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Sample records for genstande fra forskningscenter

  1. Fra-1 is a key driver of colon cancer metastasis and a Fra-1 classifier predicts disease-free survival.

    PubMed

    Iskit, Sedef; Schlicker, Andreas; Wessels, Lodewyk; Peeper, Daniel S

    2015-12-22

    Fra-1 (Fos-related antigen-1) is a member of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) family of transcription factors. We previously showed that Fra-1 is necessary for breast cancer cells to metastasize in vivo, and that a classifier comprising genes that are expressed in a Fra-1-dependent fashion can predict breast cancer outcome. Here, we show that Fra-1 plays an important role also in colon cancer progression. Whereas Fra-1 depletion does not affect 2D proliferation of human colon cancer cells, it impairs growth in soft agar and in suspension. Consistently, subcutaneous tumors formed by Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells are three times smaller than those produced by control cells. Most remarkably, when injected intravenously, Fra-1 depletion causes a 200-fold reduction in tumor burden. Moreover, a Fra-1 classifier generated by comparing RNA profiles of parental and Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells can predict the prognosis of colon cancer patients. Functional pathway analysis revealed Wnt as one of the central pathways in the classifier, suggesting a possible mechanism of Fra-1 function in colon cancer metastasis. Our results demonstrate that Fra-1 is an important determinant of the metastatic potential of human colon cancer cells, and that the Fra-1 classifier can be used as a prognostic predictor in colon cancer patients. PMID:26646695

  2. Fra-1 is a key driver of colon cancer metastasis and a Fra-1 classifier predicts disease-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Iskit, Sedef; Schlicker, Andreas; Wessels, Lodewyk; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Fra-1 (Fos-related antigen-1) is a member of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) family of transcription factors. We previously showed that Fra-1 is necessary for breast cancer cells to metastasize in vivo, and that a classifier comprising genes that are expressed in a Fra-1-dependent fashion can predict breast cancer outcome. Here, we show that Fra-1 plays an important role also in colon cancer progression. Whereas Fra-1 depletion does not affect 2D proliferation of human colon cancer cells, it impairs growth in soft agar and in suspension. Consistently, subcutaneous tumors formed by Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells are three times smaller than those produced by control cells. Most remarkably, when injected intravenously, Fra-1 depletion causes a 200-fold reduction in tumor burden. Moreover, a Fra-1 classifier generated by comparing RNA profiles of parental and Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells can predict the prognosis of colon cancer patients. Functional pathway analysis revealed Wnt as one of the central pathways in the classifier, suggesting a possible mechanism of Fra-1 function in colon cancer metastasis. Our results demonstrate that Fra-1 is an important determinant of the metastatic potential of human colon cancer cells, and that the Fra-1 classifier can be used as a prognostic predictor in colon cancer patients. PMID:26646695

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters C Appendix C to Part 241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING OF UNITED STATES RAIL OPERATIONS Pt. 241, App. C Appendix...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters C Appendix C to Part 241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING OF UNITED STATES RAIL OPERATIONS Pt. 241, App. C Appendix...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters C Appendix C to Part 241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING OF UNITED STATES RAIL OPERATIONS Pt. 241, App. C Appendix...

  6. Apollo 14 mission to Fra Mauro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Brian D.

    1991-04-01

    The 1971 Apollo 14 Mission to Fra Mauro, a lunar highland area, is highlighted in this video. The mission's primary goal was the collection of lunar rocks and soil samples and lunar exploration. The soil and rock sampling was for the geochronological determination of the Moon's evolution and its comparison with that of Earth. A remote data collection station was assembled on the Moon and left for continuous data collection and surface monitoring experiments. The Apollo 14 astronauts were Alan B. Shepard, Edgar D. Mitchell, and Stuart A. Rossa. Astronauts Shepard and Mitchell landed on the Moon (February 5, 1971) and performed the sampling, the EVA, and deployment of the lunar experiments. There is film-footage of the lunar surface, of the command module's approach to both the Moon and the Earth, Moon and Earth spacecraft launching and landing, in-orbit command- and lunar-module docking, and of Mission Control.

  7. Tissue-Specific Transgenic Knockdown of Fos-Related Antigen 2 (Fra-2) Expression Mediated by Dominant Negative Fra-2

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Martin; Burke, Zoe; Humphries, Ann; Wells, Tim; Klein, David; Carter, David; Baler, Ruben

    2001-01-01

    Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) is a member of the Fos family of immediate-early genes, most of which are rapidly induced by second messengers. All members of this family act by binding to AP-1 sites as heterodimeric complexes with other proteins. However, each appears to have a distinct role. The role and biology of Fra-2 are less well understood than those of its relatives c-Fos, Fra-1, and FosB; moreover, Fra-2 target genes remain largely unknown, as does the basis of its selective effects on transcriptional activity. To pursue these issues, we created a transgenic rat line (NATDNF2) in which a dominant negative fra-2 (DNF2) gene is strongly expressed in the pineal gland; tissue selectivity was achieved by putting the DNF2 gene under the control of the rat arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) regulatory region, which targets gene expression to a very restricted set of tissues (pineal gland ? retina). Expression of AANAT is normally turned on after the onset of darkness in the rat; as a result, pineal DNF2 expression occurs only at night. This was associated with marked suppression of the nocturnal increase in fra-2 mRNA and protein levels, indicating that DNF2 expression inhibits downstream effects of Fra-2, including the maintenance of high levels of fra-2 gene expression. Analysis of 1,190 genes in the NATDNF2 pineal gland, including the AANAT gene, identified two whose expression is strongly linked to fra-2 expression: the genes encoding type II iodothyronine deiodinase and nectadrin (CD24). PMID:11340164

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - FRA Inspection Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Inspection Forms C Appendix C to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. C Appendix...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - FRA Inspection Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Inspection Forms C Appendix C to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. C Appendix...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - FRA Inspection Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Inspection Forms C Appendix C to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. C Appendix...

  11. 75 FR 8785 - Agency Request for Emergency Processing of Collection of Information Associated With FRA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... all passenger and commuter railroads on their main lines not later than December 31, 2015. As part of... essential to meeting FRA's mission and the RSIA PTC implementation deadline of December 15, 2015. FRA cannot... Associated With FRA's Positive Train Control Grant Program After Publication of Second Agency...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are as follows: (1) Region 1 consists of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, New York, Massachusetts, Rhode...) address of the Regional Administrator for Region 1 is: Mark.McKeon@fra.dot.gov. (2) Region 2 consists of... number is 610-521-8225. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 2 is:...

  13. 76 FR 41859 - Waiver Petition Docket Numbers FRA-2011-0002, CSX Transportation Railroad, and FRA-2004-17565...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Register (75 FR 224) announcing the Union Pacific Railroad's request for an amendment to their existing... Administration (FRA) published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 10087) announcing the CSX Transportation... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete...

  14. Compositional data for twenty-one Fra Mauro lunar materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, H. J., Jr.; Cuttitta, F.; Annell, C. S.; Carron, M. K.; Christian, R. P.; Dwornik, E. J.; Greenland, L. P.; Ligon, D. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Major, minor, and trace element analyses are presented for two igneous rocks, six breccias, four microbreccias, two breccia clasts, and six soils, as well as a sample of sawdust from rock 14066. Evaluation of the data suggests that the samples from the Fra Mauro highlands have the same nonterrestrial characteristics shown previously by the samples returned from the mare regions by Apollo 11 and 12 - namely, a high refractory element content, a lower volatile element content, and an excess reducing capacity above that due to FeO. The Fra Mauro soils have higher concentrations of Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O and lower amounts of FeO and TiO2 than do the mare soils. They also show a bimodal distribution of Ni, B, and Nb. The highland breccias are richer in SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, Na2O, and K2O than those returned from the mare lowlands. FeO, TiO2, and MnO are lower in concentration at Fra Mauro, and the highland breccias are more complex mineralogically than those collected previously.

  15. Normal mineralization and nanostructure of sclerotic bone in mice overexpressing Fra-1.

    PubMed

    Roschger, P; Matsuo, K; Misof, B M; Tesch, W; Jochum, W; Wagner, E F; Fratzl, P; Klaushofer, K

    2004-05-01

    Increased bone mass due to elevated number of active osteoblasts has been reported for transgenic mice overexpressing the transcription factor Fra-1. To explore the potential of the anabolic action of Fra-1 in treatment of osteoporosis, we examined the integrity of bone matrix generated in Fra-1 transgenic mice. Femora from Fra-1 transgenic (Fra-1 tg) and wild-type littermates were analyzed for bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) and nanostructure using quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and scanning small angle X-ray scattering (scanning-SAXS), respectively. For comparison, we studied mice lacking c-Fos (Fos-/-), which develop osteopetrosis because of the absence of osteoclasts. Morphometrical analysis of metaphyseal spongiosa revealed an up to 5-fold increase in bone volume for Fra-1 transgenic compared to wild type. BMDD indicated a transient lower mineralization of bone for Fra-1 transgenic at 5 and 8 weeks, which became comparable to that of wild-type mice by 8 months. The homogeneity of mineralization was not altered in the Fra-1 transgenic mice at any ages examined. However, it was strikingly reduced in Fos-/- due to an abundance of hypermineralized cartilage. The bone nanostructure did not show abnormalities in Fra-1 transgenic or Fos-/-. These results provide a rationale for the development of therapeutic applications involving Fra-1-induced bone formation. PMID:15121008

  16. Presence of hydroxyl in the Fra Mauro region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, Alexey; Wöhler, Christian; Sinitsyn, Mikhail; Grumpe, Arne; Feoktistova, Ekaterina; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are known to consist of volcanic material (basalt and glass) ejected by eruptions [1]. In the southern part of the crater Fra Mauro, a localised LPD is associated with Rima Parry V [2]. In [3], a suppressed neutron flux is described for the Fra Mauro region based on measurements of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) [4], interpreted as an indicator of hydroxyl (OH). In this study we compare these measurements with NIR hyperspectral data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(3) ) [5] instrument. The suppression factor of the neutron flux is defined according to delta = (N_ref-N_ex)/N_ref [6,7] with N_ex as the average count rate of the omnidirectional sensor (SETN) [8] of LEND for the region under study (here: the Fra Mauro region) and N_ref as the average count rate for a reference area (here: immediately west of Fra Mauro). For Fra Mauro crater, a suppression factor of 2.4% with a standard error of 0.41% was found. The epithermal neutron flux can be assumed to be inversely proportional to the hydrogen content. Hence, the measured positive suppression factor indicates a positive anomaly of the hydrogen content at up to 1 m depth. Under the approximative assumption of a proportional relation between the suppression factor delta and the hydrogen content, the observation in [7] of a suppression factor of 18% in the crater Cabeus associated with a homogeneous hydrogen content of about 500 ppm implies an enrichment in hydrogen by about 70 ppm for the Fra Mauro region. However, these values do not specifically refer to the small Fra Mauro LPD but to a larger area of about 150 km diameter. To identify the LPD-specific suppression factor, it would be necessary to acquire collimated neutron flux measurements. We have complemented the LEND-based measurements by the analysis of spectral reflectance data acquired by the M(3) instrument. The presence of OH in the surface material leads to an absorption band beyond 2700 nm wavelength [9]. Based on the M(3) version V03 radiance data [10] and GLD100 topographic data [11], a topographically and photometrically corrected spectral reflectance data set normalised to 30(°) incidence angle, 0(°) emission angle and 30(°) phase angle [12] has been generated along with a refined DEM of high lateral resolution (cf. [13] for a detailed description of the applied processing steps). The depth of the OH absorption band is indicated by the reflectance ratio between the 2657 nm and 2817 nm bands (M(3) channels 77 and 81). In our map of the 2657/2817 reflectance ratio, the Fra Mauro LPD as well as a similar deposit in the northern part of the crater Bonpland stand out as positive anomalies exhibiting an increase of 2-2.5% with respect to the surrounding crater floor material. This observation indicates the presence of OH in the LPD surface material. Similar absorption depths can be observed for the inner walls and ejecta of a crater of 3 km diameter located north-northwest of the Fra Mauro LPD and of several craters with diameters less than 2 km in the northern floor of Bonpland. This behaviour may indicate the presence of OH also at larger depth below the surface. [1] Gaddis et al. (2003) Icarus 161(2), 262-280 [2] Head, J. W., Wilson, L. (1993) PSS 41(10), 719-727 [3] Sinitsyn et al. (2013) 4th Moscow Solar System Symp., 4MS3-PS14 [4] Mitrofanov et al. (2010a) Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 183-207 [5] Pieters et al. (2009) Current Science 96(4), 500-505 [6] Boynton et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H33 [7] Mitrofanov et al. (2010b) Science 330, 483-485 [8] Litvak et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H22 [9] Clark et al. (2010) LPSC XXXXI, abstract #1533 [10] http://pds-imaging.jpl.nasa.gov/volumes/m3.html [11] Scholten et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H17 [12] Pieters (1999) Workshop on New Views of the Moon II, abstract #8025 [13] Grumpe et al. (2013) Adv. Space Res., in press.

  17. Fra2 Is a Co-Regulator of Fep1 Inhibition in Response to Iron Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Jean-Franois; Mercier, Alexandre; Brault, Ariane; Mourer, Thierry; Labb, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Iron is required for several metabolic functions involved in cellular growth. Although several players involved in iron transport have been identified, the mechanisms by which iron-responsive transcription factors are controlled are still poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Fep1 transcription factor represses genes involved in iron acquisition in response to high levels of iron. In contrast, when iron levels are low, Fep1 becomes inactive and loses its ability to associate with chromatin. Although the molecular basis by which Fep1 is inactivated under iron starvation remains unknown, this process requires the monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4. Here, we demonstrate that Fra2 plays a role in the negative regulation of Fep1 activity. Disruption of fra2+ (fra2?) led to a constitutive repression of the fio1+ gene transcription. Fep1 was consistently active and constitutively bound to its target gene promoters in cells lacking fra2+. A constitutive activation of Fep1 was also observed in a php4? fra2? double mutant strain in which the behavior of Fep1 is freed of its transcriptional regulation by Php4. Microscopic analyses of cells expressing a functional Fra2-Myc13 protein revealed that Fra2 localized throughout the cells with a significant proportion of Fra2 being observed within the nuclei. Further analysis by coimmunoprecipitation showed that Fra2, Fep1 and Grx4 are associated in a heteroprotein complex. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments brought further evidence that an interaction between Fep1 and Fra2 occurs in the nucleus. Taken together, results reported here revealed that Fra2 plays a role in the Grx4-mediated pathway that inactivates Fep1 in response to iron deficiency. PMID:24897379

  18. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random...

  19. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  20. Apollo 14 - Nature and origin of rock types in soil from the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

    1971-01-01

    Compositions of glasses in the Apollo 14 soil correspond to four types of Fra Mauro basalts, to mare basalts and soils, and, in minor amounts, to gabbroic anorthosite and potash granite. The Fra Mauro basalts can be related by simple low pressure crystal-liquid fractionation that implies a parent composition like that of Apollo 14 sample 14310.

  1. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  2. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  3. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  4. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities...

  6. Widespread FRA1-Dependent Control of Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation Programs in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diesch, Jeannine; Sanij, Elaine; Gilan, Omer; Love, Christopher; Tran, Hoanh; Fleming, Nicholas I.; Ellul, Jason; Amalia, Marcia; Haviv, Izhak; Pearson, Richard B.; Tulchinsky, Eugene; Mariadason, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis involves complex remodeling of gene expression programs governing epithelial homeostasis. Mutational activation of the RAS-ERK is a frequent occurrence in many cancers and has been shown to drive overexpression of the AP-1 family transcription factor FRA1, a potent regulator of migration and invasion in a variety of tumor cell types. However, the nature of FRA1 transcriptional targets and the molecular pathways through which they promote tumor progression remain poorly understood. We found that FRA1 was strongly expressed in tumor cells at the invasive front of human colorectal cancers (CRCs), and that its depletion suppressed mesenchymal-like features in CRC cells in vitro. Genome-wide analysis of FRA1 chromatin occupancy and transcriptional regulation identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes as a major class of direct FRA1 targets in CRC cells. Expression of the pro-mesenchymal subset of these genes predicted adverse outcomes in CRC patients, and involved FRA-1-dependent regulation and cooperation with TGF? signaling pathway. Our findings reveal an unexpectedly widespread and direct role for FRA1 in control of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in CRC cells, and suggest that FRA1 plays an important role in mediating cross talk between oncogenic RAS-ERK and TGF? signaling networks during tumor progression. PMID:24658684

  7. Sequence conservation at human and mouse orthologous common fragile regions, FRA3B/FHIT and Fra14A2/Fhit.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, T; Druck, T; Mimori, K; Flomenberg, J; Berk, L; Alder, H; Miller, W; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    2001-05-01

    It has been suggested that delayed DNA replication underlies fragility at common human fragile sites, but specific sequences responsible for expression of these inducible fragile sites have not been identified. One approach to identify such cis-acting sequences within the large nonexonic regions of fragile sites would be to identify conserved functional elements within orthologous fragile sites by interspecies sequence comparison. This study describes a comparison of orthologous fragile regions, the human FRA3B/FHIT and the murine Fra14A2/Fhit locus. We sequenced over 600 kbp of the mouse Fra14A2, covering the region orthologous to the fragile epicenter of FRA3B, and determined the Fhit deletion break points in a mouse kidney cancer cell line (RENCA). The murine Fra14A2 locus, like the human FRA3B, was characterized by a high AT content. Alignment of the two sequences showed that this fragile region was stable in evolution despite its susceptibility to mitotic recombination on inhibition of DNA replication. There were also several unusual highly conserved regions (HCRs). The positions of predicted matrix attachment regions (MARs), possibly related to replication origins, were not conserved. Of known fragile region landmarks, five cancer cell break points, one viral integration site, and one aphidicolin break cluster were located within or near HCRs. Thus, comparison of orthologous fragile regions has identified highly conserved sequences with possible functional roles in maintenance of fragility. PMID:11320209

  8. Signal-dependent fra-2 regulation in skeletal muscle reserve and satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Alli, N S; Yang, E C; Miyake, T; Aziz, A; Collins-Hooper, H; Patel, K; McDermott, J C

    2013-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that paradoxically also has some tissue-specific functions. In skeletal muscle cells, we document that the AP-1 subunit, Fra-2, is expressed in the resident stem cells (Pax7-positive satellite cells) and also in the analogous undifferentiated ‘reserve' cell population in myogenic cultures, but not in differentiated myofiber nuclei. Silencing of Fra-2 expression enhances the expression of differentiation markers such as muscle creatine kinase and myosin heavy chain, indicating a possible role of Fra-2 in undifferentiated myogenic progenitor cells. We observed that Fra-2 is a target of cytokine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling in cultured muscle cells, and extensive mass spectrometry and mutational analysis identified S320 and T322 as regulators of Fra-2 protein stability. Interestingly, Fra-2 S320 phosphorylation occurs transiently in activated satellite cells and is extinguished in myogenin-positive differentiating cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated Fra-2 expression and stabilization is linked to regulation of myogenic progenitor cells having implications for the molecular regulation of adult muscle stem cells and skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23807221

  9. Fra-2/AP-1 controls adipocyte differentiation and survival by regulating PPAR? and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Luther, J; Ubieta, K; Hannemann, N; Jimenez, M; Garcia, M; Zech, C; Schett, G; Wagner, E F; Bozec, A

    2014-04-01

    Adipocyte cell number is a crucial factor for controlling of body weight and metabolic function. The regulation of adipocyte numbers in the adult organism is not fully understood but is considered to depend on the homeostasis of cell differentiation and apoptosis. Herein, we show that targeted deletion of the activator protein (AP-1)-related transcription factor Fra-2 in adipocytes in vivo (Fra-2(?adip) mice) induces a high-turnover phenotype with increased differentiation and apoptosis of adipocytes, leading to a decrease in body weight and fat pad mass. Importantly, adipocyte cell numbers were significantly reduced in Fra-2(?adip) mice. At the molecular level, Fra-2 directly binds to the PPAR?2 promoter and represses PPAR?2 expression. Deletion of Fra-2 leads to increased PPAR?2 expression and adipocyte differentiation as well as increased adipocyte apoptosis through upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). These findings suggest that Fra-2 is an important checkpoint to control adipocyte turnover. Therefore, inhibition of Fra-2 may emerge as a useful strategy to increase adipocyte turnover and to reduce adipocyte numbers and fat mass in the body. PMID:24464219

  10. MicroRNA-34 suppresses breast cancer invasion and metastasis by directly targeting Fra-1.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Li, Y; Gao, J; Zhang, T; Li, S; Luo, A; Chen, H; Ding, F; Wang, X; Liu, Z

    2013-09-01

    MicroRNAs have key roles in tumor metastasis. Here, we describe the regulation and function of miR-34a and miR-34c (miR-34a/c) in breast cancer metastasis. Expression analysis verified that miR-34a/c expression is significantly decreased in metastatic breast cancer cells and human primary breast tumors with lymph node metastases. Overexpression of miR-34a/c could inhibit breast cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and distal pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Further studies revealed that Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1 or Fosl1) is a downstream target of miR-34a/c as miR-34a/c bound directly to the 3'untranslated region of Fra-1, subsequently reducing both the mRNA and protein levels of Fra-1. Silencing of Fra-1 recapitulated the effects of miR-34a/c overexpression, whereas enforced expression of Fra-1 reverses the suppressive effects of miR-34a/c. Moreover, significant downregulation of miR-34a in metastatic breast cancer tissues was found to be inversely correlated with Fra-1 expression. Our results demonstrate that miR-34a/c functions as a metastasis suppressor to regulate breast cancer migration and invasion through targeting Fra-1 oncogene and suggest a therapeutic application of miR-34 in breast cancer. PMID:23001043

  11. Sequence of the FRA3B common fragile region: implications for the mechanism of FHIT deletion.

    PubMed

    Inoue, H; Ishii, H; Alder, H; Snyder, E; Druck, T; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1997-12-23

    The hypothesis that chromosomal fragile sites may be "weak links" that result in hot spots for cancer-specific chromosome rearrangements was supported by the discovery that numerous cancer cell homozygous deletions and a familial translocation map within the FHIT gene, which encompasses the common fragile site, FRA3B. Sequence analysis of 276 kb of the FRA3B/FHIT locus and 22 associated cancer cell deletion endpoints shows that this locus is a frequent target of homologous recombination between long interspersed nuclear element sequences resulting in FHIT gene internal deletions, probably as a result of carcinogen-induced damage at FRA3B fragile sites. PMID:9405656

  12. Programmable fractal zone plates (FraZPs) with foci finely tuned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Haitao; Liu, Jianhua; Xuecheng, Sun; Dejin, Yin

    2008-11-01

    We examined the focusing properties of fractal zone plates (FraZPs) in detail based on a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM). It was shown that the focal length shifted linearly when the lacunarity of first order FraZPs experienced a linear displacement. From the theoretical analysis and the experimental results, we showed the potential to use the FraZPs as a focusing element whose focal length can be tuned finely. In addition, some side effects of this element were also discussed.

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 229 - Form FRA 6180-49A

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... original document, is not carried in the CFR. Copies of Form FRA F6180-49A are available by contacting the Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Standards and Procedures, 1200 New Jersey Avenue,...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 229 - Form FRA 6180-49A

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... original document, is not carried in the CFR. Copies of Form FRA F6180-49A are available by contacting the Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Standards and Procedures, 1200 New Jersey Avenue,...

