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Sample records for genus nairovirus reflects

  1. Genomic Characterization of the Genus Nairovirus (Family Bunyaviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Wiley, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Sergio E.; Bào, Yīmíng; Prieto, Karla; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Savji, Nazir; Ladner, Jason T.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wada, Jiro; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bente, Dennis A.; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Nairovirus, one of five bunyaviral genera, includes seven species. Genomic sequence information is limited for members of the Dera Ghazi Khan, Hughes, Qalyub, Sakhalin, and Thiafora nairovirus species. We used next-generation sequencing and historical virus-culture samples to determine 14 complete and nine coding-complete nairoviral genome sequences to further characterize these species. Previously unsequenced viruses include Abu Mina, Clo Mor, Great Saltee, Hughes, Raza, Sakhalin, Soldado, and Tillamook viruses. In addition, we present genomic sequence information on additional isolates of previously sequenced Avalon, Dugbe, Sapphire II, and Zirqa viruses. Finally, we identify Tunis virus, previously thought to be a phlebovirus, as an isolate of Abu Hammad virus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the need for reassignment of Sapphire II virus to Dera Ghazi Khan nairovirus and reassignment of Hazara, Tofla, and Nairobi sheep disease viruses to novel species. We also propose new species for the Kasokero group (Kasokero, Leopards Hill, Yogue viruses), the Ketarah group (Gossas, Issyk-kul, Keterah/soft tick viruses) and the Burana group (Wēnzhōu tick virus, Huángpí tick virus 1, Tǎchéng tick virus 1). Our analyses emphasize the sister relationship of nairoviruses and arenaviruses, and indicate that several nairo-like viruses (Shāyáng spider virus 1, Xīnzhōu spider virus, Sānxiá water strider virus 1, South Bay virus, Wǔhàn millipede virus 2) require establishment of novel genera in a larger nairovirus-arenavirus supergroup. PMID:27294949

  2. Genomic Characterization of the Genus Nairovirus (Family Bunyaviridae).

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jens H; Wiley, Michael R; Rodriguez, Sergio E; Bào, Yīmíng; Prieto, Karla; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Savji, Nazir; Ladner, Jason T; Tesh, Robert B; Wada, Jiro; Jahrling, Peter B; Bente, Dennis A; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Nairovirus, one of five bunyaviral genera, includes seven species. Genomic sequence information is limited for members of the Dera Ghazi Khan, Hughes, Qalyub, Sakhalin, and Thiafora nairovirus species. We used next-generation sequencing and historical virus-culture samples to determine 14 complete and nine coding-complete nairoviral genome sequences to further characterize these species. Previously unsequenced viruses include Abu Mina, Clo Mor, Great Saltee, Hughes, Raza, Sakhalin, Soldado, and Tillamook viruses. In addition, we present genomic sequence information on additional isolates of previously sequenced Avalon, Dugbe, Sapphire II, and Zirqa viruses. Finally, we identify Tunis virus, previously thought to be a phlebovirus, as an isolate of Abu Hammad virus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the need for reassignment of Sapphire II virus to Dera Ghazi Khan nairovirus and reassignment of Hazara, Tofla, and Nairobi sheep disease viruses to novel species. We also propose new species for the Kasokero group (Kasokero, Leopards Hill, Yogue viruses), the Ketarah group (Gossas, Issyk-kul, Keterah/soft tick viruses) and the Burana group (Wēnzhōu tick virus, Huángpí tick virus 1, Tǎchéng tick virus 1). Our analyses emphasize the sister relationship of nairoviruses and arenaviruses, and indicate that several nairo-like viruses (Shāyáng spider virus 1, Xīnzhōu spider virus, Sānxiá water strider virus 1, South Bay virus, Wǔhàn millipede virus 2) require establishment of novel genera in a larger nairovirus-arenavirus supergroup. PMID:27294949

  3. Genomic Characterization of Yogue, Kasokero, Issyk-Kul, Keterah, Gossas, and Thiafora Viruses: Nairoviruses Naturally Infecting Bats, Shrews, and Ticks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Blasdell, Kim R; Wood, Thomas G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-11-01

    The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. Here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: Thiafora virus (TFAV) that was isolated from a shrew in Senegal; Yogue (YOGV), Kasokero (KKOV), and Gossas (GOSV) viruses isolated from bats in Senegal and Uganda; Issyk-Kul virus (IKV) isolated from bats in Kyrgyzstan; and Keterah virus (KTRV) isolated from ticks infesting a bat in Malaysia. The S, M, and L genome segments of each virus were found to encode proteins corresponding to the nucleoprotein, polyglycoprotein, and polymerase protein of CCHFV. However, as observed in Leopards Hill virus (LPHV) and Erve virus (ERVV), polyglycoproteins encoded in the M segment lack sequences encoding the double-membrane-spanning CCHFV NSm protein. Amino acid sequence identities, complement-fixation tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses cluster into three groups comprising KKOV, YOGV, and LPHV from bats of the suborder Yingochiroptera; KTRV, IKV, and GOSV from bats of the suborder Yangochiroptera; and TFAV and ERVV from shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae). This reflects clade-specific host and vector associations that extend across the genus. PMID:26324724

  4. Spectral reflectance measurements in the genus Sphagnum

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelmann, J.E.; Moss, D.M. . Complex Systems/Institute for the Study of Earth Oceans and Space)

    1993-09-01

    High-spectral resolution reflectance data were acquired in the laboratory for four species of Sphagnum (peat moss): S. cuspidatum, S. papillosum, S. fallax, and S. capillifolium. All four species had different spectral reflectance properties. Species differences were noted especially in the visible portion of the spectrum from 0.45 [mu]m to 0.70 [mu]m; some major spectral differences were also noted in the near infrared. Samples analyzed had much lower reflectance than typical green vegetation in the midinfrared region of the spectrum from 1.30 [mu]m to 2.40 [mu]m. In addition, Sphagnum had very pronounced water-related absorption features at about 1.00m [mu] and 1.20 [mu]m, unlike typical green vegetation. Spectral data acquired as samples were dried indicated large spectral increases with increasing dryness, especially in the midinfrared. Simulated Landsat Thematic Mapper 5/4 band ratio data were linearly related to the log of wet weight/dry weight. Reflectance from vegetation in the midinfrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum is strongly modified by water content. Peatlands are major sources of global methane and it has been found that methane evolution within these peatlands is related to water status within these peatlands is related to water status within the wetland. It may be possible to indirectly estimate methane flux using remote sensing data.

  5. [Taxonomic status of the Burana virus (BURV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Tamdy group) isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 and Haem. concinna Koch, 1844 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae) in Kyrgyzstan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequence of the Burana virus (BURV) was determined using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank KF801651). The prototype strain of BURV LEIV-Krg760 was originally isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae), collected from cows in Tokmak wildlife sanctuary, eastern part of the Chu valley (43 degrees 10' N, 74 degrees 40' E) near Burana village, Kirgizia, in April 1971. Molecular genetics and phylogenetic analyses showed that the BURV belonged to the Nairovirus genus, Bunyaviridae and is related to Tamdy virus (TAMV) that is also associated with the ixodidae ticks of pasture biocenosis in Central Asia. Previous studies showed that TAMV is the prototypic virus of new phylogenetic Tamdy group in the Nairovirus genus. Thus, BURV was classified as a new virus of the Tamdy group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae. PMID:25549462

  6. Tofla virus: A newly identified Nairovirus of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever group isolated from ticks in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Satoshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Fuxun, Yu; Kurosaki, Yohei; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Miako; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Ono, Hokuto; Nishi, Kodai; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Uchida, Leo; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Fujita, Hiromi; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Ixodid ticks transmit several important viral pathogens. We isolated a new virus (Tofla virus: TFLV) from Heamaphysalis flava and Heamaphysalis formsensis in Japan. The full-genome sequences revealed that TFLV belonged to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. Phylogenetic analyses and neutralization tests suggested that TFLV is closely related to the Hazara virus and that it is classified into the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever group. TFLV caused lethal infection in IFNAR KO mice. The TFLV-infected mice exhibited a gastrointestinal disorder, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography images showed a significant uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the intestinal tract. TFLV was able to infect and propagate in cultured cells of African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells and human-derived SK-N-SH, T98-G and HEK-293 cells. Although TFLV infections in humans and animals are currently unknown, our findings may provide clues to understand the potential infectivity and to develop of pre-emptive countermeasures against this new tick-borne Nairovirus. PMID:26863911

  7. Tofla virus: A newly identified Nairovirus of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever group isolated from ticks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Satoshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Fuxun, Yu; Kurosaki, Yohei; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Miako; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Ono, Hokuto; Nishi, Kodai; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Uchida, Leo; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Fujita, Hiromi; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Ixodid ticks transmit several important viral pathogens. We isolated a new virus (Tofla virus: TFLV) from Heamaphysalis flava and Heamaphysalis formsensis in Japan. The full-genome sequences revealed that TFLV belonged to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. Phylogenetic analyses and neutralization tests suggested that TFLV is closely related to the Hazara virus and that it is classified into the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever group. TFLV caused lethal infection in IFNAR KO mice. The TFLV-infected mice exhibited a gastrointestinal disorder, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography images showed a significant uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the intestinal tract. TFLV was able to infect and propagate in cultured cells of African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells and human-derived SK-N-SH, T98-G and HEK-293 cells. Although TFLV infections in humans and animals are currently unknown, our findings may provide clues to understand the potential infectivity and to develop of pre-emptive countermeasures against this new tick-borne Nairovirus. PMID:26863911

  8. Diversity of Ubiquitin and ISG15 Specificity among Nairoviruses' Viral Ovarian Tumor Domain Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Capodagli, Glenn C.; Deaton, Michelle K.; Baker, Erica A.; Lumpkin, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    Nairoviruses are responsible for numerous diseases that affect both humans and animal. Recent work has implicated the viral ovarian tumor domain (vOTU) as a possible nairovirus virulence factor due to its ability to edit ubiquitin (Ub) bound to cellular proteins and, at least in the case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), to cleave the Ub-like protein interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), a protein involved in the regulation of host immunity. The prospective roles of vOTUs in immune evasion have generated several questions concerning whether vOTUs act through a preserved specificity for Ub- and ISG15-conjugated proteins and where that specificity may originate. To gain insight into the substrate specificity of vOTUs, enzymological studies were conducted on vOTUs from Dugbe, CCHFV, and Erve nairoviruses. These studies revealed that vOTUs originating from different nairoviruses display a significant divergence in their preference toward Ub and ISG15. In addition, a recently identified vOTU from turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus was evaluated to elucidate any possible similarities between vOTUs originating from different viral families. Although possessing a similar preference for certain polymeric Ub moieties, its activity toward Ub in general was significantly less then those of nairoviruses. Lastly, the X-ray crystallographic structure of the vOTU from the Dugbe nairovirus was obtained in complex with Ub to reveal structural commonalities of vOTUs originating from nairoviruses. The structure suggests that divergences between nairovirus vOTUs specificity originate at the primary structural level. Comparison of this structure to that originating from CCHFV identified key residues that infer the substrate specificity of vOTUs. PMID:23345508

  9. [Taxonomic status of the Artashat virus (ARTSV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) isolated from the ticks Ornithodoros alactagalis Issaakjan, 1936 and O. verrucosus Olenev, Sassuchin et Fenuk, 1934 (Argasidae Koch, 1844) collected in Transcaucasia].

    PubMed

    Al'khovskiĭ, S V; L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G; Samokhvalov, E I; Zakarian, V A

    2014-01-01

    The Artashat virus (ARTSV) was originally isolated fom the Ornithodoros alactagalis Issaakjan, 1936 (Argasidae Koch, 1844), which were collected in the burrow of small five-toed jerboa (Allactaga elater Lichtenstein, 1825) in Armenia in 1972. Later, the ARTSV was isolated from the O. verrucosus Olenev, Sassuchin et Fenuk, 1934 collected in the burrows of Persian gerbil (Meriones persicus Blanford, 1875) in Azerbaijan. Based on the virion morphology, the ARTSV was assigned to the Bunyaviridae viruses. In this work, the ARTSV genome was partially sequenced (GenBank ID: KF801650) and it was shown that the ARTSV is a new member of the Nairovirus genus. ARTSV has from 42% (Issyk-Kul virus) to 58% (Raza virus, Hughes group) similarity with the nairoviruses for nucleotide sequence of part of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). The similarity on the amino acid level is 65-70%. Low level of homology and the equidistant position of the ARTSV on phylogenetic tree indicate that the ARTSV is a new prototype species of the Nairovirus genus (Bunyaviridae) forming a separate phylogenetic branch. PMID:25335415

  10. [Genetic characterization of the Geran virus (GERV, Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Qalyub group) isolated from the ticks Ornithodoros verrucosus Olenev, Zasukhin and Fenyuk, 1934 (Argasidae) collected in the burrow of Meriones erythrourus Grey, 1842 in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Deriabin, P G; Shchetinin, A M; Samokhvalov, E I; Aristova, V A; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The full-length genome of the unclassified Geran virus (GERV, strain LEIV-10899Az) isolated from the ticks (Ornithodoros verrucosus Olenev, Zasukhin and Fenyuk, 1934 (Argasidae, Ornithodorinae)) collected in the burrow of the red-tailed gerbils (Meriones (Cricedidae) erythrourus Grey, 1842) near the Geran station (Azerbaijan) was sequenced using the next-generation approach (GenBank ID: KF801649). It was shown that the GERV is a new representative of the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae). The comparative analysis of the full-length genome sequences of the GERV with other nairoviruses showed that the highest level of homology (55.6% for N protein (S-segment) of 54.2% for the polyprotein Gn/Gc (M-segment) and 74.8% for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L-segment)) GERV had with the Chim virus (CHIMV) that is also associated with the shelters biocenoses (rodent burrows) in Central Asia and was previously assigned to the Qalyub virus group (QYBV). Comparing the GERV with the QYBV sequences (partial sequence 413 n.o. of RdRp gene) revealed a high level of homology: 74.3 and 97.4% for the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The data obtained in this work provided an opportunity to classify the GERV to the QYBV group; the Nairovirus genus, to the family Bunyaviridae. PMID:25895205

  11. Comparative genomic study of three species within the genus Ornithinibacillus, reflecting the adaption to different habitats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia-Wei; Cheng, Hong; Zheng, Bei-Wen; Li, Ang; Lv, Long-Xian; Ling, Zong-Xin; Yan, Ren; Jiang, Hui-Yong; Cheng, Yi-Wen; Gu, Si-Lan; Li, Lan-Juan

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we report the whole genome sequences of two species, Ornithinibacillus contaminans DSM22953(T) isolated from human blood and Ornithinibacillus californiensis DSM 16628(T) isolated from marine sediment, in genus Ornithinibacillus. Comparative genomic study of the two species was conducted together with their close relative Ornithinibacillus scapharcae TW25(T), a putative pathogenic bacteria isolated from dead ark clam. The comparisons showed O. contaminans DSM22953(T) had the smallest genome size of the three species indicating that it has a relatively more stable habitat. More stress response and heavy metal resistance genes were found in the genome of O. californiensis DSM 16628(T) reflecting its adaption to the complex marine environment. O. scapharcae TW25(T) contained more antibiotic resistance genes and virus factors in the genome than the other two species, which revealed its pathogen potential. PMID:26706221

