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1

Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus sp. Strain FW23, Isolated from a Formation Water Sample.  

PubMed

The thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain FW23 was isolated from the Mehsana oil wells in Gujrat, India, during a screening for oil-degrading bacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Geobacillus sp. FW23, which may help reveal the genomic differences between this strain and the earlier reported species of the genus Geobacillus. PMID:24812215

Pore, Soham D; Arora, Preeti; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K

2014-01-01

2

Draft Genome Sequences of Geobacillus sp. Strains CAMR5420 and CAMR12739  

PubMed Central

Thermophilic Geobacillus spp. can efficiently hydrolyze hemicellulose polymers and are therefore of interest in biotechnological applications. Here we report the genome sequences of two hemicellulolytic strains, Geobacillus sp. CAMR12739 and CAMR5420. PMID:24903881

De Maayer, Pieter; Williamson, Carolyn E.; Vennard, Christopher T.; Danson, Michael J.

2014-01-01

3

Characterization of two novel plasmids from Geobacillus sp. 610 and 1121 strains.  

PubMed

We describe two cryptic low molecular weight plasmids, pGTD7 (3279bp) and pGTG5 (1540bp), isolated from Geobacillus sp. 610 and 1121 strains, respectively. Homology analysis of the replication protein (Rep) sequences and detection of ssDNA indicate that both of them replicate via rolling circle mechanism. As revealed by sequence similarities of dso region and Rep protein, plasmid pGTD7 belongs to pC194/pUB110 plasmid family. The replicon of pGTD7 was proved to be functional in another Geobacillus host. For this purpose, a construct pUCK7, containing a replicon of the analyzed plasmid, was created and transferred to G. stearothermophilus NUB3621R strain by electroporation. Plasmid pGTG5, based on Rep protein sequence similarity, was found to be related mostly to some poorly characterized bacterial plasmids. Rep proteins encoded by these plasmids contain conservative motifs that are most similar to those of Microviridae phages. This feature suggests that pGTG5, together with other plasmids containing the same motifs, could constitute a new family of bacterial plasmids. To date, pGTG5 is the smallest plasmid identified in bacteria belonging to the genus Geobacillus. The two plasmids described in this study can be used for the construction of new vectors suitable for biotechnologically important bacteria of the genus Geobacillus. PMID:24177015

Kananavi?i?t?, R?ta; Butait?, Elena; Citavi?ius, Donaldas

2014-01-01

4

Cultivation characteristics of denitrification by thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain TDN01.  

PubMed

Nine thermophilic denitrification bacteria were isolated from field soil, mud, and spa samples. The alignment of 16S rDNA showed that all were identical to the genus Geobacillus. Two of the bacteria produced N2O and N2 gas and the other seven strains produced N2 gas from nitrate. We examined the growth substrates for Geobacillus TDN01 and determined that sodium succinate, pyruvate, formate, acetate, glycerol, glucose, sucrose, and cellobiose well supported growth of the isolate. Growth occurred under the following concentration of NO3- and phosphate: 10-60 mmol/L, and 0.1-50 mmol/L, respectively. Thermophilic TDN01 grown on sodium succinate accumulated nitrite. A time course of denitrification by Geobacillus TDN01 in a jar fermentor revealed that maintaining a pH of around 7 is important for denitrification without accumulating NO2. The NO3- and NO2- consumption ratios of Geobacillus were 44-75 and 9-41 times higher, respectively, than those of Pseudomonas stutzeri JCM 5965T. PMID:19436124

Mishima, Masatomo; Iwata, Kenichi; Nara, Kota; Matsui, Toru; Shigeno, Toshiya; Omori, Toshio

2009-04-01

5

Isolation and Characterization of Novel Denitrifying Bacterium Geobacillus sp. SG-01 Strain from Wood Chips Composted with Swine Manure  

PubMed Central

Nitrate contamination in ground and surface water is an increasingly serious environmental problem and only a few bacterial strains have been identified that have the ability to remove nitrogen pollutants from wastewater under thermophilic conditions. We therefore isolated thermophilic facultative bacterial strains from wood chips that had been composted with swine manure under aerated high temperature conditions so as to identify strains with denitrifying ability. Nine different colonies were screened and 3 long rod-shaped bacterial strains designated as SG-01, SG-02, and SG-03 were selected. The strain SG-01 could be differentiated from SG-02 and SG-03 on the basis of the method that it used for sugar utilization. The 16S rRNA genes of this strain also had high sequence similarity with Geobacillus thermodenitrificans 465T (99.6%). The optimal growth temperatures (55°C), pH values (pH 7.0), and NaCl concentrations (1%) required for the growth of strain SG-01 were established. This strain reduced 1.18 mM nitrate and 1.45 mM nitrite in LB broth after 48 h of incubation. These results suggest that the G. thermodenitrificans SG-01 strain may be useful in the removal of nitrates and nitrites from wastewater generated as a result of livestock farming. PMID:25049754

Yang, Seung-Hak; Cho, Jin-Kook; Lee, Soon-Youl; Abanto, Oliver D.; Kim, Soo-Ki; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Lim, Joung-Soo; Hwang, Seong-Gu

2013-01-01

6

Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0) as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%). Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T). Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T). Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into culture medium. The strain T1T was identified as Geobacillus zalihae T1T as it differs from its type strains Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T) and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) on some physiological studies, cellular fatty acids composition, RiboPrint analysis, length of lipase gene and protein profile. PMID:17692114

Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Leow, Thean Chor; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

2007-01-01

7

Taxonomic revision of the genus Geobacillus: emendation of Geobacillus, G. stearothermophilus, G. jurassicus, G. toebii, G. thermodenitrificans and G. thermoglucosidans (nom. corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov.; proposal of Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov., comb. nov.; transfer of G. tepidamans to Anoxybacillus as A. tepidamans comb. nov.; and proposal of Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov.  

PubMed

Sixty-two strains of thermophilic aerobic endospore-forming bacteria were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic study including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polar lipid and fatty acid analysis, phenotypic characterization, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Distinct clusters of the species Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Geobacillus toebii and Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius were formed, allowing their descriptions to be emended, and the distinctiveness of the poorly represented species Geobacillus jurassicus, Geobacillus subterraneus and Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus was confirmed. It is proposed that the name Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius be corrected to Geobacillus thermoglucosidans nom. corrig. Bacillus thermantarcticus clustered between Geobacillus species on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and its transfer to the genus Geobacillus as Geobacillus thermantarcticus comb. nov. (type strain LMG 23032(T)=DSM 9572(T)=strain M1(T)=R-35644(T)) is proposed. The above-mentioned species, together with Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Geobacillus thermocatenulatus, form a monophyletic cluster representing the genus Geobacillus. The distinctiveness of 'Geobacillus caldoproteolyticus' was confirmed and it is proposed that it be accommodated, along with Geobacillus tepidamans, in the genus Anoxybacillus as Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. (type strain DSM 15730(T)=ATCC BAA-818(T)=LMG 26209(T)=R-35652(T)) and Anoxybacillus tepidamans comb. nov. (type strain LMG 26208(T)=ATCC BAA-942(T)=DSM 16325(T)=R-35643(T)), respectively. The type strain of Geobacillus debilis was not closely related to any members of the genera Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus, and it is proposed that this species be placed in the new genus Caldibacillus as Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov. comb. nov. The type strain of the type species, Caldibacillus debilis, is LMG 23386(T) (=DSM 16016(T)=NCIMB 13995(T)=Tf(T)=R-35653(T)). PMID:21856988

Coorevits, An; Dinsdale, Anna E; Halket, Gillian; Lebbe, Liesbeth; De Vos, Paul; Van Landschoot, Anita; Logan, Niall A

2012-07-01

8

Thermostable hemicellulases of a bacterium, Geobacillus sp. DC3, isolated from the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A thermophilic strain, Geobacillus sp. DC3, capable of producing hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the 1.5-km depth of the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota. The DC3 strain expressed a high level of extracellular endoxylanase at 39.5 U/mg protein with additional hemicellulase...

9

Geobacillus sp., a thermophilic soil bacterium producing volatile antibiotics.  

PubMed

Geobacillus, a bacterial genus, is represented by over 25 species of Gram-positive isolates from various man-made and natural thermophilic areas around the world. An isolate of this genus (M-7) has been acquired from a thermal area near Yellowstone National Park, MT and partially characterized. The cells of this organism are globose (ca. 0.5 mu diameter), and they are covered in a matrix capsule which gives rise to elongate multicelled bacilliform structures (ranging from 3 to 12 mum) as seen by light and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The organism produces unique petal-shaped colonies (undulating margins) on nutrient agar, and it has an optimum pH of 7.0 and an optimum temperature range of 55-65 degrees C. The partial 16S rRNA sequence of this organism has 97% similarity with Geobacillus stearothermophilus, one of its closest relatives genetically. However, uniquely among all members of this genus, Geobacillus sp. (M-7) produces volatile organic substances (VOCs) that possess potent antibiotic activities. Some of the more notable components of the VOCs are benzaldehyde, acetic acid, butanal, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, and benzeneacetaldehyde. An exposure of test organisms such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae, and Geotrichum candidum produced total inhibition of growth on a 48-h exposure to Geobacillus sp.(M-7) cells (ca.10(7)) and killing at a 72-h exposure at higher bacterial cell concentrations. A synthetic mixture of those available volatile compounds, at the ratios occurring in Geobacillus sp. (M-7), mimicked the bioactivity of this organism. PMID:20091406

Ren, Yuhao; Strobel, Gary; Sears, Joe; Park, Melina

2010-07-01

10

Geobacillus toebii sp. nov., a novel thermophilic bacterium isolated from hay compost.  

PubMed

A thermophilic, spore-forming rod isolated from hay compost in Korea was subjected to a taxonomic study. The micro-organism, designated strain SK-1(T), was identified as being aerobic, Gram-positive, motile and rod-shaped. Growth of the isolate was observed at 45-70 degrees C (optimum 60 degrees C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 43.9 mol%. Chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolate included the presence of mesodiaminopimelic acid in the cell wall and iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 as the major cellular fatty acids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain SK-1(T) were the same as those of the genus Geobacillus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that strain SK-1(T) is most closely related to Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius. However, the phenotypic properties of strain SK-1(T) were clearly different from those of G. thermoglucosidasius. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain SK-1(T) and the type strain of G. thermoglucosidasius was 27%. On the basis of the phenotypic traits and molecular systematic data, strain SK-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Geobacillus, for which the name Geobacillus toebii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain SK-1(T) (= KCTC 0306BP(T) - DSM 14590(T)). PMID:12508894

Sung, M H; Kim, H; Bae, J W; Rhee, S K; Jeon, C O; Kim, K; Kim, J J; Hong, S P; Lee, S G; Yoon, J H; Park, Y H; Baek, D H

2002-11-01

11

Thermoactive extracellular proteases of Geobacillus caldoproteolyticus, sp. nov., from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

A proteolytic thermophilic bacterial strain, designated as strain SF03, was isolated from sewage sludge in Singapore. Strain SF03 is a strictly aerobic, Gram stain-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive, and endospore-forming rod. It grows at temperatures ranging from 35 to 65 degrees C, pH ranging from 6.0 to 9.0, and salinities ranging from 0 to 2.5%. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain SF03 was most similar to Saccharococcus thermophilus, Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus, and G. thermoglucosidasius, with 16S rRNA gene sequence identities of 97.6, 97.5 and 97.2%, respectively. Based on taxonomic and 16S rRNA analyses, strain SF03 was named G. caldoproteolyticus sp. nov. Production of extracellular protease from strain SF03 was observed on a basal peptone medium supplemented with different carbon and nitrogen sources. Protease production was repressed by glucose, lactose, and casamino acids but was enhanced by sucrose and NH4Cl. The cell growth and protease production were significantly improved when strain SF03 was cultivated on a 10% skim-milk culture medium, suggesting that the presence of protein induced the synthesis of protease. The protease produced by strain SF03 remained active over a pH range of 6.0-11.0 and a temperature range of 40-90 degrees C, with an optimal pH of 8.0-9.0 and an optimal temperature of 70-80 degrees C, respectively. The protease was stable over the temperature range of 40-70 degrees C and retained 57 and 38% of its activity at 80 and 90 degrees C, respectively, after 1 h. PMID:15322950

Chen, Xiao-Ge; Stabnikova, Olena; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Tay, Stephen Tiong-Lee

2004-12-01

12

Geobacillus sp., a Thermophilic Soil Bacterium Producing Volatile Antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geobacillus, a bacterial genus, is represented by over 25 species of Gram-positive isolates from various man-made and natural thermophilic\\u000a areas around the world. An isolate of this genus (M-7) has been acquired from a thermal area near Yellowstone National Park,\\u000a MT and partially characterized. The cells of this organism are globose (ca. 0.5 ? diameter), and they are covered in a

Yuhao Ren; Gary Strobel; Joe Sears; Melina Park

2010-01-01

13

Novel enzymatic activity of cell free extract from thermophilic Geobacillus sp. UZO 3 catalyzes reductive cleavage of diaryl ether bonds of 2,7-dichlorodibenzo- p-dioxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized the ability of the cell free extract from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins degrading bacterium Geobacillus sp. UZO 3 to reduce even highly chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins such as octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in incineration fly ash. The degradation of 2,7-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,7-DCDD) as a model dioxin catalyzed by the cell free extract from this strain implicates that the ether bonds of 2,7-DCDD molecule undergo reductive cleavage,

Yuzoh Suzuki; Masaya Nakamura; Yuichiro Otsuka; Nao Suzuki; Keisuke Ohyama; Takeshi Kawakami; Kanna Sato; Shinya Kajita; Shojiro Hishiyama; Takeo Fujii; Atsushi Takahashi; Yoshihiro Katayama

2011-01-01

14

Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus kaustophilus GBlys, a Lysogenic Strain with Bacteriophage ?OH2  

PubMed Central

Geobacillus kaustophilus strain GBlys was isolated along with the bacteriophage ?OH2, which infects G. kaustophilus NBRC 102445T. Here we present a draft sequence of this strain’s genome, which consists of 216 contigs for a total of 3,541,481 bp, 3,679 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 52.1%. PMID:23950135

Mori, Kazuki; Martono, Hindra; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2013-01-01

15

Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. th.  

PubMed

Five hydrocarbon-oxidizing strains were isolated from formation waters of oilfields in Russia, Kazakhstan and China. These strains were moderately thermophilic, neutrophilic, motile, spore-forming rods, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. The G+C content of their DNA ranged from 49.7 to 52.3 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7; cellular fatty acid profiles consisted of significant amounts of iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 fatty acids (61.7-86.8% of the total). Based on data from 16S rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, the subsurface isolates could be divided into two groups, one of which consisted of strains UT and X and the other of which consisted of strains K, Sam and 34T. The new strains exhibited a close phylogenetic relationship to thermophilic bacilli of 'Group 5' of Ash et al. [Ash, C., Farrow, J. A. E., Wallbanks, S. & Collins, M. D. (1991). Lett Appl Microbiol 13, 202-206] and a set of corresponding signature positions of 16S rRNA. Comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences and fatty acid compositions of the novel isolates and established species of thermophilic bacilli indicated that the subsurface strains represent two new species within a new genus, for which the names Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov., and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. are proposed. It is also proposed that Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans be transferred to this new genus, with Geobacillus stearothermophilus (formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus) as the type species. PMID:11321089

Nazina, T N; Tourova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Novikova, E V; Grigoryan, A A; Ivanova, A E; Lysenko, A M; Petrunyaka, V V; Osipov, G A; Belyaev, S S; Ivanov, M V

2001-03-01

16

Characterization of a recombinant thermostable xylanase from hot spring thermophilic Geobacillus sp. TC-W7.  

PubMed

A xylanase-producing thermophilic strain, Geobacillus sp. TC-W7, was isolated from a hot spring in Yongtai (Fuzhou, China). Subsequently, the xylanase gene that encoded 407 amino acids was cloned and expressed. The recombinant xylanase was purified by GST affinity chromatography and exhibited maximum activity at 75 degrees C and a pH of 8.2. The enzyme was active up to 95 degrees C and showed activity over a wide pH range of 5.2 to 10.2. Additionally, the recombinant xylanase showed high thermostability and pH stability. More than 85% of the enzyme's activity was retained after incubation at 70 degrees C for 90 min at a pH of 8.2. The activity of the recombinant xylanase was enhanced by treatment with 10 mM enzyme inhibitors (DDT, Tween-20, 2-Me, or TritonX-100) and was inhibited by EDTA or PMSF. Its functionality was stable in the presence of Li+, Na+, and K+, but inhibited by Hg2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Fe3+, and Al3+. The functionality of the crude xylanase had similar properties to the recombinant xylanase except for when it was treated with Al2+ or Fe2+. The enzyme might be a promising candidate for various industrial applications such as the biofuel, food, and paper and pulp industries. PMID:23075790

Liu, Bin; Zhang, Ningning; Zhao, Chao; Lin, Baixue; Xie, Lianhui; Huang, Yifan

2012-10-01

17

Geobacillus jurassicus sp. nov., a new thermophilic bacterium isolated from a high-temperature petroleum reservoir, and the validation of the Geobacillus species.  

PubMed

Four thermophilic, spore-forming bacterial strains, DS1(T), DS2, 46 and 49, were isolated from the high-temperature Dagang oilfield, located in China. The strains were identified by using the polyphasic taxonomy approach. These were aerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped, moderately thermophilic (with an optimum growth temperature of 60-65 degrees C), chemoorganotrophic bacteria capable of growing on various sugars, carboxylic acids and crude oil. Two strains, DS1(T) and DS2, were capable of growing on individual saturated hydrocarbons. The G + C content of the DNA of strains DS1(T) and DS2 was 54.5 and 53.8 mol%, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA of strains DS1(T) and DS2 showed that they form a separate cluster within the genus Geobacillus. The cellular fatty acids of the isolates were dominated by iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 acids, which are the typical fatty acids of bacteria from the genus Geobacillus. The DNA-DNA hybridization study and the comparative analysis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strains DS1(T) and DS2 showed that they differ from the previously described Geobacillus species and belong to a new species, which was called Geobacillus jurassicus. DS1(T) (=VKM B2301(T), = DSM 15726(T)) is the type strain of this species. According to both DNA-DNA reassociation studies and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, two other strains, 46 and 49, were assigned to the species G. stearothermophilus. In this paper, we provide evidence that the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans may be considered to be valid. PMID:15709364

Nazina, Tamara N; Sokolova, Diana Sh; Grigoryan, Alexander A; Shestakova, Nataliya M; Mikhailova, Ekaterina M; Poltaraus, Andrei B; Tourova, Tatiyana P; Lysenko, Anatolii M; Osipov, George A; Belyaev, Sergey S

2005-01-01

18

Thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol by a novel Geobacillus strain  

PubMed Central

Background Acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are two important biorefinery platform chemicals. They are currently fermented below 40°C using mesophilic strains, but the processes often suffer from bacterial contamination. Results This work reports the isolation and identification of a novel aerobic Geobacillus strain XT15 capable of producing both of these chemicals under elevated temperatures, thus reducing the risk of bacterial contamination. The optimum growth temperature was found to be between 45 and 55°C and the medium initial pH to be 8.0. In addition to glucose, galactose, mannitol, arabionose, and xylose were all acceptable substrates, enabling the potential use of cellulosic biomass as the feedstock. XT15 preferred organic nitrogen sources including corn steep liquor powder, a cheap by-product from corn wet-milling. At 55°C, 7.7?g/L of acetoin and 14.5?g/L of 2,3-butanediol could be obtained using corn steep liquor powder as a nitrogen source. Thirteen volatile products from the cultivation broth of XT15 were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and their derivatives including a novel metabolite 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylheptan-4-one, accounted for a total of about 96% of all the volatile products. In contrast, organic acids and other products were minor by-products. ?-Acetolactate decarboxylase and acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase in XT15, the two key enzymes in acetoin metabolic pathway, were found to be both moderately thermophilic with the identical optimum temperature of 45°C. Conclusions Geobacillus sp. XT15 is the first naturally occurring thermophile excreting acetoin and/or 2,3-butanediol. This work has demonstrated the attractive prospect of developing it as an industrial strain in the thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol with improved anti-contamination performance. The novel metabolites and enzymes identified in XT15 also indicated its strong promise as a precious biological resource. Thermophilic fermentation also offers great prospect for improving its yields and efficiencies. This remains a core aim for future work. PMID:23217110

2012-01-01

19

Protein Expression Analysis in Temparature-adaptated Mutant Strains of Moderately thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum growth of moderately thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Bst) has been observed at 55ºC, and suppressed by the downshift to lower temperature. In order to understand the relationship between growth temperature and protein expression, we made Bst mutant strains which were adapted to lower temperature (30ºC) compared with wild type strain, and then we examined their protein expression under various growth

Hitomi Kyogoku; Yasuaki Yamaguchi; Momoyo Miyano-Ono; Ayano Yamaguchi; Takanori Satoh

20

Biosynthesis of a thermostable gellan lyase by newly isolated and characterized strain of Geobacillus stearothermophilus 98  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophilic strain able to degrade gellan was isolated from Bulgarian hot spring. According to its morphological and biochemical properties and by partial sequencing of its 16S rDNA, it was classified as Geobacillus stearothermophilus. It grew in a synthetic medium with gellan as the only carbon source with a specific growth rate of 0.69 h?1 and generation time of 60 min. The

Anna Derekova; Carsten Sjøholm; Rossica Mandeva; Lilia Michailova; Margarita Kambourova

2006-01-01

21

Cloning and characterization of a new manganese superoxide dismutase from deep-sea thermophile Geobacillus sp. EPT3.  