  15. NrrA directly regulates expression of the fraF gene and antisense RNAs for fraE in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Ehira, Shigeki; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2014-05-01

    The heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 grows as linear multicellular filaments that can contain hundreds of cells. Heterocysts, which are specialized cells for nitrogen fixation, are regularly intercalated among photosynthetic vegetative cells, and these cells are metabolically dependent on each other. Thus, multicellularity is essential for diazotrophic growth of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the fraF gene, which is required to limit filament length, is induced by nitrogen deprivation. The fraF transcripts extend to the fraE gene, which lies on the opposite DNA strand and could possess dual functionality, mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE. In the present study, we found that NrrA, a nitrogen-regulated response regulator, directly regulated expression of fraF. Induction of fraF by nitrogen deprivation was abolished by the nrrA disruption. NrrA specifically bound to the promoter region of fraF, and recognized an inverted repeat sequence. Thus, it is concluded that NrrA controls expression of mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE in response to nitrogen deprivation. PMID:24554757

  16. Development of pulmonary fibrosis through a pathway involving the transcription factor Fra-2/AP-1

    PubMed Central

    Eferl, Robert; Hasselblatt, Peter; Rath, Martina; Popper, Helmut; Zenz, Rainer; Komnenovic, Vukoslav; Idarraga, Maria-Helena; Kenner, Lukas; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2008-01-01

    Studies using genetically modified mice have revealed fundamental functions of the transcription factor Fos/AP-1 in bone biology, inflammation, and cancer. However, the biological role of the Fos-related protein Fra-2 is not well defined in vivo. Here we report an unexpected profibrogenic function of Fra-2 in transgenic mice, in which ectopic expression of Fra-2 in various organs resulted in generalized fibrosis with predominant manifestation in the lung. The pulmonary phenotype was characterized by vascular remodeling and obliteration of pulmonary arteries, which coincided with expression of osteopontin, an AP-1 target gene involved in vascular remodeling and fibrogenesis. These alterations were followed by inflammation; release of profibrogenic factors, such as IL-4, insulin-like growth factor 1, and CXCL5; progressive fibrosis; and premature mortality. Genetic experiments and bone marrow reconstitutions suggested that fibrosis developed independently of B and T cells and was not mediated by autoimmunity despite the marked inflammation observed in transgenic lungs. Importantly, strong expression of Fra-2 was also observed in human samples of idiopathic and autoimmune-mediated pulmonary fibrosis. These findings indicate that Fra-2 expression is sufficient to cause pulmonary fibrosis in mice, possibly by linking vascular remodeling and fibrogenesis, and suggest that Fra-2 has to be considered a contributing pathogenic factor of pulmonary fibrosis in humans. PMID:18641127

  17. Fra-1 regulation of Matrix Metallopeptidase-1 (MMP-1) in metastatic variants of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Henckels, Eric; Prywes, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Metallopeptidase 1 (MMP-1) expression has repeatedly been correlated to tumorigenesis and metastasis.  Yet, MMP-1 regulation in a metastatic context remains largely unknown.  Here we confirm differential MMP-1 expression in mammary carcinoma cells with varied metastatic potentials. We show that MMP-1 expression is regulated by an AP-1 element in its promoter in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 mammary carcinoma cell derivatives.  Fra-1, an AP-1 family transcription factor, differentially binds this element in highly metastatic cells compared to low metastatic cells and is required for MMP-1 expression.  Overexpression of Fra-1 also caused increased MMP-1 expression. Fra-1 mRNA levels are unchanged in the cell variants, however its protein levels are higher in the metastatic cells. While there was no change in Fra-1 protein degradation rates, protein synthesis of Fra-1 was increased in the metastatic cell variant. These results demonstrate that Fra-1 and MMP-1 levels are differentially regulated in metastatic cell variants at the level of Fra-1 protein translation. Consistent with the importance of Fra-1 for tumor growth, we found that Fra-1 overexpression was sufficient to increase cell motility and anchorage independent growth.  These results suggest that increased Fra-1 translation is critical for regulation of MMP-1 and tumor cell metastasis. PMID:25339983

  18. The Fra(X) syndrome: neurological, electrophysiological, and neuropathological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, K E; Segan, S M; Miezejeski, C M; Sersen, E A; Rudelli, R D

    1991-01-01

    We have evaluated 62 fragile X syndrome [fra(X)] individuals (55 males and 7 females) with different degrees of developmental disabilities that were clinically non-progressive and non-focal in character. The mean age for the 55 males was 23.1 years +/- 14.3 SD with a range of 2-70: for the 7 females, the mean age was 15.7 years +/- 3.5 SD with a range of 10-20 years. Mental retardation (MR) was found in 53 males (8/53 [15.1%] mild, 26/53 [49.1%] moderate, 14/53 [26.4%] severe, and 5/53 [9.4%] profound). Learning disabilities were found in 2/55 (3.6%) of males. One of the 7 females had mild and one had moderate MR: the other 5 were learning disabled. Autistic stigmata were present in 10/62 (16%) of the patients. Only 14/62 (23%) had a history of seizures, all of which were controlled with anticonvulsants. In 36/62 cases, an electroencephalogram (EEG) was performed. We compared these data with that of others. Brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) was performed in 12 cases. Abnormalities were found in only 5/12. Neuroimaging and computerized cranial transaxial tomography (CT scan) were performed on 21/62 (34%) of the patients. Only 8 of these 21 (38%) studies were abnormal. One patient died; neuropathological studies showed mild brain atrophy, with light microscopic and ultrastructural abnormalities. Rapid Golgi dendritic spine patterns showed that the proximal apical segments were abnormally developed. Very thin, long tortuous spines with prominent terminal heads and irregular dilatations were present. Marked reductions in the length of the synapses, as determined on EPTA-postfixed tissue where noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2018089

  19. FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection

    PubMed Central

    Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called normal instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

  20. FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection.

    PubMed

    Noto, Keith; Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called "normal" instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

  1. Fra-1 Induces Morphological Transformation and Increases In Vitro Invasiveness and Motility of Epithelioid Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kustikova, Olga; Kramerov, Dmitrii; Grigorian, Mariam; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Lukanidin, Eugene; Tulchinsky, Eugene

    1998-01-01

    Two cell lines originating from a common ancestral tumor, CSML0 and CSML100, were used as a model to study AP-1 transcription factors at different steps of tumor progression. CSML0 cells have an epithelial morphology; they express epithelial but not mesenchymal markers and are invasive neither in vitro nor in vivo. CSML100 possesses all characteristics of a highly progressive carcinoma. These cells do not form tight contacts, are highly invasive in vitro, and are metastatic in vivo. AP-1 activity was considerably higher in CSML100 cells than in CSML0 cells. There was a common predominant Jun component, namely, JunD, detected in both cell lines. We found that the enhanced level of AP-1 in CSML100 cells was due to high expression of Fra-1 and Fra-2 proteins, which were undetectable in CSML0 nuclear extracts. Analysis of the transcription of different AP-1 members in various cell lines derived from tumors of epithelial origin revealed a correlation of fra-1 expression with mesenchymal characteristics of carcinoma cells. Moreover, we show here for the first time that the expression of exogenous Fra-1 in epithelioid cells results in morphological changes that resemble fibroblastoid conversion. Cells acquire an elongated shape and become more motile and invasive in vitro. Morphological alterations were accompanied by transcriptional activation of certain genes whose expression is often induced at late stages of tumor progression. These data suggest a critical role of the Fra-1 protein in the development of epithelial tumors. PMID:9819396

  2. Restraint-induced fra-2 and c-fos expression in the rat forebrain: relationship to stress duration

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Marc S.; Girotti, Milena; Spencer, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The protein product of the fra-2 gene (Fra-2), a fos-family member, can compete with Fos protein for participation in AP-1 transcription factor complexes and each protein can contribute different transactivational consequences to an AP-1 complex. To date, there is limited characterization of fra-2 mRNA expression in the rat forebrain. We examined basal and restraint-induced mRNA expression (in situ hybridization) of fra-2 in the rat forebrain and compared its temporal-spatial pattern to c-fos. In contrast to the very low basal expression of c-fos, fra-2 basal expression was moderately high throughout cortex and some subcortical structures, including prominent basal expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Restraint-induced fra-2 expression was quantified in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), lateral septum (LS) and PVN. Maximal fra-2 gene induction in the PFC and LS was delayed (60 min) after restraint onset with respect to c-fos (15 min), whereas in the PVN, fra-2 mRNA increased within 15 min of restraint. Additionally we compared c-fos and fra-2 gene expression in rats given shorter or longer restraint durations, but equal total time from stress onset to sample collection, to determine the extent to which the kinetics of gene induction matched that of a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormone response. Rats given 45 min recovery after 15 min restraint showed less c-fos expression in the PVN, less fra-2 expression in the prelimbic and infralimbic PFC, and no difference in the LS compared with rats restrained for 60 min. Thus, the expression of both genes was sensitive to stressor duration, but this sensitivity varied with brain region. Differential basal and stress-induced expression patterns of the fra-2 and c-fos genes are likely to have important functional consequences for AP-1 transcription factor dependent regulation of neural plasticity. PMID:17936518

  3. The F8H Glycosyltransferase is a Functional Paralog of FRA8 Involved in Glucuronoxylan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FRAGILE FIBER8 gene was previously shown to be required for the biosynthesis of the reducing end tetrasaccharide sequence of glucuronoxylan (GX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrate that F8H, a close homolog of FRA8, is a functional ortholog of FRA8 involved in GX bi...

  4. FraH Is Required for Reorganization of Intracellular Membranes during Heterocyst Differentiation in Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 ?

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Mariscal, Vicente; Schwarz, Heinz; Maldener, Iris; Mullineaux, Conrad W.; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, two different cell types, the CO2-fixing vegetative cells and the N2-fixing heterocysts, exchange nutrients and regulators for diazotrophic growth. In the model organism Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, inactivation of fraH produces filament fragmentation under conditions of combined nitrogen deprivation, releasing numerous isolated heterocysts. Transmission electron microscopy of samples prepared by either high-pressure cryo-fixation or chemical fixation showed that the heterocysts of a ?fraH mutant lack the intracellular membrane system structured close to the heterocyst poles, known as the honeycomb, that is characteristic of wild-type heterocysts. Using a green fluorescent protein translational fusion to the carboxyl terminus of FraH (FraH-C-GFP), confocal microscopy showed spots of fluorescence located at the periphery of the vegetative cells in filaments grown in the presence of nitrate. After incubation in the absence of combined nitrogen, localization of FraH-C-GFP changed substantially, and the GFP fluorescence was conspicuously located at the cell poles in the heterocysts. Fluorescence microscopy and deconvolution of images showed that GFP fluorescence originated mainly from the region next to the cyanophycin plug present at the heterocyst poles. Intercellular transfer of the fluorescent tracers calcein (622 Da) and 5-carboxyfluorescein (374 Da) was either not impaired or only partially impaired in the ?fraH mutant, suggesting that FraH is not important for intercellular molecular exchange. Location of FraH close to the honeycomb membrane structure and lack of such structure in the ?fraH mutant suggest a role of FraH in reorganization of intracellular membranes, which may involve generation of new membranes, during heterocyst differentiation. PMID:21949079

  5. 75 FR 34213 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... 13, 2010 (75 FR 27112), the FRA sought applications from interested and responsible parties for two grants: to conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and to conduct a Study of the Use of Bio-based... consult the notice published on May 13, 2010 in the Federal Register (75 FR 27112) for additional...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C Appendix C to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C Appendix C to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  8. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... health, safety, or environmental threats should ordinarily result in enforcement actions, regardless...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... health, safety, or environmental threats should ordinarily result in enforcement actions, regardless...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... health, safety, or environmental threats should ordinarily result in enforcement actions, regardless...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... health, safety, or environmental threats should ordinarily result in enforcement actions, regardless...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C Appendix C to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  14. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  15. FRA2A Is a CGG Repeat Expansion Associated with Silencing of AFF3

    PubMed Central

    Metsu, Sofie; Rooms, Liesbeth; Rainger, Jacqueline; Taylor, Martin S.; Bengani, Hemant; Wilson, David I.; Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Morrison, Harris; Vandeweyer, Geert; Reyniers, Edwin; Douglas, Evelyn; Thompson, Geoffrey; Haan, Eric; Gecz, Jozef; FitzPatrick, David R.; Kooy, R. Frank

    2014-01-01

    Folate-sensitive fragile sites (FSFS) are a rare cytogenetically visible subset of dynamic mutations. Of the eight molecularly characterized FSFS, four are associated with intellectual disability (ID). Cytogenetic expression results from CGG tri-nucleotide-repeat expansion mutation associated with local CpG hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. The best studied is the FRAXA site in the FMR1 gene, where large expansions cause fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited ID syndrome. Here we studied three families with FRA2A expression at 2q11 associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We identified a polymorphic CGG repeat in a conserved, brain-active alternative promoter of the AFF3 gene, an autosomal homolog of the X-linked AFF2/FMR2 gene: Expansion of the AFF2 CGG repeat causes FRAXE ID. We found that FRA2A-expressing individuals have mosaic expansions of the AFF3 CGG repeat in the range of several hundred repeat units. Moreover, bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing both suggest AFF3 promoter hypermethylation. cSNP-analysis demonstrates monoallelic expression of the AFF3 gene in FRA2A carriers thus predicting that FRA2A expression results in functional haploinsufficiency for AFF3 at least in a subset of tissues. By whole-mount in situ hybridization the mouse AFF3 ortholog shows strong regional expression in the developing brain, somites and limb buds in 9.5–12.5dpc mouse embryos. Our data suggest that there may be an association between FRA2A and a delay in the acquisition of motor and language skills in the families studied here. However, additional cases are required to firmly establish a causal relationship. PMID:24763282

  16. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R.; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N− media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein. PMID:26216997

  17. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-08-11

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N- media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein. PMID:26216997

  18. Estrogen-induced Expression of Fos-related Antigen 1 (FRA-1) Regulates Uterine Stromal Differentiation and Remodeling*

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amrita; Li, Quanxi; Laws, Mary J.; Kaya, Hatice; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2012-01-01

    Concerted actions of estrogen and progesterone via their cognate receptors orchestrate changes in the uterine tissue, regulating implantation during early pregnancy. The uterine stromal cells undergo steroid-dependent differentiation into morphologically and functionally distinct decidual cells, which support embryonic growth and survival. The hormone-regulated pathways underlying this unique cellular transformation are not fully understood. Previous studies in the mouse revealed that, following embryo attachment, de novo synthesis of estrogen by the decidual cells is critical for stromal differentiation. In this study we report that Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1), a member of the Fos family of transcription factors, is a downstream target of regulation by intrauterine estrogen. FRA-1 expression was localized in the differentiating uterine stromal cells surrounding the implanted embryo. Attenuation of estrogen receptor ? (Esr1) expression by siRNA mediated silencing in primary uterine stromal cells suppressed FRA-1 expression. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated direct recruitment of ESR1 to an estrogen response element in the Fra-1 promoter. Down-regulation of Fra-1 expression during in vitro decidualization blocked stromal differentiation and resulted in a marked decrease in stromal cell migration. Interestingly, FRA-1 controls the expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP9 and MMP13, which are critical modulators of stromal extracellular matrix remodeling. Collectively, these results suggest that FRA-1, induced in response to estrogen signaling via ESR1, is a key regulator of stromal differentiation and remodeling during early pregnancy. PMID:22514284

  19. Aberrantly expressed Fra-1 by IL-6/STAT3 transactivation promotes colorectal cancer aggressiveness through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Guoping; Wang, Tingyang; Chen, Yuexia; Gong, Chaoju; Bai, Yanfeng; Wang, Bo; Qi, Hongyan; Shen, Jing; Zhu, Lijun; Qian, Cheng; Lai, Maode; Shao, Jimin

    2015-04-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in tumor microenvironment has been suggested to promote development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) plays a critical role in IL-6 induced CRC aggressiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In CRC cell lines, the expression of Fra-1 gene was found significantly upregulated during IL-6-driven EMT process. The Fra-1 induction occurred at transcriptional level in a manner dependent on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), during which both phosphorylated and acetylated post-translational modifications were required for STAT3 activation to directly bind to the Fra-1 promoter. Importantly, RNA interference-based attenuation of either STAT3 or Fra-1 prevented IL-6-induced EMT, cell migration and invasion, whereas ectopic expression of Fra-1 markedly reversed the STAT3-knockdown effect and enhanced CRC cell aggressiveness by regulating the expression of EMT-promoting factors (ZEB1, Snail, Slug, MMP-2 and MMP-9). Furthermore, Fra-1 levels were positively correlated with the local invasion depth as well as lymph node and liver metastasis in a total of 229 CRC patients. Intense immunohistochemical staining of Fra-1 was observed at the tumor marginal area adjacent to inflammatory cells and in parallel with IL-6 secretion and STAT3 activation in CRC tissues. Together, this study proposes the existence of an aberrant IL-6/STAT3/Fra-1 signaling axis leading to CRC aggressiveness through EMT induction, which suggests novel therapeutic opportunities for the malignant disease. PMID:25750173

  20. The role of deletions at the FRA3B/FHIT locus in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huebner, K; Druck, T; Siprashvili, Z; Croce, C M; Kovatich, A; McCue, P A

    1998-01-01

    The FHIT gene, which encodes a 1-kb message and a 16.8-kDa protein that hydrolyses diadenosine triphosphate (ApppA) to ADP and AMP in vitro, covers a megabase genomic region at chromosome band 3p14.2. The gene encompasses the most active of the common human chromosomal fragile regions, FRA3B. Over the years, it has been suggested that fragile sites might be especially susceptible to carcinogen damage and that chromosomal regions of nonrandom alterations in cancer cells may coincide with defined fragile sites. Within the FRA3B region, the characteristic induced chromosome gaps can occur across the entire region, but 60% of the gaps are centered on a 300-kb region flanking FHIT exon 5, the first protein-coding exon. Numerous hemizygous and homozygous deletions, translocations and DNA insertions occur within FHIT in cancer cell lines, uncultured tumors, and even in preneoplastic lesions, especially in tissues such as lung that are targets of carcinogens. This supports the proposed cancer-fragile site connection and suggests that the FHIT gene, expression of which is frequently altered in cells showing FHIT locus damage, is a tumor suppressor gene whose inactivation may drive clonal expansion of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells. Replacement of Fhit expression in Fhit-negative cancer cells abrogates their tumorigenicity in nude mice. Analysis of the approximately 300-kb DNA sequence encompassing FHIT exon 5 in the FRA3B epicenter has provided clues to the mechanism of repair of the fragile site double strand breaks. The mechanism involves recombination between LINE 1 elements with deletion of the intervening sequence, often including FHIT exons. These studies have also shown that FHIT alterations generally entail independent deletion of both FHIT alleles. Future studies will focus on two objectives: study of (1) the in vivo function of the Fhit protein and (2) mechanisms of break and repair in the FRA3B fragile region. PMID:10027001

  1. ATF3 and Fra1 have opposite functions in JNK- and ERK-dependent DNA damage responses.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Mohamed; Popeijus, Herman E; Carlotti, Françoise; Janssen, Josephine M; van der Burgt, Corina; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; van de Water, Bob; Hoeben, Rob C; Matsuo, Koichi; van Dam, Hans

    2008-03-01

    JNK and ERK MAP kinases regulate cellular responses to genotoxic stress in a cell type and cell context-dependent manner. However, the factors that determine and execute JNK- and ERK-controlled stress responses are only partly known. In this study, we investigate the roles of the AP-1 components ATF3 and Fra1 in JNK- and ERK-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We show that the anti-cancer drug cisplatin or UV light activates both JNK and ERK in human glioblastoma cells lacking functional p53. Inhibition experiments of JNK or ERK activities revealed that the ERK pathway strongly promotes cisplatin- and UV-induced apoptosis in these glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, JNK but not ERK is required for ATF3 induction, and both ERK and JNK are necessary for post-transcriptional induction of Fra1 in response to cisplatin or UV. Knock-down of ATF3 and Fra1 results in increased and decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, respectively, indicating that ATF3 is an anti-apoptotic JNK effector and Fra1 is a pro-apoptotic ERK/JNK effector. Knock-down experiments also revealed that ATF3 and Fra1, respectively, enhance and reduce S-phase arrest through differential modulation of the Chk1-Cdk2 pathway. Thus, we identify novel reciprocal functions of ATF3 and Fra1 in JNK- and ERK-dependent DNA damage responses. PMID:18249159

  2. Fra-1/AP-1 induces EMT in mammary epithelial cells by modulating Zeb1/2 and TGF? expression.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, L; Macho-Maschler, S; Custic, I; Niemiec, J; Guo-Carrin, A; Hasenfuss, S C; Eger, A; Mller, M; Beug, H; Wagner, E F

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for embryonic morphogenesis and wound healing and critical for tumour cell invasion and dissemination. The AP-1 transcription factor Fra-1 has been implicated in tumorigenesis and in tumour-associated EMT in human breast cancer. We observed a significant inverse correlation between Fra-1 mRNA expression and distant-metastasis-free survival in a large cohort of breast cancer patients derived from multiple array data sets. This unique correlation among Fos genes prompted us to assess the evolutionary conservation between Fra-1 functions in EMT of human and mouse cells. Ectopic expression of Fra-1 in fully polarized, non-tumourigenic, mouse mammary epithelial EpH4 cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype, characterized by a loss of epithelial and gain of mesenchymal markers. Proliferation, motility and invasiveness were also increased in the resulting EpFra1 cells, and the cells were tumourigenic and efficiently colonized the lung upon transplantation. Molecular analyses revealed increased expression of Tgf?1 and the EMT-inducing transcription factors Zeb1, Zeb2 and Slug. Mechanistically, Fra-1 binds to the tgfb1 and zeb2 promoters and to an evolutionarily conserved region in the first intron of zeb1. Furthermore, increased activity of a zeb2 promoter reporter was detected in EpFra1 cells and shown to depend on AP-1-binding sites. Inhibiting TGF? signalling in EpFra1 cells moderately increased the expression of epithelial markers, whereas silencing of zeb1 or zeb2 restored the epithelial phenotype and decreased migration in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Thus Fra-1 induces changes in the expression of genes encoding EMT-related transcription factors leading to the acquisition of mesenchymal, invasive and tumorigenic capacities by epithelial cells. This study defines a novel function of Fra-1/AP-1 in modulating tgfb1, zeb1 and zeb2 expression through direct binding to genomic regulatory regions, which establishes a basis for future in vivo genetic manipulations and preclinical studies using mouse models. PMID:25301070

  3. Enhanced CREB phosphorylation and changes in c-Fos and FRA expression in striatum accompany amphetamine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, S M; Pollack, A E; Fink, J S

    1997-02-21

    Expression in striatum of c-Fos, a 35 kDa Fos-related antigen (FRA) and the phosphorylated form of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (phosphoCREB) was assessed using Western blots in rats that developed behavioral sensitization following repeated amphetamine administration. Treatment with d-amphetamine (5 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days produced behavioral sensitization. Similar to previous observations using chronic cocaine administration, amphetamine sensitized animals had decreased c-Fos and increased FRA proteins in striatum. Supershift analysis with antisera to c-Fos and FRA proteins demonstrated that 4-Fos and the 35 kDa FRA are components of the striatal AP-1 binding complex from sensitized rats. Thus, amphetamine sensitization is accompanied by alterations in the composition of the AP-1 DNA binding complex. An increased amount of phosphoCREB protein was also present in the striatum of amphetamine sensitized rats. These results suggest that alterations in Fos, FRA and CREB transcription factors are common neuronal responses to chronic psychostimulant administration and may contribute to regulation of genes important to the neuroplastic changes underlying psychostimulant sensitization. PMID:9070635

  4. FRA-1 AS A DRIVER OF TUMOUR HETEROGENEITY: A NEXUS BETWEEN ONCOGENES AND EMBRYONIC SIGNALLING PATHWAYS IN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, A S; Tulchinsky, E

    2014-01-01

    Tumour heterogeneity is a major factor undermining the success of therapies targeting metastatic cancer. Two major theories are thought to explain the phenomenon of heterogeneity in cancer clonal evolution and cell plasticity. In this review, we examine a growing body of work implicating the transcription factor FOS Related Antigen 1 (FRA-1) as a central node in tumour cell plasticity networks, and discuss mechanisms regulating its activity in cancer cells. We also discuss evidence from the FRA-1 perspective supporting the notion that clonal selection and cell plasticity represent two sides of the same coin. We propose that FRA-1-overexpressing clones featuring high plasticity undergo positive selection during consecutive stages of multistep tumour progression. This model underscores a potential mechanism through which tumour cells retaining elevated levels of plasticity acquire a selective advantage over other clonal populations within a tumour. PMID:25381818

  5. Terminal epidermal differentiation is regulated by the interaction of Fra-2/AP-1 with Ezh2 and ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Stefanie; Zhang, Jisheng; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Garca, Fernando; Muoz, Javier; Bakiri, Latifa; Ezhkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Altered epidermal differentiation characterizes numerous skin diseases affecting >25% of the human population. Here we identified Fra-2/AP-1 as a key regulator of terminal epidermal differentiation. Epithelial-restricted, ectopic expression of Fra-2 induced expression of epidermal differentiation genes located within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC). Moreover, in a papilloma-prone background, a reduced tumor burden was observed due to precocious keratinocyte differentiation by Fra-2 expression. Importantly, loss of Fra-2 in suprabasal keratinocytes is sufficient to cause skin barrier defects due to reduced expression of differentiation genes. Mechanistically, Fra-2 binds and transcriptionally regulates EDC gene promoters, which are co-occupied by the transcriptional repressor Ezh2. Fra-2 remains transcriptionally inactive in nondifferentiated keratinocytes, where it was found monomethylated and dimethylated on Lys104 and interacted with Ezh2. Upon keratinocyte differentiation, Fra-2 is C-terminally phosphorylated on Ser320 and Thr322 by ERK1/2, leading to transcriptional activation. Thus, the induction of epidermal differentiation by Fra-2 is controlled by a dual mechanism involving Ezh2-dependent methylation and activation by ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation. PMID:25547114

  6. Fra-1 is upregulated in lung cancer tissues and inhibits the apoptosis of lung cancer cells by the P53 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guangwei; Chen, Xi; Fang, Xia; Wang, Dongsheng; Xie, Mingxuan; Chen, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) is a member of the activator protein-1 transcription factor superfamily. It plays important roles in oncogenesis in various types of malignancies. Herein, we investigated the expression of Fra-1 in lung cancer tissues by qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot technologies. The results showed that Fra-1 was overexpressed in the lung cancer tissues when compared with the level in the adjacent non?cancerous tissues. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra-1 in lung cancer, we elucidated the effect of Fra-1 on the apoptosis of lung cancer H460 cells, and found that the rate of cell apoptosis was decreased in the H460/Fra-1 cells compared with the H460 or H460/vector cells. Cell apoptosis is closely related with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations. Our results showed that overexpression of Fra-1 in the lung cancer H460 cells, led to an increase in ??m and and a decrease in intracellular ROS and Ca2+ concentrations. Furthermore, we found that Fra-1 was correlated with dysregulation of the P53 signaling pathway in lung cancer tissues invitro. At the same time, we found that Fra-1 overexpression affected the expression of MDM2 and P53 invivo. In summary, our results suggest that Fra-1 is upregulated in lung cancer tissues and functions by affecting the P53 signaling pathway in lung cancer. PMID:26549498

  7. The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe-2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Mapolelo, D; Dingra, N; Naik, S; Lees, N; Hoffman, B; Riggs-Gelasco, P; Huynh, B; Johnson, M; Outten, C

    2009-01-01

    The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However, the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which they control Aft1 localization are unclear. To reconstitute and characterize components of this signaling pathway in vitro, we have overexpressed yeast Fra2 and Grx3/4 in Escherichia coli. We have shown that coexpression of recombinant Fra2 with Grx3 or Grx4 allows purification of a stable [2Fe-2S]{sup 2+} cluster-containing Fra2-Grx3 or Fra2-Grx4 heterodimeric complex. Reconstitution of a [2Fe-2S] cluster on Grx3 or Grx4 without Fra2 produces a [2Fe-2S]-bridged homodimer. UV?visible absorption and CD, resonance Raman, EPR, ENDOR, M{umlt o}ssbauer, and EXAFS studies of [2Fe-2S] Grx3/4 homodimers and the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3/4 heterodimers indicate that inclusion of Fra2 in the Grx3/4 Fe-S complex causes a change in the cluster stability and coordination environment. Taken together, our analytical, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 form a Fe-S-bridged heterodimeric complex with Fe ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. Overall, these results suggest that the ability of the Fra2-Grx3/4 complex to assemble a [2Fe-2S] cluster may act as a signal to control the iron regulon in response to cellular iron status in yeast.

  8. The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe-2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoran; Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Dingra, Nin N.; Naik, Sunil G.; Lees, Nicolas S.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela J.; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K.; Outten, Caryn E.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in S. cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which they control Aft1 localization are unclear. To reconstitute and characterize components of this signaling pathway in vitro, we have overexpressed yeast Fra2 and Grx3/4 in E. coli. We have shown that co-expression of recombinant Fra2 with Grx3 or Grx4 allows purification of a stable [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster-containing Fra2-Grx3 or Fra2-Grx4 heterodimeric complex. Reconstitution of a [2Fe-2S] cluster on Grx3 or Grx4 without Fra2 produces a [2Fe-2S]-bridged homodimer. UV-visible absorption and CD, resonance Raman, EPR, ENDOR, Mssbauer, and EXAFS studies of [2Fe-2S] Grx3/4 homodimers and the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3/4 heterodimers indicate that inclusion of Fra2 in the Grx3/4 Fe-S complex causes a change in the cluster stability and coordination environment. Taken together, our analytical, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 form a Fe-S-bridged heterodimeric complex with Fe ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. Overall, these results suggest that the ability of the Fra2-Grx3/4 complex to assemble a [2Fe-2S] cluster may act as a signal to control the iron regulon in response to cellular iron status in yeast. PMID:19715344

  9. 49 CFR 214.307 - Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA. 214.307 Section 214.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY...

  10. 49 CFR 214.307 - Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA. 214.307 Section 214.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY...

  11. 49 CFR 214.307 - Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA. 214.307 Section 214.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY...

  12. 49 CFR 214.307 - Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA. 214.307 Section 214.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY...

  13. 49 CFR 214.307 - Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA. 214.307 Section 214.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY...

  14. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. 228.407 Section 228.407 Transportation... schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. (a) Analysis of... fatigue at which safety may be compromised. Schedules identified in paragraph (g) of this section do...