  12. [Taxonomic status of the Chim virus (CHIMV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Qalyub group) isolated from the Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks collected in the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein, 1823) (Muridae, Gerbillinae) burrows in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Aristova, V A; Morozova, T N; Gitel'man, A K; Deriabin, P G; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Full-length genome of the Chim virus (CHIMV) (strain LEIV-858Uz) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank: KF801656). The CHIMV/LEIV-858Uz was isolated from the Ornithodoros tartakovskyi Olenev, 1931 ticks collected in the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein, 1823) burrow in Uzbekistan near Chim town (Kashkadarinsky region) in July of 1971. Later, four more CHIMV strains were isolated from the O. tartakovskyi, O. papillipes Birula, 1895, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantsev, 1936 collected in the great gerbil burrows in Kashkadarinsky, Bukhara, and Syrdarya regions of Uzbekistan, and three strains--from the Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1930 from the great gerbil burrows in Dzheskazgan region of Kazakhstan. The virus is a potential pathogen of humans and camels. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CHIMV is a novel member of the Nairovirus genus (Bunyaviridae) and closely related to the Qalyub virus (QYBV), which is prototype for the group of the same name. The amino acid homology between the CHIMV and QYBV is 87% for the RdRp catalytic center (L-segment) that is coincident with both QYBV and CHIMV associated with the Ornithodoros ticks and burrow of rodents as well. The CHIMV homologies with other nairoviruses are 30-40% for the amino acid sequences of precursor polyprotein GnGc (M-segment), whereas 50%--for the nucleocapsid N (S-segment). The data obtained permit to classify the CHIMV as a member of the QYBV group in the genus of Nairovirus (Bunyaviridae). PMID:25335414

  13. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  14. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W.; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean–Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  15. A single genus in the gut microbiome reflects host preference and specificity

    PubMed Central

    Eren, A Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Fisher, Jenny C; Newton, Ryan J; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Delineating differences in gut microbiomes of human and animal hosts contributes towards understanding human health and enables new strategies for detecting reservoirs of waterborne human pathogens. We focused upon Blautia, a single microbial genus that is important for nutrient assimilation as preliminary work suggested host-related patterns within members of this genus. In our dataset of 57 M sequence reads of the V6 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in samples collected from seven host species, we identified 200 high-resolution taxonomic units within Blautia using oligotyping. Our analysis revealed 13 host-specific oligotypes that occurred exclusively in fecal samples of humans (three oligotypes), swine (six oligotypes), cows (one oligotype), deer (one oligotype), or chickens (two oligotypes). We identified an additional 171 oligotypes that exhibited differential abundance patterns among all the host species. Blautia oligotypes in the human population obtained from sewage and fecal samples displayed remarkable continuity. Oligotypes from only 10 Brazilian human fecal samples collected from individuals in a rural village encompassed 97% of all Blautia oligotypes found in a Brazilian sewage sample from a city of three million people. Further, 75% of the oligotypes in Brazilian human fecal samples matched those in US sewage samples, implying that a universal set of Blautia strains may be shared among culturally and geographically distinct human populations. Such strains can serve as universal markers to assess human fecal contamination in environmental samples. Our results indicate that host-specificity and host-preference patterns of organisms within this genus are driven by host physiology more than dietary habits. PMID:24936765

  16. A single genus in the gut microbiome reflects host preference and specificity.

    PubMed

    Eren, A Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Fisher, Jenny C; Newton, Ryan J; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Delineating differences in gut microbiomes of human and animal hosts contributes towards understanding human health and enables new strategies for detecting reservoirs of waterborne human pathogens. We focused upon Blautia, a single microbial genus that is important for nutrient assimilation as preliminary work suggested host-related patterns within members of this genus. In our dataset of 57 M sequence reads of the V6 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in samples collected from seven host species, we identified 200 high-resolution taxonomic units within Blautia using oligotyping. Our analysis revealed 13 host-specific oligotypes that occurred exclusively in fecal samples of humans (three oligotypes), swine (six oligotypes), cows (one oligotype), deer (one oligotype), or chickens (two oligotypes). We identified an additional 171 oligotypes that exhibited differential abundance patterns among all the host species. Blautia oligotypes in the human population obtained from sewage and fecal samples displayed remarkable continuity. Oligotypes from only 10 Brazilian human fecal samples collected from individuals in a rural village encompassed 97% of all Blautia oligotypes found in a Brazilian sewage sample from a city of three million people. Further, 75% of the oligotypes in Brazilian human fecal samples matched those in US sewage samples, implying that a universal set of Blautia strains may be shared among culturally and geographically distinct human populations. Such strains can serve as universal markers to assess human fecal contamination in environmental samples. Our results indicate that host-specificity and host-preference patterns of organisms within this genus are driven by host physiology more than dietary habits. PMID:24936765

  17. Arterivirus and Nairovirus Ovarian Tumor Domain-Containing Deubiquitinases Target Activated RIG-I To Control Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    van Kasteren, Puck B.; Beugeling, Corrine; Ninaber, Dennis K.; Frias-Staheli, Natalia; van Boheemen, Sander; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Snijder, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against viral infection and is extensively regulated through ubiquitination. The removal of ubiquitin from innate immunity signaling factors by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) therefore provides a potential opportunity for viruses to evade this host defense system. It was previously found that specific proteases encoded by the unrelated arteri- and nairoviruses resemble the ovarian tumor domain-containing (OTU) family of DUBs. In arteriviruses, this domain has been characterized before as a papain-like protease (PLP2) that is also involved in replicase polyprotein processing. In nairoviruses, the DUB resides in the polymerase protein but is not essential for RNA replication. Using both in vitro and cell-based assays, we now show that PLP2 DUB activity is conserved in all members of the arterivirus family and that both arteri- and nairovirus DUBs inhibit RIG-I-mediated innate immune signaling when overexpressed. The potential relevance of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling for the innate immune response against arterivirus infection is supported by our finding that in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the production of beta interferon primarily depends on the recognition of arterivirus RNA by the pattern-recognition receptor MDA5. Interestingly, we also found that both arteri- and nairovirus DUBs inhibit RIG-I ubiquitination upon overexpression, suggesting that both MDA5 and RIG-I have a role in countering infection by arteriviruses. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that arteri- and nairoviruses employ their deubiquitinating potential to inactivate cellular proteins involved in RLR-mediated innate immune signaling, as exemplified by the deubiquitination of RIG-I. PMID:22072774

  18. Centromere and telomere sequence alterations reflect the rapid genome evolution within the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trung D; Cao, Hieu X; Jovtchev, Gabriele; Neumann, Pavel; Novák, Petr; Fojtová, Miloslava; Vu, Giang T H; Macas, Jiří; Fajkus, Jiří; Schubert, Ingo; Fuchs, Joerg

    2015-12-01

    Linear chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms invariably possess centromeres and telomeres to ensure proper chromosome segregation during nuclear divisions and to protect the chromosome ends from deterioration and fusion, respectively. While centromeric sequences may differ between species, with arrays of tandemly repeated sequences and retrotransposons being the most abundant sequence types in plant centromeres, telomeric sequences are usually highly conserved among plants and other organisms. The genome size of the carnivorous genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) is highly variable. Here we study evolutionary sequence plasticity of these chromosomal domains at an intrageneric level. We show that Genlisea nigrocaulis (1C = 86 Mbp; 2n = 40) and G. hispidula (1C = 1550 Mbp; 2n = 40) differ as to their DNA composition at centromeres and telomeres. G. nigrocaulis and its close relative G. pygmaea revealed mainly 161 bp tandem repeats, while G. hispidula and its close relative G. subglabra displayed a combination of four retroelements at centromeric positions. G. nigrocaulis and G. pygmaea chromosome ends are characterized by the Arabidopsis-type telomeric repeats (TTTAGGG); G. hispidula and G. subglabra instead revealed two intermingled sequence variants (TTCAGG and TTTCAGG). These differences in centromeric and, surprisingly, also in telomeric DNA sequences, uncovered between groups with on average a > 9-fold genome size difference, emphasize the fast genome evolution within this genus. Such intrageneric evolutionary alteration of telomeric repeats with cytosine in the guanine-rich strand, not yet known for plants, might impact the epigenetic telomere chromatin modification. PMID:26485466

  19. Species–genus ratios reflect a global history of diversification and range expansion in marine bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Andrew Z; Jablonski, David; Valentine, James W

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of marine bivalve species among genera and higher taxa takes the form of the classic hollow curve, wherein few lineages are species rich and many are species poor. The distribution of species among genera (S/G ratio) varies with latitude, with temperate S/G's falling within the null expectation, and tropical and polar S/G's exceeding it. Here, we test several hypotheses for this polar overdominance in the species richness of small numbers of genera. We find a significant positive correlation between the latitudinal range of a genus and its species richness, both globally and within regions. Genus age and species richness are also positively related, but this relationship breaks down when the analysis is limited to genera endemic to climate zones or with narrow latitudinal ranges. The data suggest a link between speciation and range-expansion, with genera expanding out of the tropical latitudinal bins tending to speciate more prolifically, both globally and regionally. These genera contain more species within climate zones than taxa endemic to that zone. Range expansion thus appears to be fundamentally coupled with speciation, producing the skewed distribution of species among genera, both globally and regionally, whereas clade longevity is achieved through extinction—resistance conferred by broad geographical ranges. PMID:18270156

  20. A Global Genomic Characterization of Nairoviruses Identifies Nine Discrete Genogroups with Distinctive Structural Characteristics and Host-Vector Associations

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Widen, Steven G.; Wood, Thomas G.; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasilakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Nairoviruses are primarily tick-borne bunyaviruses, some of which are known to cause mild-to-severe febrile illness in humans or livestock. We describe the genome sequences of 11 poorly characterized nairoviruses that have ecological associations with either birds (Farallon, Punta Salinas, Sapphire II, Zirqa, Avalon, Clo Mor, Taggert, and Abu Hammad viruses), rodents (Qalyub and Bandia viruses), or camels (Dera Ghazi Khan virus). Global phylogenetic analyses of proteins encoded in the L, M, and S RNA segments of these and 20 other available nairovirus genomes identified nine well-supported genogroups (Nairobi sheep disease, Thiafora, Sakhalin, Keterah, Qalyub, Kasokero, Dera Ghazi Khan, Hughes, and Tamdy). Genogroup-specific structural variations were evident, particularly in the M segment encoding a polyprotein from which virion envelope glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) are generated by proteolytic processing. Structural variations include the extension, abbreviation, or absence sequences encoding an O-glycosylated mucin-like protein in the N-terminal domain, distinctive patterns of conserved cysteine residues in the GP38-like domain, insertion of sequences encoding a double-membrane-spanning protein (NSm) between the Gn and Gc domains, and the presence of an alternative long open reading frame encoding a viroporin-like transmembrane protein (Gx). We also observed strong genogroup-specific associations with categories of hosts and tick vectors. PMID:26903607

  1. A Global Genomic Characterization of Nairoviruses Identifies Nine Discrete Genogroups with Distinctive Structural Characteristics and Host-Vector Associations.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    Nairoviruses are primarily tick-borne bunyaviruses, some of which are known to cause mild-to-severe febrile illness in humans or livestock. We describe the genome sequences of 11 poorly characterized nairoviruses that have ecological associations with either birds (Farallon, Punta Salinas, Sapphire II, Zirqa, Avalon, Clo Mor, Taggert, and Abu Hammad viruses), rodents (Qalyub and Bandia viruses), or camels (Dera Ghazi Khan virus). Global phylogenetic analyses of proteins encoded in the L, M, and S RNA segments of these and 20 other available nairovirus genomes identified nine well-supported genogroups (Nairobi sheep disease, Thiafora, Sakhalin, Keterah, Qalyub, Kasokero, Dera Ghazi Khan, Hughes, and Tamdy). Genogroup-specific structural variations were evident, particularly in the M segment encoding a polyprotein from which virion envelope glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) are generated by proteolytic processing. Structural variations include the extension, abbreviation, or absence sequences encoding an O-glycosylated mucin-like protein in the N-terminal domain, distinctive patterns of conserved cysteine residues in the GP38-like domain, insertion of sequences encoding a double-membrane-spanning protein (NSm) between the Gn and Gc domains, and the presence of an alternative long open reading frame encoding a viroporin-like transmembrane protein (Gx). We also observed strong genogroup-specific associations with categories of hosts and tick vectors. PMID:26903607

  2. Genetic differentiation in the genus Lithops L. (Ruschioideae, Aizoaceae) reveals a high level of convergent evolution and reflects geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    Kellner, A; Ritz, C M; Schlittenhardt, P; Hellwig, F H

    2011-03-01

    Southern Africa is one of the hot spots for plant biodiversity, with ca. 80% of species endemic to this area. Rapid and recent radiations in Southern African plant genera were triggered by fine-scale differences in climate, topography and geology. The genus Lithops (Ruschioideae, Aizoaceae) contains 37 species and is widely distributed in Southern Africa. Species delimitation within the genus is challenging because the limited number of morphological characters in these reduced succulents varies intensely between populations, presumably as adaptations to local geological environments. We analysed phylogenetic relationships within Lithops using non-coding chloroplast DNA (trnS-trnG intergenic spacer), nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) sequences and AFLP data. Genetic variability of the sequence data was very low, but AFLP data detected nine clades within Lithops that do not fit current morphology-based taxonomy. Two of these clades are separated by their distribution on the northern and eastern border of the distribution area, and four clades are found in the Gariep Centre in the estuary of the Orange River. Morphological similarities, especially colour of leaves, evolved repeatedly within the clades, thus we hypothesise that closely related species became adapted to different soil types in a mosaic-like geological environment. One-third of the species are found in the Gariep Centre, characterised by extremely diverse edaphic habitats. PMID:21309984

  3. Mycosporine-like amino acid content in four species of sea anemones in the genus Anthopleura reflects phylogenetic but not environmental or symbiotic relationships.

    PubMed

    Shick, J Malcolm; Dunlap, Walter C; Pearse, John S; Pearse, Vicki B

    2002-12-01

    We examine the occurrence of UV-absorbing, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in four sympatric species of sea anemones in the genus Anthopleura, all collected from intertidal habitats on the Pacific Coast of temperate North America. We compare patterns of MAAs in A. elegantissima of several types: specimens having predominately zooxanthellae (dinoflagellates comprising at least two species) or zoochlorellae as symbionts; those containing algal endosymbionts of both kinds, and naturally occurring aposymbiotic specimens that lack the endosymbionts typically found in most specimens. We also compare MAAs in zooxanthellate specimens of A. sola and A. xanthogrammica, and specimens from the asymbiotic species A. artemisia. Our findings indicate that the complements of the four major MAAs in these species of Anthopleura (mycosporine-taurine, shinorine, porphyra-334, and mycosporine-2 glycine) broadly reflect phylogenetic differences among the anemones rather than the taxon of endosymbionts, presence or absence of symbionts, or environmental factors. An exception, however, occurs in A. elegantissima, where mycosporine-2 glycine increases in concentration with the density of zooxanthellae. Our evidence also shows that A. elegantissima can accumulate MAAs from its food, which may explain the occasional occurrence of minor MAAs in some individuals. PMID:12480722

  4. Genus vesiculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae contains a numbers of viruses that have been taxonomically classified using a combination of serological relatedness, host range, genome organization, pathobiology and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data. There are 11 viruses assigned to the gen...