PubMed

A new gene encoding a superoxide dismutase (SOD) was identified from a thermophile Geobacillus sp. EPT3 isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field in east Pacific. The open reading frame of this gene encoded 437 amino acid residues. It was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli (DE3), and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. Geobacillus sp. EPT3 SOD was of the manganese-containing SOD type, as judged by the insensitivity of the recombinant enzyme to both KCN and H?O?, and the activity analysis of Fe or Mn reconstituted SODs by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The recombinant SOD was determined to be a homodimer with monomeric molecular mass of 59.0 kDa. In comparison with other Mn-SODs, the manganese-binding sites are conserved in the sequence (His260, His308, Asp392, His396). The recombinant enzyme had high thermostability at 50 °C. It retained 57 % residual activity after incubation at 90 °C for 1 h, which indicated that this SOD was thermostable. The enzyme also showed striking stability over a wide range of pH 5.0-11.0. At tested conditions, the recombinant SOD from Geobacillus sp. EPT3 showed a relatively good tolerance to some inhibitors, detergents, and denaturants, such as ?-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, Chaps, Triton X-100, urea, and guanidine hydrochloride. PMID:24242973

Zhu, Yanbing; Wang, Guohong; Ni, Hui; Xiao, Anfeng; Cai, Huinong

2014-04-01

22

Novel thermostable endo-xylanase cloned and expressed from bacterium Geobacillus sp. WSUCF1.  

PubMed

A gene encoding a GH10 endo-xylanase from Geobacillus sp. WSUCF1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant endo-xylanase (37kDa) exhibited high specific activity of 461.0U/mg of protein. Endo-xylanase was optimally active on birchwood xylan at 70°C and pH 6.5. The endo-xylanase was found to be highly thermostable at 50 and 60°C, retaining 82% and 50% of its original activity, respectively, after 60h. High xylan conversions (92%) were obtained with oat-spelt xylan hydrolysis. Higher glucan and xylan conversions were obtained on AFEX-treated corn stover with an enzyme cocktail containing WSUCF1 endo-xylanase (71% and 47%) as compared to enzyme cocktail containing commercial fungal endo-xylanase (64% and 41%). High specific activity, active at high pH's, wide substrate specificity, and higher hydrolytic activity on recalcitrant lignocellulose, make this endo-xylanase a suitable candidate for biofuel and bioprocess industries. PMID:24725385

Bhalla, Aditya; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Balan, Venkatesh; Sani, Rajesh K

2014-08-01

23

Cloning, overexpression, and characterization of a novel alkali-thermostable xylanase from Geobacillus sp. WBI.  

PubMed

An endo-?-1,4-xylanase gene xynA of a thermophilic Geobacillus sp. WBI from "hot" compost was isolated by PCR amplification. The gene encoding 407 residues were overexpressed in E. coli and purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The purified enzyme (47?kDa) had a broad pH optimum of 6.0 to 9.0, and was active between 50 and 90?°C. The enzyme retained 100% of its activity when incubated at 65?°C for 1?h under alkaline condition (pH 10.0) and retained 75% activity at pH 11.0. The Km and Vmax of the enzyme were 0.9?mg?ml(-1) and 0.8?µmol?ml(-1) ?min(-1) , respectively. In molecular dynamics simulation at 338?K (65?°C), the enzyme was found to be stable. At an elevated temperature (450?K) specific ?-helix and ?-turns of the proteins were most denatured. The denaturation was less in WBI compared with its highest homolog G. stearothermophilus T-6 xylanase with difference of six residues. The results predict that these regions are responsible for the improved thermostability observed over related enzymes. The present work encourages further experimental demonstration to understand how these regions contribute thermostability to WBI xylanase. The study noted that WBI produces a xylanase with unique characteristics, specifically alkali-thermostability. PMID:25404211

Mitra, Suranjita; Mukhopadhyay, Bidhan Chandra; Mandal, Anisur Rahaman; Arukha, Ananta Prasad; Chakrabarty, Kuheli; Das, Gourab Kanti; Chakrabartty, Pran Krishna; Biswas, Swadesh Ranjan

2014-11-18

24

Enhanced production of lipase by the thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain-5 using statistical experimental designs.  

PubMed

Statistically based experimental designs were applied to optimize the cultural conditions for the production of a glycerol-inducible lipase from the thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain-5. The effect of nineteen culture conditions on enzyme production was evaluated using Plackett-Burman factorial design. Tween 80, K(2)HPO(4), glycerol and glucose were the most significant factors in improving enzyme production. The selected parameters were then further investigated using central composite design to define the optimal process conditions. Maximal enzyme activity (578 U/ml) was reached under the following conditions: glycerol, 2.24% (v/v); Tween 80, 0.76% (v/v); glucose, 0.76% (w/v) and K(2)HPO(4), 0.38% (w/v) which is about five folds the activity in basal medium. A verification experiment was carried out to examine model validation and revealed more than 98% validity. PMID:20412872

Sifour, Mohamed; Zaghloul, Taha I; Saeed, Hesham M; Berekaa, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R

2010-09-30

25

Heterologous expression of the alcohol dehydrogenase (adhI) gene from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius strain M10EXG.  

PubMed

A thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-I) isolated from the potential thermophilic ethanologen Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius strain M10EXG has been characterised. Inverse PCR showed that the gene (adhI) was localised with 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS) and 6-phospho-3 hexuloisomerase (PHI) on its genome. The deduced peptide sequence of the 1020-bp M10EXG adhI, which corresponds to 340 amino acids, shows 96% and 89% similarity to ADH-hT and ADH-T from Geobacillus stearothermophilus strains LLD-R and NCA 1503, respectively. Over-expression of M10EXG ADH-I in Escherichia coli DH5alpha (pNF303) was confirmed using an ADH activity assay and SDS-PAGE analysis. The specific ADH activity in the extract from this recombinant strain was 9.7(+/-0.3) U mg(-1) protein, compared to 0.1(+/-0.01) U mg(-1) protein in the control strain. The recombinant E. coli showed enzymatic activity towards ethanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol and 2-propanol, but not methanol. In silico analysis, including phylogenetic reconstruction and protein modeling, confirmed that the thermostable enzyme from G. thermoglucosidasius is likely to belong to the NAD-Zn-dependent family of alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:18436321

Jeon, Young Jae; Fong, Jiunn C N; Riyanti, Eny I; Neilan, Brett A; Rogers, Peter L; Svenson, Charles J

2008-06-01

26

Novel bacteriocins produced by Geobacillus stearothermophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four novel heat-stable bacteriocin-like substances were found to be produced by Geobacillus stearothermophilus strains isolated from oil-wells in Lithuania. Geobacillus stearothermophilus 32A, 17, 30 and 31 strains were identified as producers of bacteriocins with bactericidal activity against closely related\\u000a Geobacillus species and several pathogenic strains: Bacillus cereus DSM 12001 and Staphylococcus haemolyticus P903. The secretion of the analysed bacteriocins started

Karina Pokusaeva; Nomeda Kuisiene; Dziuginta Jasinskyte; Kazimiera Rutiene; Jordana Saleikiene; Donaldas Chitavichius

2009-01-01

27

Draft Genome Sequences of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Strains 22 and 53, Isolated from the Garga Hot Spring in the Barguzin River Valley of the Russian Federation  

PubMed Central

Geobacillus stearothermophilus strains 22 and 53 were isolated from sediment samples isolated from the Garga hot spring (72°C) located in the valley of the river Barguzin (the Baikal region, Russian Federation) (54°19?3.72?N, 110°59?38.4?E). PMID:25414504

Logacheva, Maria D.; Peltek, Sergey E.

2014-01-01

28

Draft Genome Sequences of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Strains 22 and 53, Isolated from the Garga Hot Spring in the Barguzin River Valley of the Russian Federation.  

PubMed

Geobacillus stearothermophilus strains 22 and 53 were isolated from sediment samples isolated from the Garga hot spring (72°C) located in the valley of the river Barguzin (the Baikal region, Russian Federation) (54°19'3.72?N, 110°59'38.4?E). PMID:25414504

Rozanov, Aleksey S; Logacheva, Maria D; Peltek, Sergey E

2014-01-01

29

(gyrB, alkB r) GEOBACILLUS  

E-print Network

. 46 49; Geobacillus sp. 3Feng] . G. stearothermophilus DSM 22T G. thermoleovorans DSM (gyrB, alkB r) GEOBACILLUS 03.01.03 ­ ­ 2014 #12. .. ( , , 27, ) www.bio.msu.ru. . "___" 2014 . 2 , .. #12;3 . Geobacillus (, , 2004

Kaplan, Alexander

30

Isolation and characterization of a thermotolerant ene reductase from Geobacillus sp. 30 and its heterologous expression in Rhodococcus opacus.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus opacus B-4 cells are adhesive to and even dispersible in water-immiscible hydrocarbons owing to their highly lipophilic nature. In this study, we focused on the high operational stability of thermophilic enzymes and applied them to a biocatalytic conversion in an organic reaction medium using R. opacus B-4 as a lipophilic capsule of enzymes to deliver them into the organic medium. A novel thermo- and organic-solvent-tolerant ene reductase, which can catalyze the enantioselective reduction of ketoisophorone to (6R)-levodione, was isolated from Geobacillus sp. 30, and the gene encoding the enzyme was heterologously expressed in R. opacus B-4. Another thermophilic enzyme which catalyzes NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol was identified from the gene-expression library of Thermus thermophilus and the gene was coexpressed in R. opacus B-4 for cofactor regeneration. While the recombinant cells were not viable in the mixture due to high reaction temperature, 634 mM of (6R)-levodione could be produced with an enantiopurity of 89.2 % ee by directly mixing the wet cells of the recombinant R. opacus with a mixture of ketoisophorone and cyclohexanol at 50 °C. The conversion rate observed with the heat-killed recombinant cells was considerably higher than that obtained with a cell-free enzyme solution, demonstrating that the accessibility between the substrates and enzymes could be improved by employing R. opacus cells as a lipophilic enzyme capsule. These results imply that a combination of thermophilic enzymes and lipophilic cells can be a promising approach for the biocatalytic production of water-insoluble chemicals. PMID:24927695

Tsuji, Naoto; Honda, Kohsuke; Wada, Mayumi; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

2014-07-01

31

Transformable facultative thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus NUB3621 as a host strain for metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineers develop inexpensive enantioselective syntheses of high-value compounds, but their designs are sometimes confounded by the misfolding of heterologously expressed proteins. Geobacillus stearothermophilus NUB3621 is a readily transformable facultative thermophile. It could be used to express and properly fold proteins derived from its many mesophilic or thermophilic Bacillaceae relatives or to direct the evolution of thermophilic variants of mesophilic proteins. Moreover, its capacity for high-temperature growth should accelerate chemical transformation rates in accordance with the Arrhenius equation and reduce the risks of microbial contamination. Its tendency to sporulate in response to nutrient depletion lowers the costs of storage and transportation. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of G. stearothermophilus NUB3621 and describe inducible and constitutive expression plasmids that function in this organism. These tools will help us and others to exploit the natural advantages of this system for metabolic engineering applications. PMID:24788326

Blanchard, Kristen; Robic, Srebrenka; Matsumura, Ichiro

2014-08-01

32

Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus icigianus Strain G1w1T Isolated from Hot Springs in the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russian Federation).  

PubMed

The Geobacillus icigianus G1w1(T) strain was isolated from sludge samples of unnamed vaporing hydrothermal (97°?) outlets situated in a geyser in the Troinoy region (Valley of Geysers, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russian Federation; 54°25'51.40?N, 160°7'41.40?E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 3,457,810 bp and encodes 3,342 genes. PMID:25342695

Bryanskaya, Alla V; Rozanov, Aleksey S; Logacheva, Maria D; Kotenko, Anastasia V; Peltek, Sergey E

2014-01-01

33

Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus icigianus Strain G1w1T Isolated from Hot Springs in the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russian Federation)  

PubMed Central

The Geobacillus icigianus G1w1T strain was isolated from sludge samples of unnamed vaporing hydrothermal (97°?) outlets situated in a geyser in the Troinoy region (Valley of Geysers, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russian Federation; 54°25?51.40?N, 160°7?41.40?E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 3,457,810 bp and encodes 3,342 genes. PMID:25342695

Bryanskaya, Alla V.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Kotenko, Anastasia V.; Peltek, Sergey E.

2014-01-01

34

Deciphering the flexibility and dynamics of Geobacillus zalihae strain T1 lipase at high temperatures by molecular dynamics simulation.  

PubMed

The stability of biocatalysts is an important criterion for a sustainable industrial operation economically. T1 lipase is a thermoalkalophilic enzyme derived from Geobacillus zalihae strain T1 (T1 lipase) that was isolated from palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Malaysia. We report here the results of high temperatures molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of T1 lipase in explicit solvent. We found that the N-terminal moiety of this enzyme was accompanied by a large flexibility and dynamics during temperature-induced unfolding simulations which preceded and followed by clear structural changes in two specific regions; the small domain (consisting of helices alpha3 and alpha5, strands beta1 and beta2, and connecting loops) and the main catalytic domain or core domain (consisting of helices alpha6- alpha9 and connecting loops which located above the active site) of the enzyme. The results suggest that the small domain of model enzyme is a critical region to the thermostability of this organism. PMID:20001926

Abdul Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Jacobs, Donald; Basri, Mahiran; Thean Chor, Adam Leow; Abdul Wahab, Habibah; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd

2009-01-01

35

Calcium Carbonate Formation by Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8807  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Microcosm experiments were performed in which Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and bicarbonate concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Disappearance of soluble calcium was used as an indicator of CaCO3 formation; results from metabolically active microcosms were compared to controls with no cells or no carbonate added. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment with approximately 18.6 mg of calcium in the solid phase. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of calcium was removed in the solid phase. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. Removal of inorganic carbon by fixation into biomass was insignificant compared to the mass of inorganic carbon removed by incorporation into the growing CaCO3 solid.

Lee, Brady D.; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

2006-12-01

36

Lantibiotics from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.  

PubMed

The lantibiotic nisin has been used as an effective food preservative to combat food-borne pathogens for over 40 y. Despite this successful use, nisin's stability at pH 7 is limited. Herein, we describe a nisin analog encoded on the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2. This analog termed geobacillin I was obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and subsequent purification. Extensive NMR characterization demonstrated that geobacillin I contains seven thioether cross-links, two more than the five cross-links found in nisin and the most cross-links found in any lantibiotic to date. The antimicrobial spectrum of geobacillin I was generally similar to that of nisin A, with increased activity against Streptococcus dysgalactiae, one of the causative agents of bovine mastitis. Geobacillin I demonstrated increased stability compared to nisin A. In addition to geobacillin I, the genome of G. thermodenitrificans NG80-2 also contains a class II lantibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster. The corresponding compound was produced in E. coli, and has a ring topology different than that of any known lantibiotic as determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Interestingly, geobacillin II only demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus strains. Seven Geobacillus strains were screened for production of the geobacillins using whole-cell MALDI-MS and five were shown to produce geobacillin I, but none produced geobacillin II. PMID:22431611

Garg, Neha; Tang, Weixin; Goto, Yuki; Nair, Satish K; van der Donk, Wilfred A

2012-04-01

37

Studies of nitrile oxide cycloadditions, and the phenolic oxidative coupling of vanillin aldoxime by Geobacillus sp. DDS012 from Italian rye grass silage.  

PubMed

During studies directed towards the discovery of nitrile hydrolysing enzymes from thermophiles, vanillin aldoxime was incubated with the thermophilic organism, Geobacillus sp. DDS012 isolated from Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) silage. The predominant product was a dihydro-dimer, which could only be characterised by LC-MS. This was initially imagined to be the product of cycloaddition of vanillin aldoxime with the corresponding nitrile oxide, but preparation of the supposed adduct and model studies excluded this possibility. The rate constant for the second order dimerisation of 4-O-acetyl vanillin nitrile oxide was measured (1.21 x 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1), 0.413 M, 25 degrees C) and the (13)C-NMR signal for the nitrile oxide carbon was observed (delta(C) 34.4, br. t (1)J(13)C,(14)N circa 50 Hz). Treatment of vanillin aldoxime with potassium persulfate and iron sulfate gave material with the same LC-MS properties as the natural product, which is therefore identified as 5,5'-dehydro-di-(vanillin aldoxime) 1d formed by phenolic oxidative coupling. PMID:18264580

Kelly, David R; Baker, Simon C; King, David S; de Silva, Deepa S; Lord, Gwyn; Taylor, Jason P

2008-02-21

38

Haloalkylphosphorus Hydrolases Purified from Sphingomonas sp. Strain TDK1 and Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1  

PubMed Central

Phosphotriesterases catalyze the first step of organophosphorus triester degradation. The bacterial phosphotriesterases purified and characterized to date hydrolyze mainly aryl dialkyl phosphates, such as parathion, paraoxon, and chlorpyrifos. In this study, we purified and cloned two novel phosphotriesterases from Sphingomonas sp. strain TDK1 and Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 that hydrolyze tri(haloalkyl)phosphates, and we named these enzymes haloalkylphosphorus hydrolases (TDK-HAD and TCM-HAD, respectively). Both HADs are monomeric proteins with molecular masses of 59.6 (TDK-HAD) and 58.4 kDa (TCM-HAD). The enzyme activities were affected by the addition of divalent cations, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis suggested that zinc is a native cofactor for HADs. These enzymes hydrolyzed not only chlorinated organophosphates but also a brominated organophosphate [tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate], as well as triaryl phosphates (tricresyl and triphenyl phosphates). Paraoxon-methyl and paraoxon were efficiently degraded by TCM-HAD, whereas TDK-HAD showed weak activity toward these substrates. Dichlorvos was degraded only by TCM-HAD. The enzymes displayed weak or no activity against trialkyl phosphates and organophosphorothioates. The TCM-HAD and TDK-HAD genes were cloned and found to encode proteins of 583 and 574 amino acid residues, respectively. The primary structures of TCM-HAD and TDK-HAD were very similar, and the enzymes also shared sequence similarity with fenitrothion hydrolase (FedA) of Burkholderia sp. strain NF100 and organophosphorus hydrolase (OphB) of Burkholderia sp. strain JBA3. However, the substrate specificities and quaternary structures of the HADs were largely different from those of FedA and OphB. These results show that HADs from sphingomonads are novel members of the bacterial phosphotriesterase family. PMID:25038092

Yoshida, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yuto; Mori, Junichi; Doi, Yuka; Takahashi, Shouji; Kera, Yoshio

2014-01-01

39

Characterisation of a new thermoalkaliphilic bacterium for the production of high-quality hemp fibres, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius strain PB94A.  

