORMATION, APOLLO 14: IV. SYNOPSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF CONSORTIUM STUDIES. D. ~ t 6 fflerl, K.D. ~obel,E.K. ~essber~er', S. ~ i n ~ n e rl, H. palme 3, B. sPettel3, .~tnde-nn2 , and H. ~ S n k e, Institut  

E-print Network

FRA MAURO FORMATION, APOLLO 14: IV. SYNOPSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF CONSORTIUM STUDIES. D. ~ t 6 fflerl. The aim of this paper is to discuss the results of a consortium study of Apollo 14 rocks (1, 2, 3 assumption that the Fra Muuro formation sampled by the Apollo 14 mission is part of the continuous ejecta

72

Fra Mauro Formation,Apollo 14: 11. ^ ~ r -^ ~ rAges of Apollo 14 Rocks F. J. stadennannl, E. Heusser and E. K. Jessbergcr; Max Planck Institut fur Kemphysik, D-6900  

E-print Network

Fra Mauro Formation,Apollo 14: 11. ^ ~ r - ^ ~ rAges of Apollo 14 Rocks F. J. stadennannl, E As a contribution to the Cone-Crater-Consortium^Ar-^Ar ages of 21 Apollo-14 samples were determined. Among to 4.11 Ga. The ^Ar-^Ar age of 4.09 Ga is the highest so far found in the Apollo-14 rock

73

En heap er iflg. afsnit 2.4 [GT] et perfekt balanceret binrt tr, hvor det nederste lag er fyldt sa meget som muligt fra venstre mod hjre. En d-heap er ligeledes et  

E-print Network

Opgave 4 En heap er iflg. afsnit 2.4 [GT] et perfekt balanceret binært træ, hvor det nederste lag er fyldt s°a meget som muligt fra venstre mod højre. En d-heap er ligeledes et perfekt balanceret træ for blot 2 ­ en heap som beskrevet i [GT] er s°aledes en 2-bunke. Følgende er et eksempel p°a en 3-bunke

Brodal, Gerth Stølting

74

Apollo 14: Science at Fra Mauro.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The many scientific activities and experiments performed during the Apollo 14 Mission are presented in a descriptive, non-technical format. Content relates to experiments on the lunar surface and to those performed while traveling in space, and provides a great deal of information about the flight. Many photographs from the journey, a map of the

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

75

Experimental petrology and origin of Fra Mauro rocks and soil.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of melting experiments over the pressure range from 0 to 20 kb on Apollo 14 igneous rocks 14310 and 14072, and on comprehensive fines 14259. It is found that low-pressure crystallization of rocks 14310 and 14072 proceeds as predicted from the textural relationships displayed by thin sections of these rocks. The mineralogy and textures of these rocks are the result of near-surface crystallization. The chemical compositions of these lunar samples all show special relationships to multiply saturated liquids in the system anorthite-forsterite-fayalite-silica at low pressure. Partial melting of a lunar crust consisting largely of plagioclase, low-calcium pyroxene, and olivine, followed by crystal fractionation at the lunar surface, is a satisfactory mechanism for the production of the igneous rocks and soil glasses sampled by Apollo 14. The KREEP component of other lunar soils, may have a similar origin.

Walker, D.; Longhi, J.; Hays, J. F.

1972-01-01

76

The Global Forest Resource Assessment FRA2010 and  

E-print Network

- Environmentally · Forests store billions of tonnes of carbon · deforestation = 20% of global carbon emissions DEFORESTATION CONSERVATION 1946 1980 2000 #12;EXTENT OF FOREST RESOURCES BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY FOREST HEALTH-2005 DEFORESTATION 13 million ha/yr NET FOREST LOSS 1990-2000 8.9 million ha/yr 2000-2005 7.3 million ha/yr 200

77

FRA-MOWGS2MKT-049 Quantitative (Credit) Portfolio Management  

E-print Network

in origination process Credit as a flow business, `originate-to-sell' paradigm Credit portfolio Originated loans/ drivingforce `Fix/ Shrink the Business' Position Growth Management of limited `risk appetite' for loan assets and reporting Risk reduction and optimisation through hedging/ management of business constraints Involvement

Fulmek, Markus

78

Informasjon fra IT-driftsgruppen Lokal guide til farger i  

E-print Network

for eksempel papir skrevet ut på en fargeskriver. Fargen angis med fire intensiteter, nemlig cyan , magenta bruk av farger lagt inn i pakken color, så alle som benytter farger må ha med følgende spesifikasjon: \\usepackage[usenames]{color} Opsjonen usenames bør alltid være med; se avsnitt 3 på side 4. Se forøvrig

Løw, Erik

79

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142. The fax number is 617-494-2967. The electronic...Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19113. The fax number is 610-521-8225. The E-mail...Suite 16T20, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. The fax number is 404-562-3830. The...

2011-10-01

80

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142. The fax number is 617-494-2967. The electronic...Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19113. The fax number is 610-521-8225. The E-mail...Suite 16T20, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. The fax number is 404-562-3830. The...

2010-10-01

81

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. The mailing address of the Regional Headquarters is: Atlanta Federal Center, 61 Forsythe Street, SW., Suite 16T20, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. The fax number is 404-562-3830. The E-mail address of the...

2013-10-01

82

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. The mailing address of the Regional Headquarters is: Atlanta Federal Center, 61 Forsythe Street, SW., Suite 16T20, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. The fax number is 404-562-3830. The E-mail address of the...

2012-10-01

83

An FRA R&D Evaluation Framework for Grade Crossing and Trespass  

E-print Network

� CIPP Evaluation Framework � Evaluation Framework for Suicide R&D � Context � Input � Implementation � Impact � Evaluation as a key strategy tool EVALUATION OVERVIEW #12;Funded Activity "Family" ______ e Questions � Railway Suicides Context Inputs Implementation Impact Formative Evaluation Suicide prevalence

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

84

EXACT: EXercise or Advice after ankle fraCTure. Design of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle fractures are common. Management of ankle fractures generally involves a period of immobilisation followed by rehabilitation to reduce pain, stiffness, weakness and swelling. The effects of a rehabilitation program are still unclear. However, it has been shown that important components of rehabilitation programs may not confer additional benefits over exercise alone. The primary aim of this trial is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an exercise-based rehabilitation program after ankle fracture, compared to advice alone. Methods/Design A pragmatic randomised trial will be conducted. Participants will be 342 adults with stiff, painful ankles after ankle fracture treated with immobilisation. They will be randomly allocated using a concealed randomisation procedure to either an Advice or Rehabilitation group. Participants in the Advice group will receive verbal and written advice about exercise at the time of removal of immobilisation. Participants in the Rehabilitation group will be provided with a 4-week rehabilitation program that is designed, monitored and progressed by a physiotherapist, in addition to verbal and written advice. Outcomes will be measured by a blinded assessor at 1, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcomes will be activity limitation and quality-adjusted life years. Discussion This pragmatic trial will determine if a rehabilitation program reduces activity limitation and improves quality of life, compared to advice alone, after immobilisation for ankle fracture. PMID:21726463

2011-01-01

85

EUROGRAPHICS 2000 / M. Gross and F.R.A. Hopgood (Guest Editors)  

E-print Network

. This system utilizes photos taken from the front, side and back of a person in any given imaging environment without requiring a special background or a controlled illuminating condition. A seamless generic body respectively. The final integrated human model has photo-realistic animatable face, hands, feet and body

Lee, WonSook

86

49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...result of the exercise of discretion by the railroad. The selection method must be capable of verification with respect to the randomness of the selection process. (f) The railroad must randomly select a sufficient number of covered employees for...

2012-10-01

87

49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...result of the exercise of discretion by the railroad. The selection method must be capable of verification with respect to the randomness of the selection process. (f) The railroad must randomly select a sufficient number of covered employees for...

2010-10-01

88

49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...result of the exercise of discretion by the railroad. The selection method must be capable of verification with respect to the randomness of the selection process. (f) The railroad must randomly select a sufficient number of covered employees for...

2011-10-01

89

75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...grants: (1) To conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and (2) to conduct a Study of...Protection Agency, to conduct a ``Locomotive Biofuel Study.'' This study will focus on determining...other passenger rail operators could use biofuel blends to power locomotives and...

2010-05-13

90

75 FR 34213 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...responsible parties for two grants: to conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and to conduct a Study of the Use of Bio-based Technologies...for the two grant programs: (1) To conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and (2) to conduct a Study of the Use of...

2010-06-16

91

Paraje (de Fra Cristobal): investigations of a Territorial period Hispanic village site in southern New Mexico  

E-print Network

and sometimes the exteriors of the dwellings were commonly pl astered wi th a whitewash made from gypsum or "yeso" (Gregg 1933:134). An informant from Paraje ~ Jose Gabaldon (1984), mentioned white or blui sh "lime" rocks that cane from southwest of Engle... and sometimes the exteriors of the dwellings were commonly pl astered wi th a whitewash made from gypsum or "yeso" (Gregg 1933:134). An informant from Paraje ~ Jose Gabaldon (1984), mentioned white or blui sh "lime" rocks that cane from southwest of Engle...

Boyd, Douglas Kevin

2012-06-07

92

Justin Grass, David Lange FRA Tie and Fastener BAA Industry Partners Meeting  

E-print Network

°) ­ Safelok I Fasteners · Railroad Test Track (RTT) ­ Tangent ­ Safelok I #12;Field Testing for Understanding, CO) · Railroad Test Track (RTT) ­ Tangent ­ Safelok I Fasteners #12;Slide 11Field Instrumentation 2012 Field Instrumentation of Concrete Crossties and Fastening Systems #12;Slide 2Field Instrumentation

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

93

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...interests of small business. The small entity...policy that small business interests must be...impose unnecessary economic burdens on small businesses, and to create more...solutions to compliance problems will be given...

2013-10-01

94

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...interests of small business. The small entity...policy that small business interests must be...impose unnecessary economic burdens on small businesses, and to create more...solutions to compliance problems will be given...

2012-10-01

95

Confronto fra coatings abradibili ceramici e metallici per applicazioni in turbine a gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of new materials for high temperature gas turbine applications promote improvements of all engine components, in particular of the turbine first stage, where it is possible to obtain a large increase in performance. Abradable seals reduce clearances between rotor and stator elements, in order to reduce thermal loss and secondary flows which decrease engine performances. A comparison

I. Giovannetti; G. Zonfrillo; M. Bigi; M. Giannozzi

96

49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process 240.103 Approval of design...paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section as though it were a new program. [56 FR 28254, June 19, 1991, as amended...

2010-10-01

97

49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process 240.103 Approval of design...paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section as though it were a new program. [56 FR 28254, June 19, 1991, as amended...

2013-10-01

98

49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process 240.103 Approval of design...paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section as though it were a new program. [56 FR 28254, June 19, 1991, as amended...

2011-10-01

99

49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process 240.103 Approval of design...paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section as though it were a new program. [56 FR 28254, June 19, 1991, as amended...

2012-10-01

100

Informationsaktivitet fra Bioteknologisk Afdeling 1990. (Information activities at the department of biotechnology 1990).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of papers used as the basis of the same number of informative lectures delivered at the Institute of Biotechnology, Kolding, Denmark. The subjects of the lectures are hemicellulose extraction from straw and xylose fermentation, storage and we...

T. Ravn, T. Reffstrup

1990-01-01

101

Decreto n. 427 IL DRETTORE AMMINISTRATIVO  

E-print Network

CULTURACIVILT? E CULTURACIVILT? E CULTURA SCRITTA FRA TARDA ANSCRITTA FRA TARDA ANSCRITTA FRA TARDA ANSCRITTA FRA CONFERIMENTO DEL TITOLO DI DOTTORE DI RICERCA IN civiltà e cultura scritta fra tardaciviltà e cultura scritta fra tardaciviltà e cultura scritta fra tardaciviltà e cultura scritta fra tarda #12;antichità e

Malerba, Donato

102

49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Substantive Hours of Service Requirements for Train Employees Engaged in Commuter or Intercity Rail Passenger...

2012-10-01

103

49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Substantive Hours of Service Requirements for Train Employees Engaged in Commuter or Intercity Rail Passenger...

2013-10-01

104

49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Analysis of work schedules; submissions...g) Schedules not requiring analysis. The types of schedules...paragraph do not require the analysis described in paragraphs (a...requires mitigations to be applied in order to achieve an...

2011-10-01

105

Rail transportation risk and accident severity: A statistical analysis of variables in FRA's accident/incident data base  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Railroad Administration (US DOT) maintains a file of carrier-reported railroad accidents and incidents that meet stipulated threshold criteria for damage cost and/or casualties. A thoroughly-cleaned five-year time series of this data base was subjected to unbiased statistical procedures to discover (a) important causative variables in severe (high damage cost) accidents and (b) other key relationships between objective accident conditions and frequencies. Just under 6000 records, each representing a single event involving rail freight shipments moving on mainline track, were subjected to statistical frequency analysis, then included in the construction of classification and regression trees as described by Breimann et al. (1984). Variables related to damage cost defined the initial splits,'' or branchings of the tree. An interesting implication of the results of this analysis with respect to transportation of hazardous wastes by rail is that movements should be avoided when ambient temperatures are extreme (significantly < 20{degrees} or > 80{degrees}F), but that there should be no a priori bias against shipping wastes in longer train consists. 2 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

Saricks, C.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Energy Systems Div.); Janssen, I. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Biological and Medical Research Div.)

1991-01-01

106

49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...proposed locomotive design standard, in detail...Appropriate data and analysis showing how the proposed design standard either satisfies...type of locomotive design or provides at least...Types of data and analysis to be considered...

2010-10-01

107

International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (FraMCoS-V), April 2004, Vail, Colorado  

E-print Network

and stiffness of fibers in reinforcing the brittle matrix. Reinforcing ordinary concrete materials with short][2]. Such brittle matrix-brittle fiber materials are superior to other FRC (Fiber Reinforced Concrete) materials to steel fibers. The glass fibers are randomly distributed offering efficiency in load transfer

Mobasher, Barzin

108

Methotrexate treatment of FraX fibroblasts results in FMR1 transcription but not in detectable FMR1 protein levels  

PubMed Central

Background Fragile X syndrome is caused by the loss of FMRP expression due to methylation of the FMR1 promoter. Treatment of fragile X syndrome patients lymphoblastoid cells with 5-azadeoxycytidine results in demethylation of the promoter and reactivation of the gene. The aim of the study was to analyze if methotrexate, an agent which also reduces DNA methylation but with less toxicity than 5-azadeoxycytidine, has therapeutic potential in fragile X syndrome. Methods Fibroblasts of fragile X syndrome patients were treated with methotrexate in concentrations ranging from 1 to 4 ?g/ml for up to 14 days. FMR1 and FMRP expression were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blotting. Results FMR1 mRNA was detected and levels correlated positively with methotrexate concentrations and time of treatment, but western blotting did not show detectable FMRP levels. Conclusions We show that it is possible to reactivate FMR1 transcription in fibroblasts of fragile X syndrome patients by treatment with methotrexate. However, we were not able to show FMRP expression, possibly due to the reduced translation efficacy caused by the triplet repeat extension. Unless FMR1 reactivation is more effective in vivo our results indicate that methotrexate has no role in the treatment of fragile X syndrome. PMID:24020679

2013-01-01

109

49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Hazard Log and/or any other hazard analysis documents for comprehensiveness and compliance...The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure Mode and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA), and other hazard analyses...

2013-10-01

110

F i n e s t r a s u l f u t u r o Fra gli enti di ricerca multi-disciplinari,  

E-print Network

il posto in essa occupato dall'umanità . Cio' che sprona gli scienziati, è lo spirito di ricerca cosi'arte edilizia, ad inventare la scrittura, a sfruttare l'elettricità per il progresso della tecnologia materiali ed a decifrare il codice genetico impresso in tutte le piante ed animali esistenti sul globo

111

Simon FraSer UniverSity, vancoUver, canada GRCNEWSthe newSletter oF the GerontoloGy reSearch centre  

E-print Network

for Prevention of Elder Abuse (INPEA) with President Gloria M. Gutman, Ph.D. foR iNfoRmatioN oN GERoNtoloGy p `special edition' dedicated to falls and falls prevention research #12;2 MessaGe FroM the director volUme 30 no.1 2011 Tips: Technolology for injury prevenTion in seniors Why global Warming should

Zhang, Richard "Hao"

112

Vr beskrivelse av bevegelser og deformasjon av Jordens ytterste skall har i lpet av et rhundre utviklet seg fra kontinentaldrift (~1915), til havbunnspredning  

E-print Network

den ene til den andre siden. Mange bergarts- formasjoner henger også tydelig sammen hvis de konkluderte derfor med at kontinent- ene måtte ha flyttet på seg i forhold til dagens sydpol. Trond Helge og MAD i den store figuren). Tilitter av sen karbon og tidlig perm alder finnes over hele sørlige

Steinberger, Bernhard

113

77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...emergency situations; limit the need for FRA...plans; specify new operational (efficiency) testing...situation; (3) limit the need for FRA...4) specify new operational (efficiency) testing...situation; (3) limit the need for FRA...4) specify new operational...

2012-06-27

114

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

2012-10-01

115

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

2010-10-01

116

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

2011-10-01

117

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street...14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C (steady burn). 2....

2013-10-01

118

Over half of breakpoints in gene pairs involved in cancer-specific recurrent translocations are mapped to human chromosomal fragile sites.  

E-print Network

Mature B-cell neoplasm t(2;3)(p11;q27) IGK@ FRA2L BCL6 FRA3C Mature B-cell neoplasm, Follicular lymphoma t(2;11)(p11;q13) IGK@ FRA2L CCND1 FRA11A, FRA11H Mature B-cell neoplasm t(2;18)(p11;q21) IGK@ FRA2L FVT1 FRA18B Follicular lymphoma t(3;16)(q27;p12... FRA10G RET FRA10G Papillary thyroid carcinoma t(3;5)(q25;q35) NPM1 FRA5G MLF1 FRA3D Acute myeloid leukemia t(3;6)(q27;p21) PIM1 FRA6H BCL6 FRA3C Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma t(3;6)(q27;p21) SFRS3 FRA6H BCL6 FRA3C Follicular lymphoma t(19;19)(p13;q13...

Burrow, Allison A.; Williams, Laura E.; Pierce, Levi C. T.; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

2009-01-30

119

Anmeldelse af Margit Warburg, Hans Raun Iversen & Peter Gundelach: I hjertet af Danmark. Hans Reitzels Forlag. 2008. 294 s.  

E-print Network

spændingsfeltet mellem en tiltagende globalisering på den ene side og den såkaldte desækularisering, der har været begrebsrammerne er baseret på strukturerede interviews med 36 danskere med forskellig alder, tilhørsforhold og været genstand for en ufortrøden kamp mellem det der i folkemunde betegnes som 'højrefløjen' på den ene

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

5th Conference on Pesticides and Related Organic Micropollutants in the Environment, Marseille, FRA, 22-25 Octobre 2008 1 How to mitigate pesticides point sources pollution at the EU level  

E-print Network

pesticide removal treatment before it can be distributed as drinking water [ref]. Pesticide fluxes reduction.topps-life.org 11 TOPPS fit with EU legislative frameworkTOPPS fit with EU legislative framework Drinking Water water supplier's organisation, pesticide contamination of raw water is very severe in lowland rivers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

121

Biogas af madaffald. Forbehandling, hygiejnisering og udraadning af madaffald fra husholdninger og institutioner i biogasfaellesanlaeg. Forprojekt. (Biogas of food wastes. Preliminary treatment, sanitizing and decomposition of food wastes, from institutions and households, in communal biomass conversion plants. Pilot project).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot project to an experimental project the aim of which was to investigate and test equipment for preliminary treatment and sanitizing of sorted, organic/biological domestic wastes before anaerobic treatment in a communal biomass conversion plant, and...

1990-01-01

122

Keywords. d(GGC/GCC)5; d(CAG/CTG)5; hairpin structure; model building; molecular mechanics; quadruplex structure Abbreviations used: DM, dystrophia myotonica; FraX, fragile X syndrome; HD, Huntington disease; rms, root mean square.  

E-print Network

­665 | © Indian Academy of Sciences Modelling studies on neurodegenerative disease-causing triplet repeat function and association with triplet repeat expansion diseases. Model building studies suggested with different triplet repeat sequences are listed in table 1 and it is seen that nine different disease loci

Bansal, Manju

123

49 CFR 229.311 - Review of SAs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safety/Chief Safety Officer, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Mail Stop 25...Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery; (2) Take immediate...

2013-10-01

124

49 CFR 229.311 - Review of SAs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Safety/Chief Safety Officer, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Mail Stop 25...Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery; (2) Take immediate...

2012-10-01

125

49 CFR 218.97 - Good faith challenge procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and...FRA regulations regarding the handling of equipment, switches...FRA regulations regarding the handling of equipment, switches...employee's agreement to a compromise solution acceptable to the person...

2010-10-01

126

76 FR 4276 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...aspect of FRA's hazardous materials program. DATES: The public...Karl Alexy, P.E., Engineer--Hazardous Materials, FRA Office of Safety...CONTACT: Karl Alexy, Engineer-Hazardous Materials Division, at (202)...

2011-01-25

127

77 FR 64374 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Port Authority Trans-Hudson Product Safety Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2012-0075. PATH is upgrading some of its track circuits with Digicode microprocessor-based track circuits. The Digicode track circuit is part of Alstom's Smartway Digital Track Circuit product line...

2012-10-19

128

Thematic study Netherlands - Legal Study on Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study (one of 27 country reports) has been commissioned as background material for a comparative study by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. The resulting report of FRA has been published as 'Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity - 2010 update - Comparative legal analysis' (ISBN 978-92-9192-631-2; online at www.fra.europa.eu\\/fraWebsite\\/attachments\\/FRA-LGBT-report-update2010.pdf). This 'Thematic

C. Waaldijk; R. A. Lawson; N. R. Koffeman

2010-01-01

129

Aberrant Neural Function during Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neurobiological systems which underlie emotion attribution among female patients with Fragile X (FraX) syndrome are examined. Results show that the emotion circuit which regulates responses to facial stimuli is potentially disrupted among female subjects with FraX syndrome. Anterior cingulate cortex activity in female subjects with FraX

Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

2008-01-01

130

76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2010-0174] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as prescribed...FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

2011-06-14

131

Autistic Behaviors Among Girls with Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of autistic behaviors were examined for 30 school-age girls with fragile X (fraX) and 31 age- and IQ-matched controls through a structured interview administered to each girl's parent(s). IQ scores were obtained for each participant; anxiety, neuroanatomical, and molecular-genetic data were derived for girls with fraX. Girls with fraX had significantly more autistic behaviors than controls. These behaviors were

Michle M. M. Mazzocco; Wendy R. Kates; Thomas L. Baumgardner; Lisa S. Freund; Allan L. Reiss

1997-01-01

132

Narkotikabruk og moral i Six Feet Under : en analyse av hvordan narrasjon og stil i Six Feet Under tilrettelegger tilskuerens moralske vurdering av protagonistenes narkotikabruk.  

E-print Network

??Denne masteroppgaven undersker hvordan narrasjon og stil i to episoder fra HBO-serien Six Feet Under tilrettelegger tilskuerens moralske vurdering av protagonistenes narkotikabruk. Six Feet Under (more)

Magnusson, Jenny Ann Aasen

2011-01-01

133

Kropslugte - Lugte som biomarkrer for cancer.  

E-print Network

??Formlet med Kropslugte Lugte som biomarkrer for cancer, har vret at finde en sammenhng mellem flygtige forbindelser, der udskilles fra krftpatienter, og molekylre sygdomsprocesser, (more)

Larsen, Morten A.

2008-01-01

134

Smaa markedsfoerte solvarmeanlaeg til brugsvandsopvarmning - funktionsafproevning og ydelsesmaalinger. Maalinger paa solvarmeanlaeg fra Dansk Solvarme A/S. (Small, marketed solar heating systems for heating domestic water supply - performance testing and capacity measurements. Measurements taken on solar heating systems produced by Dansk Solvarme A/S).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim was to test the performance and measure the production capacity of solar heating systems for water heating from selected manufacturers under similar conditions. In this way the manufacturers would be made aware of potentials for the development of...

K. Ellehauge

1993-01-01

135

WHAT IS MEDICAL MINERALOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY?  

E-print Network

WHAT IS MEDICAL MINERALOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY? The connection between human health on bioinorganic chemistry (Fraústo da Silva and Williams 1991; Williams and Fraústo da Silva 1996). The field of medical mineralogy and geochemistry (MMG) focuses on understanding the equilibria and reaction pathways

Sahai, Nita

136

Development of passive and active noise control for next generation locomotive cabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noise environment in a locomotive cab has been the focus of recent attention by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). In October 2006 the FRA established a new rule to amend its existing occupational noise standards for railroad employees whose predominant noise exposure occurs in locomotive cabs. The noise exposure rule is expressed in terms of the A-weighted noise level

Timothy M. Johnson

137

Improving freight rail safety with on-board monitoring and control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is sponsoring a revenue service demonstration of Advanced Train Systems to demonstrate new technologies for improving safety and efficiency in freight train operations. The project, which commenced in 1999, is part of the Rolling Stock Program Element in FRA's Five-Year Strategic Plan for Railroad Research, Development and Demonstrations.

M. C. Edwards; W. M. Zavis; A. Prabhakaran; D. C. Brabb; A. S. Jackson

2005-01-01

138

Apical Membrane Potassium Conductance in Guinea Pig Gallbladder Epithelial Cells,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fractional resistance of the apical membrane (fRa) of guinea pig gallbladder epithelial cells was observed to vary with changes in apical membrane potential (Va). Depolarizing Va from a base-line potential of -60 to -30 mV decreased fRa from 0.79 + or...

P. J. Gunter-Smith

1988-01-01

139

77 FR 58439 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Northeast Corridor Between Washington, DC, New York, NY...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [Docket No. FRA 2012-0006-N-12] Environmental...no later than November 19, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit...ID Number [Docket No. FRA 2012-0006-N-12] on-line...INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebecca Reyes-Alicea, U.S....

2012-09-20

140

DOKTORAND: Karianne Staalesen Lilleren GRAD: Philosophiae doctor  

E-print Network

Etzelmüller DISPUTASDATO: 14. september 2012 AVHANDLINGENS TITTEL: Late-Pleistocene and Holocene mountain permafrost. Eksempler fra Norge og Island (oversatt fra: Late-Pleistocene and Holocene mountain permafrost konsekvenser for hvordan man tolker isutbredelsen mot slutten av forrige istid, og nedsmeltningen av isen har

Sahay, Sundeep

141

Curried Pumpkin Soup with Roasted Apple and Crme Frache  

E-print Network

Curried Pumpkin Soup with Roasted Apple and Crème Fraîche Recipe courtesy of Gordon Hamersley teaspoon chili powder (optional) 3 medium apples, peeled, cored, and chopped 2 1/2 quarts chicken stock 1 apple, roasted and sliced for garnish crème fraîche DIRECTIONS 1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. 2

Spence, Harlan Ernest

142

77 FR 53164 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., RRS-15, Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590 (telephone 202-493-6236); or Anna Winkle, Trial Attorney, Office of Chief Counsel, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., RCC-12, Mail Stop 10, Washington, DC...

2012-08-31

143

INVITATION: PRAKTISK TEMADAG OM INDHENTNING AF BIO-  

E-print Network

INVITATION: PRAKTISK TEMADAG OM INDHENTNING AF BIO- MASSE FRA LAVBUNDSOMR�DE TIL BIOGAS 24 lavbundsomr�det til biogas v�ret stigende de senere �r. Der sker en sp�ndende teknologisk udvikling indenfor�r indl�g fra fagfolk som har draget erfaringer med h�st og anvendelse af enggr�s til biogas, og se udstyr

144

Applications of Engineering and Financial Analysis to the Valuation of Investments in Railroad Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Methodology Freight Train Statistics for Case 3 .............................. 32 2.7 FRA Methodology Switch Train Statistics for Case 3............................... 33 2.8 FRA Methodology Delay Time Parameters for Case 3... ............................. 33 2.9 Modified Solution Delay Times for Case 3 ............................................... 34 3.1 Maximum Allowable Train Speeds per Track Class ................................. 40 3.2 Freight Train Accident Speeds and Derailment Rates...