  5. The genus Bipolaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on ...

  6. The genus Bipolaris

    PubMed Central

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species’ synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990

  7. The genus Bipolaris.

    PubMed

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990

  8. The human genus.

    PubMed

    Wood, B; Collard, M

    1999-04-01

    A general problem in biology is how to incorporate information about evolutionary history and adaptation into taxonomy. The problem is exemplified in attempts to define our own genus, Homo. Here conventional criteria for allocating fossil species to Homo are reviewed and are found to be either inappropriate or inoperable. We present a revised definition, based on verifiable criteria, for Homo and conclude that two species, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, do not belong in the genus. The earliest taxon to satisfy the criteria is Homo ergaster, or early African Homo erectus, which currently appears in the fossil record at about 1.9 million years ago. PMID:10102822

  9. Genus I. Leptospira

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  10. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  11. Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  12. The genus Vitex: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347927

  13. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  14. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  15. Genetic diversity in Gossypium genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall objectives of this paper are to report on cotton germplasm resources, morphobiological and agronomic diversity of Gossypium genus and review efforts on molecular genetic diversity of cotton gene pools as well as on the challenges and perspectives of exploiting genetic diversity in cotton...

  16. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  17. Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Simon

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.

  18. Cyanobacteria of the Genus Prochlorothrix†

    PubMed Central

    Pinevich, Alexander; Velichko, Natalia; Ivanikova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Green cyanobacteria differ from the blue–green cyanobacteria by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light-harvesting antenna. Three genera of the green cyanobacteria namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus, and Prochloron are unicellular and inhabit marine environments. Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its prominent role in marine primary productivity. The fourth genus Prochlorothrix is represented by the filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the other green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix strains are remarkably rare: to date, living isolates have been limited to two European locations. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance to Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful attempts to obtain enrichments of Prochlorothrix, the most successful strategy to search for this cyanobacterium involves PCR with environmental DNA and Prochlorothrix-specific primers. This approach has revealed a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix. Marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite of the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultured strains with one of them (PCC 9006) being claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described. In addition, the evolutionary scenario for green cyanobacteria is suggested taking into account their possible role in the origin of simple chloroplast. PMID:22783229

  19. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    PubMed Central

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  20. Natural medicine: the genus Angelica.

    PubMed

    Sarker, S D; Nahar, L

    2004-06-01

    More than 60 species of medicinal plants belong to the genus Angelica (Family: Apiaceae). Many of these species have long been used in ancient traditional medicine systems, especially in the far-east. Various herbal preparations containing Angelica species are available over-the-counter, not only in the far-eastern countries, but also in the western countries like USA, UK, Germany, etc. For centuries, many species of this genus, e.g. A. acutiloba, A. archangelica, A. atropupurea, A. dahurica, A. japonica, A. glauca, A. gigas, A. koreana, A. sinensis, A. sylvestris, etc., have been used traditionally as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and diaphoretic, and remedy for colds, flu, influenza, hepatitis, arthritis, indigestion, coughs, chronic bronchitis, pleurisy, typhoid, headaches, wind, fever, colic, travel sickness, rheumatism, bacterial and fungal infections and diseases of the urinary organs. Active principles isolated from these plants mainly include various types of coumarins, acetylenic compounds, chalcones, sesquiterpenes and polysaccharides. This review evaluates the importance of the genus Angelica in relation to its traditional medicinal uses, alternative medicinal uses in the modern society and potential for drug development, and summarises results of various scientific studies on Angelica species or Angelica-containing preparations for their bioactivities including, antimicrobial, anticancer, antitumour, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. PMID:15180579

  1. Reflected Glory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific model of how people see things is far removed from children's real-world experience. They know that light is needed in order to see an object, but may not know that light is reflected off the object and some of that light enters the eyes. In this article, the author explores children's understanding of reflection and how to develop…

  2. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Sleptsov, Alexey; Stern, Abel

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures.

  3. Anomaly cancelling terms from the elliptic genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, W.; Nilsson, B. E. W.; Schellekens, A. N.; Warner, N. P.

    1988-03-01

    We calculate the heterotic string one-loop diagram in 2n + 2 dimensions with one external Bμν and n external gravitons and/or gauge bosons. The result is a modular integral over the weight zero terms of the character valued partition function (or elliptic genus) of the theory, and can be directly expressed in terms of the factor which multiplies TrF2 - TrR2 in the field theory anomaly. The integrands have a non-trivial dependence on the modular parameter τ, reflecting contributions not only from the physical massless states but also from an infinity of ``unphysical'' modes. Some of them are identical to integrands which have been discussed recently in relation with Atkin-Lehner symmetry and the cosmological constant. As a corollary we find a method to compute these integrals without using Atkin-Lehner transformations. On leave of absence from: Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139, USA. Work supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant #84-07109.

  4. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  5. Three New Species of the Genus Ochroconis.

    PubMed

    Samerpitak, K; Gerrits van den Ende, A H G; Menken, S B J; de Hoog, G S

    2015-08-01

    Ochroconis bacilliformis, O. phaeophora and O. robusta, three novel species of the melanized genus Ochroconis (Sympoventuriaceae, Venturiales), are described, illustrated and distinguished phenotypically and molecularly from previously described species in the genus Ochroconis. Their potential significance for infection of cold-blooded vertebrates is discussed. PMID:26093392

  6. Eight new species in the genus Alphabaculovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This taxonomic proposal recommends the addition of eight new species to the genus Alphabaculovirus of the family Baculoviridae. Placement of these new species within genus Alphabaculovirus is based on the following criteria: host species of the insect order Lepidoptera; circular double-stranded DNA...

  7. Reflective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his study of parent participation at an international school in Spain offering the British curriculum. He used quantitative methods and administered questionnaires to gather data that reflected the views of a large proportion of the school's parent community. He administered semi-structured interviews to gain a…

  8. Beta Genus Papillomaviruses and Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Howley, Peter M.; Pfister, Herbert J.

    2015-01-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. PMID:25724416

  9. Phylogeny of the Genus Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, Goro; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Tsuchiya, K. Richard; Karabatsos, Nick; Cropp, C. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a comprehensive phylogenetic study to establish the genetic relationship among the viruses of the genus Flavivirus and to compare the classification based on molecular phylogeny with the existing serologic method. By using a combination of quantitative definitions (bootstrap support level and the pairwise nucleotide sequence identity), the viruses could be classified into clusters, clades, and species. Our phylogenetic study revealed for the first time that from the putative ancestor two branches, non-vector and vector-borne virus clusters, evolved and from the latter cluster emerged tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters. Provided that the theory of arthropod association being an acquired trait was correct, pairwise nucleotide sequence identity among these three clusters provided supporting data for a possibility that the non-vector cluster evolved first, followed by the separation of tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters in that order. Clades established in our study correlated significantly with existing antigenic complexes. We also resolved many of the past taxonomic problems by establishing phylogenetic relationships of the antigenically unclassified viruses with the well-established viruses and by identifying synonymous viruses. PMID:9420202

  10. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  11. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  12. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  13. Evolutionary history of the genus Trisopterus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elena G; Cunha, Regina L; Sevilla, Rafael G; Ghanavi, Hamid R; Krey, Grigorios; Bautista, José M

    2012-03-01

    The group of small poor cods and pouts from the genus Trisopterus, belonging to the Gadidae family, comprises four described benthopelagic species that occur across the North-eastern Atlantic, from the Baltic Sea to the coast of Morocco, and the Mediterranean. Here, we combined molecular data from mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes to confirm the taxonomic status of the described species and to disentangle the evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses supported the monophyly of the genus Trisopterus and confirmed the recently described species Trisopterus capelanus. A relaxed molecular clock analysis estimated an Oligocene origin for the group (~30 million years ago; mya) indicating this genus as one of the most ancestral within the Gadidae family. The closure and re-opening of the Strait of Gibraltar after the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) probably triggered the speciation process that resulted in the recently described T. capelanus. PMID:22178361

  14. The Genus Hafnia: from Soup to Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hafnia, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, consists of gram-negative bacteria that are occasionally implicated in both intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. Despite the fact that the genus currently contains only a single species (H. alvei), more extensive phylogenetic depth (two or more species) is apparent based upon DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Hafnia causes a variety of systemic infections, including septicemia and pneumonia; however, its role as a gastrointestinal pathogen is controversial. Many of the data supporting a role for hafniae as enteric pathogens were incorrectly attributed to this genus rather than to the actual pathogen, Escherichia albertii. There are numerous gaps in our understanding of this genus, including ecologic habitats and population genetics, disease-producing role in animals, phenetic and genetic methods useful in distinguishing genomospecies within the H. alvei complex, and bona fide pathogenicity factors. PMID:16418520

  15. Haitian reflections.

    PubMed

    Docrat, Fathima

    2010-08-01

    Natural disasters and acts of terrorism demonstrate a similar critical need for national preparedness. As one of a team of volunteers with a local South African NGO who recently went on a medical mission, I would like to share glimpses of our experience and reflect on the mistakes - and also to state the obvious: that we do not learn from our mistakes. A simple literature search has shown that the same mistakes happen repeatedly. 'Humanitarian disasters occur with frightening regularity, yet international responses remain fragmented, with organizations and responders being forced to "reinvent the wheel" with every new event'. This is the result of an obvious lack of preparedness. PMID:20822625

  16. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  17. Mcphersonarcys, a new genus for Pentatomaaequalis Say (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus, Mcphersonarcys, is erected to hold Pentatoma aequalis Say, a species formerly placed in the genus Hymenarcys. Based on the distribution of 19 character-states Hymenarcys forms a clade with its sister genus Coenus. Both genera are related to the large genus Euschistus. Mcphe...

  18. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  19. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  20. Phylogeny, biogeography and systematic revision of plain long-nosed squirrels (genus Dremomys, Nannosciurinae).

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Melissa T R; Helgen, Kristofer M; Maldonado, Jesus E; Rockwood, Larry L; Tsuchiya, Mirian T N; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The plain long-nosed squirrels, genus Dremomys, are high elevation species in East and Southeast Asia. Here we present a complete molecular phylogeny for the genus based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Concatenated mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees were constructed to determine the tree topology, and date the tree. All speciation events within the plain-long nosed squirrels (genus Dremomys) were ancient (dated to the Pliocene or Miocene), and averaged older than many speciation events in the related Sunda squirrels, genus Sundasciurus. Within the plain long-nosed squirrels, the most recent interspecific split occurred 2.9 million years ago, older than some splits within Sunda squirrels, which dated to the Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that the plain long-nosed squirrels are not monophyletic. The single species with a distinct distribution, the Bornean mountain ground squirrel (Dremomys everetti), which is endemic to the high mountains of Borneo, is nested within the Sunda squirrels with high support. This species diverged from its sister taxa in the Sunda squirrels 6.62 million years ago, and other plain long-nosed squirrels over 11 million years ago. Our analyses of morphological traits in these related genera support the re-classification of the Bornean mountain ground squirrel, Dremomys everetti, to the genus Sundasciurus, which changes its name to Sundasciurus everetti. Past inclusion in the plain long-nosed squirrels (Dremomys) reflects convergent evolution between these high elevation species. PMID:26524259

  1. Taxonomy and Chemotaxonomy of the Genus Hypericum

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.; Robson, Norman K. B.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Hypericum L. (St. John’s Wort, Hypericaceae) includes, at the most recent count, 469 species that are either naturally occurring on, or which have been introduced to, every continent in the world, except Antarctica. These species occur as herbs, shrubs, and infrequently trees, and are found in a variety of habitats in temperate regions and in high mountains in the tropics, avoiding only zones of extreme aridity, temperature and/or salinity. Monographic work on the genus has resulted in the recognition and description of 36 taxonomic sections, delineated by specific combinations of morphological characteristics and biogeographic distribution ranges. Hypericum perforatum L. (Common St. John’s wort, section Hypericum), one of the best-known members of the genus, is an important medicinal herb of which extracts are taken for their reported activity against mild to moderate depression. Many other species have been incorporated in traditional medicine systems in countries around the world, or are sold as ornamentals. Several classes of interesting bioactive secondary metabolites, including naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin and pseudohypericin), flavonol glycosides (e.g. isoquercitrin and hyperoside), biflavonoids (e.g. amentoflavone), phloroglucinol derivatives (e.g. hyperforin and adhyperforin) and xanthones have been identified from members of the genus. A general overview of the taxonomy of the genus and the distribution of relevant secondary metabolites is presented. PMID:22662019

  2. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  3. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  4. The lichen genus parmotrema in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2013-03-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  5. The Lichen Genus Parmotrema in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  6. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  7. Review of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...

  8. Fayochytriomyces, a new genus within Chytridiales.

    PubMed

    Davis, William J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Powell, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Chytriomyces is a complex genus in Chytridiales. The morphological concept of the genus expanded as new taxa were added, and studies of zoospore ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies have revealed the genus to be polyphyletic. One problematic taxon is C. spinosus Fay, a distinctive species characterized by whorls of spines on the zoosporangium and a large accumulation of vesicle material beneath the operculum. With light-, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy, we examined a culture (WJD186) isolated from a muck sample collected from a temporary forest pond. We also analyzed the D1-D2 variable domains of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) sequences to confirm the phylogenetic placement of the species relative to the type of Chytriomyces, C. hyalinus Karling. The morphology of culture WJD186 is consistent with features Fay described for C. spinosus, and the zoospore ultrastructure is consistent with the Group I-type zoospore characters of Chytriomycetaceae (Chytridiales). In our molecular phylogeny C. spinosus does not group with the type of Chytriomyces. Consequently, we erect a new genus in Chytriomycetaceae and present the new combination Fayochytriomyces spinosus. PMID:25572096

  9. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Burge, Dylan O; Mugford, Kaila; Hastings, Amy P; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2013-01-01

    Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum) may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar. PMID:23646289

  10. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Kaila; Hastings, Amy P.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum) may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar. PMID:23646289

  11. Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from the Genus Ligularia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Liao, Zhixin; Liu, Chao; Jia, Haiyang; Sun, Jinyue

    2016-06-01

    Ligularia speices are widely used in Asian folk medicines for the treatment of various human diseases. Eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes are abundant and typical secondary metabolites found in this genus. Over 500 eremophilanes reported from members of Ligularia are reviewed in this article together with bioactivity data in an effort to highlight the development in this field. PMID:27161126

  12. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  13. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  14. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period. PMID:22038004

  15. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hong, S.-B.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Varga, J.; Yaguchi, T.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  16. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C.H.; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta gen. & sp. n. is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  17. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  18. Genus III. Actinokineospora Hasegawa 1988a, 449vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinokineospora is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the suborder Pseudonocardineae is discussed. Methods for isolation,...