PubMed

Novel thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria for the processing of bast fibres were isolated using hemp pectin as substrate. The strain PB94A, which showed the highest growth rate (micro = 0.5/h) was identified as Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius (DSM 21625). The strain grew optimally at 60 degrees C and pH 8.5. During growth on citrus pectin, the strain produced pectinolytic lyases, which were excreted into the medium. In contrast to the commercially available pectinase Bioprep 3000 L, the enzymes from G. thermoglucosidasius PB94A converted pectin isolated from hemp fibres. In addition to hemp pectin, the culture supernatant also degraded citrus, sugar beet and apple pectin and polygalacturonic acid. When hemp fibres were incubated with the cell-free fermentation broth of G. thermoglucosidasius PB94A, the fineness of the fibres increased. The strain did not produce any cellulases, which is important in order to avoid damaging the fibres during incubation. Therefore, these bacteria or their enzymes can be used to produce fine high-quality hemp fibres. PMID:19333594

Valladares Juárez, A G; Dreyer, J; Göpel, P K; Koschke, N; Frank, D; Märkl, H; Müller, R

2009-06-01

40

International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (2002), 52, 22512255 DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.02181-0 Geobacillus toebii sp. nov., a novel  

E-print Network

bacilli (Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermo- catenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus; very few of them grew above 60 mC, and only Bacillus coagulans and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were, hay compost The large diversity of the genus Bacillus led to the reclassification of seven

Bae, Jin-Woo

41

Cadmium Ion Biosorption by the Thermophilic Bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G. thermocatenulatus  

PubMed Central

This study reports surface complexation models (SCMs) for quantifying metal ion adsorption by thermophilic microorganisms. In initial cadmium ion toxicity tests, members of the genus Geobacillus displayed the highest tolerance to CdCl2 (as high as 400 to 3,200 ?M). The thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G. thermocatenulatus were selected for further electrophoretic mobility, potentiometric titration, and Cd2+ adsorption experiments to characterize Cd2+ complexation by functional groups within and on the cell wall. Distinct one-site SCMs described the extent of cadmium ion adsorption by both studied Geobacillus sp. strains over a range of pH values and metal/bacteria concentration ratios. The results indicate that a functional group with a deprotonation constant pK value of approximately 3.8 accounts for 66% and 80% of all titratable sites for G. thermocatenulatus and G. stearothermophilus, respectively, and is dominant in Cd2+ adsorption reactions. The results suggest a different type of functional group may be involved in cadmium biosorption for both thermophilic strains investigated here, compared to previous reports for mesophilic bacteria. PMID:16751511

Hetzer, Adrian; Daughney, Christopher J.; Morgan, Hugh W.

2006-01-01

42

Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain  

SciTech Connect

A recently discovered thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius M10EXG, ferments a range of C5 (e.g., xylose) and C6 sugars (e.g., glucose) and istolerant to high ethanol concentrations (10percent, v/v). We have investigated the central metabolism of this bacterium using both in vitro enzyme assays and 13C-based flux analysis to provide insights into the physiological properties of this extremophile and explore its metabolism for bio-ethanol or other bioprocess applications. Our findings show that glucose metabolism in G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG proceeds via glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle; the Entner?Doudoroff pathway and transhydrogenase activity were not detected. Anaplerotic reactions (including the glyoxylate shunt, pyruvate carboxylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) were active, but fluxes through those pathways could not be accuratelydetermined using amino acid labeling. When growth conditions were switched from aerobic to micro-aerobic conditions, fluxes (based on a normalized glucose uptake rate of 100 units (g DCW)-1 h-1) through the TCA cycle and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were reduced from 64+-3 to 25+-2 and from 30+-2 to 19+-2, respectively. The carbon flux under micro-aerobic growth was directed formate. Under fully anerobic conditions, G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG used a mixed acid fermentation process and exhibited a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG reduces the maximum ethanol yieldby approximately threefold, thus indicating that both pathways should be modified to maximize ethanol production.

Tang, Yinjie J.; Sapra, Rajat; Joyner, Dominique; Hazen, Terry C.; Myers, Samuel; Reichmuth, David; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-01-20

43

Analysis of metabolic pathways and fluxes in a newly discovered thermophilic and ethanol-tolerant Geobacillus strain.  

PubMed

A recently discovered thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius M10EXG, ferments a range of C5 (e.g., xylose) and C6 sugars (e.g., glucose) and is tolerant to high ethanol concentrations (10%, v/v). We have investigated the central metabolism of this bacterium using both in vitro enzyme assays and 13C-based flux analysis to provide insights into the physiological properties of this extremophile and explore its metabolism for bio-ethanol or other bioprocess applications. Our findings show that glucose metabolism in G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG proceeds via glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle; the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and transhydrogenase activity were not detected. Anaplerotic reactions (including the glyoxylate shunt, pyruvate carboxylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) were active, but fluxes through those pathways could not be accurately determined using amino acid labeling. When growth conditions were switched from aerobic to micro-aerobic conditions, fluxes (based on a normalized glucose uptake rate of 100 units (g DCW)(-1) h(-1)) through the TCA cycle and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were reduced from 64 +/- 3 to 25 +/- 2 and from 30 +/- 2 to 19 +/- 2, respectively. The carbon flux under micro-aerobic growth was directed to ethanol, L-lactate (> 99% optical purity), acetate, and formate. Under fully anerobic conditions, G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG used a mixed acid fermentation process and exhibited a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38 +/- 0.07 mol mol(-1) glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG reduces the maximum ethanol yield by approximately threefold, thus indicating that both pathways should be modified to maximize ethanol production. PMID:19016470

Tang, Yinjie J; Sapra, Rajat; Joyner, Dominique; Hazen, Terry C; Myers, Samuel; Reichmuth, David; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D

2009-04-01

44

Complete Genome Assembly of Corynebacterium sp. Strain ATCC 6931  

PubMed Central

The genus Corynebacterium is best known for the pathogen C. diphtheriae; however, it contains mostly commensal and nonpathogenic, as well as several opportunistic, pathogens. Here, we present the 2.47-Mb scaffolded assembly of the type strain, Corynebacterium sp. ATCC 6931 (NCTC 1914), as deposited into GenBank under accession number CP008913. PMID:25342684

Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Li, P-E.; Meincke, L.; Munk, A. C.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.

2014-01-01

45

Identification of a gene cluster encoding an arginine ATP-binding-cassette transporter in the genome of the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain DSMZ 13240  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single gene cluster encoding components of a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter for basic amino acids was identified in the incomplete genome sequence of the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus by BLAST searches. The cluster comprises three genes, and these were amplified from chromosomal DNA of G. stearothermophilus, ligated into plasmid vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified

Rebecca Fleischer; Antje Wengner; Frank Scheffel; Heidi Landmesser; Erwin Schneider

2005-01-01

46

Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov., represented by xenobiotics degrading type strains.  

PubMed

Two strains of gram-negative bacteria isolated because of their abilities to decompose xenobiotic compounds were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the two strains were found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas. Benzene degrading strain DSM 8628(T) was moderately related to P. flavescens NCPP 3063(T) (98.3% similarity), P. monteilii CIP 104883(T), and P. plecoglossicida FPC 951(T) (98.1%). Strain DSM 9751(T) capable to grow with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as the sole carbon source showed the highest similarity values with P. tremae CFBP 2341(T) and P. meliae MAFF 301463(T) (98.0%), both related to Pseudomonas syringae. The fatty acid pattern of strain DSM 8628(T) was distinct from patterns of other members of the genus Pseudomonas in combining a high ratio of 3OH-C(12:1) (5.1%), a low ratio of 2OH-C(12:0) (0.2%) and a relatively low ratio of C(18:1)omega7c (23.8%). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological properties and the composition of whole cell fatty acids, two novel species, Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 8628(T) (=CIP 109857(T)) and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 9751(T) (=CIP 109856(T)), are proposed. PMID:19771475

Lang, Elke; Burghartz, Melanie; Spring, Stefan; Swiderski, Jolanthe; Spröer, Cathrin

2010-02-01

47

Degradation of clodinafop propargyl by Pseudomonas sp. strain B2.  

PubMed

Using clodinafop propargyl (CF) as a sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source, a CF-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from crop soil field. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain B2 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. 87.14 % CF was degraded out of initial provided 80 mg/L CF. Degradation of CF was accompanied by release of chloride ion. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of B2 were 7.0 and 30°C, respectively in the mineral salts medium supplemented with CF. An actively growing culture of strain B2 degraded CF to clodinafop acid and 4-(4-Chloro-2-fluoro-phenoxy)-phenol within 9 h, as determined by GC–MS analysis. A metabolic pathway for the degradation of CF by B2 has been proposed PMID:24121741

Singh, Baljinder

2013-12-01

48

Natural transformation of Thermotoga sp. strain RQ7  

PubMed Central

Background Thermotoga species are organisms of enormous interest from a biotechnological as well as evolutionary point of view. Genetic modifications of Thermotoga spp. are often desired in order to fully release their multifarious potentials. Effective transformation of recombinant DNA into these bacteria constitutes a critical step of such efforts. This study aims to establish natural competency in Thermotoga spp. and to provide a convenient method to transform these organisms. Results Foreign DNA was found to be relatively stable in the supernatant of a Thermotoga culture for up to 6 hours. Adding donor DNA to T. sp. strain RQ7 at its early exponential growth phase (OD600 0.18?~?0.20) resulted in direct acquisition of the DNA by the cells. Both T. neapolitana chromosomal DNA and Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vectors effectively transformed T. sp. strain RQ7, rendering the cells resistance to kanamycin. The kan gene carried by the shuttle vector pDH10 was detected by PCR from the plasmid extract of the transformants, and the amplicons were verified by restriction digestions. A procedure for natural transformation of Thermotoga spp. was established and optimized. With the optimized method, T. sp. strain RQ7 sustained a transformation frequency in the order of 10-7 with both genomic and plasmid DNA. Conclusions T. sp. strain RQ7 cells are naturally transformable during their early exponential phase. They acquire DNA from both closely and distantly related species. Both chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA serve as suitable substrates for transformation. Our findings lend a convenient technical tool for the genetic engineering of Thermotoga spp. PMID:24884561

2014-01-01

49

Genome Sequences of the Lignin-Degrading Pseudomonas sp. Strain YS-1p and Rhizobium sp. Strain YS-1r Isolated from Decaying Wood.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas sp. strain YS-1p and Rhizobium sp. strain YS-1r were isolated from a lignin-degrading enrichment culture. The isolates degraded lignin-derived monomers, dimers, alkali lignin, and, to a smaller extent (3% to 5%), lignin in switch grass and alfalfa. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a variety of lignin-degrading genes. PMID:25744986

Prabhakaran, Madhu; Couger, Matthew B; Jackson, Colin A; Weirick, Tyler; Fathepure, Babu Z

2015-01-01

50

Genome Sequences of the Lignin-Degrading Pseudomonas sp. Strain YS-1p and Rhizobium sp. Strain YS-1r Isolated from Decaying Wood  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain YS-1p and Rhizobium sp. strain YS-1r were isolated from a lignin-degrading enrichment culture. The isolates degraded lignin-derived monomers, dimers, alkali lignin, and, to a smaller extent (3% to 5%), lignin in switch grass and alfalfa. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a variety of lignin-degrading genes. PMID:25744986

Prabhakaran, Madhu; Couger, Matthew B.; Jackson, Colin A.; Weirick, Tyler

2015-01-01

51

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain TKP, Isolated from a ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane-Degrading Mixed Culture  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain TKP does not degrade ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), but it persistently coexists with the ?-HCH-degrading Sphingobium sp. strain TKS in a mixed culture enriched by ?-HCH. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain TKP, which consists of one circular chromosome with a size of 7 Mb. PMID:24482516

Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Kishida, Kouhei; Sato, Takuya; Tabata, Michiro; Kawasumi, Toru; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Tsuda, Masataka

2014-01-01

52

Reclassification of Saccharococcus caldoxylosilyticus as Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus (Ahmad et al. 2000) comb. nov.  

PubMed

A polyphasic study was performed on five thermophilic strains belonging to the genus Bacillus, isolated from soil of different geographical areas. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed these isolates in RNA group 5, with Saccharococcus caldoxylosilyticus and [Bacillus] thermoglucosidasius being the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The type species of Saccharococcus, Saccharococcus thermophilus, was only moderately related to these two species and the novel isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization studies and comparison of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features supported the close relationship between the novel isolates and Saccharococcus caldoxylosilyticus. These data justify the reclassification of Saccharococcus caldoxylosilyticus. Following the transfer of the validly described Bacillus species of group 5 into the genus Geobacillus, the reclassification of Saccharococcus caldoxylosilyticus as Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus comb. nov. is proposed. This species can be distinguished genomically from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans and Saccharococcus thermophilus by a specific PCR-RFLP assay targeting the 16S rDNA. PMID:11760948

Fortina, M G; Mora, D; Schumann, P; Parini, C; Manachini, P L; Stackebrandt, E

2001-11-01

53

Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 was isolated from soil and analyzed for the ability to grow on o-xylene as the sole carbon and energy source. Although DK17 cannot grow on m- and p-xylene, it is capable of growth on benzene, phenol, toluene, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, and other alkylbenzene isomers. One UV-generated mutant strain, DK176, simultaneously lost the ability to grow on o-xylene, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, toluene, and benzene, although it could still grow on phenol. The mutant strain was also unable to oxidize indole to indigo following growth in the presence of o-xylene. This observation suggests the loss of an oxygenase that is involved in the initial oxidation of the (alkyl)benzenes tested. Another mutant strain, DK180, isolated for the inability to grow on o-xylene, retained the ability to grow on benzene but was unable to grow on alkylbenzenes due to loss of a meta-cleavage dioxygenase needed for metabolism of methyl-substituted catechols. Further experiments showed that DK180 as well as the wild-type strain DK17 have an ortho-cleavage pathway which is specifically induced by benzene but not by o-xylene. These results indicate that DK17 possesses two different ring-cleavage pathways for the degradation of aromatic compounds, although the initial oxidation reactions may be catalyzed by a common oxygenase. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 300-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry clearly show that DK180 accumulates 3,4-dimethylcatechol from o-xylene and both 3- and 4-methylcatechol from toluene. This means that there are two initial routes of oxidation of toluene by the strain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated the presence of two large megaplasmids in the wild-type strain DK17, one of which (pDK2) was lost in the mutant strain DK176. Since several other independently derived mutant strains unable to grow on alkylbenzenes are also missing pDK2, the genes encoding the initial steps in alkylbenzene metabolism (but not phenol metabolism) appear to be present on this approximately 330-kb plasmid. PMID:12089003

Kim, Dockyu; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Seong-Ki; Kim, Si Wouk; Zylstra, Gerben J; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Eungbin

2002-07-01

54

Genome Sequence of a Thermophilic Bacillus, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM465  

PubMed Central

Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 encodes a LadA-mediated alkane degradation pathway, while G. thermodenitrificans DSM465 cannot utilize alkanes. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of G. thermodenitrificans DSM465, which may help reveal the genomic differences between these two strains in regards to the biodegradation of alkanes. PMID:24336381

Yao, Nana; Ren, Yi

2013-01-01

55

Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01.  

PubMed Central

An alkylphenol ethoxylate-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture. This organism was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; since no corresponding species was identified, we designated it as Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. This strain had an optimal temperature and pH of 30 degrees C and 7, respectively, for both growth and the degradation of Triton N-101 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate in which the average number of ethylene oxide [EO] units is 9.5). The strain was unable to mineralize Triton N-101 but was able to degrade its EO chain exclusively. The resulting dominant intermediate was identified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a nonylphenol ethoxylate with 2 mol of EO units. A carboxylated metabolite, [(nonylphenoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid, was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This bacterium also metabolized alcohol ethoxylates with various numbers of EO units but not polyethylene glycols whatever their degree of polymerization. By oxygen consumption assay, the alkyl group or arene corresponding to the hydrophobic part of alcohol ethoxylates or alkylphenol ethoxylates was shown to contribute to the induction of the metabolic system of the EO chain of Triton N-101, instead of the EO chain itself, which corresponds to its hydrophilic part. Thus, the isolated pseudomonad bacterium has unique substrate assimilability: it metabolizes the EO chain only when the chain linked to bulky hydrophobic groups. PMID:8074508

Maki, H; Masuda, N; Fujiwara, Y; Ike, M; Fujita, M

1994-01-01

56

Draft Genome Sequence of the Antarctic Polyextremophile Nesterenkonia sp. Strain AN1  

PubMed Central

Nesterenkonia sp. strain AN1 was isolated from Antarctic soil and is a polyextremophile, being tolerant of low temperatures, high salt concentrations, and high alkalinity. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. PMID:24675854

Aliyu, Habibu; De Maayer, Pieter; Rees, Jasper; Tuffin, Marla

2014-01-01

57

Draft Genome Sequence of the Antarctic Polyextremophile Nesterenkonia sp. Strain AN1.  

PubMed

Nesterenkonia sp. strain AN1 was isolated from Antarctic soil and is a polyextremophile, being tolerant of low temperatures, high salt concentrations, and high alkalinity. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. PMID:24675854

Aliyu, Habibu; De Maayer, Pieter; Rees, Jasper; Tuffin, Marla; Cowan, Don A

2014-01-01

58

Complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24  

SciTech Connect

Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 is a species in the genus Arthrobacter Conn and Dimmick 1947, in the family Micrococcaceae and class Actinobacteria. A number of Arthrobacter genome sequences have been completed because of their important role in soil, especially bioremediation. This isolate is of special interest because it is tolerant to multiple metals and it is extremely resistant to elevated concentrations of chromate. The genome consists of a 4,698,945 bp circular chromosome and three plasmids (96,488, 115,507, and 159,536 bp, a total of 5,070,478 bp), coding 4,536 proteins of which 1,257 are without known function. This genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program.

Nakatsu, C. H.; Barabote, Ravi; Thompson, Sue; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Brettin, T.; Han, Cliff F.; Beasley, Federico; Chen, Weimin; Konopka, Allan; Xie, Gary

2013-09-30

59

Complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24  

PubMed Central

Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 is a species in the genus Arthrobacter Conn and Dimmick 1947, in the family Micrococcaceae and class Actinobacteria. A number of Arthrobacter genome sequences have been completed because of their important role in soil, especially bioremediation. This isolate is of special interest because it is tolerant to multiple metals and it is extremely resistant to elevated concentrations of chromate. The genome consists of a 4,698,945 bp circular chromosome and three plasmids (96,488, 115,507, and 159,536 bp, a total of 5,070,478 bp), coding 4,536 proteins of which 1,257 are without known function. This genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program. PMID:24501649

Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Barabote, Ravi; Thompson, Sue; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Brettin, Thomas; Han, Cliff; Beasley, Federico; Chen, Weimin; Konopka, Allan; Xie, Gary

2013-01-01

60

Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodovulum sp. Strain NI22, a Naphthalene-Degrading Marine Bacterium.  

PubMed

Rhodovulum sp. strain NI22 is a hydrocarbon-degrading member of the genus Rhodovulum. The draft genome of Rhodovulum sp. NI22 is 3.8 Mb in size, with 3,756 coding sequences and 64.4% G+C content. The catechol and gentisate pathways for naphthalene degradation are predicted to be present in Rhodovulum sp. NI22. PMID:25614575

Brown, Lisa M; Gunasekera, Thusitha S; Bowen, Loryn L; Ruiz, Oscar N

2015-01-01

61

Draft Genome Sequence of the Electricigen Acidiphilium sp. Strain PM (DSM 24941)  

PubMed Central

Acidiphilium sp. strain PM (DSM 24941) was isolated from Rio Tinto's acidic, heavy metal-rich waters. Voltammetry experiments revealed that this strain is capable of electricity production even under aerobic conditions. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Acidiphilium sp. PM and a preliminary genome analysis that reveals a versatile respiratory metabolism. PMID:21914891

San Martin-Uriz, Patxi; Gomez, Manuel J.; Arcas, Aida; Bargiela, Rafael; Amils, Ricardo

2011-01-01

62

Mechanism of algal aggregation by Bacillus sp. strain RP1137.  

PubMed

Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting. PMID:24771029

Powell, Ryan J; Hill, Russell T

2014-07-01

63

Mechanism of Algal Aggregation by Bacillus sp. Strain RP1137  

PubMed Central

Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting. PMID:24771029

Powell, Ryan J.

2014-01-01

64

Description of the Erythromycin-Producing Bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Strain NRRL B3381 as Aevomicrobium erythveum gen. nov., sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthrobacter sp. strain NRRL B-3381T (T = type strain) is a nonmycelial, nonsporulating actinomycete that produces the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin. This bacterium differs in many ways from the type species of the genus Arthrobacter (Arthrobacter globiforrnis), suggesting that a taxonomic revision is appropriate. The G+C content of strain NRRL B-3381T DNA is 71 to 73 mol%, and the peptidoglycan of

ERIC S. MILLER; CARL R. WOESE; SYDNEY BRENNER

65

Draft Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Bacterium Catenovulum sp. Strain DS-2, Isolated from Intestines of Haliotis diversicolor  

PubMed Central

Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2, isolated from intestines of Haliotis diversicolor, is able to degrade agar and produce agaro-oligosaccharides. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2. PMID:24604650

Shan, Dapeng; Li, Xu; Gu, Zheng; Wei, Guangshan; Gao, Zheng

2014-01-01

66

Draft Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Bacterium Catenovulum sp. Strain DS-2, Isolated from Intestines of Haliotis diversicolor.  