Roco, Craig E.

2010-01-16

145

Lovforslag og digital administration  

E-print Network

1 Ulla Lund s071534 Lovforslag og digital administration Fra HumanComputerInteraction til Law Modelling #12;2 Lovforslag og digital administration, Fra HumanComputerInteraction til Law brugerevalueringen, der har omfattet interviews og besvarelse af spørgeskema. Gennemgående er der en positiv

146

Fragile X-associated disorders: a clinical overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common inherited cause of learning disability worldwide. FraX is an X-linked neuro-developmental\\u000a disorder involving an unstable trinucleotide repeat expansion of cytosine guanine guanine (CGG). Individuals with the full\\u000a mutation of FraX have >200CGG repeats with premutation carriers having 55200CGG repeats. A wide spectrum of physical, behavioural,\\u000a cognitive, psychiatric and medical problems have been

Anne Gallagher; Brian Hallahan

147

49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...future use significantly affects the quality of human environment. FRA recommends...use does not significantly affect the quality of the human environment. The finding...park, recreation area, wildlife and waterfowl...

2013-10-01

148

49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...future use significantly affects the quality of human environment. FRA recommends...use does not significantly affect the quality of the human environment. The finding...park, recreation area, wildlife and waterfowl...

2012-10-01

149

Lunar laser ranging data deposited in the National Space Science Data Center: Filtered observations for January - June 1971 and unfiltered photon detections for July - December 1971  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The filtered data are discussed which were obtained during laser ranging operations with Apollo reflectors placed on the moon at Tranquility Base, Fra Mauro, and Hadley. Unfiltered photon detections are described.

Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

1973-01-01

150

76 FR 51463 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Development Plans previously submitted for FRA approval. As part...equipment. By December 31, 2015, PATH's passenger carrying...and the STDS by December 31, 2015, in conjunction...docket number and may be submitted by any of the...

2011-08-18

151

49 CFR 236.1037 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Ave, SE, Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an envelope;...

2010-10-01

152

49 CFR 236.917 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an...

2010-10-01

153

49 CFR 236.1037 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Ave, SE, Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an envelope;...

2013-10-01

154

49 CFR 236.1037 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Ave, SE, Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an envelope;...

2011-10-01

155

49 CFR 268.13 - Deadline for submission of applications for preconstruction planning assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...returned to FRA by December 31, 1998. Applications shall be submitted to: Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, ATTN: Maglev Project, RDV-11, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Stop 20,Washington, DC 20590. [65 FR 2344, Jan. 14, 2000,...

2012-10-01

156

78 FR 57449 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the California-Nevada Interstate Maglev Project in cooperation with the project...late 1990s, FRA was implementing the Maglev Deployment Program (Program) created...was to demonstrate the feasibility of maglev technology. In addition to a number...

2013-09-18

157

49 CFR 268.13 - Deadline for submission of applications for preconstruction planning assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...returned to FRA by December 31, 1998. Applications shall be submitted to: Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, ATTN: Maglev Project, RDV-11, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Stop 20,Washington, DC 20590. [65 FR 2344, Jan. 14, 2000,...

2013-10-01

158

49 CFR 236.1037 - Records retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Ave, SE, Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an envelope;...

2012-10-01

159

49 CFR 236.917 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an...

2013-10-01

160

49 CFR 236.917 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an...

2012-10-01

161

49 CFR 236.917 - Retention of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...delivery to the Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in an...

2011-10-01

162

49 CFR 238.111 - Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...including the track, and signal system). A description of such...with no material differences in safety-critical components or systems. (b) Passenger equipment...waivers of FRA or other Federal safety regulations required for...

2013-10-01

163

49 CFR 238.111 - Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...including the track, and signal system). A description of such...with no material differences in safety-critical components or systems. (b) Passenger equipment...waivers of FRA or other Federal safety regulations required for...

2011-10-01

164

49 CFR 238.111 - Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...including the track, and signal system). A description of such...with no material differences in safety-critical components or systems. (b) Passenger equipment...waivers of FRA or other Federal safety regulations required for...

2010-10-01

165

49 CFR 238.111 - Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...including the track, and signal system). A description of such...with no material differences in safety-critical components or systems. (b) Passenger equipment...waivers of FRA or other Federal safety regulations required for...

2012-10-01

166

75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...obtaining funding for high- speed rail planning activities under the Department of Transportation...solicitation is only applicable to the planning funds available under the FY 2010 appropriation...pertains to the funding made available for planning activities under FRA's...

2010-04-01

167

49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Electronic Recordkeeping 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State...

2013-10-01

168

49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Electronic Recordkeeping 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State...

2012-10-01

169

Strategisk velovervejet patentering af offentlige forskningsresultater vinder  

E-print Network

det administrative arbejde i forskningsinsti- tutioner verden over. Et patent der dækker en teknologis). RisøNyt 2/02 Fra idé til patenter og licenser Land GCIRanking Teknologi Offentligeinstitutioner

170

49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Allocation requirements. 262...IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL LINE RELOCATION AND IMPROVEMENT...PROJECTS 262.5 Allocation requirements...excluded from this allocation formula. FRA...

2010-10-01

171

Algoritmo di Euclide, numeri di Fibonacci e frazioni continue  

E-print Network

Partendo dal semplice problema concreto del calcolo efficiente del massimo comun divisore fra due interi indicare ad un computer quando deve fermarsi, poniamo mcd(n,0) = n. (2) Un esempio concreto servir`a ad

Zaccagnini, Alessandro

172

77 FR 56840 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restoration and Management Plan, Lake, Porter, and LaPorte Counties, IN, Comment Period Ends: 11/13/2012, Contact: Constantine J. Dillon 219-926-7561. Amended Notices EIS No. 20120235, Draft Supplement, FRA, CA, California High-Speed...

2012-09-14

173

49 CFR 260.17 - Credit risk premium analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM FRA Policies and Procedures for Evaluating...revenues, profitability and cash flow from operations; and (B) Reliance on third parties for success. (c) The potential recovery in...

2011-10-01

174

49 CFR 260.17 - Credit risk premium analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM FRA Policies and Procedures for Evaluating...revenues, profitability and cash flow from operations; and (B) Reliance on third parties for success. (c) The potential recovery in...

2012-10-01

175

49 CFR 260.17 - Credit risk premium analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM FRA Policies and Procedures for Evaluating...revenues, profitability and cash flow from operations; and (B) Reliance on third parties for success. (c) The potential recovery in...

2010-10-01

176

Fragmentation under the Scaling Symmetry and Turbulent Cascade with Intermittency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fragmentation plays an important role in a variety of physical, chemical, and geological processes. Examples include atomization in sprays, crushing of rocks, explosion and impact of solids, polymer degradation, etc. Although each individual action of fra...

M. Gorokhovski

2003-01-01

177

Fragmentation Under the Scaling Symmetry and Turbulent Cascade with Intermittency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fragmentation plays an important role in a variety of physical, chemical, and geological processes. Examples include atomization in sprays, crushing of rocks, explosion and impact of solids, polymer degradation, etc. Although each individual action of fra...

M. Gorokhovski

2003-01-01

178

49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements 229.205...FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...of American Railroads, 50 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20001...html; (2) Meeting new design standards and changes to...

2011-10-01

179

49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements 229.205...FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...of American Railroads, 50 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20001...html; (2) Meeting new design standards and changes to...

2010-10-01

180

49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements 229.205...FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...of American Railroads, 50 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20001...html; (2) Meeting new design standards and changes to...

2013-10-01

181

49 CFR 229.205 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements 229.205...FRA-approved crashworthiness design standard (including AAR...of American Railroads, 50 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20001...html; (2) Meeting new design standards and changes to...

2012-10-01

182

Secretary's Action Plan: Secretary of Transportation. Highway-Rail Crossing Safety and Trespass Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the conference report (108-10) accompanying the FY 2003 appropriations for the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), the conferees directed the Secretary of Transportation to submit an Action Plan to improve safety at both public and private grade cro...

2004-01-01

183

Railroad Horn Systems Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center), Acoustics Facility, in support f the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), is conducting safety research to ...

A. S. Rapoza, T. G. Raslear, E. J. Rickley

1999-01-01

184

49 CFR 225.1 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administration with accurate information concerning the hazards and risks that exist on the Nation's railroads. FRA needs this information to effectively carry out its regulatory responsibilities under 49 U.S.C. chapters 201-213....

2013-10-01

185

49 CFR 225.1 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Administration with accurate information concerning the hazards and risks that exist on the Nation's railroads. FRA needs this information to effectively carry out its regulatory responsibilities under 49 U.S.C. chapters 201-213....

2012-10-01

186

49 CFR 225.1 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Administration with accurate information concerning the hazards and risks that exist on the Nation's railroads. FRA needs this information to effectively carry out its regulatory responsibilities under 49 U.S.C. chapters 201-213....

2011-10-01

187

49 CFR 225.1 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Administration with accurate information concerning the hazards and risks that exist on the Nation's railroads. FRA needs this information to effectively carry out its regulatory responsibilities under 49 U.S.C. chapters 201-213....

2010-10-01

188

78 FR 59754 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Number FRA-2013-0095. Applicant: Grenada Railway, LLC, Ms. Rhonda Nicoloff, Managing Member, 1505 South Redwood Road, Salt Lake City, UT 84104. GRYR seeks approval of the proposed discontinuance and removal of the automatic block...

2013-09-27

189

NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORY Forest Planning Agency  

E-print Network

satellite images processing and analysis. #12;1. FOREST RESOURCES ASSESSMENT (FRA) Establishment of TSP geographic information system (GIS). digital image analysis system (DIAS) provides land cover data from

190

76 FR 55728 - Notice of the Extension of the Comment Period for the Draft Environmental Impact Report...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...comment period. FRA is the lead federal agency and the California...Authority (Authority) is the lead state agency for the environmental...alternative, describes the affected environment, analyzes the potential environmental...David Valenstein, Chief, Environment and Systems Planning...

2011-09-08

191

76 FR 50323 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Section (Project). FRA is the lead Federal agency and the California...Authority (Authority) is the lead state agency for the environmental...alternative, describes the affected environment, analyzes the potential environmental...David Valenstein, Chief, Environment and Systems Planning...

2011-08-12

192

Protein kinase C ? is a central signaling node and therapeutic target for breast cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition program becomes activated during malignant progression and can enrich for cancer stem cells (CSCs). We report that inhibition of protein kinase C ? (PKC?) specifically targets CSCs but has little effect on non-CSCs. The formation of CSCs from non-stem cells involves a shift from EGFR to PDGFR signaling and results in the PKC?-dependent activation of FRA1. We identified an AP-1 molecular switch in which c-FOS and FRA1 are preferentially utilized in non-CSCs and CSCs, respectively. PKC? and FRA1 expression is associated with the aggressive triple-negative breast cancers, and the depletion of FRA1 results in a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Hence, identifying molecular features that shift between cell states can be exploited to target signaling components critical to CSCs. PMID:24029232

Tam, Wai Leong; Lu, Haihui; Buikhuisen, Joyce; Soh, Boon Seng; Lim, Elgene; Reinhardt, Ferenc; Wu, Zhenhua Jeremy; Krall, Jordan A; Bierie, Brian; Guo, Wenjun; Chen, Xi; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Brown, Myles; Lim, Bing; Weinberg, Robert A

2013-09-01

193

49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NEPA regulation of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ Regulation) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...will be determined by the Administrator in accordance with the CEQ Regulation and Environmental Procedures....

2013-10-01

194

49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NEPA regulation of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ Regulation) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...will be determined by the Administrator in accordance with the CEQ Regulation and Environmental Procedures....

2012-10-01

195

75 FR 65707 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Financial Assistance Under the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing (RRIF) Program...DOT). ACTION: Notice; technical correction...document, FRA is issuing a technical correction to the notice published in the...

2010-10-26

196

49 CFR 238.211 - Collision posts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to the rear end of a locomotive if the end is unoccupied by design. (b) Except for a locomotive that is constructed on...contained in this subpart; and (2) FRA finds the analysis persuasive. [75 FR 1228, Jan. 8,...

2012-10-01

197

49 CFR 238.211 - Collision posts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to the rear end of a locomotive if the end is unoccupied by design. (b) Except for a locomotive that is constructed on...contained in this subpart; and (2) FRA finds the analysis persuasive. [75 FR 1228, Jan. 8,...

2013-10-01

198

49 CFR 228.5 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to present an acceptable level of risk for fatigue that does not violate the defined fatigue threshold under a scientifically valid, biomathematical model of human performance and fatigue specified by FRA at ...

2011-10-01

199

75 FR 3784 - Safety Advisory 2009-03  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...during the course of the upcoming rulemaking. In addition, FRA is currently funding a pilot demonstration project that utilizes LIDAR (light detection and ranging) mounted on a track inspection vehicle to determine if this technology is an economical and...

2010-01-22

200

77 FR 19054 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provided by the Track Safety Standards, Critical Incident, Dark Territory, Fatigue Management, Risk Reduction, Electronic...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

2012-03-29

201

75 FR 44046 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conductor Certification, and a possible new task regarding Dark Territory may be presented to the committee for approval. This...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

2010-07-27

202

76 FR 24561 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hours of Service, Training Standards, Track Safety Standards, Dark Territory, Passenger Safety, and Medical Standards Working...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

2011-05-02

203

75 FR 73158 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Development, Use, and Implementation of Rail Safety Technology in Dark Territory. This agenda is subject to change, including the...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

2010-11-29

204

76 FR 67020 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Device Distraction, Critical Incident, Track Safety Standards, Dark Territory, Passenger Safety, and Medical Standards Working...provide advice and recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

2011-10-28

205

Af projektleder, professor David A.T. Harper, Statens Naturhi-storiske Museum (Geologisk Museum)  

E-print Network

Museum (Geologisk Museum), professor, institutleder Lars Stemmerik, Institut for Geografi og Geologi på korrelation med sektioner fra andre områder af Andesbjergene (specielt Argentina, Bolivia og Peru

206

49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request...may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures prescribed...decision. FRA may attach special conditions to the approval of any request...

2011-10-01

207

49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request...may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures prescribed...decision. FRA may attach special conditions to the approval of any request...

2013-10-01

208

49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request...may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures prescribed...decision. FRA may attach special conditions to the approval of any request...

2012-10-01

209

49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request...may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures prescribed...decision. FRA may attach special conditions to the approval of any request...

2010-10-01

210

49 CFR Appendix D to Part 236 - Independent Review of Verification and Validation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...previously with FRA. Based on these analyses, the reviewer shall identify...Log and/or any other hazard analysis documents for comprehensiveness...The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure Mode and...

2011-10-01

211

49 CFR Appendix D to Part 236 - Independent Review of Verification and Validation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...previously with FRA. Based on these analyses, the reviewer shall identify...Log and/or any other hazard analysis documents for comprehensiveness...The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure Mode and...

2012-10-01

212

49 CFR Appendix D to Part 236 - Independent Review of Verification and Validation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...previously with FRA. Based on these analyses, the reviewer shall identify...Log and/or any other hazard analysis documents for comprehensiveness...The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure Mode and...

2010-10-01

213

Mhost Finite Element Program: 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components. Volume 1: Theoretical Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formulations and algorithms implemented in the MHOST finite element program are discussed. The code uses a novel concept of the mixed iterative solution technique for the efficient 3-D computations of turbine engine hot section components. The general fra...

S. Nakazawa

1991-01-01

214

Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

215

49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...service immediately and repaired or renewed. (b) Repairs. Repairs, and welding of main, side or valve motion rods shall be...approval to the FRA Regional Administrator prior to welding defective main rods, side rods, and valve...

2012-10-01

216

49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service immediately and repaired or renewed. (b) Repairs. Repairs, and welding of main, side or valve motion rods shall be...approval to the FRA Regional Administrator prior to welding defective main rods, side rods, and valve...

2010-10-01

217

49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...service immediately and repaired or renewed. (b) Repairs. Repairs, and welding of main, side or valve motion rods shall be...approval to the FRA Regional Administrator prior to welding defective main rods, side rods, and valve...

2013-10-01

218

49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...service immediately and repaired or renewed. (b) Repairs. Repairs, and welding of main, side or valve motion rods shall be...approval to the FRA Regional Administrator prior to welding defective main rods, side rods, and valve...

2011-10-01

219

Influence of planting treatments on American chestnut (Castanea dentata)  

E-print Network

replaced www.epa.gov #12;4/25/2009 2 Historic surface mining reclamation practices Left "as is" Valleys and Reclamation Act of 1977 Compaction Erosion Heavy Liming Grass Planted The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA

Gray, Matthew

220

ENCLOSURE A (D.R. n. 903 del 11.10.2010) SUBJECT GROUP: INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

meccanica applicata e robotica Subjects of interview metodi di analisi e sintesi di meccanismi, meccanismi per la robotica, gradi di libertà e criteri di distribuzione fra robot cooperanti, knowledge

Genova, Università degli Studi di

221

78 FR 44622 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Confidential Close Call Reporting System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation Statistics, Research and Innovative Technology...that end, FRA's Office of Research and Development is sponsoring...precursors to safety risks in rail operations and contributes to research and development of...

2013-07-24

222

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 238 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equipment at the time of movement. Failure to observe any condition for the movement of passenger equipment...deprive the railroad of the movement-for-repair...facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and...any. FRA reserves the right, should...

2013-10-01

223

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 238 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...equipment at the time of movement. Failure to observe any condition for the movement of passenger equipment...deprive the railroad of the movement-for-repair...facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and...any. FRA reserves the right, should...

2012-10-01

224

12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING...International Operations of U.S. Banking Organizations...of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 372), that...insured against foreign political and credit...

2013-01-01

225

12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.  

... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING...International Operations of U.S. Banking Organizations...of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 372), that...insured against foreign political and credit...

2014-01-01

226

12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING...International Operations of U.S. Banking Organizations...of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 372), that...insured against foreign political and credit...

2012-01-01

227

12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING...International Operations of U.S. Banking Organizations...of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 372), that...insured against foreign political and credit...

2011-01-01

228

49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...detailed environmental review under FRA's Environmental Procedures and, if not, to prepare or have prepared an Environmental Assessment leading to an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or a Finding of No...

2010-10-01

229

THE JOURNAL OF BUXOGKAL CHEMIWRY Vol. 265, No. 2, Issue of January 15, pp. 1067-1016,199O Q 1990 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Printed in U.S. A.  

E-print Network

in the presence of ATP, ADP, or adenosine 5'- 0-thiotriphosphate) (ATPrS). The purified 6%kDa Rep tryptic to indicate this fact. V Recipient of American Cancer Society Faculty Research Award FRA-303. To whom

Lohman, Timothy M.

230

78 FR 42998 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Pipeline...meeting addressing the transportation of hazardous materials by rail. FRA and...q). The Federal hazardous materials transportation laws, 49...

2013-07-18

231

76 FR 50320 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...clearance by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is...hours.......... 160 Configuration Management Plans. Updated Plans in Subsequent...Director, Office of Financial Management, Federal Railroad...

2011-08-12

232

49 CFR 229.315 - Operations and maintenance manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...modification, inspection, and testing of a product subject to this...modification, inspection, and testing, and for inspection by FRA...repair, inspection, and testing of products subject to this...The plans shall identify all software versions, revisions,...

2013-10-01

233

49 CFR 229.315 - Operations and maintenance manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...modification, inspection, and testing of a product subject to this...modification, inspection, and testing, and for inspection by FRA...repair, inspection, and testing of products subject to this...The plans shall identify all software versions, revisions,...

2012-10-01

234

75 FR 38170 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nature of the relief being requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Vreeland Rail, LLC [Docket Number FRA-2009-0110] The Vreeland Rail, LLC of Superior, Wisconsin, has petitioned for a permanent waiver of...

2010-07-01

235

77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2012-0066] State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan Guidance...submission, and acceptance of State rail plans. State rail plans are...

2012-08-14

236

78 FR 28940 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Atlanta to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor AGENCY: Federal Rail Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...Statement (Study) to evaluate potential passenger rail improvements between Atlanta, GA and...

2013-05-16

237

78 FR 57450 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Altamont Corridor Rail Project From Stockton to San Jose, California...statement (EIS) for the Altamont Corridor Rail Project from Stockton to San Jose, California...project sponsor, the California High Speed Rail Authority (Authority). FRA...

2013-09-18

238

78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2012-0066] State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Notice of Availability of Final State Rail Plan Guidance...announce the availability of final State Rail Plan Guidance. The purpose of...

2013-09-18

239

75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2010-0020] National Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In...INFORMATION: Background: The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of...

2010-04-05

240

75 FR 10554 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...received a request for a waiver of compliance...hereby petitions FRA for a waiver from replacing...serves the Blue Flint Ethanol Plant which provides alternative fuel sources. Interested parties...anticipate scheduling a public hearing in...

2010-03-08

241

76 FR 59482 - Petition for Waivers of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number...hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has...America's fifth largest railroad; with 20,600 route miles...network in Canada and the only transcontinental network in North...

2011-09-26

242

75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...corner posts as a function of impact velocity, as well as predict the three-dimensional accelerations, velocities, and displacements of the cars and...significantly lower secondary-impact velocities. FRA notes that for events that...

2010-01-08

243

Labor Rights Report: Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report first describes Colombia's national legal framework. It describes the administration of labor law, labor institutions, and the system of labor justice. With regard to each of the covered labor rights, the report describes the relevant legal fra...

2007-01-01

244

49 CFR 236.1001 - Purpose and scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...S.C. 20157, this subpart, or an FRA order, including requirements to ensure that the development, functionality, architecture, installation, implementation, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of...

2011-10-01

245

75 FR 60860 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...arguments in favor of relief. Port Manatee Railroad [Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0091] The Port Manatee Railroad (PMRR) seeks a waiver of...terminal- switching railway operated on Manatee County Authority property at Port...

2010-10-01

246

Fire Safety of Passenger Trains Phase II: Application of Fire Hazard Analysis Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 12, 1999, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) issued regulations for passenger rail equipment safety standards that included small-scale fire tests and performance criteria to evaluate the flammability and smoke characteristics of individual ...

R. D. Peacook, P. A. Reneke, J. D. Averill, R. W. Bukowski, J. H. Klote

2001-01-01

247

Virulent non-capsulate Yersinia pestis variants constructed by insertion mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Insertion mutagenesis with the help of the plasmid pFS23 was used to generate Yersinia pestis fra mutants. The results of pFra- strain production under non-selective conditions suggested that such Y. pestis variants may be generated in natural plague foci at high frequency and may participate in supporting the epizootic process. Present data suggest that the reduction of virulence in

I. G. Drozdov; A. P. ANISIMOVP; S. V. Samoilova; I. N. Yezhov; S. A. Yeremin; A. V. Karlyshev; V. M. Krasilnikova; V. I. Kravchenko

1995-01-01

248

Molecular phenotype of Fragile X syndrome: FMRP, FXRPs, and protein targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is one of the most prevalent genetic causes of mental retardation. FraX is associated with an unstable expansion of a polymorphism within the 5 untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. The main consequence of this mutation is a reduction in the levels of the gene product (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein with multiple spliced variants

Walter E. Kaufmann; Sonia Cohen; Hong-Tao Sun; George Ho

2002-01-01

249

Fronto-striatal dysfunction and potential compensatory mechanisms in male adolescents with fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response inhibition is an important facet of executive function. Fragile X syndrome (FraX), with a known genetic etiology (fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) mutation) and deficits in response inhibition, may be an ideal condition for elucidating interactions among gene-brain-behavior relationships. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown evidence of aberrant neural activity when individuals with FraX perform executive function

Fumiko Hoeft; Arvel Hernandez; Sudharshan Parthasarathy; Christa L. Watson; Scott S. Hall; Allan L. Reiss

2007-01-01

250

Cerebral growth in Fragile X syndrome: Review and comparison with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroimaging studies have shown selective changes in brain size in Fragile X syn- drome (FraX), which include reductions in the posterior cerebellar vermis, age-dependent increases in hippocampal volume, and enlarged caudate nucleus and thalamus. Contrasting with these limbic and subcortical anomalies, much less is known about the neocortex in FraX. The present study attempted to examine cerebral and lobar-level volumetric

Wendy R. Kates; Bradley S. Folley; Diane C. Lanham; George T. Capone; Walter E. Kaufmann

2002-01-01

251

3D pattern of brain abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome visualized using tensor-based morphometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X syndrome (FraX), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, results in impaired cognition with particular deficits in executive function and visuo-spatial skills. Here we report the first detailed 3D maps of the effects of the Fragile X mutation on brain structure, using tensor-based morphometry. TBM visualizes structural brain deficits automatically, without time-consuming specification of regions-of-interest. We compared 36 subjects with FraX

Agatha D. Lee; Alex D. Leow; Allen Lu; Allan L. Reiss; Scott Hall; Ming-Chang Chiang; Arthur W. Toga; Paul M. Thompson

2007-01-01

252

Expression of immediate early genes in the hippocampal formation of the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) during a food-hoarding task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-capped chickadees store food in many different locations in their home range and are able to accurately remember these locations. We measured the number of cells immunopositive for three different Immediate Early Gene products (Fra-1, c-Fos and ZENK) to map neuronal activity in the chickadee Hippocampal Formation (HF) during food storing and retrieval. Fra-1-like immunoreactivity is downregulated in the dorsal

Tom V. Smulders; Timothy J. Devoogd

2000-01-01

253

Cadmium induces phosphorylation and stabilization of c-Fos in HK-2 renal proximal tubular cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure on the expression and phosphorylation status of members of the Fos family, components of the activator protein-1 transcription factor, in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Following the exposure to CdCl2, the expression of c-fos, fosB, fra-1, and fra-2 increased markedly, with different magnitudes and time courses. The levels of Fos

Mamiko Iwatsuki; Kiyoshi Inageda; Masato Matsuoka

2011-01-01

254

Frazzled/DCC facilitates cardiac cell outgrowth and attachment during Drosophila dorsal vessel formation.  

PubMed

Drosophila embryonic dorsal vessel (DV) morphogenesis is a highly stereotyped process that involves the migration and morphogenesis of 52 pairs of cardioblasts (CBs) in order to form a linear tube. This process requires spatiotemporally-regulated localization of signaling and adhesive proteins in order to coordinate the formation of a central lumen while maintaining simultaneous adhesion between CBs. Previous studies have shown that the Slit/Roundabout and Netrin/Unc5 repulsive signaling pathways facilitate site-specific loss of adhesion between contralateral CBs in order to form a luminal space. However, the concomitant mechanism by which attraction initiates CB outgrowth and discrete localization of adhesive proteins remains poorly understood. Here we provide genetic evidence that Netrin signals through DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma)/UNC-40/Frazzled (Fra) to mediate CB outgrowth and attachment and that this function occurs prior to and independently of Netrin/UNC-5 signaling. fra mRNA is expressed in the CBs prior to and during DV morphogenesis. Loss-of-fra-function results in significant defects in cell shape and alignment between contralateral CB rows. In addition, CB outgrowth and attachment is impaired in both fra loss- and gain-of-function mutants. Deletion of both Netrin genes (NetA and NetB) results in CB attachment phenotypes similar to fra mutants. Similar defects are also seen when both fra and unc5 are deleted. Finally we show that Fra accumulates at dorsal and ventral leading edges of paired CBs, and this localization is dependent upon Netrin. We propose that while repulsive guidance mechanisms contribute to lumen formation by preventing luminal domains from coming together, site-specific Netrin/Frazzled signaling mediates CB attachment. PMID:23685255

Macabenta, Frank D; Jensen, Amber G; Cheng, Yi-Shan; Kramer, Joseph J; Kramer, Sunita G

2013-08-15

255

Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

2004-08-01

256

Optimum design of a hybrid erbium-doped fiber amplifier/fiber Raman amplifier using particle swarm optimization.  