  19. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  20. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V., Jr.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  1. Create the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 we submitted a proposal to create this new genus with six members. The Executive Committee (EC) of the ICTV did not support its creation at that time due to the placement of the pelarspovirus genus branch within a larger monophyletic lineage of many of the members of the carmovirus genus wh...

  2. Climate determines vascular traits in the ecologically diverse genus Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Harbusch, Marco; Wesolowski, Anita; Smith, Renee; Macfarlane, Craig; Tjoelker, Mark G; Reich, Peter B; Adams, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Current theory presumes that natural selection on vascular traits is controlled by a trade-off between efficiency and safety of hydraulic architecture. Hence, traits linked to efficiency, such as vessel diameter, should show biogeographic patterns; but critical tests of these predictions are rare, largely owing to confounding effects of environment, tree size and phylogeny. Using wood sampled from a phylogenetically constrained set of 28 Eucalyptus species, collected from a wide gradient of aridity across Australia, we show that hydraulic architecture reflects adaptive radiation of this genus in response to variation in climate. With increasing aridity, vessel diameters narrow, their frequency increases with a distribution that becomes gradually positively skewed and sapwood density increases while the theoretical hydraulic conductivity declines. Differences in these hydraulic traits appear largely genotypic in origin rather than environmentally plastic. Data reported here reflect long-term adaptation of hydraulic architecture to water availability. Rapidly changing climates, on the other hand, present significant challenges to the ability of eucalypts to adapt their vasculature. PMID:26743135

  3. Phylogeny of finescale shiners of the genus Lythrurus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) inferred from four mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Pramuk, Jennifer B; Grose, Michael J; Clarke, Anna L; Greenbaum, Eli; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Guayasamin, Juan Manuel; Smith-Pardo, Allan H; Benz, Brett W; Harris, Bethany R; Siegfreid, Eric; Reid, Yana R; Holcroft-Benson, Nancy; Wiley, Edward O

    2007-02-01

    We infer the phylogenetic relationships of finescale shiners of the genus Lythrurus, a group of 11 species of freshwater minnows widely distributed in eastern North America, using DNA sequences from the ND2 (1047 bp), ATPase8 and 6 (823 bp), and ND3 (421 bp) mitochondrial protein-coding genes. The topologies resulting from maximum parsimony, Bayesian, and maximum likelihood tree building methods are broadly congruent, with two distinct clades within the genus: the L. umbratilis clade (L. umbratilis + L. lirus + (L. fasciolaris + (L. ardens, L. matutinus))) and the L. bellus clade (L. fumeus + L. snelsoni + (L. roseipinnis + (L. atrapiculus + (L. bellus, L. algenotus)))). Support is weak at the base of several clades, but strongly supported nodes differ significantly from prior investigations. In particular, our results confirm and extend earlier studies recovering two clades within Lythrurus corresponding to groups with largely "northern" and "southern" geographic distributions. Several species in this genus are listed in the United States as threatened or of special concern due to habitat degradation or limited geographic ranges. In this study, populations assigned to L. roseipinnis show significant genetic divergence suggesting that there is greater genetic diversity within this species than its current taxonomy reflects. A full accounting of the biodiversity of the genus awaits further study. PMID:16876442

  4. Metabolomic Profile of the Genus Inula.

    PubMed

    Seca, Ana M L; Pinto, Diana C G A; Silva, Artur M S

    2015-06-01

    Plants have a long history as therapeutics in the treatment of human diseases and have been used as source of medicines for ages. Searching for new biologically active natural products, many plants and herbs are screened for natural products with pharmacological activities. In this field, the genus Inula, which comprises more than 100 species, several of them being used in traditional medicine, is very important, especially due to the finding that several of the isolated pure secondary metabolites proved to possess important biological activities. Inula species have been reported as rich sources of sesquiterpene lactones, including eudesmanes, germacranes, guaianes, and dimeric structures, and since 2006 ca. 400 secondary metabolites, including more than 100 new natural products, some of them with relevant pharmacological activities, have been identified. Herein, we critically compile and update the information regarding the types of secondary metabolites found in the genus Inula and the progress in their isolation. PMID:26080736

  5. A note on the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of the first nearly complete thoracopygon of the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge Brezinski from the Chouteau Formation of central Missouri aids in evaluating the paleoecology and taxonomic affinities of this genus. Dixiphopyge is an isopygous trilobite, suboval in outline, and possessing nine thoracic segments. At the apex of each axial ring is a hollow tubercle that may represent the base of a short spine. Dixiphopyge inhabited muddy biostrome environments. In an enrolled position Dixiphopyge is interpreted to have looked somewhat like a porcupine with its spines radiating outward, presumably to inhibit its consumption by predators. Previous subfamily assignment of Dixiphopyge in the Otarioninae with Cyphaspis and Namuropyge may have been incorrect, because the latter two genera possess broad preglabellar fields and are micropygous.

  6. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum.

    PubMed

    Lombard, L; Serrato-Diaz, L M; Cheewangkoon, R; French-Monar, R D; Decock, C; Crous, P W

    2014-06-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the β-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (β-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) and morphological comparisons, the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocephalotrichum was re-evaluated. As a result five species are newly described, namely G. humicola (Taiwan, soil), G. mexicanum (rambutan fruit from Mexico), G. nephelii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala), G. queenslandicum (Australia, endophytic isolations) and G. simmonsii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala). Although species of Gliocephalotrichum are generally not regarded as important plant pathogens, their ability to cause post-harvest fruit rot could have an impact on fruit export and storage. PMID:25264387

  7. Elliptic Genus of Phases of N = 2 Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libgober, Anatoly

    2015-12-01

    We discuss an algebro-geometric description of Witten's phases of N = 2 theories and propose a definition of their elliptic genus provided some conditions on singularities of the phases are met. For Landau-Ginzburg phase one recovers elliptic genus of LG models proposed in physics literature in early 1990s. For certain transitions between phases we derive invariance of elliptic genus from an equivariant form of McKay correspondence for elliptic genus. As special cases one obtains Landau-Giznburg/Calabi-Yau correspondence for elliptic genus of weighted homogeneous potentials as well as certain hybrid/CY correspondences.

  8. Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Ixora.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ye-Gao

    2016-03-01

    Ixora is a genus of ca. 400 species in the family Rubiaceae. Since the 1940s, eighty-one compounds including phenolics, peptides, terpenoids, and sterols have been isolated from six species of the genus Ixora. Pharmacological studies have shown that these compounds and extracts from the Ixora genus have extensive activities, such as antitumor, chemoprotective, and antioxidant activities. In this review, we summarize the phytochemical progress and list the compounds isolated from the genus Ixora. The biological activities of this genus are also covered. PMID:26916522

  9. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and seminars,…

  10. Origin and evolution of the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Wood, B

    1992-02-27

    It is remarkable that the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the earliest known representatives of our own genus, Homo, remain obscure. Advances in techniques for absolute dating and reassessments of the fossils themselves have rendered untenable a simple unilineal model of human evolution, in which Homo habilis succeeded the australopithecines and then evolved via H. erectus into H. sapiens-but no clear alternative consensus has yet emerged. PMID:1538759

  11. The genus Campylobacter: a decade of progress.

    PubMed Central

    Penner, J L

    1988-01-01

    In 1977, microbiologists and clinicians were awakened to the importance of the genus Campylobacter when it was learned that one species, Campylobacter jejuni, was a major cause of human enteritis. In the following decade substantial advances were made in diagnosis, isolation technology, identification, classification, serotyping, and epidemiology. The genus has undergone rapid expansion as advantage was taken of the deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization technique in defining new species. The 14 species now included in the genus, however, constitute a widely diverse group, and one species, C. pylori, which is associated with human gastroduodenitis, is under consideration for reassignment to another genus. The nomenclature of the subspecies of C. fetus has been resolved and the role of C. fetus subsp. fetus as an agent of human infections has been more clearly defined. The thermophilic campylobacteria that are etiological agents of human enteritis now include three species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis. Recently defined species that have also been implicated as enteritis-causing agents include C. hyointestinalis, "C. upsaliensis," "C. cinaedi," and "C. fennelliae." The aerotolerant campylobacteria are now included in the species C. cryaerophila, and the campylobacteria isolated from salt marshes are included in C. nitrofigilis. The taxonomy and nomenclature of C. sputorum have been revised. C. sputorum now consists of three biovars (biotypes). Two of these, biovar sputorum and biovar bubulus, were previously considered to be separate subspecies and the third, biovar fecalis, was previously regarded as a separate species and known as "C. fecalis." The former subspecies C. sputorum subsp. mucosalis has been elevated to the rank of species. C. mucosalis is metabolically closely related to C. consisus. Human pathogens have not been identified among C. sputorum, C. mucosalis, or C. concisus. The goal of this article is to review developments

  12. Concordance of Bing Doubles and Boundary Genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Charles; van Cott, Cornelia A.

    2011-11-01

    Cha and Kim proved that if a knot K is not algebraically slice, then no iterated Bing double of K is concordant to the unlink. We prove that if K has nontrivial signature $\\sigma$, then the n-iterated Bing double of K is not concordant to any boundary link with boundary surfaces of genus less than $2^{n-1}\\sigma$. The same result holds with $\\sigma$ replaced by $2\\tau$, twice the Ozsvath-Szabo knot concordance invariant.

  13. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. PMID:26837064

  14. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus. PMID:23920228

  15. Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández del Río, Lía; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties.

  16. Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus.

    PubMed

    Fernández Del Río, Lía; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties. PMID:27575166

  17. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  18. The myxomycete genus Schenella: morphological and DNA sequence evidence for synonymy with the gasteromycete genus Pyrenogaster.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Gaither, Thomas W; Miller, Dennis L; Lado, Carlos; Keller, Harold W

    2005-01-01

    The genus Schenella has proven difficult to classify since its description as a new genus in 1911. Macbride placed it with the Myxomycetes but it was unclear with which myxomycete, if any, it should be grouped. Recent identification of abundant samples of Schenella has aided a re-evaluation of its classification as a myxomycete. Morphological evidence based on light and scanning electron microscopy of recently collected specimens and on the type specimen of Macbride suggested that it might be synonymous with the gasteromycete Pyrenogaster Analysis of DNA sequences from freshly isolated samples indicates that the genus Schenella is related closely to an anciently diverged, monophyletic group of fungi that includes several gasteromycete genera, among them Geastrum, Sphaerobolus and Pseudocolus. Comparisons of the morphology and DNA sequences of authentically identified specimens of Pyrenogaster atrogleba indicate that it is synonymous with Schenella simplex. The nomenclatural implications of this discovery are discussed. PMID:16389965

  19. Petrosaltator gen. nov., a new genus replacement for the North African sengi Elephantulus rozeti (Macroscelidea; Macroscelididae).

    PubMed

    Dumbacher, John P

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a molecular phylogeny was published that examined the role of the Sahara Desert as a vicariant event in the evolution of sengis (also known as elephant-shrews.) The phylogeny included a single sample from the North African sengi, Elephantulus rozeti (Duvernoy, 1833), which was found to be more closely related to the sengi genus Petrodromus Peters, 1846 than to other Elephantulus. Here we independently test the monophyly of Elephantulus using an additional specimen of E. rozeti and similar phylogenetic analyses, and discuss additional morphological and behavioral data that support the phylogeny. We propose a revised taxonomy that reflects the current paraphyly of Elephantulus and the sister relationship of E. rozeti and Petrodromus, including a new genus name for the North African sengi, Petrosaltator rozeti gen. nov., nov. comb. We additionally define two tribes within the subfamily Macroscelidinae, the Macroscelidini (including Macroscelides, Petrodromus, and Petrosaltator), and the Elephantulini (including all other members of Elephantulus). PMID:27395734

  20. Morphological divergence in a continental adaptive radiation: South American ovenbirds of the genus Cinclodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rader, Jonathan A.; Dillon, Michael E.; Chesser, R. Terry; Sabat, Pablo; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cinclodes is an ecologically diverse genus of South American passerine birds and represents a case of continental adaptive radiation along multiple axes. We investigated morphological diversification in Cinclodes using a comprehensive set of morphometric measurements of study skins. Principal component analysis identified 2 primary axes of morphological variation: one describing body size and a second capturing differences in wing-tip shape and toe length. Phylogenetic analyses of the first principal component suggest an early divergence ofCinclodes into 2 main clades characterized by large and small body sizes. We suggest that 2 morphological outliers within these main clades (C. antarcticus and C. palliatus) may be cases of island gigantism and that a third (C. patagonicus) may reflect ecological character displacement. Despite its ecological and physiological diversity, the genus Cinclodes does not appear to show morphological diversity beyond what is typical of other avian genera.

  1. Revision of widespread red squirrels (genus: Tamiasciurus) highlights the complexity of speciation within North American forests.

    PubMed

    Hope, Andrew G; Malaney, Jason L; Bell, Kayce C; Salazar-Miralles, Fernando; Chavez, Andreas S; Barber, Brian R; Cook, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    Integration of molecular methods, ecological modeling, and statistical hypothesis testing are increasing our understanding of differentiation within species and phylogenetic relationships among species by revealing environmental connections to evolutionary processes. Within mammals, novel diversity is being discovered and characterized as more complete geographic sampling is coupled with newer multi-disciplinary approaches. North American red squirrels exemplify a forest obligate genus whose species are monitored as indicators of forest ecosystem condition, yet phylogenetic relationships reflecting evolutionary history within this genus remain tentative. Through testing of competing systematic and niche-based divergence hypotheses, we recognize three species, Tamiasciurus douglasii, T. hudsonicus, and T. fremonti. Our data provide evidence of regional differences in evolutionary dynamics and continental gradients of complexity that are important both for future management and for investigating multiple pathways that can lead to the formation of new species. PMID:27083861

  2. Genomic Characterization of the Taylorella Genus

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Pons, Nicolas; Duquesne, Fabien; Breuil, Marie-France; Goux, Didier; Batto, Jean-Michel; Laugier, Claire; Renault, Pierre; Petry, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS). While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus. PMID:22235352

  3. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  4. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loup, Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  5. A review: Ethnobotanical survey of genus Leucas

    PubMed Central

    Das, Surya Narayan; Patro, Varanasi Jaganath; Dinda, Subas Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Plants of genus Leucas (Lamiaceae) are widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and India. The plant is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases such as cough, cold, diarrhea, and inflammatory skin disorder. A variety of phytoconstituents have been isolated from the Leucas species, which include lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, terpenes, fatty acids, and aliphatic long-chain compounds. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities have been reported in the extracts of these plants and their phytoconstituents. An overview of the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological investigations on the Leucas species is presented in this review. PMID:23055635

  6. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Loup, M.

    1995-09-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  7. Double genus expansion for general Ω background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We will show how the refined holomorphic anomaly equation obeyed by the Nekrasov partition function at generic 𝜖1, 𝜖2 values becomes compatible, in a certain two-parameter expansion, with the assumption that both parameters are associated to genus counting. The underlying worldsheet theory will be analyzed and constrained in various ways, and we will provide both physical interpretation and some alternative evidence for this model. Finally, we will use the Gopakumar-Vafa formulation for the refined topological string in order to give a more quantitative description.