PubMed

Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2, isolated from intestines of Haliotis diversicolor, is able to degrade agar and produce agaro-oligosaccharides. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2. PMID:24604650

Shan, Dapeng; Li, Xu; Gu, Zheng; Wei, Guangshan; Gao, Zheng; Shao, Zongze

2014-01-01

67

Phenotypic and Physiological Changes in Acinetobacter sp. Strain DR1 with Exogenous Plasmid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Acinetobacter has been recognized to take up exogenous DNA from the environment. In this study, we conducted natural transformation with\\u000a a novel diesel-degrading Acinetobacter sp. strain, designated strain DR1, using the broad host range plasmid pRK415. Many factors, including temperature, quantities\\u000a of DNA, and aeration have proven critically important for efficient natural transformation. Interestingly, the Acinetobacter sp. strain

2011-01-01

68

Taxonomic analysis of the Streptomyces sp. 2435 strain, a producer of antimicrobial substances.  

PubMed

The study of the taxonomic status of the antimicrobial substances producer strain Streptomyces sp. 2435 was conducted The nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA gene of the strain was determined and deposited in the Genbank (No JN129837) database. Results of morphological, biochemical and cell wall fatty acids content analyses, evaluation of biosynthesis features of Streptomyces sp 2435, together with the phylogenetic analysis have provided the basis to identify this strain as Streptomyces albus. PMID:24800508

Todosiichuk, T S; Klochko, V V; Zelena, L B

2014-01-01

69

Genome Sequence of Rheinheimera sp. Strain A13L, Isolated from Pangong Lake, India ?  

PubMed Central

Rheinheimera sp. strain A13L, which has antimicrobial activity, was isolated from alkaline brackish water of the high-altitude Pangong Lake of Ladakh, India. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Rhienheimera sp. strain A13L (4,523,491 bp with a G+C content of 46.23%). The genome is predicted to contain genes for marinocine and colicin V production, which may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the strain. PMID:21742876

Gupta, Hemant Kumar; Gupta, Rinkoo Devi; Singh, Ajit; Chauhan, Nar Singh; Sharma, Rakesh

2011-01-01

70

40 CFR 180.1120 - Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1120 Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from...tolerance. The biological pesticide Streptomyces sp. strain K61 is...

2010-07-01

71

40 CFR 180.1120 - Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1120 Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from...tolerance. The biological pesticide Streptomyces sp. strain K61 is...

2011-07-01

72

40 CFR 180.1120 - Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1120 Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from...tolerance. The biological pesticide Streptomyces sp. strain K61 is...

2012-07-01

73

40 CFR 180.1120 - Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1120 Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from...tolerance. The biological pesticide Streptomyces sp. strain K61 is...

2014-07-01

74

40 CFR 180.1120 - Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1120 Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from...tolerance. The biological pesticide Streptomyces sp. strain K61 is...

2013-07-01

75

Dynamics of Genome Architecture in Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234†  

PubMed Central

Bacterial genomes are usually partitioned in several replicons, which are dynamic structures prone to mutation and genomic rearrangements, thus contributing to genome evolution. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the origins and dynamics of the formation of bacterial alternative genomic states and their possible biological consequences. To address these issues, we have studied the dynamics of the genome architecture in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and analyzed its biological significance. NGR234 genome consists of three replicons: the symbiotic plasmid pNGR234a (536,165 bp), the megaplasmid pNGR234b (>2,000 kb), and the chromosome (>3,700 kb). Here we report that genome analyses of cell siblings showed the occurrence of large-scale DNA rearrangements consisting of cointegrations and excisions between the three replicons. As a result, four new genomic architectures have emerged. Three consisted of the cointegrates between two replicons: chromosome-pNGR234a, chromosome-pNGR234b, and pNGR234a-pNGR234b. The other consisted of a cointegrate of the three replicons (chromosome-pNGR234a-pNGR234b). Cointegration and excision of pNGR234a with either the chromosome or pNGR234b were studied and found to proceed via a Campbell-type mechanism, mediated by insertion sequence elements. We provide evidence showing that changes in the genome architecture did not alter the growth and symbiotic proficiency of Rhizobium derivatives. PMID:11741857

Mavingui, Patrick; Flores, Margarita; Guo, Xianwu; Dávila, Guillermo; Perret, Xavier; Broughton, William J.; Palacios, Rafael

2002-01-01

76

Dynamics of genome architecture in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234.  

PubMed

Bacterial genomes are usually partitioned in several replicons, which are dynamic structures prone to mutation and genomic rearrangements, thus contributing to genome evolution. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the origins and dynamics of the formation of bacterial alternative genomic states and their possible biological consequences. To address these issues, we have studied the dynamics of the genome architecture in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and analyzed its biological significance. NGR234 genome consists of three replicons: the symbiotic plasmid pNGR234a (536,165 bp), the megaplasmid pNGR234b (>2,000 kb), and the chromosome (>3,700 kb). Here we report that genome analyses of cell siblings showed the occurrence of large-scale DNA rearrangements consisting of cointegrations and excisions between the three replicons. As a result, four new genomic architectures have emerged. Three consisted of the cointegrates between two replicons: chromosome-pNGR234a, chromosome-pNGR234b, and pNGR234a-pNGR234b. The other consisted of a cointegrate of the three replicons (chromosome-pNGR234a-pNGR234b). Cointegration and excision of pNGR234a with either the chromosome or pNGR234b were studied and found to proceed via a Campbell-type mechanism, mediated by insertion sequence elements. We provide evidence showing that changes in the genome architecture did not alter the growth and symbiotic proficiency of Rhizobium derivatives. PMID:11741857

Mavingui, Patrick; Flores, Margarita; Guo, Xianwu; Dávila, Guillermo; Perret, Xavier; Broughton, William J; Palacios, Rafael

2002-01-01

77

Molecular responses of Frankia sp. strain QA3 to naphthalene.  

PubMed

The Frankia-actinorhizal plant symbiosis plays a significant role in plant colonization in soils contaminated with heavy metals and toxic aromatic hydrocarbons. The molecular response of Frankia upon exposure to soil contaminants is not well understood. To address this issue, we subjected Frankia sp. strain QA3 to naphthalene stress and showed that it could grow on naphthalene as a sole carbon source. Bioinformatic analysis of the Frankia QA3 genome identified a potential operon for aromatic compound degradation as well as several ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. Under naphthalene stress, the expression of these genes was upregulated. Proteome analysis showed a differential protein profile for cells under naphthalene stress. Several protein spots were analyzed and used to identify proteins involved in stress response, metabolism, and energy production, including a lignostilbene dioxygenase. These results provide a model for understanding the molecular response of Frankia to common soil pollutants, which may be required for survival and proliferation of the bacterium and their hosts in polluted environments. PMID:25742598

Baker, Ethan; Tang, Yang; Chu, Feixia; Tisa, Louis S

2015-04-01

78

Identification and characterization of the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 hupL DNA rearrangement  

E-print Network

Programmed DNA rearrangements that occur during cellular differentiation are uncommon and have been described in only two prokaryotic organisms. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 at least three programmed DNA rearrangements occur during heterocyst...

Carrasco, Claudio D

1997-01-01

79

Draft Genome Sequence of the Versatile Alkane-Degrading Bacterium Aquabacterium sp. Strain NJ1  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of a soil bacterium, Aquabacterium sp. strain NJ1, capable of utilizing both liquid and solid alkanes, was deciphered. This is the first report of an Aquabacterium genome sequence. PMID:25477416

Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Zylstra, Gerben J.

2014-01-01

80

Draft Genome of Pseudomonas sp. Strain 11/12A, Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment  

PubMed Central

We announce here the genome sequencing of Pseudomonas sp. strain 11/12A from Lake Washington sediment. From the genome content, a versatile lifestyle is predicted but not one of bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Pseudomonas sp. 11/12A presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700412

McTaggart, Tami L.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja

2015-01-01

81

Genome Sequence of the Microsporidian Species Nematocida sp1 Strain ERTm6 (ATCC PRA-372)  

PubMed Central

Microsporidia comprise a phylum of obligate intracellular pathogens related to fungi. Microsporidia Nematocida sp1 strain ERTm6 was isolated from wild-caught Caenorhabditis briggsae and causes a lethal intestinal infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes. We report the genome sequence of N. sp1 ERTm6, which will facilitate study of the Nematocida genus and other Microsporidia. PMID:25237020

Bakowski, Malina A.; Priest, Margaret; Young, Sarah

2014-01-01

82

Genome Sequence of the Microsporidian Species Nematocida sp1 Strain ERTm6 (ATCC PRA-372).  

PubMed

Microsporidia comprise a phylum of obligate intracellular pathogens related to fungi. Microsporidia Nematocida sp1 strain ERTm6 was isolated from wild-caught Caenorhabditis briggsae and causes a lethal intestinal infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes. We report the genome sequence of N. sp1 ERTm6, which will facilitate study of the Nematocida genus and other Microsporidia. PMID:25237020

Bakowski, Malina A; Priest, Margaret; Young, Sarah; Cuomo, Christina A; Troemel, Emily R

2014-01-01

83

Draft Genome of Pseudomonas sp. Strain 11/12A, Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment.  

PubMed

We announce here the genome sequencing of Pseudomonas sp. strain 11/12A from Lake Washington sediment. From the genome content, a versatile lifestyle is predicted but not one of bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Pseudomonas sp. 11/12A presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700412

McTaggart, Tami L; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

2015-01-01

84

Whole-Genome Sequence of Enterobacter sp. Strain SST3, an Endophyte Isolated from Jamaican Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) Stalk Tissue  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter sp. strain SST3 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from Saccharum spp. Here we present its annotated draft genome that may shed light on its role as a bacterial endophyte of sugarcane. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a sugarcane-associated bacterium from the genus Enterobacter. PMID:23045495

Gan, Han Ming; McGroty, Sean E.; Chew, Teong Han; Chan, Kok Gan; Buckley, Larry J.; Savka, Michael A.

2012-01-01

85

Genome Sequence of Idiomarina sp. Strain A28L, Isolated from Pangong Lake, India ?  

PubMed Central

Idiomarina sp. strain A28L was isolated from the alkaline brackish water of a high-altitude lake, Pangong Lake. Here, we present the draft genome of Idiomarina sp. strain A28L, which contains 2,591,567 bp with a G+C content of 45.5 mol% and contains 2,299 protein-coding genes and 56 structural RNAs. PMID:21742887

Gupta, Hemant Kumar; Singh, Ajit; Sharma, Rakesh

2011-01-01

86

Draft Genome Sequence of Spirochaeta sp. Strain JC202, an Endosymbiont of the Termite (Isoptera) Gut  

PubMed Central

We announce here the draft genome sequence of Spirochaeta sp. strain JC202 isolated from gut of a termite (Isoptera). The genome suggests that Spirochaeta sp. JC202 has the capability for natural conjugation with the help of fimbriae and pili. Experimental evidence and the genome sequence suggest that strain JC202 is capable of producing colicin V and a bacteriocin group of peptides in a specific interaction. PMID:25614577

Tushar, L.; Sravanthi, T.; Ramana, C. V.

2015-01-01

87

Draft Genome Sequence of Shewanella sp. Strain CP20.  

PubMed

Shewanella sp. CP20 is a marine bacterium that survives ingestion by Tetrahymena pyriformis and is expelled from the protozoan within membrane-bound vacuoles, where the bacterial cells show long-term survival. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Shewanella sp. CP20 and discuss the potential mechanisms facilitating intraprotozoan survival. PMID:25858840

Lutz, Carla; Martin Tay, Qi Xiang; Sun, Shuyang; McDougald, Diane

2015-01-01

88

Draft Genome Sequence of Shewanella sp. Strain CP20  

PubMed Central

Shewanella sp. CP20 is a marine bacterium that survives ingestion by Tetrahymena pyriformis and is expelled from the protozoan within membrane-bound vacuoles, where the bacterial cells show long-term survival. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Shewanella sp. CP20 and discuss the potential mechanisms facilitating intraprotozoan survival. PMID:25858840

Lutz, Carla; Martin Tay, Qi Xiang; Sun, Shuyang

2015-01-01

89

alk B homologs in thermophilic bacteria of the genus Geobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for alkane hydroxylase genes (alkB) was performed in thermophilic aerobic bacteria of the genus Geobacillus. Total DNAs were isolated from the biomass of 11 strains grown on a mixture of saturated C10–C20 hydrocarbons. Fragments of alkB genes were amplified by PCR with degenerate oligonucleotide primers, and the PCR products were cloned and sequenced. For\\u000a the first time, a set

T. P. Tourova; T. N. Nazina; E. M. Mikhailova; T. A. Rodionova; A. N. Ekimov; A. V. Mashukova; A. B. Poltaraus

2008-01-01

90

Functional genomic approaches for understanding the mode of action of Bacillus sp biocontrol strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Complete genome sequencing of several Bacillus sp. strains has shed new light on the mode of action of these antagonists of plant pathogens. The use of genomic data mining tools provided the ability to quickly determine the potential of these strains to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Our B...

91

Draft Genome Sequence of the 2-Chloro-4-Nitrophenol-Degrading Bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Strain SJCon  

PubMed Central

We report the 4.39-Mb draft genome sequence of the 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol-degrading bacterium Arthrobacter sp. strain SJCon, isolated from a pesticide-contaminated site. The draft genome sequence of strain SJCon will be helpful in studying the genetic pathways involved in the degradation of several aromatic compounds. PMID:23516196

Vikram, Surendra; Kumar, Shailesh; Vaidya, Bhumika; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

2013-01-01

92

Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain 150FB, a Mushroom Mycoparasite Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces sp. strain 150FB, isolated from the cap surface of a bolete mushroom, inhibits the growth of the mycoparasitic Sepedonium species. Functional annotation of the strain 150FB draft genome identified 22 putative secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and genes encoding secreted proteins, which may contribute to the inhibition of the mycoparasite. PMID:25838499

Feldhahn, L.; Krüger, D.; Arnold, N.; Buscot, F.; Wubet, T.

2015-01-01

93

Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingopyxis sp. Strain MWB1, a Crude-Oil-Degrading Marine Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Sphingopyxis sp. strain MWB1, which is capable of degrading crude oil, diesel, and kerosene, was isolated from crude oil–contaminated seashore in Tae-an, South Korea. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which comprises 3,118,428 bp with a G+C content of 62.85 mol%. PMID:25477411

Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Seung Il; Moon, Yoon-Jung; Park, Sung-Joon

2014-01-01

94

Draft Genome Sequence for Caulobacter sp. Strain OR37, a Bacterium Tolerant to Heavy Metals  

PubMed Central

Caulobacter sp. strain OR37 belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria and was isolated from subsurface sediments in Oak Ridge, TN. Strain OR37 is noteworthy due to its tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals, such as uranium, nickel, cobalt, and cadmium, and we present its draft genome sequence here. PMID:23792749

Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brzoska, Ryann M.; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Epstein, Slava E.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

2013-01-01

95

Reduction of Selenite to Elemental Red Selenium by Pseudomonas sp. strain CA5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Pseudomonas sp. that may be useful in bioremediation projects was isolated from soil. The strain is of potential value because it reduces selenite to elemental red selenium and is unusual in that it was resistant to high concentrations of both selenate and selenite. Cell of the strain removed 1....

96

Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter sp. Strain UCD-UG_FMILLET (Phylum Proteobacteria).  

PubMed

Here, we present the draft genome of Enterobacter sp. strain UCD-UG_FMILLET. This strain is an endophyte isolated from the roots of finger millet, an Afro-Indian cereal crop. The genome contains 4,801,411 bp in 53 scaffolds. PMID:25614569

Ettinger, Cassandra L; Mousa, Walaa M; Raizada, Manish N; Eisen, Jonathan A

2015-01-01

97

Complete Genome Sequence of Exiguobacterium sp. Strain MH3, Isolated from Rhizosphere of Lemna minor  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of Exiguobacterium sp. strain MH3, isolated from the rhizosphere of duckweed. The genome assembly is 3.16 Mb, with a G+C content of 47.24%, and it may provide useful information about plant-microbe interactions and the genetic basis for the tolerance of the strain to various environmental stresses. PMID:24356831

Tang, Jie; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Hao; Xue, Zhiquan

2013-01-01

98

Complete Genome Sequence of Exiguobacterium sp. Strain MH3, Isolated from Rhizosphere of Lemna minor.  

PubMed

We report the complete genome sequence of Exiguobacterium sp. strain MH3, isolated from the rhizosphere of duckweed. The genome assembly is 3.16 Mb, with a G+C content of 47.24%, and it may provide useful information about plant-microbe interactions and the genetic basis for the tolerance of the strain to various environmental stresses. PMID:24356831

Tang, Jie; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Hao; Xue, Zhiquan; Ma, Jiong

2013-01-01

99

Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JMM, a Sediment-Hosted Environmental Isolate  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain JMM was isolated from the sediments of a natural water reservoir (pH, 6 to 7) located at Chambyal village in Samba district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Here we report the annotated draft genome sequence of strain JMM having 52 contigs with 5,884 genes and an average G+C content of 66.5%. PMID:25189587

Grewal, Simmi; Vakhlu, Jyoti; Gupta, Vipin; Sangwan, Naseer; Kohli, Puneet; Nayyar, Namita; Rani, Pooja; Sance, Shivani Singh

2014-01-01

100

Taxonomic characterization of Haloferax sp. (" H. alicantei") strain Aa 2.2: description of Haloferax lucentensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

An extremely halophilic archaeon, previously named as Haloferax sp. strain Aa 2.2 or "Haloferax alicantei" that has been extensively used for genetic studies with halobacteria, was taxonomically characterized by using phenotypic tests (including morphological, physiological, biochemical and nutritional features), DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA sequence phylogenetic analysis. This organism was isolated in 1986 by Torreblanca et al. from a pond of a Spanish saltern located in Alicante. The cells were pleomorphic, Gram negative and grew optimally at 25% NaCl. The polar lipid composition was similar to that of species of the genus Haloferax. The DNA G+C content of this strain was 64.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence comparison confirmed that this archaeon is a member of the genus Haloferax and was most closely related to Haloferax volcanii. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain Aa 2.2 and the type strain of all named species of the genus Haloferax revealed low levels of relatedness (25-2%), supporting the placement of this organism in a new species. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, molecular data and phylogenetic analysis we propose to name strain Aa 2.2 as a new species, Haloferax lucentensis sp. nov. The type strain is Aa 2.2 (=JCM 9276=NCIMB 13854=CIP 107410=DSM 14919=CECT 5871=CCM 7023). PMID:12486456

Gutierrez, M Carmen; Kamekura, Masahiro; Holmes, Melissa L; Dyall-Smith, Michael L; Ventosa, Antonio

2002-12-01

101

Genome sequence and description of Nesterenkonia massiliensis sp. nov. strain NP1T  

PubMed Central

Nesterenkonia massiliensis sp. nov., strain NP1T, is the type strain of Nesterenkonia massiliensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Nesterenkonia. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the feces of a 32-year-old French woman suffering from AIDS and living in Marseille. Nesterenkonia massiliensis is a Gram-positive aerobic coccus. Here, we describe the features of this bacterium, together with the complete genome sequencing and annotation. The 2,726,371 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid) contains 2,663 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes, including 1 rRNA operon. PMID:25197469

Edouard, Sophie; Sankar, Senthil; Dangui, Nicole Prisca Makaya; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Michelle, Caroline; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

2014-01-01

102

Study of cellulases from a newly isolated thermophilic and cellulolytic Brevibacillus sp. strain JXL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potentially novel aerobic, thermophilic, and cellulolytic bacterium designated as Brevibacillus sp. strain JXL was isolated from swine waste. Strain JXL can utilize a broad range of carbohydrates including: cellulose,\\u000a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), xylan, cellobiose, glucose, and xylose. In two different media supplemented with crystalline\\u000a cellulose and CMC at 57°C under aeration, strain JXL produced a basal level of cellulases as

Yanna Liang; Jemil Yesuf; Steve Schmitt; Kelly Bender; John Bozzola

2009-01-01

103

Biodegradation of mixtures of substituted benzenes by Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150 was isolated as a nonencapsulated variant of Pseudomonas sp. strain JS1 that contains the genes for the degradative pathways of a wide range of substituted aromatic compounds. Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150 grew on phenol, ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, naphthalene, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, salicylate, chlorobenzene, and several 1,4-dihalogenated benzenes. We designed experiments to determine the conditions required for induction of the individual pathways and to determine whether multiple substrates could be biodegraded simultaneously. Oxygen consumption studies with whole cells and enzyme assays with cell extracts showed that the enzymes of the meta, ortho, and modified ortho cleavage pathways can be induced in strain JS150. Strain JS150 contains a nonspecific toluene dioxygenase with a substrate range similar to that found in strains of Pseudomonas putida. The presence of the dioxygenase along with multiple pathways for metabolism of substituted catechols allows facile extension of the growth range by spontaneous mutation and degradation of mixtures of substituted benzenes and phenols. Chlorobenzene-grown cells of strain JS150 degraded mixtures of chlorobenzene, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2- and 1,4-dichlorobenzenes in continuous culture. Under similar conditions, phenol-grown cells degraded a mixture of phenol, 2-chloro-, 3-chloro, and 2,5-dichlorophenol and 2-methyl- and 3-methylphenol. These results indicate that induction of appropriate biodegradative pathways in strain JS150 permits the biodegradation of complex mixtures of aromatic compounds. PMID:1637161

Haigler, B E; Pettigrew, C A; Spain, J C

1992-01-01

104

Identification and Inactivation of Three Group 2 Sigma Factor Genes in Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120  

PubMed Central

Three new Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 genes encoding group 2 alternative sigma factors have been cloned and characterized. Insertional inactivation of sigD, sigE, and sigF genes did not affect growth on nitrate under standard laboratory conditions but did transiently impair the abilities of sigD and sigE mutant strains to establish diazotrophic growth. A sigD sigE double mutant, though proficient in growth on nitrate and still able to differentiate into distinct proheterocysts, was unable to grow diazotrophically due to extensive fragmentation of filaments upon nitrogen deprivation. This double mutant could be complemented by wild-type copies of sigD or sigE, indicating some degree of functional redundancy that can partially mask phenotypes of single gene mutants. However, the sigE gene was required for lysogenic development of the temperate cyanophage A-4L. Several other combinations of double mutations, especially sigE sigF, caused a transient defect in establishing diazotrophic growth, manifested as a strong and prolonged bleaching response to nitrogen deprivation. We found no evidence for developmental regulation of the sigma factor genes. luxAB reporter fusions with sigD, sigE, and sigF all showed slightly reduced expression after induction of heterocyst development by nitrogen stepdown. Phylogenetic analysis of cyanobacterial group 2 sigma factor sequences revealed that they fall into several subgroups. Three morphologically and physiologically distant strains, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002, and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 each contain representatives of four subgroups. Unlike unicellular strains, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 has three additional group 2 sigma factors that cluster in subgroup 2.5b, which is perhaps specific for filamentous or heterocystous cyanobacteria. PMID:11673438

Khudyakov, Ivan Y.; Golden, James W.