PubMed

We propose and optimize a hybrid erbium-doped fiber amplifier/fiber Raman amplifier (EDFA/FRA). A large number of parameters of a wide-band hybrid amplifier consisting of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) have been optimized using an effective and fast global optimization method called particle swarm optimization. Two types of hybrid EDFA/FRA with six- and 10-pumped FRAs have been optimized. A large number of variables affect the hybrid EDFA/FRA performance, thus we need a global optimization method to be able to deal with these variables. Particle swarm optimization helps us to find optimum parameters of a hybrid EDFA/FRA and reduce the gain spectrum variations to 2.91 and 2.03 dB for the six and 10 pumped FRAs, respectively. The optimum design supports the amplification of 60 signal channels in the wavelength range of 1529.2-1627.1 nm for a wavelength-division multiplexing system. PMID:19209214

Mowla, Alireza; Granpayeh, Nosrat

2009-02-10

257

Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10?/? mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1? SPI2? or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies. PMID:24967579

Ali, Mohamed M.; Newsom, David L.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L.; Smith, Jenee N.; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J.; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

2014-01-01

258

Fructose-asparagine is a primary nutrient during growth of Salmonella in the inflamed intestine.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10-/- mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1- SPI2- or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies. PMID:24967579

Ali, Mohamed M; Newsom, David L; Gonzlez, Juan F; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L; Smith, Jenee N; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M M

2014-06-01

259

Experimental investigation on amplification and coherence properties of a single-frequency and dual-single-frequency narrow-linewidth fiber Raman amplifier employing a switchable narrow-linewidth seed laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a narrow-linewidth fiber Raman amplifier (NL-FRA) operating at single-frequency (SF) and dual-single-frequency (DSF) to study the amplification and coherence properties. A switchable NL seed laser at a central wavelength of 1079.7 nm is utilized to provide SF and DSF signal light for FRA. The signal light is Raman amplified to 791 mW and 1.07 W, respectively. Measurements of spectrum and frequency spectrum indicate that there is no significant indication of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and four-wave mixing (FWM). The experimental investigation on coherence properties of SF and DSF NL-FRA indicates that the optical-path-difference-control and control-servomechanism-system for coherent beam combination (CBC) of DSF NL-FRAs are more strictly required, but still feasible.

Xu, Jiangming; Wu, Wuming; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Hou, Jing

2011-11-01

260

A GPU-paralleled implementation of an enhanced face recognition algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Face recognition algorithm based on compressed sensing and sparse representation is hotly argued in these years. The scheme of this algorithm increases recognition rate as well as anti-noise capability. However, the computational cost is expensive and has become a main restricting factor for real world applications. In this paper, we introduce a GPU-accelerated hybrid variant of face recognition algorithm named parallel face recognition algorithm (pFRA). We describe here how to carry out parallel optimization design to take full advantage of many-core structure of a GPU. The pFRA is tested and compared with several other implementations under different data sample size. Finally, Our pFRA, implemented with NVIDIA GPU and Computer Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming model, achieves a significant speedup over the traditional CPU implementations.

Chen, Hao; Liu, Xiyang; Shao, Shuai; Zan, Jiguo

2013-03-01

261

Very large common fragile site genes and their potential role in cancer development.  

PubMed

Common fragile sites (CFSs) are large chromosomal regions that are hot-spots for alterations especially within cancer cells. The three most frequently expressed CFS regions (FRA3B, FRA16D and FRA6E) contain genes that span extremely large genomic regions (FHIT, WWOX and PARK2, respectively), and these genes were found to function as important tumor suppressors. Many other CFS regions contain extremely large genes that are also targets of alterations in multiple cancers, but none have yet been demonstrated to function as tumor suppressors. The loss of expression of just FHIT or WWOX has been found to be associated with a worse overall clinical outcome. Studies in different cancers have revealed that some cancers have decreased expression of multiple large CFS genes. This loss of expression could have a profound phenotypic effect on these cells. In this review, we will summarize the known large common fragile site genes and discuss their potential relationship to cancer development. PMID:25300511

Gao, Ge; Smith, David I

2014-12-01

262

Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Pathway Regulates Breast Cancer Cell Migration by Maintaining slug Expression  

PubMed Central

Cell migration is a critical step in cancer cell invasion. Recent studies have implicated the importance of the ERK signaling pathway in cancer cell migration. However, the mechanism associated with ERK-regulated cell migration is poorly understood. Using a panel of breast cancer cell lines, we detected an excellent correlation between ERK activity and cell migration. Interestingly, we noticed that a 48-hr treatment with U0126 (specific MEK1/2 inhibitor) was needed to significantly inhibit breast cancer cell migration while this inhibitor blocked ERK activity within 1 hr. This observation suggests that ERK-dependent gene expression rather than direct ERK signaling is essential for cell migration. In further study, we found that ERK activity promoted the expression of AP1 components Fra-1 and c-Jun, both of which were necessary for cell migration. Combination of U0126 treatment and Fra-1/c-Jun knockdown did not yield further reduction in cell migration than either alone, indicating that ERKs and Fra-1/c-Jun act in the same mechanism to facilitate cell migration. In an attempt to investigate the role of Fra-1/c-Jun in cell migration, we found that ERK-Fra-1/c-Jun axis regulated slug expression in an AP1-dependent manner. Moreover, the occurrence of U0126-induced migratory inhibition coincided with slug reduction, and silencing slug expression abrogated breast cancer cell migration. These results suggest an association between ERK-regulated cell migration and slug expression. Indeed, cell migration was not significantly inhibited by U0126 treatment or Fra-1/c-Jun silencing in cells expressing slug transgene. Our study suggests that the ERK pathway regulates breast cancer cell migration by maintaining slug expression. PMID:19920183

Chen, Haoming; Zhu, Genfeng; Li, Yong; Padia, Ravi N.; Dong, Zheng; Pan, Zhixing K.; Liu, Kebin; Huang, Shuang

2009-01-01

263

Investigation of Transformer Model for TRV Calculation by EMTP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the EMTP transformer model was performed with the 4kVA two windings low voltage transformer with the current injection (CIJ) measurement method to study a transient recovery voltage (TRV) at the transformer limited fault (TLF) current interrupting condition. Tested transformer's impedance was measured by the frequency response analyzer (FRA). From FRA measurement graphs leakage inductance, stray capacitance and resistance were calculated. The EMTP transformer model was constructed with those values. The EMTP simulation was done for a current injection circuit by using transformer model. The experiment and simulation results show a reasonable agreement.

Thein, Myo Min; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Harada, Katsuhiko; Ohtsuka, Shinya; Hikita, Masayuki; Haginomori, Eiichi; Koshiduka, Tadashi

264

Cancer Cell Protein Kinase C a Is a Central Signaling Node  

E-print Network

for Breast Cancer Stem Cells Wai Leong Tam,1,8 Haihui Lu,1 Joyce Buikhuisen,1 Boon Seng Soh,2 Elgene Lim,3, respectively. PKCa and FRA1 expression is associated with the aggressive triple-negative breast cancers., 2003; Dalerba et al., 2007). In experimental models of cancer development, treatment of bulk cancer

Liu, Xiaole Shirley

265

UNIVERSITE d'AVIGNON ET DES PAYS DE VAUCLUSE Nattribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

do es 'auraie t pas t possible. Mer i gale e t à Jea -Fra çois, Olivier et Gilbert, grâ e à ui j Baret, Frederik Jacob, Marie Weiss, Myriam Legay, Roland Huc, Serge Rambal. Je souhaite spécialement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

COELIOXYS RUFOCAUDATA SM. (HYMENOPTERA MEGACHILIDAE)  

E-print Network

COELIOXYS RUFOCAUDATA SM. (HYMENOPTERA MEGACHILIDAE) CLEPTOPARASITE DE MEGACHILE ROTUNDATA F.R.A., 86600 Lusignan R?SUM? Le développement en France des élevages expérimentaux de Megachile rotundata pour particulières de l'élevage de masse de l'abeille solitaire Megachile rotundata F. ont favorisé l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Influence of environmental and genetic factors on health-related compounds in strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strawberry (Fragariaananassa, Duch.) represents a relevant source of micronutrients and phenolic substances, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality (NQ) of the fruit. Despite its proven health benefits, strawberries also contain allergenic compounds. In particular protein Fra a 1 is considered the main cause of allergic reactions after consumption of these fruits. However, there

Sara Tulipani; Gorji Marzban; Anita Herndl; Margit Laimer; Bruno Mezzetti; Maurizio Battino

2011-01-01

268

75 FR 76345 - Risk Reduction Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...solving. A. Voluntary Risk Reduction Programs Before...Crew Resource Management model training programs, and...voluntary programs under the risk reduction umbrella. These...22. How often should risk reduction training be...Recordkeeping and Program Audits 23. FRA may require...

2010-12-08

269

Af projektleder, forskningsprofessor, dr.scient. Torkel Gissel Nielsen, DMU  

E-print Network

, Jens Larsen1 , Birgit Søborg, Suree Satapoomin5 , Cornelia Jaspers1 , Stiig Markager1 , Mathi Nordvestaustralien. Ruteom- lægningen gav mulighed for at undersøge planktonfødekæ- den langs sejlruten fra Cape Town og produktion undersøgt. Togtet foregik langs et tran- sekt mellem 36º og 39, 5º sydlig bredde. Dette

270

IL QUADRATO MAGICO: DAL LINGUGAUGGIO ARITMETICO AL  

E-print Network

quadrato inserendo i numeri mancanti, in modo che la somma dei numeri di ciascuna riga, colonna o diagonale rapporti sperimentali per livello scolastico. #12;6.1 SCUOLA MATERNA 6.1 SCUOLA: 2°CIRCOLO DIDATTICO G in ogni riga ed in ogni colonna siano tutti e tre diverse fra loro. Obiettivo del gioco: si pretende

Spagnolo, Filippo

271

Politecnico di Milano Facolt di Ingegneria dell'Informazione  

E-print Network

febbraio 2010 COGNOME E NOME RIGA COLONNA MATRICOLA · Il presente plico pinzato, composto da quattro fogli degli stati (con costi di passo unitari): A C D B E F G Lo stato iniziale è A e lo stato finale è G. Si consideri la funzione euristica h(s) = (distanza alfabetica fra lo stato s e lo stato G); per esempio h

Amigoni, Francesco

272

49 CFR 268.21 - Down-selection of one or more Maglev projects for further study and selection of one project for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Down-selection of one or more Maglev projects for further study and selection...21 Down-selection of one or more Maglev projects for further study and selection...Upon completion of Phase III of the Maglev Deployment Program, FRA will...

2013-10-01

273

49 CFR 268.21 - Down-selection of one or more Maglev projects for further study and selection of one project for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Down-selection of one or more Maglev projects for further study and selection...21 Down-selection of one or more Maglev projects for further study and selection...Upon completion of Phase III of the Maglev Deployment Program, FRA will...

2012-10-01

274

Volume 17/2 ORIENT -OCCIDENT  

E-print Network

Miranda, L'hammam nell'Islam occidentale fra l'VIII e il XIV secolo (2010) 519-522 Grèce, Chypre, Asie of the Fayum under Roman Rule (2006) 653-655 Mésopotamie, Iran, Inde, Arabie A. caubet, G. Herrmann, St

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Ris Energy Report 3 References for Chapter 3  

E-print Network

mellem forskning og erhverv ­ fra tanke til faktura. Copenhagen: Ministeriet for Videnskab, Teknologi og, teknologi og udvikling. 11. Videnskabsministeriet (2003b). Regeringens videnstrategi ­ viden i vækst. Baggrundsrapport. København: Ministeriet for videnskab, teknologi og udvikling. References for Chapter 5.1 1. S

276

NYEMULIGHEDER 15. november 2010 13  

E-print Network

plejeuddannelser indarbejder teknologi-kompeten- cer i studieforløbet "JEG VIL K?MPE mod robotter på min- teknologi på hospitaler, i plejecentre og ude hos den enkelte borger for al- vor er i gang skal have kompetencer til at præge teknologien ud fra brugernes erfarin- ger. TEKNOLOGI I UDDANNELSER

Michelsen, Claus

277

Subcritical water extraction of phenolic compounds from potato peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato peel, a waste generated from potato processing, is a disposal problem. But, potato peel is a good source of functional ingredients such as phenolic compounds. This study investigated the extraction of eight phenolic compounds (Gallic acid, GAC; Chlorogenic acid, CGA; Caffeic acid, CFA; Protocatechuic acid, PCA; Syringic acid, SGA; p-hydroxyl benzoic acid, PBA; Ferulic acid, FRA and Coumaric acid,

Pushp Pal Singh; Marleny D. A. Saldaa

2011-01-01

278

78 FR 7857 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Type I'' material; (ii) the manufacturer of the...material; (iii) the type or brand identification of the material...indicate: (i) ``FRA Type II'' material; (ii) the manufacturer of the...material; (iii) the type or brand identification of the...

2013-02-04

279

Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the

Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

2009-01-01

280

Operation Lifesaver's "See Tracks? Think Train"  

E-print Network

and other community groups; e-Learning and other online educational tools � Public Awareness: Strong online tracks and highway-rail grade crossings #12;Where is the Highest Rail Safety Risk? #12;2013 Rail Crossing � Washington DC. Satellite Media Tour with OLI, AAR, FRA, FTA, Campaign Spokespeople Results to date: � More

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

281

Google ser dig.  

E-print Network

?? Studiens syfte a?r att underso?ka internetanva?ndares medvetenhet och a?sikter om filterbubblor pa? so?kmotorn Google. Underso?kningens fra?gesta?llning a?r: Vad har internetanva?ndare fo?r tankar och fo?rha?llningssa?tt (more)

Hallvarsson, Carl

2014-01-01

282

Liverpool John Moores University, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology Report on module performance for Programme Self Assessment  

E-print Network

Liverpool John Moores University, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology Report on module is core/option (list): BI, ZOL and FRA 1. Please refer to student questionnaire results for the module and Psychology Report on module performance for Programme Self Assessment 4. Use the space below to cite examples

Brown, Richard

283

Universit degli Studi di Genova Inaugurazione anno accademico 2008-2009  

E-print Network

erano senza dubbio vittima di uno stato di morte apparente. Allo scopo di evitare questo macabro evento sul presunto cadavere affinché la diagnosi di morte fosse certa. Fra questi, ad esempio, porre davanti il termine "morte cerebrale" in occasione del trapianto di rene eseguito prelevando gli organi di un

Genova, Università degli Studi di

284

Is Multiplication Harder than Addition? Arithmetical De nability over Finite  

E-print Network

. It is also a great joy to thank all the wonderful friends I have met in Amsterdam, and my parents for letting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4 Ehrenfeucht-Fra#16;ss#19;e games 19 4.1 How the game is played|that is, roughly speaking, if there is a #12;rst-order sen- tence de#12;ning addition and multiplication

Amsterdam, University of

285

Population geneticsPopulation genetics Breeding population a group of randomly mating  

E-print Network

be found from allele frequencies Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg Hardy-Weinberg theorem If fr(A) = p; fr Hardy-Weinberg theorem: applications 1. Knowing frequency of one allele/genotype, estimate frequencies of the other alleles and genotypes 2. Testing if a population is a Hardy-Weinberg population (randomly mating

Pechenkina, Ekaterina

286

Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management  

EPA Science Inventory

River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

287

Programming Storage-centric Sensor Networks with Squirrel  

E-print Network

Programming Storage-centric Sensor Networks with Squirrel Luca Mottola Swedish Institute of Computer Science luca@sics.se ABSTRACT We present SQUIRREL, a stream-oriented programming fra- mework, and discon- nected operations in static networks. SQUIRREL simplifies developing such applications

288

77 FR 12407 - Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as Amended; Response...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...must give the employee off duty before the employee may go on duty again. In issuing this interpretation, FRA...Limitations on Time on Duty in a May not remain or go on May not remain or go on May not remain or go on Single Tour. duty in...

2012-02-29

289

79 FR 30861 - Notice of Issuance of Program Comment To Tailor the Federal Communications Commission's Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA has reported that railroads must design, produce, and install more than 20 major...the shaft directly into the ground or by auger drilling a hole up to 20 inches in diameter...where a pole will be installed by helical screw due to the lack of removed sediments...

2014-05-29

290

Fonds de dotation pour l'entrepreneuriat et  

E-print Network

://www.eng.uottawa.ca/fra/fdei/index.php) Entrepreneurship and Innovation Endowment Fund (EIEF) (http://www.eng.uottawa.ca/eng/eief/index.php) #12 on engineering schools and on the Faculty to increase the exposure of students to entrepreneurship and innovation issues because of the importance of these issues in the career of many engineers. · Don anonyme d

Petriu, Emil M.

291

49 CFR 236.1009 - Procedural requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the tenant railroad that shares the same track segment would have been required to install...confidence may be based on FRA-monitored field testing or an independent assessment performed...PTC System Certification must engage in field testing or independent assessment...

2013-10-01

292

49 CFR 236.1009 - Procedural requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the tenant railroad that shares the same track segment would have been required to install...confidence may be based on FRA-monitored field testing or an independent assessment performed...PTC System Certification must engage in field testing or independent assessment...

2012-10-01

293

Mapping the Geography of Hope  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the nature of humankind's relationship with the natural world? To what extent can social science shed light on this relationship? What are the most pressing research questions? What limitations present themselves? Drawing from the experi- ences of a 16th century cartographer, Fra Mauro, the author addresses the prospects for successfully mapping the meaning of wilderness in contemporary life.

Daniel L. Dustin

2000-01-01

294

DPSK Modulated (Tbit/s) Transmission Incorporating Dispersion-compensated Hybrid Amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulative implementation of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulated data transmission incorporating single-pump highly efficient dispersion compensated Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier is demonstrated. The simulative results are discussed to compare two different types of configurations of dispersion compensated 16-channel wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system to achieve transmission of Tbit/s data. In pre-compensation technique, dispersion compensated fiber (DCF) is used prior to fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) (Type I) and in post-compensation technique; the DCF is used after FRA (Type II) in a WDM optical communication system. The pumped dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) is in use to act as FRA amplifier. The performance characteristics such as Q factor, BER and eye closure penalty are premeditated to realize the ultra high speed WDM systems by employing DCF based FRA together with DPSK modulation. From simulated results, it is recommended to implement Type I over Type II to realize the feasibility of such high speed WDM systems.

Sharma, Vishal; Gautam, Sunil

2013-12-01

295

METRA -Metropolitan Rail Corporation Chicago, Illinois Posting Period  

E-print Network

must include the position title, your resume and salary history to: E-mail: jobs@metrarr.com Metra labor agreements. Troubleshoots and assesses emergency or unplanned situations, including derailments together with practical understanding of labor agreements, and DOT/FRA regulations. � Must be able

Bustamante, Fabián E.

296

Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol. 12, 41144128, December 2001  

E-print Network

23, 2001; Accepted September 10, 2001 Monitoring Editor: Keith R. Yamamoto We isolated a temperature member of the Cdc48p-Ufd1p-Npl4p complex is individually required for ERAD. INTRODUCTION The endoplasmic reticulum is a major site for protein deg- radation in the cell (Arias et al., 1969; Fra and Sitia, 1993

Hampton, Randy

297

77 FR 20478 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the activities identified below. DATES...must report to FRA within 24 hours after learning of an accident or incident arising from...Title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other condition...

2012-04-04

298

Migration, health, and care in French overseas territories. France was recently reprimanded by a UN human rights body1  

E-print Network

Migration, health, and care in French overseas territories. France was recently reprimanded by a UN human rights body1 concerned about discriminatory political discourse and an increase in acts Commissioner for Human Rights, 77th session, 2010, report CERD/C/ FRA/CO/17-19. 2. République Française

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

OPENING PLENARY SECOND PLENARY THIRD PLENARYWater Crisis Global Health Governance  

E-print Network

OPENING PLENARY SECOND PLENARY THIRD PLENARYWater Crisis Global Health Governance Marjorie GriffinOpOliS experience Associate Dean, Research, Director of Global Health and Professor in the Faculty of Health Sciences SiMon FraSer UniverSity Professor of Global Health Policy London SChooL oF hyGiene and tropi

Haykin, Simon

300

Set-homogeneous digraphs Robert Gray  

E-print Network

Set-homogeneous digraphs Robert Gray (joint work with C. E. Praeger and D. Macpherson) ROGICS;Homogeneity and set-homogeneity Definition A relational structure M is homogeneous if every isomorphism to the fundamental work of Fraïssé (1953) Definition A relational structure M is set-homogeneous if whenever two

St Andrews, University of

301

Energy for the future with Ris from nuclear power to sustainable energy Ris NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy  

E-print Network

Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Risø NatioNal labo ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Translated from 'Energi til fremtiden ­ med Risø fra technologies. In 1958, it was nuclear power. On the occasion of its 50th anniversary, Risø is working

302

journal of computer and system sciences 55, 273 298 (1997) Finitely Representable Databases*  

E-print Network

journal of computer and system sciences 55, 273 298 (1997) Finitely Representable Databases Fra@sse games on the expressive power of query languages over finitely representable databases database technology. Indeed, the representation and manipulation of interpreted data constitute a dramatic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

53164 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 170 / Friday, August 31, 2012 / Proposed Rules Federal Communications Commission.  

E-print Network

Communications Commission. Bulah P. Wheeler, Deputy Manager, Office of the Secretary, Office of Managing Director Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent- Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers AGENCY: Federal Railroad in the effective date of the final rule until July 1, 2013. On March 8, 2012, FRA published a final rule delaying

304

VIDENSKAB OG PRAKSIS | STATUSARTIKEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

stor del af de indberettede alvorlige ordinationsfejl. Medici- neringsfejl foregr i alle delprocesser af ordinationen lige fra beslutningen om behandling med et lgemiddel, over doku- mentationen til seponeringen og informationen til patienten. Fejl opstr ogs ved manglende fokus p ndvendige ndrin- ger i medicineringen i relation til ndringer i en patients til- stand. Der br afsttes de ndvendige resurser til

Mette Lehmann Andersen

305

Thormod Henriksen og Ingolf Kanestrm In my view, we are not doing as well as we could  

E-print Network

. Tilnærmet all energi som når jordoverflaten, kommer fra sola. Vi starter derfor med å gi en kort beskrivelse av sola og den energiproduksjo- nen som finner sted i solas indre. Videre gir vi en kort beskrivelse

Sahay, Sundeep

306

Some counting problems related to permutation groups  

E-print Network

of the problem of counting the orbits of an infinite per- mutation group on n-sets or n-tuples, especially for each cardinality k of hyperedges. The age of M, written Age (M), is the class of all finite by Fra"iss'e [7], who says that the structure M is younger than N if the age of M is contained

Cameron, Peter

307

O3, CO2 and chemical fractionation in ponderosa pine saplings  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental factors can affect plant tissue quality which is important for quality of organic matter inputs into soil food webs and decomposition of soil organic matter. Thus the effects of increases in CO2 and O3 and their interactions were determined for various chemical fra...

308

Guideline for implementing Co-generation based on Biomass waste from  

E-print Network

Guideline for implementing Co-generation based on Biomass waste from Thai Industries - through-generation based on Biomass waste from Thai Industries - through implementation and organisation of Industrial biomasse ressourcer fra det omkringliggende nærområde kan erhverves, og hvilke der er interessante

309

A 2 MW flywheel for hybrid locomotive power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics (UT-CEM) is currently developing an Advanced Locomotive Propulsion System (ALPS) as part of the Next Generation High-Speed Rail program sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The ALPS consists of a gas turbine and synchronous alternator, combined with an induction motor coupled flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The prime power and

R. F. Thelen; J. D. Herbst; M. T. Caprio

2003-01-01

310

Development of Machine Vision Technology for Railcar Safety Appliance Inspection  

E-print Network

visual and is labor intensive, redundant, and generally lacks "memory" of the inspection results and #12;2 at other FRA-required locations. The process is labor intensive and a single inspector may see hundreds of cars during a shift, therefore monotony and fatigue may affect the efficiency of inspections [2

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

311

december 2001 Bioproduktion  

E-print Network

dets struktur. Ud fra den viden kunne biologen James D. Watson og fysikeren Francis Crick i 1953 i fysikeren Maurice H. F. Wilkins, nobelprisen for i 1962. Set i bakspejlet er der enighed om, at James D. Watson og Francis Crick ikke ville have været i stand til at opstille deres model for DNAs struk- tur

312

Aircraft Incident Report - AEROMEXICO DC-10-30, XA-DUH, Over Luxembourg, Europe, November 11, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 2138, on November 11, 1979, AEROMEXICO, Flight 945, XA-DUH, a McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30 aircraft, entered a prestall buffet and a sustained stall over Luxembourg, Europe, at 29,800 ft while climbing to 31,000 ft en route to Miami, Florida, from Fra...

1980-01-01

313

49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...report shall state the nature of the accident, number of persons killed or seriously...location at which the locomotive or the affected parts may be inspected by the FRA...the part or parts affected by the accident shall be preserved intact by...

2011-10-01

314

49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...report shall state the nature of the accident, number of persons killed or seriously...location at which the locomotive or the affected parts may be inspected by the FRA...the part or parts affected by the accident shall be preserved intact by...

2010-10-01

315

75 FR 82140 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...will be a self- propelled/railbound ultrasound/induction flaw detection vehicle operating...of the suspect GPS location. Remedial actions will be applied as per 49 CFR 213.113...will be considered by FRA before final action is taken. Comments received after...

2010-12-29

316

Laudatio del professor Amedeo Amato per il conferimento della laurea magistrale in Economia e  

E-print Network

in Economia e Istituzioni Finanziarie al professor Giovanni Maria Flick Formatosi alla scuola di un grande scritti verte su questioni del diritto penale dell'economia, settore del quale Giovanni Maria Flick è fra'analisi dei rapporti tra diritto penale ed economia e finanza. Dopo la pubblicazione delle monografie «Il

Genova, Università degli Studi di

317

77 FR 546 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fifth update to the NSRT, which has fallen from 14,007 to 13,722. DATES: The effective date is January 5, 2012. FOR FURTHER...injuries and fatalities, FRA calculates the NSRT to be 13,722. Issued in Washington, DC, on December 29, 2011....

2012-01-05

318

Dear Mr. Hansen. Thank you very much for your e-mail to the Prime Minister, which was forwarded to the  

E-print Network

to visiting your beautiful country in June. With kind regards, James E. Hansen #12;Dear Mr. Hansen. Thank you very much for your e-mail to the Prime Minister, which was forwarded, 0033 Oslo, Norway Fra: Jim Hansen Sendt: 24. mai 2010 14:08 Til: Postmottak SMK Kopi: Jim Hansen Emne

Hansen, James E.

319

ATTIVIT SPORTIVE DEL POLITECNICO 2 Trofeo dei Poli regionali  

E-print Network

Leonardo, la parigina Eleonore Delattre studentessa Erasmus di Design, Marco Ferrario di Architettura della 36a Course Croisiere Edhec nella rada di Brest. Ecco i partecipanti, tutti del Politecnico: Marco Lecco fra la rappresentativa del Polo di Como (in blu) e Leonardo, poi vincitore con i `Biggols'. Altre

320

13, alle Franois Mitterrand 49100 ANGERS Cedex 01  

E-print Network

) play a key role for the quality of life and the attractiveness of cities. This paper highlights the ins. : +33 (0) 2 41 96 21 06 Web : http://www.univangers.fr/granem The effects of spatial spillovers par l'Institut d'Economie Publique, Marseille (FRA) : France (2008)" #12;The effects of spatial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

75 FR 16896 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of an oncoming train when none is present...activate as a train approaches a grade...bridges located over bodies of water. FRA...Mark on Freight Cars. OMB Control...Certification (Noise Compliance Regulations...Measurement of Loco. Noise measurements...struck by moving cars as they...

2010-04-02

322

75 FR 32237 - Information Collection Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...identify freight cars. Annual Estimated...trailing end of rear cars in order to ensure rear cars meet minimum standards...Certification (Noise Compliance Regulations...warn of an oncoming train when none is present...bridges located over bodies of water. FRA...

2010-06-07

323

Mutation frequencies of Xlinked mental retardation genes in families from the EuroMRX consortium.  