  15. fra-1: a serum-inducible, cellular immediate-early gene that encodes a fos-related antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D R; Curran, T

    1988-01-01

    A set of proteins antigenically related to the c-fos protein (Fos) are induced by serum in fibroblasts. To isolate cDNA clones of genes encoding such proteins, a lambda gt11 expression cDNA library constructed from serum-stimulated rat fibroblasts was screened with antibodies raised against a hydrophilic region (amino acids 127 to 152) of Fos. One of the positive clones identified, termed fra-1 (Fos-related antigen) was characterized. It encoded a protein that shared several regions of extensive amino acid homology with Fos (including the region that showed similarity to both the yeast GCN4 regulatory protein and the protein encoded by the jun oncogene), although its nucleotide sequence was considerably diverged from that of the c-fos gene. Only a subset of the agents and conditions that activated c-fos also induced fra-1. Induction of fra-1 expression following serum stimulation was delayed compared with that of c-fos. However, like c-fos, fra-1 was induced rapidly by serum in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Thus, a family of Fos-related, inducible genes are involved in the cellular immediate-early transcriptional response to extracellular stimuli. Images PMID:3133553

  16. Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

  17. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards. 229.207 Section 229... Design Requirements 229.207 New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing...

  18. Sedimentology of clastic rocks from the Fra Mauro region of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A thin-section examination of sixteen clastic rock samples returned by the Apollo 14 mission from the Fra Mauro region of the moon suggests the presence of at least two distinctly different lithologies. Five of the samples (group I) are characterized by an abundant glassy matrix and glass particles and lesser amounts of plagioclase and pyroxene grains, and lithic clasts. The other eleven samples (group II) are relatively fine grained, very poorly sorted, and consist largely of pyroxene, plagioclase, and lithic clasts set in an abundant mineralic matrix. Group I and II lithologies were probably both deposited from impact generated base surges. The differences between them stem not as much from the basic sedimentary processes as from the differences in the magnitude of the events generating the base surges and the resultant difference in available detrital materials.

  19. Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

  20. Positions of chromosome 3p14.2 fragile sites (FRA3B) within the FHIT gene.

    PubMed

    Zimonjic, D B; Druck, T; Ohta, M; Kastury, K; Croce, C M; Popescu, N C; Huebner, K

    1997-03-15

    The FHIT gene spans approximately 1 Mb of DNA at chromosome band 3p14.2, which includes the familial renal cell carcinoma chromosome translocation breakpoint (between FHIT exons 3 and 4), the most frequently expressed human constitutive chromosomal fragile site (FRA3B, telomeric to the t(3;8) translocation), and numerous homozygous deletions in various human cancers, frequently involving FHIT exon 5. The FRA3B has previously been shown to represent more than one specific site, and some specific representatives of FRA3B breaks have been shown to fall in two regions, which we know to be in FHIT introns 4 and intron 5. Because breakage and integration of exogenous DNA in this chromosome region is frequent in aphidicolin-treated somatic cell hybrids, cancer cells, and, presumably, aphidicolin-treated normal lymphocytes that exhibit gaps or breaks, we determined by one- and two color fluorescence in situ hybridization, using cosmids covering specific regions of the FHIT gene, that most of the aphidicolin-induced gaps at FRA3B fall within the FHIT gene, with the highest frequency of gaps falling in intron 5 of the FHIT gene, less than 30 kb telomeric to FHIT exon 5. Gaps also occur in intron 4, where a human papillomavirus 16 integration site has been localized, and in intron 3, where the t(3;8) break point is located. These results suggest that the cancer-specific deletions, which frequently involve introns 4 and 5, originated through breaks in fragile sites. PMID:9067288

  1. [Fra Dujo Ostoji? (1863-1938) and his "Doma?i Lie?nik - medicus domesticus"].

    PubMed

    Nikic, Andrija

    2010-01-01

    Fra Dujo Ostoji?(Bijakovi?i, 1863 - Humac kod Ljubukog, 1938) was an educator, teacher, spiritual guide, pastor, cultural, political, charity and welfare activist, a bibliophile, collector, chronicler, and copyist, who worked all over Herzegovina. In 1913, he became Franciscan provincial in Mostar. He was also a member of the Bosnian and Herzegovinian parliament in Sarajevo, where he fervently advocated the rights, identity, and cultural and economic interests of the Croatian people of Herzegovina. At about the same time he bought printing machines from a local printer Dioni?ka tiskara and started a printing office that later became the well known Tiskara FP (FP - Franciscan Province). He continued to write his memoirs, adding new manuscripts to the volume. Two of them are worth of particular mention: "Doma?i lie?nik - Medicus domesticus" ("People's Doctor", 1146 large format pages) and "Necrologium". There he describes the lives of Franciscan brothers and people he knew who practiced the art of pharmacy and medicine, and expands the recipes collected in healing books of the time. Unlike the manuscripts of some of his brothers, Ostoji?'s have survived for over seventy years to this day, to reveal his magnificent legacy to the Croatian people. PMID:21192115

  2. Cancer-specific chromosome alterations in the constitutive fragile region FRA3B.

    PubMed

    Mimori, K; Druck, T; Inoue, H; Alder, H; Berk, L; Mori, M; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1999-06-22

    We have sequenced 870 kilobases of the FHIT/FRA3B locus, from FHIT intron 3 to intron 7. The locus is AT rich (61.5%) and Alu poor (6. 2%), and it apparently does not harbor other genes. In a detailed analysis of the 308-kilobase region between FHIT exon 5 and the telomeric end of intron 3, a region known to encompass a human papillomavirus-16 integration site and two clusters of aphidicolin-induced chromosome 3p14.2 breakpoints, we have precisely mapped 10 deletion and translocation endpoints in cancer-derived cell lines relative to positions of specific repetitive elements, regions of high genome flexibility and aphidicolin-induced breakpoints. Conclusions are (i) that aphidicolin-induced breakpoint clusters fall close to high-flexibility sequences, suggesting that these sequences contribute directly to aphidicolin-induced fragility; (ii) that 9 of the 10 FHIT allelic deletions in cancer cell lines resulted in loss of exons, with 7 deletion endpoints near long interspersed nuclear elements or long terminal repeat elements; and (iii) that cancer-specific deletions encompass multiple high-flexibility genomic regions, suggesting that fragile breaks may occur at these regions, whereas repair of the breaks involves homologous pairing of flanking sequences with concomitant deletion of the damaged fragile sequence. PMID:10377436

  3. Cocaine up-regulates Fra-2 and sigma-1 receptor gene and protein expression in brain regions involved in addiction and reward.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Chen, Guang-Di; Lerner, Megan R; Brackett, Daniel J; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2005-08-01

    Sigma receptors have recently been implicated in the actions of cocaine, and antagonists of these receptors prevent many acute and subchronic cocaine effects. A previous study revealed that the immediate early gene fra-2 is up-regulated after cocaine administration, and this effect is prevented by the sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1063 [1-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine]. In the present study, the effects of cocaine and BD1063 on the expression of six fos and jun genes were evaluated in mouse brains using cDNA microarrays. Several of these genes were altered by cocaine, but only the alteration in fra-2 was prevented by BD1063. The time courses of fra-2 and sigma-1 receptor gene and protein expression in different brain regions were also determined. Cocaine up-regulated fra-2, which was followed by a later up-regulation of sigma-1 receptors. The cocaine-induced up-regulation of fra-2 and sigma-1 receptor genes and proteins were detected in whole brain, striatum, and cortex, but not in cerebellum. All of these cocaine-induced effects were prevented by BD1063. The interaction between cocaine, fra-2, and sigma-1 receptors involves brain regions that are established components of the neural circuit for reward, suggesting that they may contribute to the enduring changes that underlie the cellular basis of drug abuse. PMID:15879001

  4. The cold regulated transcriptional activator Cbf3 is linked to the frost-tolerance gene Fr-A2 on wheat chromosome 5A

    PubMed Central

    Vgjfalvi, A.; Galiba, G.; Cattivelli, L.; Dubcovsky, J.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat chromosome 5A plays a key role in cold acclimation and frost tolerance. The major frost tolerance gene Fr-A1 (formerly Fr1) and two loci that regulate the transcription of cold-regulated genes (Cor) have been mapped before on the long arm of this chromosome. In this study we report the existence of a new locus for frost tolerance designated Fr-A2. This new locus was mapped on the long arm of T. monococcum chromosome 5A, 40 cM from the centromere and 30 cM proximal to the major frost tolerance locus Fr-A1. We found also, that frost tolerant and frost susceptible T. monococcum parental lines differed in the transcription level of the cold induced gene Cor14b when plants were grown at 15C. Transcription levels of this gene were measured in each of the recombinant inbreed lines and mapped as a QTL that perfectly overlapped the QTL for frost survival at the Fr-A2 locus. This result suggested that frost tolerance in this cross was mediated by a differential regulation of the expression of the Cor genes. In our previous study in hexaploid wheat we showed that Cor14b was regulated by two loci located on chromosome 5A, one in the same chromosome region as the T. monococcum Fr-A2 locus and the other one closely linked to Fr-A1. Since Cbf transcriptional activators in Arabidopsis regulate Cor genes and are involved in frost tolerance, we decided to map the cold regulated Cbf-like barley gene Cbf3 in the T. monococcum map. This gene was mapped on the peak of the Fr-A2 QTL for frost tolerance. This result suggest that the observed differential regulation of Cor14b at the Fr-A2 locus was originated by allelic variation at the XCbf3 locus, and that this transcriptional activator might be a candidate gene for the Fr-A2 frost tolerance locus on wheat chromosome 5A. PMID:12715154

  5. Transcriptional regulation of the mouse CD11c promoter by AP-1 complex with JunD and Fra2 in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Mutsuko; Yokoyama, Hokuto; Fukuyama, Kanako; Kitamura, Nao; Shimokawa, Naomi; Maeda, Keiko; Kanada, Shunsuke; Ito, Tomonobu; Usui, Yoshihiko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Nishiyama, Makoto; Nishiyama, Chiharu

    2013-03-01

    CD11c, a member of the ?(2) integrin family of adhesion molecule, is expressed on the surface of myeloid lineages and activated lymphoid cells and forms a heterodimeric receptor with CD18. We analyzed the mouse CD11c promoter structure to elucidate the transcriptional regulation in dendritic cells (DCs). By reporter assay, the -84/-65 region was identified to be essential for activity of the mouse CD11c promoter in the mouse bone marrow-derived (BM) DCs and monocyte cell line RAW264.7. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay using a number of antibodies against transcription factors revealed that the target region was recognized by a complex including JunD and Fra2, which are transcription factors belonging to the AP-1 family. The direct interaction of JunD and Fra2 with the CD11c promoter was further confirmed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using CD11c-positive cells purified from BMDCs. Finally, mouse JunD and/or Fra2 siRNA was introduced into BMDCs to evaluate the involvement of these factors against CD11c transcription and found that Fra2 siRNA reduced cell surface expression level of CD11c. These results indicate that AP-1 composed with JunD and Fra2 protein plays a primary role in enhancing the transcription level of the CD11c gene in DC. PMID:22990073

  6. Neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells requires the junB and fra-1 gene induction which is dependent on the HMGI-C gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, D; Battista, S; Pierantoni, G M; Fedele, M; Casalino, L; Santoro, M; Viglietto, G; Fusco, A; Verde, P

    1997-01-01

    The expression of the high mobility group I (HMGI)-C chromatin component was shown previously to be essential for the establishment of the neoplastic phenotype in retrovirally transformed thyroid cell lines. To identify possible targets of the HMGI-C gene product, we have analyzed the AP-1 complex in normal, fully transformed and antisense HMGI-C-expressing rat thyroid cells. We show that neoplastic transformation is associated with a drastic increase in AP-1 activity, which reflects multiple compositional changes. The strongest effect is represented by the dramatic junB and fra-1 gene induction, which is prevented in cell lines expressing the antisense HMGI-C. These results indicate that the HMGI-C gene product is essential for the junB and fra-1 transcriptional induction associated with neoplastic transformation. The inhibition of Fra-1 protein synthesis by stable transfection with a fra-1 antisense RNA vector significantly reduces the malignant phenotype of the transformed thyroid cells, indicating a pivotal role for the fra-1 gene product in the process of cellular transformation. PMID:9311991

  7. Reverse mapping of the gene encoding the human fos-related antigen-1 (fra-1) within chromosome band 11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Sinke, R.J. ); Tanigami, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Kessel, A.G. van )

    1993-10-01

    For the identification of sequence-tagged sites within cosmid clones derived from the q13 region of human chromosome 11, the authors subcloned a number of single copy BamHI fragments in a pT7T3 19U vector. Surprisingly, within one of these subclones, they encountered a stretch of DNA that matches perfectly with 5' end of the known cDNA sequence for the human fos-related antigen. This match comes to an abrupt end at nucleotide 328, which coincides with a perfect splice donor site. At position 231 an ATG codon (translation initiation) was found. From these data they conclude that position 328 marks the boundary of the first exon of the fra-1 gene. Homology of this same region with the rat fra-1 cDNA sequence is [+-]70%. This human fra-1 genomic fragment is contained within cosmid clone cCL11-254 (D11S460), which was previously mapped to region V of a long-range contig map of 11q13. The localization of fra-1 on chromosome 11 was cross-checked and confirmed by hybridizing the fra-1 containing fragment to a panel of somatic cell hybrids, including one line that contains chromosome 11 as its only human constituent. In addition to a cross-hybridizing rodent fragment, a single human-specific band was revealed in all the chromosome 11-containing hybrids. This subchromosomal localization of fra-1 to 11q13 adds yet another proto-oncogene to this restricted genomic region, which appears to be involved in a number of neoplastic disorders, e.g., multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, breast cancer, squamous cell tumors of head and neck, esophageal carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, bladder carcinoma, extragonadal germ cell tumors, and some hematopoietic malignancies. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  10. Selective participation of c-Jun with Fra-2/c-Fos promotes aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Kaur, Harsimrut; Sharma, Nishi; Saluja, Daman; Bharti, Alok C.; Das, Bhudev C.

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%). A higher expression and DNA binding activity of AP-1 was observed in tongue tumors and cancer cell lines with c-Fos and Fra-2 as the major binding partners forming the functional AP-1 complex but c-Jun participated only in HPV negative and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Knocking down of Fra-2 responsible for aggressive tongue tumorigenesis led to significant reduction in c-Fos, c-Jun, MMP-9 and HPVE6/E7 expression but Fra-1 and p53 were upregulated. The binding and expression of c-Fos/Fra-2 increased as a function of severity of tongue lesions, yet selective participation of c-Jun appears to promote poor differentiation and aggressive tumorigenesis only in HPV negative cases while HPV infection leads to well differentiation and better prognosis preferably in nonsmokers. PMID:26581505

  11. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  12. WWOX, the common fragile site FRA16D gene product, regulates ATM activation and the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Herbel, Christoph; Hofmann, Thomas G.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer. The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor spanning the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D. Here, we report a direct role of WWOX in DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that Wwox deficiency results in reduced activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase, inefficient induction and maintenance of ?-H2AX foci, and impaired DNA repair. Mechanistically, we show that, upon DNA damage, WWOX accumulates in the cell nucleus, where it interacts with ATM and enhances its activation. Nuclear accumulation of WWOX is regulated by its K63-linked ubiquitination at lysine residue 274, which is mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH. These findings identify a novel role for the tumor suppressor WWOX and show that loss of WWOX expression may drive genomic instability and provide an advantage for clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. PMID:25331887

  13. Chagas disease-specific antigens: characterization of epitopes in CRA/FRA by synthetic peptide mapping and evaluation by ELISA-peptide assay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of epitopes in proteins recognized by medically relevant antibodies is useful for the development of peptide-based diagnostics and vaccines. In this study, epitopes in the cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi were identified using synthetic peptide techniques and pooled sera from Chagasic patients. The epitopes were further assayed with an ELISA assay based on synthetic peptides. Methods Twenty-two overlapping synthetic peptides representing the coding sequence of the T. cruzi CRA and FRA proteins were assessed by a Spot-synthesis array analysis using sera donated by patients with Chagas disease. Shorter peptides were selected that represented the determined epitopes and synthesized by solid phase synthesis to evaluate the patterns of cross-reactivities and discrimination through an ELISA-diagnostic assay. Results The peptide Spot-synthesis array successfully identified two IgG antigenic determinants in the CRA protein and four in FRA. Bioinformatics suggested that the CRA antigens were unique to T. cruzi while the FRA antigen showed similarity with sequences present within various proteins from Leishmania sp. Subsequently, shorter peptides representing the CRA-1, CRA-2 and FRA-1 epitopes were synthesized by solid phase synthesis and assayed by an ELISA-diagnostic assay. The CRA antigens gave a high discrimination between Chagasic, Leishmaniasis and T. cruzi-uninfected serum. A sensitivity and specificity of 100% was calculated for CRA. While the FRA antigen showed a slightly lower sensitivity (91.6%), its specificity was only 60%. Conclusions The epitopes recognized by human anti-T. cruzi antibodies have been precisely located in two biomarkers of T. cruzi, CRA and FRA. The results from screening a panel of patient sera through an ELISA assay based on peptides representing these epitopes strongly suggest that the sequences from CRA would be useful for the development of diagnostic reagents that could improve upon the sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests. Overall, the results provide further evidence of the usefulness of identifying specific linear B-cell epitopes for improving diagnostic tools. PMID:24299278

  14. A comparison of forest cover maps in Mainland Southeast Asia from multiple sources: PALSAR, MERIS, MODIS and FRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Sheldon, S. L.; Biradar, C. M.; Duong, N. D.; Hazarika, M.

    2012-12-01

    The uncertainty in tracking tropical forest extent and changes substantially affects our assessment of the consequences of forest change on the global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Recently cloud-free imagery useful for tropical forest mapping from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has become available. We used PALSAR 50-m Orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 and a decision tree method to conduct land cover classification and generate a 2009 forest map, which was evaluated using 2106 field photos from the Global Geo-referenced Field Photo Library (http://www.eomf.ou.edu/photos). The resulting land cover classification had a high overall accuracy of 93.3 % and a Kappa Coefficient of 0.9. The PALSAR-based forest map was then compared with three existing forest cover products at three scales (regional, national, and continental): the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments (FRA) 2010, Global Land Cover Map with MERIS (GlobCover) 2009, and the MODIS Terra + Aqua Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1) 2009. The intercomparison results show that these four forest datasets differ. The PALSAR-based forest area estimate is within the range (6.1 ~ 9.0 105 km2) of the other three products and closest to the FAO FRA 2010 estimate. The spatial disagreements of the PALSAR-based forest, MCD12Q1 forest and GlobCover forest are evident; however, the PALSAR-based forest map provides more detail (50-m spatial resolution) and high accuracy (the Producer's and the User's Accuracies were 88 % and 95 %, respectively) and PALSAR can be used to evaluate MCD12Q1 2009 and GlobCover 2009 forest maps. Given the higher spatial resolution, PALSAR-based forest products could further improve the modeling accuracy of carbon cycle in tropical forests.

  15. Contribution of REM sleep to Fos and FRA expression in the vestibular nuclei of rat leading to vestibular adaptation during the STS-90 Neurolab Mission.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, O

    2007-01-01

    1. Electrophysical studies performed in ground-based experiments have shown that VN neurons respond to labyrinthine signals following stimulation of macular gravity receptors. Additional evidence indicates that VN neurons may also respond to extralabyrinthine signals of pontine origin, which occur during the PGO waves typical of REM sleep (Bizzi et al., 1964a, b; cf. also Pompeiano, 1967, 1970, 1974 for ref.). 2. In a previous study (Pompeiano et al., 2002) changes in Fos and FRA expression were used to identify the short-term (Fos) and the long-term (FRA) molecular changes which affect the VN neurons at different time points of the space flight. In particular, while Fos protein persists in the brain tissue only for a few hours (6-8 hrs) after its induction, FRA proteins, which can also be induced in the same experimental conditions, persist in the brain tissue for longer periods of time (i.e. from 12/24 hrs to days). 3. In order to relate the changes in gene expression which occurred in the VN during the space flight either to gravity changes or to REM sleep, we investigated in a recent study (Centini et al, 2006) the changes in Fos and FRA expression which occurred in different phases of the sleep-waking cycle, thus being indicative of the animal state. We could then compare the results obtained during the space lab Mission with those previously observed either in ground-based experiments during the physiological state of waking and slow-wave (SWS) or during neurochemically induced episodes of PS, as obtained after microinjection of appropriate agents in dorsal pontine structures of rats. 4. Our findings indicated that a waking state possibly associated with episodes of SWS, occurred at FD2 and FD14, i.e. at launch and after exposure of the animal to microgravity. It appeared also that at the reentry (R + 1) rather than at launch (FD2), an increase in Fos and FRA expression affected the noradrenergic LC neurons, as well as several related structures. These findings probably resulted from the acceleration stress, or immobilization stress as shown by the appearance of a starle reaction (or arrest reaction) which occurred after landing. This condition of stress was followed after landing by an increase in Fos and FRA expression which affected ventromedial medullary reticular structures, whose descending projections are involved in the suppression of postural activity during PS. Moreover, their ascending projections were likely to increase the FRA expression in the neocortex as well as in several regions of the limbic system, such as the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus, which lead to EEG desynchronization and the theta activity during PS. FRA expression affected also at the reentry pontine and diencephalic structures, such as the lateral parabrachial nucleus and the central nucleus of the amygdala, which are known to contribute to the occurrence of pontine waves and the related bursts of REM. 5. Observations made on the various components of the vestibular complex indicated that no Fos and FRA expression occurred in the LVN at the four different mission time points. However, an increase in Fos and FRA expression occurred particularly in the medial (MVN) and spinal vestibular nuclei (SpVN) at FD2 and at R + 1, i.e. 1 day after launch and 12-24 hours after landing, respectively. The pattern of FRA expression observed in the VN during the space flight was generally similar to that of Fos, except at the reentry, when FRA positive cells were observed throughout the whole SpVN, but not the MVN, which showed only a few labeled cells in its rostral part. In contrast to this finding, a prominent Fos expression was found not only in the SpVN, but also throughout the entire MVN. In this case the Fos labeling affected not only the caudal but also the rostral part of this structure, including the dorsal (MVePc) rather than the ventral aspect (MVeMc). Grounded on their different time of persistence, both Fos and FRA expression which occurred in the SpVe could be attributed to the increase in gravity force experienced during take-off and landing, while the Fos pattern which affected particularly the MVN soon after the reentry could additionally be attributed to the rebound episode of PS following the forced period of waking which occurred after landing and after the prolonged (12 days) exposure to microgravity. 6. The results of the present experiments provide the first molecular evidence that pontine activity sources producing rhythmic discharges of vestibulo-ocular neurons during REM sleep may substitute for labyrinthine signals after prolonged (12 days) exposure to microgravity, thus contributing to activity-related plastic changes in the VN leading to readaptation of the vestibular system to 1 G. PMID:17274184

  16. Common Chromosome Fragile Sites in Human and Murine Epithelial Cells and FHIT/FRA3B Loss-Induced Global Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Horton, Susan; Saldivar, Joshua C.; Miuma, Satoshi; Stampfer, Martha R.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Huebner, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal positions of common fragile sites differ in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, with positions dependent on the epigenetically determined density of replication origins at these loci. Because rearrangement of fragile loci and associated loss of fragile gene products are hallmarks of cancers, we aimed to map common fragile sites in epithelial cells, from which most cancers derive. Among the five most frequently activated sites in human epithelial cells were chromosome bands 2q33 and Xq22.1, which are not among top fragile sites identified in lymphoblasts or fibroblasts. FRA16D at 16q23 was among the top three fragile sites in the human epithelial cells examined, as it is in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, while FRA3B at 3p14.2, the top fragile locus in lymphoblasts, was not fragile in most epithelial cell lines tested. Epithelial cells exhibited varying hierarchies of fragile sites; some frequent epithelial cell fragile sites are apparently not frequently altered in epithelial cancers and sites that are frequently deleted in epithelial cancers are not necessarily among the most fragile. Since we have reported that loss of expression of the FRA3B-encoded FHIT protein causes increased replication stress-induced DNA damage, we also examined the effect of FHIT-deficiency on markers of genome instability in epithelial cells. FHIT-deficient cells exhibited increases in fragile breaks and in ?H2AX and 53BP1 foci in G1 phase cells, confirming in epithelial cells that the FHIT gene and encompassing FRA3B, is a caretaker gene necessary for maintenance of genome stability. PMID:23929738

  17. Sources of clasts in terrestrial impact melts - Clues to the origin of LKFM. [Low-K Fra Mauro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, K. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Spudis, P. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1989-01-01

    Low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) 'basalt', which is found exclusively as an impact melt rock, cannot be modeled geochemically from its clast population or from any combination of known pristine lunar rock types. To clarify clast/melt relationships, a study was made of impact melt rocks from Mistastin Lake crater, Labrador, where there are only three target rocks: anorthosite, quartz monzonite, and granodiorite. Feldspar compositions in these rocks define distinct fields on the An-Ab-Or ternary diagram, making it possible to identify the source of each feldspar clast. Clasts in the Mistastin impact melts do not reflect the abundance of target rocks melted during the impact. The abundance of anorthosite in the clast population varies from 34 to 100 percent compared to a relatively constant value of 65 percent calculated to be in the melt matrix. Therefore the clasts appear to be derived predominantly from material relatively far removed from the zone of impact melting. Melt-matrix composition is dictated strictly by the composition of the target materials within a small radius around and below the point of impact. This suggests that the LKFM composition was derived from a lower crustal source.

  18. Serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis can increase PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL expression in MG63 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zaiying; Lin, Dongfang; Qi, Jun; Qiu, Minli; Lv, Qing; Li, Qiuxia; Lin, Zhiming; Liao, Zetao; Pan, Yunfeng; Jin, Ou; Wu, Yuqiong; Gu, Jieruo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis on the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and to assess whether the serum has an osteogenic effect in MG63 cells. METHODS: MG63 cells were cultured with serum from 45 ankylosing spondylitis patients, 30 healthy controls, or 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients. The relative PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Associations between gene expression and patient demographics and clinical assessments were then analyzed. RESULTS: MG63 cells treated with serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients had higher PPARD, fra-1, MMP7 and OPG gene expression than did cells treated with serum from controls or rheumatoid arthritis patients (all p<0.05). RANKL expression was higher in MG63 cells treated with serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis or rheumatoid arthritis than in those treated with serum from controls (both p<0.05). The OPG/RANKL ratio was also higher in MG63 cells treated with serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients than in those treated with serum from controls (p<0.05). No associations were found between the expression of the five genes and the patient demographics and clinical assessments (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS : Serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients increases PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL expression and the OPG/RANKL ratio in MG63 cells; these effects may be due to the stimulatory effect of the serum on the Wnt pathway. PMID:26602520

  19. Forest cover maps of China in 2010 from multiple approaches and data sources: PALSAR, Landsat, MODIS, FRA, and NFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Shimada, Masanobu; Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Chungan; Kou, Weili; Moore, Berrien

    2015-11-01

    Forests and their changes are important to the regional and global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Some uncertainty about forest cover area in China calls for an accurate and updated forest cover map. In this study, we combined ALOS PALSAR orthorectified 50-m mosaic images (FBD mode with HH and HV polarization) and MODIS time series data in 2010 to map forests in China. We used MODIS-based NDVI dataset (MOD13Q1, 250-m spatial resolution) to generate a map of annual maximum NDVI and used it to mask out built-up lands, barren lands, and sparsely vegetated lands. We developed a decision tree classification algorithm to identify forest and non-forest land cover, based on the signature analysis of PALSAR backscatter coefficient data. The PALSAR-based algorithm was then applied to produce a forest cover map in China in 2010. The resulting forest/non-forest classification map has an overall accuracy of 96.2% and a Kappa Coefficient of 0.91. The resultant 50-m PALSAR-based forest cover map was compared to five forest cover databases. The total forest area (2.02 × 106 km2) in China from the PALSAR-based forest map is close to the forest area estimates from China National Forestry Inventory (1.95 × 106 km2), JAXA (2.00 × 106 km2), and FAO FRA (2.07 × 106 km2). There are good linear relationships between the PALSAR-based forest map and the forest maps from the JAXA, MCD12Q1, and NLCD-China datasets at the province and county scales. All the forest maps have similar spatial distributions of forest/non-forest at pixel scale. Our PALSAR-based forest map recognizes well the agro-forests in China. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of integrating PALSAR and MODIS images to map forests in large areas. The resultant map of forest cover in China in 2010 can be used for many studies such as forest carbon cycle and ecological restoration.