2001-01-01

105

Identification of metabolites from the degradation of fluoranthene by Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as flouranthene are widespread environmental pollutants shown to be cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 substancially mineralizes fluoranthene in pure culture and in sediments. In this report, additional metabolites of fluoranthene are identified and its possible modes of degradation by Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 are discussed. The experimental results identify metabolites with the intact fluorene configuration and an initial oxygenated metabolite in which the single benzene ring has been attacked. Several metabolic pathways, operating simultaneously, are involved in the degradation of fluoranthen by Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1. The low concentrations of metabolites, the rapid evolution of carbon dioxide, and the rapid disappearance of fluoranthene from the medium provide concrete evidence of the usefulness of this Mycobacterium for bioremediation of some PAHs.

Kelley, I.; Freeman, J.P.; Evans, F.E.; Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States))

1993-03-01

106

Identification of metabolites from the degradation of fluoranthene by Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1.  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1, previously shown to extensively mineralize high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pure culture and in sediments, degrades fluoranthene to 9-fluorenone-1-carboxylic acid. In this study, 10 other fluoranthene metabolites were isolated from ethyl acetate extracts of the culture medium by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods. On the basis of comparisons with authentic compounds by UV spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography as well as gas chromatography-mass spectral and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses, the metabolites were identified as 8-hydroxy-7-methoxyfluoranthene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 9-fluorenone, 1-acenaphthenone, 9-hydroxy-1-fluorenecarboxylic acid, phthalic acid, 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, and adipic acid. Authentic 9-hydroxyfluorene and 9-fluorenone were metabolized by Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1. A pathway for the catabolism of fluoranthene by Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 is proposed. PMID:8481006

Kelley, I; Freeman, J P; Evans, F E; Cerniglia, C E

1993-01-01

107

Expression of the ggpS Gene, Involved in Osmolyte Synthesis in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002, Revealed Regulatory Differences between This Strain and the Freshwater Strain Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of the osmolyte glucosylglycerol (GG) in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 was characterized. The ggpS gene, which encodes the key enzyme (GG-phosphate synthase [GgpS]) in GG biosynthesis, was cloned by using PCR. A 2,030-bp DNA sequence which contained one open reading frame (ORF) was obtained. The protein deduced from this ORF exhibited 85% similarity to the GgpS of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. The function of the protein was confirmed by generating a ggpS null mutant, which was not able to synthesize GG and thus exhibited a salt-sensitive phenotype. Expression of the ggpS gene was analyzed in salt-shocked cells by performing Northern blot and immunoblot experiments. While almost no expression was detected in cells grown in low-salt medium, immediately after a salt shock the amounts of ggpS mRNA and GgpS protein increased up to 100-fold. The finding that salt-induced expression occurred was confirmed by measuring enzyme activities, which were negligible in control cells but clearly higher in salt-treated Synechococcus sp. cells. The salt-induced increase in GgpS activity could be inhibited by adding chloramphenicol, while in protein extracts of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 a constitutive, high level of enzyme activity that was not affected by chloramphenicol was found. A comparison of GG accumulation in the two cyanobacteria revealed that in the marine strain osmolyte synthesis seemed to be regulated mainly by transcriptional control, whereas in the freshwater strain control seemed to be predominantly posttranslational. PMID:10543792

Engelbrecht, Friederike; Marin, Kay; Hagemann, Martin

1999-01-01

108

Complete detoxification of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate by mixed two bacteria, Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 and Arthrobacter sp. strain PY1.  

PubMed

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a flame retardant, is regarded as a potentially toxic and persistent environmental contaminant. We previously isolated a TDCPP-degrading bacterium, Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1, which, however, produced a toxic metabolite: 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP). This study was undertaken to develop a technique for complete TDCPP detoxification using strain TCM1 with a 1,3-DCP-degrading bacterium, Arthrobacter sp. strain PY1. For efficient detoxification, we designed a resting cell system and examined the effect of freezing and lyophilization treatments for preparation of their resting cells. Results show that treatments had no marked adverse effect on their activities. The TDCPP dephosphorylation by TCM1 resting cells was optimal at 30°C and pH 8.5. Also, 1,3-DCP dehalogenation by strain PY1 resting cells was optimal at 35°C and pH 9.5. Under those respective conditions, the activities were 2.48 ?mol h?¹·OD????¹ for TDCPP and 0.95 ?mol h?¹·OD????¹ for 1,3-DCP. Based on these results, we set the reaction temperature to 30°C and pH to 9.0. Then we examined the detoxification of 50 ?M TDCPP using mixed resting cells at a final OD(660) of 0.05 for strain TCM1 and 0.2 for strain PY1. In these conditions, TDCPP was eliminated after 1h, but some of the resulting 1,3-DCP remained at a constant level. The increase in strain PY1 cells to a final OD??? of 4.0 decreased the TDCPP dephosphorylation rate of strain TCM1 cells but achieved complete detoxification of TDCPP during 12 h of reaction. PMID:21956155

Takahashi, Shouji; Obana, Yuki; Okada, Shohei; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

2012-01-01

109

Insights learned from pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1 and prevalence of accessory plasmids in other Bradyrhizobium sp. strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In silico, physiological and in planta analyses were used to characterize pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1, and assess its potential ecological function under free-living and symbiotic growth conditions. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an uptake hydrogenase system, a repABC family plasmid replication module and open reading frames encoding type IV secretion system, TraI and

Eddie J Cytryn; Siriluck Jitacksorn; Eric Giraud; Michael J Sadowsky

2008-01-01

110

Substrate specificities and availability of fucosyltransferase and beta-carotene hydroxylase for myxol 2'-fucoside synthesis in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 compared with Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.  

PubMed

To elucidate the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids, especially myxol 2'-glycosides, in cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (also known as Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120) and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 deletion mutants lacking selected proposed carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes and GDP-fucose synthase (WcaG), which is required for myxol 2'-fucoside production, were analyzed. The carotenoids in these mutants were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography, field desorption mass spectrometry, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. The wcaG (all4826) deletion mutant of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 produced myxol 2'-rhamnoside and 4-ketomyxol 2'-rhamnoside as polar carotenoids instead of the myxol 2'-fucoside and 4-ketomyxol 2'-fucoside produced by the wild type. Deletion of the corresponding gene in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (sll1213; 79% amino acid sequence identity with the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 gene product) produced free myxol instead of the myxol 2'-dimethyl-fucoside produced by the wild type. Free myxol might correspond to the unknown component observed previously in the same mutant (H. E. Mohamed, A. M. L. van de Meene, R. W. Roberson, and W. F. J. Vermaas, J. Bacteriol. 187:6883-6892, 2005). These results indicate that in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, but not in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, rhamnose can be substituted for fucose in myxol glycoside. The beta-carotene hydroxylase orthologue (CrtR, Alr4009) of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 catalyzed the transformation of deoxymyxol and deoxymyxol 2'-fucoside to myxol and myxol 2'-fucoside, respectively, but not the beta-carotene-to-zeaxanthin reaction, whereas CrtR from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 catalyzed both reactions. Thus, the substrate specificities or substrate availabilities of both fucosyltransferase and CrtR were different in these species. The biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 are discussed. PMID:18708496

Mochimaru, Mari; Masukawa, Hajime; Maoka, Takashi; Mohamed, Hatem E; Vermaas, Wim F J; Takaichi, Shinichi

2008-10-01

111

Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium sp. Strain BHC-A, Revealing Genes for the Degradation of Hexachlorocyclohexane  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Sphingobium sp. strain BHC-A, a lin gene-based hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-degrading strain, isolated from soil that suffered long-term HCH contamination in an insecticide factory. PMID:24699958

Xue, Chao; Cao, Li; Zhang, Rong; He, Jian; Li, Shunpeng

2014-01-01

112

Improved eco-friendly recombinant Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 with enhanced nitrogen biofertilizer potential.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains are native to tropical paddy fields and contribute to the carbon and nitrogen economy of such soils. Genetic engineering was employed to improve the nitrogen biofertilizer potential of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120. Constitutive enhanced expression of an additional integrated copy of the hetR gene from a light-inducible promoter elevated HetR protein expression and enhanced functional heterocyst frequency in the recombinant strain. The recombinant strain displayed consistently higher nitrogenase activity than the wild-type strain and appeared to be in homeostasis with compatible modulation of photosynthesis and respiration. The enhanced combined nitrogen availability from the recombinant strain positively catered to the nitrogen demand of rice seedlings in short-term hydroponic experiments and supported better growth. The engineered strain is stable, eco-friendly, and useful for environmental application as nitrogen biofertilizer in paddy fields. PMID:21057013

Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar

2011-01-01

113

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production using waste vegetable oil by Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2.  

PubMed

To produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from inexpensive substrates by bacteria, vegetable-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from a rice field using enrichment cultivation. The isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 showed clear orange or red spots of accumulated PHA granules when grown on phosphate and nitrogen limited medium containing vegetable oil as the sole carbon source and stained with Nile blue A. Up to 37.34% (w/w) of intracellular PHA was produced from corn oil, which consisted of three major 3-hydroxyalkanoates; octanoic (C8:0, 37.75% of the total 3-hydroxyalkanoate content of PHA), decanoic (C10:0, 36.74%), and dodecanoic (C12:0, 11.36%). Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated up to 23.52% (w/w) of PHAMCL from waste vegetable oil. The proportion of 3- hydroxyalkanoate of the waste vegetable-oil-derived PHA [hexanoic (5.86%), octanoic (45.67%), decanoic (34.88%), tetradecanoic (8.35%), and hexadecanoic (5.24%)] showed a composition ratio different from that of the corn-oil-derived PHA. Strain DR2 used three major fatty acids in the same ratio, and linoleic acid was the major source of PHA production. Interestingly, the production of PHA in Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 could not occur in either acetate- or butyrate-amended media. Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated a greater amount of PHA than other well-studied strains (Chromobacterium violaceum and Ralstonia eutropha H16) when grown on vegetable oil. The data showed that Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 was capable of producing PHA from waste vegetable oil. PMID:18756101

Song, Jin Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok; Choi, Mun Hwan; Yoon, Sung Chul; Park, Woojun

2008-08-01

114

Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

Paenibacillus speciesY412MC10 was one of a number of organisms initially isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA. The isolate Y412MC10 was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species and not Geobacillus; the 16S rRNA analysis indicated the organism was a strain of Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome of Paenibacillus lautus strain Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. The Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC{_}013406). Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other Paenibacilli. Over 25% of the proteins predicted by the Y412MC10 genome share no identity with the closest sequenced Paenibacillus species; most of these are predicted hypothetical proteins and their specific function in the environment is unknown.

Mead, David [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Zhang, Xiaojing [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brumm, Catherine [United States Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute; Hochstein, Rebecca [Lucigen Corporation, Middleton, Wisconsin; Schoenfeld, Thomas [Lucigen Corporation, Middleton, Wisconsin; Brumm, Phillip [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2012-01-01

115

Genome sequence of the lupin-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417.  

PubMed

Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen (N2) fixing root nodule of Lupinus sp. collected in Papudo, Chile, in 1995. However, this microsymbiont is a poorly effective N2 fixer with the legume host Lupinus angustifolius L.; a lupin species of considerable economic importance in both Chile and Australia. The symbiosis formed with L. angustifolius produces less than half of the dry matter achieved by the symbioses with commercial inoculant strains such as Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471. Therefore, WSM1417 is an important candidate strain with which to investigate the genetics of effective N2 fixation in the lupin-bradyrhizobia symbioses. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,048,963 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a single scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,695 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976884

Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

2013-12-20

116

Isolation and characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacterial strain possessing the gene trzN from bulk- and maize rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

We report the characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacteria isolated from atrazine-treated bulk- and maize rhizosphere soil. Based on 16S rDNA alignment, strain SP12 showed close phylogenic relationships with Nocardioides sp. C157 and Nocardioides simplex. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of strain SP12 were longer than those of other Nocardioides sp. and present Ala- and Ile-tRNA unlike Actinomycetales. Nocardioides sp. SP12 presents a novel atrazine catabolic pathway combining trzN with atzB and atzC. Atrazine biodegradation ends in a metabolite that co-eluted in HPLC with cyanuric acid. This metabolite shows an absorption spectrum identical to that of cyanuric acid with a maximal absorption at 214.6 nm. The mass of the atrazine metabolite is in concordance with that of cyanuric acid according to mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative PCR revealed that the ITS sequence of Nocardioides sp. SP12 was at a lower number than the one of trzN in atrazine-treated soil samples. It suggests that trzN could also be present in other atrazine degrading bacteria. The numbers of trzN and ITS sequences of Nocardioides sp. SP12 were higher in the maize rhizosphere than in bulk soil. PMID:12694918

Piutti, S; Semon, E; Landry, D; Hartmann, A; Dousset, S; Lichtfouse, E; Topp, E; Soulas, G; Martin-Laurent, F

2003-04-11

117

Genome Sequence of the Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Alcanivorax sp. Strain 97CO-5.  

PubMed

Alcanivorax sp. strain 97CO-5 was isolated from a crude-oil-degrading consortium, enriched from Yellow Sea sediment of China. Here, we present the draft genome of strain 97CO-5, which comprises 3,251,558 bp with a G+C content of 54.54% and contains 2,962 protein-coding genes and 42 tRNAs. PMID:25502673

Luan, Xiao; Cui, Zhisong; Gao, Wei; Li, Qian; Yin, Xiaofei; Zheng, Li

2014-01-01

118

Comparison of two multimetal resistant bacterial strains: Enterobacter sp. YSU and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ORO2.  

PubMed

The Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, TN, which manufactured nuclear weapons during World War II and the Cold War, contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek with heavy metals. The multimetal resistant bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Oak Ridge strain O2 (S. maltophilia O2), was isolated from East Fork Poplar Creek. Sequence analysis of 16s rDNA suggested that our working strain of S. maltophilia O2 was a strain of Enterobacter. Phylogenetic tree analysis and biochemical tests confirmed that it belonged to an Enterobacter species. This new strain was named Enterobacter sp. YSU. Using a modified R3A growth medium, R3A-Tris, the Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Au(III), Cr(VI), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV) MICs for a confirmed strain of S. maltophilia O2 were 0.24, 0.33, 5, 5, 0.25, 7, 0.03, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, compared to 0.07, 0.24, 0.8, 3, 0.05, 0.4, 0.08, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, for Enterobacter sp. YSU. Although S. maltophilia O2 was generally more metal resistant than Enterobacter sp. YSU, in comparison to Escherichia coli strain HB101, Enterobacter sp. YSU was resistant to Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Au(III), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV). By studying metal resistances in these two strains, it may be possible to understand what makes one microorganism more metal resistant than another microorganism. This work also provided benchmark MICs that can be used to evaluate the metal resistance properties of other bacterial isolates from East Fork Poplar Creek and other metal contaminated sites. PMID:19688378

Holmes, Andrew; Vinayak, Anubhav; Benton, Cherise; Esbenshade, Aaron; Heinselman, Carlisle; Frankland, Daniel; Kulkarni, Samatha; Kurtanich, Adrienne; Caguiat, Jonathan

2009-11-01

119

Genome sequence of the acid-tolerant strain Rhizobium sp. LPU83.  

PubMed

Rhizobia are important members of the soil microbiome since they enter into nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with different legume host plants. Rhizobium sp. LPU83 is an acid-tolerant Rhizobium strain featuring a broad-host-range. However, it is ineffective in nitrogen fixation. Here, the improved draft genome sequence of this strain is reported. Genome sequence information provides the basis for analysis of its acid tolerance, symbiotic properties and taxonomic classification. PMID:24556327

Wibberg, Daniel; Tejerizo, Gonzalo Torres; Del Papa, María Florencia; Martini, Carla; Pühler, Alfred; Lagares, Antonio; Schlüter, Andreas; Pistorio, Mariano

2014-04-20

120

Interaction of fructose with the glucose permease of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803  

SciTech Connect

Fructose was bactericidal for the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Each of ten independently isolated fructose-resistant mutants had an alteration of the glucose transport system, measured as uptake of glucose or of 3-0-methyl-D-glucose. In the presence of the analog, the wild-type Synechocystis strain was protected against fructose. Two mutants altered in photoautotrophy were also isolated.

Flores, E.; Schmetterer, G.