E-print Network

, Castelnau L, Saillour Y, Bienvenu T, Beldjord C, des Portes V, Chelly J, Turner G, Fullston T, Gecz J, Kuss.debrouwer@antrg.umcn.nl The EuroMRX family cohort consists of about 400 families with nonsyndromic and 200 families with syndromic Xlinked mental retardation (XLMR). After exclusion of Fragile X (Fra X) syndrome, probands from

Institut des Sciences Cognitives, CNRS

324

Further segregation analysis of the fragile X syndrome with special reference to transmitting males  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new series of 96 pedigrees with the fra(X) syndrome was analysed using complex segregation analysis with pointers, defining affection as any degree of mental impairment. These families were found to exhibit the same segregation pattern as the first series of 110 pedigrees (Sherman et al. 1984). The best estimate for penetrance of mental impairment in males was 79% and

S. L. Sherman; P. A. Jacobs; N. E. Morton; U. Froster-Iskenius; P. N. Howard-Peebles; K. B. Nielsen; M. W. Partington; G. R. Sutherland; G. Turner; M. Watson

1985-01-01

325

Associations between Repetitive Questioning, Resistance to Change, Temper Outbursts and Anxiety in Prader-Willi and Fragile-X Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The behavioural phenotypes of Prader-Willi (PWS) and Fragile-X (FraX) syndromes both comprise repetitive behaviours with differences between the profiles. In this study we investigated the context and antecedents to the repetitive behaviours and the association with other behavioural phenotypic characteristics in order to generate

Woodcock, K.; Oliver, C.; Humphreys, G.

2009-01-01

326

78 FR 49321 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...hereby announces that it is seeking renewal of the following currently approved information...seeking approval for reinstatement or renewal by OMB. 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2...collected with FRA employees, State DOT partners, and law enforcement agencies....

2013-08-13

327

Computational Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Structures: A Retrospective through Multiple Lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the application of computational fracture mechanics to concrete structures, now 5 decades old, is interesting from many perspectives. In this paper, a retrospective of computational fracture mechanics in concrete structures (ComFraMCoS) is presented through five lenses. These lenses clarify research trends through an historical overview. We intend to interlace the views through these lenses to sometimes offer

J. M. Emery; A. R. Ingraffea

328

For mange moderne voksne fremstr barndom-men som et tabt paradis, et gthedens og fri-  

E-print Network

, at Disney under- støtter dette barndomsideal og de ønsker, der ligger bag. Nogle af Disneyuniversets. Citat fra bogen Omslag: Tove Krebs Lange #12;DISNEY I DANMARK #12;#12;Disney i Danmark At vokse op med en global mediegigant Kirsten Drotner H?ST & S?N #12;Disney i Danmark At vokse op med en global

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Dette heftet i tallteori er utarbeidet til Etterutdanningskurs 12 i matematikk for laerere i Oslo i august 2000. Heftet baserer seg i stor grad pa Erik Alfsen og Tom Lindstrms  

E-print Network

Forord Dette heftet i tallteori er utarbeidet til Etterutdanningskurs 12 i matematikk for laerere i algoritme, aritmetikkens fundamentalsats, Fermats lille og Eulers teoremer. Det er ogsša gitt noen praktiske lineaere kongruenser, og endelig er det gitt utdrag fra likningsteorien, bl.a. pythagoreiske tripler

Sletsjøe, Arne B.

330

RisNyt NO1 2005 11 Kyoto protokollens ikrafttrden er et vigtigt  

E-print Network

RisøNyt NO1 2005 11 Kyoto protokollens ikrafttræden er et vigtigt politisk signal, som viser 2012, er det langt fra nok til at standse opvarmningen af Jorden. EU har taget det næste store spring drivhusgasser med 15-30 procent i 2020 set i forhold til 1990. Den politiske udmelding er vigtig for de kommende

331

Aarhus Universitets alarmeringsnummer I tilflde af brand, ulykker eller andre livstruende situationer p Aarhus Universitet  

E-print Network

/branden, hvis muligt the fire/accident if possible ring 112 � Call 112 (tryk 0 f�rst, hvis du ringer fra). Evacuate the building if necessary. In the case of fire or accidents, activate fire alarm. ring 87 15 16 17 situationer p� Aarhus Universitet skal du � som altid � ringe til 112, men derefter bedes du ogs� ringe til

332

Revised 12/5/13 COLLEGE OF EARTH, OCEAN & ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES  

E-print Network

) Jon Fram- Senior Res.rep. John Stanley- FRA Kuuipo Walsh- Professional rep. Sarah Haluzak- Prof fac, Chair Andrew Meigs- Geology PH Julia Jones- Geography PH Flaxen Conway- MRM PH Joe Stoner- OEAS G- OEB Angel White- OEB Alt. Kaplan Yalcin- e-campus Melinda Jensen- admin Kuuipo Walsh- GIS Cert

Kurapov, Alexander

333

49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in 225.5) in its...

2011-10-01

334

49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in 225.5) in its...

2012-10-01

335

49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation...CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in 225.5) in its...

2013-10-01

336

Rheotactic response of fry from beach-spawning populations of sockeye salmon: evolution after  

E-print Network

for newly emerged sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fry from a beach population (Pleasure Point) and from rhéotaxique a été quantifiée chez des alevins fraîchement émergés du Saumon rouge (Oncorhynchus nerka) d a fluctuating element... (Darwin 1859, p. 81). Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are unique among Pacific

Hendry, Andrew

337

Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

2011-05-01

338

77 FR 2774 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance...seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA has reopened...out of service since being damaged by weather in December 2003. RBMN applied,...

2012-01-19

339

77 FR 40700 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance...seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the...Operating Rules 6.21, when a severe weather event is encountered during the...

2012-07-10

340

IEA-Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas  

E-print Network

EFP-06 IEA- Renewable Energy Technologies, Bioenergy Agreement Task 37: Energy from Biogas-Bioenergy, Task 37- Energy from Biogas and Landfill Gas", via samarbejde, informationsudveksling, fælles analyser. biogas fra anaerob udrådning (AD) som en integreret gylle og affalds behandlings teknologi. Arbejdet

341

AFSLUTNINGSRAPPORT Journal nr. 33031-0066  

E-print Network

ethanol. Endelig er det testet at øge konceptets udbytte ved at producere biogas fra resten af det af gærceller. Fermentering (Xylose) Fermentering (Glucose) Fast brændstof Biogas proces ForbehandlingBiomasse BIOGAS ETHANOL Proces vand H2 Vådoxidation Enzymatisk hydrolysis + C6 fermentering Destillation Anaerob

342

75 FR 36551 - State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...hourly rate, the labor hours, and an estimated overhead rate...rule requires that FRA review and approve each submitted plan...anticipates that the average review time for each of the initial submissions...burden associated with the review and approval of the required plans...burden resubmission from the quantum that may not comply during...

2010-06-28

343

49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairsrailroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

2010-10-01

344

49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairsrailroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

2012-10-01

345

78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2013-0064] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake test procedures located in AAR...System Tests for Freight Equipment-- Single Car Test, and required pursuant to 49 CFR...

2013-07-23

346

49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairsrailroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

2013-10-01

347

49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation...Special notice for repairsrailroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and...Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the...

2011-10-01

348

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2261, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington,  

E-print Network

result in the majority of train derail- ments in the United States. Understanding how they may-related derailments, it may also increase the risks from certain types of equipment failure that are more likely derailment statistics from the FRA Accident/Incident Reporting System database and recent literature

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

349

75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

FRA is adjusting the ordinary maximum penalty and the aggravated maximum penalty that it will apply when assessing a civil monetary penalty for a violation of the Federal hazardous material transportation laws or a regulation, special permit, or approval issued under those laws. The aggravated maximum penalty is available only for a violation that results in death, serious illness, or severe......

2010-07-27

350

76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 15] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

2011-12-27

351

77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

2012-12-26

352

78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2001-11213, Notice No. 17] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum...addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below...has determined that the minimum random alcohol testing rate will remain at 10...

2013-12-26

353

Analysis of fragrance compositions of precious coniferous woods grown in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odor is one of the most distinctive characteristics of wood. Woods in the family Taxodiaceae and Cupressa- ceae often emit fragrant odors. In this study, the fra- grance compounds of six coniferous woods grown in Taiwan, namely Chamaecyparis formosensis, Chamae- cyparis obtusa var. formosana, Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Cunninghamia lanceolata, and Cryptomeria japonica, were studied by solid-phase microextraction

Sheng-Yang Wang; Yen-Shung Wang; Yen-Hsueh Tseng; Chien-Tsong Lin; Chiung-Pin Liu

2006-01-01

354

12 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and loan holding company or any subsidiary thereof (other than a bank) as those terms are defined in section 10(a) of the HOLA (12 U.S.C. 1467(a)); (4) Any organization operating under section 25 of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 601 et...

2010-01-01

355

77 FR 38882 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement, for the Chicago, IL to St...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Corridor Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Illinois to St. Louis, Missouri High Speed Rail Corridor Program. The Draft EIS includes...project-level evaluation for the Springfield Rail Improvements Project. FRA is the...

2012-06-29

356

Intercity rail-passenger car ride quality test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Railroad Administration's research and development program relating to intercity rail-passenger ride quality focuses on developing ride quality design criteria and specifications. The FRA ride quality test program and some of the techniques being used to analyze and evaluate the design criteria of the program are discussed.

Scharr, R. L.; Owings, R. P.

1975-01-01

357

Fatigue Analysis of Multiple Site Damage at a Row of Holes in a Wide Panel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is concerned with predicting the fatigue life of unstiffened panels which contain multiple site damage (MSD). The initial damage consists of through-the-thickness cracks emanating from a row of holes in the center of a finite width panel. A fra...

K. Buhler, A. F. Grandt, E. J. Moukawsher

1994-01-01

358

76 FR 78731 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011, Drake Switching Company, LLC (DSC) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0015. DSC seeks a waiver of compliance from certain...SWX735), which is used as a locomotive. DSC states that this shuttlewagon is...

2011-12-19

359

78 FR 1930 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requirements (ICRs) for clearance by the Office of Management...FRA will submit for clearance by OMB as required...equipment design and performance; fire safety; emergency...or ineffective air compressor: documentation of...or ineffective air compressors. Record of...

2013-01-09

360

China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy. Updated December 9, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S.-China relations were remarkably smooth for much of the George W. Bush Administration, raising speculation about how relations will fare after the transition to the Obama Administration. The State Department in 2005 unveiled what it said was a new fra...

K. Dumbaugh

2008-01-01

361

37The Oldest Lunar Rocks Apollo astronauts recovered over 840 pounds of lunar rocks, and during  

E-print Network

37The Oldest Lunar Rocks Apollo astronauts recovered over 840 pounds of lunar rocks, and during applied to the different rock samples. Location Mission Rock Type Age (Myr) Mare Tranquillitatis Apollo-11 Basalt 3,500 Oceanus Procellarum Apollo-12 Basalt 3,200 Fra Mauro Formation Apollo-14 Basalt 4,150 Apollo

362

Impact glasses from the Apollo 14 landing site and implications for regional geology  

E-print Network

Impact glasses from the Apollo 14 landing site and implications for regional geology N. E. B are regolith developed on different terrains and local rock types. Almost 800 glasses from the Apollo 14 provenance of Apollo 14 samples and suggests that the highlands in the Fra Mauro region of the Moon consist

Spudis, Paul D.

363

Development of an equivalent circuit model of a fuel cell to evaluate the effects of inverter ripple current  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an impedance model of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack (PEMFCS) is proposed. The proposed study employs an equivalent circuit of the PEMFCS derived by frequency response analysis (FRA) technique. An equivalent circuit for the fuel cell stack is developed to evaluate the effects of ripple currents generated by the power-conditioning unit. The calculated results are

Woojin Choi; Prasad N. Enjeti; Jo W. Howze

2004-01-01

364

77 FR 43902 - Notice of Availability of a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the California...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the California High-Speed Train Project Fresno to Bakersfield Section...Bakersfield Section of the California High- Speed Train (HST) Project (Project). FRA...Federal agency and the California High-Speed Rail Authority (Authority) is the...

2012-07-26

365

Conceptualizing neurodevelopmental disorders through a mechanistic understanding of fragile X syndrome and Williams syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The overarching goal of this review is to compare and contrast the cognitive-behavioral features of fragile X syndrome (FraX) and Williams syndrome and to review the putative neural and molecular underpinnings of these features. Information is presented in a framework that provides guiding principles for conceptualizing gene-brain-behavior associations in neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent findings Abnormalities, in particular cognitive-behavioral domains with similarities in underlying neurodevelopmental correlates, occur in both FraX and Williams syndrome including aberrant frontostriatal pathways leading to executive function deficits, and magnocellular/dorsal visual stream, superior parietal lobe, inferior parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus abnormalities contributing to deficits in visuospatial function. Compelling cognitivebehavioral and neurodevelopmental contrasts also exist in these two disorders, for example, aberrant amygdala and fusiform cortex structure and function occurring in the context of contrasting social behavioral phenotypes, and temporal cortical and cerebellar abnormalities potentially underlying differences in language function. Abnormal dendritic development is a shared neurodevelopmental morphologic feature between FraX and Williams syndrome. Commonalities in molecular machinery and processes across FraX and Williams syndrome occur as well microRNAs involved in translational regulation of major synaptic proteins; scaffolding proteins in excitatory synapses; and proteins involved in axonal development. Summary Although the genetic variations leading to FraX and Williams syndrome are different, important similarities and contrasts in the phenotype, neurocircuitry, molecular machinery, and cellular processes in these two disorders allow for a unique approach to conceptualizing genebrainbehavior links occurring in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22395002

Fung, Lawrence K.; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Haas, Brian W.

2013-01-01

366

DNA vaccines suppress tumor growth and metastases by the induction of anti-angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Four novel oral DNA vaccines provide long-lived protection against melanoma, colon, breast, and non-small cell lung carcinoma in mouse model systems. The vaccines are delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to secondary lymphoid organs and are directed against targets such as carcinoembryonic antigen, tyrosine-related protein, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 [also called fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1)], and transcription factor Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1). The FLK-1 and Fra-1 vaccines are effective in suppressing angiogenesis in the tumor vasculature. All four vaccines are capable of inducing potent cell-mediated protective immunity, breaking peripheral T-cell tolerance against these self-antigens resulting in effective suppression of tumor growth and metastasis. It is anticipated that such research efforts will contribute toward the rational design of future DNA vaccines that will be effective for prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:15233734

Reisfeld, Ralph A; Niethammer, Andreas G; Luo, Yunping; Xiang, Rong

2004-06-01

367

Participation in the Apollo passive seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs which were written to read digital tapes containing lunar seismic data were studied. Interpreting very early parts of the lunar seismogram as seismic body-wave phases enabled the determination of the structure of the outer part of the moon in the Fra Mauro region. The crust in the Fra Mauro region is 60 to 65 km-thick, overlaying a high velocity mantle. The crust is further divided into an upper part, 25 km thick, apparently made of material similar to the surficial basalts, and a lower part of seemingly different composition, possibly an anorthositic gabbro. The generation of the exceedingly long reverberating wave-train observed in lunar seismogram was also studied. This is believed to be due to an intense scattering layer with very high quality coefficient overlying a more homogeneous elastic medium. Titles and abstracts of related published papers are included.

Press, F.; Toksoez, M. N.; Dainty, A.

1972-01-01

368

Petrology of the Apollo 11 highland component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New data for 38 highland fragments hand-picked from Apollo 11 coarse fines are reported. Petrographic, mineralogic, and bulk chemical data show that: (1) the Apollo 11 highland component is non-KREEPy and like that of Apollo 16; (2) poikilitic rocks, granulitic breccias, and the anorthosite-norite-troctolite suite are the most abundant rock types, followed by polymict breccias and glasses; (3) both the ferroan anorthosite and Mg-rich plutonic suites are represented in the Apollo 11 highland component; (4) except for one sample, the intermediate-K Fra Mauro and high-K Fra Mauro groups are not represented. The data and observations are consistent with local derivation of the highland material from beneath relatively thin basalt flows and addition to the regolith via vertical mixing.

Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Laul, J. C.

1983-01-01

369

An investigation of laboratory and field compaction of a swelling clay  

E-print Network

to l per ?oat~ while a variation ef 3 5 por oent increasing fr?a bott?a te tep was dot?rained for tho Vestal gnarl Distribntion eye?La@a, It is baLL?red tha4 part af the 3, 5 yer osnt vari?ties nap bo attribnted to tbo laob af fell sewerage Csrb... to l per ?oat~ while a variation ef 3 5 por oent increasing fr?a bott?a te tep was dot?rained for tho Vestal gnarl Distribntion eye?La@a, It is baLL?red tha4 part af the 3, 5 yer osnt vari?ties nap bo attribnted to tbo laob af fell sewerage Csrb...

Williams, Andrew Leroy

2012-06-07

370

Major element composition of glasses in three Apollo 15 soils.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 180 glasses in each of three Apollo 15 soils have been analyzed for nine elements. Cluster analysis techniques allow the recognition of preferred glass compositions that are equated with parent rock compositions. Green glass rich in Fe and Mg, poor in Al and Ti may be derived from deep-seated pyroxenitic material now present at the Apennine Front. Fra Mauro basalt (KREEP) is most abundant in the LM soil and is tentatively identified as ray material from the Aristillus-Autolycus area. Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro), believed to be derived from the lunar highlands, has the same composition as at other landing sites, but is less abundant. The Apennine Front is probably not true highland material but may contain a substantial amount of material with the composition of Fra Mauro basalt, but lacking the high-K content.

Reid, A. M.; Warner, J.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

1972-01-01

371

8 RIS N Y T 2/00 Riss kemikere har kon-  

E-print Network

8 RIS? N Y T 2/00 Risøs kemikere har kon- strueret en sensor, der kan genkende ephedrin, som står fundet et stof, der pas- ser perfekt sammen med ephedrin. Dermed har de udviklet en sensor, der kan afsløre ephedrin i en blodprøve. Ephedrin er i sig selv interessant. Stoffet, der udvindes fra planter

372

Abteilung fur Mathematische Logik SS 2012  

E-print Network

der Beweis unter anderem aufbaut. Bemerkung: Nash-Williams ist ein anderer als John Forbes Nash, auf, On Fra¨iss´e's order type conjecture, Ann. Math. (2) 93 (1971), 89­111. 4.) Crispin Saint-John A. Nash-Wohlordnungen. Im Se- minar studieren wir den Laver'schen Beweis und die Teile der Arbeit von Nash-Williams, auf die

Mildenberger, Heike

373

The FHIT Gene, Spanning the Chromosome 3p14.2 Fragile Site and Renal CarcinomaAssociated t(3;8) Breakpoint, Is Abnormal in Digestive Tract Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 200300 kb region of chromosome 3p14.2, including the fragile site locus FRA3B, is homozygously deleted in multiple tumor-derived cell lines. Exon amplification from cosmids covering this deleted region allowed identification of the human FHIT gene, a member of the histidine triad gene family, which encodes a protein with 69% similarity to an S. pombe enzyme, diadenosine 5?, 5??? P1,

Masataka Ohta; Hiroshi Inoue; Maria Grazia Cotticelli; Kumar Kastury; Raffaele Baffa; Juan Palazzo; Zurab Siprashvili; Masaki Mori; Peter McCue; Teresa Druck; Carlo M Croce; Kay Huebner

1996-01-01

374

The role of profilin and lipid transfer protein in strawberry allergy in the Mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In contrast to other Rosaceae fruit, only few cases of patients with adverse reactions to strawberry are listed in literature. OBJECTIVE To identify allergenic proteins in strawberry and to express and characterize recombinant strawberry lipid transfer protein (LTP; rFra a 3). METHODS: Established apple-allergic patients were recruited on the basis of a reported allergic reaction to strawberry (n=28, confirmed

L. Zuidmeer; E. M. J. Salentijn; M. F. Rivas; E. G. Mancebo; R. Asero; C. I. Matos; K. T. B. Pelgrom; L. J. W. J. Gillissen; R. van Ree

2006-01-01

375

Social Escape Behaviors in Children with Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors were significantly more likely to occur during the interview and

Scott Hall; Marie DeBernardis; Allan Reiss

2006-01-01

376

Role of Fraction 1 Antigen of Yersinia pestis in Inhibition of Phagocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, expresses a capsule-like antigen, fraction 1 (F1), at 37C. F1 is encoded by the caf1 gene located on the large 100-kb pFra plasmid, which is unique to Y. pestis. F1 is a surface polymer composed of a protein subunit, Caf1, with a molecular mass of 15.5 kDa. The secretion and assembly of F1

Yidong Du; Roland Rosqvist; ke Forsberg

2002-01-01

377

PROFILO DI SICUREZZA DEL NATALIZUMAB: DATI ESISTENTI E PROGRAMMA DI FARMACOVIGILANZA NAZIONALE. XXXVIII Congresso della Societ Italiana di Neurologia Firenze Fortezza da Basso 13 - 17 Ottobre 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il Natalizumab (Tysabri) un anticorpo monoclonale uman- izzato diretto contro la molecola di adesione ?4?1, integrina espressa da tutti i leucociti, con l'esclusione dei neutrofili: l'adesione dell'anticorpo con la molecola in grado di bloc- care l'interazione fra i leucociti mononucleati e il recettore complementare presente sull'endotelio, impedendo cos la migrazione dal sangue al tessuto sede dell'infiammazione dei leucociti

G. L. Mancardi

378

Fresh Kids: the efficacy of a Health Promoting Schools approach to increasing consumption of fruit and water in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fresh Kids programme utilized the Health Promoting Schools (HPSs) framework to design a whole-of-school, multifaceted intervention targeting specific behaviours to promote healthy eating and reduce the risk factors associated with childhood obesity. The aim of the pro- gramme was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HPS fra- mework to increase fruit and water consumption among primary school-aged children over

S. Laurence; R. Peterken; C. Burns

2007-01-01

379

En Model til Fremskrivning af Isag Frits Mller Andersen og Helge V. Larsen  

E-print Network

AFFALDSSTR?MME 17 3.1 FRAKTION 19: DIVERSE BR?NDBART 17 3.2 FRAKTION 23: DIVERSE IKKE BR?NDBART. 19 3.3 FRAKTION for the Generation of Waste" Environmental Project no. 434, Miljøstyrelsen 1998", og er baseret af affaldsdata fra" beskrevet i "A Scenario Model for the Generation of Waste" Environmental Project no. 434, Miljøstyrelsen

380

Daily immediate early gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of male and female Octodon degus.  

PubMed

Diurnal and nocturnal species have different patterns of general activity, sleep-wake rhythms, and endocrine rhythms, but the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rhythms in immediate early gene (IEG) products in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of a diurnal rodent (Octodon degus) reflect their diurnal chronotype. We also compared male and female degus with respect to temporal patterns of expression of one of these gene products, Fos-related Antigen (FRA). Animals were killed across the light:dark cycle, brains were collected, and sections through the SCN were stained for FRA (females and males) or c-Fos and Calbindin (males only) using immunocytochemistry. An additional set of females placed in constant darkness was pulsed with light (or not) during the subjective day or night. Labeled cells in the SCN were counted in all animals. In males, c-Fos/FRA positive (+) cell counts in the dorsomedial SCN were low after lights-on and peaked around the time of lights-off (ZT 13, ZT 0=lights-on). Effect size analyses indicated that females have a 24 h rhythm in FRA expression that is shifted relative to that of males. Light pulses in the subjective day and night produced area-specific changes in IEG expression in females that differs from that reported for males. Overall, these studies reveal the pattern of immediate early gene expression in the SCN of degus is not the same in males and females, and that it differs from the one seen in other species, both nocturnal and diurnal. PMID:19637045

Mahoney, Megan M; Smale, Laura; Lee, Theresa M

2009-07-01

381

280 LE LAIT / MAI-JUIN 1973 / N" 525-526 Etude sur la microflore lactique du fromage  

E-print Network

pendant 6 h à la température optimale de croissance. Tests d'identification communs aux streptocoques et;---- ------------ M?MOIRES ORIGINAUX 281 2) Présence de catalase Un ml d'une culture fraîche en MRS est ajouté à 1 ml d Elles sont déterminées selon la méthode décrite par Lunder [8] et Mattson [9]. Tests supplémentaires

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

A Quantitative Study of Mobility Impact for Real-Time Services on a Wi-Fi Multi-hop Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the performance of mobile real time services in a large-scale IEEE 802.11 multi-hop network. We present our field measurements with discussion of performance bottlenecks for VoIP services under mobile scenarios. We utilized our test bed which is located in Nebraska and supported by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), US Federal Railroads Administrations (FRA), and major

Ting Zhou; Hamid Sharif; Michael Hempel; Puttipong Mahasukhon; Wei Wang; Song Ci

2008-01-01

383

ELABORAZIONE dei SEGNALI nei SISTEMI di CONTROLLO Lezione 13: Interpretazione geometrica della stima Bayesiana  

E-print Network

scalare tra variabili aleatorie X1 e X2 come: X1, X2 = E[X1X2]. (1) Si noti come questa definizione correlazione fra le v.a. X1 e X2 : = E[X1X2] E[X2 1]E[X2 2] · Ortogonalit´a X1X2, cos() = 0 Incorrelazione E

Chisci, Luigi

384

ANALISI STATISTICA E GEOGRAFICA PER LA SPAZIALIZZAZIONE DELLA TEMPERATURA A SCALA DI BACINO IDROGRAFICO: RISULTATI PRELIMINARI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nell'ambito del progetto MONIDRI 1 stata sviluppata una proposta metodologica per incrementare la risoluzione spaziale dei dati meteorologici ed in particolare della temperatura. Sono state analizzate le relazioni fra la temperatura massima e la temperatura minima ed alcune caratteristiche geografiche (quota, distanza della stazione dal mare e latitudine) in grado di descriverne l'andamento spaziale. L'applicazione operativa stata provata

385

Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

regions, especially for the 1980s. However, our results indicate that the net rate of tropical forest clearing increased '10% from the 1980s to 1990s, most notably in southeast Asia, in contrast to an 11% reduction reported by the FRA. We estimate net mean annual carbon fluxes from tropical deforestation and regrowth to average 0.6 (0.3- 0.8) and 0.9 (0.5-1.4) petagrams

Ruth S. DeFries; Richard A. Houghton; Matthew C. Hansen; Christopher B. Field; D. Skole; John Townshend

2002-01-01

386

Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/AKT and Fos like protein 1 regulation of trophoblast differentiation  

E-print Network

delivered shRNAs to 5 knockdown Akt1, Akt2 or Akt3 further validated the involvement of the PI3K/AKT pathway in the regulation of these events. Fos like antigen 1 (FOSL1 or FRA1) was upregulated during trophoblast cell differentiation and shown... in the human placenta167 IV. Further lessons to be learned from gene profiling experiments in trophoblast cells.167 V. Overview of the importance of this work169 CHAPTER 5: REFERENCES...

Kent, Lindsey N.