  20. A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated with oil and animal glue. A large number of overpaintings above the original scheme of polychromy was found, which could be ascribed to almost three different interventions; the absence of modern pigments suggests that they could be realized long ago.

  1. LOXL4 Is Induced by Transforming Growth Factor ?1 through Smad and JunB/Fra2 and Contributes to Vascular Matrix Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Busnadiego, Oscar; Gonzlez-Santamara, Jos; Lagares, David; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Muller, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) is a pleiotropic factor involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling. In search for novel genes mediating the action of TGF-?1 on vascular ECM, we identified the member of the lysyl oxidase family of matrix-remodeling enzymes, lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), as a direct target of TGF-?1 in aortic endothelial cells, and we dissected the molecular mechanism of its induction. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis analysis of the LOXL4 promoter demonstrated the absolute requirement of a distal enhancer containing an activator protein 1 (AP-1) site and a Smad binding element for TGF-?1 to induce LOXL4 expression. Functional cooperation between Smad proteins and the AP-1 complex composed of JunB/Fra2 accounted for the action of TGF-?1, which involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent phosphorylation of Fra2. We furthermore provide evidence that LOXL4 was extracellularly secreted and significantly contributed to ECM deposition and assembly. These results suggest that TGF-?1-dependent expression of LOXL4 plays a role in vascular ECM homeostasis, contributing to vascular processes associated with ECM remodeling and fibrosis. PMID:23572561

  2. Candidate tumor suppressor genes at FRA7G are coamplified with MET and do not suppress malignancy in a gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuang-Yin; Druck, Teresa; Huebner, Kay

    2003-02-01

    Common fragile sites predispose to specific chromosomal breakage associated with deletion, amplification, and/or translocation in certain forms of cancer. Chromosomal fragile sites not only are susceptible to DNA instability in cancer cells, but may also be associated with genes that contribute to the neoplastic process. FRA7G is a common fragile site containing the candidate tumor suppressor genes CAV1, CAV2, and TESTIN (TES). The human gastric cancer cell line GTL-16 has an amplification of this genomic region and was used to seek evidence for the suppressor candidacy of one of these genes. Our results demonstrate that CAV1, CAV2, and TESTIN are coamplified with the MET oncogene and overexpressed in GTL-16. Somatic mutation was not detected in the coding regions of these genes, although they were each overexpressed. The results show that CAV1, CAV2, and TESTIN are not tumor suppressor genes in this gastric cancer. PMID:12620387

  3. Multicolor FISH mapping of YAC clones in 3p14 and identification of a YAC spanning both FRA3B and the t(3;8) associated with hereditary renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.M.; Guo, S.W.; Hall, B.K.

    1994-07-15

    Human chromosome band 3p14 contains two tightly linked cytogenetic markers of broad interest, FRA3B and the t(3;8) breakpoint associated with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The common fragile site at 3p14.2 (FRA3B) is the most sensitive site on normal human chromosomes to breakage when DNA replication is perturbed by aphidicolon or folate stress. The t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1) translocation segregates with RCC in a large family and could mark the location of a tumor suppressor gene involved in renal cancers. In studies aimed at positional cloning of FRA3B and the t(3;8) breakpoint, the authors have used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) on metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei to order 14 yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in 3p14. The YACs used in this study were identified by a group of unordered lambda clones that had been previously localized to the 3p14 region and mapped proximal or distal to the t(3;8) breakpoint. FISH analysis was used to order the YACs and to map them in relation both to the t(3;8) translocation breakpoint and to FRA3B induced on normal chromosomes by treatment with aphidicolin. YACs that closely flanked both the t(3;8) translocation breakpoint and the fragile site were identified. A YAC walk from the closest distal YAC allowed the identification of a 1.3-Mb YAC derived from the CEPH large insert YAC library that spans both the FRA3B and the t(3;8) breakpoint. The order of the YACs and cytogenetic landmarks in 3p14 is cen-(126E1/230B9)-181H6-B15-D20F4-258B7-280D2-70E12-168S8-403B2-143C5-413C6-468B10-[850A6/t(3;8)/FRA3B]-74B2. The location of FRA3B and the t(3;8) translocation within the same YAC supports previous cytogenetic studies indicating that these two sites are very closely linked and provides a resource for their molecular analyses. 42 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. CREB-1 and AP-1 transcription factors JunD and Fra-2 regulate bone sialoprotein gene expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Detry, C; Lamour, V; Castronovo, V; Bellahcne, A

    2008-02-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression is detected in a variety of human osteotropic cancers. High expression of BSP in breast and prostate primary carcinomas is associated with progression and bone metastases development. In this study, we examined the transcriptional regulation of BSP gene expression in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells compared with Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells. BSP human promoter deletion analyses delineated a -56/-84 region, which comprises a cAMP response element (CRE) that was sufficient for maximal promoter activity in breast cancer cell lines. We found that the basic fibroblast growth factor response element (FRE) also located in the proximal promoter was a crucial regulator of human BSP promoter activity in Saos-2 but not in breast cancer cells. Promoter activity experiments in combination with DNA mobility shift assays demonstrated that BSP promoter activity is under the control of the CRE element, through CREB-1, JunD and Fra-2 binding, in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and in Saos-2 cells. Forskolin, a protein kinase A pathway activator, failed to enhance BSP transcriptional activity suggesting that CRE site behaves as a constitutive rather than an inducible element in these cell lines. Over-expression of JunD and Fra-2 increased BSP promoter activity and upregulated endogenous BSP protein expression in MCF-7 and Saos-2 cells while siRNA-mediated inhibition of both factors expression significantly reduced BSP protein level in MDA-MB-231. Collectively, these data provide with new transcriptional mechanisms, implicating CREB and AP-1 factors, that control BSP gene expression in breast cancer cells. PMID:18088579

  5. Potential gastrointestinal tumor suppressor locus at the 3p14.2 FRA3B site identified by homozygous deletions in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kastury, K; Baffa, R; Druck, T; Ohta, M; Cotticelli, M G; Inoue, H; Negrini, M; Rugge, M; Huang, D; Croce, C M; Palazzo, J; Huebner, K

    1996-03-01

    A number of DNA fragments, identified by representational difference analysis, which were homozygously deleted in various cancer cell lines were previously mapped to human chromosomal arms. One of these, BE758-6, which was homozygously deleted in a number of colon carcinoma cell lines, had been mapped to chromosome region 3p. We have further localized the probe to 3p14.2, approximately 350kbp telomeric to the 3p14.2 break of the t(3;8) hereditary renal cell carcinoma chromosome translocation, within or near the 3p14.2 FRA3B, the most common human fragile site. We determined the sizes of the homozygous deletions in a number of cancer cell lines after isolation of a yeast artificial chromosome contig and development of STS markers which fall between D3S1234 and D2S1481, which flank the deletions. Homozygous deletions were observed and sized not only in the cell lines originally reported but also in a number of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and a gastric carcinoma cell line. About 50% of uncultured stomach and colon carcinomas were then shown to lose heterozygosity for alleles in the same region, with a common region of loss between the D3S1234 and D3S1481 markers. Thus, it is likely that the homozygous deletion observed in these cancer cell lines harbors an important tumor suppressor gene for several tumor types. PMID:8640789

  6. DNA structure and the Werner protein modulate human DNA polymerase delta-dependent replication dynamics within the common fragile site FRA16D

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sandeep N.; Opresko, Patricia L.; Meng, Xiao; Lee, Marietta Y. W. T.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFS) are chromosomal regions that exhibit instability during DNA replication stress. Although the mechanism of CFS expression has not been fully elucidated, one known feature is a severely delayed S-phase. We used an in vitro primer extension assay to examine the progression of DNA synthesis through various sequences within FRA16D by the replicative human DNA polymerases ? and ?, and with human cell-free extracts. We found that specific cis-acting sequence elements perturb DNA elongation, causing inconsistent DNA synthesis rates between regions on the same strand and complementary strands. Pol ? was significantly inhibited in regions containing hairpins and microsatellites, [AT/TA]24 and [A/T]1928, compared with a control region with minimal secondary structure. Pol ? processivity was enhanced by full length Werner Syndrome protein (WRN) and by WRN fragments containing either the helicase domain or DNA-binding C-terminal domain. In cell-free extracts, stalling was eliminated at smaller hairpins, but persisted in larger hairpins and microsatellites. Our data support a model whereby CFS expression during cellular stress is due to a combination of factorsdensity of specific DNA secondary-structures within a genomic region and asymmetric rates of strand synthesis. PMID:19969545

  7. Variations in the FRA10AC1 Fragile Site and 15q21 Are Associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid A?1-42 Level

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingqin S.; Parrado, Antonio R.; Samtani, Mahesh N.; Narayan, Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Proteolytic fragments of amyloid and post-translational modification of tau species in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as cerebral amyloid deposition are important biomarkers for Alzheimers Disease. We conducted genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors influencing CSF biomarker level, cerebral amyloid deposition, and disease progression. The genome-wide association study was performed via a meta-analysis of two non-overlapping discovery sample sets to identify genetic variants other than APOE ?4 predictive of the CSF biomarker level (A?142, t-Tau, p-Tau181P, t-Tau:A?142 ratio, and p-Tau181P:A?142 ratio) in patients enrolled in the Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Loci passing a genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5 x 10?8 were followed-up for replication in an independent sample set. We also performed joint meta-analysis of both discovery sample sets together with the replication sample set. In the discovery phase, we identified variants in FRA10AC1 associated with CSF A?142 level passing the genome-wide significance threshold (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.1 x 10?9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 3.5 x 10?10), rs116953792 (Pone-sided = 0.04) achieved replication. This association became stronger in the joint meta-analysis (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.7 x 10?9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 7.6 x 10?11). Additionally, we identified locus 15q21 (imputed SNV rs1503351 PFE = 4.0 x 10?8) associated with CSF A?142 level. No other variants passed the genome-wide significance threshold for other CSF biomarkers in either the discovery sample sets or joint analysis. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested that targeted genes mediated by miR-33, miR-146, and miR-193 were enriched in various GWAS analyses. This finding is particularly important because CSF biomarkers confer disease susceptibility and may be predictive of the likelihood of disease progression in Alzheimers Disease. PMID:26252872

  8. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTAFRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 SOSTA net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23289935

  9. Fra leggi fisiche ed equazioni matematiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldi, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    The author deals with the common names usually given to mathematical expressions. Newton's law of universal gravitation was never expressed by Newton in the complete form presented below as equation number 1. A different case is represented by Kepler's equation indicated here as equation number 4. That formula contains the definition of a uniform angular motion for the mean anomaly, which Kepler constantly refused and substituted with an area measure for this anomaly. The author would like to suggest two names to be remembered for these mathematical expressions: Henry Cavendish, for the first, and Leonard Euler, for the second.

  10. Apollo 14: Science at Fra Mauro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The many scientific activities and experiments performed during the Apollo 14 Mission are presented in a descriptive, non-technical format. Content relates to experiments on the lunar surface and to those performed while traveling in space, and provides a great deal of information about the flight. Many photographs from the journey, a map of the

  11. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477), or visit http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Interim Guidance (74 FR 29900 (June 23, 2009)) and as further detailed in a second set of HSIPR interim program guidance governing the distribution of fiscal year 2010 funding (75...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... is 9/16″ or less; (D) Wheel cracked or broken in: (1) rim, (2) flange, (3) plate or (4) hub area. (E... springs broken in a cluster; (4) Has three or more springs broken. (E) Truck bolster and center plate... door not equipped with operative safety hangers. (E) If center plate: (1) Any portion missing;...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is 9/16″ or less; (D) Wheel cracked or broken in: (1) rim, (2) flange, (3) plate or (4) hub area. (E... springs broken in a cluster; (4) Has three or more springs broken. (E) Truck bolster and center plate... door not equipped with operative safety hangers. (E) If center plate: (1) Any portion missing;...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... is 9/16″ or less; (D) Wheel cracked or broken in: (1) rim, (2) flange, (3) plate or (4) hub area. (E... springs broken in a cluster; (4) Has three or more springs broken. (E) Truck bolster and center plate... door not equipped with operative safety hangers. (E) If center plate: (1) Any portion missing;...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is 9/16″ or less; (D) Wheel cracked or broken in: (1) rim, (2) flange, (3) plate or (4) hub area. (E... springs broken in a cluster; (4) Has three or more springs broken. (E) Truck bolster and center plate... door not equipped with operative safety hangers. (E) If center plate: (1) Any portion missing;...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... designation in effect; (2) The basis for this designation. 215.013Failure to perform pre-departure inspection... of plain bearing journal or fillet has (1) ridge, (2) depression, (3) circumferential score,...

  17. Geomorphology of crater and basin deposits - Emplacement of the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. H.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of continuous deposits near lunar craters larger than about 1 km wide are considered, and it is concluded that (1) concentric dunes, radial ridges, and braided lineations result from deposition of the collision products of ejecta from adjacent pairs of similarly oriented secondary-crater chains and are, therefore, concentrations of secondary-crater ejecta; (2) intracrater ridges are produced within preexisting craters surrounding a fresh primary crater by ricocheting and focusing of secondary-crater ejecta from the preexisting craters' walls; and (3) secondary cratering has produced many of the structures of the continuous deposits of relatively small lunar craters and is the dominant process for emplacement of most of the radial facies of the continuous deposits of large lunar craters and basins. The percentages of Imbrium ejecta in deposits and the nature of Imbrium sculpturing are investigated.

  18. Lunar surface closeup stereoscopic photography at Fra Mauro (Apollo 14 site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Heiken, G.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 17-1/2 stereopairs of lunar surface rocks and soil was taken on the Apollo 14 mission. The closeup stereopair photographs are presented with a preliminary interpretation for those interested in lunar soil formation, impact phenomena, and soil mechanics.

  19. "Speech Act" Fra Teoria e Prassi Didattica. (The Speech Act between Theory and Pedagogical Practice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minardi, Giovanni

    1982-01-01

    The author traces the development of speech act theory from Wittgenstein and Austin through Searle to Grice and shows how their work led to the notional functional approach to language teaching, which is based on the learner and his/her communicative needs. (CFM)

  20. Exposure ages and neutron capture record in lunar samples from Fra Mauro.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic-ray exposure ages of Apollo 14 rocks and rock fragments obtained by the Kr81-Kr83 method range from 27 to 700 m.y. Rock 14321, collected near the Cone crater rim, is one of the many approximately 27 m.y. old ejecta which were reported at the Third Lunar Science Conference. All the other rocks have considerably higher exposure ages. Isotopic anomalies from neutron capture in gadolinium, bromine, and barium are used to obtain information on the lunar neutron spectrum at various depths below the lunar surface. The flux ratio of resonance and slow (less than 0.3 eV) neutrons is found to be nearly constant in the topmost approximately 100 g/sq cm.

  1. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ....'' The study will focus on the feasibility of using readily biodegradable lubricants for freight and... biodegradable lubricants to perform according to railroad industry standards; (3) a comparison of the health...

  2. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the selection process. (f) The railroad must randomly select a sufficient number of covered... covered employees. (e) Selection of covered employees for testing must be made by a method employing... play a role in selection, i.e., no employee may be selected as a result of the exercise of...

  3. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the selection process. (f) The railroad must randomly select a sufficient number of covered... covered employees. (e) Selection of covered employees for testing must be made by a method employing... play a role in selection, i.e., no employee may be selected as a result of the exercise of...

  4. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the selection process. (f) The railroad must randomly select a sufficient number of covered... covered employees. (e) Selection of covered employees for testing must be made by a method employing... play a role in selection, i.e., no employee may be selected as a result of the exercise of...

  5. FRA -- A computer program that uses a fractal methodology to calculate the volume and number of undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C.C.; Troussov, G.L. )

    1996-01-01

    A new method based on fractal geometry has been developed and computerized for assessing the size, number, and total volume of undiscovered, conventionally recoverable hydrocarbon accumulations based on fitting a truncated fractal (power-law) distribution to a log-log plot of the cumulative size-frequency distribution of discovered accumulations in a play or other geologically or geographically defined region.

  6. FRA -- A computer program that uses a fractal methodology to calculate the volume and number of undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C.C.; Troussov, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    A new method based on fractal geometry has been developed and computerized for assessing the size, number, and total volume of undiscovered, conventionally recoverable hydrocarbon accumulations based on fitting a truncated fractal (power-law) distribution to a log-log plot of the cumulative size-frequency distribution of discovered accumulations in a play or other geologically or geographically defined region.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manufacturer's utilization of safety design practices during the PTC system's development and testing phases... identified in paragraphs (c) through (g) of this appendix. However, the reviewer should not engage in design... the reviewer requests and attendance at any design review or walkthrough that the reviewer...

  8. Copy number and haplotype variation at the VRN-A1 and central FR-A2 loci are associated with frost tolerance in hexaploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frost tolerance is a key trait to ensure winter wheat survival. Natural variation for this trait is mainly associated with allelic differences at the VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) and FROST RESISTANCE 2 (FR2) loci. VRN1 regulates the transition between vegetative and reproductive stages and FR2, a locus in...

  9. Yersinia pestis pFra Shows Biovar-Specific Differences and Recent Common Ancestry with a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Michael B.; James, Keith D.; Parkhill, Julian; Baker, Stephen G.; Stevens, Kim; Simmonds, Mark N.; Mungall, Karen L.; Churcher, Carol; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Titball, Richard W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Wain, John; Pickard, Derek; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dougan, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Population genetic studies suggest that Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a clonal pathogen that has recently emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Plasmid acquisition is likely to have been a key element in this evolutionary leap from an enteric to a flea-transmitted systemic pathogen. However, the origin of Y. pestis-specific plasmids remains obscure. We demonstrate specific plasmid rearrangements in different Y. pestis strains which distinguish Y. pestis bv. Orientalis strains from other biovars. We also present evidence for plasmid-associated DNA exchange between Y. pestis and the exclusively human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. PMID:11274119

  10. La ténorraphie percutanée dans les ruptures fraîches du tendon calcanéen: à propos de 67 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bessam, Aman; Hassani, Zouhir Ameziane; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Steinmetz, Alain

    2014-01-01

    La rupture du tendon calcanéen est une des lésions les plus fréquentes en pathologie du sport, les deux options thérapeutiques classiques sont le traitement orthopédique et la chirurgie à ciel ouvert. Dans le but de minimiser ces complications, des techniques mini-invasives de ténorraphie percutanée ont été proposées dont les résultats sont encourageants. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective d'une série de cas de rupture sous cutanée du tendon d'Achille s’étalant de Avril 2005 au Juin 2012 concernant 67 patients; 11 femmes et 56 hommes avec un âge moyen de 41 ans. La cause principale était un accident de sport dans 45 cas. Le diagnostic était évident à l'examen chez tous les patients. Dans deux cas il s'agissait d'une rerupture survenant à 1 et 5 ans d'un traitement orthopédique. Dans un cas il s'agissait d'une rerupture survenant après une ténorraphie percutanée. Dans deux cas il s'agissait d'une rupture sur tendinopathie chronique. Tous les patients avaient bénéficié d'une radio de la cheville qui avait montré une horizontalisation du calcanéum chez 5 patients et surtout elle n'avait pas montré de fracture associée, alors que 15 patients avaient bénéficié d'une échographie qui a confirmé le diagnostic. Tous les patients avaient été opérés dans un délai de moins de 48 heures Une ténorraphie percutanée a été pratiqué chez tous les patients. Le recul moyen est de 43 mois, trois patients ont été perdus de vue Nous avons noté une reprise des activités professionnelle effective en moyen 90 jours après l'intervention et celle des activités sportive à 6 mois en moyenne L’état cutané local a été jugée bon dans 63 cas. Par ailleurs les complications ont été marquées par un seul cas d'infection ayant nécessité une reprise chirurgical a été noté mise à plat, trois cas de rerupture repris par suture à ciel ouvert, un cas d'algodystrophie et un cas de tendinopathie Il n'y a eu aucune complication thromboembolique ni neurologique. Il n'existe pas de réel consensus concernant la prise en charge des ruptures du tendon calcanéen. Ainsi, La ténorraphie percutanée du tendon calcanéen est une méthode simple rapide et efficace, elle allie les avantages de la chirurgie à ciel ouvert en termes de pourcentage de rerupture et les avantages du traitement fonctionnel en rapport avec un faible risque infectieux. PMID:25332749

  11. Projektarbejde i fremmedsprogene: Rapport fra seminar pa Roskilde Universitetscenter (Project Work in Foreign Languages: Report from a Seminar at Roskilde University Center). ROLIG-papir 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Karen Sonne, Ed.

    This report describes a seminar at Roskilde University Center (Denmark) on project work in foreign languages, which brought together language teachers and theorists from different schools, including universities, business schools, technical schools, merchants schools, and high schools, to discuss their experiences with project work in foreign

  12. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the supplier design and development process regarding the use of an appropriate design methodology... manufacturer's utilization of safety design practices during the PTC system's development and testing phases... identified in paragraphs (c) through (g) of this appendix. However, the reviewer should not engage in...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the supplier design and development process regarding the use of an appropriate design methodology... manufacturer's utilization of safety design practices during the PTC system's development and testing phases... identified in paragraphs (c) through (g) of this appendix. However, the reviewer should not engage in...

  14. Petrogenesis of the western highlands of the moon - Evidence from a diverse group of whitlockite-rich rocks from the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1992-01-01

    A group of KREEPy basalts has been discovered in Apollo 14 soils. These samples exhibit similarities to both HA and VHK basalts, albeit with much higher REE abundances, and contain up to 2 vol pct whitlockite and can be explained by assimilation of a K-, REE- and P-rich fluids by an original HA or VHK basalt. This KREEP component could have been produced late in the evolution of the lunar magma ocean and is similar in composition to QMD at Apollo 14. Two rocks have trace element compositions that are representative of actual KREEP. One of the samples appears to be petrographically pristine and could represent an actual KREEP basalt rock. Five subophitic high-Al basalts represent sampling of either a slowly cooled impact melt sheet or, more likely, the same basalt flow. Two 'quasi-pristine' highland rocks confirm the postulate of a connection between KREEP and the alkali suite. A newly discovered alkali anorthosite is a plagioclase cumulate with about 15 percent trapped KREEPy liquid.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  20. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  1. Cluster of genes that encode positive and negative elements influencing filament length in a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

    2013-09-01

    The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis in vegetative cells and nitrogen fixation in heterocysts, and their filaments can be hundreds of cells long. In the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the genes in the fraC-fraD-fraE operon are required for filament integrity mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. The fraC operon transcript partially overlaps gene all2395, which lies in the opposite DNA strand and ends 1 bp beyond fraE. Gene all2395 produces transcripts of 1.35 kb (major transcript) and 2.2 kb (minor transcript) that overlap fraE and whose expression is dependent on the N-control transcription factor NtcA. Insertion of a gene cassette containing transcriptional terminators between fraE and all2395 prevented production of the antisense RNAs and resulted in an increased length of the cyanobacterial filaments. Deletion of all2395 resulted in a larger increase of filament length and in impaired growth, mainly under N2-fixing conditions and specifically on solid medium. We denote all2395 the fraF gene, which encodes a protein restricting filament length. A FraF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein accumulated significantly in heterocysts. Similar to some heterocyst differentiation-related proteins such as HglK, HetL, and PatL, FraF is a pentapeptide repeat protein. We conclude that the fraC-fraD-fraE?fraF gene cluster (where the arrow indicates a change in orientation), in which cis antisense RNAs are produced, regulates morphology by encoding proteins that influence positively (FraC, FraD, FraE) or negatively (FraF) the length of the filament mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. This gene cluster is often conserved in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. PMID:23813733

  2. Cluster of Genes That Encode Positive and Negative Elements Influencing Filament Length in a Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Herrero, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis in vegetative cells and nitrogen fixation in heterocysts, and their filaments can be hundreds of cells long. In the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the genes in the fraC-fraD-fraE operon are required for filament integrity mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. The fraC operon transcript partially overlaps gene all2395, which lies in the opposite DNA strand and ends 1 bp beyond fraE. Gene all2395 produces transcripts of 1.35 kb (major transcript) and 2.2 kb (minor transcript) that overlap fraE and whose expression is dependent on the N-control transcription factor NtcA. Insertion of a gene cassette containing transcriptional terminators between fraE and all2395 prevented production of the antisense RNAs and resulted in an increased length of the cyanobacterial filaments. Deletion of all2395 resulted in a larger increase of filament length and in impaired growth, mainly under N2-fixing conditions and specifically on solid medium. We denote all2395 the fraF gene, which encodes a protein restricting filament length. A FraF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein accumulated significantly in heterocysts. Similar to some heterocyst differentiation-related proteins such as HglK, HetL, and PatL, FraF is a pentapeptide repeat protein. We conclude that the fraC-fraD-fraE←fraF gene cluster (where the arrow indicates a change in orientation), in which cis antisense RNAs are produced, regulates morphology by encoding proteins that influence positively (FraC, FraD, FraE) or negatively (FraF) the length of the filament mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. This gene cluster is often conserved in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. PMID:23813733

  3. 49 CFR 209.109 - Payment of penalty; compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payable to the Federal Railroad Administration and sent to DOT/FRA, Mike Monroney Aero Center, General... to DOT/FRA, Mike Monroney Aero Center, General Accounting Division, AMZ-300, 6500 South...

  4. Serum folate receptor alpha as a biomarker for ovarian cancer: Implications for diagnosis, prognosis and predicting its local tumor expression.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Akira; Hasegawa, Kosei; Kato, Tomomi; Abe, Kenji; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Miyara, Akiko; O'Shannessy, Daniel J; Somers, Elizabeth B; Yasuda, Masanori; Sekino, Tetsuo; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2016-04-15

    Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a GPI-anchored glycoprotein and encoded by the FOLR1 gene. High expression of FRA is observed in specific malignant tumors of epithelial origin, including ovarian cancer, but exhibits very limited normal tissue expression, making it as an attractive target for the ovarian cancer therapy. FRA is known to shed from the cell surface into the circulation which allows for its measurement in the serum of patients. Recently, methods to detect the soluble form of FRA have been developed and serum FRA (sFRA) is considered a highly promising biomarker for ovarian cancer. We prospectively investigated the levels of sFRA in patients clinically suspected of having malignant ovarian tumors. A total of 231 patients were enrolled in this study and analyzed for sFRA as well as tumor expression of FRA by immunohistochemistry. High sFRA was predominantly observed in epithelial ovarian cancer patients, but not in patients with benign or borderline gynecological disease or metastatic ovarian tumors from advanced colorectal cancers. Levels of sFRA were highly correlated to clinical stage, tumor grade and histological type and demonstrated superior accuracy for the detection of ovarian cancer than did serum CA125. High sFRA was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival in both early and advanced ovarian cancer patients. Finally, tumor FRA expression status was strongly correlated with sFRA levels. Taken together, these data suggest that sFRA might be a useful noninvasive serum biomarkers for future clinical trials assessing FRA-targeted therapy. PMID:26595060

  5. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FRA F 6180.81) (the Employee Human Factor Attachment must be in .pdf or .jpg format only). (b) Each... Summary (Form FRA F 6180.55) in .pdf or .jpg format only; and (2) The completed accident/incident report... Railroad Injury and Illness Summary (Form FRA F 6180.55) in .pdf or .jpg format only; and (ii)...