1986-05-01

121

Genome Sequence of the Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Alcanivorax sp. Strain 97CO-5  

PubMed Central

Alcanivorax sp. strain 97CO-5 was isolated from a crude-oil-degrading consortium, enriched from Yellow Sea sediment of China. Here, we present the draft genome of strain 97CO-5, which comprises 3,251,558 bp with a G+C content of 54.54% and contains 2,962 protein-coding genes and 42 tRNAs. PMID:25502673

Luan, Xiao; Gao, Wei; Li, Qian; Yin, Xiaofei; Zheng, Li

2014-01-01

122

Two Distinct Monooxygenases for Alkane Oxidation in Nocardioides sp. Strain CF8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkane monooxygenases in Nocardioides sp. strain CF8 were examined at the physiological and genetic levels. Strain CF8 can utilize alkanes ranging in chain length from C2 to C16. Butane degradation by butane-grown cells was strongly inhibited by allylthiourea, a copper-selective chelator, while hexane-, octane-, and decane-grown cells showed detectable butane degradation activity in the presence of allylthiourea. Growth on butane

NATSUKO HAMAMURA; CHRIS M. YEAGER; DANIEL J. ARP

2001-01-01

123

Discovery of Rare and Highly Toxic Microcystins from Lichen-Associated Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain IO-102-I  

PubMed Central

The production of hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides, microcystins, is almost exclusively reported from planktonic cyanobacteria. Here we show that a terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I isolated from a lichen association produces six different microcystins. Microcystins were identified with liquid chromatography-UV mass spectrometry by their retention times, UV spectra, mass fragmentation, and comparison to microcystins from the aquatic Nostoc sp. strain 152. The dominant microcystin produced by Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I was the highly toxic [ADMAdda5]microcystin-LR, which accounted for ca. 80% of the total microcystins. We assigned a structure of [DMAdda5]microcystin-LR and [d-Asp3,ADMAdda5]microcystin-LR and a partial structure of three new [ADMAdda5]-XR type of microcystin variants. Interestingly, Nostoc spp. strains IO-102-I and 152 synthesized only the rare ADMAdda and DMAdda subfamilies of microcystin variants. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated congruence between genes involved directly in microcystin biosynthesis and the 16S rRNA and rpoC1 genes of Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I. Nostoc sp. strain 152 and the Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I are distantly related, revealing a sporadic distribution of toxin production in the genus Nostoc. Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I is closely related to Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and other symbiotic Nostoc strains and most likely belongs to this species. Together, this suggests that other terrestrial and aquatic strains of the genus Nostoc may have retained the genes necessary for microcystin biosynthesis. PMID:15466511

Oksanen, Ilona; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Rikkinen, Jouko; Sivonen, Kaarina

2004-01-01

124

Biochemical and Genetic Analyses of Ferulic Acid Catabolism in Pseudomonas sp. Strain HR199  

PubMed Central

The gene loci fcs, encoding feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA) synthetase, ech, encoding enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, and aat, encoding ?-ketothiolase, which are involved in the catabolism of ferulic acid and eugenol in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 (DSM7063), were localized on a DNA region covered by two EcoRI fragments (E230 and E94), which were recently cloned from a Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 genomic library in the cosmid pVK100. The nucleotide sequences of parts of fragments E230 and E94 were determined, revealing the arrangement of the aforementioned genes. To confirm the function of the structural genes fcs and ech, they were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains harboring both genes were able to transform ferulic acid to vanillin. The feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase activities of the fcs and ech gene products, respectively, were confirmed by photometric assays and by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. To prove the essential involvement of the fcs, ech, and aat genes in the catabolism of ferulic acid and eugenol in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, these genes were inactivated separately by the insertion of omega elements. The corresponding mutants Pseudomonas sp. strain HRfcs?Gm and Pseudomonas sp. strain HRech?Km were not able to grow on ferulic acid or on eugenol, whereas the mutant Pseudomonas sp. strain HRaat?Km exhibited a ferulic acid- and eugenol-positive phenotype like the wild type. In conclusion, the degradation pathway of eugenol via ferulic acid and the necessity of the activation of ferulic acid to the corresponding CoA ester was confirmed. The aat gene product was shown not to be involved in this catabolism, thus excluding a ?-oxidation analogous degradation pathway for ferulic acid. Moreover, the function of the ech gene product as an enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase suggests that ferulic acid degradation in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 proceeds via a similar pathway to that recently described for Pseudomonas fluorescens AN103. PMID:10543794

Overhage, Jörg; Priefert, Horst; Steinbüchel, Alexander

1999-01-01

125

Molecular characterization of a thermophilic and salt and alkaline-tolerant xylanase from Planococcus sp. SL4, a strain isolated from the sediment of a soda lake.  

PubMed

To enrich the genetic resource of microbial xylanases with high activity and stability under alkaline conditions, a xylanase gene (xynSL4) was cloned from Planococcus sp. SL4, an alkaline xylanase producing strain isolated from the sediment of soda lake Dabusu. Deduced XynSL4 consists of a putative signal peptide of 29 residues and a catalytic domain (30?380 residues) of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 10, and shares the highest identity of 77% to a hypothetical protein from Planomicrobium glaciei CHR43. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that deduced XynSL4 is closely related with thermophilic and alkaline xylanases from Geobacillus and Bacillus species. The gene xynSL4 was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the recombinant enzyme showed some superior properties. Purified recombinant XynSL4 (rXynSL4) was highly active and stable over the neutral and alkaline pH range from 6 to 11, with maximum activity at pH 7 and more than 60% activity at pH 11. It had an apparent temperature optimum of 70°C and retained stable at this temperature in the presence of substrate. rXynSL4 was highly halotolerant, retaining more than 55% activity with 0.25-3.0 M NaCl and was stable at the concentration of NaCl up to 4 M. The enzyme activity was significantly enhanced by ?-mercaptoethanol and Ca(2+) but strongly inhibited by heavy metal ions and SDS. This thermophilic and alkaline and salt-tolerant enzyme has great potentials for basic research and industrial applications. PMID:25381738

Huang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun; Wang, Guozeng

2014-11-10

126

Genome sequence of the halotolerant Staphylococcus sp. strain OJ82, isolated from Korean traditional salt-fermented seafood.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus sp. strain OJ82 was isolated from a Korean traditional fermented squid seafood, ojingeo-jeotgal. Staphylococcus sp. OJ82 could grow and show extracellular protease and ?-galactosidase activities in the presence of extremely high saline (20%). Here, we report the genome sequence of Staphylococcus sp. OJ82. PMID:23105083

Sung, Jung-Suk; Chun, Jongsik; Choi, Sungjong; Park, Woojun

2012-11-01

127

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain OCN003, Isolated from K?ne’ohe Bay, O’ahu, Hawaii  

PubMed Central

Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003 is a marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from a diseased colony of the common Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata, found on a reef surrounding Moku o Lo’e in K?ne’ohe Bay, Hawaii. Here, we report the complete genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003. PMID:25593253

Beurmann, Silvia; Videau, Patrick; Ushijima, Blake; Smith, Ashley M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Callahan, Sean M.

2015-01-01

128

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain OCN003, Isolated from K?ne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii.  

PubMed

Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003 is a marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from a diseased colony of the common Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata, found on a reef surrounding Moku o Lo'e in K?ne'ohe Bay, Hawaii. Here, we report the complete genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003. PMID:25593253

Beurmann, Silvia; Videau, Patrick; Ushijima, Blake; Smith, Ashley M; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M; Belcaid, Mahdi

2015-01-01

129

Draft Genome Sequence of the Lignin-Degrading Burkholderia sp. Strain LIG30, Isolated from Wet Tropical Forest Soil  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia species are common soil Betaproteobacteria capable of degrading recalcitrant aromatic compounds and xenobiotics. Burkholderia sp. strain LIG30 was isolated from wet tropical forest soil and is capable of utilizing lignin as a sole carbon source. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain LIG30. PMID:24948777

Woo, Hannah L.; Utturkar, Sagar; Klingeman, Dawn; Simmons, Blake A.; DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Brown, Steven D.

2014-01-01

130

Draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain M24T3, isolated from pinewood disease nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

Here we report the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain M24T3, which is associated with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease. Serratia sp. strain M24T3 has been identified as a bionematocide for B. xylophilus in vitro, and multiple genes potentially involved in virulence and nematotoxity were identified. PMID:22740681

Proença, Diogo Neves; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Grass, Gregor; Morais, Paula V

2012-07-01

131

Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain M47T1, carried by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus isolated from Pinus pinaster.  

PubMed

The draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain M47T1, carried by the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus pinewood nematode, the causative agent of pine wilt disease, is presented. In Pseudomonas sp. strain M47T1, genes that make this a plant growth-promoting bacterium, as well as genes potentially involved in nematotoxicity, were identified. PMID:22887683

Proença, Diogo Neves; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Grass, Gregor; Morais, Paula V

2012-09-01

132

Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus sp. Strain NK55a.  

SciTech Connect

The genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus sp. strain NK55a, isolated from Nakabusa hot spring, comprises a single, circular, 2.5-Mb chromosome. The genome is predicted to encode 2358 protein coding genes, including genes for all typical cyanobacterial photosynthetic and metabolic functions. No genes encoding hydrogenases or nitrogenase were identified.

Stolyar, Sergey; Liu, Zhenfeng; Thiel, Vera; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Pinel, Nicolas; Nelson, William C.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Romine, Margaret F.; Haruta, Shin; Schuster, Stephan C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2014-01-02

133

Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, ...

134

Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. KHS3, a Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon-Chemotactic Strain.  

PubMed

The draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. KHS3, isolated from seawater from Mar del Plata harbor, is reported. This strain is able to grow using aromatic compounds as a carbon source and shows strong chemotactic response toward these substrates. Genes involved in motility, chemotaxis, and degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons were identified. PMID:25767220

Gasperotti, Ana Florencia; Studdert, Claudia Alicia; Revale, Santiago; Herrera Seitz, María Karina

2015-01-01

135

Draft Genome Sequence of Kocuria sp. Strain UCD-OTCP (Phylum Actinobacteria)  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome of Kocuria sp. strain UCD-OTCP, a member of the phylum Actinobacteria, isolated from a restaurant chair cushion. The assembly contains 3,791,485 bp (G+C content of 73%) and is contained in 68 scaffolds. PMID:23661474

Coil, David A.; Doctor, Jessica I.; Lang, Jenna M.; Darling, Aaron E.

2013-01-01

136

Whole-Genome Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Burkholderia sp. Strain A9.  

PubMed

Burkholderia spp. rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone as quorum-sensing signal molecules which coordinate their phenotype at the population level. In this work, we present the whole genome of Burkholderia sp. strain A9, which enables the discovery of its N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase gene. PMID:25745000

Chan, Kok-Gan; Chen, Jian Woon; Tee, Kok Keng; Chang, Chien-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Xin-Yue

2015-01-01

137

Deep Desulfurization of Extensively Hydrodesulfurized Middle Distillate Oil by Rhodococcus sp. Strain ECRD-1  

PubMed Central

Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm. PMID:11282654

Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Minak-Bernero, V.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

2001-01-01

138

Deep desulfurization of extensively hydrodesulfurized middle distillate oil by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1.  

PubMed

Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm. PMID:11282654

Grossman, M J; Lee, M K; Prince, R C; Minak-Bernero, V; George, G N; Pickering, I J

2001-04-01

139

Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. KHS3, a Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon-Chemotactic Strain  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. KHS3, isolated from seawater from Mar del Plata harbor, is reported. This strain is able to grow using aromatic compounds as a carbon source and shows strong chemotactic response toward these substrates. Genes involved in motility, chemotaxis, and degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons were identified. PMID:25767220

Gasperotti, Ana Florencia; Studdert, Claudia Alicia; Revale, Santiago

2015-01-01

140

Genome Sequence of the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacterium Streptomyces sp. Strain AcH 505  

PubMed Central

A draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain AcH 505 is presented here. The genome encodes 22 secondary metabolite gene clusters and a large arsenal of secreted proteins, and their comparative and functional analyses will help to advance our knowledge of symbiotic interactions and fungal and plant biomass degradation. PMID:25838498

Feldhahn, L.; Buscot, F.; Wubet, T.

2015-01-01

141

Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacteriocins, polyketides, and auxins, as demonstrated by genome mining. PMID:25414510

Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

2014-01-01

142

Draft Genome Sequence of Pedobacter sp. Strain NL19, a Producer of Potent Antibacterial Compounds  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pedobacter sp. strain NL19. The genome has 5.99 Mbp and a G+C content of 39.0%. NL19 was isolated from sludge from an abandoned uranium mine in the north of Portugal, and it produces potent antibacterials against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25814603

2015-01-01

143

OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400  

EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

144

OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400  

EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. his organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. iphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of biphenyl ...

145

Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain CT34, Isolated from a Ghanaian Soil Sample  

PubMed Central

Presented here is a draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain CT34, which produces a novel ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP). Analysis of the deduced open reading frame set identified the putative RiPP biosynthesis gene cluster, as well as other secondary metabolite gene clusters. PMID:25657278

Zhai, Yin; Cheng, Bin; Hu, Juan; Kyeremeh, Kwaku; Wang, Xiaoling; Jaspars, Marcel; Deng, Hai; Deng, Zi-Xin

2015-01-01

146

Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain LG12 has a series of serine protease genes.  

PubMed Central

Four tandem subtilisin-like protease genes were found on a 6,854-bp DNA fragment cloned from the alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain LG12. The two downstream genes (sprC and sprD) appear to be transcribed independently, while the two upstream genes (sprA and sprB) seem to be part of the same transcript. PMID:8534117

Schmidt, B F; Woodhouse, L; Adams, R M; Ward, T; Mainzer, S E; Lad, P J

1995-01-01

147

Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain LG12 has a series of serine protease genes.  

PubMed

Four tandem subtilisin-like protease genes were found on a 6,854-bp DNA fragment cloned from the alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain LG12. The two downstream genes (sprC and sprD) appear to be transcribed independently, while the two upstream genes (sprA and sprB) seem to be part of the same transcript. PMID:8534117

Schmidt, B F; Woodhouse, L; Adams, R M; Ward, T; Mainzer, S E; Lad, P J

1995-12-01

148

Genome Sequence of Amycolatopsis sp Strain ATCC 39116, a Plant Biomass-Degrading Actinomycete  

SciTech Connect

We announce the availability of a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of Amycolatopsis sp. strain 39116, one of few bacterial species that are known to consume the lignin component of plant biomass. This genome sequence will further ongoing efforts to use microorganisms for the conversion of plant biomass into fuels and high-value chemicals.

Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

2012-01-01

149

Whole-Genome Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Burkholderia sp. Strain A9  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia spp. rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone as quorum-sensing signal molecules which coordinate their phenotype at the population level. In this work, we present the whole genome of Burkholderia sp. strain A9, which enables the discovery of its N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase gene. PMID:25745000

Chen, Jian Woon; Tee, Kok Keng; Chang, Chien-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Xin-Yue

2015-01-01

150

Draft Genome Sequence of Pedobacter sp. Strain NL19, a Producer of Potent Antibacterial Compounds.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pedobacter sp. strain NL19. The genome has 5.99 Mbp and a G+C content of 39.0%. NL19 was isolated from sludge from an abandoned uranium mine in the north of Portugal, and it produces potent antibacterials against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25814603

Santos, Tiago; Cruz, Andreia; Caetano, Tânia; Covas, Cláudia; Mendo, Sónia

2015-01-01

151

Draft Genome Sequence of Alkaliphilic Exiguobacterium sp. Strain HUD, Isolated from a Polymicrobial Consortia  

PubMed Central

An alkaliphilic microorganism from the genus Exiguobacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. strain HUD was isolated from a fermentative, methanogenic polymicrobial microcosm operating at pH 10. The draft genome shows the presence of genes encoding for the metabolism of a range of carbohydrates under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. PMID:25614564

Rout, Simon P.; Rai, Anup

2015-01-01

152

Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain PLSV, an Ulvan-Degrading Bacterium  

PubMed Central

We present the draft genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain PLSV, isolated from the feces of an Aplysia sea slug. The addition of the PLSV genome to the existing genomes of three other ulvan-degrading bacterial species will enhance our understanding of ulvan utilization. PMID:25502665

Kopel, Moran; Helbert, William; Henrissat, Bernard; Doniger, Tirza

2014-01-01

153

Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus sp. Strain NK55a  

PubMed Central

The genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus sp. strain NK55a, isolated from the Nakabusa hot spring, Nagano Prefecture, Japan, comprises a single, circular, 2.5-Mb chromosome. The genome is predicted to contain 2,358 protein-encoding genes, including genes for all typical cyanobacterial photosynthetic and metabolic functions. No genes encoding hydrogenases or nitrogenase were identified. PMID:24482507

Liu, Zhenfeng; Thiel, Vera; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Pinel, Nicolas; Nelson, William C.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Romine, Margie F.; Haruta, Shin; Schuster, Stephan C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2014-01-01

154

Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus sp. Strain NK55a.  

PubMed

The genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus sp. strain NK55a, isolated from the Nakabusa hot spring, Nagano Prefecture, Japan, comprises a single, circular, 2.5-Mb chromosome. The genome is predicted to contain 2,358 protein-encoding genes, including genes for all typical cyanobacterial photosynthetic and metabolic functions. No genes encoding hydrogenases or nitrogenase were identified. PMID:24482507

Stolyar, Sergey; Liu, Zhenfeng; Thiel, Vera; Tomsho, Lynn P; Pinel, Nicolas; Nelson, William C; Lindemann, Stephen R; Romine, Margie F; Haruta, Shin; Schuster, Stephan C; Bryant, Donald A; Fredrickson, Jim K

2014-01-01

155

Draft Genome Sequence of Ammonia-Producing Acinetobacter sp. Strain MCC2139 from Dairy Effluent.  

PubMed

We report the draft genome sequence of an ammonia-producing, esculin-hydrolyzing, catalase-positive, gram-negative bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. strain MCC2139. This bacterium, isolated from dairy sludge and with optimum growth at 37°C, has a genome size of 2,967,280 bp with a G+C content of 42.3%. PMID:23814111

Chatterjee, Debasmita; Thakur, Ashoke Ranjan; Raychaudhuri, Shaon

2013-01-01

156

Draft Genome Sequence of the Nitrate- and Phosphate-Accumulating Bacillus sp. Strain MCC0008.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the nitrate- and phosphate-accumulating Bacillus sp. strain MCC0008, isolated from a consortium enriched from municipal sewage in nitrate broth (HiMedia M439). The total size of the genome is 5,609,456 bp, with a G+C content of 35.1%. PMID:23409265

Debroy, Shreya; Bhattacharjee, Amrita; Thakur, Ashoke Ranjan; Raychaudhuri, Shaon

2013-01-01

157

Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain CT34, Isolated from a Ghanaian Soil Sample.  

PubMed

Presented here is a draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain CT34, which produces a novel ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP). Analysis of the deduced open reading frame set identified the putative RiPP biosynthesis gene cluster, as well as other secondary metabolite gene clusters. PMID:25657278

Zhai, Yin; Cheng, Bin; Hu, Juan; Kyeremeh, Kwaku; Wang, Xiaoling; Jaspars, Marcel; Deng, Hai; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

2015-01-01

158

Draft Genome Sequence of Pantoea sp. Strain MBLJ3, Isolated in a Laboratory Environmental Control Study  

PubMed Central

This report describes the draft genome sequence of a newly isolated strain, Pantoea sp. MBLJ3. The genome is 4.8 Mb in size, with a G+C content of 54.27%, and it contains 4,522 protein-coding sequences, 69 tRNA genes, and 5 rRNA genes. PMID:25720687

Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tianwei; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien

2015-01-01

159

Draft Genome Sequence of Lysinibacillus sp. Strain A1, Isolated from Malaysian Tropical Soil  

PubMed Central

In this work, we describe the genome of Lysinibacillus sp. strain A1, which was isolated from tropical soil. Analysis of its genome sequence shows the presence of a gene encoding for a putative peptidase responsible for nitrogen compounds. PMID:25814592

Chen, Jian Woon; Chang, Chien-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Xin-Yue

2015-01-01

160

Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium sp. Strain HDIPO4, an Avid Degrader of Hexachlorocyclohexane  

PubMed Central

Sphingobium sp. strain HDIPO4 was isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dumpsite and degraded HCH isomers rapidly. The draft genome sequence of HDIPO4 (~4.7 Mbp) contains 143 contigs and 4,646 coding sequences with a G+C content of 65%. PMID:24051321

Mukherjee, Udita; Kumar, Roshan; Mahato, Nitish Kumar; Khurana, J. P.

2013-01-01

161

Degradation of 4-fluorophenol by Arthrobacter sp. strain IF1  

PubMed Central

A Gram-positive bacterial strain capable of aerobic biodegradation of 4-fluorophenol (4-FP) as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated by selective enrichment from soil samples collected near an industrial site. The organism, designated strain IF1, was identified as a member of the genus Arthrobacter on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. Arthrobacter strain IF1 was able to mineralize 4-FP up to concentrations of 5 mM in batch culture. Stoichiometric release of fluoride ions was observed, suggesting that there is no formation of halogenated dead-end products during 4-FP metabolism. The degradative pathway of 4-FP was investigated using enzyme assays and identification of intermediates by gas chromatography (GC), GC–mass spectrometry (MS), high-performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography–MS. Cell-free extracts of 4-FP-grown cells contained no activity for catechol 1,2-dioxygenase or catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, which indicates that the pathway does not proceed through a catechol intermediate. Cells grown on 4-FP oxidized 4-FP, hydroquinone, and hydroxyquinol but not 4-fluorocatechol. During 4-FP metabolism, hydroquinone accumulated as a product. Hydroquinone could be converted to hydroxyquinol, which was further transformed into maleylacetic acid and ?-ketoadipic acid. These results indicate that the biodegradation of 4-FP starts with a 4-FP monooxygenase reaction that yields benzoquinone, which is reduced to hydroquinone and further metabolized via the ?-ketoadipic acid pathway. PMID:18228015

Ferreira, Maria Isabel M.; Marchesi, Julian R.