2010-09-02

387

Bulbospinal control of spinal cord pathways generating locomotor extensor activities in the cat  

PubMed Central

Intracellular recording of lumbosacral motoneurones in the decerebrate and partially spinalized cat injected with nialamide and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) was used to investigate the interneuronal convergence of two bulbospinal pathways and of the segmental pathways involved with the generation of extensor activities during locomotion. Deiter's nucleus (DN) or the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) was stimulated in alternation with, and in combination with, stimulation of group I afferents from extensor muscles or of contralateral flexor reflex afferents (coFRA). The evoked polysynaptic EPSPs were recorded in extensor motoneurones when long-latency, long-lasting discharges were evoked by the stimulation of coFRA and when the group I autogenetic inhibition in extensors was reversed to polysynaptic excitation. Spatial facilitation was inferred when the amplitude of the EPSPs evoked by the combined stimuli was notably larger than the algebraic sum of the EPSPs evoked by individual stimulation. Both DN (16 motoneurones) and MLF inputs (8 motoneurones) showed spatial facilitation when preceded by coFRA stimuli and both could reset the rhythm of fictive stepping by triggering a precocious extensor phase. MLF showed spatial facilitation with extensor group I inputs in 69 % of trials but DN failed to show spatial facilitation in any cells. These results indicate that DN and MLF project to the coFRA pathways of the extensor half-centre for locomotion and MLF, but not DN, converge on segmental interneurones of the extensor group I pathways. The implications of such convergence patterns on the functional organization of the extensor half-centre are discussed. PMID:10811739

Leblond, Hugues; Menard, Ariane; Gossard, Jean-Pierre

2000-01-01

388

Some counting problems related to permutation groups  

E-print Network

of the problem of counting the orbits of an infinite per­ mutation group on n­sets or n­tuples, especially­uniform) hypergraph we would need a k­ary relation for each cardinality k of hyperedges. The age of M , written Age terminology was invented by Fra¨iss'e [7], who says that the structure M is younger than N if the age of M

Cameron, Peter

389

Moxifloxacin resistance is prevalent among Bacteroides and Prevotella species in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Moxifloxacin is recommended in the empirical treatment of infections involving Gram-negative anaerobes. However, current European data regarding its activity against anaerobic pathogens are limited. In order to evaluate its potency, we comparatively studied the activity of moxi- floxacin against recently isolated Gram-negative anaerobes. Methods: Four hundred and ninety-five Gram-negative anaerobic clinical isolates (296 Bacteroides fra- gilis group, 58 non-fragilis

Joseph Papaparaskevas; Angeliki Pantazatou; Anastasia Katsandri; Dimitra P. Houhoula; Nicholas J. Legakis; Athanassios Tsakris; Athina Avlamis

390

Confronto tra diversi protocolli terapeutici nella periartrite calcifica di spalla  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduzione Fra le patologie dolorose della spalla la periartrite si riscontra con notevole frequenza, sia nell'et adulta, sia nell'et senile. Con il ter- mine di periartrite di spalla si definisce una patologia degenerativa dei tessuti periarticolari di spalla ed in particolare dei tessuti capsu- lolegamentosi e\\/o muscolo-tendinei, senza specifico interessamento gleno-omerale. Questa patologia si rende evidente come un proces- so

R. SAGGINI; R. G. BELLOMO; M. C. ZUCCARO; S. TRIPOLI; F. CANCELLI

391

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of `Alpine' Fragaria vesca, and transmission of transgenes to R1 progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was used to stably introduce ?-glucuronidase (gus) and neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) marker genes into `Alpine' Fragaria vesca FRA 197, a diploid (2n = 2x = 14) strawberry. R0 generation transformants derived from a single clump of kanamycin-resistant\\u000a callus were vegetatively propagated. The presence of the gus and nptII genes in five clonal R0 runner plants was confirmed by

K. M. Haymes; T. M. Davis

1998-01-01

392

WWOX gene restoration prevents lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) gene at the common fragile site, FRA16D, is altered in many types of cancer, including lung cancer. We have examined the tumor suppressor function of WWOX in preclinical lung cancer models. The WWOX gene was expressed in lung cancer cell lines through recombinant adenovirus (Ad) infection (Ad-WWOX), and through a drug [ponasterone A, (ponA)]-inducible

Muller Fabbri; Dimitrios Iliopoulos; Francesco Trapasso; Rami I. Aqeilan; Amelia Cimmino; Nicola Zanesi; Sai Yendamuri; Shuang-Yin Han; Dino Amadori; Kay Huebner; Carlo M. Croce

2005-01-01

393

2 RIS N Y T 4/01 Bioproduktion er levende organis-  

E-print Network

. Set i bakspejlet er der enighed om, at James D. Watson og Francis Crick ikke ville have været i stand hjælp af røntgendiffraktion, så man kunne bereg- ne dets struktur. Ud fra den viden kunne biologen James D. Watson og fysikeren Francis Crick i 1953 i England offentlig- gøre den første model af det

394

Localization of the HST/FGFK gene with regard to 11q13 chromosomal breakpoint and fragile site.  

PubMed

The HST/FGFK gene, a member of the fibroblast growth factor gene family and a protooncogene, is localized on chromosomal band 11q13. Genes in this region are frequently involved in hematopoietic and solid tumors. Here we show that the HST gene lies telomeric to the BCL1 gene, the t(11;14)(q13;q32) breakpoint, and the FRA11A rare fragile site. PMID:1868036

Hagemeijer, A; Lafage, M; Mattei, M G; Simonetti, J; Smit, E; de Lapeyriere, O; Birnbaum, D

1991-05-01

395

Oxygen isotope composition of the Luna 16 soil.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the 0-18/0-16 analysis of the available 16-mg sample of Luna 16 soil are presented and compared with oxygen-isotope compositions of several Apollo soils. The analytical techniques were the same as those of Onuma et al. (1970) applied to the Apollo samples. It is found that the soil from Mare Fecunditatis is indistinguishable in oxygen isotopic composition from the soils of Mare Tranquillitatis and the Fra Mauro region.

Clayton, R. N.

1972-01-01

396

SAOL: The MPEG4 Structured Audio Orchestra Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MPEG-4 standard, which will be published in October 1998, contains extensive provisions for sound synthesis as well as tradition al methods of audio compression. At the heart of MPEG-4 Structured Audio, the sound-synthesis fra mework, is a new music-synthesis language called SAOL. This language, based on the Music-N model, is specified and defined fully in the MPEG-4 International Standard;

Eric D. Scheirer; Barry L. Vercoe

1999-01-01

397

Mutation frequencies of X-linked mental retardation genes in families from the EuroMRX consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EuroMRX family cohort consists of about 400 families with non-syndromic and 200 families with syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). After exclusion of Fragile X (Fra X) syndrome, probands from these families were tested for mutations in the coding sequence of 90 known and candidate XLMR genes. In total, 73 causative mutations were identified in 21 genes. For 42% of

Arjan P. M. de Brouwer; Helger G. Yntema; Tjitske Kleefstra; Dorien Lugtenberg; Astrid R. Oudakker; Bert B. A. de Vries; J. H. L. M. van Bokhoven; Hilde Van Esch; Suzanne G. M. Frints; Guy Froyen; Jean-Pierre Fryns; Martine Raynaud; Marie-Pierre Moizard; Nathalie Ronce; Anissa Bensalem; Claude Moraine; Karine Poirier; Laetitia Castelnau; Yoann Saillour; Thierry Bienvenu; Chrif Beldjord; Vincent des Portes; Jamel Chelly; Gillian Turner; Tod Fullston; Jozef Gecz; Andreas W. Kuss; Andreas Tzschach; Lars Riff Jensen; Steffen Lenzner; Vera M. Kalscheuer; Hans-Hilger Ropers; Ben C. J. Hamel

2007-01-01

398

Metric spaces, generalized logic, and closed categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a SuntoIn questo articolo viene rigorosamente sviluppata l'analogia fra dist (a, b)+dist (b, c)?dist (a, c) e hom (A, B) ? hom (B, C)? hom (A, C), giungendo a numerosi risultati generali sugli spazi metrici, come conseguenza di una logica pura generalizzata i cui\\u000a valori di verit sono scelti in una arbitraria categoria chiusa.

F. William Lawvere

1973-01-01

399

STUDIO DI GIUNZIONI CO-CURED METALLO-COMPOSITO SOTTOPOSTE A CARICHI STATICI E DI FATICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sommario Obiettivo di questo studio l'analisi delle giunzioni ibride metallo-composito realizzate con la tecnica co-cured, cio incollando i materiali con la stessa resina adoperata per la manifattura del laminato composito. E' stata studiata in particolare la giunzione fra alluminio e composito in fibra di vetro (Al\\/GFRP), accoppiamento che trova applicazioni in svariati ambiti del settore dei trasporti navali e

R. Paolotti; D. Scibetta; D. Tumino; B. Zuccarello

400

Distinct Interactions with Cellular E-Cadherin of the Two Virulent Metalloproteinases Encoded by a Bacteroides fragilis Pathogenicity Island  

PubMed Central

Bacteroides fragilis causes the majority of Gram-negative anaerobic infections in the humans. The presence of a short, 6-kb, pathogenicity island in the genome is linked to enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF). The role of the enterotoxin in B. fragilis virulence, however, remains to be determined, as the majority of clinical isolates lack ETBF genes and healthy individuals carry enterotoxin-positive B. fragilis. The island encodes secretory metalloproteinase II (MPII) and one of three homologous enterotoxigenic fragilysin isoenzymes (FRA; also termed B. fragilis toxin or BFT). The secretory metalloproteinases expressed from the genes on the B. fragilis pathogenicity island may have pathological importance within the gut, not linked to diarrhea. MPII and FRA are counter-transcribed in the bacterial genome, implying that regardless of their structural similarity and overlapping cleavage preferences these proteases perform distinct and highly specialized functions in the course of B. fragilis infection. The earlier data by us and others have demonstrated that FRA cleaves cellular E-cadherin, an important adherens junction protein, and weakens cell-to-cell contacts. Using E-cadherin-positive and E-cadherindeficient cancer cells, and the immunostaining, direct cell binding and pull-down approaches, we, however, demonstrated that MPII via its catalytic domain efficiently binds, rather than cleaves, E-cadherin. According to our results, E-cadherin is an adherens junction cellular receptor, rather than a proteolytic target, of the B. fragilis secretory MPII enzyme. As a result of the combined FRA and MPII proteolysis, cell-to-cell contacts and adherens junctions are likely to weaken further. PMID:25411788

Remacle, Albert G.; Shiryaev, Sergey A.; Strongin, Alex Y.

2014-01-01

401

UNIVERSITET RUST -STUDENTERMAGASINET FOR SYDDANSK UNIVERSITET  

E-print Network

FILMINSTITUT V. KONSULENT MOLLY MALENE STENSGAARD CO-PRODUCERET AF TV 2 DANMARK OG FILM I V?ST AB V. TOMAS ESKILSSON OG MED ST?TTE FRA NORDISK FILM & TV FOND V. HANNE PALMQUIST DANSK BIOGRAF DISTRIBUTION NORDISK Chefredaktør Jasmina Blichert Redaktør Anders Dall Redaktør Niels Christian Buhl Redaktør Emma Bech Redaktør

Michelsen, Claus

402

3RIS N Y T 4/01 En af de strste landvindinger, der er  

E-print Network

3RIS? N Y T 4/01 En af de største landvindinger, der er gjort inden for bioteknologien, er. Midlet er DNA-sekvensering. 2000 blev således året, hvor den fuldstændige sekvens af genomerne for de færdig sekvens af det humane genom. Der er allerede kortlagt genomer fra mange bakterier og gær, men vi

403

N A T U R E N S V E R D E N2 6 1 / 2 0 0 8 G A L A K S E R N E S O P R I N D E L S E O G U N I V E R S E T S " D A R K A G E S " Nr man ser ud i Universet er det gal-  

E-print Network

E R S E T S " D A R K A G E S " Når man ser ud i Universet er det gal- akser (boks 1) der dominerer billedet. Galakserne er simpelt hen byggestene- ne for al den struktur der kan observe- res på de største skalaer i Universet. Et oplagt spørgsmål er hvor galakserne kommer fra? Eller mere præcist hvor

Andersen, Anja C.

404

DES DRIVS SULFAl\\IIDES (de Kiel) qui trouve dans le lait maternel une concentration peu  

E-print Network

-arnino-phényleulfamide dans le lait. Presse médicale, Il septembre 1943, nO34, p. 500. \\ " LE COLOSTRUM DE VACHE Composition laits, la dimension des bacs mélangeurs, etc. 27 #12;28 Ac. HOUDl~I?RE. - LE COLOSTRUM A l'appui de la région de l'Est, sur un ensemble de 19 femelles bovines, 5 vaches étaient « fraîches à lait

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Hvis det stod til forskerne p Ris, skul-le vi allerede i dag kunne fylde tanken  

E-print Network

for at forske inden for udvikling af biodiesel, endsige at producere det. Biodiesel er ellers både miljøvenligt ellers benytter. "I andre lande er man langt fremme med udvikling af biodiesel," fortæller Jens Kossmann dag laves der biodiesel af frø fra både raps, hør, palmeolie og sojabønner." Produktionen af biodiesel

406

CNRM/GAME, UMR 3589 Proposition de Stage M2 ou de fin d'Etude pour 2014  

E-print Network

CNRM/GAME, UMR 3589 Proposition de Stage M2 ou de fin d'Etude pour 2014 Nom du laboratoire (et n° de l'unité) dans lequel se déroulera le stage : Météo-France, CEN, CNRM-GAME, UMR 3589 Titre du sujet neige humide regelée ou de la neige fraîche. #12;CNRM/GAME, UMR 3589 Ce stage requiert de fortes

Ribes, Aurélien

407

La superficie in termodinamica  

Microsoft Academic Search

SuntoDopo alcune considerazioni relative allimportanza dei fenomeni di superficie, vengono esposti i ragionamenti fisico-matematici\\u000a che, seguendo il metodo di Gibbs, permettono di giungere al concetto di tensione superficiale al contatto fra due corpi; si\\u000a sviluppa cos la termodinamica di questi strati superficiali, e si deducono le relazioni relative allequilibrio e alla stubilit,\\u000a illustrando, nel corso della trattazione, con i fenomeni

G. Bozza

1936-01-01

408

Neuropsychological profiles of three sisters homozygous for the fragile X premutation  

SciTech Connect

Fragile X syndrome (fraX) is associated with an amplification of a CGG repeat within the fraX mental retardation (FMR-1) gene. We describe an exceptional family in which 3 adult sisters are homozygous for the FMR-1 premutation. Each sister inherited 2 premutation alleles (ca. 80 CGG repeats) from their biologically unrelated parents. The 3 sisters were administered measures of executive function, visual spatial, memory, and verbal skills. Deficiencies in the first 2 of these domains have been reported among females with the full mutation. The sisters` performances were compared with available normative data and with published group means for females affected by fraX. These women did not appear to have verbal or memory difficulties. None of the women demonstrated a global executive function deficit, and none had global deficits in spatial ability. The profiles of these sisters are consistent with reports that the fragile X premutation does not affect cognitive performance. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Mazzocco, M.M.M. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Holden, J.J.A. [Ongwanada Resource Centre, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)] [Ongwanada Resource Centre, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

1996-08-09

409

Arachidonic acid-dependent gene regulation during preadipocyte differentiation controls adipocyte potential[S  

PubMed Central

Arachidonic acid (AA) is a major PUFA that has been implicated in the regulation of adipogenesis. We examined the effect of a short exposure to AA at different stages of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. AA caused the upregulation of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2) following 24 h of differentiation. This was mediated by the prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), as inhibition of cyclooxygenases or PGF2? receptor signaling counteracted the AA-mediated aP2 induction. In addition, calcium, protein kinase C, and ERK are all key elements of the pathway through which AA induces the expression of aP2. We also show that treatment with AA during the first 24 h of differentiation upregulates the expression of the transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) via the same pathway. Finally, treatment with AA for 24 h at the beginning of the adipocyte differentiation is sufficient to inhibit the late stages of adipogenesis through a Fra-1-dependent pathway, as Fra-1 knockdown rescued adipogenesis. Our data show that AA is able to program the differentiation potential of preadipocytes by regulating gene expression at the early stages of adipogenesis. PMID:25325755

Nikolopoulou, Evanthia; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Jean-Alphonse, Frederic; Grimaldi, Giulia; Parker, Malcolm G.; Hanyaloglu, Aylin C.; Christian, Mark

2014-01-01

410

Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 1990s  

PubMed Central

Carbon fluxes from tropical deforestation and regrowth are highly uncertain components of the contemporary carbon budget, due in part to the lack of spatially explicit and consistent information on changes in forest area. We estimate fluxes for the 1980s and 1990s using subpixel estimates of percent tree cover derived from coarse (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite data in combination with a terrestrial carbon model. The satellite-derived estimates of change in forest area are lower than national reports and remote-sensing surveys from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) in all tropical regions, especially for the 1980s. However, our results indicate that the net rate of tropical forest clearing increased ?10% from the 1980s to 1990s, most notably in southeast Asia, in contrast to an 11% reduction reported by the FRA. We estimate net mean annual carbon fluxes from tropical deforestation and regrowth to average 0.6 (0.30.8) and 0.9 (0.51.4) petagrams (Pg)?yr?1 for the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Compared with previous estimates of 1.9 (0.62.5) Pg?yr?1 based on FRA national statistics of changes in forest area, this alternative estimate suggests less missing carbon from the global carbon budget but increasing emissions from tropical land-use change. PMID:12384569

DeFries, Ruth S.; Houghton, Richard A.; Hansen, Matthew C.; Field, Christopher B.; Skole, David; Townshend, John

2002-01-01

411

Infection with retroviral vectors leads to perturbed DNA replication increasing vector integrations into fragile sites  

PubMed Central

Genome instability is a hallmark of cancer. Common fragile sites (CFSs) are specific regions in the human genome that are sensitive to replication stress and are prone to genomic instability in different cancer types. Here we molecularly cloned a new CFS, FRA11H, in 11q13. The genomic region of FRA11H harbors a hotspot of chromosomal breakpoints found in different types of cancer, indicating that this region is unstable during cancer development. We further found that FRA11H is a hotspot for integrations of Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV)-based vectors, following CD34+ infections in vitro as well as ex-vivo during gene therapy trials. Importantly, we found that the MLV-based vector infection in-vitro leads to replication perturbation, DNA damage and increased CFS expression. This suggests that infection by MLV-based vectors leads to replication-induced genome instability, raising further concerns regarding the use of retroviral vectors in gene therapy trials. PMID:23852038

Bester, Assaf C.; Kafri, Moshe; Maoz, Karin; Kerem, Batsheva

2013-01-01

412

Molecular fragil X screening in normal populations  

SciTech Connect

In December, 1993, we initiated a pilot project in which DNA fragile X (fraX) testing was offered during routine prenatal or genetic counseling to all pregnant women seen at the Genetics & IVF Institute, most of whom were referred for the indication of advanced maternal age. A brochure on fragile X syndrome was sent to each patient prior to her appointment and was reviewed by a counselor or physician during the counseling session. As of June 1995, 3,345 patients were offered testing; 474 women with no identified family history of mental retardation or learning disability and 214 women with a positive family history accepted the test on a self-pay basis. The second population screened was 271 potential donors in our anonymous egg donor program. DNA from blood was tested by Southern blot using EcoRI/EagI and StB12.3. If an expansion was detected, CGG repeat number was determined by PCR-based analysis. Among the 474 patients with unremarkable family histories, three fraX carriers were identified (repeat sizes = 60+), whereas none were found in the 214 patients with a positive family history. Among the potential egg donors, two high borderline patients were identified (repeat sizes = between 50 and 59). Our ongoing study indicates that screening of pregnant or preconceptual populations for fraX carrier status using DNA testing is accepted by many patients and is an important addition to current medical practice. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Spence, W.C.; Black, S.H.; Fallon, L. [Genetics & IVF Inst., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others] [Genetics & IVF Inst., Fairfax, VA (United States); and others

1996-07-12

413

Preferential integration of marker DNA into the chromosomal fragile site at 3p14: An approach to cloning fragile sites  

SciTech Connect

Fragile sites are specific regions of chromosomes that are prone to breakage. In cells cultured under conditions that induce fragile site expression, high levels of inter- and intrachromosomal recombination have been observed involving chromosomal bands containing fragile sites. To determine whether expression of specific fragile sites would facilitate preferential integration of exogenous DNA at these recombination hot spots, the vector pSV2Neo was transfected into a Chinese hamster-human somatic cell hybrid containing a derivative chromosome 3 as its only human component. Chromosome 3 contains a common fragile site at band 3p14.2 (FRA3B) that is induced by aphidicolin. Both cells induced to express FRA3B and the uninduced control cells induced to express FRA3B and the uninduced control cells were transfected with the pSV2Neo selectable plasmid. In situ hybridization of a biotin-labeled pSV2Neo selectable plasmid. In situ hybridization of a biotin-labeled pSV2Neo probe to metaphase chromosomes revealed one to three integration sites in each stably transfected clone. These results suggest that preferential integration of marker DNA into human and Chinese hamster fragile sites occurs with exposure to aphidicolin. The nature of the DNA sequences at fragile sites is unknown and, despite a number of approaches, these sequences have not yet been isolated; this procedure may represent an approach to the cloning of fragile sites.

Rassool, F.V.; McKeithan, T.W.; Neilly, M.E.; Van Melle, E.; Espinosa, R. III; Le Beau, M.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

1991-08-01

414

Chronic co-administration of nicotine and methamphetamine causes differential expression of immediate early genes in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens  

PubMed Central

Nicotine and methamphetamine (METH) cause addiction by triggering neuroplastic changes in brain reward pathways though they each engage distinct molecular targets (nicotine receptors and dopamine transporters respectively). Addiction to both drugs is very prevalent, with the vast majority of METH users being also smokers of cigarettes. This co-morbid occurrence thus raised questions about potential synergistic rewarding effects of the drugs. However, few studies have investigated the chronic neurobiological changes associated with co-morbid nicotine and METH addiction. Here we investigated the effects of these two drugs alone and in combination on the expression of several immediate early genes (IEGs) that are sensitive to drug exposures. Chronic exposure to either nicotine or METH caused significant decreases in the expression of fosb, fra1, and fra2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) but not in the dorsal striatum whereas the drug combination increased fra2 expression in both structures. Except for junB mRNA levels that were decreased by the three drug treatments in the NAc, there were no significant changes in the Jun family members. Of the Egr family members, NAc egr2 expression was decreased after nicotine and the drug combination whereas NAc egr3 was decreased after METH and the drug combination. The drug combination also increased striatal egr3 expression. The Nr4a family member, nr4a2/nurr1, showed increased striatal expression after all 3 drug treatments, while striatal nr4a3/nor-1 expression was increased by the drug combination whereas NAc nr4a1/nurr77 was decreased by nicotine and the drug combination. These observations suggest that, when given in combination, the two drugs exert distinct effects on the expression of IEGs in dopaminergic projection areas from those elicited by each drug alone. The significance of these changes in IEG expression and in other molecular markers in fostering co-morbid METH and nicotine abuse needs to be further evaluated. PMID:23562942

Saint-Preux, Fabienne; Bores, Lorena Rodriguez; Tulloch, Ingrid; Ladenheim, Bruce; Kim, Ronald; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Volkow, Nora D.; Cadet, Jean Lud

2013-01-01

415

Chronic co-administration of nicotine and methamphetamine causes differential expression of immediate early genes in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of rats.  

PubMed

Nicotine and methamphetamine (METH) cause addiction by triggering neuroplastic changes in brain reward pathways though they each engage distinct molecular targets (nicotine receptors and dopamine transporters respectively). Addiction to both drugs is very prevalent, with the vast majority of METH users also being smokers of cigarettes. This co-morbid occurrence thus raised questions about potential synergistic rewarding effects of the drugs. However, few studies have investigated the chronic neurobiological changes associated with co-morbid nicotine and METH addiction. Here we investigated the effects of these two drugs alone and in combination on the expression of several immediate early genes (IEGs) that are sensitive to drug exposures. Chronic exposure to either nicotine or METH caused significant decreases in the expression of fosb, fra1, and fra2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) but not in the dorsal striatum whereas the drug combination increased fra2 expression in both structures. Except for junB mRNA levels that were decreased by the three drug treatments in the NAc, there were no significant changes in the Jun family members. Of the Egr family members, NAc egr2 expression was decreased after nicotine and the drug combination whereas NAc egr3 was decreased after METH and the drug combination. The drug combination also increased striatal egr3 expression. The Nr4a family member, nr4a2/nurr1, showed increased striatal expression after all three drug treatments, while striatal nr4a3/nor-1 expression was increased by the drug combination whereas NAc nr4a1/nurr77 was decreased by nicotine and the drug combination. These observations suggest that, when given in combination, the two drugs exert distinct effects on the expression of IEGs in dopaminergic projection areas from those elicited by each drug alone. The significance of these changes in IEG expression and in other molecular markers in fostering co-morbid METH and nicotine abuse needs to be further evaluated. PMID:23562942

Saint-Preux, F; Bores, L R; Tulloch, I; Ladenheim, B; Kim, R; Thanos, P K; Volkow, N D; Cadet, J L

2013-07-23

416

Electrophysiological effects of extracellular ATP on Necturus gallbladder epithelium  

PubMed Central

The effects of addition of ATP to the mucosal bathing solution on transepithelial, apical, and basolateral membrane voltages and resistances in Necturus gallbladder epithelium were determined. Mucosal ATP (100 microM) caused a rapid hyperpolarization of both apical (Vmc) and basolateral (Vcs) cell membrane voltages (delta Vm = 18 +/- 1 mV), a fall in transepithelial resistance (Rt) from 142 +/- 8 to 122 +/- 7 omega.cm2, and a decrease in fractional apical membrane resistance (fRa) from 0.93 +/- 0.02 to 0.83 +/- 0.03. The rapid initial hyperpolarization of Vmc and Vcs was followed by a slower depolarization of cell membrane voltages and a lumen-negative change in transepithelial voltage (Vms). This phase also included an additional decrease in fRa. Removal of the ATP caused a further depolarization of membrane voltages followed by a hyperpolarization and then a return to control values. fRa fell to a minimum after removal of ATP and then returned to control values as the cell membrane voltages repolarized. Similar responses could be elicited by ADP but not by adenosine. The results of two-point cable experiments revealed that ATP induced an initial increase in cell membrane conductance followed by a decrease. Transient elevations of mucosal solution [K+] induced a larger depolarization of Vmc and Vcs during exposure to ATP than under control conditions. Reduction of mucosal solution [Cl-] induced a slow hyperpolarization of Vmc and Vcs before exposure to ATP and a rapid depolarization during exposure to ATP. We conclude that ATP4- is the active agent and that it causes a concentration-dependent increase in apical and basolateral membrane K+ permeability. In addition, an apical membrane electrodiffusive Cl- permeability is activated by ATP4-. PMID:1713948

1991-01-01

417

Electrophysiological effects of extracellular ATP on Necturus gallbladder epithelium.  

PubMed

The effects of addition of ATP to the mucosal bathing solution on transepithelial, apical, and basolateral membrane voltages and resistances in Necturus gallbladder epithelium were determined. Mucosal ATP (100 microM) caused a rapid hyperpolarization of both apical (Vmc) and basolateral (Vcs) cell membrane voltages (delta Vm = 18 +/- 1 mV), a fall in transepithelial resistance (Rt) from 142 +/- 8 to 122 +/- 7 omega.cm2, and a decrease in fractional apical membrane resistance (fRa) from 0.93 +/- 0.02 to 0.83 +/- 0.03. The rapid initial hyperpolarization of Vmc and Vcs was followed by a slower depolarization of cell membrane voltages and a lumen-negative change in transepithelial voltage (Vms). This phase also included an additional decrease in fRa. Removal of the ATP caused a further depolarization of membrane voltages followed by a hyperpolarization and then a return to control values. fRa fell to a minimum after removal of ATP and then returned to control values as the cell membrane voltages repolarized. Similar responses could be elicited by ADP but not by adenosine. The results of two-point cable experiments revealed that ATP induced an initial increase in cell membrane conductance followed by a decrease. Transient elevations of mucosal solution [K+] induced a larger depolarization of Vmc and Vcs during exposure to ATP than under control conditions. Reduction of mucosal solution [Cl-] induced a slow hyperpolarization of Vmc and Vcs before exposure to ATP and a rapid depolarization during exposure to ATP. We conclude that ATP4- is the active agent and that it causes a concentration-dependent increase in apical and basolateral membrane K+ permeability. In addition, an apical membrane electrodiffusive Cl- permeability is activated by ATP4-. PMID:1713948

Cotton, C U; Reuss, L

1991-05-01

418

Field testing of prototype systems for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In both high speed and freight rail systems, the modern construction method is Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). The purpose of the CWR method is to eliminate joints in order to reduce the maintenance costs for both the rails and the rolling stock. However the elimination of the joints increases the risk of rail breakage in cold weather and buckling in hot weather. In order to predict the temperature at which the rail will break or buckle, it is critical to have knowledge of the temperature at which the rail is stress free, namely, the Rail Neutral Temperature (Rail-NT).The University of California at San Diego has developed an innovative technique based on non-linear ultrasonic guided waves, under FRA research and development grants for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks. Through the licensing of this technology from the UCSD and under the sponsorship of the FRA Office of Research and Development, a field deployable prototype system has been developed and recently field tested at cooperating railroad properties. Three prototype systems have been deployed to the Union Pacific (UP), Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF), and AMTRAK railroads for field testing and related data acquisition for a comprehensive evaluation of the system, with respect to both performance and economy of operation. The results from these tests have been very encouraging. Based on the lessons learned from these field tests and the feedback from the railroads, it is planned develop a compact 2nd generation Rail-NT system to foster deployment and furtherance of FRA R&D grant purpose of potential contribution to the agency mission of US railroad safety. In this paper, the results of the field tests with the railroads in summer of 2013 are reported.