  6. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FRA F 6180.81) (the Employee Human Factor Attachment must be in .pdf or .jpg format only). (b) Each... Summary (Form FRA F 6180.55) in .pdf or .jpg format only; and (2) The completed accident/incident report... Railroad Injury and Illness Summary (Form FRA F 6180.55) in .pdf or .jpg format only; and (ii)...

  7. Aberrant Neural Function during Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological systems which underlie emotion attribution among female patients with Fragile X (FraX) syndrome are examined. Results show that the emotion circuit which regulates responses to facial stimuli is potentially disrupted among female subjects with FraX syndrome. Anterior cingulate cortex activity in female subjects with FraX…

  8. 75 FR 82136 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Locomotive Horns at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings,'' was amended, the NSRT was 17,030 (71 FR 47614, August 17, 2006). In 2007, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be 19,047 (72 FR 14850, March 29, 2007). In 2008, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be 17,610 (73 FR 30661, May 28, 2008). In 2009, FRA recalculated the NSRT to be...

  9. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following forms and copies of the FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports may be obtained from.../officeofsafety/, and click on Click Here for Changes in Railroad Accident/Incident Recordkeeping and Reporting. (a) Form FRA F 6180.54Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report. Form FRA F 6180.54 shall be used...

  10. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following forms and copies of the FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports may be obtained from.../officeofsafety/, and click on Click Here for Changes in Railroad Accident/Incident Recordkeeping and Reporting. (a) Form FRA F 6180.54Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report. Form FRA F 6180.54 shall be used...

  11. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following forms and copies of the FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports may be obtained from.../officeofsafety/, and click on Click Here for Changes in Railroad Accident/Incident Recordkeeping and Reporting. (a) Form FRA F 6180.54Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Report. Form FRA F 6180.54 shall be used...

  12. 78 FR 2713 - Update to NEPA Implementing Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... Environmental Impacts (FRA Environmental Procedures), 64 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999), which are available on the... June 13, 2012, FRA published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 35471) advising the public of FRA... and replacement of equipment and small structures designed to promote transportation safety,...

  13. 77 FR 43646 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... February 28, 2012, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... System (C3RS) pilot project for the CP Portage, WI, terminal was initially approved by FRA on March 3, 2008. In Docket Number FRA-2007-0008, CP requested and received a waiver of compliance from...

  14. 78 FR 28284 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... April 11, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Equipment; End-of-Train Devices. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0040. Specifically,...

  15. Aberrant Neural Function during Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological systems which underlie emotion attribution among female patients with Fragile X (FraX) syndrome are examined. Results show that the emotion circuit which regulates responses to facial stimuli is potentially disrupted among female subjects with FraX syndrome. Anterior cingulate cortex activity in female subjects with FraX

  16. 77 FR 37737 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Northeast Corridor Between Washington, DC, New York, NY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... accordance with FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts, 64 FR 28454 (FRA Environmental... Washington, DC, New York, NY, and Boston, MA AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION...) to evaluate potential passenger rail improvements between Washington, DC, New York City, and...

  17. 75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... areas of railroad safety.'' See 36 FR 20336. FRA envisioned the new Standards to be an evolving set of... RSAC body, which in turn formally recommended to the Administrator of FRA that FRA issue the proposed... 63 FR 33992, which, effective September 21, 1998, revised the Track Safety Standards in...

  18. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...FRA is issuing this notice to advise the public and interested agencies that FRA has decided to adopt portions of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) issued by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) in 2004 for the construction of the Transbay Transit Center (TTC) in San Francisco, California, in order to satisfy FRA's National Environmental Policy Act obligations related to funding the......

  19. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... FRA's January 3, 2012, proposed rule on passenger train emergency systems, see 77 FR 153, FRA issues... the Act, FRA published the Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness (PTEP) final rule. See 63 FR 24629...) final rule. See 64 FR 25540. The rule established comprehensive safety standards for railroad...

  20. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the milk and that the physiological transfer of FRA occurs from rumen to milk within 6.5 h or the first milking after dosage. Ferulic acid may affect the functionality of milk due to its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Future research will be required to elucidate whether FRA in milk is bioavailable and bioactive, and to evaluate the complete sensory and microbiological effects of increased FRA and FRA degradation products in milk. PMID:22921626

  1. Substrate cleavage profiling suggests a distinct function of Bacteroides fragilis metalloproteinases (fragilysin and metalloproteinase II) at the microbiome-inflammation-cancer interface.

    PubMed

    Shiryaev, Sergey A; Remacle, Albert G; Chernov, Andrei V; Golubkov, Vladislav S; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Muranaka, Norihito; Dambacher, Corey M; Capek, Petr; Kukreja, Muskan; Kozlov, Igor A; Perucho, Manuel; Cieplak, Piotr; Strongin, Alex Y

    2013-11-29

    Enterotoxigenic anaerobic Bacteroides fragilis is a significant source of inflammatory diarrheal disease and a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Two distinct metalloproteinase types (the homologous 1, 2, and 3 isoforms of fragilysin (FRA1, FRA2, and FRA3, respectively) and metalloproteinase II (MPII)) are encoded by the B. fragilis pathogenicity island. FRA was demonstrated to be important to pathogenesis, whereas MPII, also a potential virulence protein, remained completely uncharacterized. Here, we, for the first time, extensively characterized MPII in comparison with FRA3, a representative of the FRA isoforms. We employed a series of multiplexed peptide cleavage assays to determine substrate specificity and proteolytic characteristics of MPII and FRA. These results enabled implementation of an efficient assay of MPII activity using a fluorescence-quenched peptide and contributed to structural evidence for the distinct substrate cleavage preferences of MPII and FRA. Our data imply that MPII specificity mimics the dibasic Arg?Arg cleavage motif of furin-like proprotein convertases, whereas the cleavage motif of FRA (Pro-X-X-Leu-(Arg/Ala/Leu)?) resembles that of human matrix metalloproteinases. To the best of our knowledge, MPII is the first zinc metalloproteinase with the dibasic cleavage preferences, suggesting a high level of versatility of metalloproteinase proteolysis. Based on these data, we now suggest that the combined (rather than individual) activity of MPII and FRA is required for the overall B. fragilis virulence in vivo. PMID:24145028

  2. Substrate Cleavage Profiling Suggests a Distinct Function of Bacteroides fragilis Metalloproteinases (Fragilysin and Metalloproteinase II) at the Microbiome-Inflammation-Cancer Interface*

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaev, Sergey A.; Remacle, Albert G.; Chernov, Andrei V.; Golubkov, Vladislav S.; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Muranaka, Norihito; Dambacher, Corey M.; Capek, Petr; Kukreja, Muskan; Kozlov, Igor A.; Perucho, Manuel; Cieplak, Piotr; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic anaerobic Bacteroides fragilis is a significant source of inflammatory diarrheal disease and a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Two distinct metalloproteinase types (the homologous 1, 2, and 3 isoforms of fragilysin (FRA1, FRA2, and FRA3, respectively) and metalloproteinase II (MPII)) are encoded by the B. fragilis pathogenicity island. FRA was demonstrated to be important to pathogenesis, whereas MPII, also a potential virulence protein, remained completely uncharacterized. Here, we, for the first time, extensively characterized MPII in comparison with FRA3, a representative of the FRA isoforms. We employed a series of multiplexed peptide cleavage assays to determine substrate specificity and proteolytic characteristics of MPII and FRA. These results enabled implementation of an efficient assay of MPII activity using a fluorescence-quenched peptide and contributed to structural evidence for the distinct substrate cleavage preferences of MPII and FRA. Our data imply that MPII specificity mimics the dibasic Arg?Arg cleavage motif of furin-like proprotein convertases, whereas the cleavage motif of FRA (Pro-X-X-Leu-(Arg/Ala/Leu)?) resembles that of human matrix metalloproteinases. To the best of our knowledge, MPII is the first zinc metalloproteinase with the dibasic cleavage preferences, suggesting a high level of versatility of metalloproteinase proteolysis. Based on these data, we now suggest that the combined (rather than individual) activity of MPII and FRA is required for the overall B. fragilis virulence in vivo. PMID:24145028

  3. A current review of folate receptor alpha as a potential tumor target in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huan; Guo, Jun; Li, Changzheng; Wang, Zhehai

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading common cause of cancer-related death, with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 80% of all cases. To date, platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, these agents have limited use in patients who have relapsed and have metastatic disease. Therefore, novel strategies are required to improve the clinical outcome. Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is overexpressed in the majority of NSCLC, particularly in lung adenocarcinomas. FRA is largely absent from normal tissue, making it an attractive therapeutic target. In this review, we discuss FRA expression in NSCLC, conjugated FRA agents, monoclonal antibody, and FRA-specific T-cell-based therapeutic strategies aiming to improve the cure rate of FRA-expressing NSCLC. PMID:26357465

  4. 76 FR 71116 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... governments, government sponsored authorities and corporations, railroads, and joint ventures that include at..., FRA published a final rule (FR) with procedures and requirements to cover applications of...

  5. Assignment of human KH-box-containing genes by in situ hybridization: HNRNPK maps to 9q21.32-q21.33, PCBP1 to 2p12-p13, and PCBP2 to 12q13.12-q13.13, distal to FRA12A

    SciTech Connect

    Tommerup, N.; Leffers, H.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the localization of various human KH-box-containing genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Accordingly, HNRNPK was mapped to human chromosome 9q21.32-q21.33, PCBP1 was mapped to human chromosome 2p12-p13, and PCBP2 was mapped to human chromosome 12q13.12-q13.13. These proteins affect RNA-binding capability. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Netrins and Frazzled/DCC promote the migration and mesenchymal to epithelial transition of Drosophila midgut cells

    PubMed Central

    Pert, Melissa; Gan, Miao; Saint, Robert; Murray, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mesenchymal-epithelial transitions (METs) are important in both development and the growth of secondary tumours. Although the molecular basis for epithelial polarity is well studied, less is known about the cues that induce MET. Here we show that Netrins, well known as chemotropic guidance factors, provide a basal polarising cue during the Drosophila midgut MET. Both netrinA and netrinB are expressed in the visceral mesoderm, the substrate upon which midgut cells migrate, while their receptor frazzled (fra) is expressed in midgut cells. Netrins are required to polarise Fra to the basal surface, and Netrins and Fra undergo mutually-dependent endocytosis, with Fra subsequently trafficking to late endosomes. Mutations to fra and netrins affect both migration and MET but to different degrees. Loss of fra strongly delays migration, midgut cells fail to extend protrusions, and apico-basal polarisation of proteins and epithelium formation is inhibited. In netrin mutants, the migration phenotype is weaker and cells still extend protrusions. However, apico-basal polarisation of proteins, including Fra, and FActin is greatly disrupted and a monolayer fails to form. Delocalised accumulations of FActin are prevalent in netrin mutants but not fra mutants suggesting delocalised Fra may disrupt the MET. ?PS localisation is also affected in netrin mutants in that a basal gradient is reduced while localisation to the midgut/VM interface is increased. Since a similar effect is seen when endocytosis is inhibited, Netrin and Fra may regulate Integrin turnover. The results suggest Netrin-dependent basal polarisation of Fra is critical for the formation of an epithelium. PMID:25617422

  7. 77 FR 77181 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... required under the PRA: Title: Electronic Device Distraction (EDD) Survey OMB Control Number: 2130-New... countermeasures, FRA believes a survey of select rail employees would be extremely beneficial. Therefore, FRA... labor and management representatives, who are strongly supporting this survey and cooperating in...

  8. 77 FR 53164 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... 76 FR 74586. In response, FRA received two petitions for reconsideration (Petitions) that raised... order to permit interested parties an opportunity to respond to the Petitions. See 77 FR 13978. FRA... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 RIN 2130-AC37 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track...

  9. 78 FR 47486 - Joint Failure on Continuous Welded Rail Track

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2013-05 to remind railroad track owners about the importance of reviewing current, internal continuous welded rail (CWR) plans and properly inspecting CWR joints to identify and correct locations that indicate potential joint failure that may cause a derailment. FRA is issuing this notice in response to two recent train derailments. Although the causes of these......

  10. 78 FR 5767 - Positive Train Control Systems (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...In response to a petition for rulemaking, FRA proposed, in a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) dated December 11, 2012, amendments to regulations implementing a requirement of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 that certain passenger and freight railroads install positive train control (PTC) systems. The present document clarifies FRA's responses to several elements of the Association......

  11. 75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... procedures for obtaining funding under the HSIPR Program (74 FR 29901 (June 23, 2009)), WSDOT prepared a Tier... Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (FRA Environmental Procedures) (64 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999... calendar days (75 FR 39325 (July 8, 2010)). FRA received six comments on the draft FONSI,...

  12. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System... alcohol program data taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator..., 1994 (59 FR 62218), FRA announced that it will set future minimum random drug and alcohol testing...

  13. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    .... SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System annual reports, FRA has determined that the 2009... taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator publishes a... Drug and Alcohol Testing Rates In a final rule published on December 2, 1994 (59 FR 62218),...

  14. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2012-01 to remind shippers and consignees of railroad tank cars containing odorized liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), of the importance of taking actions to ensure that a sufficient level of odorant remains in the LPG throughout the entire transportation cycle. FRA is issuing this notice to raise awareness within the hazardous materials community, of the potential......

  15. 78 FR 38878 - Critical Incident Stress Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... report prepared by FRA grantee, Dr. Richard Gist, in support of Grant FR-RRD-0024-11- 01, titled... Administrator of FRA on rulemakings and other safety program issues. 61 FR 9740 (Mar. 11, 1996). RSAC's charter under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) was most recently renewed in 2012. 77 FR...

  16. 77 FR 64249 - Track Safety Standards; Improving Rail Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... the entire rail head and web, as well as the portion of the base directly beneath the web. Internal... internal flaws beneath surface conditions and in the base flange area, FRA's research has been focusing on... railroad safety.'' See 36 FR 20336. FRA envisioned the new Standards to be an evolving set of...

  17. 77 FR 64374 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Port Authority Trans-Hudson Product Safety Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... product design. A copy of the petition, as well as any written communications concerning the petition, is... Product Safety Plan In accordance with Part 236 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and 49 U.S.C... a Product Safety Plan (PSP). FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2012-0075. PATH...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  20. 77 FR 4271 - Special Permit Marking Removal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Register notice providing such approval for certain tank cars. 76 FR 4250. In that notice, FRA stated that... From Tank Cars Each rail tank car subject to FRA's January 25, 2011, Federal Register notice (76 FR... that had an established safety record. 75 FR 27205. The final rule amended the HMR to allow, upon...

  1. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In... (PATH) has requested the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) grant a modification of the single car... FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

  2. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  3. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0 percent for the last two years. FRA's Administrator has therefore determined that the minimum annual random drug testing rate for the period January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2014, will remain at 25 percent of covered railroad employees. In addition,......

  4. 75 FR 74132 - Notice of Intent To Grant Buy America Waiver to Northern New England Passenger Rail Authority To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... request from FRA's Buy America requirement, 49 U.S.C. 24405(a), for the purchase and use of 3,340 AREMA... failed to identify a reasonably available domestic source. 49 U.S.C. 24405(a)(4) requires that the... granted a waiver from the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Buy America provision, at 49...

  5. 49 CFR 241.7 - Waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Canada or Mexico pursuant to regulations contained in 49 CFR part 241, revised as of October 1, 2002, may... CFR part 241, revised as of October 1, 2002. FRA will notify the railroad if FRA determines that the... regulations contained in 49 CFR part 241, revised as of October 1, 2002, the route miles shall be the...

  6. 49 CFR 241.7 - Waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Canada or Mexico pursuant to regulations contained in 49 CFR part 241, revised as of October 1, 2002, may... CFR part 241, revised as of October 1, 2002. FRA will notify the railroad if FRA determines that the... regulations contained in 49 CFR part 241, revised as of October 1, 2002, the route miles shall be the...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  8. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... accidents (50 FR 31508, August 2, 1985). If an accident meets FRA's criteria for post-accident testing (see... prescription and OTC drug use by their safety-sensitive employees. See 63 FR 71334, December 24, 1998. After... Order 12866 and 13563 and DOT policies and procedures. See 44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979. FRA...

  9. 49 CFR 262.9 - Criteria for selection of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evidence sufficient for the FRA to determine whether projects proposed for Federal investment are cost... improvement project. In evaluating applications, FRA will consider the following factors in determining... line relocation project without Federal grant funding; (b) The requirement and limitation relating...

  10. 78 FR 54952 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate Administrator for Regulatory... contained at 49 CFR 229.81, Emergency Pole; shoe insulation. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2003-16265. Title 49 CFR 229.81(b) requires that each locomotive equipped with third rail shoes...

  11. 78 FR 7857 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ..., Appendix A, set forth FRA's glazing requirements. Section 223.17 requires the stenciling of the walls of... set forth in Appendix A, there is no reason to require the information on the walls of rolling stock... agency was seeking OMB approval. 77 FR 68203. FRA received one comment in response to this notice....

  12. The fragile Fiber1 kinesin contributes to cortical microtubule-mediated trafficking of cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I; McClosky, Daniel D; Anderson, Charles T; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard; Dixit, Ram

    2015-03-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  13. 78 FR 70888 - Need for Agency Approval of a Railroad's Use of Certain Technology That Has Been Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... processor-based signal or train control technology subject to the requirements of 49 CFR part 236, subpart H... railroad seeking to use signal or train control technology subject to the regulations must first adopt both... approved by FRA. If FRA has already approved the use of a certain processor-based signal or train...

  14. 75 FR 65707 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Federal Register on September 29, 2010 (75 FR 60165) regarding consideration and processing of... published a notice in the Federal Register on September 29, 2010 (75 FR 60165) regarding FRA's consideration...-178 (1998) (TEA-21). FRA is hereby correcting that information, stated in the first column,...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... similar contexts. (See 49 CFR 107.299, defining “knowingly” under the Hazardous Materials Transportation... operating. Also, unlike the case where willfulness must be shown (see FRA's statement of policy at 49 CFR... currently undergoing research testing. FRA has been advised by portions of the regulated community that...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... similar contexts. (See 49 CFR 107.299, defining “knowingly” under the Hazardous Materials Transportation... operating. Also, unlike the case where willfulness must be shown (see FRA's statement of policy at 49 CFR... currently undergoing research testing. FRA has been advised by portions of the regulated community that...

  17. 75 FR 75911 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... reporting threshold was revised. 74 FR 65458 (December 10, 2009). Consequently, FRA has recalculated the... final rule published December 20, 2005, 70 FR 75414. FRA has found that both the current cost data... both Executive Order 12866 and DOT policies and procedures (44 FR 11034 (Feb. 26, 1979))....

  18. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of determination. According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing...

  19. 78 FR 12823 - Notice of Joint Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations and... of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0004. Applicants: The...

  20. 76 FR 34801 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and... Administration (FRA) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the... proposed decrease of limits consists of moving the 2S signal on the siding south to the clearance point...

  1. 76 FR 27170 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Railroad Signal System In accordance with part 235 of title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and... approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0163. Applicants: Mr. Joseph S. Ivanyo, Chief Engineer, Communications and Signals,...

  2. 75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ..., 2007, see 72 FR 42016, and FRA solicited public comment on it. FRA notified the public of its option to... Testing in 2002 a. Test Article Designs b. Dynamic Impact Testing c. Analysis 2. Industry-Sponsored Quasi-Static Testing in 2001 a. Test Article Design b. Quasi-Static Testing c. Analysis 3....

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For... than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 236 - Independent Review of Verification and Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. D Appendix D to Part 236Independent Review of Verification and..., in FRA's judgment, for FRA to monitor the assessment. (d) The reviewer shall evaluate the...

  6. 78 FR 18668 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and its implementing regulations, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) hereby announces that it is seeking renewal of the following currently approved information collection activities. Before submitting these information collection requirements for clearance by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public......

  7. 76 FR 75945 - Safety Advisory 2011-03

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2011-03 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Safety Advisory; Bridge Walkway Hazards. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2011-03 to remind each railroad bridge worker, railroad, and contractor...

  8. 75 FR 60863 - Safety Advisory 2010-02

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2010-02 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Safety Advisory; Signal Recording Devices for Highway.... SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2010-02 to address Safety Recommendations I-96-10 and...

  9. 76 FR 19518 - Safety Advisory 2011-01

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2011-01 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Safety Advisory; equipment fouling adjacent tracks. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2011-01 to remind each railroad and railroad employees of...

  10. 75 FR 3784 - Safety Advisory 2009-03

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2009-03 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Safety Advisory; Identification and Handling of Highway-Rail Grade Crossings with Vertical Profile Conditions. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory...

  11. 78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... modernize our regulatory system and to reduce unjustified regulatory burdens and costs.'' See 77 FR 28469... annually. See 61 FR 33871 (July 1, 1996). FRA determined that a five-year reporting period would...). In 1984, FRA amended its Signal and Train Control Regulations, including 49 CFR Part 233. See 49...

  12. 77 FR 6411 - Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...FRA proposes regulations establishing minimum training standards for each category and subcategory of safety-related railroad employee, as required by the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008. The proposed rule would require each railroad or contractor that employs one or more safety-related railroad employee to develop and submit a training program to FRA for approval and to designate the......

  13. 78 FR 22364 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC, on April 8, 2013. Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate... January 24, 2013, Steam Into History, Inc. (Steam) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0069. Kloke Locomotive Works is constructing for Steam a...

  14. 77 FR 65935 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... safety regulations contained in 49 CFR part 230--Steam Locomotive Inspection and Maintenance Standards. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA- 2012-0076. Steam Locomotive Number 2719 is a former Soo...&TPF restored Steam Locomotive Number 2719 and completed the current 1,472-service-day inspection...

  15. The Fragile Fiber1 Kinesin Contributes to Cortical Microtubule-Mediated Trafficking of Cell Wall Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I.; McClosky, Daniel D.; Anderson, Charles T.; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A.; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  16. 78 FR 77601 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... 61 FR 60632 (Nov. 29, 1996). In 2005, FRA again amended its method for calculating the reporting... Surface Transportation Board for the BLS data that was no longer collected (70 FR 75414 (Dec. 20, 2005... threshold was revised. 77 FR 71354 (November 30, 2012). Consequently, FRA has recalculated the threshold,...

  17. 76 FR 72850 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... reporting threshold was revised. 75 FR 75911 (December 7, 2010). Consequently, FRA has recalculated the... published December 20, 2005, 70 FR 75414. FRA has found that both the current cost data inserted into this... addition to DOT policies and procedures (44 FR 11034 (Feb. 26, 1979)). Regulatory Flexibility Act...

  18. 77 FR 71354 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... reporting threshold was revised. 76 FR 72850 (November 28, 2011). Consequently, FRA has recalculated the... final rule published December 20, 2005, 70 FR 75414. FRA has found that both the current cost data... 12866 and 13563 in addition to DOT policies and procedures (44 FR 11034 (Feb. 26, 1979))....

  19. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  20. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  1. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  2. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  3. 76 FR 55335 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Process. 269.11 Evaluation. 269.13 Award. 269.15 Access to facilities; employees. 269.17 Cessation of..., the following: The establishment of a petition, notification, and bid process through which FRA would... Amtrak; FRA's selection of a winning bidder by, among other things, evaluating the bids against...

  4. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or a Finding of No Significant Impact. At the discretion of the... Considering Environmental Impacts (FRA's Environmental Procedures) (65 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999)) or any... Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ Regulation) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  5. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or a Finding of No Significant Impact. At the discretion of the... Considering Environmental Impacts (FRA's Environmental Procedures) (65 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999)) or any... Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ Regulation) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  6. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or a Finding of No Significant Impact. At the discretion of the... Considering Environmental Impacts (FRA's Environmental Procedures) (65 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999)) or any... Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ Regulation) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  7. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or a Finding of No Significant Impact. At the discretion of the... Considering Environmental Impacts (FRA's Environmental Procedures) (65 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999)) or any... Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ Regulation) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  8. 78 FR 28012 - Tier One Environmental Impact Statement for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...FRA is issuing this notice to advise the public that FRA, the Olmsted County (Minnesota) Regional Railroad Authority (OCRRA), and the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) will jointly prepare a Tier One Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to evaluate potential passenger rail alternatives for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota Passenger Rail Corridor (the Corridor) in......

  9. 76 FR 30855 - Accident/Incident Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... regulations and to enhance the quality of information available for railroad casualty analysis. See 73 FR... recording standards and guidance. See 75 FR 68862. Following the publication of the final rule, FRA received... related to the railroad's rail transportation business. 68 FR 10108-09, March 3, 2003 (FRA's 2003...

  10. 76 FR 2199 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... October 19, 2007 (72 FR 59216). FRA continued to utilize the RSAC process to address additional locomotive... locomotive operations. See 66 FR 10340, Notice of Safety Advisory 2001-01, Docket No. FRA-2000-7325. By... awareness. See 71 FR 60372 (2006). During several productive meetings, the Working Group identified...

  11. Personal independence of adult mentally retarded men with fragile-X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maes, B; Fryns, J P; Van Walleghem, M; Van den Berghe, H

    1994-01-01

    In a large study of the psychosocial functioning of mentally retarded adults with fra(X) syndrome we also evaluated their personal independence. 58 mentally retarded adult men with a cytogenetically confirmed diagnosis of fra(X) syndrome and 58 fra(X) negative control persons with a comparable age, level of cognitive development, actual living conditions and length of institutionalization were evaluated with three Dutch standardized behavioral scales. In spite of comparable social competency scores in both research groups, two significant different aspects were found: 1) Fra(X) men obtained a higher level of elementary knowledge and skillfulness in rudimentary dealing with personal needs and household tasks in daily life in comparison with the control group; 2) moderately mentally retarded fra(X) adults were practising more preacademic reading, calculating and writing skills in daily life than control persons. PMID:7917120

  12. On the History and Origin of LKFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    Fra Mauro is the name of a geologic formation surrounding the Imbrium Basin of the Moon as well as the name of the region of the Apollo 14 lunar landing site. The formation was named for a 16th century Italian geographer and cartographer. In its original invocation in 1971 by the Apollo Soil Survey (ASS), Fra Mauro basalt was not a crystalline basalt, but the designation of a "compositional group" of impact glasses found in the Apollo 14 soil that were basaltic in composition. The ASS noted the similarity between the Fra Mauro basalt glass composition and sample 14310, an unbrecciated, crystalline Apollo 14 rock that would now be designated an impact melt rock. In 1972 the term Fra Mauro basalt was first applied to a rock, sample 14310, although in related papers, Fra Mauro basaltic glass was equated with KREEP. In 1973 the ASS noted that a wide range of K concentrations occurred among glasses of Fra Mauro basaltic composition in the Apollo 15 regolith. The terms high-K, moderate-K and low-K Fra Mauro first occurred in that context, but always as an adjective. Lock Fra Mauro glasses were those with 0.12 +/- 0.07% K2O, compared with 0.47 +/- 0.17% and 1.1 +/- 0.4% for moderate and high-K Fra Mauro glasses and 0.6% for Apollo 15 KREEP basalt. An important evolutionary step in the concept of low Fra Mauro basalt occurred in 1973 when the composition was first used as a component in a mass-balance (mixing) model for Apollo 16 soils [8,9] and later average highlands crust, despite that the term had not yet been applied to an actual rock sample. The first use of the acronym LKFM occurred in a 1973 paper describing glass compositions in Apollo 16 soil.