  8. Telescope With Reflecting Baffle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Telescope baffle made from combination of reflecting surfaces. In contrast with previous ellipsoidal reflecting baffles, new baffle reflects skew rays more effectively and easier to construct. For infrared telescopes, reflecting baffles better than absorbing baffles because heat load reduced, and not necessary to contend with insufficiency of infrared absorption exhibited by black coatings.

  9. Benefits of Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Kathi

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses what she was able to learn from an exercise in self-reflection regarding her teaching. She also discusses the advantages of reflection for administrators: First, a reflective practice is data-driven, making it a more valid way to evaluate administrators' knowledge and skills. Second, a reflective practice…

  10. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  11. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported…

  12. The genus Geobacillus and their biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ali H; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus comprises a group of Gram-positive thermophilic bacteria, including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers, and facultative anaerobes that can grow over a range of 45-75°C. Originally classified as group five Bacillus spp., strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus came to prominence as contaminants of canned food and soon became the organism of choice for comparative studies of metabolism and enzymology between mesophiles and thermophiles. More recently, their catabolic versatility, particularly in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch, and rapid growth rates have raised their profile as organisms with potential for second-generation (lignocellulosic) biorefineries for biofuel or chemical production. The continued development of genetic tools to facilitate both fundamental investigation and metabolic engineering is now helping to realize this potential, for both metabolite production and optimized catabolism. In addition, this catabolic versatility provides a range of useful thermostable enzymes for industrial application. A number of genome-sequencing projects have been completed or are underway allowing comparative studies. These reveal a significant amount of genome rearrangement within the genus, the presence of large genomic islands encompassing all the hemicellulose utilization genes and a genomic island incorporating a set of long chain alkane monooxygenase genes. With G+C contents of 45-55%, thermostability appears to derive in part from the ability to synthesize protamine and spermine, which can condense DNA and raise its Tm. PMID:26003932

  13. Iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus

    PubMed Central

    Zappa, Sébastien; Bauer, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Metals are utilized for a variety of critical cellular functions and are essential for survival. However cells are faced with the conundrum of needing metals coupled with e fact that some metals, iron in particular are toxic if present in excess. Maintaining metal homeostasis is therefore of critical importance to cells. In this review we have systematically analyzed sequenced genomes of three members of the Rhodobacter genus, R. capsulatus SB1003, R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and R. ferroxidans SW2 to determine how these species undertake iron homeostasis. We focused our analysis on elemental ferrous and ferric iron uptake genes as well as genes involved in the utilization of iron from heme. We also discuss how Rhodobacter species manage iron toxicity through export and sequestration of iron. Finally we discuss the various putative strategies set up by these Rhodobacter species to regulate iron homeostasis and the potential novel means of regulation. Overall, this genomic analysis highlights surprisingly diverse features involved in iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus. PMID:24382933

  14. Reappraisal of the genus Alternariaster (Dothideomycetes).

    PubMed

    Alves, J L; Woudenberg, J H C; Duarte, L L; Crous, P W; Barreto, R W

    2013-12-01

    Alternariaster was erected in 2007 to accommodate Alternaria helianthi, a fungal species known to cause leaf spots on Helianthus annuus (sunflower). It was segregated from Alternaria based on conidial morphology. Recently an unknown alternaria-like dematiaceous fungus was found associated with leaf spots on Bidens sulphurea (yellow cosmos) in Brazil. Based on a multi-gene phylogeny of parts of the ITS and LSU genes, this fungus was placed within the Leptosphaeriaceae with Alternariaster helianthi as its closest neighbour. Additional genes sequenced, RPB2 and GAPDH, confirmed this close relationship. The fungus on B. sulphurea has smaller conidia, 50-97.5 × 12.5-20 μm, compared to Al. helianthi, 80-160 × 18-30 μm, and lacks oblique or transverse septa which can be present in Al. helianthi. Pathogenicity studies on 18 plant species belonging to the Compositae showed that the B. sulphurea fungus only infected B. sulphurea, whereas Al. helianthi infected H. annuus and Galinsoga quadriradiata, a yet unreported host of Al. helianthi. The fungus causing disease on B. sulphurea is hence closely related but phylogenetically, morphologically and pathologically distinct from Al. helianthi, and therefore newly described as Alternariaster bidentis. The collection of a second species in the genus Alternariaster and the multigene phylogenetic analysis of these two species, confirmed Alternariaster to be a well-delimited genus in the Leptosphaeriaceae rather than the Pleosporaceae, to which Alternaria belongs. PMID:24761036

  15. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi. PMID:25492983

  16. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Grace, Olwen M.; Nilsson, Niclas; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Horn, James W.; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy for bioactivity, and phylogenetic patterns in medicinal plant uses have suggested that phylogeny can be used as predictive tool. However, the common practice of grouping medicinal plant uses into standardised categories may restrict the relevance of phylogenetic predictions. Standardised categories are mostly associated to systems of the human body and only poorly reflect biological responses to the treatment. Here we show that medicinal plant uses interpreted from a perspective of a biological response can reveal different phylogenetic patterns of presumed underlying bioactivity compared to standardised methods of medicinal plant use classification. In the cosmopolitan and pharmaceutically highly relevant genus Euphorbia L., identifying plant uses modulating the inflammatory response highlighted a greater phylogenetic diversity and number of potentially promising species than standardised categories. Our interpretation of medicinal plant uses may therefore allow for a more targeted approach for future phylogeny-guided drug discovery at an early screening stage, which will likely result in higher discovery rates of novel chemistry with functional biological activity. PMID:27464466

  17. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  18. Understanding reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Jacqueline Sian; Dosser, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) requires that nurses and midwives use feedback as an opportunity for reflection and learning, to improve practice. The NMC revalidation process stipulates that practitioners provide examples of how they have achieved this. To reflect in a meaningful way, it is important to understand what is meant by reflection, the skills required, and how reflection can be undertaken successfully. Traditionally, reflection occurs after an event encountered in practice. The authors challenge this perception, suggesting that reflection should be undertaken before, during and after an event. This article provides practical guidance to help practitioners use reflective models to write reflective accounts. It also outlines how the reflective process can be used as a valuable learning tool in preparation for revalidation. PMID:27154119

  19. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  20. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha).

    PubMed

    Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Franielczyk, Barbara; Wegierek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: Oviparosiphumjakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and Oviparosiphumbaissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphumbaissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae. PMID:25755622

  1. Reflections in art

    PubMed Central

    CAVANAGH, PATRICK; CHAO, JESSICA; WANG, DINA

    2009-01-01

    When artists depict a mirror in a painting, it necessarily lacks the most obvious property of a mirror: as we move around the painting of the mirror, the reflections we see in it do not change. And yet representations of mirrors and other reflecting surfaces can be quite convincing in paintings. Here, we will examine the rules of reflection, the many ways that painters can break those rules without losing the impression of reflection and the rules that cannot be broken. The rules that govern the perception of reflection are a small subset of the physical rules of reflection. PMID:18534102

  2. [Bergenia genus - content matters and biological activity].

    PubMed

    Hendrychová, Helena; Tůmová, Lenka

    2012-10-01

    Bergenia, a genus included in the family Saxifragaceae, is a valuable source of healing matters. About 30 Bergenia species are known all over the world. Scientific research is focused on five species mainly distributed in the mountains of Central and East Asia: Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., Bergenia stracheyi Engl., Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl. and Bergenia himalaica Boriss. These taxons belong to the widely used medicinal herbs in the traditional Chinese, Nepalese and Indian medicine, for therapy of cough and pulmonary diseases, to stop bleeding, to increase immunity and to dissolve kidney or bladder stones. Bergenia consists of many different active compounds including bergenin, norbergenin, catechin, gallic acid, arbutin and other polyphenols. In the Czech Republic this species is commonly grown but it is not used for medical therapy. Individual parts of this plant demonstrate an interesting biological activity, and antibacterial, antiviral, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects. PMID:23256653

  3. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  4. Proteolytic Activity in the Genus Ficus 1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donald C.; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro C.; Whitaker, John R.

    1968-01-01

    The latices of only 13 of a total of 46 species of Ficus examined contained appreciable proteolytic activity. Therefore, high proteolytic activity in the latex is not a distinguishing feature of the genus. The latex of F. stenocarpa had the highest specific activity followed closely by the latices of F. carica and F. glabrata. Latices of 6 species of Ficus were examined by chromatography on CM-cellulose and compared with the results obtained for 9 varieties of F. carica. All of the latices were found to contain multiple proteolytic enzymes. Chromatographically, the multiple enzyme components of the several varieties of F. carica were more similar than those of the several species examined. The latices of 16 varieties of F. carica were all different as determined by free boundary electrophoresis although the specific proteolytic activity of the latices was reasonably constant. PMID:16656886

  5. Pelarspovirus, a proposed new genus in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the family Tombusviridae encompasses thirteen viral genera that contain single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and isometric virions; the exception being the genus Umbravirus, whose members do not encode a coat protein (CP). A new genus, tentatively named Pelarspovirus, is proposed t...

  6. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:25544089

  7. Revision of the genus Raoiella (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) of the world.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...

  8. Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Psychotria.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Caiqiong; Chen, Yegao

    2016-07-01

    Psychotria is a genus of ca. 1500 species in the family Rubiaceae. Up to now, 41 species of the Psychotria genus have been chemically investigated, and 159 compounds, including alkaloids of indole, quinoline and benzoquinolizidine type, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics and aliphatic compounds have been isolated. These compounds show potent bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities. PMID:27206020

  9. Multigene phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Melanconiella (Diaporthales)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of LSU rDNA demonstrate monophyly of the genus Melanconiella, and its status as a genus distinct from Melanconis is confirmed. Data of macro- and microscopic morphology, pure cultures, and phylogenetic analyses of partial SSU-ITS-LSU rDNA, tef1 and rpb2 sequences reve...

  10. Genus IV. Actinosynnema Hasegawa, Lechevalier and Lechevalier 1978, 304al

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinosynnema is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the family Actinosynnemataceae is discussed. Methods for isolation, pr...

  11. Genus XIII. Umezawaea Labeda and Kroppenstedt 2007, 2761vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Umezawaea is presented. The phylogenetic position of the lone species within this genus, Umezawaea tangerina relative to the species in other genera within the family Actinosynnemataceae is discu...

  12. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  13. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Hamigera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hamigera Stolk & Samson was created for the single species H. striata, a species previously placed in the genus Talaromyces (Stolk and Samson, 1971). Hamigera species, that produce ampulliform phialides and (sub) spherical conidia, differ from Talaromyces species and anamorphic species in...

  14. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces.

  15. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  16. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  17. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  18. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  19. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

  20. Revalidation and reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Finch, Alison

    2016-04-01

    From April 2016 nurses must meet the requirements of the new Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) revalidation process to maintain their registration. It is their responsibility to ensure they meet all revalidation requirements, but organisations and nurse leaders can support them to do so. Reflection is an important part of revalidation, and nurses are required to submit written reflective accounts and engage in reflective discussion. This article discusses how revalidation encourages a more conscious and active form of reflection. It also describes how leaders can help nurses to reflect on practice to identify improvements and become more familiar with the NMC Code. PMID:27032284

  1. Small RNAs in the Genus Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C.; Jones, Shawn W.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny. PMID:21264064

  2. Comparative Genomics of the Ubiquitous, Hydrocarbon-degrading Genus Marinobacter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, E.; Webb, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The genus Marinobacter is amongst the most ubiquitous in the global oceans and strains have been isolated from a wide variety of marine environments, including offshore oil-well heads, coastal thermal springs, Antarctic sea water, saline soils and associations with diatoms and dinoflagellates. Many strains have been recognized to be important hydrocarbon degraders in various marine habitats presenting sometimes extreme pH or salinity conditions. Analysis of the genome of M. aquaeolei revealed enormous adaptation versatility with an assortment of strategies for carbon and energy acquisition, sensation, and defense. In an effort to elucidate the ecological and biogeochemical significance of the Marinobacters, seven Marinobacter strains from diverse environments were included in a comparative genomics study. Genomes were screened for metabolic and adaptation potential to elucidate the strategies responsible for the omnipresence of the Marinobacter genus and their remedial action potential in hydrocarbon-polluted waters. The core genome predominantly encodes for key genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation, biofilm-relevant processes, including utilization of external DNA, halotolerance, as well as defense mechanisms against heavy metals, antibiotics, and toxins. All Marinobacter strains were observed to degrade a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon species, including aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic as well as acyclic isoprenoid compounds. Various genes predicted to facilitate hydrocarbon degradation, e.g. alkane 1-monooxygenase, appear to have originated from lateral gene transfer as they are located on gene clusters of 10-20% lower GC-content compared to genome averages and are flanked by transposases. Top ortholog hits are found in other hydrocarbon degrading organisms, e.g. Alcanivorax borkumensis. Strategies for hydrocarbon uptake encoded by various Marinobacter strains include cell surface hydrophobicity adaptation via capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment

  3. Trends of the Major Porin Gene (ompF) Evolution: Insight from the Genus Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Stenkova, Anna M.; Isaeva, Marina P.; Shubin, Felix N.; Rasskazov, Valeri A.; Rakin, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    OmpF is one of the major general porins of Enterobacteriaceae that belongs to the first line of bacterial defense and interactions with the biotic as well as abiotic environments. Porins are surface exposed and their structures strongly reflect the history of multiple interactions with the environmental challenges. Unfortunately, little is known on diversity of porin genes of Enterobacteriaceae and the genus Yersinia especially. We analyzed the sequences of the ompF gene from 73 Yersinia strains covering 14 known species. The phylogenetic analysis placed most of the Yersinia strains in the same line assigned by 16S rDNA-gyrB tree. Very high congruence in the tree topologies was observed for Y. enterocolitica, Y. kristensenii, Y. ruckeri, indicating that intragenic recombination in these species had no effect on the ompF gene. A significant level of intra- and interspecies recombination was found for Y. aleksiciae, Y. intermedia and Y. mollaretii. Our analysis shows that the ompF gene of Yersinia has evolved with nonrandom mutational rate under purifying selection. However, several surface loops in the OmpF porin contain positively selected sites, which very likely reflect adaptive diversification Yersinia to their ecological niches. To our knowledge, this is a first investigation of diversity of the porin gene covering the whole genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This study demonstrates that recombination and positive selection both contribute to evolution of ompF, but the relative contribution of these evolutionary forces are different among Yersinia species. PMID:21655186

  4. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters. PMID:22443110

  5. Comparative investigation of the various determinants that influence the codon and amino acid usage patterns in the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ayan; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasish; Sarkar, Indrani; Sen, Arnab

    2015-06-01

    Various strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are crucial members of the human, animal and insect gut, associated with beneficial probiotic activities. An extensive analysis on codon and amino acid usage of the GC rich genus Bifidobacterium has been executed in the present study. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed a coupled effect of GC compositional constraint and natural selection for translational efficiency to be operative in producing the observed codon usage variations. Gene expression level was inferred to be the most crucial factor governing the codon usage patterns. Amino acid usage was found to be influenced significantly by hydrophobic and aromatic character of the encoded proteins. Gene expressivity and protein energetic cost also had considerable impact on the differential mode of amino acid usage. The genus was found to strictly obey the cost-minimization hypothesis as was reflected from the amino acid usage patterns of the potential highly expressed gene products. Evolutionary analysis revealed that the highly expressed genes were candidates to extreme evolutionary selection pressure and indicated a high degree of conservation at the proteomic level. Interestingly, the complimentary strands of replication appeared to evolve under similar evolutionary constraints which might be addressed as a consequence of absence of replicational selection and lack of strand-specific asymmetry among the members of the genus. Thus, the present endeavor confers considerable know-how pertaining to the codon and amino acid usage intricacies in Bifidobacterium and might prove handy for further scientific investigations associated with the concerned domain. PMID:25842224

  6. Magadacerina, a new genus of Leptoceridae (Trichoptera) from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Malm, Tobias; Johanson, Kjell Arne

    2013-01-01

    Magadacerina forcipata, new genus, new species (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae), is described from Madagascar. The monotypic genus is characterised by having the tibial spur formula 2,2,2; wings with sessile bifurcation of M; genitalia with preanal appendages fused with segment IX and greatly produced posterad, and a tergum X with an anteriorly extended ventral base articulating with a sclerotised spine-like process of the phallic shield. The new genus is most closely related to Blyzophilus in the tribe Blyzophilini. PMID:24614464

  7. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    PubMed

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids. PMID:21337498

  8. Genus Caulophyllum: An Overview of Chemistry and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Li, Guo-Yu; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Lü, Shao-Wa; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Recently, some promising advances have been achieved in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology, and action mechanisms of constituents from genus Caulophyllum. Despite this, there is to date no systematic review of those of genus Caulophyllum. This review covers naturally occurring alkaloids and saponins and those resulting from synthetic novel taspine derivatives. The paper further discussed several aspects of this genus, including pharmacological properties, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and cell membrane chromatography for activity screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a point of reference for pharmaceutical researchers to develop new drugs from constituents of Caulophyllum plants. PMID:24876877

  9. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  10. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains. PMID:27001126

  11. Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae).