Phillips, Robert; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Nucera, Claudio; Fateh, Mahmood; Choros, John

2014-03-01

419

Pathology and biology associated with the fragile FHIT gene and gene product.  

PubMed

More than 12 years and >800 scientific publications after the discovery of the first gene at a chromosome fragile site, the FHIT gene at FRA3B, there are still questions to pursue concerning the selective advantage conferred to cells by loss of expression of FHIT, the most frequent target of allele deletion in precancerous lesions and cancers. These questions are considered in light of recent investigations of genetic and epigenetic alterations to the locus and in a retrospective consideration of biological roles of the Fhit protein discovered through functional studies. PMID:20082323

Saldivar, Joshua C; Shibata, Hidetaka; Huebner, Kay

2010-04-01

420

Railroad safety program, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1981, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has annually prepared a National Inspection Plan (NIP) whose purpose is to summarize regional efforts to improve railroad transportation safety. The research concluded on the following tasks including the problems, conclusions and recommendations associated with these tasks is summarized: (1) the preparation of the 1983 NIP, with recommended procedures for improving future NIPs; (2) the development of an outline for the 1984 NIP, including a methodology for the allocation of inspection resources and other specialized regional activities; (3) the management and development of the 1984 NIP; and (4) the development of an instruction manual to be used in the preparation of future NIPs.

1985-01-01

421

Lunar crust - Structure and composition.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar seismic data from artificial impacts recorded at three Apollo seismometers are interpreted to determine the structure of the moon's interior to a depth of about 100 kilometers. In the Fra Mauro region of Oceanus Procellarum, the moon has a layered crust 65 kilometers thick. The seismic velocities in the upper 25 kilometers are consistent with those in lunar basalts. Between 25 and 65 kilometers., the nearly constant velocity (6.8 kilometers per second) corresponds to velocities in gabbroic and anorthositic rocks. The apparent velocity is high (about 9 kilometers per second) in the lunar mantle immediately below the crust.

Toksoz, M. N.; Press, F.; Anderson, K.; Dainty, A.; Latham, G.; Ewing, M.; Dorman, J.; Lammlein, D.; Sutton, G.; Duennebier, F.

1972-01-01

422

Workshop on Moon in Transition: Apollo 14, KREEP, and Evolved Lunar Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar rocks provide material for analyzing lunar history and now new evaluation procedures are available for discovering new information from the Fra Mauro highlands rocks, which are different from any other lunar samples. These and other topics were discussed at this workshop, including a new evaluation of the nature and history of KREEP, granite, and other evolved lunar rock types, and ultimately a fresh evaluation of the transition of the moon from its early anorthosite-forming period to its later stages of KREEPy, granitic, and mare magmatism. The summary of presentations and discussion is based on notes taken by the respective summarizers during the workshop.

Taylor, G. J. (editor); Warren, P. H. (editor)

1989-01-01

423

Absence or Reduction of Fhit Expression in Most Clear Cell Renal Carcinomas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The \\/•\\/\\/\\/'\\/'gene at human chromosome region 3pl4.2 straddles the common fragile site, FRA3B, and numerous homozygous deletions in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Also, the 3pl4.2 chromosome break point of the familial clear cell kidney carcinoma-associated translocation, t(3;8)fpl4.2;q24), disrupts one I lili alíelebetween exons 3 and 4, fulfill ing one criterion for a familial tumor suppressor gene: that one

Piotr Hadaczek; Zurab Siprashvili; Maciej Markiewski; Wenancjusz Domagala; Teresa Druck; Peter A. McCue; Yuri Pekarsky; Masataka Ohta; Kay Huebner; Jan Lubinski

424

Hazardous-materials car placement in a train consist. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, 18 Feb-17 Nov 88  

SciTech Connect

Appendices, Volume II consist of Appendix A. Form FRA F6180-54 (12-74) Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report; Appendix B. Data Related to Derailment Analysis; Appendix C. Review of Selected Railroad Accidents Involving Multiple Hazardous Materials; Appendix D. U.S. Department of Transportation Hazmat Car Placement Regulations; Appendix E. Canadian Transport Commission Hazmat Car Placement Regulations; Appendix F. Hazardous Materials Definitions; Appendix G. Table of Position in Train Requirements; Appendix H. Chemical Reactivities of Binary Combinations; Appendix I. Results from the Consequence Calculations; Appendix J. Consequence and Risk Rankings of Incompatible Chemical Combinations.

Thompson, R.E.; Zamejc, E.R.; Ahlbeck, D.R.

1992-06-01

425

NGA Streaming Slideshow: The Adoration of the Magi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This streaming audio/slide show is the latest creation from the National Gallery of Art (NGA). The presentation consists of an in-depth examination and explanation of The Adoration of the Magi, the colorful painting by Fra Angelico and Filippo Lippi. The painting is from the early Italian Renaissance and represents the three kings bringing gifts to the Christ Child twelve days after his birth. The slide show is narrated by NGA director, Earl A. Powell, III, and also contains a text transcription.

2002-01-01

426

Non-contact ultrasonic guided wave inspections of rails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail integrity evaluation. A prototype using an ultrasonic air-coupled guided wave signal generation and air-coupled signal detection, in pair with a real-time statistical analysis algorithm, is under development. Experimental tests results, carried out at the UCSD Rail Defect Farm, indicate that the prototype is able to detect internal rail defects with high reliability. Extensions of the system are planned to add rail surface characterization to the internal rail defect detection.

Nguyen, Thompson V.; Mariani, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

2014-03-01

427

1GA velkomst Sren Eilers  

E-print Network

1GA velkomst Søren Eilers 27. august 2003 Fuldskærm til/fra 1 #12;Sikker internetkommunikation? 2 1GAMat 1GAMat 1GA Mat 1GA M at 1G AM at1G A Mat1GA Mat1GA Mat 1GA 5 #12;DS ­ Spejl, og s°a drej Mat 1GA Mat 1GA Mat1GA Mat 1GA 6 #12;At regne med transformationer Vi s°a at DS = SD Men matrixproduktet

Eilers, Søren

428

Distribuzioni angolari dei rami neri e grigi in stelle di media ed alta energia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RiassuntoSono state studiate le distribuzioni e le correlazioni angolari fra i rami neri e grigi in stelle di media (500700 MeV) ed\\u000a alta (8004000 MeV) energia. La notevole anisotropia presente, anche per i rami meno energici, nelle stelle di media energia\\u000a decresce in modo rilevante al crescere dell'energia della stella. Si notano alcune differenze nell'andamento delle distribuzioni\\u000a angolari e delle

G. Belliboni; B. Vitale

1953-01-01

429

BIBLIOGRAPHIE. [1] RUBENS H. -ber Dispersion ultrarother Strahlen.  

E-print Network

structure et l'oxydation des surfaces de zinc, clivées ou vaporisées, a été étudiée par la diffraction électronique. Les faces fraîchement clivées sont recouvertes d'une couche d'oxyde monocristalline dont le). L'effet de réfraction permet de fixer le potentiel intérieur de l'oxyde de zinc à 13,9 ± 1,5 V

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Probabilistic analysis of fires in nuclear plants  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to describe a multilevel (i.e., staged) probabilistic analysis of fire risks in nuclear plants (as part of a general PRA) which maximizes the benefits of the FRA (fire risk assessment) in a cost effective way. The approach uses several stages of screening, physical modeling of clearly dominant risk contributors, searches for direct (e.g., equipment dependences) and secondary (e.g., fire induced internal flooding) interactions, and relies on lessons learned and available data from and surrogate FRAs. The general methodology is outlined. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Unione, A.; Teichmann, T.

1985-01-01

431

Feedback effects of placental lactogens on prolactin levels and Fos-related antigen immunoreactivity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons in the arcuate nucleus during pregnancy in the rat.  

PubMed

PRL in the rat exerts its luteotropic action during the first half of pregnancy. After midpregnancy, placental lactogens (PLs) take the place of PRL to stimulate progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum. Simultaneously, PLs trigger a negative feedback on PRL secretion. However, the brain mechanisms for the negative feedback induced by PLs are not fully understood. Here, we report changes in plasma PRL levels, tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neuronal activity as measured by Fos-related antigen (FRA)/tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, and TH catalytic activity as measured by dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) accumulation in the stalk-median eminence (SME) after experimental manipulation of PL levels. On day 4 of pregnancy, animals received Rcho-1 cells intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to increase the level of PLs in the brain or HRP-1 cells as controls. On day 12 of pregnancy, hysterectomy alone or i.c.v. HRP-1 injection plus hysterectomy were performed to remove the source of PLs. Rcho-1 i.c.v. injection plus hysterectomy were performed to examine the effect of replacement of the PL source. Sham-hysterectomized animals were used as a control group. Animals were killed 2 days after each treatment at 0200 and 1800 h, which represent the peak times of PRL surges, and at 1400 h, which represents the intersurge time, by either transcardial perfusion for FRA/TH immunocytochemistry or decapitation 30 min after NSD 1015 injection to assess DOPA accumulation with HPLC-electrochemical detection. Rcho-1 cells completely abolished PRL surges on day 6 of pregnancy and increased the percentage of FRA/TH immunoreactivity in the dorsomedial, ventrolateral, and caudal subdivisions of the arcuate nucleus. This change in neuronal activity reflected the amount of DOPA accumulation in the SME, which was high at all time points. On day 14 of pregnancy, removal of the PL source by hysterectomy resulted in increased PRL levels and decreased neuronal activity of TIDA neurons at all three time points. Similar profiles were observed in animals that received i.c.v. HRP-1 injection plus hysterectomy. Replacement of the source of PL with Rcho-1 cells in hysterectomized rats resulted in low PRL secretion, high neuronal activity of TIDA neurons, and high TH catalytic activity. These patterns were the same as those in sham-operated animals. Our results demonstrate that PLs induce an increase in the neuronal activity of dopaminergic neurons, as measured by FRA/TH immunoreactivity and TH catalytic activity in the SME. Removal of the PL source elevates plasma PRL levels at all times during the second half of pregnancy and does not restore PRL surges. PMID:10218967

Lee, Y; Voogt, J L

1999-05-01

432

Storing Sanctity: Sacristy Reliquary Cupboards in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy  

E-print Network

Commission and its Italian counterpart, the Commissione per gli Scambi Culturali fra lItalia e gli Stati Uniti. Conducting my research in Italy would not have been possible without the following archives, libraries and museums, whose collections and staff..., and Civil Religion in Central Italy 1261-1362, eds. Joanna Cannon and Beth Williamson (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000), 117-78; Isabella Gagliardi, Le reliquie dellOspedale di Santa Maria della Scala (XIV-XV secolo), in LOro di Siena: Il 4 Despite...

Elston, Ashley

433

On a correlation between surface remanent magnetism and chemistry for the lunar frontside and limbs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image-processing techniques applied to orbital data have revealed an inverse correlation between lunar surface remanent magnetism and surface concentrations of Fe and Th on a scale of 250 km and greater. The effect can be understood in terms of the implantation of magnetism early in the history of the moon, coupled with the chronological sequence of highland-mare crustal differentiation. The exception seen at the Fra Mauro region suggests the presence of a source of magnetization sometime within 0.3-0.6 b.y. after formation of the moon.

Metzger, A. E.; Lin, R. P.; Russell, C. T.

1977-01-01

434

Microscopic description of $?$-photoproduction on light nuclei  

E-print Network

A microscopic four-body description of near-threshold coherent photoproduction of the $\\eta$ meson on the (3N)-nuclei is given. The photoproduction cross-section is calculated using the Finite Rank Approximation (FRA) of the nuclear Hamiltonian. The results indicate that the final state interaction of the $\\eta$ meson with the residual nucleus plays an important role in the photoproduction process. Sensitivity of the results to the choice of the $\\eta N$ T-matrix is investigated. The importance of obeying the condition of $\\eta N$ unitarity is demonstrated.

V. B. Belyaev; N. V. Shevchenko; S. A. Rakityansky; W. Sandhas; S. Sofianos

2001-08-09

435

400 J. CERF. --:. ETUDR COMPARATIVR DES PRINCIPALES CONSTANTES TUDE COMPARATIVE DES PRINCIPALESCONSTANTES  

E-print Network

colostrum, est, en général, assez faible dans les laits de vaches fraîches à lait; puis il augmente dépasser même 50 0/0')) b) « Le taux de matières protéiques totales, très élevé dans le colostrum, tombe.les..» 1 c) « Les cendres brutes" totales, très élevées dans le colostrum, s'abaissent rapidement jusqu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

Prevent Foodborne Illness: A Consumer's Guide (Spanish)  

E-print Network

calentador del agua o el lavaplatos. Mantenga los alimentos alejados del piso a seis pulgadas o m?s. Elija envolturas a prueba de humedad y vapor para congelar alimentos. Guarde los alimentos m?s perecederos en la parte m?s fr?a del conge- lador. Use los... alimentos dentro del per?odo de almacenamiento recomendado. Preparaci?n Segura de Alimentos Siempre mantenga todo muy limpio. L?vese las manos con jab?n y agua caliente por 20 segun- dos antes de empezar a preparar, despu?s de tocar carne cruda o aves...

Van Laanen, Peggy

2001-11-15

437

Sampling for Bacteria in Wells (Spanish)  

E-print Network

C?mo Tomar Muestras de Pozos (para an?lisis bacteriol?gico) E-126S 11/01 Las muestras de agua para an?lisis bacteriol?gico siempre deben ser tomadas en envases esterilizados. El procedimiento para tomar las muestras de agua es el siguiente: 1.... Obtenga un envase esterilizado del Laboratorio del Departamento de Sanidad o llame a su oficina local del Servicio de Extensi?n. 2. Elija el grifo (llave de paso) de agua fr?a del cual va a tomar la muestra. Qu?tele el oxigenador. No tome muestras de: un...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2001-11-15

438

Home Canned Salsas (Spanish)  

E-print Network

maneje los chiles. Use guantes de pl?stico y l?vese las manos cuidadosamente con agua y jab?n antes de tocarse la cara o los ojos. Los aceites vol?tiles de los chiles picantes pueden causar quemaduras qu?micas graves. Salsa de Chile (da de 6 a 8 pintas) 5... los tomates y sum?rjalos en agua hirviendo entre 30 y 60 segundos o hasta que la piel se raje. Sum?rjalos en agua fr?a, qu?teles la piel y el centro. Pique el tomate, el chile y la cebolla en pedazos no muy finos. Mezcle todos los ingredientes en una...

Van Laanen, Peggy

2004-05-21

439

Provenance of KREEP and the exotic component - Elemental and isotopic studies of grain size fractions in lunar soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sieve fraction analyses of lunar soils reveal the presence of a fine-grained exotic component enriched in K, Rb, Sr, Ba, and in radiogenic Sr in all soils. The probable source of this exotic component is the areas of high-surficial radioactivity observed by orbital gamma ray spectrometry, such as those at Fra Mauro and Archimedes. If the exotic component is fine-grained KREEP, the origin and distribution of KREEP fragments in the soils are identified. It is suggested that the exotic component represents trace element enriched material located at some depth in the Imbrium area which was surficially deposited during Imbrium excavation.

Evensen, N. M.; Murthy, V. R.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.

1974-01-01

440

Cadmium induces phosphorylation and stabilization of c-Fos in HK-2 renal proximal tubular cells.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl?) exposure on the expression and phosphorylation status of members of the Fos family, components of the activator protein-1 transcription factor, in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Following the exposure to CdCl?, the expression of c-fos, fosB, fra-1, and fra-2 increased markedly, with different magnitudes and time courses. The levels of Fos family proteins (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) also increased in response to CdCl? exposure. Although the elevation of c-fos transcripts was transient, c-Fos protein levels increased progressively with lower electrophoretic mobility, suggesting stabilization of c-Fos through post-translational modifications. Consistently, we observed phosphorylation of c-Fos at Ser362 and Ser374 in HK-2 cells treated with CdCl?. Phosphorylated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH?-terminal kinase, and p38-increased after CdCl? exposure, whereas treatment with the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126 and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 suppressed the accumulation and phosphorylation of c-Fos. We mutated Ser362 to alanine (S362A), Ser374 to alanine (S374A), and both residues to alanines (S362A/S374A) to inhibit potential phosphorylation of c-Fos at these sites. S374A or double S362A/S374A mutations reduced c-Fos level markedly, but S362A mutation did not. On the other hand, S362A/S374A mutations induced a more pronounced reduction in c-Fos DNA-binding activity than S374A mutation. These results suggest that while Ser374 phosphorylation seems to play a role in c-Fos stabilization, phosphorylation at two C-terminal serine residues is required for the transcriptional activation of c-Fos in HK-2 cells treated with CdCl?. PMID:21219922

Iwatsuki, Mamiko; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Matsuoka, Masato

2011-03-15

441

Cadmium induces phosphorylation and stabilization of c-Fos in HK-2 renal proximal tubular cells  

SciTech Connect

We examined the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) exposure on the expression and phosphorylation status of members of the Fos family, components of the activator protein-1 transcription factor, in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Following the exposure to CdCl{sub 2}, the expression of c-fos, fosB, fra-1, and fra-2 increased markedly, with different magnitudes and time courses. The levels of Fos family proteins (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) also increased in response to CdCl{sub 2} exposure. Although the elevation of c-fos transcripts was transient, c-Fos protein levels increased progressively with lower electrophoretic mobility, suggesting stabilization of c-Fos through post-translational modifications. Consistently, we observed phosphorylation of c-Fos at Ser362 and Ser374 in HK-2 cells treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Phosphorylated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase, and p38-increased after CdCl{sub 2} exposure, whereas treatment with the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126 and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 suppressed the accumulation and phosphorylation of c-Fos. We mutated Ser362 to alanine (S362A), Ser374 to alanine (S374A), and both residues to alanines (S362A/S374A) to inhibit potential phosphorylation of c-Fos at these sites. S374A or double S362A/S374A mutations reduced c-Fos level markedly, but S362A mutation did not. On the other hand, S362A/S374A mutations induced a more pronounced reduction in c-Fos DNA-binding activity than S374A mutation. These results suggest that while Ser374 phosphorylation seems to play a role in c-Fos stabilization, phosphorylation at two C-terminal serine residues is required for the transcriptional activation of c-Fos in HK-2 cells treated with CdCl{sub 2}.

Iwatsuki, Mamiko; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Matsuoka, Masato, E-mail: matsuoka@research.twmu.ac.jp

2011-03-15

442

Identification of an histone H3 acetylated/K4-methylated-bound intragenic enhancer regulatory for urokinase receptor expression.  

PubMed

The transcriptionally regulated urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) contributes to cancer progression. Although previous studies have identified multiple 5' regulatory elements, these cis motifs cannot fully account for u-PAR expression prompting a search for hitherto uncharacterized regulatory elements. DNase I hypersensitivity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using u-PAR-expressing colon cancer cells indicated a hypersensitive region (+665/+2068) in intron 1 enriched with acetylated histone 3 (H3) and H3 methylated at lysine 4, markers of regulatory regions. The +665/+2068 region increased transcription from a u-PAR-promoter in an orientation- and distance-independent manner fulfilling the criteria of an enhancer. Optimal stimulation of the u-PAR promoter by phorbol ester required this enhancer. Systematic truncations combined with DNase I footprinting revealed two protected regions (+1060/+1099 and +1123/+1134) with deletion of the latter practically abolishing enhancer activity. The +1123/+1134 region harbored non-consensus activator protein-1 and Ets1 binding sites bound with c-Jun (and/or the related JunD/JunB) and c-Fos (and/or the related FosB/Fra-1/Fra-2) as revealed with chromatin immunoprecipitation. Further, nuclear extract from resected colon cancers showed elevated protein binding to a +1123/+1134-spanning probe coordinate with elevated u-PAR protein. Thus, we have defined a novel intragenic enhancer in the u-PAR gene required for constitutive and inducible expression. PMID:17001307

Wang, H; Yan, C; Asangani, I; Allgayer, H; Boyd, D D

2007-03-29

443

The role of the transcription factor AP-1 in colitis-associated and beta-catenin-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis in mice.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation is an important cancer risk factor but the molecular pathways linking inflammation and cancer are incompletely understood. The transcription factor c-Jun/AP-1 (activator protein 1) is involved in inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis and has been proposed as an essential mediator of oncogenic beta-catenin signaling in the intestine. Here, we examined the functions of c-Jun in two distinct mouse models of conditional and intestine-specific activation of beta-catenin. c-Jun is strongly expressed in the small intestine of mutant mice. However, beta-catenin-dependent cell proliferation is surprisingly not affected in mice lacking c-jun in intestinal epithelium, suggesting that c-Jun is not an essential immediate target of beta-catenin signaling in the small intestine. To examine the functions of Jun and Fos proteins during inflammation and cancer in the colon, colitis-associated tumors were induced chemically in the respective knockout mice. Tumors were characterized by activated beta-catenin and strongly expressed c-Jun and JunB. However, tumorigenesis was not affected by inactivation of c-Jun in either intestinal epithelium or myeloid cells. Moreover, tumorigenesis was not altered in mice lacking junB, junD, c-fos, fra-1 or fra-2, suggesting that inhibition of c-Jun or other single AP-1 proteins is not a determining factor in colitis-associated cancer in mice. PMID:18679426

Hasselblatt, P; Gresh, L; Kudo, H; Guinea-Viniegra, J; Wagner, E F

2008-10-16

444

Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Magnetic field testing of the TR07 Maglev vehicle and system. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating current (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposures to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Appendices include catalogs and documents detailing magnetic field data files and their specifics (static fields, spectral waveforms, and temporal and spatial information) by location.

Dietrich, Fred; Robertson, David; Steiner, George

1992-04-01

445

Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Magnetic field testing of the TR07 Maglev vehicle and system. Volume 1: Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic field (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposure to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Analysis summarizes the experimental findings and compares results to common home, work, and power lines emissions for selected spectral bands.

Dietrich, Fred; Feero, William E.

1992-04-01

446

Safety of high-speed magnetic-levitation transportation systems. Magnetic-field testing of the TR07 maglev vehicle and system. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report Jun 91-Mar 92  

SciTech Connect

The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposures to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Volume II-Appendices catalogs and documents detailed magnetic field data files and their specifics (static fields, spectral waveforms, temporal and spatial information) by location.

Dietrich, F.; Robertson, D.; Steiner, G.

1992-04-01

447

Safety of high-speed magnetic-levitation transportation systems. Magnetic-field testing of the TR07 maglev vehicle and system. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report Jun 91-Mar 92  

SciTech Connect

The safety of various magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emissions, both steady (dc) and produced by alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and other frequencies in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), and associated public and worker exposures to EMF, are a growing health and safety concern worldwide. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment of the German TransRapid (TR-07) maglev system undertaken by the FRA, with technical support from the DOT/RSPA Volpe National Transportation System Center (VNTSC), magnetic field measurements were performed by Electric Research and Management, Inc. (ERM) at the Transrapid Test Facility (TVE) in Emsland, Germany in August, 1990. Volume I-Analysis summarizes the experimental findings and compares results to common home, work, and power lines emissions for selected spectral bands.

Dietrich, F.; Feero, W.E.

1992-04-01

448

The dual role of the ligand UNC-6/Netrin in both axon guidance and synaptogenesis in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

The extracellular cue UNC-6/Netrin is a well-known axon guidance molecule and recently it has also been shown to be involved with localization of pre-synaptic complexes. Working through the UNC-40/DCC/Fra receptor, UNC-6/Netrin promotes the formation of pre-synaptic terminals between the pre-synaptic AIY interneuron and its post-synaptic partner, the RIA interneuron. In the DA9 motor neuron, UNC-6/Netrin has an alternate role promoting the exclusion of pre-synaptic components from the dendrite via its UNC-5-receptor. Surprisingly, the requirement for UNC-5 persists even after DA9 axon migration is complete, because synapses become mis-localized after it is depleted. This observation provides at least a partial explanation for the persistence of UNC-6/Netrin and UNC-5 in the adult nervous system. These activities parallel the previously known bi-functional axon guidance effects of UNC-6/Netrin, since it can attract cells and axons expressing UNC-40/DCC/Fra and repel those expressing UNC-5 alone or in combination with UNC-40. UNC-6/Netrin cooperates with the Wnt family members to exclude synapses from compartments within the DA9 axon, so that they only occur in regions free of the influence of both UNC-6/Netrin and the Wnts. Regulation of both axon guidance and synapse formation by axon guidance cues permits coordination in circuit assembly between pre- and post-synaptic cells. PMID:19377288

2009-01-01

449

Dscam Guides Embryonic Axons By Netrin-Dependent And Independent Functions  

PubMed Central

Summary Developing axons are attracted to the CNS midline by Netrin proteins and other as yet unidentified signals. Netrin signals are transduced in part by Frazzled (Fra)/DCC receptors. Genetic analysis in Drosophila indicates that additional unidentified receptors are needed to mediate the attractive response to Netrin. Analysis of Bolwigs Nerve reveals that Netrin mutants have a similar phenotype to Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (Dscam) mutants. Netrin and Dscam mutants display dose sensitive interactions suggesting that Dscam could act as a Netrin receptor. We show using cell overlay assays that Netrin binds to fly and vertebrate Dscam, and that Dscam binds Netrin with the same affinity as DCC. At the CNS midline, we find that Dscam and its paralog Dscam3 act redundantly to promote midline crossing. Simultaneous genetic knockout of the two Dscams and the Netrin receptor fra produces a midline crossing defect that is stronger than the removal of Netrins, suggesting that Dscams also function in a pathway parallel to Netrins. Additionally, over-expression of Dscam in axons that do not normally cross the midline is able to induce ectopic midline crossing, consistent with an attractive receptor function. Our results support the model that Dscams function as attractive receptors for Netrin and also act in parallel to Frazzled/DCC. Furthermore, the results suggest that Dscams have the ability to respond to multiple ligands and act as receptors for an unidentified midline attractive cue. These functions in axon guidance have implications for the pathogenesis of Down Syndrome. PMID:18948420

Andrews, Gracie L.; Tanglao, Shawna; Farmer, W. Todd; Morin, Steves; Brotman, Steven; Berberoglu, Michael A.; Price, Hilary; Fernandez, George C.; Mastick, Grant S.; Charron, Frederic; Kidd, Thomas

2009-01-01

450

Dendritic pathology in mental retardation: from molecular genetics to neurobiology.  

PubMed

Mental retardation (MR) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by impaired cognitive performance and adaptive skills that affects 1-2% of the population. During the last decade, a large number of genes have been cloned that cause MR upon mutation in humans. The causal role of these genes provides an excellent starting point to investigate the cellular, neurobiological and behavioral alterations and mechanisms responsible for the cognitive impairment in mentally retarded persons. However, studies on Down syndrome (DS) reveal that overexpression of a cluster of genes and various forms of MR that are caused by single-gene mutations, such as fragile X (FraX), Rett, Coffin-Lowry, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and non-syndromic forms of MR, causes similar phenotypes. In spite of the many differences in the manifestation of these forms of MR, evidence converges on the proposal that MR is primarily due to deficiencies in neuronal network connectivity in the major cognitive centers in the brain, which secondarily results in impaired information processing. Although MR has been largely regarded as a brain disorder that cannot be cured, our increased understanding of the abnormalities and mechanisms underlying MR may provide an avenue for the development of therapies for MR. In this review, we discuss the neurobiology underlying MR, with a focus on FraX and DS. PMID:16681800

Dierssen, M; Ramakers, G J A

2006-01-01

451

Transcriptional Changes Induced by Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 in Equine Fibroblasts?  