  13. Myeloid-specific Fos-related antigen-1 regulates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, not emphysema, in mice.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Michelle; Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Potteti, Haranatha R; Reddy, Sekhar P

    2015-07-01

    Heightened lung inflammation is a cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced macrophage recruitment and activation, accompanied by abnormal secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, play a major role in the pathophysiology of COPD. The Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) transcription factor differentially regulates several cellular processes that are implicated in COPD, such as inflammation and immune responses, cell proliferation and death, and extracellular remodeling. Although CS stimulates Fra-1 expression in the lung, the precise role of this transcription factor in the regulation of CS-induced lung inflammation in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we report that myeloid-specific Fra-1 signaling is important for CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammatory response. In response to chronic CS exposure, mice with Fra-1 specifically deleted in myeloid cells showed reduced levels of CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammation, accompanied by decreased expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared with their wild-type counterparts. Consistent with this result, bone marrow-derived Fra-1-null macrophages treated with CS showed decreased levels of proinflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases. Interestingly, deletion of Fra-1 in myeloid cells did not affect the severity of emphysema. We propose that Fra-1 plays a key role in promoting chronic CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammation in vivo, and that targeting this transcription factor may be useful in dampening persistent lung inflammation in patients with COPD. PMID:25489966

  14. Cognitive functioning and information processing of adult mentally retarded men with fragile-X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maes, B; Fryns, J P; Van Walleghem, M; Van den Berghe, H

    1994-04-01

    The present study describes cognitive skills and information processing strategies of mentally retarded fra(X) men. Fifty-eight fra(X) positive and 58 fra(X) negative adults, matched on sex, chronological age, length of institutionalisation, general cognitive level, and living conditions, were evaluated with the Bayley or McCarthy Scales of Mental Abilities. Mental ages were mostly situated in the severe mental handicap category and were found to be negatively influenced by chronological age. A relative strength in perceptual performance and non-verbal reasoning and a deficit in sequential information processing turned out to be typical of all mentally retarded subjects, irrespective of fra(X) or control status. Fra(X) adults could be significantly differentiated from control persons on the ground of a higher level of acquired knowledge because of better vocabulary and verbal-expressive skills. On the other hand, they were less able to imitate non-verbal patterns, had more difficulty with visual-motor integration and co-ordination, and applied less efficient general mental processing skills in solving new problems. The memory profile of fra(X) adults was strongly determined by the meaning and the complexity of the information that has to be reproduced. In this article the profile of cognitive strengths and weaknesses in the fra(X) group will be discussed and some general advice for training is suggested. PMID:8010351

  15. Hourly Illumination of Shackleton Crater - Duration: 59 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Illumination of Shackleton crater, a 21-km-diameter (12.5 mile-diameter) structure situated adjacent to the Moon’s south pole. The resolution is 30 meters (approximately 100 feet) per pixel. Fra...

  16. 49 CFR 225.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concerning the hazards and risks that exist on the Nation's railroads. FRA needs this information to... information for determining comparative trends of railroad safety and to develop hazard elimination and...

  17. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be filed with FRA pursuant to 234.9 of this part (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11... railroad equipment and an automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at...

  18. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be filed with FRA pursuant to 234.9 of this part (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11... railroad equipment and an automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at...

  19. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be filed with FRA pursuant to 234.9 of this part (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11... railroad equipment and an automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at...

  20. 77 FR 46800 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request AGENCY... Administration (FRA) hereby announces that it is seeking renewal of the following currently approved information collection activities. Before submitting these information collection requirements for clearance by...

  1. 78 FR 42998 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials, Safety Administration (PHMSA... participate in a public meeting addressing the transportation of hazardous materials by rail. FRA and...

  2. 75 FR 82140 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    .... Bolt hole crack: Greater than \\1/2\\ inch and less than 1\\1/2\\ inches; inspect rail during monthly yard.... FRA does not anticipate scheduling a public hearing in connection with these proceedings since...

  3. 49 CFR 236.913 - Filing and approval of PSPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... role do product users play in the process of safety review? (1) FRA will publish in the Federal...; (vi) The location of the testing; and (vii) A description of any effect the testing will have on...

  4. 49 CFR 236.913 - Filing and approval of PSPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... role do product users play in the process of safety review? (1) FRA will publish in the Federal...; (vi) The location of the testing; and (vii) A description of any effect the testing will have on...

  5. Network II Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  6. 75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Quality NEPA implementing regulations, 40 CFR parts 1500-1508, and the FRA NEPA procedures, 64 FR 28545... Federal Railroad Administration Moynihan Station Development Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad... comment period for the Moynihan Station Development Project Environmental Assessment. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety, Chief Safety Officer. BILLING CODE 4910-06-P ... petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0114. Applicant: Norfolk Southern Corporation, Mr. Brian L. Sykes,...

  8. 78 FR 57450 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Commission (SJRRC) and a change in the project definition and purpose and need. An NOI to prepare an... EIS. Due to the proposed change in leadership and direction of this project, FRA is issuing...

  9. Fragile X-Linked Mental Retardation and Macro-orchidism

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Byron C.; Glover, Thomas W.; Kaiser-McCaw, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick

    1982-01-01

    A fragile site near the end of the long arm (q) of the X chromosome appears to be directly related to the gene responsible for the mental retardation found among males and some females who possess this variant X chromosome. Macro-orchidism is present in most males studied. Other mild phenotypic similarities may exist. The expression of the fragile X (fra[X]) chromosome is dependent on the concentration of folic acid and thymidine in the culture medium, which partly explains why fra(X) was not noted earlier and connected promptly with X-linked mental retardation. Whereas prenatal diagnosis is now possible, genetic counseling is complicated by recent reports of intellectually normal fra(X) males. Further studies are needed to form solid conclusions about intellectual deficits, learning behavior or personality characteristics of fra(X) persons. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7179944

  10. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: (1) An electronic image of the completed and signed hard copy of the Railroad Injury and Illness... FRA at aireports@frasafety.net: (i) An electronic image of the completed and signed hard copy of...

  11. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: (1) An electronic image of the completed and signed hard copy of the Railroad Injury and Illness... FRA at aireports@frasafety.net: (i) An electronic image of the completed and signed hard copy of...

  12. 49 CFR 213.345 - Vehicle qualification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submitted to FRA upon the completions of the tests. The test report shall include the design flange angle of... limit for the track/vehicle interaction safety measurements required per § 213.333(l). (e) As part...

  13. 49 CFR 268.21 - Down-selection of one or more Maglev projects for further study and selection of one project for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedures For Financial Assistance § 268.21 Down-selection of one or more Maglev projects for further study..., and benefit/cost comparisons; and (2) The credibility of the financial plan. (d) FRA intends to...

  14. 77 FR 74737 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... October 26, 2012, the Port Manatee Railroad (PMRR) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... performed within the confines of Port Manatee, which consists of slow speed yard tracks. Additionally,...

  15. Lunar laser ranging data deposited in the National Space Science Data Center: Filtered observations for January - June 1971 and unfiltered photon detections for July - December 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The filtered data are discussed which were obtained during laser ranging operations with Apollo reflectors placed on the moon at Tranquility Base, Fra Mauro, and Hadley. Unfiltered photon detections are described.

  16. Fuzzy Risk Analyzer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-03-04

    FRA is a general purpose code for risk analysis using fuzzy, not numeric, attributes. It allows the user to evaluate the risk associated with a composite system on the basis of the risk estimates of the individual components.

  17. 75 FR 29805 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington, DC... Number: FRA-2010-0088. Applicant: Union Pacific Railroad Company, Mr. William E. Van Trump,...

  18. 77 FR 48204 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or online at www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington... FRA-2012-0064. Applicant: Union Pacific Railroad Company, Mr. Phillip A. Danner, AVP...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fairly complex system. FRA therefore recommends that designated supervisors of locomotive engineers... any case the engineer's judgment, to apply or not apply a braking system at a given location,...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fairly complex system. FRA therefore recommends that designated supervisors of locomotive engineers... any case the engineer's judgment, to apply or not apply a braking system at a given location,...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fairly complex system. FRA therefore recommends that designated supervisors of locomotive engineers... any case the engineer's judgment, to apply or not apply a braking system at a given location,...

  2. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  3. 49 CFR 236.1023 - Errors and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... control measures in its PTCSP that are designed to ensure the safety-functional requirements and the... appropriate risk analysis, the railroad shall: (1) Notify the applicable vendor or supplier and FRA of...

  4. 12 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Insurance Corporation acting pursuant to authority delegated by the Board of Directors as provided in 12 CFR...) of the HOLA (12 U.S.C. 1467(a)); (4) Any organization operating under section 25 of the FRA (12...

  5. 12 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance Corporation acting pursuant to authority delegated by the Board of Directors as provided in 12 CFR...) of the HOLA (12 U.S.C. 1467(a)); (4) Any organization operating under section 25 of the FRA (12...

  6. 12 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Insurance Corporation acting pursuant to authority delegated by the Board of Directors as provided in 12 CFR...) of the HOLA (12 U.S.C. 1467(a)); (4) Any organization operating under section 25 of the FRA (12...

  7. 12 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Insurance Corporation acting pursuant to authority delegated by the Board of Directors as provided in 12 CFR...) of the HOLA (12 U.S.C. 1467(a)); (4) Any organization operating under section 25 of the FRA (12...

  8. 12 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Insurance Corporation acting pursuant to authority delegated by the Board of Directors as provided in 12 CFR...) of the HOLA (12 U.S.C. 1467(a)); (4) Any organization operating under section 25 of the FRA (12...

  9. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reduction in track classification as specified in FRA track safety standards (49 CFR part 213), or any other... repair tracks, station buildings, platforms, and adjunct facilities such as water, fuel, steam,...

  10. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reduction in track classification as specified in FRA track safety standards (49 CFR part 213), or any other... repair tracks, station buildings, platforms, and adjunct facilities such as water, fuel, steam,...

  11. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reduction in track classification as specified in FRA track safety standards (49 CFR part 213), or any other... repair tracks, station buildings, platforms, and adjunct facilities such as water, fuel, steam,...

  12. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reduction in track classification as specified in FRA track safety standards (49 CFR part 213), or any other... repair tracks, station buildings, platforms, and adjunct facilities such as water, fuel, steam,...

  13. 77 FR 53252 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL, to Detroit-Pontiac, MI, Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... age 65 will steadily increase as the baby boom generation ages. This population will begin to seek... NEPA and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). The Tier...

  14. 75 FR 38592 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for Reducing the Effects of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Disorder (PTSD) and the more immediate Acute Distress Disorder (ASD). FRA seeks to fund a grant assessing... relating to PTSD, ASD, or other trauma interventions); and qualifications of primary and...

  15. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  16. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  17. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  18. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  19. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  20. 49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hearing pursuant to the provisions contained in 49 CFR part 211; or (3) Determine that a public hearing is... document submitted to the docket in 2009 will be identified as FRA-2009-XXX-1.) Thus, each...

  1. 49 CFR 211.45 - Petitions for emergency waiver of safety rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hearing pursuant to the provisions contained in 49 CFR part 211; or (3) Determine that a public hearing is... document submitted to the docket in 2009 will be identified as FRA-2009-XXX-1.) Thus, each...

  2. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Railroad Administration, High-Speed Ground Transportation for America, September 1997; available at: http... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of funding...

  3. 75 FR 38365 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of funding availability..., Dec. 16, 2009)). The Federal Railroad Administration has issued a separate notice in today's...

  4. 75 FR 16552 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... a sustainable railroad equipment manufacturing base in the United States. 2.6.4 Positive Train... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of funding...

  5. 78 FR 62002 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740), for additional information about the RSAC. Issued in Washington, DC, on... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  6. 75 FR 3959 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Federal Register on March 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740), for additional information about the RSAC. Issued in... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement...

  7. 77 FR 28421 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Register on March 11, 1996, 61 FR 9740, for additional information about the RSAC. Dated: Issued... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter...

  8. 78 FR 11948 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Law 104-13, Sec. 2, 109 Stat. 163 (1995) (codified as revised at 44 U.S.C. 3501-3520), and its.... 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A); 5 CFR 1320.8(d)(1), 1320.10(e)(1), 1320.12(a). Specifically, FRA invites... responses). See 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)(I)-(iv); 5 CFR 1320.8(d)(1)(I)-(iv). FRA believes that...

  9. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ...This final rule is in response to a statutory mandate that FRA complete a rulemaking proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure over which Amtrak operates certain passenger rail service routes to petition FRA to be considered as a passenger rail service provider over such a route in lieu of Amtrak for a period not to exceed five......

  10. Aberrant Brain Activation During Gaze Processing in Boys With Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christa; Hoeft, Fumiko; Garrett, Amy S.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Context Eye contact is a fundamental component of human social behavior. Individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX), particularly male subjects, avoid eye contact and display other social deficits. To date (to our knowledge), this behavior in fraX has been studied only in female subjects, who show lesser degrees of gaze aversion. Objective To determine the neural correlates of the perception of direct eye gaze in adolescent boys with fraX using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic medical center. Participants Thirteen adolescent boys with fraX, 10 boys with developmental delay, and 13 typically developing control subjects. Main Outcome Measures Behavioral performance and brain activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated during the presentation of faces with eye gaze directed to or averted away from subjects and during successive presentations of stimuli with eye gaze directed toward the subject. Whole-brain and region of interest analyses and regression analyses with task performance were performed. Results Significantly greater activation was observed in prefrontal cortices in controls compared with boys having fraX, who (in contrast) demonstrated elevated left insula activation to direct eye gaze stimuli. Furthermore, compared with controls, boys with fraX showed greater sensitization in the left amygdala with successive exposure to direct gaze. Conclusions Compared with controls, boys with fraX display distinct patterns of brain activation in response to direct eye gaze. These results suggest that aberrant neural processing of direct eye gaze in subjects with fraX may be related to the associated avoidant response. PMID:18981343

  11. Molecular Insights into Frataxin-Mediated Iron Supply for Heme Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Andreas; Blauenburg, Bastian; Miethke, Marcus; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is required as an element to sustain life in all eukaryotes and most bacteria. Although several bacterial iron acquisition strategies have been well explored, little is known about the intracellular trafficking pathways of iron and its entry into the systems for co-factor biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the iron-dependent process of heme maturation in Bacillus subtilis and present, for the first time, structural evidence for the physical interaction of a frataxin homologue (Fra), which is suggested to act as a regulatory component as well as an iron chaperone in different cellular pathways, and a ferrochelatase (HemH), which catalyses the final step of heme b biogenesis. Specific interaction between Fra and HemH was observed upon co-purification from crude cell lysates and, further, by using the recombinant proteins for analytical size-exclusion chromatography. Hydrogen–deuterium exchange experiments identified the landscape of the Fra/HemH interaction interface and revealed Fra as a specific ferrous iron donor for the ferrochelatase HemH. The functional utilisation of the in vitro-generated heme b co-factor upon Fra-mediated iron transfer was confirmed by using the B. subtilis nitric oxide synthase bsNos as a metabolic target enzyme. Complementary mutational analyses confirmed that Fra acts as an essential component for maturation and subsequent targeting of the heme b co-factor, hence representing a key player in the iron-dependent physiology of B. subtilis. PMID:25826316

  12. Insular Volume Reduction in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeremy D.; Nichols, Taylor; Brignone, Laura; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental deficit and is caused by mutations of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. While males and females with the full FMR1 mutation are affected differently because the disorder is X-linked, both suffer from varying degrees of cognitive impairment, attention deficits and social anxiety. The insula is a sensory integrative region that has been increasingly suggested as a critical area involved in anxiety manifestation. The current study was designed to examine possible changes in insular volume in FraX compared to age- and gender-matched typically developing healthy controls (HC) as well as age, gender-, and intelligence-matched developmentally delayed controls (DD). An established native-space, manual morphometry method was utilized to quantify total and regional insular volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Total, anterior and posterior insular volumes were found to be reduced in FraX compared to both HC and DD. The current data add to a growing literature concerning brain abnormalities in FraX and suggests that significant volume reduction of the insula is a component of the FraX neuroanatomical phenotype. This finding also provides an intriguing potential neural correlate for hyperarousal and gaze aversion, which are prominent behavioral symptoms of FraX. PMID:21291994

  13. The marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A exhibits activity in vitro and in vivo in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S; Venz, Simone; Rast, Stefanie; Amann, Kerstin; Hauschild, Jessica; Otte, Katharina; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Alsdorf, Winfried; Madanchi, Ramin; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo; Walther, Reinhard; Aminin, Dmitry L; Fedorov, Sergey N; Shubina, Larisa K; Stonik, Valentin A; Balabanov, Stefan; Honecker, Friedemann; von Amsberg, Gunhild

    2016-05-15

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), outcome of patients remains poor due to the development of drug resistance. Thus, new drugs are urgently needed. We investigated efficacy, toxicity and mechanism of action of marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A (FrA) using CRPC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. FrA revealed high efficacy in human prostate cancer cells, while non-malignant cells were less sensitive. Remarkably, proliferation and colony formation of cells resistant to enzalutamide and abiraterone (due to the androgen receptor splice variant AR-V7) were also significantly inhibited by FrA. The marine compound caused cell type specific cell cycle arrest and induction of caspase-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Up-regulation or induction of several pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bad, PTEN), cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and Bcl-2) were detected in treated cells. Global proteome analysis revealed regulation of proteins involved in formation of metastases, tumor cell invasion, and apoptosis, like keratin 81, CrkII, IL-1β and cathepsin B. Inhibition of pro-survival autophagy was observed following FrA exposure. In vivo, FrA inhibited tumor growth of PC-3 and DU145 cells with a notable reduction of lung metastasis, as well as circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood. Increased lymphocyte counts of treated animals might indicate an immune modulating effect of FrA. In conclusion, our results suggest that FrA is a promising new drug for the treatment of mCRPC. Induction of apoptosis, inhibition of pro-survival autophagy, and immune modulatory effects are suspected modes of actions. PMID:26695519

  14. Anthropometric and craniofacial patterns in mentally retarded males with emphasis on the fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, M G; Pratesi, R; Watson, M S; Breg, W R; Singh, D N

    1993-09-01

    Anthropometric and craniofacial profile patterns indicating the percent difference from the overall mean were developed on 34 physical parameters with 31 white, mentally retarded males (23 adults and 8 children) with the fra(X) syndrome matched for age with 31 white, mentally retarded males without a known cause of their retardation. The fra(X) syndrome males consistently showed larger dimensions for all anthropometric variables, with significant differences for height, sitting height, arm span, hand length, middle finger length, hand breadth, foot length, foot breadth, and testicular volume. A craniofacial pattern did emerge between the two groups of mentally retarded males, but with overlap of several variables. Significant differences were noted for head circumference, head breadth, lower face height, bizygomatic diameter, inner canthal distance, ear length and ear width, with the fra(X) syndrome males having larger head dimensions (head circumference, head breadth, head length, face height and lower face height), but smaller measurements for minimal frontal diameter, bizygomatic diameter, bigonial diameter, and inner canthal distance. Several significant correlations were found with the variables for both mentally retarded males with and without the fra(X) syndrome. In a combined anthropometric and craniofacial profile of 19 variables comparing 26 white fra(X) syndrome males (13 with high expression (> 30%) and 13 with low expression (< 30%), but matched for age), a relatively flat profile was observed with no significant differences for any of the variables. Generally, fra(X) syndrome males with increased fragile X chromosome expression have larger amplifications of the CGG trinucleotide repeat of the FMR-1 gene. No physical differences were detectable in our study between fra(X) males with high expression and apparently larger amplifications of the CGG trinucleotide repeats compared with those patients with low expression. Our research illustrates the use of anthropometry in identifying differences between mentally retarded males with or without the fra(X) syndrome and offers a comprehensive approach for screening males for the fra(X) syndrome and selecting those individuals for cytogenetic and/or molecular genetic testing. PMID:8275570

  15. Assessment of Fracture Risk in A Population of Postmenopausal Italian Women: A Comparison of Two Different Tools.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Gloria; Fila, Enrica; Cervellati, Carlo; Romani, Arianna; Giganti, Melchiore; Rossini, Maurizio; Greco, Pantaleo; Massari, Leo

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare in the assessment of risk of fractures in postmenopausal women two algorithms for 10-year fracture risk evaluation, the WHO-endorsed FRAX() and the Italian FRAX-derived version (DeFRA), which considers BMD of different bone sites and allows the inclusion of other data. In a secondary analysis, we compared the performance of the tools in discriminating subjects who sustained previous major fractures from those who did not. The 10-year fracture risk score was evaluated in a sample of 989 climacteric women using FRAX and DeFRA tools. Bone mineral density was also included in the calculation of these algorithms. Comparing how the subjects were assigned to different risk classes by the two tools, we found that DeFRA attributed higher risk categories than FRAX, among women in the subgroups between 50 and 59 and, mostly, 60-69 years of age. ROC curve analysis showed that DeFRA had the same discriminative ability to identify previous major osteoporotic fractures compared to FRAX (AUC = 0.74 for both). If confirmed by prospective studies, our findings would suggest that DeFRA might be ascribed as at least equivalent to FRAX or perhaps slightly most appropriate in the categorization of the fracture risk, particularly in women aged 60-69 years, a period in which bone densitometry analysis is highly recommended. PMID:25939647

  16. Preliminary communication: neuroanatomical variations of the posterior fossa in men with the fragile X (Martin-Bell) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reiss, A L; Patel, S; Kumar, A J; Freund, L

    1988-10-01

    Four men with fragile X (fra (X], or Martin-Bell, syndrome were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether detectable abnormalities of the cerebellum were present. The cerebellum was chosen because of the apparently increased tendency for fra (X) patients to demonstrate autistic behavior and accumulating evidence implicating cerebellar abnormalities in autism. Compared with a control group of four normal men, fra (X) patients had a significantly decreased area of the cerebellar vermis, particularly the posterior portion, on planimetric analysis in the midsagittal plane. The pons and fourth ventricular areas also were decreased and increased, respectively, in the fra (X) men. Neuroanatomical and animal research increasingly implicates the cerebellar vermis as an important component in functional brain systems subserving sensory and motor integration, learning, and modulation of affect, motivation, and social behavior. Thus, vermis dysfunction could account for many of the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities observed in fra (X) males, particularly those which overlap with the behavioral syndrome of autism. PMID:3232704

  17. [Effects on M-protein on laboratory data].

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Sakurabayashi, I

    2001-07-01

    We describe two patients with abnormal immunoglobulins: Case 1 was a non-diabetic patient with IgA-kappa type M-protein whose serum fructosamine(FRA) value was markedly elevated; and Case 2 was a patient with pseudo-leukocytosis induced by the interaction of etylenediaminetetraacetic acid(EDTA) and IgG-kappa type M-protein. The M-protein in Case 1 was found to be conjugated to serum albumin by immunoelectrophoresis. By gel filtration, the FRA peak of the patient's serum was shown in the high molecule weight fraction. The glycation of IgA-kappa type M-protein was clearly demonstrated by FRA staining after fractionation by serum protein electrophoresis. Although serum FRA values of other non-diabetic patients with IgA type M-protein were elevated, patients with IgG type M-protein and IgM type M-protein had low or normal serum FRA values. In Case 2, the white blood cell count of the patient's blood anti-coagulated with EDTA was 52,300/microliter as determined using an automated counter, but was within normal limits when counted manually by light microscopy using a hemacytometer. The white precipitates were formed by the interaction of the patient's serum with EDTA. Immunofixation electrophoresis revealed that the precipitates were IgG2-kappa type M-protein. PMID:11519131

  18. Flamingo, a seven-pass transmembrane cadherin, cooperates with Netrin/Frazzled in Drosophila midline guidance.

    PubMed

    Organisti, Cristina; Hein, Irina; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    During central nervous system development, several guidance cues and receptors, as well as cell adhesion molecules, are required for guiding axons across the midline and along the anterior-posterior axis. In Drosophila, commissural axons sense the midline attractants Netrin A and B (Net) through Frazzled (Fra) receptors. Despite their importance, lack of Net or fra affects only some commissures, suggesting that additional molecules can fulfill this function. Recently, planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins have been implicated in midline axon guidance in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems. Here, we report that the atypical cadherin and PCP molecule Flamingo/Starry night (Fmi/Stan) acts jointly with Net/Fra signaling during midline development. Additional removal of fmi strongly increases the guidance defects in Net/fra mutants. Rescue and domain deletion experiments suggest that Fmi signaling facilitates commissural pathfinding potentially by mediating axonal fasciculation in a partly homophilic manner. Altogether, our results indicate that contact-mediated cell adhesion via Fmi acts in addition to the Net/Fra guidance system during axon pathfinding across the midline, underlining the importance of PCP molecules during vertebrates and invertebrates midline development. PMID:25440577

  19. Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

    2004-08-01

    Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

  20. Experimental investigation on amplification and coherence properties of a single-frequency and dual-single-frequency narrow-linewidth fiber Raman amplifier employing a switchable narrow-linewidth seed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiangming; Wu, Wuming; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Hou, Jing

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate a narrow-linewidth fiber Raman amplifier (NL-FRA) operating at single-frequency (SF) and dual-single-frequency (DSF) to study the amplification and coherence properties. A switchable NL seed laser at a central wavelength of 1079.7 nm is utilized to provide SF and DSF signal light for FRA. The signal light is Raman amplified to 791 mW and 1.07 W, respectively. Measurements of spectrum and frequency spectrum indicate that there is no significant indication of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and four-wave mixing (FWM). The experimental investigation on coherence properties of SF and DSF NL-FRA indicates that the optical-path-difference-control and control-servomechanism-system for coherent beam combination (CBC) of DSF NL-FRAs are more strictly required, but still feasible.

  1. Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Newsom, David L.; González, Juan F.; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L.; Smith, Jenee N.; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J.; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10−/− mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1− SPI2− or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies. PMID:24967579

  2. Variation at the fragile X locus does not influence susceptibility to bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; McGuffin, P.