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Smith, C. I.; Jastrow, J. D.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-01-01

    The Cyperaccae have generally been considered nonmycorrhizal, although recent evidence suggests that mycotrophy may be considerably more widespread among sedges than was previously realized. This study surveyed 23 species of Carex occurring in upland and wetland habitats in northeastern Illinois. Mycorrhizal infection by arbuscular fungi was found in the roots of 16 species of Carex and appears to occur in response to many factors, both environmental and phylogenetic. While some species appear to be obligately nonmycorrhizal, edaphic influences may be responsible for infection in others. In five of the seven Carex species that were nonmycorrrhizal, a novel root character, the presence of bulbous-based root hairs, was identified. The taxonomically patchy distribution of the distinctive root hair trait suggests that these structures may have evolved several times within the genus. Evidence of multiple independent origins of the root hair trait lends support to the hypothesis that root hairs represent an adaptation to nonmycotrophy. Although taxonomic position does seem to be of importance in determining the mycorrhizal dependence of sedges, the pattern may be a patchwork of both mycorrhizal clades and clades that have adapted to the nonmycorrhizal state.

  12. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  13. Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Bata-Csere, Andrea; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

    2011-09-14

    Numerous compounds, many of them osmolytes, were quantified in natural juices and in frozen concentrate juices from fruits of plants of the Citrus genus. L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline (hygric acid), N,N-dimethyl-L-proline (stachydrine), 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine (betonicine), 4-hydroxy-L-proline, γ-aminobutyric acid (Gaba), 3-carboxypropyltrimethylammonium (GabaBet), N-methylnicotinic acid (trigonelline), and choline in the fruit juices of yellow orange, blood orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), and grapefruit were analyzed by sensitive HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry procedure. It was found that the most represented osmolytes in the juices, that is, L-proline, stachydrine, and betonicine, can be quantified with minimal sample preparation and short analysis time (about 1 min) also by flow injection analysis (FIA) ESI-MS/MS with the same results as obtained by HPLC ESI-MS/MS. In all of the juices, discrete amounts of choline and trigonelline were present. Conversely, GabaBet was always below detection limits. Notably, N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine, which were discovered for the first time in the juice of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit), are also present in all of the citrus juices examined. PMID:21838291

  14. Genetics and Genomics of the Genus Amycolatopsis.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rashmi; Singh, Priya; Lal, Rup

    2016-09-01

    Actinobacteria are gram-positive filamentous bacteria which contains some of the most deadly human pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Nocardia farcinica), plant pathogens (Streptomyces scabies, Leifsonia xyli) along with organisms that produces antibiotic (Streptomycetes, Amycolatopsis, Salinospora). Interestingly, these bacteria are equipped with an extraordinary capability of producing antibiotics and other metabolites which have medicinal properties. With the advent of inexpensive genome sequencing techniques and their clinical importance, many genomes of Actinobacteria have been successfully sequenced. These days, with the constant increasing number of drug-resistant bacteria, the urgent need for discovering new antibiotics has emerged as a major scientific challenge. And, unfortunately the traditional method of screening bacterial strains for the production of antibiotics has decreased leading to a paradigm shift in the planning and execution of discovery of novel biosynthetic gene clusters via genome mining process. The entire focus has shifted to the evaluation of genetic capacity of organisms for metabolite production and activation of cryptic gene clusters. This has been made possible only due to the availability of genome sequencing and has been augmented by genomic studies and new biotechnological approaches. Through this article, we present the analysis of the genomes of species belonging to the genus Amycolatopsis, sequenced till date with a focus on completely sequenced genomes and their application for further studies. PMID:27407288

  15. The Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers. PMID:20065325

  16. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  17. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  18. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  19. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Six Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, Christopher J; Bringel, Francoise O.; Christoserdova, Ludmila; Moulin, Lionel; UI Hague, Muhammad Farhan; Fleischman, Darrell E.; Gruffaz, Christelle; Jourand, Philippe; Knief, Claudia; Lee, Ming-Chun; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Nadalig, Thierry; Peyraud, Remi; Roselli, Sandro; Russ, Lina; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Ivanov, Pavel S.; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Lajus, Aurelie; Medigue, Claudine; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Stolyar, Sergey; Vorholt, Julia A.; Vuilleumier, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  1. Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus methylobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, Christopher J; Bringel, Francoise O.; Christoserdova, Ludmila; Moulin, Lionel; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Fleischman, Darrell E.; Gruffaz, Christelle; Jourand, Philippe; Knief, Claudia; Lee, Ming-Chun; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Nadalig, Thierry; Peyraud, Remi; Roselli, Sandro; Russ, Lina; Aguero, Fernan; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Lajus, Aurelie; Medigue, Claudine; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Stolyar, Sergey; Vorholt, Julia A.; Vuilleumier, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  2. Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria is a cosmopolitan anamorph genus of arthropod pathogens that includes the agronomically important species B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, which are used as mycoinsecticides for the biological control of pest insects. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Beauveria is monophyletic...

  3. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    PubMed

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  4. The description of Banacuniculus Buffington, new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new eucoiline genus Banacuniculus is described to accommodate several species previously placed in Ganaspidium: Banacuniculus hunteri (Crawford), new combination; B. merickeli (Miller), new combination; B. nigrimanus (Kieffer), new combination; B. utilis (Beardsley), new combination; these spec...

  5. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  6. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  7. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  8. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  9. Critically Reflective Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    Critical Reflective Practice (CRP) has a proven reputation as a method for teacher-researchers in K-12 classrooms, but there have been few published examples of this method being used to document school leaders' work-based practice. This paper outlines adaptations made by the author from an original CRP method to a Critically Reflective Leadership…

  10. Transparencies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  11. Engaging in Retrospective Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevig, Laurey

    2006-01-01

    Reflection is a powerful means to involve readers actively in gaining new insights about texts and themselves as readers. This article relates the story of three fifth-grade girls engaged in metacognitive inquiry within a classroom book club group. The use of exploratory talk and reflection illustrate how the girls constructed meaning and deepened…

  12. Notes on the genus Xenocerogria (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Lagriini) from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Merkl, Ottó; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three species of the genus Xenocerogria Merkl, 2007 have been recorded in China, Xenocerogria feai (Borchmann, 1911), Xenocerogria ignota (Borchmann, 1941) and Xenocerogria ruficollis (Borchmann, 1912). Xenocera xanthisma Chen, 2002 is proposed as a junior synonym of Xenocerogria ruficollis. Lectotype of Xenocerogria ignota is designated, and the species is transferred to the genus Lagria Fabricius, 1775. New Chinese province records of Xenocerogria ruficollis are provided. PMID:25493049

  13. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids. PMID:19235157

  14. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  15. Shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra and shifted Hurwitz numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Quan

    2016-05-01

    We construct the shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra, which is isomorphic to the central subalgebra A ∞ of infinite symmetric group algebra and to the shifted Schur symmetrical function algebra Λ* defined by Okounkov and Olshanskii. As an application, we get some differential equations for the generating functions of the shifted Hurwitz numbers; thus, we can express the generating functions in terms of the shifted genus expanded cut-and-join operators.

  16. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Kathariou, Sophia; Tiedje, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.

  17. Reflecting Random Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio, Alessandro; Orsingher, Enzo

    2015-09-01

    We consider random flights in reflecting on the surface of a sphere with center at the origin and with radius R, where reflection is performed by means of circular inversion. Random flights studied in this paper are motions where the orientation of the deviations are uniformly distributed on the unit-radius sphere . We obtain the explicit probability distributions of the position of the moving particle when the number of changes of direction is fixed and equal to . We show that these distributions involve functions which are solutions of the Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation. The unconditional probability distributions of the reflecting random flights are obtained by suitably randomizing n by means of a fractional-type Poisson process. Random flights reflecting on hyperplanes according to the optical reflection form are considered and the related distributional properties derived.

  18. Reflecting on Čerenkov reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, D.; Gaug, M.; Oliva, P.

    2008-05-01

    MAGIC, as well as HESS and VERITAS, is a Čerenkov Telescope unveiling γ-ray sources above 60 GeV at vertical within noisy (hadronic) airshowering sky. These telescopes while facing the horizons may reveal rarest blazing UHECR as well as far fluorescence tails of downward PeV-EeV hadronic airshowers. Few of these inclined airshowers blazing on axis are spread by the geomagnetic field into twin spots. These twin flashes and their morphology may tag the UHECR origination site. There is a rich window of such reflecting Čerenkov lights visible by Telescopes on top of Mountains as MAGIC (and partially VERITAS): the reflections from the nearby ground (possibly enhanced by rain or snow, ice white cover), from the Sea and from the cloudy sky; in particular, these cloudy sheets may lay above or below the observer. MAGIC looking downward to the clouds or the snow, may well reveal blazing Moliere disks diffusing Čerenkov spots (few events per night). Because of geomagnetic forces and splitting of the inclined air-shower, one should reveal for the first time (at tens PeV or above) Čerenkov airshowers whose flashes are skimming the MAGIC nearby Sea and opened into twin spots. Their morphology may tag the UHECR origination, its consequent cross-section and composition. Magic telescopes looking upward into cloudy sky may observe very rare up-going UHE Tau, originated by UHE PeVs neutrinos skimming earth, air-showering into sky, reflecting into clouds. In particular Glashow resonant antineutrinos electron hitting into Earth electrons may lead to gauged boson W-, whose decay (inside the Earth) may produce a τ + bar nuτ [3], which later escape and decay in air is producing Čerenkov lights; these flashes may blaze into the clouds above MAGIC as upward dot spots. The Magic energy threshold for such UHE Neutrinos showers rises to PeV values. EeV UHE tau neutrinos by guaranteed GZK UHECR secondaries [6, 16], via the muon-tau flavor mixing, may skim the Earth, produce UHE tau

  19. Genus identification of toxic plant by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Shuji; Nishi, Katsuji

    2011-03-01

    Some plants have toxicities that are dangerous for humans. In the case of poisoning by toxic plants, a rapid and easy screening test is required for accurate medical treatment or forensic investigation. In this study, we designed specific primer pairs for identification of toxic plants, such as subgenus Aconitum, genus Ricinus, genus Illicium, and genus Scopolia, by internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Allied species of target plants, foods, and human DNA were not detected, but each primer pair provided a specific PCR product from the target plant using real-time PCR. This method can detect the subgenus Aconitum, genus Ricinus, and genus Scopolia with template DNA of 10 pg, respectively, and genus Illicium with 1 pg. Furthermore, each primer pair provided the exact PCR product from digested target plants in artificial gastric fluid. When a trace unknown plant sample in forensic investigation is collected from stomach contents, this PCR assay may be useful for screening toxic plants. PMID:20623131

  20. Weak shock reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, John K.; Brio, Moysey

    2000-05-01

    We present numerical solutions of a two-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation which provides an asymptotic description of the Mach reflection of weak shocks. In our numerical solutions, the incident, reflected, and Mach shocks meet at a triple point, and there is a supersonic patch behind the triple point, as proposed by Guderley for steady weak-shock reflection. A theoretical analysis indicates that there is an expansion fan at the triple point, in addition to the three shocks. The supersonic patch is extremely small, and this work is the first time it has been resolved.

  1. GNSS Ocean Reflected Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, P.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean reflected signals from the GNSS satellites (received at low-Earth orbiting satellites, airplanes and fixed mountain locations) describe the ocean surface mean height, waves, roughness, spectral reflectivity and emissivity. The estimated accuracy of the average surface height is of the order of 10 cm for smooth conditions. Thus global observations could be an important new contribution to long-term variations of the ocean mean height as well as the monitoring of ocean mesoscale eddies, which result in sea-height changes much larger than the accuracy of the GNSS technique for reflected signals. The ocean reflected signals can be divided into two set of measurements, 1) high elevation measurements (equal to low incidence angles) and 2) low elevation grazing angle measurements. For the first type the ocean reflection cross-section has a limited extent. The reflected signal is coherent with smaller errors due to ocean waves, sampling rate and the internal processing method of the receiver. For low elevations, the signal reveals the incoherent scatter process at the reflection zone. To quantify the potential of the GNSS signals for determining spectral reflectivity at low elevations, we present ocean reflection GPS measurements from the Haleakala Summit on Maui, Hawaii, revealing the spectral characteristics of both the direct satellite signal and the ocean reflected signal for low elevation angles. The characteristics of the reflected signal depend on the scattering properties of the sea surface and the footprint of the reflection zone. While the footprint size and shape in turn depends on the signal incidence angle, the ocean mean tilt, and the relative velocities of transmitter and receiver to the reflection point. Thus the scattering properties of the sea surface are related to the sea surface roughness. We present the spectral properties of the signals as received by a high precision GPS instrument, simultaneously in both phase-locked mode and open-loop raw

  2. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  3. Reflections on Miniature Golf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nancy Norem; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a transformational geometry project in which groups of students explore symmetry, reflections, translations, rotations, and dilations to design and create one hole of miniature golf large enough to play on. Includes unit plan for transformational geometry. (MKR)

  4. Andreev reflection in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenakker, Carlo

    2007-03-01

    Relativity and superconductivity have no common ground in ordinary matter, because the velocity of electrons is only a small fraction of the velocity of light. The unusual band structure of a single layer of carbon atoms (graphene) contains negatively and positively charged particles that move as relativistic electrons and positrons. The electron-like particles in the conduction band can be converted into positron-like particles in the valence band when they are reflected by a superconductor. (The missing charge of 2e enters the superconductor as a Cooper pair.) This interband reflection process can be distinguished from the usual intraband Andreev reflection, because the reflection angle has the opposite sign. A new phenomenology of graphene--superconductor junctions is predicted, including an anomalous scaling of the supercurrent with the length of the junction and the existence of charge-neutral modes propagating along the interface.