PubMed Central

Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) and, less commonly, BPV-2 are associated with the pathogenesis of common equine skin tumors termed sarcoids. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms by which BPV-1 induces sarcoids, we used gene expression profiling as a screening tool to identify candidate genes implicated in disease pathogenesis. Gene expression profiles of equine fibroblasts transformed by BPV-1 experimentally or from explanted tumors were compared with those of control equine fibroblasts to identify genes associated with expression of BPV-1. Analysis of the microarray data identified 81 probe sets that were significantly (P < 0.01) differentially expressed between the BPV-1-transformed and control cell lines. Expression of several deregulated genes, including MMP-1, CXCL5, FRA-1, NKG7, TLR4, and the gene encoding the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) protein, was confirmed using other BPV-1-transformed cell lines. Furthermore, expression of these genes was examined using a panel of 10 sarcoids. Increased expression of MMP-1, CXCL5, FRA-1, and NKG7 was detected in a subset of tumors, and TLR4 and MHC I showed robust down-regulation in all tumors. Deregulated expression was confirmed at the protein level for MMP-1 and MHC-I. The present report identifies genes modulated by BPV-1 transformation and will help identify the molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis. PMID:18434409

Yuan, Z. Q.; Nicolson, L.; Marchetti, B.; Gault, E. A.; Campo, M. S.; Nasir, L.

2008-01-01

452

Photogeology. Part A: Relative ages of some near-side and far-side terra plains based on Apollo 16 metric photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relative age measurements were made for 14 light plains areas, using 30X enlargements of Apollo 16 metric camera photography. Results indicate that: (1) Crater morphology and frequency studies consistently indicate that the Fra Mauro Formation has received 2.5 to 3 times as much impact flux as the Cayley Formation. (2) Crater counts and relative age dating indicate that the Cayley Formation is only slightly older than the oldest mare units. (3) Assuming the rubidium-strontium ages of Apollo 14 basalt breccias give minimum age for Fra Mauro Formation, the Cayley Formation must have been generated throughout a period of less than 100 million years, approximately 3.8 to 3.9 billion years ago. (4) The Cayley Formation ages obtained on the near side and far side are the same, indicating a synchrony throughout the moon in these units. (5) The linear relationship as predicted by the small impact erosion model between net accumulated flux and the maximum diameter of a crater that could be eroded below recognition is confirmed.

Soderblom, L. A.; Boyce, J. M.

1972-01-01

453

JNK/AP-1 pathway is involved in tumor necrosis factor-? induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in MCF7 cells  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in breast tumor angiogenesis. And tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a positive regulator of VEGF. This study was aimed to identify the signalling pathway of TNF-? in VEGF expression regulation in breast cancer cell line MCF7. Using luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that TNF-? significantly increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity in the MCF7 cells. The expression of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, c-Fos and JunB and phosphorylation levels of c-Jun were upregulated by TNF-?, whereas other AP-1 family members Fra-1, Fra-2, and JunD were unaffected. The activation of AP-1 was associated with the formation of p-c-Jun-c-Jun and p-c-Jun-JunB homodimers. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not P38 and ERK were elevated by TNF-? in MCF7 cells. TNF-? potently upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of VEGF, which were significantly reversed by JNK inhibitor SP600125. Finally using chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assays, we found that p-c-Jun bound to the VEGF promoter and regulated VEGF transcription directly. These data suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? is a critical regulator of VEGF expression in breast cancer cells, at least partially via a JNK and AP-1 dependent pathway. PMID:19553068

Yin, Yongmei; Wang, Shui; Sun, Yujie; Matt, Young; Colburn, Nancy H.; Shu, Yongqian; Han, Xiao

2012-01-01

454

Distinct intraspecific variations of garlic (Allium sativum L.) revealed by the exon-intron sequences of the alliinase gene.  

PubMed

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used worldwide as a food and for medicinal purposes since early times. Garlic cultivars exhibit considerable morphological diversity despite the fact that they are mostly sterile and are grown only by vegetative propagation of cloves. Considerable recombination occurs in garlic genomes, including the genes involved in secondary metabolites. We examined the genomic DNAs (gDNAs) from garlic, encoding alliinase, a key enzyme involved in organosulfur metabolism in Allium plants. The 1.7-kb gDNA fragments, covering three exons (2, 3, and 4) and all four introns, were amplified from total DNAs prepared from garlic samples produced in Asia and Europe, leading to 73 sequences in total: Japan (JPN), China (CHN), India (IND), Spain (ESP), and France (FRA). The exon sequences were highly conserved among all the sequences, probably reflecting the fully functional alliinase associated with the flavor quality. Distinct intraspecific variations were detected for all four intron sequences, leading to the haplotype classifications. A close relationship between JPN and CHN was observed for all four introns, whereas IND showed a more divergent distribution. ESP and FRA afforded clearly different variants compared with those from Asian sequences. The present study provides information that could be useful in the development of an additional molecular marker for garlic authentication and quality control. PMID:24352587

Endo, Aki; Imai, Yukiko; Nakamura, Mizuho; Yanagisawa, Eri; Taguchi, Takaaki; Torii, Kosuke; Okumura, Hidenobu; Ichinose, Koji

2014-04-01

455

Expression of immediate early genes in the hippocampal formation of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) during a food-hoarding task.  

PubMed

Black-capped chickadees store food in many different locations in their home range and are able to accurately remember these locations. We measured the number of cells immunopositive for three different Immediate Early Gene products (Fra-1, c-Fos and ZENK) to map neuronal activity in the chickadee Hippocampal Formation (HF) during food storing and retrieval. Fra-1-like immunoreactivity is downregulated in the dorsal HF of both storing and retrieving chickadees compared to controls. In retrieving birds, the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons relates to the number of items remembered, while the number of ZENK-like immunoreactive neurons in the HF may be related to the accuracy of cache retrieval. These results imply that the brain might process complex information by recruiting more neurons into the network of active neurons. Thus, our results could help explain why food-hoarding birds have more HF neurons than non-hoarders, and why this number increases in autumn when large numbers of food items are cached. PMID:10996045

Smulders, T V; DeVoogd, T J

2000-09-01

456

G Proteins in Rat Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) are Differentially Activated as a Function of Oxygen Status and PFC Region  

PubMed Central

This study tested the hypothesis that activation of guanine nucleotide binding (G) proteins in rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) is altered by hypoxia. G protein activation by the cholinergic agonist carbachol and the opioid agonist DAMGO was quantified using [35S]GTP?S autoradiography. G proteins were expressed as nCi/g tissue in the PFC of 18 rats exposed for 14 consecutive days to sustained hypoxia (10 % O2), intermittent hypoxia (10 % and 21 % O2 alternating every 90 s), or room air (21 % O2). Relative to basal levels of G protein activation, carbachol and DAMGO increased G protein activation by approximately 70 % across all oxygen concentrations. Compared to the room air condition, sustained hypoxia caused a significant increase in G protein activation in frontal association (FrA) region of the PFC. Region-specific comparisons revealed that intermittent and sustained hypoxia caused greater DAMGO-stimulated G protein activation in the FrA than in the PrL. The data show for the first time that hypoxia increased G protein activation in PFC. The results suggest the potential for hypoxia-induced enhancements in G protein activation to alter PFC function. PMID:19118621

Hambrecht, V.S.; Vlisides, P.E.; Row, B.W.; Gozal, D.; Baghdoyan, H.A.; Lydic, R.

2009-01-01

457

Differential effects of methamphetamine and SCH23390 on the expression of members of IEG families of transcription factors in the rat striatum  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant that can cause long-lasting neurodegenerative effects in humans and animals. These toxic effects appear to occur, in part, via activation of dopamine (DA) D1 receptors. This paper assessed the possibility that the DA D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, might inhibit METH-induced changes in the expression of several members of immediate early genes (IEGs) which are known to control more delayed expression of other genes. We found that injections of METH (410 mg/kg, given at 2 hr intervals) caused significant increases in c-fos and fra-2 expression which lasted from 30 min to 4 hr. Pre-treatment with SCH23390, given 30 min before each METH injection, completely blocked METH-induced expression of c-fos, but only partially inhibited fra-2 mRNA expression. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis which showed METH-induced changes in c-Fos protein expression that were blocked by pretreatment with SCH23390. There were also delayed METH-induced DA D1 receptor-dependent effects on fosB mRNA expression. Even though fra-1 expression was not affected by pretreatment with METH alone, the repeated injections of SCH23390 caused substantial decreases in fra-1 mRNA expression in both the presence and absence of METH. The repeated injections of METH caused no changes in the mRNAs for c-jun, junB or junD. However, there were significant increases in the phosphorylation of c-Jun protein (ser63). Phosphorylation of c-Jun occurred in a delayed fashion (16 and 24 hours after the last METH injections) and was attenuated by SCH23390 pretreatment. Interestingly, SCH23390 given alone caused significant decreases in phospho-c-Jun at all time-points. The METH injections also caused delayed induction in the expression of members of the Egr family of transcription factors in a DA D1 receptor-dependent fashion. Repeated injections of SCH23390 caused substantial suppression of basal striatal egr-1 and egr-2 mRNA expression but not of that of egr-3. Both crem and arc mRNA levels were induced by METH in a SCH23390-sensitive fashion. Moreover, multiple injections of SCH23390 given alone caused marked inhibition of basal arc expression. These results show that multiple injections of METH can differentially affect the expression of several IEGs, some of which occurred in a DA D1 receptor dependent fashion. The SCH23390-mediated suppression of basal fra-1, egr-1, and egr-2 mRNA levels suggests that their basal expression in the striatum might be dependent on tonic stimulation of the DA D1 receptor. PMID:20059987

Beauvais, Genevieve; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; McCoy, Michael T.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean Lud

2010-01-01

458

Size matters: The rotation rates of small near-Earth asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a program of optical light curve observations of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) with diameters under 1 km, designed to detect, and determine the distribution of, rotation periods shorter than a few hours. We obtain measurements or estimates of rotation period P for approximately one third of the 83 NEAs observed. Most of the measured periods are in the fast-rotating asteroid (FRA) regime (P < 2 h). We assess our detection sensitivity using simulated light curves and a new Monte Carlo algorithm (SALSA), which allows us to de-bias the counts of detected FRAs and determine the fraction of objects that are fast rotators as a function of H. We find that the FRA fraction F rises sharply from zero to a value statistically consistent with unity from H = 21.4 to H = 23.6, a span corresponding to a factor of only 2.8 in nominal diameter. Almost nothing larger than 170 m, and almost everything smaller than 60 m, is a fast rotator, assuming a mean S class albedo of 0.17. The formal 95% confidence limits are F < 13% for 18.5 < H < 21.4 and F > 56% for 23.6 < H < 26.3. Relative to a distribution with the same FRA fraction that is uniform in frequency (as implied by models of evolution following the YORP cycle) up to a size-dependent upper cutoff, the actual spin distribution extends to shorter periods. Approximately two thirds of our sample shows ambiguous light curves from which no period estimate can be obtained. Finite photometric errors account for some of these, but do not explain the steep increase in the ambiguous fraction toward larger objects, which suggests an increase in the actual fraction of very slow rotators, very fast rotators, or nearly axisymmetric objects. With a significantly larger data set, our fully general SALSA procedure will be able to extract the NEA spin rate distribution as a function of absolute magnitude H. Determining this distribution to the accuracy needed to constrain the physical properties of NEAs and their dynamical evolution will require larger samples, and homogeneous, unbiased reporting of the data, including accurate errors, for all objects observed, not just those with measured periods.

Statler, Thomas S.; Cotto-Figueroa, Desire; Riethmiller, David A.; Sweeney, Kevin M.

2013-07-01

459

Pan-Tropical Forest Mapping by Exploiting Textures of Multi-Temporal High Resolution SAR Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol is in the offing, there is still a strong demand for profound, reliable, and up to date information in order to bridge the gap of knowledge of the land cover conversion. Despite the fact that land use change is one of the largest carbon contribution factors, it is still poorly quantified. This is particularly true for many tropical forest areas worldwide. Here, preservation of such pristine forest areas is critically endangered. Enormous population growth, the increasing global demand for various resources, and the ongoing unsustainable management practices put the remaining tropical forests under a huge pressure. Yet, only the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) report provides the crucial quantitative information every 5 years on a regional scale. Nonetheless, the assembled information of the FRA reports bear the burden of ambiguity and vagueness, because they were compiled based on autonomously gathered statistics, which are usually driven by the individual country needs. There is a broad consensus among the different scientific disciplines, that only the remote sensing technology allows for a large scale robust monitoring of these widespread, and remote forest areas. Consequently, the FAO decided to supplementary analyze remote sensing data for the present (2010) and upcoming FRAs. However, it is also widely accepted that currently only microwave remote sensing techniques allow for an all-day, weather independent monitoring of the frequently cloud-covered tropics. In this context, high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the German satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X have been investigated within the pan-tropics to support the latest FRA 2010 report. Data of more than 304 predominantly cloud-covered sites in Latin America (188), Central Africa (45) and Southeast Asia (71) have been acquired. Upon delivery, the corresponding radar images were processed using an operational processing chain that includes radiometric transformation, noise reduction, and georeferencing of the SAR data. In places with pronounced topography both satellites were used as single pass interferometer to derive a digital surface model in order to perform an orthorectification followed by a topographic normalization of the SAR backscatter values. As prescribed by the FAO, the final segment-based classification algorithm was fed by multi-temporal backscatter information, a set of textural features, and information on the degree of coherence between the multi-temporal acquisitions. Validation with available high resolution optical imagery suggests that the produced forest maps possess an overall accuracy of 75 percent or higher.

Knuth, R.; Eckardt, R.; Richter, N.; Schmullius, C.

2012-12-01

460

Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded from the result of this study that climate classification can improve the result of monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast models in South-eastern and eastern Australia. Also, the number of sub-regions is one of the important parameters in ranking predictors at the modeling stage, and allows elucidation of climate influences for different sub regions. Classification of stations helps FRA to capture variations in Australian rainfall in space without influence of the rainfall seasonal cycle and regimes.

Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

2014-05-01

461

Replicative Stress and the FHIT Gene: Roles in Tumor Suppression, Genome Stability and Prevention of Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

The fragile FHIT gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA3B, is an early target of DNA damage in precancerous cells. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, FHIT protein expression is essential to protect from DNA damage-induced cancer initiation and progression by modulating genome stability, oxidative stress and levels of accumulating DNA damage. Thus, FHIT, whose expression is lost or reduced in many human cancers, is a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. Ongoing studies are seeking more detailed understanding of the role of FHIT in the cellular response to oxidative damage. This review discusses the relationship between FHIT, reactive oxygen species production, and DNA damage in the context of cancer initiation and progression. PMID:24901304

Karras, Jenna R.; Paisie, Carolyn A.; Huebner, Kay

2014-01-01

462

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems. Magnetic and electric field testing of the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) rail systems. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, September 1992-March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). A franchise has been awarded to the Texas High Speed Rail Corporation to operate a 200 mph French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle (Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio), with construction to begin in 1995. The report provides the Analysis (Vol. I) of results, and detailed data and statistical summaries (Vol. II, Appendices) of representative electric and magnetic field (EMF) profiles on TGV-A trains between Paris and Tours for two electro-technologies (1.5 KV DC near Paris, and 2x25 KV at 50 Hz AC).

Dietrich, F.M.; Jacobs, W.E.

1993-05-01

463

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems. Magnetic and electric field testing of the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) rail systems. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report, September 1992-March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). A franchise has been awarded to the Texas high Speed Rail Corporation to operate a 200 mph French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle (Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio), with construction to begin in 1995. The report provides the Analysis (Vol. I) of results, and detailed data and statistical summaries (Vol. II, Appendices) of representative electric and magnetic field (EMF) profiles on TGV-A trains between Paris and Tours for two electro-technologies (1.5 KV DC near Paris, and 2x25 KV at 50 Hz AC).

Dietrich, F.M.; Papas, P.N.; Jacobs, W.L.; Ferro, W.E.

1993-05-01

464

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems: Magnetic and electric field testing of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) urban transit system. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, September 1992-March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). Plans for near future US applications include maglev projects (e.g. in Orlando, FL and Pittsburgh, PA) and high speed rail (the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle). The report provides the Analysis (Vol. I) of results, and detailed data and statistical summaries (Vol. II, Appendices) of representative EMF profiles on vehicles and facilities typical of electrotechnologies used in the transit system (3rd rail dc, catenary with pantograph, trolley bus). Each electrotechnology has specific EMF frequency signatures. EMF data represent a range of system operating conditions and locations (in vehicles, stations and waysides), as well as traffic control and electrical power supply facilities.

Jacobs, W.L.; Robertson, D.C.; Steiner, G.A.

1993-06-01

465

Physical properties of simulated galaxy populations at z=2 -- II. Effects of physics ingredients other than cooling and outflows  

E-print Network

We use hydrodynamical simulations from the OWLS project to investigate the dependence of the physical properties of galaxy populations at redshift 2 on the assumed star formation law, the equation of state imposed on the unresolved interstellar medium, the stellar initial mass function, the reionization history, and the assumed cosmology. This work complements that of Paper I, where we studied the effects of varying models for galactic winds driven by star formation and AGN. The normalisation of the matter power spectrum strongly affects the galaxy mass function, but has a relatively small effect on the physical properties of galaxies residing in haloes of a fixed mass. Reionization suppresses the stellar masses and gas fractions of low-mass galaxies, but by z = 2 the results are insensitive to the timing of reionization. The stellar initial mass function mainly determines the physical properties of galaxies through its effect on the efficiency of the feedback, while changes in the recycled mass and metal fra...

Haas, Marcel R; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Springel, Volker; Theuns, Tom; Wiersma, Robert P C

2012-01-01

466

Lunar glass compositions - Apollo 16 core sections 60002 and 60004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 500 glasses between 1 mm and 125 microns in size have been analyzed from fourteen samples from the Apollo 16 core sections 60002 and 60004. The majority of glasses have compositions comparable to those found in previous studies of lunar surface soils; however, two new and distinct glass compositions that are probably derived in part from mare material occur in the core samples. The major glass composition in all samples is that of Highland Basalt glass, but it also appears that high-K Fra Mauro Basalt (KREEP) glass is more common at the Apollo 16 site than was previously thought. The relative abundance of glasses within the core samples is random in distribution: each sample is characterized by a particular assemblage and distribution of the constituent glass compositions.

Meyer, H. O. A.; Tsai, H.-M.

1975-01-01

467

The supposed tumor suppressor gene WWOX is mutated in an early lethal microcephaly syndrome with epilepsy, growth retardation and retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background WWOX, encoding WW domain-containing oxidoreductase, spans FRA16D, the second most common chromosomal fragile site frequently altered in cancers. It is therefore considered a tumor suppressor gene, but its direct implication in cancerogenesis remains controversial. Methods and results By whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous WWOX nonsense mutation, p.Arg54*, in a girl from a consanguineous family with a severe syndrome of growth retardation, microcephaly, epileptic seizures, retinopathy and early death, a phenotype highly similar to the abormalities reported in lde/lde rats with a spontaneous functional null mutation of Wwox. As in rats, no tumors were observed in the patient or heterozygous mutation carriers. Conclusions Our finding, a homozygous loss-of-function germline mutation in WWOX in a patient with a lethal autosomal recessive syndrome, supports an alternative role of WWOX and indicates its importance for human viability. PMID:24456803

2014-01-01

468

Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.

1972-01-01

469

Chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, Apollo 15. I - KREEP basalts and plutonic rocks. II - Impact melt rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of rock fragments for the Apennine Front coarse fines (10-4 and 4-2 mm) have been determined. The data are consistent with a single eruptive event that produced several flows. It is found that most of the plutonic rocks are ferroan in nature, with a few belonging to the Mg-suite. The mineral and bulk chemistry of KREEP basalts and the composition of ferroan anorthosites are discussed. Petrographic studies of 21 impact melts are also presented, showing a variety of textures. It is found that the Apollo 15 impact melts are mixtures of low-K Fra Mauro, KREEP, and plutonic components. The Ni/Ir ratios of the melt rocks are shown to be greater than chondritic values, indicating ancient and/or iron meteorite components.

Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.

1988-01-01

470

Immediate early gene expression in dog thyrocytes in response to growth, proliferation, and differentiation stimuli.  

PubMed

In dog thyroid cells, insulin or IGF-1 induces cell growth and is required for the mitogenic action of TSH through cyclic AMP, of EGF, and of phorbol esters. HGF per se stimulates cell proliferation and is thus the only full mitogenic agent. TSH and cAMP enhance, whereas EGF phorbol esters and HGF repress differentiation expression. In this study, we have investigated for each factor and regulatory cascade of the intermediate step of immediate early gene induction, that is, c-myc, c-jun, jun D, jun B, c-fos, fos B, fra-1, fra-2, and egr1; fra-1 and fra-2 expressions were very low. TSH or forskolin increased the levels of c-myc, jun B, jun D, c-fos, and fos B while decreasing those of c-jun and egr1. Phorbol myristate ester stimulated the expression of all the genes. EGF and HGF stimulated the expression of all the genes except jun D and for EGF fos B. All these effects were obtained in the presence and in the absence of insulin, which shows that insulin is not necessary for the effects of the mitogens on immediate early gene expression. The definition of the repertoire of early immediate genes inductible by the various growth cascades provides a framework for the analysis of gene expression in tumors. (1) Insulin was able to induce all the protooncogenes investigated except fos B. This suggests that fos B could be the factor missing for insulin to induce mitogenesis. (2) No characteristic pattern of immediate early gene expression has been observed for insulin, which induces cell hypertrophy and is permissive for the action of the other growth factors. These effects are therefore not accounted for by a specific immediate early gene expression. On the other hand, insulin clearly enhances the effects of TSH, phorbol ester, and EGF on c-myc, junB, and c-fos expression. This suggests that the effect of insulin on mitogenesis might result from quantitative differences in the transcription complexes formed. (3) c-myc, c-fos, and jun B mRNA induction by all stimulating agents, whether inducing cell hypertrophy, or growth and dedifferentiation, or growth and differentiation, suggests that, although these expressions are not sufficient, they may be necessary for the various growth responses of thyroid cells. (4) The inhibition of c-jun and egr1 mRNA expression, and the marked induction of jun D mRNA appear to be specific features of the TSH cAMP pathway. They might be related to its differentiating action. (5) fos B, which is induced by TSH, forskolin, phorbol ester, and HGF but not by insulin, could be involved in the mitogenic action of the former factors. PMID:10497313

Deleu, S; Pirson, I; Clermont, F; Nakamura, T; Dumont, J E; Maenhaut, C

1999-11-01

471

Description, dissection, and subsampling of Apollo 14 core sample 14230  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Core sample 14230, collected at Triplet Crater near the Fra Mauro landing site of the Apollo 14 mission, was dissected in greater detail than any previous core. Sediment from the actual lunar surface was missing, and 6.7 grams of sediment were removed from the base of the core for a portion of the biotest prime sample. Upper and lower portions of the original 70.7-gram core (12.5 centimeters long) were fractured excessively but not mixed stratigraphically. Three major morphologic units and 11 subdivisions were recognized. Dissection provided 55 subsamples in addition to three others made by removing longitudinal sections of the core impregnated with n-butyl methacrylate for use as a permanent documentary record and for studies requiring particles of known orientation.

Fryxell, R.; Heiken, G.

1971-01-01

472

Photogeology: Part A: relative ages of some near-side and far-side terra plains based on Apollo 16 metric photography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The materials of most light or terra plains predate the lunar maria and postdate the Imbrian event. In the vicinity of the Imbrium Basin, these materials have been called the Cayley Formation (ref. 29-3) but because of the subtle diversity of the terra plains over the near side, Whilhelms and McCauley (ref. 29-4) simply called these materials Imbrian plains (Ip). The age relationships between the light plains and the Fra Mauro Formation are of principal importance in placing the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 samples in a regional context and in understanding the transitional period between the enhanced cratering rate of pre-Imbrian time and the comparatively quiescent period of impact cratering since the generation of mare surfaces.

Soderblom, Laurence A.; Boyce, Joseph M.

1972-01-01

473

Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Safety of advanced braking concepts for high speed ground transportation systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop qualitative and quantitative information on the various braking strategies used in high-speed ground transportation systems in support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The approach employed in this study is composed of two steps: first, build a technical understanding of the various braking strategies, and second, perform a safety analysis for each system. The systems considered in this study include seven operating high-speed rail transportation systems and three existing magnetic levitation systems. The principal technique used in the system safety analysis is Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), an inductive approach to identifying system failure modes that depends on a thorough understanding of the system design and operation. Key elements derived from the system safety analysis are the fault-tolerant and fail-safe characteristics of the braking systems. The report concludes with recommended guidance on the structure of potential future regulations governing high-speed rail braking systems.

Wagner, D.P.; Ahlbeck, D.R.; Luedeke, J.F.; Cook, S.D.; Dielman, M.A.

1995-09-01

474

A sociological study of the structure and functions of the Baptist churches in Brazos County  

E-print Network

Lom ang eireuustaaeeo the ehureh of tho enaL1 teen aag epos oeuntrp~ partiaaLar+ arith eNursnee to posaLhle troals ia ite yuooont 4eoulopusIA, ilae, another ohfeetitu of tho stagy was to preri4? a scares of isAeeatioa feu the uoe of ~ty leegeru ang fer... ised?r ekth o desire to aakto tho oossaskty ehesld oaorge fr?a this dre?S~ it so?as Xttolg that, tbo osd of this strife as?id be ia sight ySOOCIUIS tbo Medea ef the Cree~see Ssytket Aseookotkoa ef Teens indicated that there sore eight rerol Ssptket...

Halbrook, Alvin Floyd

2012-06-07

475

Folate Receptor Alpha, Mesothelin and Megakaryocyte Potentiating Factor as Potential Serum Markers of Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Renal disease is the eighth leading cause of death in the United States. Early diagnosis is usually based on the detection of proteinuria or elevated serum creatinine, a relatively poor biomarker that does not accurately predict renal disease progression. As a result, more predictive biomarkers of renal function are sought. We present preliminary data on three protein biomarkers, folate receptor alpha (FRA), mesothelin (MSLN), and megakaryocyte potentiating factor (MPF), currently being pursued for applications in oncology diagnostics, and evaluate serum and urine levels in subjects with renal disease. Compared to healthy subjects, a significant (P < 0.0001) increase in all three biomarkers in both serum and urine of subjects with renal disease was demonstrated. Further, serum levels of these three protein biomarkers increased with increasing stage of disease suggesting their potential value in predicting progression in subjects with renal disease and raising caution in interpretation of data in oncology applications. PMID:24932099

Somers, Elizabeth B; O'Shannessy, Daniel J

2014-01-01

476

Dispersion analysis of fiber Raman amplifier for WDM system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the effect of dispersion in fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) by propagating two channels together through the same backward pumped Raman fiber. We have investigated the quality factor and gain for different values of dispersion up to third order. The optimum value of second and third order dispersion has been evaluated for different channel spacing. It is observed that for a channel spacing of 50 GHz, the optimum value of dispersion (D) for a 10 km Raman fiber is 2 ps/nm/km and second order dispersion ?2 is -2.551 ps2/km. The third order dispersion parameter ?3 is also analyzed for different channel spacing from 50 GHz to 20 GHz and we have obtained its optimum value as -0.10967 ps3/km for both 50 GHz and 25 GHz, whereas for channel spacing of 20 GHz, the optimum value of ?3 comes out to be -0.1469 ps3/km.