    1994-06-15

    Over the last 20 years several pedigrees have been reported which are suggestive of linkage between susceptibility to bipolar disorder and markers on chromosome Xq28. Other workers have failed to replicate these reports and the methodology of the positive reports has been criticized. Recently there have been several reports of an association between fragile X (FRA(X)) and affective disorder within families and in unrelated individuals compared with controls. Such reports could be consistent with the Xq28 marker reports because FRA(X) maps to Xq27.3. We report a study at the FRA(X) CGG repeat locus in 79 unrelated Caucasian bipolar probands without fragile X syndrome and 77 unrelated controls. We found no evidence that variation at this locus confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Bidirectional Transformation of a Metamorphic Protein between the Water-Soluble and Transmembrane Native States.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Koji; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-11-24

    The bidirectional transformation of a protein between its native water-soluble and integral transmembrane conformations is demonstrated for FraC, a hemolytic protein of the family of pore-forming toxins. In the presence of biological membranes, the water-soluble conformation of FraC undergoes a remarkable structural reorganization generating cytolytic transmembrane nanopores conducive to cell death. So far, the reverse transformation from the native transmembrane conformation to the native water-soluble conformation has not been reported. We describe the use of detergents with different physicochemical properties to achieve the spontaneous conversion of transmembrane pores of FraC back into the initial water-soluble state. Thermodynamic and kinetic stability data suggest that specific detergents cause an asymmetric change in the energy landscape of the protein, allowing the bidirectional transformation of a membrane protein. PMID:26544760

  4. Regulation of Heart Rate in Drosophila via Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Stefanie Mares; Joardar, Archi; Gregorio, Carol C.; Zarnescu, Daniela C.

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding proteins play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, however little is understood about their role in cardiac function. The Fragile X (FraX) family of RNA binding proteins is most commonly studied in the context of neurological disorders, as mutations in Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) are the leading cause of inherited mental retardation. More recently, alterations in the levels of Fragile X Related 1 protein, FXR1, the predominant FraX member expressed in vertebrate striated muscle, have been linked to structural and functional defects in mice and zebrafish models. FraX proteins are established regulators of translation and are known to regulate specific targets in different tissues. To decipher the direct role of FraX proteins in the heart in vivo, we turned to Drosophila, which harbors a sole, functionally conserved and ubiquitously expressed FraX protein, dFmr1. Using classical loss of function alleles as well as muscle specific RNAi knockdown, we show that Drosophila FMRP, dFmr1, is required for proper heart rate during development. Functional analyses in the context of cardiac-specific dFmr1 knockdown by RNAi demonstrate that dFmr1 is required cell autonomously in cardiac cells for regulating heart rate. Interestingly, these functional defects are not accompanied by any obvious structural abnormalities, suggesting that dFmr1 may regulate a different repertoire of targets in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that dFmr1 protein is essential for proper cardiac function and establish the fly as a new model for studying the role(s) of FraX proteins in the heart. PMID:26571124

  5. Amplification effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering in the forward-pumped S-band discrete DCF fibers Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Dai, Bizhi; Li, Laixiao; Xu, Haifeng; Liu, Hongling; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Chenxia; Kim, Insoo S.

    2005-11-01

    The amplification effect on forward and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering lines in the forward pumped S band discrete DCF fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) has been studied. The pumped threshold power of the forward first order Stokes SBS (FSB I - ), second order Stokes SBS (FSB II -) and third order SBS (FSB 3 -) in the forward pumped FRA are 1.5 mW, 1.4 mW and 1.7 mW respectively. The Stokes SBS lines are amplified by FRA and fiber Brillouin amplifier (FBA) at the same time. The gain of amplification is given as G A=G R multiplied by G B where G R is Raman gain and G B is Brillouin gain. In the experiments, the saturation gain of FSB I -, FSB II - and FSB 3 - are about 52dB, 65dB and 65dB respectively. The saturation Raman gain of 10km DCF forward FRA is about 14dB, so the Brillouin gain of FSB I - , FSB II - and FSB 3 - are about 38dB, 51dB and 51dBrespectively. There are pumped threshold power of the first order, second order and third order Stokes backward SBS (B-SBS) line BSB I -, BSB II - and BSB 3 - in the forward pumped discrete DCF FRA, and they are about 4.7mW, 17.1mW and 67mW respectively. The saturation gain of the first order, second and third Stokes backward SBS line BSB I -, BSB II -and BSB 3 - are about 60dB and the saturation gain of 10km DCF forward pumped FRA is about 27dB, so the gain of FBA is about 33dB. The forward and backward cascaded SBS lines have been observed.

  6. A Cascade of Iron-Containing Proteins Governs the Genetic Iron Starvation Response to Promote Iron Uptake and Inhibit Iron Storage in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Merc; Ayt, Jos; Hidalgo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters. PMID:25806539

  7. Intercellular Diffusion of a Fluorescent Sucrose Analog via the Septal Junctions in a Filamentous Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Nürnberg, Dennis J.; Mariscal, Vicente; Bornikoel, Jan; Nieves-Morión, Mercedes; Krauß, Norbert; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many filamentous cyanobacteria produce specialized nitrogen-fixing cells called heterocysts, which are located at semiregular intervals along the filament with about 10 to 20 photosynthetic vegetative cells in between. Nitrogen fixation in these complex multicellular bacteria depends on metabolite exchange between the two cell types, with the heterocysts supplying combined-nitrogen compounds but dependent on the vegetative cells for photosynthetically produced carbon compounds. Here, we used a fluorescent tracer to probe intercellular metabolite exchange in the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We show that esculin, a fluorescent sucrose analog, is incorporated by a sucrose import system into the cytoplasm of Anabaena cells. The cytoplasmic esculin is rapidly and reversibly exchanged across vegetative-vegetative and vegetative-heterocyst cell junctions. Our measurements reveal the kinetics of esculin exchange and also show that intercellular metabolic communication is lost in a significant fraction of older heterocysts. SepJ, FraC, and FraD are proteins located at the intercellular septa and are suggested to form structures analogous to gap junctions. We show that a ΔsepJ ΔfraC ΔfraD triple mutant shows an altered septum structure with thinner septa but a denser peptidoglycan layer. Intercellular diffusion of esculin and fluorescein derivatives is impaired in this mutant, which also shows a greatly reduced frequency of nanopores in the intercellular septal cross walls. These findings suggest that FraC, FraD, and SepJ are important for the formation of junctional structures that constitute the major pathway for feeding heterocysts with sucrose. PMID:25784700

  8. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Pathway Regulates Breast Cancer Cell Migration by Maintaining slug Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoming; Zhu, Genfeng; Li, Yong; Padia, Ravi N.; Dong, Zheng; Pan, Zhixing K.; Liu, Kebin; Huang, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    Cell migration is a critical step in cancer cell invasion. Recent studies have implicated the importance of the ERK signaling pathway in cancer cell migration. However, the mechanism associated with ERK-regulated cell migration is poorly understood. Using a panel of breast cancer cell lines, we detected an excellent correlation between ERK activity and cell migration. Interestingly, we noticed that a 48-hr treatment with U0126 (specific MEK1/2 inhibitor) was needed to significantly inhibit breast cancer cell migration while this inhibitor blocked ERK activity within 1 hr. This observation suggests that ERK-dependent gene expression rather than direct ERK signaling is essential for cell migration. In further study, we found that ERK activity promoted the expression of AP1 components Fra-1 and c-Jun, both of which were necessary for cell migration. Combination of U0126 treatment and Fra-1/c-Jun knockdown did not yield further reduction in cell migration than either alone, indicating that ERKs and Fra-1/c-Jun act in the same mechanism to facilitate cell migration. In an attempt to investigate the role of Fra-1/c-Jun in cell migration, we found that ERK-Fra-1/c-Jun axis regulated slug expression in an AP1-dependent manner. Moreover, the occurrence of U0126-induced migratory inhibition coincided with slug reduction, and silencing slug expression abrogated breast cancer cell migration. These results suggest an association between ERK-regulated cell migration and slug expression. Indeed, cell migration was not significantly inhibited by U0126 treatment or Fra-1/c-Jun silencing in cells expressing slug transgene. Our study suggests that the ERK pathway regulates breast cancer cell migration by maintaining slug expression. PMID:19920183

  9. Significance of Folate Receptor alpha and Thymidylate Synthase Protein Expression in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer treated with Pemetrexed

    PubMed Central

    Christoph, Daniel C; Asuncion, Bernadette Reyna; Hassan, Biftu; Tran, Cindy; Maltzman, Julia D; OShannessy, Daniel J; Wynes, Murry W; Gauler, Thomas C; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Hoiczyk, Mathias; Schuler, Martin; Eberhardt, Wilfried E; Hirsch, Fred R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Folate receptor alpha (FRA) regulates cellular uptake of folates and antifolates. Information about FRA protein expression in metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is limited. We investigated FRA as a biomarker for pemetrexed-based chemotherapy and compared it to thymidylate synthase (TS), the main target of pemetrexed. Materials and Methods Pre-treatment tumor specimens from 207 NSCLC patients with advanced disease were assessed for FRA and TS protein expression by immunohistochemistry using the H-score (range: 0300) and correlated to patients clinicopathological data, radiographic response (RECIST), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Low total (cytoplasmic and nuclear) TS protein expression (H-score <210) was associated with improved PFS (median: 5.6 vs. 3.5 months; HR=0.6379, P=0.0131) and prolonged OS (median: 22.5 vs. 11.5 months; HR: 0.5680, P=0.0107). An association between lower TS levels and response to pemetrexed-based therapy was found: mean H-score 1875, median 180 for responders vs. 2014, median 210, P=0.0244. High intracellular FRA expression (H-score ? 110) was associated with prolonged OS (28.9 vs. 11.7 months, HR=0.5316, P=0.0040) and a trend for association with PFS (5.6 vs. 4.1 months, HR=0.7395, P=0.0801) was noted. Membranous FRA expression was seen in 83% of patients, moreover, high membranous expression (H-score ?20) was associated with improved PFS (5.6 vs. 3.7 months, HR=0.6445, P=0.0306) and OS (22.1 vs. 11.5 months, HR=0.5378, P=0.0131). Conclusions A large number of NSCLC patients have high expression of FRA and/or low level of TS expression. Expression levels of FRA and TS were associated with clinical benefit from pemetrexed-therapy. PMID:23242435

  10. APOLLO 14: Docking trouble (pt 1/2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The crew are having problems docking the command module to the lunar module: the locking mechanism will not engage. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  11. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  12. APOLLO 14: Docking trouble (pt 2/2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: At last the crew is able to mate the command and lunar modules. But the hitch has raised some serious issues.. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  13. Major element chemistry of glasses in Apollo 14 soil 14156.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Jakes, P.

    1973-01-01

    Glasses in a soil sample (14156) from the middle layer of the trench at the Fra Mauro landing site show a wide range of compositions clustered around certain preferred compositions. Ninety per cent of the glasses are of two major types - Fra Mauro basalt (63%) with high K and 17 wt % Al2O3 and Highland basalt or anorthositic gabbro (27%) with low K and 25 to 26 wt % Al2O3. The glass population is almost identical with that of the comprehensive soil 14259.

  14. 77 FR 75045 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... proceeding on January 12, 2011. See 76 FR 2199. The specific regulatory language recommended by the RSAC was... comments FRA issued a final rule on April 9, 2012. See 77 FR 21312. In accordance with the provisions of... 76 FR 2199 and 77 FR 21312. The following is a discussion of each of the issues raised in...

  15. Fractionation of soil organic matter following long-term laboratory incubation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural soils comprises a significant part of the global terrestrial C pool. It has often been characterized by utilizing a combination of chemical dispersion of the soil followed by physical separation. These fractions include a non aggregate protected, light fra...

  16. 75 FR 38172 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington, DC... unit (EMU) technology train-sets based upon the Regina system, which was developed by Bombardier in... purchasing non-FRA compliant EMU Regina train- sets for this high-speed rail system, and is requesting...

  17. 78 FR 16357 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... OMB approval. 77 FR 77181. FRA received no comments in response to this notice. Before OMB decides... also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs the regulated... renders a decision. 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. Therefore, respondents should submit their...

  18. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

    PubMed

    Sehm, Bernhard; Frisch, Stefan; Thne-Otto, Angelika; Horstmann, Annette; Villringer, Arno; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2011-01-01

    Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM)-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n?=?20) disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits. PMID:22028902

  19. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the value placed on preventing a fatality. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) developed by the... AIS level is assigned a value of injury avoidance as a fraction of the value of avoiding a fatality . FRA rates collisions that occur at train speeds in excess of 25 mph as an AIS level 5 ($2,287,500)...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the value placed on preventing a fatality. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) developed by the... AIS level is assigned a value of injury avoidance as a fraction of the value of avoiding a fatality . FRA rates collisions that occur at train speeds in excess of 25 mph as an AIS level 5 ($2,287,500)...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the value placed on preventing a fatality. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) developed by the... AIS level is assigned a value of injury avoidance as a fraction of the value of avoiding a fatality . FRA rates collisions that occur at train speeds in excess of 25 mph as an AIS level 5 ($2,287,500)...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the value placed on preventing a fatality. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) developed by the... AIS level is assigned a value of injury avoidance as a fraction of the value of avoiding a fatality . FRA rates collisions that occur at train speeds in excess of 25 mph as an AIS level 5 ($2,287,500)...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the value placed on preventing a fatality. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) developed by the... AIS level is assigned a value of injury avoidance as a fraction of the value of avoiding a fatality . FRA rates collisions that occur at train speeds in excess of 25 mph as an AIS level 5 ($2,287,500)...

  4. 76 FR 49975 - Inspection of Towing Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D... Administration FR Federal Register FRA Federal Railroad Administration GAO Government Accountability Office gpm... public meetings titled ``Inspection of Towing Vessels'' in the Federal Register (69 FR 78471). The...

  5. 78 FR 13747 - Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges... movable bridge. FRA is issuing this notice in response to a recent train accident involving a derailment... movable bridges to determine if effective span locking is being provided; (2) review current...

  6. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... implementing NEPA and the FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts as set forth in 64 FR 28545...) for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor... currently has no passenger rail service. This corridor is part of the South Central High Speed Rail...

  7. 77 FR 69920 - Notice of Availability of a Final Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement, for the Chicago, IL to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... 1500 et seq.), and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999..., for the Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Corridor Program and Tier 2 Evaluation for the... (Final EIS) has been prepared for the Chicago, Illinois to St. Louis, Missouri High Speed Rail...

  8. 77 FR 43902 - Notice of Availability of a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the California...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500 et seq.), and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR... Statement for the California High-Speed Train Project Fresno to Bakersfield Section AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Statement (EIS) has been prepared for the Fresno to Bakersfield Section of the California High- Speed...

  9. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipment, or an automated tracking system is provided, with the following information about the defective... possible, and job title of the person reporting the defective condition. (3) Automated tracking system... section may be reviewed and monitored by FRA at any time to ensure the integrity of the system....

  10. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... equipment, or an automated tracking system is provided, with the following information about the defective... possible, and job title of the person reporting the defective condition. (3) Automated tracking system... section may be reviewed and monitored by FRA at any time to ensure the integrity of the system....

  11. O3, CO2 and chemical fractionation in ponderosa pine saplings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors can affect plant tissue quality which is important for quality of organic matter inputs into soil food webs and decomposition of soil organic matter. Thus the effects of increases in CO2 and O3 and their interactions were determined for various chemical fra...

  12. 75 FR 76345 - Risk Reduction Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Secretary has since delegated those responsibilities to the FRA Administrator. See 49 CFR 1.49(oo); 74 FR... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Chapter II RIN 2130-AC11 Risk Reduction Program AGENCY: Federal... implementation of railroad safety risk reduction programs. Risk reduction is a comprehensive,...

  13. 78 FR 48931 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Emergency Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... resulted in 42 fatalities, and 5 persons are still reported to be missing. Remarks will be given by the FRA Administrator, Committee members will be briefed on the preliminary findings of the accident, and discussions... in the Federal Register on March 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740), for additional information about the RSAC....

  14. 77 FR 50760 - Notice and request for comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... agency was seeking OMB approval. 77 FR 37092. FRA received no comments after issuing this 60- day notice... 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs the... before it renders a decision. 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. Therefore, respondents should submit...

  15. 76 FR 34683 - Withdrawal of Notices Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Program. SUMMARY: On September 17, 2010 (75 FR 57000) (DDRA); October 1, 2010 (75 FR 60740) (FRA); January 13, 2011 (76 FR 2349) (BIE) and (76 FR 2353) (IRS); January 25, 2011 (76 FR 4330) (AORC); February 8, 2011 (76 FR 6769) (UISFL); and March 22, 2011 (76 FR 15956) (Comprehensive Program), the...

  16. 76 FR 26682 - Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... against them in litigation. See 49 U.S.C. 20156 and 75 FR 76345 (December 8, 2010), Docket No. FRA-2009... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Chapter II Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction... have access to the Internet, you may view the docket online by visiting the Docket Management...

  17. 78 FR 16051 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... permitting high cant deficiency train operations through curves at conventional speeds. The rule accounts for... vehicle/track interaction safety, see 75 FR 25928, FRA issues this final rule amending the Track Safety... refining those standards to focus on identified safety concerns and remove any unnecessary costs....

  18. 49 CFR 174.104 - Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and complies with the FRA Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215) and with the requirements for freight cars used to transport explosives prescribed by the DOT Hazardous Materials Regulation (49 CFR part 174). Qualified Person Designated Under 49 CFR 215.11 No. 2 _______ Station 19__. I have this...

  19. 49 CFR 174.104 - Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... service and complies with the FRA Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215) and with the requirements... CFR part 174). Qualified Person Designated Under 49 CFR 215.11 No. 2 ___ Station ______ 20 __ . I have... Person Designated Under 49 CFR 215.11 No. 3 ___ Station ______ 20 __ . I hereby certify that I have...

  20. 49 CFR 174.104 - Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and complies with the FRA Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215) and with the requirements for freight cars used to transport explosives prescribed by the DOT Hazardous Materials Regulation (49 CFR part 174). Qualified Person Designated Under 49 CFR 215.11 No. 2 ___ Station ______ 20 __. I have...

  1. 49 CFR 174.104 - Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials; car selection, preparation, inspection, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... service and complies with the FRA Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215) and with the requirements... CFR part 174). Qualified Person Designated Under 49 CFR 215.11 No. 2 ___ Station ______ 20 __ . I have... Person Designated Under 49 CFR 215.11 No. 3 ___ Station ______ 20 __ . I hereby certify that I have...

  2. 49 CFR 225.9 - Telephonic reports of certain accidents/incidents and other events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of rail accidents for the National Transportation Safety Board (49 CFR part 840) and the Research and..., 49 CFR 171.15). FRA Locomotive Safety Standards require certain locomotive accidents to be reported by telephone to the NRC at the same toll-free number (800-424-0201). 49 CFR 229.17. (c) Contents...

  3. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  4. Intercity rail-passenger car ride quality test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharr, R. L.; Owings, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration's research and development program relating to intercity rail-passenger ride quality focuses on developing ride quality design criteria and specifications. The FRA ride quality test program and some of the techniques being used to analyze and evaluate the design criteria of the program are discussed.

  5. 76 FR 47638 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  6. 75 FR 26841 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with part 211 of title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  7. DPSK Modulated (Tbit/s) Transmission Incorporating Dispersion-compensated Hybrid Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Gautam, Sunil

    2013-12-01

    The simulative implementation of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulated data transmission incorporating single-pump highly efficient dispersion compensated Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier is demonstrated. The simulative results are discussed to compare two different types of configurations of dispersion compensated 16-channel wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system to achieve transmission of Tbit/s data. In pre-compensation technique, dispersion compensated fiber (DCF) is used prior to fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) (Type I) and in post-compensation technique; the DCF is used after FRA (Type II) in a WDM optical communication system. The pumped dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) is in use to act as FRA amplifier. The performance characteristics such as Q factor, BER and eye closure penalty are premeditated to realize the ultra high speed WDM systems by employing DCF based FRA together with DPSK modulation. From simulated results, it is recommended to implement Type I over Type II to realize the feasibility of such high speed WDM systems.

  8. 75 FR 68021 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Tier-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... FR 28545, May 26, 1999), the FRA and the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) and the Ohio Rail... Program. (74 FR 29900 (June 23, 2009)). The Interim Guidance split the funding opportunities into four... Federal Railroad Administration Draft Finding of No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick...

  9. 75 FR 54223 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) received a request for a waiver...

  10. 77 FR 6482 - Conductor Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... (NPRM) in the Federal Register on November 10, 2010. See 75 FR 69166. In the NPRM, FRA solicited public... 9, 2011. See 76 FR 69802. Following publication of the final rule, parties filed petitions seeking... definition of `conductor' for purposes of this rule.'' 76 FR 69815. To ensure that interested parties...

  11. 49 CFR 225.35 - Access to records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... correct the problem. Should a railroad assert a legal privilege with respect to certain claims and medical.... FRA retains the right to issue a subpoena to obtain such records under 49 U.S.C. 20107 and 20902... Administration or of a State agency participating in investigative and surveillance activities under part 212...

  12. 76 FR 59482 - Petition for Waivers of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waivers of Compliance In accordance with Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Sections 211.9 and 211.41, notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a...

  13. 78 FR 979 - Petition for Positive Train Control Safety Plan Approval and System Certification of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Positive Train Control Safety Plan Approval and System Certification of the Electronic Train Management System In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal... Railway (BNSF) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for Positive Train Control...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 227 - Audiometric Baseline Revision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. C Appendix C to Part 227... CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i). D. Initially, the baseline is the latest audiogram obtained before entry into...-correction provisions. FRA's is found in appendix F of part 227 and OSHA's in appendix F of 29 CFR...

  15. 76 FR 55726 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... that FRA will submit for clearance by OMB as required under the PRA: Title: Occupational Noise Exposure... dates--noise monitoring, hearing conservation, and audiometric testing programs, as well as hearing... effects of excessive noise in the everyday rail environment. Affected Public: Businesses....

  16. 76 FR 72496 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... by OMB as required by the PRA. Title: Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees... 8, 2011 (76 FR 55726). DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before December 23, 2011. FOR FURTHER... seeking OMB approval. 76 FR 55726. FRA received no comments in response to this notice. Before OMB...

  17. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affect the quality of the human environment. The finding of no significant impact shall include a... the impact upon the quality of the human environment. FRA recommends that prior to submitting the... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affect the quality of the human environment. The finding of no significant impact shall include a... the impact upon the quality of the human environment. FRA recommends that prior to submitting the... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affect the quality of the human environment. The finding of no significant impact shall include a... the impact upon the quality of the human environment. FRA recommends that prior to submitting the... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affect the quality of the human environment. The finding of no significant impact shall include a... the impact upon the quality of the human environment. FRA recommends that prior to submitting the... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section...

  1. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  2. 75 FR 32240 - Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor-Richmond, VA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Quality NEPA implementing regulations, 40 CFR parts 1500-1508, and the FRA NEPA guidance, 64 FR 28545 (May..., NC 27537. 8. Franklinton, NC: July 29, 2010, Franklinton High School Gym, 6948 N. Cheatham Street... Federal Railroad Administration Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 238 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Failure to observe any... schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 238. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation... convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the...

  4. 78 FR 1933 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... glass replacement continues to be an extremely high cost for an excursion operation and would jeopardize... replacing noncompliant window glass with Part 223-compliant glazing. Since the last waiver request was granted by FRA, FGLK replaced 22 pieces of noncompliant glass in 2009 at a cost of nearly $9,000. A...

  5. 78 FR 70398 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... following collections of information was published on September 16, 2013 (78 FR 56995). DATES: Comments must... the agency was seeking OMB approval. 78 FR 56995. FRA received no comments in response to the... after the 30-day notice is published. 44 U.S.C. 3507(b)-(c); 5 CFR 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR...

  6. 75 FR 14481 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... the agency was seeking OMB approval. See 75 FR 3275. FRA received no comments after issuing this... on the following collections of information was published on January 20, 2010 (75 FR 3275). DATES....S.C. 3507(b)-(c); 5 CFR 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes...

  7. 77 FR 3555 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... 17, 2011 (76 FR 71432). DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before February 23, 2012. FOR FURTHER... seeking OMB approval. 76 FR 71432. FRA received no comments in response to this notice. Before OMB decides...(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs...

  8. 75 FR 40021 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... acknowledge receipt of their respective comments must include a self-addressed stamped postcard stating... organizational culture and climate that supports greater awareness of safety and a greater cooperative... Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the...

  9. 78 FR 56995 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... respective comments must include a self-addressed stamped postcard stating, ``Comments on OMB control number... engender an organizational culture and climate that supports greater awareness of safety and a greater... requirements for clearance by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment...

  10. 78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate Administrator for Regulatory and Legislative... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In... the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake...

  11. 75 FR 55394 - Program for Capital Grants for Rail Line Relocation and Improvement Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...Under this Notice, the FRA encourages eligible applicants to submit applications for grants to fund eligible rail line relocation and improvement projects. This Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) does not apply to the 27 projects specifically enumerated in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117 (December 16, 2009)) or the 23 projects specifically enumerated in the Omnibus......

  12. 76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Railway Company (BNSF), Canadian National Railway (CN), Canadian Pacific Railway (CP), CSX Transportation... Federal Register on November 10, 2010. See 75 FR 69166. In the NPRM, FRA solicited public comment on the... (75 FR 69166, 69170 (Nov. 10, 2010)) and in the section-by-section analysis to this final rule:...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 239 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., 21304, and 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Further designations, not found in the CFR citation for certain provisions, are FRA Office of Chief Counsel computer codes added as a suffix to the CFR citation and used to... necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined designation cited in...

  14. 77 FR 22843 - Notice of Product Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Product Development In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code...) have provided the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) a Notice of Product Development per 49 CFR 236... exceed 60 mph. The scope of the work for the 2A Agreement requires UP to design, procure, and install:...

  15. The lunar highland melt-rock suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Size can be used as a criterion to select 18 large (larger than 1 cm) samples from among 148 melt-rock fragments of all sizes. This selection provides a suite of large samples which represent the important chemical variants among highland melt rocks; each large sample has enough material for a number of sample-destructive studies, as well as for future reference. Cluster analysis of the total data base of 148 highland melt rocks shows six distinct groups: anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro ('highland basalt'), low K Fra Mauro, intermediate-K Fra Mauro, and high-K. Large samples are available for four of the melt-rock groups (gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro, and intermediate-K Fra Mauro). This sample selection reveals two subgroups of anorthositic gabbro (one anorthite-poor with negative Eu anomaly and one anorthite-rich without Eu anomaly). There is a sharp distinction between those Apollo 16 melt rocks and glasses which have both been classified as 'gabbroic anorthosite'.

  16. 49 CFR 224.101 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT ROLLING STOCK Application, Inspection, and Maintenance of Retroreflective Material 224.101 General requirements. All rail freight rolling stock subject... alternative standard providing at least an equivalent level of safety after special approval of FRA...

  17. 75 FR 23839 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... alcohol and controlled substances. Because of the increase in cross-border train operations and the increased risk posed to the safety of train operations in the United States, FRA seeks to apply all of the...-3520. Issued in Washington, DC on April 28, 2010. Kimberly Coronel, Director, Office of...

  18. 5 CFR 6001.104 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (3) No spouse or minor child of an FRA employee shall hold stock or any other securities interest in... provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, no FAA employee, or spouse or minor child of the... employee's appointment or upon initial investment in the fund, whichever occurs later, the fund does...