  5. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  6. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  7. Defining Reflection: Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Examines four criteria that characterize John Dewey's view of reflective thought: reflection as a meaning-making process; reflection as a systematic, rigorous, disciplined way of thinking with its roots in scientific inquiry; reflection needs to happen in community, in interaction with others; and reflection requires attitudes that value the…

  8. Analytical elimination of substrate backside reflections from reflectance measurements.

    PubMed

    Wilbrandt, Steffen; Stenzel, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    An analytical approach to eliminate substrate backside reflections from measured reflectance of an unknown optical coating has been deducted. Thereby, measured transmittance, reflectance, and backside reflectance of the coating and transmittance and reflectance of the uncoated substrate at the desired angle of incidence and polarization state are required as input data. In the underlying theory, layer and substrate materials may be absorbing. PMID:27607274

  9. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O. P.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Alnus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, phenols, steroids, and tannins. Diarylheptanoids are the dominant constituents within the genus Alnus, few of them exhibited antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB activation, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, farnesyl protein transferase, cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, HIF-1 in AGS cells, and the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect in MT-4 cells. Some ellagitannines showed hepatoprotective activity even in a dose of 1 mg/kg which is ten-fold smaller compared with the dose of traditional flavonoid-based drugs. The members of genus Alnus are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like cancer, hepatitis, inflammation of uterus, uterine cancer, rheumatism, dysentery, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, etc. The aim of the present review is to summarize the various researches related to the chemistry and pharmacology of genus Alnus. PMID:22279375

  10. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. PMID:21798357

  11. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits. PMID:26665388

  12. A Framework for Teacher Reflectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Claire

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a framework for teacher reflection based on a longitudinal study of the development of six experienced second-language teachers who attempted to implement reflection and reflective action into their teaching practice. The resulting framework included several phases in the development of reflective teaching: engaging with reflection,…

  13. The genus Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae): a larval perspective.

    PubMed

    Filipe Augusto C, Do Nascimento; Tamí, Mott; José A, Langone; Christine A, Davis; Rafael O, De Sá

    2013-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus consists of 11 species of medium-sized frogs distributed across south and east South America. This study examines and describes the chondrocrania and oral cavities of O. americanus, O. maisuma, O. carvalhoi, and O. cultripes, and review current knowledge about the larval external morphology of the genus. Twenty-one tadpoles were cleared and double-stained for chondrocranium description and five tadpoles were dissected for analysis in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of a tectum parientale may be considered here as a putative synapomorphy of the genus. The O. americanus and O. cultripes species groups were partially differentiated by the length of the processus pseudopterigoideus, shape of divergence of the hypobranchial plates, number of postnarial papillae, and number of projections of the lateral ridge papillae. The larvae of O. occidentalis species group, in turn, differed from others by presenting a greater total length. PMID:26106718

  14. Phylogenetic placement of the ectomycorrhizal genus Cenococcum in Gloniaceae (Dothideomycetes).

    PubMed

    Spatafora, Joseph W; Owensby, C Alisha; Douhan, Greg W; Boehm, Eric W A; Schoch, Conrad L

    2012-01-01

    Cenococcum is a genus of ectomycorrhizal Ascomycota that has a broad host range and geographic distribution. It is not known to produce either meiotic or mitotic spores and is known to exist only in the form of hyphae, sclerotia and host-colonized ectomycorrhizal root tips. Due to its lack of sexual and asexual spores and reproductive structures, it has proven difficult to incorporate into traditional classification within Ascomycota. Molecular phylogenetic studies of ribosomal RNA placed Cenococcum in Dothideomycetes, but the definitive identification of closely related taxa remained elusive. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear loci (SSU, LSU, TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) of Dothideomycetes that placed Cenococcum as a close relative of the genus Glonium of Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae incertae sedis) with strong statistical support. Glonium is a genus of saprobic Dothideomycetes that produces darkly pigmented, carbonaceous, hysteriate apothecia and is not known to be biotrophic. Evolution of ectomycorhizae, Cenococcum and Dothideomycetes is discussed. PMID:22453119

  15. Molecular phylogeny and a taxonomic proposal for the genus Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Póntigo, F; Moraga, M; Flores, S V

    2015-01-01

    Alternative phylogenies for the genus Streptococcus have been proposed due to uncertainty about the among-species group relationships. Here, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Streptococcus, considering all the species groups and also the genomic data accumulated by other studies. Seventy-five species were subjected to a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using sequences from eight genes (16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, tuf, rnpB, gyrB, dnaJ, and recN). On the basis of our results, we propose a new Phylogeny for the genus, with special emphasis on the inter-species group level. This new phylogeny differs from those suggested previously. From topological and evolutionary distance criteria, we propose that gordonii, pluranimalium, and sobrinus should be considered as new species groups, in addition to the currently recognized groups of mutans, bovis, pyogenic, suis, mitis, and salivarius. PMID:26400318

  16. A Review on the Terpenes from Genus Vitex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jin-Long; Fang, Shi-Ming; Liu, Rui; Oppong, Mahmood Brobbey; Liu, Er-Wei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vitex, which belongs to the Verbenaceae family, includes approximately 250 species. Some species of the genus Vitex have traditionally been used for the treatment of headaches, ophthalmodynia, coughs, asthma, premenopausal syndrome, etc. Chemical investigations indicate that the characteristic constituents of the genus Vitex are terpenes, and 210 of these compounds, including monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids, have been obtained from 12 species. Pharmacological studies had shown that these terpenes possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and so on. In this paper, the identity of these terpenes and their pharmacological effects are reviewed, which can provide references for further research regarding the chemistry and utilization of the Vitex species. PMID:27608002

  17. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Bratkov, Viktor M; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M; Zdraveva, Petranka K; Krasteva, Ilina N

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  18. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization. PMID:26552163

  19. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yubing; Xia, Bohou; Xie, Wenjian; Zhou, Yamin; Xie, Jiachi; Li, Hongquan; Liao, Duanfang; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions. PMID:26988527

  20. [Advances on chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of genus Scilla].

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng-Yang; Wang, Yan-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min; Gao, Hui-Min

    2014-01-01

    The genus Scilla consists of 90 species widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa, one and its variant of which can be found in China Some species of the genus have been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases related to inflammation and pain. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of triterpene and tritepenoid saponins derived from eucosterol, bufadienolides, alkaloids, stilbenoids and lignan in the plants of this genus. Various bioactivities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor and glycosidase inhibitory activities, have been reported. In this review, the advance of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Scilla species are summarized for further development and utilization of the resource. PMID:24761625

  1. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bratkov, Viktor M.; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M.; Zdraveva, Petranka K.; Krasteva, Ilina N.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  2. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  3. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  4. Profiling and Metabolism of Sterols in the Weaver Ant Genus Oecophylla.

    PubMed

    Vidkjær, Nanna H; Jensen, Karl-Martin V; Gislum, René; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-01-01

    Sterols are essential to insects because they are vital for many biochemical processes, nevertheless insects cannot synthesize sterols but have to acquire them through their diet. Studies of sterols in ants are sparse and here the sterols of the weaver ant genus Oecophylla are identified for the first time. The sterol profile and the dietary sterols provided to a laboratory Oecophylla longinoda colony were analyzed. Most sterols originated from the diet, except one, which was probably formed via dealkylation in the ants and two sterols of fungal origin, which likely originate from hitherto unidentified endosymbionts responsible for supplying these two compounds. The sterol profile of a wild Oecophylla smaragdina colony was also investigated. Remarkable qualitative similarities were established between the two species despite the differences in diet, species, and origin. This may reflect a common sterol need/aversion in the weaver ants. Additionally, each individual caste of both species displayed unique sterol profiles. PMID:26996016

  5. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  6. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  7. Calabi-Yau Geometry and Higher Genus Mirror Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si

    2011-12-01

    We study closed string mirror symmetry on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds at higher genus. String theory predicts the existence of two sets of geometric invariants, from the A-model and the B-model on Calabi-Yau manifolds, each indexed by a non-negative integer called genus. The A-model has been mathematically established at all genera by the Gromov-Witten theory, but little is known in mathematics for B-model beyond genus zero. We develop a mathematical theory of higher genus B-model from perturbative quantization techniques of gauge theory. The relevant gauge theory is the Kodaira-Spencer gauge theory, which is originally discovered by Bershadsky-Cecotti-Ooguri-Vafa as the closed string field theory of B-twisted topological string on Calabi-Yau three-folds. We generalize this to Calabi-Yau manifolds of arbitrary dimensions including also gravitational descendants, which we call BCOV theory. We give the geometric description of the perturbative quantization of BCOV theory in terms of deformation-obstruction theory. The vanishing of the relevant obstruction classes will enable us to construct the higher genus B-model. We carry out this construction on the elliptic curve and establish the corresponding higher genus B-model. Furthermore, we show that the B-model invariants constructed from BCOV theory on the elliptic curve can be identified with descendant Gromov-Witten invariants on the mirror elliptic curve. This gives the first compact Calabi-Yau example where mirror symmetry can be established at all genera.

  8. Rapid identification of Zygosaccharomyces with genus-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Michelle; Wheals, Alan

    2014-03-01

    There has been a recent and rapid increase in the number of species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces which now comprises Z. bailii, Z. bisporus, Z. gambellarensis, Z. kombuchaensis, Z. lentus, Z. machadoi, Z. mellis, Z. parabaillii, Z. pseudobailii, Z. pseudorouxii, Z. rouxii, Z. sapae, and Z. siamensis. Z. pseudorouxii is an unofficial name given to isolates closely related to the newly-described species Z. sapae. The Zygosaccharomyces genus contains species that are important as food and beverage spoilage organisms and others are associated with fermentations and sweet foodstuffs, such as honey. Their economic significance means that the ability to identify them rapidly is of significant importance. Although Z. rouxii and Z. bailii have been genome-sequenced the extent of sequence data for the others, especially the newly-discovered species, is sometimes extremely limited which makes identification slow. However, parts of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 rDNA region contain sequences of sufficient similarity within the genus and of sufficient difference with outgroups, to be potential regions for the design of genus-wide specific primers. We report here the development of genus-specific primers that can detect all the major Zygosaccharomyces species including all those associated with foods; the rare and localised species Z. machadoi and Z. gambellarensis are not detected. The size of the single amplicon produced varies between species and in some cases is sufficiently different to assign provisional species identification. Sequence data from rDNA regions are available for virtually all described yeast species in all genera, thus, prior to having sufficient sequence data from structural genes, rDNA regions may provide more generally suitable candidates for both genus-specific and species-specific primer design. PMID:24382328

  9. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  10. Design for reflection.

    PubMed

    Bagnara, Sebastiano; Pozzi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Since a few years, a number of academic papers have been proposing to shift from user-centered design to human-centered (or person) design. In this contribution, we discuss as the common tread underlying these works the idea that design should also address the reflective part of our human experience, and not only aim to maximize the experiential aspects. Our review is complemented with examples derived from the internet world and from ICT consumer products. The main research areas we see as promising for the approach of "design for reflection" are: design for pauses, design for detachment, design for serendipity. PMID:22316867

  11. Mystic Reflection Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazlov, Yuri; Berenstein, Arkady

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to systematically study mystic reflection groups that emerged independently in the paper [Selecta Math. (N.S.) 14 (2009), 325-372] by the authors and in the paper [Algebr. Represent. Theory 13 (2010), 127-158] by Kirkman, Kuzmanovich and Zhang. A detailed analysis of this class of groups reveals that they are in a nontrivial correspondence with the complex reflection groups G(m,p,n). We also prove that the group algebras of corresponding groups are isomorphic and classify all such groups up to isomorphism.

  12. Stapecolis, new genus of Ochlerini (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Discocephalinae).

    PubMed

    Garbelotto, Thereza De A; Campos, Luiz A; Grazia, Jocelia

    2016-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of the Herrichela clade (Ochlerini) was conducted to solve problems concerning the systematics of the genus Alitocoris Sailer; this recovered monophyletic groups which are considered to be new genera. Stapecolis gen. nov. is here proposed for two species (S. latus sp. nov. and S. bimaculatus sp. nov.) representing one of those monophyletic groups. The new genus is supported by ten synapomorphies, five of them pertaining to the morphology of the pygophore have not been found together in any other genera of Ochlerini. The female genitalia also has characteristics different from closely related genera. PMID:27470743

  13. Notes on the genus Ismarus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-xian; Chen, Hua-yan; Xu, Zai-fu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese species of the genus Ismarus Haliday, 1835, are revised for the first time. Three new species from the Oriental region of China and belonging to Ismarus halidayi-group are described and illustrated: Ismarus longus sp. n., Ismarus nigritrochanter sp. n. and Ismarus parvicellus sp. n. Two species are newly reported for the Chinese fauna: Ismarus dorsiger (Haliday, 1831) and Ismarus halidayi Foerster, 1850. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided. The type specimens are deposited in the Hymenopteran Collection of South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (SCAU). PMID:21852927

  14. The genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 (Diplopoda, Penicillata, Polyxenida) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Short, Megan; Huynh, Cuong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The penicillate genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 is widespread, with species found in Africa, Madagascar, India and Australia. Each of the two Australian species was originally described from single samples from Western Australia. In this study, collections of Penicillata from museums in all states of Australia were examined to provide further details of the two described species, to revise the diagnoses for both the genus and the species, and to better understand the distribution of the two species in Australia. In addition, two new species Unixenus karajinensis sp. n. and Unixenus corticolus sp. n. are described. PMID:22303098

  15. Shape transitions of high-genus fluid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The morphologies of genus-2 to -8 fluid vesicles are studied by using dynamically triangulated membrane simulations with area-difference elasticity. It is revealed that the alignments of the membrane pores alter the vesicle shapes and the types of shape transitions for the genus g ≥ 3 . At a high reduced volume, a stomatocyte with a circular alignment of g + 1 pores continuously transforms into a discocyte with a line of g pores with increasing intrinsic area difference. In contrast, at a low volume, a stomatocyte transforms into a (g+1) -hedral shape and subsequently exhibits a discrete phase transition to a discocyte.