2008-01-01

162

Characterization and mutational analysis of nodHPQ genes of Rhizobium sp. strain N33.  

PubMed

We have shown, by sequencing the nodulation gene region of Rhizobium sp. strain N33 previously isolated from the Canadian high arctic, that the nodHPQ genes are located in a 4.8-kb region downstream of nodBCIJ. The open reading frames of nodHPQ are 747, 906, and 1941 nucleotides long, respectively. The strain N33 genome contains one copy of nodH and two copies of nodPQ that are homologous to those genes in Rhizobium meliloti. Tn5 insertions in the nodHPQ genes of strain N33 did not affect the formation of nodules on the two homologous hosts, Astragalus cicer and Onobrychis viciifolia. Since strain N33 contains the nodBCIJHPQ genes and the recently sequenced nodAFEG genes, we looked for similar host range with R. meliloti. Strain N33 and R. meliloti strains A2 and RCR2011 were shown to induce the formation of root nodules on plants of O. viciifolia. However, strain N33, compared with R. meliloti strains, was able to elicit a few, white, empty, root nodules on Medicago sativa. R. meliloti strains, compared with strain N33, were shown to induce only few nodules containing bacteria on A. cicer. Induction of nod genes transcription in strain N33 was shown to be induced by a variety of flavonoid compounds that are different from those inducing nod genes from R. meliloti. PMID:8870271

Cloutler, J; Laberge, S; Castonguay, Y; Antoun, H

1996-11-01

163

Dissimilatory Iodate Reduction by Marine Pseudomonas sp. Strain SCT?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial iodate (IO3?) reduction is poorly understood largely due to the limited number of available isolates as well as the paucity of information about key enzymes involved in the reaction. In this study, an iodate-reducing bacterium, designated strain SCT, was newly isolated from marine sediment slurry. SCT is phylogenetically closely related to the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri and reduced 200 ?M iodate to iodide (I?) within 12 h in an anaerobic culture containing 10 mM nitrate. The strain did not reduce iodate under the aerobic conditions. An anaerobic washed cell suspension of SCT reduced iodate when the cells were pregrown anaerobically with 10 mM nitrate and 200 ?M iodate. However, cells pregrown without iodate did not reduce it. The cells in the former category showed methyl viologen-dependent iodate reductase activity (0.31 U mg?1), which was located predominantly in the periplasmic space. Furthermore, SCT was capable of anaerobic growth with 3 mM iodate as the sole electron acceptor, and the cells showed enhanced activity with respect to iodate reductase (2.46 U mg?1). These results suggest that SCT is a dissimilatory iodate-reducing bacterium and that its iodate reductase is induced by iodate under anaerobic growth conditions. PMID:17644635

Amachi, Seigo; Kawaguchi, Nahito; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Shinoyama, Hirofumi; Fujii, Takaaki

2007-01-01

164

Draft Genome Sequence of the Organophosphorus-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. Strain 1-7, Isolated from Organophosphorus-Polluted Sludge  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain 1-7, isolated from organophosphorus-polluted sludge, is able to degrade many organophosphorus compounds. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain 1-7. PMID:25278536

Tian, Jian; Xu, Li; Zhang, Shuangyu; Sun, Wen; Chu, Xiaoyu

2014-01-01

165

Genome sequence of Halorubrum sp. strain T3, an extremely halophilic archaeon harboring a virus-like element.  

PubMed

Halorubrum sp. strain T3, harboring a virus-like element, was isolated from a sample collected from a solar saltern in Yunnan, China. Several strains of Halorubrum pleomorphic viruses were reported in this genus recently; however, the virus-host interaction in haloarchaea remains unclear. To explore this issue, here we present the genome sequence of Halorubrum sp. strain T3 (3,168,011 bp, 68.48% G+C content). PMID:23144373

Chen, Shaoxing; Wang, Chuanming; Zhao, Zhiwei; Yang, Zhu L

2012-12-01

166

Strategy for improving extracellular lipolytic activities by a novel thermotolerant Staphylococcus sp. strain  

PubMed Central

Background Extracellular bacterial lipases received much attention for their substrate specificity and their ability to function under extreme environments (pH, temperature...). Many staphylococci produced lipases which were released into the culture medium. Reports of extracellular thermostable lipases from Staphylococcus sp. and active in alkaline conditions are not previously described. Results This study focused on novel strategies to increase extracellular lipolytic enzyme production by a novel Staphylococcus sp. strain ESW. The microorganism needed neutral or alkaline pH values between 7.0 and 12.0 for growth. For pH values outside this range, cell growth seemed to be significantly inhibited. Staphylococcus sp. culture was able to grow within a wide temperature range (from 30 to 55°C). The presence of oils in the culture medium leaded to improvements in cells growth and lipolytic enzyme activity. On the other hand, although chemical surfactants leaded to an almost complete inhibition of growth and lipolytic enzyme production, their addition along the culture could affect the location of the enzyme. In addition, our results showed that this novel Staphylococcus sp. strain produced biosurfactants simultaneously with lipolytic activity, when soapstock (The main co-product of the vegetable oil refining industry), was used as the sole carbon source. Conclusion A simultaneous biosurfactant and extracellular lipolytic enzymes produced bacterial strain with potential application in soap stock treatment PMID:22078466

2011-01-01

167

Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus sp. Strain CL1, Isolated from a Paralvinella sp. Polychaete Worm Collected from a Hydrothermal Vent  

PubMed Central

Thermococcus sp. strain CL1 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a Paralvinella sp. polychaete worm living on an active deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Cleft Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level, its genome was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence (1,950,313 bp) of Thermococcus sp. strain CL1, with a focus on H2- and energy-producing capabilities and its amino acid biosynthesis and acquisition in an extreme habitat. PMID:22887670

Jung, Jong-Hyun; Holden, James F.; Seo, Dong-Ho; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Shin, Hakdong; Ryu, Sangryeol

2012-01-01

168

Simultaneous Fermentation of Glucose and Xylose to Butanol by Clostridium sp. Strain BOH3  

PubMed Central

Cellulose and hemicellulose constitute the major components in sustainable feedstocks which could be used as substrates for biofuel generation. However, following hydrolysis to monomer sugars, the solventogenic Clostridium will preferentially consume glucose due to transcriptional repression of xylose utilization genes. This is one of the major barriers in optimizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates that produce butanol. Unlike studies on existing bacteria, this study demonstrates that newly reported Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 is capable of fermenting 60 g/liter of xylose to 14.9 g/liter butanol, which is similar to the 14.5 g/liter butanol produced from 60 g/liter of glucose. More importantly, strain BOH3 consumes glucose and xylose simultaneously, which is shown by its capability for generating 11.7 g/liter butanol from a horticultural waste cellulosic hydrolysate containing 39.8 g/liter glucose and 20.5 g/liter xylose, as well as producing 11.9 g/liter butanol from another horticultural waste hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing 58.3 g/liter xylose and 5.9 g/liter glucose. The high-xylose-utilization capability of strain BOH3 is attributed to its high xylose-isomerase (0.97 U/mg protein) and xylulokinase (1.16 U/mg protein) activities compared to the low-xylose-utilizing solventogenic strains, such as Clostridium sp. strain G117. Interestingly, strain BOH3 was also found to produce riboflavin at 110.5 mg/liter from xylose and 76.8 mg/liter from glucose during the fermentation process. In summary, Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 is an attractive candidate for application in efficiently converting lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels and other value-added products, such as riboflavin. PMID:24858088

Xin, Fengxue; Wu, Yi-Rui

2014-01-01

169

Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov., a novel succinic-acid-producing strain from the bovine rumen.  

PubMed

Strain 130ZT was isolated from the bovine rumen. It is a facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, Gram-negative rod. It exhibits a 'Morse code' form of morphology, which is characteristic of the genus Actinobacillus. Strain 130ZT is a capnophilic, osmotolerant succinogen that utilizes a broad range of sugars. It accumulates high concentrations of succinic acid (> 70 g l-1). Strain 130ZT is positive for catalase, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase, but does not produce indole or urease. Acid but no gas is produced from D-glucose and D-fructose. 16S rRNA sequence analysis places strain 130ZT within the family Pasteurellaceae; the most closely related members of the family Pasteurellaceae have 16S rRNA similarities of 95.5% or less with strain 130ZT. Strain 130ZT was compared with Actinobacillus lignieresii and the related Bisgaard Taxa 6 and 10. Based upon morphological and biochemical properties, strain 130ZT is most similar to members of the genus Actinobacillus within the family Pasteurellaceae. It is proposed that strain 130ZT be classified as a new species, Actinobacillus succinogenes. The type strain of Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov. is ATCC 55618T. PMID:10028265

Guettler, M V; Rumler, D; Jain, M K

1999-01-01

170

Genome Sequence of the Multiple-?-Lactam-Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterium Acidovorax sp. Strain MR-S7  

PubMed Central

Acidovorax sp. strain MR-S7 was isolated from activated sludge in a treatment system for wastewater containing ?-lactam antibiotic pollutants. Strain MR-S7 demonstrates multidrug resistance for various types of ?-lactam antibiotics at high levels of MIC. The draft genome sequence clarified that strain MR-S7 harbors unique ?-lactamase genes. PMID:23814112

Miura, Takamasa; Kusada, Hiroyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Hanada, Satoshi

2013-01-01

171

Isolation of the stable strain Labrys sp. BK-8 for l(+)-tartaric acid production.  

PubMed

A novel cis-epoxysuccinate hydrolase (CESH) producing strain of Labrys sp. BK-8 for production of l(+)-tartaric acid was isolated and identified. After optimization, a maximum activity of 3597 ± 151 U/g was achieved in batch culture in a 10 L fermentor. When Labrys sp. BK-8 was immobilized on ?-carrageenan, the immobilized cells showed a high conversion rate (>99%), enantioselectivity (EE > 99.5%) and storage stability (>90 d). A conversion rate of 97% was still achieved after 10 repeat batches. The CESH was stable over a broad range of temperatures (up to 45°C) and pH values (4.0-10.0). The Labrys sp. BK-8 isolate provides a new alternative with good stability for the industrial biosynthesis of l(+)-tartaric acid. PMID:25468422

Bao, Wenna; Pan, Haifeng; Zhang, Zhenhong; Cheng, Yongqing; Xie, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jianguo

2015-05-01

172

Unaltered Nodulation Competitiveness of a Strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus) after a Decade in Soil  

PubMed Central

A Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus) strain that formed a soil population that was highly competitive for nodulation of Lotus pedunculatus 11 years after its introduction into a field soil and a culture of the same strain stored lyophilized were compared with an antibiotic-resistant mutant in respect of their nodulation competitiveness. The mutant was less competitive than the wild-type strain it was isolated from and had to be present at a cell ratio of 5.76:1 in mixed inoculum in sand culture to form 50% of the nodules on L. pedunculatus (50% nodulation value, 5.76). The 50% nodulation values for a soil population of the mutant mixed with soil populations of the lyophilized and field soil strain were, respectively, 6.83 and 5.77, indicating that the field soil strain was not significantly different from the lyophilized strain in nodulation competitiveness. A 50% nodulation value of 11.18 obtained when soil containing a recently established mutant population was mixed with the field soil containing the population established 11 years before, indicating that the plant infection technique underestimated cell numbers of the field soil population by 100%. Nodulation competitiveness was unaffected by the size of the strain populations in the range of 100 to 1,000 cells per g of soil; at 10 cells per g a significant correlation between strain ratios in nodules and in soil was still evident. The results indicated that apparently superior nodulation competitiveness of a well-established soil population relative to that of a subsequently introduced strain may not necessarily reflect the intrinsic competitive abilites of the strain(s) involved. The soil strain did not differ from laboratory-maintained cultures in antigenic properties, effectiveness, or whole cell protein electrophoresis profiles. PMID:16348061

Lochner, Hester H.; Strijdom, Barend W.; Law, Ian J.

1989-01-01

173

Physiological characteristics of Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12 isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents  

SciTech Connect

Growth of the obligately chemolithotrophic Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12, isolated from a hydrothermal vent at a depth of 2,550 m in the Galapagos Rift region, was optimal at pH 8 and required 200 mM Na/sup +/ and divalent ions (Ca/sup 2 +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/). The organism was microaerophilic and tolerated 300 ..mu..M sulfide without a decrease in the rate of CO/sub 2/ incorporation. Growth and CO/sub 2/ incorporation occurred within the temperature range of 10 to 35/sup 0/C, with both optimal at 25/sup 0/C. At the in situ pressure of 250 atm, the rate of CO/sub 2/ incorporation was reduced by 25% relative to that measured at 1 atm; it was entirely suppressed at 500 atm. The results of this physiological characterization suggest that Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12 can be an active autotroph in the hydrothermal environment.

Ruby, E.G.; Jannasch, H.W.

1982-01-01

174

A New Fungal Isolate, Penidiella sp. Strain T9, Accumulates the Rare Earth Element Dysprosium.  

PubMed

With an aim to develop a highly efficient method for the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) by using microorganisms, we attempted to isolate dysprosium (Dy)-accumulating microorganisms that grow under acidic conditions from environmental samples containing high concentrations of heavy metals. One acidophilic strain, T9, which was isolated from an abandoned mine, decreased the concentration of Dy in medium that contained 100 mg/liter Dy to 53 mg/liter Dy after 3 days of cultivation at pH 2.5. The Dy content in the cell pellet of the T9 strain was 910 ?g/mg of dry cells. The T9 strain also accumulated other REEs. Based on the results of 28S-D1/D2 rRNA gene sequencing and morphological characterization, we designated this fungal strain Penidiella sp. T9. Bioaccumulation of Dy was observed on the cell surface of the T9 strain by elemental mapping using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results indicate that Penidiella sp. T9 has the potential to recover REEs such as Dy from mine drainage and industrial liquid waste under acidic conditions. PMID:25710372

Horiike, Takumi; Yamashita, Mitsuo

2015-05-01

175

Lignin transformation by a versatile peroxidase from a novel Bjerkandera sp. strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile peroxidase, purified from a novel strain of Bjerkandera sp. (B33\\/3), was tested for its reactivity on a lignin fraction obtained from straw pulping. The effects of such processing parameters as reaction time, pH, and lignin:enzyme ratio were evaluated. Gel filtration chromatography was employed to characterise the molecular mass distribution of the lignin fragments produced by the enzyme-mediated reaction.

Patrícia Raquel Moreira; Elsa Almeida-Vara; Francisco Xavier Malcata; José Cardoso Duarte

2007-01-01

176

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outline of this thesis<\\/strong>In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified

M. J. J. Kotterman

1998-01-01

177

Xylose metabolism in the anaerobic fungus Piromyces sp. strain E2 follows the bacterial pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic fungus Piromyces sp. strain E2 metabolizes xylose via xylose isomerase and d-xylulokinase as was shown by enzymatic and molecular analyses. This resembles the situation in bacteria. The clones encoding the two enzymes were obtained from a cDNA library. The xylose isomerase gene sequence is the first gene of this type reported for a fungus. Northern blot analysis revealed

Harry R. Harhangi; Anna S. Akhmanova; Roul Emmens; Chris van der Drift; Johannes P. van Dijken; Mike S. M. Jetten; Jack T. Pronk

2003-01-01

178

Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pantoea sp. Strain AS-PWVM4  

PubMed Central

Nonpathogenic Pantoea spp. have been shown to confer biofertilizer and biocontrol activities, indicating their potential for increasing crop yield. Herein, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain AS-PWVM4, a Gram-negative motile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a pomegranate plant. The 4.9-Mb genome contains genes related to plant growth promotion and the synthesis of siderophores. PMID:24309733

Khatri, Indu; Kaur, Sukhvir; Devi, Usha; Kumar, Navinder; Sharma, Deepak

2013-01-01

179

Three Replicons of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234 Harbor Symbiotic Gene Sequences  

PubMed Central

Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 contains three replicons: the symbiotic plasmid or pNGR234a, a megaplasmid (pNGR234b), and the chromosome. Symbiotic gene sequences not present in pNGR234a were analyzed by hybridization. DNA sequences homologous to the genes fixLJKNOPQGHIS were found on the chromosome, while sequences homologous to nodPQ and exoBDFLK were found on pNGR234b. PMID:9811668

Flores, Margarita; Mavingui, Patrick; Girard, Lourdes; Perret, Xavier; Broughton, William J.; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Dávila, Guillermo; Palacios, Rafael

1998-01-01

180

Three replicons of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234 harbor symbiotic gene sequences.  

PubMed

Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 contains three replicons: the symbiotic plasmid or pNGR234a, a megaplasmid (pNGR234b), and the chromosome. Symbiotic gene sequences not present in pNGR234a were analyzed by hybridization. DNA sequences homologous to the genes fixLJKNOPQGHIS were found on the chromosome, while sequences homologous to nodPQ and exoBDFLK were found on pNGR234b. PMID:9811668

Flores, M; Mavingui, P; Girard, L; Perret, X; Broughton, W J; Martínez-Romero, E; Dávila, G; Palacios, R

1998-11-01

181

Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pantoea sp. Strain AS-PWVM4.  

PubMed

Nonpathogenic Pantoea spp. have been shown to confer biofertilizer and biocontrol activities, indicating their potential for increasing crop yield. Herein, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain AS-PWVM4, a Gram-negative motile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a pomegranate plant. The 4.9-Mb genome contains genes related to plant growth promotion and the synthesis of siderophores. PMID:24309733

Khatri, Indu; Kaur, Sukhvir; Devi, Usha; Kumar, Navinder; Sharma, Deepak; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Saini, Adesh K

2013-01-01

182

Draft Genome Sequence of Root-Colonizing Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain PTS-394  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain PTS-394, isolated from the rhizosphere of tomatoes grown on Putuo Mountain (Xiamen, Fujian province, China), which exhibited excellent colonization ability on plant roots. The 4.0-Mb genome uncovered the mechanism for its potential root colonization ability and may provide novel insights into plant-bacterium interactions. PMID:24526631

Qiao, Junqing; Liang, Xuejie; Hu, Yonghong; Du, Yan

2014-01-01

183

Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: role in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The role of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism was studied in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N. Two distinct FALDHs were demonstrated in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: (i) a membrane-bound, NADP-dependent FALDH activity induced 5-, 15-, and 9 fold by growth on hexadecanol, dodecyl aldehyde, and hexadecane, respectively, and (ii) a constitutive, NAD-dependent, membrane-localized FALDH. Dodecyl aldehyde-negative mutants were isolated and grouped into two phenotypic classes based on growth: class 1 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol negative and class 2 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol positive. Specific activity of NADP-dependent FALDH in Ald21 (class 1 mutant) was 85% lower than that of wild-type FALDH, while the specific activity of Ald24 (class 2 mutant) was 55% greater than that of wild-type FALDH. Ald21R, a dodecyl aldehyde-positive revertant able to grow on hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde, exhibited a 100% increase in the specific activity of the NADP-dependent FALDH. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence for the role of fatty aldehyde as an essential metabolic intermediate and NADP-dependent FALDH as a key enzyme in the dissimilation of hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N.

Singer, M.E.; Finnerty, W.R.

1985-12-01

184

Complete genome sequence of the lignin-degrading bacterium Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2.  