  19. 5 CFR 6001.104 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (3) No spouse or minor child of an FRA employee shall hold stock or any other securities interest in... provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, no FAA employee, or spouse or minor child of the... employee's appointment or upon initial investment in the fund, whichever occurs later, the fund does...

  20. 78 FR 22363 - Environmental Impact Statement for the All Aboard Florida Miami-Orlando Passenger Rail Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    .... 4321 et seq.) (NEPA) and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545, May 26... Federal Railroad Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the All Aboard Florida Miami-- Orlando... service proposed by the private company, All Aboard Florida--Operations LLC (AAF), between Miami...

  1. 76 FR 4276 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... comments. Fax: 202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Operations Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 239 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., 21304, and 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Further designations, not found in the CFR citation for certain provisions, are FRA Office of Chief Counsel computer codes added as a suffix to the CFR citation and used to... necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined designation cited in...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 239 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 239... CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty...

  4. 49 CFR 219.203 - Responsibilities of railroads and employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident... incident provide blood and urine specimens for toxicological testing by FRA. Such employees must cooperate... pertinent requirements of this part. In all cases blood may be drawn only by a qualified...

  5. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  6. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  7. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  8. 78 FR 23631 - Notice of Intent To Grant Buy America Waiver to Amtrak To Use Three Non-Domestic Component Parts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...FRA is issuing this notice to advise the public that it intends to grant the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (``Amtrak'') a waiver to purchase four (4) No. 32.75 136RE Special Turnouts (``Turnouts'') manufactured by voestalpine Nortrak, Inc. (``Nortrak'') for use in the New York City to Trenton, NY, High- Speed Rail Improvements Program (the ``High-Speed Rail Improvements Program'' or......

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  11. 77 FR 20690 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... 2008 (PRIIA). The NECSC is made up of stakeholders operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC), and the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the...

  12. 49 CFR 269.3 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 269.3 Section 269.3 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATE PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM 269.3 Application. (a) Certification. This part... provide notice of the certification on the FRA public Web site upon receipt. (b) Route limitations....

  13. 49 CFR 269.3 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application. 269.3 Section 269.3 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATE PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM 269.3 Application. (a) Certification. This part... provide notice of the certification on the FRA public Web site upon receipt. (b) Route limitations....

  14. 49 CFR 269.3 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application. 269.3 Section 269.3 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATE PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM 269.3 Application. (a) Certification. This part... provide notice of the certification on the FRA public Web site upon receipt. (b) Route limitations....

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  18. 76 FR 64 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... his responsibilities under RSIA to the Administrator of FRA. 74 FR 26981, 26982, June 5, 2009... Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars (1990 Guidelines), 55 FR 30892, July 27... interrupt rest. Amendment to appendix A to 49 CFR part 228, 43 FR 30803, July 18, 1978. To carry out...

  19. 49 CFR 225.27 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Summary, that the railroad submits to FRA on optical media (CD-ROM) or electronically via the Internet to... subject to the following system requirements: (1) Design Requirements. Any electronic record keeping system used to retain a record required to be retained by this part shall meet the following...

  20. 49 CFR 225.27 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Summary, that the railroad submits to FRA on optical media (CD-ROM) or electronically via the Internet to... subject to the following system requirements: (1) Design Requirements. Any electronic record keeping system used to retain a record required to be retained by this part shall meet the following...

  1. 49 CFR 225.27 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Summary, that the railroad submits to FRA on optical media (CD-ROM) or electronically via the Internet to... subject to the following system requirements: (1) Design Requirements. Any electronic record keeping system used to retain a record required to be retained by this part shall meet the following...

  2. 76 FR 818 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  3. 77 FR 14976 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; 110(a)(1) and (2) Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... NSR Update) recognizing nitrogen oxide (NOx) as an ozone precursor, among other elements. See 70 FR...(a)(2)(C) and (J) for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS by March 1, 2008. See 73 FR 16205. Specifically... May 28, 2009, SIP revision. See 77 FR 6016. The May 28, 2009, submission was one of two required...

  4. 76 FR 4250 - Operating Certain Railroad Tank Cars in Excess of 263,000 Pounds Gross Rail Load; Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... hazardous materials such as PIH materials (HM-246; 74 FR 1770 (Jan. 13, 2009) (the ``Tank Car Rule'')), FRA... implement a crashworthiness performance standard as discussed in the Tank Car Rule. See 74 FR at 1771. II... record. 75 FR 27205 (Final Rule). The Final Rule titled, Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of...

  5. 77 FR 153 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... lighting level in a car. 64 FR 25598. In particular, the PESS final rule stated that FRA was investigating... failed after a short time, greatly hindering rescue operations. See 64 FR 25596. Emergency lighting... Preparedness (PTEP) final rule. See 63 FR 24629. The rule contains minimum Federal safety standards for...

  6. 78 FR 36817 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...); see also 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. The summary below describes the nature of the information... collections of information was published on March 27, 2013 (78 FR 18668). DATES: Comments must be submitted on... seeking OMB approval. See 78 FR 18668. FRA received no comments after issuing this notice....

  7. 78 FR 18671 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...); see also 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. The summaries below describe the nature of the information... approval. 78 FR 1930. FRA received no comments in response to this notice. Before OMB decides whether to... also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30-day notice informs the...

  8. 78 FR 18674 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...); see also 60 FR 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. The summaries below describe the nature of the information... approval. 78 FR 4978. FRA received no comments after issuing this notice. Accordingly, DOT announces that... 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs the...

  9. 49 CFR 225.9 - Telephonic reports of certain accidents/incidents and other events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of rail accidents for the National Transportation Safety Board (49 CFR part 840) and the Research and..., 49 CFR 171.15). FRA Locomotive Safety Standards require certain locomotive accidents to be reported by telephone to the NRC at the same toll-free number (800-424-0201). 49 CFR 229.17. (c) Contents...

  10. 49 CFR 225.9 - Telephonic reports of certain accidents/incidents and other events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of rail accidents for the National Transportation Safety Board (49 CFR part 840) and the Research and..., 49 CFR 171.15). FRA Locomotive Safety Standards require certain locomotive accidents to be reported by telephone to the NRC at the same toll-free number (800-424-0201). 49 CFR 229.17. (c) Contents...

  11. 75 FR 41281 - Bridge Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...FRA is establishing Federal safety requirements for railroad bridges. This final rule requires track owners to implement bridge management programs, which include annual inspections of railroad bridges, and to audit the programs. This final rule also requires track owners to know the safe load capacity of bridges and to conduct special inspections if the weather or other conditions warrant......

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 237 - Supplemental Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FRA in 2000 as Appendix C of the Federal Track Safety Standards, 49 CFR Part 213. With the promulgation of 49 CFR Part 237, Bridge Safety Standards, many of the non-regulatory provisions in that Policy... principles and the law of physics. Track owners should use those principles to assess the integrity...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 237 - Supplemental Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FRA in 2000 as Appendix C of the Federal Track Safety Standards, 49 CFR Part 213. With the promulgation of 49 CFR Part 237, Bridge Safety Standards, many of the non-regulatory provisions in that Policy... principles and the law of physics. Track owners should use those principles to assess the integrity...

  14. Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management

    EPA Science Inventory

    River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

  15. 49 CFR 225.21 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forms. 225.21 Section 225.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS 225.21 Forms. The following forms and copies of the FRA...

  16. 49 CFR 1106.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration at 49 CFR 244.9, means the migration, combination, or unification of one set of railroad... meaning assigned by the Board's regulations (49 CFR part 1201; General Instructions 1-1), as those... Act and Board's environmental rules at 49 CFR part 1105. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)...

  17. 76 FR 23923 - Hazardous Materials: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones by Drivers of Commercial Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... commerce. 3. Federal Railroad Administration On October 7, 2008, FRA published Emergency Order 26 (73 FR... Electronic Device Related Distractions (Safety Advisory Notice No.10-5)'' on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45697) to... 28, 2011 PHMSA issued a final rule (HM-256; PHMSA-2010- 0221 (76 FR 10771)) to prohibit texting...

  18. 76 FR 8397 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Program Corridor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). The FRA and IDOT will ] use a tiered process, as provided for in 40... address. Information and documents regarding the environmental review process will be made available... become operational. Environmental Review Process: The EIS will be developed in accordance with Council...

  19. 76 FR 50323 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Madera County to Bakersfield (Kern County) California. Completion of the environmental review process... Authority (Authority) is the lead state agency for the environmental review process. The Authority plans to... review process for the California HST system. In 2008, the FRA and Authority certified another...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 229 - Recommended Practices for Design and Safety Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... The criteria and processes specified this appendix is intended to minimize the probability of failure.... FRA uses the criteria and processes set forth in this appendix (or other technically equivalent criteria and processes that may be recommended by industry) when evaluating analyses, assumptions,...

  1. 78 FR 31628 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Milwaukee, WI to Minneapolis, MN Rail Corridor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... process, as provided for in 40 CFR 1508.28 and in accordance with FRA guidance, in the completion of the... alternative mode and/or relief to these congested roadways and airports. The environmental process will.... Environmental Review Process The EIS will be developed in accordance with Council on Environmental Quality...

  2. 77 FR 49854 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Oregon Portion of the Pacific Northwest Rail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...). Environmental Review Process: FRA and ODOT will use a tiered process, as provided for in 40 CFR 1508.28, in the completion of the environmental review of the Project. ``Tiering'' is a staged environmental review process... Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). Tier 1: The Tier 1 assessment will result in an EIS with...

  3. 75 FR 59579 - Restrictions on Railroad Operating Employees' Use of Cellular Telephones and Other Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... electronic devices by railroad operating employees. 75 FR 27672 (May 18, 2010). The NPRM proposed to codify many of the requirements of Emergency Order 26 (Order or EO 26, 73 FR 58702 (Oct. 7, 2008)), but... telephones and other electronic devices while on duty. (73 FR 58702, Oct. 7, 2008). This FRA action was...

  4. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Procedures (78 FR 2713; January 14, 2013). FRA and TxDOT will use a tiered process, as provided for in 40 CFR... environmental process will be made available for the duration of the environmental process at: www.txokrail.org . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Environmental Review Process The Service Level (Tier 1) EIS will be prepared...

  5. 77 FR 38882 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement, for the Chicago, IL to St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... process. IDOT proposes to improve high speed passenger rail service between Chicago, Illinois and St... double-track. IDOT and FRA are using a tiered environmental process to evaluate the proposed Program. A tiered environmental process is a phased environmental review used in the development of complex...

  6. 76 FR 50324 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Madera County to Bakersfield (Kern County) California. Completion of the environmental review process... Authority (Authority) is the lead state agency for the environmental review process. The Authority proposes... environmental review process for the California HST system. In 2008, the FRA and Authority certified...

  7. 78 FR 13154 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Railroad System by Light Rail and Conventional Equipment, 65 FR 42529 (July 10, 2000). See also Joint... Conventional Railroads and Light ] Rail Transit Systems, 65 FR 42626 (July 10, 2000).) FRA assigned the... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC,...

  8. 75 FR 3275 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    .... Before submitting these information collection requirements for clearance by the Office of Management and... accidents, injuries, and fatalities of the nature already experienced and further reduce the risk of a truly catastrophic accident. Finally, FRA analyzes the data provided in the Management Information System...

  9. 76 FR 71432 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public comment on specific aspects of the... accidents, injuries, and fatalities of the nature already experienced and further reduce the risk of a truly........ 1 minute 417 219.603(a)--Specimen Security-- 20,000 employees... 20 doc. excuses.... 15...

  10. 78 FR 76191 - Operational Tests and Inspections for Compliance With Maximum Authorized Train Speeds and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2013-08 to stress to railroads and their employees the importance of compliance with Federal regulations and applicable railroad operating rules regarding maximum authorized train speed limits and any relevant speed restrictions. This safety advisory contains five recommendations to railroads to ensure that compliance with maximum authorized speeds and other......

  11. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  12. 77 FR 68722 - National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 234 RIN 2130-AC26 National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory..., FRA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory... U.S. DOT National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory (Crossing Inventory). This notice announces...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 227 - Audiometric Baseline Revision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i). D. Initially, the baseline is the latest audiogram obtained before entry into...-correction provisions. FRA's is found in appendix F of part 227 and OSHA's in appendix F of 29 CFR 1910.95... required six-month interval between tests showing STS persistence has not been met. The purpose of the...

  14. 49 CFR 269.11 - Evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluation. 269.11 Section 269.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATE PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM § 269.11 Evaluation. FRA will select a...

  15. 49 CFR 269.11 - Evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evaluation. 269.11 Section 269.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATE PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM § 269.11 Evaluation. FRA will select a...

  16. 49 CFR 269.11 - Evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evaluation. 269.11 Section 269.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATE PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE PILOT PROGRAM § 269.11 Evaluation. FRA will select a...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... similar contexts. (See 49 CFR 107.299, defining “knowingly” under the Hazardous Materials Transportation... operating. Also, unlike the case where willfulness must be shown (see FRA's statement of policy at 49 CFR... Tampering C Appendix C to Part 218 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 220... CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 227 - Audiometric Baseline Revision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i). D. Initially, the baseline is the latest audiogram obtained before entry into...-correction provisions. FRA's is found in appendix F of part 227 and OSHA's in appendix F of 29 CFR 1910.95... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audiometric Baseline Revision C Appendix C to...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 220... CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... similar contexts. (See 49 CFR 107.299, defining “knowingly” under the Hazardous Materials Transportation... operating. Also, unlike the case where willfulness must be shown (see FRA's statement of policy at 49 CFR... Tampering C Appendix C to Part 218 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 227 - Audiometric Baseline Revision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i). D. Initially, the baseline is the latest audiogram obtained before entry into...-correction provisions. FRA's is found in appendix F of part 227 and OSHA's in appendix F of 29 CFR 1910.95... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audiometric Baseline Revision C Appendix C to...

  3. 78 FR 59086 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... in Lac-M gantic, Quebec, Canada, on July 6, 2013. See 78 FR 48218. Emergency Order No. 28 is intended.... Respondent universe responses response burden hours (1) RR Plans identifying 655 railroads...... 491 plans 40... Plans 655 railroads...... 50 revised plans... 10 hours 500 --Notifications to FRA by RR 655...

  4. 76 FR 18294 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Operational Tests/Insp. --FRA Disapproval of RR 687 railroads....... 20 supporting 1 hour 20 Program of Operational Tests/ documents. Insp. & Response by RR. --Amended Prog. Docs......... 687 railroads....... 20... instr. 8 hours 1,040,000 Employees. employees. --New RR & Copy of Program of 20 new railroads.......

  5. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 237 - Schedule of Civil Penalties1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 237... CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 237 - Schedule of Civil Penalties1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 237... CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 237 - Schedule of Civil Penalties1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 237... CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 237 - Schedule of Civil Penalties1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. 2 The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 237... CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty...

  9. Genetic diversity, population structure and genome-wide marker-trait association analysis of the USDA pea (Pisum sativum L.) core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity, population structure and genome-wide marker-trait association analysis was conducted for the USDA pea (Pisum sativum L.) core collection. The core collection contained 285 accessions with diverse phenotypes and geographic origins. The 137 DNA markers included 102 polymorphic fra...

  10. 49 CFR 238.107 - Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan. 238.107... Requirements § 238.107 Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan. (a) General. Beginning on January 1, 2002... develop, and provide to FRA upon request, a detailed inspection, testing, and maintenance plan...

  11. A multiplex PCR assay for determination of mating type in isolates of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we developed a multiplex PCR for identification of mating type idiomorphs in the filamentous fungus, Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood disease in the honey bee (Apis melliffera). A combination of gene-specific primers was designed to amplify Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 gene fra...

  12. 77 FR 26703 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... authority. See 77 FR 24416. In preparing that final ] rule for publication, three errors were made as... 24, 2012. See 77 FR 24416. FRA failed to account for an October 31, 2011 amendment to 49 CFR part 228... removed and reserved Sec. 228.21. See 76 FR 67073, 67087-88. In preparing the April 24, 2012, final...

  13. 75 FR 15484 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Applications. SUMMARY: The Rail Safety Technology Program is a newly authorized program under the Rail Safety... ), or Mr. David Blackmore, FRA, Program Manager- Advanced Technologies (Phone: (312) 835-3903,...

  14. 76 FR 55819 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... material that may be left visible on the end of a tie during the manufacturing process.'' 76 FR 18,077 (Apr... 403(d), of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-432, Division A) (RSIA). See 75 FR 52... concrete crossties. See 76 FR 18,073. FRA received two petitions for reconsideration in response to...

  15. 75 FR 80108 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  16. 75 FR 34802 - Notice and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... collection of information was published on April 8, 2010 (75 FR 18012). DATES: Comments must be submitted on... this ICR that the agency was seeking OMB approval. 75 FR 18012. FRA received no comments in response to....S.C. 3507 (b)-(c); 5 CFR 1320.12(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes...

  17. 78 FR 9106 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC, on February 4, 2013. Robert C. Lauby... Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations...) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the...

  18. 75 FR 76069 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR... Administration (FRA) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of the signal system as detailed... modification of the signal system on the Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line from milepost (MP) 1.4 Swift...

  19. 49 CFR 240.215 - Retaining information supporting determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... controls those who have access to such information; (2) The railroad employs a system for data storage that... by FRA representatives; and (3) Information retrieved from the system can be easily produced in a... the performance skills test(s) that documents the relevant operating facts on which the evaluation...

  20. 76 FR 50320 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Brogan, Office of Planning and Evaluation Division, RRS-21, Federal Railroad... brake system technology. The collection of information is used by FRA to monitor and enforce current... related to ECP brake systems. The collection of information is also used by locomotive engineers and...

  1. 49 CFR 225.9 - Telephonic reports of certain accidents/incidents and other events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... number (800-424-0201). 49 CFR 229.17. (c) Contents of report. Each report must state the: (1) Name of the... Transportation Safety Board (49 CFR part 840) and the Research and Special Programs Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation (Hazardous Materials Regulations, 49 CFR 171.15). FRA Locomotive...

  2. MODELING OF SPINEL SETTLING IN WASTE GLASS MELTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The topic of this multi-institutional bi-national research is the formation and settling of spinel, the most common crystalline phase that precipitates in molten high-level waste HLW) glass. For the majority of HLW streams, spinel formation in the HLW melter limits the waste fra...

  3. 49 CFR 1106.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration at 49 CFR 244.9, means the migration, combination, or unification of one set of railroad... meaning assigned by the Board's regulations (49 CFR part 1201; General Instructions 1-1), as those... Act and Board's environmental rules at 49 CFR part 1105. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)...

  4. 76 FR 2441 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...--fr. cars. --Locomotives: records of 22,800 Locomotives..... 4,560 records..... 3 minutes......... 228...-free.) SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), Public Law 104-13, Sec. 2...(c)(2)(A); 5 CFR 1320.8(d)(1), 1320.10(e)(1), 1320.12(a). Specifically, FRA invites...

  5. 78 FR 34151 - Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... issued a public notice seeking comments from interested parties. See 77 FR 74736 (December 17, 2012... Mr. Paul Weber, Railroad Safety Specialist, Signal and Train Control Division, at (202) 493-6258 or Paul.Weber@dot.gov . The hearing will be conducted in accordance with Rule 25 of the FRA Rules...

  6. 76 FR 66126 - Notice of Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing The Central Oregon and Pacific Railroad (CORP... the carrier's proposal and the available facts, FRA has determined that a public hearing is necessary... participate in a public hearing on December 1, 2011. The hearing will be conducted at the Douglas...

  7. 76 FR 68260 - Notice of Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... public notice seeking comments from interested parties (See 76 FR 48941 (August 9, 2011)). After... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing The Marquette Rail, LLC (MQT), by a May 23, 2011... public hearing is necessary before a final decision is made on this proposal. Accordingly, FRA...

  8. 78 FR 59755 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... contained in FRA's interim final rule (see 66 FR 63942, December 11, 2001). In this regard, the track... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Deputy... the Strathroy and Flint Subdivisions is an entirely English operation and fully dispatched in...

  9. 49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR Part 212 must have access to hours of service records... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to electronic records. 228.205 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR Part 212 must have access to hours of service records... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to electronic records. 228.205 Section...

  11. 76 FR 414 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Los Angeles to San Luis Obispo (LOSSAN North) Rail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...), Division 13, Public Resources Code; and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545... sensitive biological species and habitat; land use compatibility impacts; energy use; and impacts to... objective of the Tier-1 EIR/EIS is to evaluate alternatives and present thorough environmental analysis...

  12. 76 FR 63582 - Reporting Requirements for Positive Train Control Expenses and Investments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... implementation. Positive Train Control Systems, 76 FR 52,918 (Aug. 24, 2011). \\6\\ See UP's Pet. 2; A Primer for... Control Systems, 75 FR 2,598, 2,684 (Jan. 15, 2010). That estimate may decrease, as FRA has proposed...

  13. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FRA pursuant to § 238.21. The incorporation by reference of this APTA standard was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a... be performed in accordance with either APTA Standard SS-M-005-98, “Code of Tests for Passenger...

  14. 77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or visit... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan...

  15. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Process. See 66 FR 4104, 4198 (January 17, 2001). To FRA's knowledge this requirement has not presented... technological advancements and ergonomic design standards for new ] car construction and ensuring that modern... railcar design that have occurred since the safety appliance regulations were promulgated in their...

  16. 49 CFR 1106.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration at 49 CFR 244.9, means the migration, combination, or unification of one set of railroad... meaning assigned by the Board's regulations (49 CFR part 1201; General Instructions 1-1), as those... Act and Board's environmental rules at 49 CFR part 1105. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)...

  17. 77 FR 12407 - Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as Amended; Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... policy and interpretation (Interim Interpretations) and its proposed interpretation, 74 FR 30665, FRA... with respect to the hours of service laws as amended by the RSIA (the new hours of service laws). 74 FR..., Limitations on employee sleeping quarters, effective October 16, 2008. See 76 FR 67073 (Oct. 31, 2011). Nor...

  18. 75 FR 73158 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    .... See the RSAC Web site for details on prior RSAC activities and pending tasks at: http://rsac.fra.dot.gov/ . Please refer to the notice published in the Federal Register on March 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740... Task 10- 02 regarding the Development, Use, and Implementation of Rail Safety Technology in...

  19. 75 FR 42476 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received a request for a waiver...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 239 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., 21304, and 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Further designations, not found in the CFR citation for certain provisions, are FRA Office of Chief Counsel computer codes added as a suffix to the CFR citation and used to... necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined designation cited in...

  1. 77 FR 35471 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or visit... Register on May 26, 1999 (64 FR 28545) and are available on the agency's Web site at http://www.fra.dot.gov... Federal Railroad Administration National Environmental Policy Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal...

  2. Watershed Central: An Integrated Watershed Assessment and Management Website (MO presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPAs Office of Water (OW), Office of Research and Development (ORD), and Office of Environmental Information (OEI) have teamed together with other Federal Agencies, state and local agencies, tribal agencies, and non-government organizations, to develop an integrated fra...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 237 - Supplemental Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FRA in 2000 as Appendix C of the Federal Track Safety Standards, 49 CFR Part 213. With the promulgation of 49 CFR Part 237, Bridge Safety Standards, many of the non-regulatory provisions in that Policy... principles and the law of physics. Track owners should use those principles to assess the integrity...

  4. Urban rats or flying heroes? What can rock pigeons tell us about helminth and virus co-infection?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging diseases are rapidly becoming a global conservation issue, and traditional approaches to understanding transmission among in-situ populations often involved investigating hosts in the context of a single pathogen. Yet it is clear now that understanding disease dynamics within ecological fra...

  5. 75 FR 76778 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Milwaukee, WI (Milwaukee Intermodal Station) to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). FRA, with Mn/DOT and WisDOT... Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) right-of-way from Milwaukee, WI to Watertown, WI; right-of-way owned by the... Madison, WI; CP right-of-way from Johnson Street Yard in Madison through Portage, WI and La Crosse, WI...

  6. 75 FR 65398 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington, DC... relief. Canadian Pacific Railway The Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) hereby petitions FRA for a temporary... measurement system. Over the course of 6 months, CP intends to test the new system on their Northeast...

  7. 78 FR 48766 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... to extraterritorial dispatching contained in FRA's interim final rule (see 66 FR 63942, December 11...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... June 24, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...

  8. 76 FR 71433 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... demographic data, FRA proposes to conduct a follow-up study to the one released in 2008 titled, Rail Trespasser Fatalities; Developing Demographic Profile. That study used a private contractor to obtain additional demographic data for the time period of 2003-2005 from local county medical examiners so as...

  9. 77 FR 3556 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... 17, 2011 (76 FR 71433). DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before February 23, 2012. FOR FURTHER... seeking OMB approval. 76 FR 71433. FRA received no comments in response to this notice. Before OMB decides...(d); see also 60 FR 44978, 44983, Aug. 29, 1995. OMB believes that the 30 day notice informs...

  10. 49 CFR 1106.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration at 49 CFR 244.9, means the migration, combination, or unification of one set of railroad... meaning assigned by the Board's regulations (49 CFR part 1201; General Instructions 1-1), as those... Act and Board's environmental rules at 49 CFR part 1105. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)...

  11. 49 CFR 1106.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration at 49 CFR 244.9, means the migration, combination, or unification of one set of railroad... meaning assigned by the Board's regulations (49 CFR part 1201; General Instructions 1-1), as those... Act and Board's environmental rules at 49 CFR part 1105. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)...

  12. 49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under 49 CFR Part 212 must have access to hours of service records... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to electronic records. 228.205 Section...

  13. 78 FR 22025 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... three oil-burning, Baldwin steam locomotives; one EMD ] GP9; and a Whitcomb center cab switch engine in...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... regulations contained at 49 CFR part 230, Steam Locomotive Inspection and Maintenance Standards. FRA...

  14. 76 FR 18298 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the DesertXpress High-Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999). The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Surface... DesertXpress High-Speed Passenger Train Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United... the public that a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being published for the...

  15. 49 CFR 240.215 - Retaining information supporting determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... controls those who have access to such information; (2) The railroad employs a system for data storage that permits reasonable access and retrieval of the information in usable format when requested to furnish data by FRA representatives; and (3) Information retrieved from the system can be easily produced in...

  16. 49 CFR 240.215 - Retaining information supporting determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... controls those who have access to such information; (2) The railroad employs a system for data storage that permits reasonable access and retrieval of the information in usable format when requested to furnish data by FRA representatives; and (3) Information retrieved from the system can be easily produced in...

  17. Apollo 14 Impact Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for Regional Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.

    2002-01-01

    Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar impact glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro region consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP impact glasses may possess a memory of impacts prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. 75 FR 27672 - Restrictions on Railroad Operating Employees' Use of Cellular Telephones and Other Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    .... 73 FR 58702, Oct. 7, 2008). This FRA action was in part a response to the accidents discussed above... caused by cell phones (mobile phones/cellular phones) have been a concern for years. In addition, each... was talking on his cell phone at the time of the accident. 2. On July 1, 2006, a northward...

  19. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Protection of Historic Properties regulation (36 CFR part 800) will govern FRA's compliance with applicable environmental... Part is subject to a variety of environmental and historic preservation statutes and...

  20. 49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its periodic summaries of data on...