  16. Genome Sequence of Type Strains of Genus Stenotrophomonas

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant P.; Midha, Samriti; Kumar, Sanjeet; Patil, Prabhu B.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic resource of type strains and historically important strains of genus Stenotrophomonas allowed us to reveal the existence of 18 distinct species by applying modern phylogenomic criterions. Apart from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, S. africana represents another species of clinical importance. Interestingly, Pseudomonas hibsicola, P. beteli, and S. pavani that are of plant origin are closer to S. maltophilia than the majority of the environmental isolates. The genus has an open pan-genome. By providing the case study on genes encoding metallo-β-lactamase and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats (CRISPR) regions, we have tried to show the importance of this genomic dataset in understanding its ecology. PMID:27014232

  17. Molecular analyses suggest monospecificity of the genus Sarcoptes (Acari: Sarcoptidae).

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Essig, A; Gothe, R; Rinder, H

    1999-05-01

    To clarify the taxonomic status of mites of the genus Sarcoptes, the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the rRNA gene, as well as phenotypic characters, were investigated in 23 isolates from nine host species in four continents. Phenotypic differences among isolates were observed, but the range of variation within each isolate precluded the differentiation of individual mites. Genotypically, there was no delimitation between distinct genotypic groups and no correlation with host species or geographic origin was evident. These results support the conspecificity of the mites investigated and confirm the view that the genus Sarcoptes consists of a single, heterogenous species. PMID:10404272

  18. The genus Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jie; He, Jun-hua; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from China is revised and keyed, with nine new species, namely Diolcogaster bifurcifossa sp. n., Diolcogaster brevivena sp. n., Diolcogaster grammata sp. n., Diolcogaster ineminens sp. n., Diolcogaster laetimedia sp. n., Diolcogaster pluriminitida sp. n., Diolcogaster praritas sp. n., Diolcogaster punctatiscutum sp. n. and Diolcogaster translucida sp. n. described and illustrated, and one species, Diolcogaster perniciosa (Wilkinson, 1929) recorded for the first time from China. A key to the Chinese species of this genus is provided. PMID:21998555

  19. Review of the genus Agria (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Chen, Yi-ou; Pape, Thomas; Zhang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Agria mihalyii (Rohdendorf and Verves, 1978) is recorded from China for the first time, and both sexes are thoroughly documented using a combination of illustrations, photographs and scanning electron microscopy images. The generic affiliation is corroborated from an expanded definition of genus Agria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, and a key to males of the two known species from China is provided. The distribution of coeloconic sensilla on the male pre- and postgonite are shown to possess significant diagnostic and phylogenetic information in this genus. PMID:23805049

  20. Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume.

    PubMed

    Shilpi, Jamil A; Saha, Sanjib; Chong, Soon-Lim; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-05-01

    Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to the Indo-Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane, and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Aside from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. PMID:26970405

  1. Abelian functions for cyclic trigonal curves of genus 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S.; Eilbeck, J. C.; Gibbons, J.; Ônishi, Y.

    2008-04-01

    We discuss the theory of generalized Weierstrass σ and ℘-functions defined on a trigonal curve of genus 4, following earlier work on the genus 3 case. The specific example of the "purely trigonal" (or "cyclic trigonal") curve y3=x5+λ4x4+λ3x3+λ2x2+λ1x+λ0 is discussed in detail, including a list of some of the associated partial differential equations satisfied by the ℘-functions, and the derivation of addition formulae.

  2. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxfield, Henry; Ross, Simon F.; Way, Benson

    2016-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddle points for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  3. Taxonomic Study of the Genus Apalacris Walker (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z M; Lin, L L; Niu, Y

    2016-02-01

    The research history of the genus Apalacris is reviewed; a key to all known species of the genus is given, and one new species, Apalacris eminifronta n. sp., and one new combination, Apalacris maculifemura (Lin & Zheng), are described. The new species is very closely related to Apalacris antennata Liang, but differs in the following characters: (1) tegmen longer, reaching apex of hind femur; (2) basal part of inner side of hind femur orange red; (3) frontal ridge more protruded, obviously depressed under median ocellus in lateral view; and (4) epiphallus bridge prominent, ancora shorter than anterior projection. PMID:26514365

  4. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini)

    PubMed Central

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima. PMID:26692786

  5. The first Mesozoic microwhip scorpion (Palpigradi): a new genus and species in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael S.; Breitkreuz, Laura C. V.; Cai, Chenyang; Alvarado, Mabel; Azar, Dany; Huang, Diying

    2016-04-01

    A fossil palpigrade is described and figured from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber from northern Myanmar. Electrokoenenia yaksha Engel and Huang, gen. n. et sp. n., is the first Mesozoic fossil of its order and the only one known as an inclusion in amber, the only other fossil being a series of individuals encased in Pliocene onyx marble and 94-97 million years younger than E. yaksha. The genus is distinguished from other members of the order but is remarkably consistent in observable morphological details when compared to extant relatives, likely reflecting a consistent microhabitat and biological preferences over the last 100 million years.

  6. The first Mesozoic microwhip scorpion (Palpigradi): a new genus and species in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S; Breitkreuz, Laura C V; Cai, Chenyang; Alvarado, Mabel; Azar, Dany; Huang, Diying

    2016-04-01

    A fossil palpigrade is described and figured from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber from northern Myanmar. Electrokoenenia yaksha Engel and Huang, gen. n. et sp. n., is the first Mesozoic fossil of its order and the only one known as an inclusion in amber, the only other fossil being a series of individuals encased in Pliocene onyx marble and 94-97 million years younger than E. yaksha. The genus is distinguished from other members of the order but is remarkably consistent in observable morphological details when compared to extant relatives, likely reflecting a consistent microhabitat and biological preferences over the last 100 million years. PMID:26879963

  7. Floral convergence in Oncidiinae (Cymbidieae; Orchidaceae): an expanded concept of Gomesa and a new genus Nohawilliamsia

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Mark W.; Williams, Norris H.; de Faria, Aparacida Donisete; Neubig, Kurt M.; Amaral, Maria do Carmo E.; Whitten, W. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background Floral morphology, particularly the angle of lip attachment to the column, has historically been the fundamental character used in establishing generic limits in subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae), but it has also been long recognized that reliance on this character alone has produced a highly artificial set of genera. In essence, lip/column relationships reflect syndromes associated with pollinator preferences; most genera of Oncidiinae as previously defined have consisted of a single floral type. Here, the degree to which this has influenced generic delimitation in Brazilian members of the largest genus of Oncidiinae, Oncidium, which previous molecular (DNA) studies have demonstrated to be polyphyletic, is evaluated. Methods Phylogenetic analyses of the following multiple DNA regions were used: the plastid psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, matK exon and two regions of ycf1 exon and nuclear ribosomal DNA, comprised of the two internal transcribed spacers, ITS1 and ITS2, and the 5·8S gene. Results from all regions analysed separately indicated highly similar relationships, so a combined matrix was analysed. Key Results Nearly all species groups of Brazilian Oncidium are only distantly related to the type species of the genus, O. altissimum, from the Caribbean. There are two exceptions to this geographical rule: O. baueri is related to the type group and O. orthostates, an isolated species that lacks the defining tabula infrastigmata of Oncidium, is not exclusively related to any previously described genus in the subtribe. Several well-supported subclades can be observed in these results, but they do not correspond well to sections of Oncidium as previously circumscribed or to segregate genera as defined by several recent authors. In spite of their floral differences, these groups of Oncidium, formerly treated as O. sections Barbata, Concoloria pro parte, Crispa, Ranifera, Rhinocerotes, Rostrata (only O. venustum), Synsepala, Verrucituberculata pro parte and

  8. The phylogenetic placement of hypocrealean insect pathogens in the genus Polycephalomyces: an application of One Fungus One Name.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Ryan; Ban, Sayaka; Nakagiri, Akira; Bischoff, Joseph; Hywel-Jones, Nigel; Owensby, Catherine Alisha; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the systematics and evolution of clavicipitoid fungi has been greatly aided by the application of molecular phylogenetics. They are now classified in three families, largely driven by reevaluation of the morphologically and ecologically diverse genus Cordyceps. Although reevaluation of morphological features of both sexual and asexual states were often found to reflect the structure of phylogenies based on molecular data, many species remain of uncertain placement due to a lack of reliable data or conflicting morphological characters. A rigid, darkly pigmented stipe and the production of a Hirsutella-like anamorph in culture were taken as evidence for the transfer of the species Cordyceps cuboidea, Cordyceps prolifica, and Cordyceps ryogamiensis to the genus Ophiocordyceps. Data from ribosomal DNA supported these species as a single group, but were unable to infer deeper relationships in Hypocreales. Here, molecular data for ribosomal and protein coding DNA from specimens of Ophiocordyceps cuboidea, Ophiocordyceps ryogamiensis, Ophiocordyceps paracuboidea, Ophiocordyceps prolifica, Cordyceps ramosopulvinata, Cordyceps nipponica, and isolates of Polycephalomyces were combined with a broadly sampled dataset of Hypocreales. Phylogenetic analyses of these data revealed that these species represent a clade distinct from the other clavicipitoid genera. Applying the recently adopted single system of nomenclature, new taxonomic combinations are proposed for these species in the genus Polycephalomyces, which has been historically reserved for asexual or anamorphic taxa. PMID:24012301

  9. Ionosphere-reflected propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    The predictability of those ionospheric parameters relevant to ionosphere-reflected communications is considered along with their optimum utilization. Several excellent original articles and review papers which have been published from time to time dealing with the long term and short term forecasting of ionospheric parameters, radio systems, and modelling needs for ionospheric communications, are covered.

  10. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  11. Renew, Reflect, and Refresh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Is that the sound of the last bus leaving the schoolyard? Or the staff's collective sigh of relief? School's out. Now it's time to nurture the lifelong learner deep inside with a summer reading list that will allow teachers to renew, reflect, and refresh. The National Science Education Standards reminds us, "Becoming an effective science teacher…

  12. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  13. Meanings and Reflective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lynda

    Meaning constructs are aspects of a person's cultural worldview. They are those aspects that philosophers often write about as a means by which to make sense of the world. Teachers carry their worldviews and meaning constructs into the classrooms with them. Similarly to teachers, reflective teaching proponents hold meaning constructs that are…

  14. Lights, Camera, Reflection!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourlam, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to critique teaching, but few are more effective than video. Personal reflection through the use of video allows one to see what really happens in the classrooms--good and bad--and provides a visual path forward for improvement, whether it be in one's teaching, work with a particular student, or learning environment. This…

  15. Reflecting on Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Rudolf V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a two-day optics laboratory activity that investigates the scientific phenomenon of reflection, which students are generally familiar with but usually have not studied in depth. This investigation can be used on its own or as part of a larger unit on optics. This lesson encourages students to think critically and…

  16. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  17. Reflections on 1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ramon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the events that took place in the year 1972. The author was a junior at the University of New Mexico back then, refusing to eat or buy grapes and lettuce, picketing grocers who did not carry United Farm Workers of America produce. He and his buddies cast their votes against granting Richard Nixon a second…

  18. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  19. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  20. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early journeys scavenging the Wyoming…

  1. Reflecting through Peshkin's I's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Reflection is an appropriate way of accounting for professional practice and is a standard way in which one can "become better acquainted with one's own story". Defining "subjectivity" as "the quality of an investigator that affects the results of observational investigation", Peshkin highlights the requirement for any observer of, or participant…

  2. Measuring Practicum Student Teachers' Reflectivity: The Reflective Pedagogical Thinking Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Toh Wah

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the original study was to investigate practicum student teachers' reflectivity. This paper describes the use of a revised version of the Reflective Pedagogical Thinking Scale (Sparks-Langer, et al., 1990) to measure reflectivity. The original scale was used by the developers to assess reflectivity through a structured interview. The…

  3. Euglobal-like compounds from the genus Eugenia.

    PubMed

    Faqueti, Larissa G; Petry, Christiane Maes; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Machado, Karima E; Cruz, Alexandre Belle; Garcia, Pablo A; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; San Feliciano, Arturo; Monache, Franco Delle

    2013-01-01

    Two regioisomeric meroterpenoids, Eugenial A and B, have been isolated from the fruits of Eugenia multiflora and their structures established on the basis of NMR evidences. They possess a phloroglucinol-monoterpene structure similar to the euglobals occurring in the sister genus Eucaliptus. A simple method to distinguish between regioisomeric pairs was pointed. PMID:22304004

  4. Review of the genus Chrysotimus Loew from Tibet (Diptera, Dolichopodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengqing; Chen, Hongyin; Yang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    A review of the species of the genus Chrysotimus from Tibet is provided. The following four species are described as new to science: C. motuoensis sp. n., C. tibetensis sp. n., C. xuankuni sp. n., C. zhui sp. n. A key to the eight Tibetan species is presented. PMID:25061399

  5. Review of the genus Chrysotimus Loew from Tibet (Diptera, Dolichopodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengqing; Chen, Hongyin; Yang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review of the species of the genus Chrysotimus from Tibet is provided. The following four species are described as new to science: C. motuoensis sp. n., C. tibetensis sp. n., C. xuankuni sp. n., C. zhui sp. n. A key to the eight Tibetan species is presented. PMID:25061399

  6. Review of the genus Apotrechus in China (Orthoptera, Gryllacrididae, Gryllacridinae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miao-Miao; Liu, Xian-Wei; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present paper, the genus Apotrechus Brunner-Wattenwyl, 1888 is revised. Two new species from China are described and illustrated: Apotrechus quadratus sp. n. and Apotrechus truncatolobus sp. n.. A new key and the distributional data are given. PMID:25709533

  7. The transfer of the genus Lytocaryum to Syagrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract In this paper we formally transfer all four known species of Lytocaryum to the genus Syagrus based on recent molecular analyses, which show it as a monophyletic group either nested within Syagrus making Syagrus paraphyletic or sister to it. Because of these conflicting results bet...

  8. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  9. Revision of the Neotropical genus Macreupelmus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Macreupelmus Ashmead (Eupelmidae: Eupelminae) is revised based on females, males being unknown for the genus. The genus is redescribed, its phylogenetic relationships within Eupelminae discussed, and the species keyed, described and illustrated through macrophotography. Nine species are recognized-Macreupelmus auranticrus n. sp., M. aurantispina n. sp., M. brasiliensis Ashmead 1896, M. crassicornis (Cameron 1884), M. dromedarius (Cameron 1884), M. erwini n. sp., M. granulosus n. sp., M. laticlavius n. sp., and M. nigrispina n. sp. Excluded from the genus are Macreupelmus baccharidis Kieffer 1910 (transferred to Brasema Cameron as B. baccharidis (Kieffer) n. comb.), Macreupelmus bekilyi Risbec 1952 (transferred to Reikosiella (Hirticauda Bouček) as Reikosiella (Hirticauda) bekilyi (Risbec) n. comb.), and Macreupelmus pulchriceps Cameron 1905 (transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as E. (Eupelmus) pulchriceps (Cameron) n. comb.). The latter name is recognized as the senior synonym of Cerambycobius cushmani Crawford 1908 n. syn., Cerambycobius townsendi Crawford 1912 n. syn., and Eupelmus cyaniceps amicus Girault 1916 n. syn. Lectotypes are designated for M. brasiliensis, M. dromedarius and E. pulchriceps. PMID:27615911

  10. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...