Bindal, Adish; Singh, Surinder

2014-06-01

477

On the significance of germline cytogenetic rearrangements at MYCN locus in neuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background MYCN oncogene amplification is the most important prognostic factor in neuroblastoma. 25% neuroblastoma tumors have somatic amplifications at this locus but little is known about its constitutional aberrations and their potential role in carcinogenesis. Here, we have performed an array-CGH and qPCR characterization of two patients with constitutional partial 2p trisomy including MYCN genomic region. Results One of the patients had congenital neuroblastoma and showed presence of minute areas of gains and losses within the common fragile site FRA2C at 2p24 encompassing MYCN. The link between 2p24 germline rearrangements and neuroblastoma development was reassessed by reviewing similar cases in the literature. Conclusions It appears that constitutional rearrangements involving chromosome 2p24 may play role in NB development. PMID:24131700

2013-01-01

478

Care Labels and Your Clothes (Spanish)  

E-print Network

.ftc.gov NOTA: Las temperaturas del agua descritas en la p?gina 5 son proporcionadas como gu?a.Las temperaturas de agua que actualmente obtenga en su casa, dependen de la selecci?n de su m?quina de lavar (caliente, tibia, fr?a), las temper- aturas regionales del... suministro de agua y la selecci?n de tem- peratura del calentador de agua. L-5191S 4-98 Gu?a de los S?mbolos para Cuidados de Ropa Los programas educativos del Servicio de Extensi?n Agr?cola de Texas est?n disponibles a todas personas sin distinci?n de raza...

Brown, Pamela J.

1998-05-13

479

Aspirin upregulates expression of urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) gene in human colon cancer cells through AP1.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) on the expression of uPAR and the mechanism by which it regulates expression of uPAR was examined in two different colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and GEO, respectively. The study shows that under physiological concentration, aspirin upregulates steady-state level expression of uPAR mRNA as well as expression of uPAR protein. Using a transient transfection assay, a region corresponding to -1 to -398 region of uPAR promoter has been identified which shows maximum responsiveness to aspirin treatment and found that this region is sufficient for the aspirin-induced up-regulation of uPAR. A stable integration of a single copy of this region coupled to luciferase reporter gene into the HCT116 genome also behaved similarly. Using gel mobility shift assays, it is found that the distal AP1 region between -171 and -186 is responsible for the aspirin-induced up-regulation of uPAR. Mutation of this region reduced up-regulation. Supershift assays identify that the bound proteins at this region are c-Jun and Fra-1. Real-time PCR analysis showed more than 4-fold increase in the binding of c-Jun and a 1.6-fold increase in the binding of Fra-1 in this region and this up-regulation corresponds to an increased binding of acetylated histone H4 in this region. Since an increase in the expression of uPAR corresponds to an increase in the migration of the cell, a migration assay was performed and result showed a 3-fold increased migration of HCT116 cells through the vitronectin-coated layer. Thus, an AP1 mediated pathway for aspirin induced up-regulation of uPAR has been identified. PMID:16893520

Jamaluddin, Md Saha

2006-09-22

480

Comparative in vitro and in vivo evaluation of three tablet formulations of amiodarone in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study The relative in vivo bioavailability and in vitro dissolution studies of three chemically equivalent amiodarone generic products in healthy volunteers was evaluated in three separate occasions. The possibility of a correlation between in vitro and in vivo performances of these tablet formulations was also evaluated. Methods The bioequivalence studies were conducted based on a single dose, two-sequence, cross over randomized design. The bioavailability was compared using AUC072, AUC08, Cmax and Tmax. Similarity factor, dissolution efficiency (DE), and mean dissolution time (MDT) was used to compare the dissolution profiles. Polynomial linear correlation models were tested using either MDT vs mean residence time (MRT) or fraction of the drug dissolved (FRD) vs fraction of the drug absorbed (FRA). Results Significant differences were found in the dissolution performances of the tested formulations and therefore they were included in the development of the correlation. The 90% confidence intervals of the log-transformed AUC0-72, AUC08, and Cmax of each two formulations in each bioequivalence studies were within the acceptable range of 80125%. Differences were not observed between the untransformed Tmax values. Poor correlation was found between MRT and MDT of the products. A point-to-point correlation which is essential for a reliable correlation was not obtained between pooled FRD and FRA. The dissolution condition which was used for amiodarone tablets failed for formulations which were bioequivalent in vivo and significant difference between the dissolution characteristics of products (f2<50) did not reflect their in vivo properties. Major conclusions Bioequivalence studies should be considered as the only acceptable way to ensure the interchangeability and in vivo equivalence of amiodarone generic drug products. The dissolution conditions used of the present study could be used for routine and in-process quality control of amiodarone tablet formulations. PMID:22615617

2010-01-01

481

Expression of WWOX and FHIT is downregulated by exposure to arsenite in human uroepithelial cells.  

PubMed

Ecological studies in Taiwan, Chile, Argentina, Bangladesh, and Mexico have confirmed significant dose-dependent associations between ingestion of arsenic-contaminated drinking water and the risk of various human malignancies. The FHIT and WWOX genes are active in common fragile sites FRA3B and FRA16D, respectively. Reduced expression of FHIT or WWOX is known to be an early indicator of carcinogen-induced cancers. However, the effect of arsenite on the expressions and molecular mechanisms of these markers is still unclear. The aims of this study were (i) to observe the expression of ATR, WWOX and FHIT proteins in urothelial carcinoma (UC) between endemic and non-endemic areas of blackfoot disease (BFD) by immunohistochemical analyses; (ii) to compare expression of these genes between arsenite-treated SV-HUC-1 human epithelial cells and rat uroepithelial cells; and (iii) to determine the role of DNMT and MEK inhibitors on expressions of WWOX and FHIT in response to arsenite in SV-HUC-1. The experiments revealed that expressions of ATR, WWOX and FHIT in UC significantly differed between BFD areas and non-BFD areas (p=0.003, 0.009 and 0.021, respectively). In fact, the results for the arsenite-treated groups showed that ATR, WWOX and FHIT are downregulated by arsenite in SV-HUC-1. However, the inhibitors suppressed the effects of arsenite on WWOX and FHIT proteins and mRNA expression. In conclusion, arsenite decreased expressions of ATR, WWOX and FHIT via ERK1/2 activation in SV-HUC-1 cells. These findings confirm that dysregulations of these markers may contribute to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:23618899

Huang, Ya-Chun; Hung, Wen-Chun; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

2013-07-01

482

Electrical properties of the rabbit cortical collecting duct from obstructed and contralateral kidneys after unilateral ureteral obstruction.  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological techniques were used to determine the electrical properties of the collecting duct (CD) cell in the isolated cortical collecting duct from obstructed (UUOOK) and contralateral (UUOCK) kidneys in rabbits 24 h after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO); results were compared with those from sham-operated kidneys. The lumen-negative transepithelial voltage and the basolateral membrane voltage (VB) were decreased in the UUOOK, and increased in the UUOCK. The transepithelial conductance (GT) was decreased in parallel with an increase in the fractional apical membrane resistance (fRA) and a decrease in apical membrane conductance in the UUOOK. By contrast, the GT was increased in parallel with increases in apical and basolateral membrane conductances in the UUOCK. The amiloride-sensitive changes in apical membrane voltage (VA), GT and fRA were lower in the UUOOK, but greater in the UUOCK. The changes in VA and GT upon raising the perfusate K+ concentration and upon addition of luminal Ba2+ were decreased in the UUOOK, and increased in the UUOCK. Addition of ouabain to the bath resulted in a smaller depolarization of VB in the UUOOK, but in a greater depolarization in the UUOCK. Upon lowering bath Cl-, the change in basolateral membrane electromotive force (delta EMF) was increased in the UUOOK, and decreased in the UUOCK. Reversely, upon raising bath K+, the delta EMF was decreased in the UUOOK, and increased in the UUOCK. We conclude: (a) the conductances of Na+ and K+ in the apical membrane, and active Na(+)-K+ pump activity and relative K+ conductance in the basolateral membrane are decreased in the UUOOK, and increased in the UUOCK; (b) the relative basolateral membrane Cl- conductance was increased in the UUOOK, and decreased in the UUOCK. PMID:8349797

Muto, S; Miyata, Y; Asano, Y

1993-01-01

483

Degradation of atrazine by Frankia alni ACN14a: gene regulation, dealkylation, and dechlorination.  

PubMed

Atrazine is transformed to N-isopropylammelide through hydroxyatrazine as an intermediate as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy in culture filtrates of Frankia alni ACN14a and Frankia sp. EuI1c. Both Frankia strains have the ability to degrade atrazine via dechlorination and dealkylation and, subsequently, may be using it as a nitrogen and carbon source as detected here by increasing their growth patterns. Bioinformatic analysis of the Frankia genomes revealed that a potential gene cluster involved in atrazine decomposition contains three genes, namely, trzN (FRAAL1474 and FraEuI1c_5874), atzB (FRAAL1473 and FraEuI1c_5875), and atzR (FRAAL1471). The relative messenger RNA gene expression of the former genes was examined by qRT-PCR. The LysR-type transcriptional regulator atzR (FRAAL1471), which is expected to control the cluster expression, showed a 13-fold increase in the expression level under atrazine stress. Moreover, the putative adenosine aminohydrolase 3 atzB (FRAAL1473), which is expected to dealkylate the N-ethyl group of atrazine, showed also an increased expression by factor 16 with increased exposure. Eventually, the trzN (FRAAL1474) gene, which is predicted to encode a putative amidohydrolase catalyzing atrazine dechlorination, exhibited 31-fold increased expression. To our best knowledge, this is the first report about adenosine aminohydrolase 3 function in the dealkylation of the N-ethyl group from atrazine. PMID:24676750

Rehan, Medhat; Kluge, Martin; Frnzle, Stefan; Kellner, Harald; Ullrich, Ren; Hofrichter, Martin

2014-07-01

484

Deoxycholate induces COX-2 expression via Erk1/2-, p38-MAPK and AP-1-dependent mechanisms in esophageal cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background The progression from Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the acquirement of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The bile acid deoxycholate (DCA) has been proposed to play an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate DCA-stimulated COX-2 signaling pathways and their possible contribution to deregulated cell survival and apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Methods Following exposure of SKGT-4 cells to DCA, protein levels of COX-2, MAPK and PARP were examined by immunoblotting. AP-1 activity was assessed by mobility shift assay. DCA-induced toxicity was assessed by DNA fragmentation and MTT assay. Results DCA induced persistent activation of the AP-1 transcription factor with Fra-1 and JunB identified as the predominant components of the DCA-induced AP-1 complex. DCA activated Fra-1 via the Erk1/2- and p38 MAPK while Erk1/2 is upstream of JunB. Moreover, DCA stimulation mediated inhibition of proliferation with concomitant low levels of caspase-3-dependent PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Induction of the anti-apoptotic protein COX-2 by DCA, via MAPK/AP-1 pathway appeared to balance the DCA mediated activation of pro-apoptotic markers such as PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Both of these markers were increased upon COX-2 suppression by aspirin pretreatment prior to DCA exposure. Conclusion DCA regulates both apoptosis and COX-2-regulated cell survival in esophageal cells suggesting that the balance between these two opposing signals may determine the transformation potential of DCA as a component of the refluxate. PMID:19534809

2009-01-01

485

JNK/AP-1 pathway is involved in tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in MCF7 cells.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in breast tumor angiogenesis. And tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a positive regulator of VEGF. This study was aimed to identify the signalling pathway of TNF-alpha in VEGF expression regulation in breast cancer cell line MCF7. Using luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that TNF-alpha significantly increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity in the MCF7 cells. The expression of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, c-Fos and JunB and phosphorylation levels of c-Jun were upregulated by TNF-alpha, whereas other AP-1 family members Fra-1, Fra-2, and JunD were unaffected. The activation of AP-1 was associated with the formation of p-c-Jun-c-Jun and p-c-Jun-JunB homodimers. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not P38 and ERK were elevated by TNF-alpha in MCF7 cells. TNF-alpha potently upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of VEGF, which were significantly reversed by JNK inhibitor SP600125. Finally using chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assays, we found that p-c-Jun bound to the VEGF promoter and regulated VEGF transcription directly. These data suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha is a critical regulator of VEGF expression in breast cancer cells, at least partially via a JNK and AP-1 dependent pathway. PMID:19553068

Yin, Yongmei; Wang, Shui; Sun, Yujie; Matt, Young; Colburn, Nancy H; Shu, Yongqian; Han, Xiao

2009-07-01

486

Sinomenine Suppresses Osteoclast Formation and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra-Induced Bone Loss by Modulating RANKL Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RANKL signaling pathways has been an encouraging strategy for treating lytic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sinomenine (SIN), derived from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenioumacutum, is an active compound to treat RA, but its effect on osteoclasts has been hitherto unknown. In the present study, SIN was found to ameliorate M. tuberculosis H37Ra (Mt)-induced bone loss in rats with a decreased serum level of TRACP5b and RANKL, and an increased level of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In vitro study also showed that SIN could inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. The osteoclastic specific marker genes induced by RANKL including c-Src, MMP-9, TRACP were inhibited by SIN in a dose dependent manner. Signal transduction studies showed that SIN could obviously reduce the expression of RANK adaptor molecule TRAF6 and down-regulate RANKL-induced NF-?B activation. It decreased the RANKL-induced p38, JNK posphorylation but not ERK1/2 posphorylation. SIN could also reduce RANKL-mediated calcium influx which is associated with TRAF6/c-Src complex. Finally, SIN suppressed RANKL induced AP-1 and NFAT transcription, as well as the gene expression of NFATc1 and AP-1 components (Fra-1, Fra-2, c-Fos). The protein expression of c-Fos and TRAF6 were also inhibited by SIN after RANKL stimulation. Taken together, SIN could attenuate osteoclast formation and Mt-induced bone loss by mediating RANKL signaling pathways. PMID:24066131

Li, Xiaojuan; He, Longgang; Hu, Yiping; Duan, Heng; Li, Xianglian; Tan, Suiyi; Zou, Min; Gu, Chunping; Zeng, Xiangzhou; Yu, Le; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Shuwen

2013-01-01

487

Uncertainty in the spatial distribution of tropical forest biomass: a comparison of pan-tropical maps  

PubMed Central

Background Mapping the aboveground biomass of tropical forests is essential both for implementing conservation policy and reducing uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. Two medium resolution (500 m 1000 m) pantropical maps of vegetation biomass have been recently published, and have been widely used by sub-national and national-level activities in relation to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Both maps use similar input data layers, and are driven by the same spaceborne LiDAR dataset providing systematic forest height and canopy structure estimates, but use different ground datasets for calibration and different spatial modelling methodologies. Here, we compare these two maps to each other, to the FAOs Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010 country-level data, and to a high resolution (100 m) biomass map generated for a portion of the Colombian Amazon. Results We find substantial differences between the two maps, in particular in central Amazonia, the Congo basin, the south of Papua New Guinea, the Miombo woodlands of Africa, and the dry forests and savannas of South America. There is little consistency in the direction of the difference. However, when the maps are aggregated to the country or biome scale there is greater agreement, with differences cancelling out to a certain extent. When comparing country level biomass stocks, the two maps agree with each other to a much greater extent than to the FRA 2010 estimates. In the Colombian Amazon, both pantropical maps estimate higher biomass than the independent high resolution map, but show a similar spatial distribution of this biomass. Conclusions Biomass mapping has progressed enormously over the past decade, to the stage where we can produce globally consistent maps of aboveground biomass. We show that there are still large uncertainties in these maps, in particular in areas with little field data. However, when used at a regional scale, different maps appear to converge, suggesting we can provide reasonable stock estimates when aggregated over large regions. Therefore we believe the largest uncertainties for REDD+ activities relate to the spatial distribution of biomass and to the spatial pattern of forest cover change, rather than to total globally or nationally summed carbon density. PMID:24161143

2013-01-01

488

Space station functional relationships analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

1988-01-01

489

Oncogenic K-RAS is required to maintain changes in cytoskeletal organization, adhesion, and motility in colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

RAS oncogenes are thought to play a role at multiple stages of tumorigenesis. The role and mechanisms by which RAS oncogenes maintain the transformed state of human cancer cells are poorly understood. Here, we have studied the role of oncogenic K-RAS in maintaining cytoskeletal disruption, cell adhesion and motility in metastatic colon carcinoma cells. Targeted deletion of K-RAS(G13D) from HCT116 colon carcinoma cells restored their ability to assemble stress fibers and focal adhesions/complexes, accompanied by increased cell-matrix adhesion and reduced motility. We further show that oncogenic K-Ras induces high Rho activity, but uncouples Rho from stress fiber formation. This uncoupling required the maintenance of high levels of the activator protein-1 family member, Fra-1, via a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathway. We also show that PI3-kinase signaling is required for the motility of HCT116 cells downstream of oncogenic K-Ras. Our findings suggest that mutated K-RAS oncogenes are essential for maintenance of the transformed and invasive phenotype of human colon cancer cells. PMID:15735008

Pollock, Claire B; Shirasawa, Senji; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Kolch, Walter; Dhillon, Amardeep S

2005-02-15

490

DNA vaccines designed to inhibit tumor growth by suppression of angiogenesis.  

PubMed

The development of new blood vessels, i.e. angiogenesis, is a rate-limiting step in the development of tumors since tumor growth is generally limited to 1-2 mm3 in the absence of a blood supply. Thus, the inhibition of tumor growth by attacking the tumor's vascular supply offers a primary target for antiangiogenic intervention by DNA-based vaccines. Here, we describe two novel orally delivered DNA vaccines which suppress tumor angiogenesis and induce a robust cell-mediated immune response that provides for long-lived protection against melanoma, colon, breast and non-small-cell lung carcinoma in mouse model systems. These vaccines, which are delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to secondary lymphoid organs, are directed against such targets as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (FLK-1) and transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1). Both vaccines break peripheral T cell tolerance against these self-antigens and induce a robust T cell-mediated immune response leading to suppression of tumor angiogenesis and resulting in effective suppression of tumor growth and metastases. Such research efforts may open up new possibilities for the rational design of future DNA vaccines effective for the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:14988601

Reisfeld, Ralph A; Niethammer, A G; Luo, Y; Xiang, R

2004-03-01

491

Decreased level of antibodies and cardiac involvement in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease vaccinated with BCG.  

PubMed

Studies indicate that Trypanosoma cruzi is capable of inducing immunological disturbances such as decreased expression of molecules involved in T-cell survival and costimulation for antigen-driven T-cell responses. On the other hand, several reports have described that BCG vaccination induces a T-helper 1-type immune response with protective effects in different pathologies. In this regard, we evaluated whether BCG vaccination coexists with a better clinical and immunological profile of chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD). We performed a cross-sectional study in T. cruzi seropositive patients categorized according the BCG vaccine background and to the well-established CCHD classification provided by Storino et al. All individuals were subjected to a complete clinical examination. All patients presented detectable levels of autoantibodies anti-p2?, anti-B13, anti-FRA and antiparasite homogenate immunoglobulins, which were unrelated to age and sex distribution or blood pressure values. Comparisons according to BCG vaccination revealed that individuals who had not been vaccinated presented higher values of antibodies, and patients without BCG vaccine had an OR of 6.1 (95% CI 1.23-29.25, p=0.02) for globally dilated cardiomyopathy with reduced ejection fraction (Hosmer and Lemeshow test of 5.2 p=0.73). Our results suggest that BCG vaccination coexists with a better clinical and immunological profile of CCHD, associated with lower cardiac involvement. PMID:24374613

Vicco, Miguel Hernn; Bontempi, Ivn Alejandro; Rodeles, Luz; Yodice, Agustina; Marcipar, Ivn Sergio; Bottasso, Oscar

2014-04-01

492

Fhit deficiency-induced global genome instability promotes mutation and clonal expansion.  

PubMed

Loss of Fhit expression, encoded at chromosome fragile site FRA3B, leads to increased replication stress, genome instability and accumulation of genetic alterations. We have proposed that Fhit is a genome 'caretaker' whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. We have characterized allele copy number alterations and expression changes observed in Fhit-deficient cells in conjunction with alterations in cellular proliferation and exome mutations, using cells from mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), mouse kidney, early and late after establishment in culture, and in response to carcinogen treatment. Fhit (-/-) MEFs escape senescence to become immortal more rapidly than Fhit (+/+) MEFs; -/- MEFs and kidney cultures show allele losses and gains, while +/+ derived cells show few genomic alterations. Striking alterations in expression of p53, p21, Mcl1 and active caspase 3 occurred in mouse kidney -/- cells during progressive tissue culture passage. To define genomic changes associated with preneoplastic changes in vivo, exome DNAs were sequenced for +/+ and -/- liver tissue after treatment of mice with the carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and for +/+ and -/- kidney cells treated in vitro with this carcinogen. The -/- exome DNAs, in comparison with +/+ DNA, showed small insertions, deletions and point mutations in more genes, some likely related to preneoplastic changes. Thus, Fhit loss provides a 'mutator' phenotype, a cellular environment in which mild genome instability permits clonal expansion, through proliferative advantage and escape from apoptosis, in response to pressures to survive. PMID:24244712

Miuma, Satoshi; Saldivar, Joshua C; Karras, Jenna R; Waters, Catherine E; Paisie, Carolyn A; Wang, Yao; Jin, Victor; Sun, Jin; Druck, Teresa; Zhang, Jie; Huebner, Kay

2013-01-01

493

Fhit Deficiency-Induced Global Genome Instability Promotes Mutation and Clonal Expansion  

PubMed Central

Loss of Fhit expression, encoded at chromosome fragile site FRA3B, leads to increased replication stress, genome instability and accumulation of genetic alterations. We have proposed that Fhit is a genome caretaker whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. We have characterized allele copy number alterations and expression changes observed in Fhit-deficient cells in conjunction with alterations in cellular proliferation and exome mutations, using cells from mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), mouse kidney, early and late after establishment in culture, and in response to carcinogen treatment. Fhit-/- MEFs escape senescence to become immortal more rapidly than Fhit+/+ MEFs; -/- MEFs and kidney cultures show allele losses and gains, while +/+ derived cells show few genomic alterations. Striking alterations in expression of p53, p21, Mcl1 and active caspase 3 occurred in mouse kidney -/- cells during progressive tissue culture passage. To define genomic changes associated with preneoplastic changes in vivo, exome DNAs were sequenced for +/+ and -/- liver tissue after treatment of mice with the carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and for +/+ and -/- kidney cells treated in vitro with this carcinogen. The -/- exome DNAs, in comparison with +/+ DNA, showed small insertions, deletions and point mutations in more genes, some likely related to preneoplastic changes. Thus, Fhit loss provides a mutator phenotype, a cellular environment in which mild genome instability permits clonal expansion, through proliferative advantage and escape from apoptosis, in response to pressures to survive. PMID:24244712

Miuma, Satoshi; Saldivar, Joshua C.; Karras, Jenna R.; Waters, Catherine E.; Paisie, Carolyn A.; Wang, Yao; Jin, Victor; Sun, Jin; Druck, Teresa; Zhang, Jie; Huebner, Kay

2013-01-01

494

Temporal production of the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid by phospholipase D2 determines the output of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in cancer cells.  

PubMed

The Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade is an important signaling module in cells. One regulator of the Ras-ERK cascade is phosphatidic acid (PA) generated by phospholipase D (PLD) and diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). Using a newly developed PA biosensor, PASS (phosphatidic acid biosensor with superior sensitivity), we found that PA was generated sequentially by PLD and DGK in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated HCC1806 breast cancer cells. Inhibition of PLD2, one of the two PLD members, was sufficient to eliminate most of the PA production, whereas inhibition of DGK decreased PA production only at the later stages of EGF stimulation, suggesting that PLD2 precedes DGK activation. The temporal production of PA by PLD2 is important for the nuclear activation of ERK. While inhibition of both PLD and DGK had no effect on the overall ERK activity, inhibition of PLD2 but not PLD1 or DGK blocked the nuclear ERK activity in several cancer cell lines. The decrease of active ERK in the nucleus inhibited the activation of Elk1, c-fos, and Fra1, the ERK nuclear targets, leading to decreased proliferation of HCC1806 cells. Together, these findings reveal that PA production by PLD2 determines the output of ERK in cancer cell growth factor signaling. PMID:24164897

Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ziqing; Lu, Maryia; Yonekubo, Yoshiya; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Yueqiang; Wu, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Grinstein, Sergio; Hancock, John F; Du, Guangwei

2014-01-01

495

Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report, May 1992-March 1992  

SciTech Connect

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system, and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 1 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

Dietrich, F.M.; Feero, W.E.; Papas, P.N.; Steiner, G.A.

1993-04-01

496

Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems: Magnetic and electric field testing of the massachusetts bay transportation authority (MBTA) urban transit system. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report, September 1992-March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). Plans for near future US applications include maglev projects (e.g. in Orlando, FL and Pittsburgh, PA) and high speed rail (the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle). Concerns exist regarding the potential safety, environmental and health effects on the public and on transportation workers due to electrification along new or existing rail corridors, and to maglev and high speed rail operations. Therefore, the characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz) is of interest. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store 3 axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations.

Dietrich, F.M.; Papas, P.N.; Ferro, W.E.; Jacobs, W.L.; Steiner, G.A.

1993-06-01

497

Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, May 1993-March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 2 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

Dietrich, F.M.; Robertson, D.C.; Steiner, G.A.

1993-04-01

498

Detection of Yersinia pestis in environmental and food samples by intact cell immunocapture and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague, an acute and often fatal disease in humans. In addition to the risk of natural exposure to plague, there is also the threat of a bioterrorist act, leading to the deliberate spread of the bacteria in the environment or food. We report here an immuno-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (immuno-LC-MS/MS) method for the direct (i.e., without prior culture), sensitive, and specific detection of Y. pestis in such complex samples. In the first step, a bottom-up proteomics approach highlighted three relevant protein markers encoded by the Y. pestis-specific plasmids pFra (murine toxin) and pPla (plasminogen activator and pesticin). Suitable proteotypic peptides were thoroughly selected to monitor the three protein markers by targeted MS using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Immunocapture conditions were optimized for the isolation and concentration of intact bacterial cells from complex samples. The immuno-LC-SRM assay has a limit of detection of 2 10(4) CFU/mL in milk or tap water, which compares well with those of state-of-the-art immunoassays. Moreover, we report the first direct detection of Y. pestis in soil, which could be extremely useful in confirming Y. pestis persistence in the ground. PMID:24847944

Chenau, Jrme; Fenaille, Franois; Simon, Stphanie; Filali, Sofia; Volland, Herv; Junot, Christophe; Carniel, Elisabeth; Becher, Franois

2014-06-17

499

Properties of Young Pulsar Wind Nebulae: TeV Detectability and Their Pulsar Properties  

E-print Network

Among dozens young pulsar wind nebulae, some have been detected in TeV \\gamma-rays (TeV PWNe), while others have not (non-TeV PWNe). The TeV emission detectability is not correlated either with the spin-down power or with the characteristic age of their central pulsars, and it is an open problem what determines the detectability. To study this problem, we investigate spectral evolution of five young non-TeV PWNe, 3C58, G310.6-1.6, G292.0+1.8, G11.2-0.3 and SNR B0540-69.3. We use a spectral evolution model which has been developed to be applied to young TeV PWNe in our previous works. TeV \\gamma-ray flux upper limits of non-TeV PWNe give upper or lower limits on parameters, such as the age of the PWN and the fraction of the spin-down power going to the magnetic energy injection (the fraction parameter). Combined with other independent observational and theoretical studies, we can guess a plausible value of the parameters for each object. For 3C58, we prefer the parameters with an age of 2.5 kyr old and the fra...

Tanaka, Shuta J

2012-01-01

500

Sedimentology of clastic rocks returned from the moon by Apollo 15.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A petrographic study of eleven samples of clastic rock returned from the moon by Apollo 15 suggests that two lithologies are present. The distinction between the two lithologies is based on the glass content of the rock matrices and the morphology of the detrital particles. Group I rocks have abundant, glass-rich, porous matrices and glass particles with morphologies comparable to those of glass particles in the lunar soil. The group I rocks were probably formed by welding or sintering of surficial soil deposits by impact-generated base surges of limited extent. Group II rocks have an essentially mineralic matrix and have an abundance of rounded mineral grains. Sample 15455 is the only Apollo 15 sample assigned to this group. In its general textural features, sample 15455 is comparable with the group II rocks from the Fra Mauro Formation at the Apollo 14 site. Textural features such as shock modification and rounding of mineral grains suggest that this sample is the product of a large-scale impact-generated base surge which possibly resulted from the Imbrian event.

Lindsay, J. F.

1972-01-01