PubMed

In an effort to discover anaerobic bacteria capable of lignin degradation, we isolated Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 on minimal media with alkali lignin as the sole carbon source. This organism was isolated anaerobically from tropical forest soils collected from the Bisley watershed at the Ridge site in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, USA, part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Station. At this site, the soils experience strong fluctuations in redox potential and are characterized by cycles of iron oxidation and reduction. Genome sequencing was targeted because of its ability to grow on lignin anaerobically and lignocellulolytic activity via in vitro enzyme assays. The genome of Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 is 5.80 Mbp with no detected plasmids, and includes a relatively small arsenal of genes encoding lignocellulolytic carbohydrate active enzymes. The genome revealed four putative peroxidases including glutathione and DyP-type peroxidases, and a complete protocatechuate pathway encoded in a single gene cluster. Physiological studies revealed Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 to be relatively stress tolerant to high ionic strength conditions. It grows in increasing concentrations of ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate) up to 73.44 mM and NaCl up to 1.5 M. PMID:25566348

Woo, Hannah L; Ballor, Nicholas R; Hazen, Terry C; Fortney, Julian L; Simmons, Blake; Davenport, Karen Walston; Goodwin, Lynne; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Woyke, Tanja; Jansson, Janet; Kimbrel, Jeff; DeAngelis, Kristen M

2014-01-01

185

Complete genome sequence of the lignin-degrading bacterium Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2  

PubMed Central

In an effort to discover anaerobic bacteria capable of lignin degradation, we isolated Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 on minimal media with alkali lignin as the sole carbon source. This organism was isolated anaerobically from tropical forest soils collected from the Bisley watershed at the Ridge site in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, USA, part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Station. At this site, the soils experience strong fluctuations in redox potential and are characterized by cycles of iron oxidation and reduction. Genome sequencing was targeted because of its ability to grow on lignin anaerobically and lignocellulolytic activity via in vitro enzyme assays. The genome of Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 is 5.80 Mbp with no detected plasmids, and includes a relatively small arsenal of genes encoding lignocellulolytic carbohydrate active enzymes. The genome revealed four putative peroxidases including glutathione and DyP-type peroxidases, and a complete protocatechuate pathway encoded in a single gene cluster. Physiological studies revealed Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 to be relatively stress tolerant to high ionic strength conditions. It grows in increasing concentrations of ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate) up to 73.44 mM and NaCl up to 1.5 M. PMID:25566348

2014-01-01

186

Middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiomonas sp. RAN5 strain for hydrogen sulfide removal.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the most toxic and offensively odorous gases and is generated in anaerobic bioreactors. A middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB), Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5, was isolated and applied for H2S removal from both artificial and anaerobically digested gas. When a bioreactor containing medium inoculated with RAN5 was aerated continuously with artificial gas (containing 100 ppm H2S) at 45 degrees C for 156 hr, the H2S concentration in the vented gas was reduced by 99%. This was not affected by the presence of other microbes in the bioreactor The H2S removal efficiency of the RAN5 bioreactor for anaerobically digested gas was greater than 99% at influent H2S concentrations ranging from 2 to 1800 ppm; the efficiency decreased to 90% at influent H2S concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 cannot survive at room temperature, and thus its leakage from a wastewater treatment plant would not damage sewage systems. These data suggest that Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 may be a useful microorganism for H2S removal. PMID:22393808

Asano, Ryoki; Hirooka, Kayako; Nakai, Yutaka

2012-01-01

187

Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B.  

PubMed Central

Plant compounds that induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were identified by a screening assay based on the formation of a 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl ring fission product. A chemical component of spearmint (Mentha spicata), l-carvone, induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize Aroclor 1242, resulting in significant degradation of 26 peaks in the mixture, including selected tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls. Evidence for PCB biodegradation included peak disappearance, formation of a phenylhexdienoate ring fission product, and chlorobenzoate accumulation in the culture supernatant. Carvone was not utilized as a growth substrate and was toxic at concentrations of greater than 500 mg liter-1. Several compounds structurally related to l-carvone, including limonene, p-cymene, and isoprene, also induced cometabolism of PCBs by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B. A structure-activity analysis showed that chemicals with an unsaturated p-menthane structural motif promoted the strongest cometabolism activity. These data suggest that certain plant-derived terpenoids may be useful for promoting enhanced rates of PCB biodegradation by soil bacteria. PMID:9143124

Gilbert, E S; Crowley, D E

1997-01-01

188

Photoacclimation of Prochlorococcus sp. (Prochlorophyta) Strains Isolated from the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed Central

Two Atlantic (SARG and NATL1) strains and one Mediterranean (MED) strain of Prochlorococcus sp., a recently discovered marine, free-living prochlorophyte, were grown over a range of "white" irradiances (lg) and under low blue light to examine their photoacclimation capacity. All three strains contained divinyl (DV) chlorophylls (Chl) a and b, both distinguishable from "normal" Chls by their red-shifted blue absorption maximum, a Chl c-like pigment at low concentration, zeaxanthin, and [alpha]-carotene. The presence of two phaeophytin b peaks in acidified extracts from both Atlantic strains grown at high lg suggests that these strains also had a normal Chl b-like pigment. In these strains, the total Chl b to DV-Chl a molar ratio decreased from about 1 at 7.5 [mu]mol quanta m-2 s-1 to 0.4 to 0.5 at 133 [mu]mol quanta m-2 s-1. In contrast, the MED strain always had a low DV-Chl b to DV-Chl a molar ratio, ranging between 0.13 at low lg and 0.08 at high lg. The discrepancies between the Atlantic and MED strains could result from differences either in the number of light-harvesting complexes (LHC) II per photosystem II or in the Chl b-binding capacity of the apoproteins constituting LHC II. Photosynthesis was saturated at approximately 5 fg C(fg Chl)-1 h-1 or 6 fg C cell-1 h-1, and growth was saturated at approximately 0.45 d-1 for both MED and SARG strains at 18[deg]C, but saturating irradiances differed between strains. Atlantic strains exhibited increased light-saturated rates and quantum yield for carbon fixation under blue light. PMID:12231684

Partensky, F.; Hoepffner, N.; Li, WKW.; Ulloa, O.; Vaulot, D.

1993-01-01

189

Iron Corrosion Induced by Nonhydrogenotrophic Nitrate-Reducing Prolixibacter sp. Strain MIC1-1.  

PubMed

Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic materials imposes a heavy economic burden. The mechanism of MIC of metallic iron (Fe(0)) under anaerobic conditions is usually explained as the consumption of cathodic hydrogen by hydrogenotrophic microorganisms that accelerates anodic Fe(0) oxidation. In this study, we describe Fe(0) corrosion induced by a nonhydrogenotrophic nitrate-reducing bacterium called MIC1-1, which was isolated from a crude-oil sample collected at an oil well in Akita, Japan. This strain requires specific electron donor-acceptor combinations and an organic carbon source to grow. For example, the strain grew anaerobically on nitrate as a sole electron acceptor with pyruvate as a carbon source and Fe(0) as the sole electron donor. In addition, ferrous ion and l-cysteine served as electron donors, whereas molecular hydrogen did not. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain MIC1-1 was a member of the genus Prolixibacter in the order Bacteroidales. Thus, Prolixibacter sp. strain MIC1-1 is the first Fe(0)-corroding representative belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Under anaerobic conditions, Prolixibacter sp. MIC1-1 corroded Fe(0) concomitantly with nitrate reduction, and the amount of iron dissolved by the strain was six times higher than that in an aseptic control. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that microscopic crystals of FePO4 developed on the surface of the Fe(0) foils, and a layer of FeCO3 covered the FePO4 crystals. We propose that cells of Prolixibacter sp. MIC1-1 accept electrons directly from Fe(0) to reduce nitrate. PMID:25548048

Iino, Takao; Ito, Kimio; Wakai, Satoshi; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ohkuma, Moriya; Harayama, Shigeaki

2015-03-01

190

Dynamic Metabolic and Transcriptional Profiling of Rhodococcus sp. Strain YYL during the Degradation of Tetrahydrofuran  

PubMed Central

Although tetrahydrofuran-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain YYL possesses tetrahydrofuran (THF) degradation genes similar to those of other tetrahydrofuran-degrading bacteria, a much higher degradation efficiency has been observed in strain YYL. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics analyses were performed to explore the metabolic profiling response of strain YYL to exposure to THF. Exposure to THF slightly influenced the metabolome of strain YYL when yeast extract was present in the medium. The metabolic profile of strain YYL over time was also investigated using THF as the sole carbon source to identify the metabolites associated with high-efficiency THF degradation. Lactate, alanine, glutarate, glutamate, glutamine, succinate, lysine, trehalose, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), NAD+, and CTP were significantly altered over time in strain YYL grown in 20 mM THF. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed changes in the transcriptional expression levels of 15 genes involved in THF degradation, suggesting that strain YYL could accumulate several disturbances in osmoregulation (trehalose, glutamate, glutamine, etc.), with reduced glycolysis levels, an accelerated tricarboxylic acid cycle, and enhanced protein synthesis. The findings obtained through 1H NMR metabolomics analyses and the transcriptional expression of the corresponding genes are complementary for exploring the dynamic metabolic profile in organisms. PMID:24532074

He, Zhixing; Yao, Yanlai

2014-01-01

191

Genome sequences of Burkholderia sp. strains CCGE1002 and H160, isolated from legume nodules in Mexico and Brazil.  

PubMed

The genome sequences of Burkholderia sp. strains CCGE1002 from Mexico and H160 from Brazil, isolated from legume nodules, are reported. Their gene contents in relation to plant-microbe interactions and xenobiotic degradation are discussed. PMID:23209196

Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco A; Chueire, Ligia Maria Oliveira; Tiedje, James M; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

2012-12-01

192

Efficient production of laccases by Trametes sp. AH28-2 in cocultivation with a Trichoderma strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biocontrol fungus isolated from rotting wood was identified as a Trichoderma strain (named as Trichoderma sp. ZH1) by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rRNA genes. The laccase yield of Trametes sp. AH28-2 in cocultivation with Trichoderma sp. ZH1 reached 6,210 U l?1, approximately identical to those induced by toxic aromatic inducers. Cocultures maintained 60–70 % of their highest laccase

H. Zhang; Y. Z. Hong; Y. Z. Xiao; J. Yuan; X. M. Tu; X. Q. Zhang

2006-01-01

193

Draft Genome Sequence of a Quorum-Sensing Bacterium, Dickeya sp. Strain 2B12, Isolated from a Freshwater Lake  

PubMed Central

Dickeya sp. strain 2B12 was isolated from a freshwater lake in Malaysia. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Dickeya sp. 2B12 sequenced by the Illumina MiSeq platform. With the genome sequence available, this genome sequence will be useful for the study of quorum-sensing activity in this isolate. PMID:25657288

Tan, Kian-Hin; Sheng, Kit-Yeng; Chang, Chien-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong

2015-01-01

194

Draft Genome Sequence of Pedobacter sp. Strain V48, Isolated from a Coastal Sand Dune in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Pedobacter sp. strain V48 participates in an interaction with Pseudomonas fluorescens which elicits interaction-induced phenotypes. We report the draft genome sequence of Pedobacter sp. V48, consisting of 6.46 Mbp. The sequence will contribute to improved understanding of the genus and facilitate genomic analysis of the model interspecies interaction with P. fluorescens. PMID:24578271

Bitzer, Adam S; Garbeva, Paolina; Silby, Mark W

2014-01-01

195

Novel Antiphytopathogenic Compound 2-Heptyl-5-Hexylfuran-3-Carboxylic Acid, Produced by Newly Isolated Pseudomonas sp. Strain SJT25 ?†  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain SJT25, which strongly antagonizes plant pathogens, was isolated from rice rhizosphere soil by a bioactivity-guided approach. A novel antiphytopathogenic compound was isolated from the fermentation broth of Pseudomonas sp. SJT25 and identified as 2-heptyl-5-hexylfuran-3-carboxylic acid. This compound showed antimicrobial activities both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21742907

Wang, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yu-Quan; Lin, Shuang-Jun; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2011-01-01

196

Metabolic engineering of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius for high yield ethanol production.  

PubMed

We describe the metabolic engineering of two strains of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius to divert their fermentative carbon flux from a mixed acid pathway, to one in which ethanol becomes the major product. This involved elimination of the lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase pathways by disruption of the ldh and pflB genes, respectively, together with upregulation of expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Unlike the situation in Escherichia coli, pyruvate dehydrogenase is active under anaerobic conditions in thermophilic bacilli, but expressed sub-optimally for a role as the primary fermentation pathway. Mutants were initially characterised in batch culture using glucose as carbon substrate and strains with all three modifications shown to form ethanol efficiently and rapidly at temperatures in excess of 60 degrees C in yields in excess of 90% of theoretical. The strain containing the 3 modifications, TM242, was also shown to efficiently ferment cellobiose and a mixed hexose and pentose feed. PMID:19703579

Cripps, R E; Eley, K; Leak, D J; Rudd, B; Taylor, M; Todd, M; Boakes, S; Martin, S; Atkinson, T

2009-11-01

197

Purification and characterization of hydroquinone dioxygenase from Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3  

PubMed Central

Hydroquinone-1,2-dioxygenase, an enzyme involved in the degradation of alkylphenols in Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3 was purified to apparent homogeneity. The extradiol dioxygenase catalyzed the ring fission of hydroquinone to 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde and the degradation of chlorinated and several alkylated hydroquinones. The activity of 1 mg of the purified enzyme with unsubstituted hydroquinone was 6.1 ?mol per minute, the apparent Km 2.2 ?M. ICP-MS analysis revealed an iron content of 1.4 moles per mole enzyme. The enzyme lost activity upon exposure to oxygen, but could be reactivated by Fe(II) in presence of ascorbate. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified enzyme yielded two bands of an apparent size of 38 kDa and 19 kDa, respectively. Data from MALDI-TOF analyses of peptides of the respective bands matched with the deduced amino acid sequences of two neighboring open reading frames found in genomic DNA of Sphingomonas sp strain TTNP3. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 62% and 47% identity to the large and small subunit of hydroquinone dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ACB, respectively. This heterotetrameric enzyme is the first of its kind found in a strain of the genus Sphingomonas sensu latu. PMID:21906340

2011-01-01

198

Molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi in ticks from Cordoba, Colombia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to provide molecular evidence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from 2 sites of Cordoba. From May to June 2009, 1069 Amblyomma cajennense ticks were removed from 40 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in a rural locality of Monteria. Furthermore, 458 Amblyomma sp. larvae and 20 Amblyomma sp. nymphs were collected in a rural locality of Los Cordobas (Cordoba) by drag sampling on vegetation (n=1547). Ticks were grouped into pools and tested for rickettsial infection by real-time PCR targeting the rickettsial gene gltA. Subsequently, PCR targeting for gltA, ompA, ompB, and 16S rRNA, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 10 (4.6%) out of 214 pools of ticks by RT-PCR. Five (33%) of free-living Amblyomma sp. larval pools were positive, as well as 5 (2.6%) pools from A. cajennense. Only the gltA gene was amplified from 5 pools of free-living larvae. The nucleotide sequences were 100% identical to R. bellii by BLAST. Only one pool from A. cajennense was positive for gltA, ompA, ompB, and 16S rRNA. The partial nucleotide sequences of these genes were 100% identical to nucleotide sequences of the same genes of a new proposed species Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. This is the first report of R. bellii in ticks in Colombia and the second report of detection of Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. These Rickettsia species are still considered of unknown pathogenicity. Further studies are needed to characterize the ecological and potential pathogenic role of these 2 Rickettsia species found in Cordoba. PMID:24378078

Miranda, Jorge; Mattar, Salim

2014-03-01

199

The sll1951 gene encodes the surface layer protein of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.  

PubMed

Sll1951 is the surface layer (S-layer) protein of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. This large, hemolysin-like protein was found in the supernatant of a strain that was deficient in S-layer attachment. An sll1951 deletion mutation was introduced into Synechocystis and was easily segregated to homozygosity under laboratory conditions. By thin-section and negative-stain transmission electron microscopy, a ~30-nm-wide S-layer lattice covering the cell surface was readily visible in wild-type cells but was absent in the ?sll1951 strain. Instead, the ?sll1951 strain displayed a smooth lipopolysaccharide surface as its most peripheral layer. In the presence of chaotropic agents, the wild type released a large (>150-kDa) protein into the medium that was identified as Sll1951 by mass spectrometry of trypsin fragments; this protein was missing in the ?sll1951 strain. In addition, Sll1951 was prominent in crude extracts of the wild type, indicating that it is an abundant protein. The carotenoid composition of the cell wall fraction of the ?sll1951 strain was similar to that of the wild type, suggesting that the S-layer does not contribute to carotenoid binding. Although the photoautotrophic growth rate of the ?sll1951 strain was similar to that of the wild-type strain, the viability of the ?sll1951 strain was reduced upon exposure to lysozyme treatment and hypo-osmotic stress, indicating a contribution of the S-layer to the integrity of the Synechocystis cell wall. This work identifies the S-layer protein in Synechocystis and shows that, at least under laboratory conditions, this very abundant, large protein has a supportive but not a critical role in the function of the cyanobacterium. PMID:24078613

Trautner, Christoph; Vermaas, Wim F J

2013-12-01

200

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a halotolerant bacterial strain Ochrobactrum sp. VA1.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and are derived from both man-made and natural resources. The present study is focused on the degradation of PAHs by a halotolerant bacterial strain under saline conditions. The bacterial strain VA1 was isolated from a PAH-degrading consortium that was enriched from marine water samples that were collected from different sites at Chennai, India. In the present study, a clearing zone formed on PAH-amended mineral salt agar media confirmed the utilization of PAH by the bacterial strain VA1. The results show that the strain VA1 was able to degrade anthracene (88%), phenanthrene (98%), naphthalene (90%), fluorene (97%), pyrene (84%), benzo(k)fluoranthene (57%) and benzo(e)pyrene (50%) at a 30 g/L NaCl concentration. The present study reveals that the VA1 strain was able to degrade PAHs in petroleum wastewater under saline conditions. The promising PAH-degrading halotolerant bacterial strain, VA1, was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. using biochemical and molecular techniques. PMID:20934193

Arulazhagan, P; Vasudevan, N

2011-02-01

201

Agroinfiltration by Cytokinin-Producing Agrobacterium sp. Strain GV3101 Primes Defense Responses in Nicotiana tabacum.  

PubMed

Transient infiltrations in tobacco are commonly used in plant studies, but the host response to different disarmed Agrobacterium strains is not fully understood. The present study shows that pretreatment with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 primes the defense response to subsequent infection by Pseudomonas syringae in Nicotiana tabacum. The presence of a trans-zeatin synthase (tzs) gene in strain GV3101 may be partly responsible for the priming response, as the tzs-deficient Agrobacterium sp. strain LBA4404 only weakly imparts such responses. Besides inducing the expression of defense-related genes like PR-1 and NHL10, GV3101 pretreatment increased the expression of tobacco mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway genes like MEK2, WIPK (wound-induced protein kinase), and SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase). Furthermore, the GV3101 strain showed a stronger effect than the LBA4404 strain in activating phosphorylation of the tobacco MAPK, WIPK and SIPK, which presumably prime the plant immune machinery. Lower doses of exogenously applied cytokinins increased the activation of MAPK, while higher doses decreased the activation, suggesting a balanced level of cytokinins is required to generate defense response in planta. The current study serves as a cautionary warning for plant researchers over the choice of Agrobacterium strains and their possible consequences on subsequent pathogen-related studies. PMID:25054409

Sheikh, Arsheed Hussain; Raghuram, Badmi; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin; Sinha, Alok Krishna

2014-11-01

202

Nodulation of Lupinus albus by Strains of Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

The nodulation of legumes has for more than a century been considered an exclusive capacity of a group of microorganisms commonly known as rhizobia and belonging to the ?-Proteobacteria. However, in the last 3 years four nonrhizobial species, belonging to ? and ? subclasses of the Proteobacteria, have been described as legume-nodulating bacteria. In the present study, two fast-growing strains, LUP21 and LUP23, were isolated from nodules of Lupinus honoratus. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belong to the genus Ochrobactrum. The strains were able to reinfect Lupinus plants. A plasmid profile analysis showed the presence of three plasmids. The nodD and nifH genes were located on these plasmids, and their sequences were obtained. These sequences showed a close resemblance to the nodD and nifH genes of rhizobial species, suggesting that the nodD and nifH genes carried by strain LUP21T were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. A polyphasic study including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular features of the strains isolated in this study showed that they belong to a new species of the genus Ochrobactrum for which we propose the name Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov. Strain LUP21T (LMG 20667T) is the type strain. PMID:15746334

Trujillo, Martha E.; Willems, Anne; Abril, Adriana; Planchuelo, Ana-María; Rivas, Raúl; Ludeña, Dolores; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

2005-01-01

203

Survival of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A after prolonged air exposure  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic fungi are efficient plant biomass degraders and represent promising agents for a variety of biotechnological applications. We evaluated the tolerance of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, to air exposure in liquid media using soluble (cellobiose) and insoluble (dried switchgrass) substrates. Strain C1A grown on cellobiose survived for 11, and 13.5?hours following air exposure when grown under planktonic, and immobilized conditions, respectively. When grown on switchgrass media, strain C1A exhibited significantly enhanced air tolerance and survived for 168?hours. The genome of strain C1A lacked a catalase gene, but contained superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Real time PCR analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase, but not glutathione peroxidase, exhibits a transient increase in expression level post aeration. Interestingly, the C1A superoxide dismutase gene of strain C1A appears to be most closely related to bacterial SODs, which implies its acquisition from a bacterial donor via cross kingdom horizontal gene transfer during Neocallimastigomycota evolution. We conclude that strain C1A utilizes multiple mechanisms to minimize the deleterious effects of air exposure such as physical protection and the production of oxidative stress enzymes. PMID:25367149

Struchtemeyer, Christopher G.; Ranganathan, Abhaya; Couger, M. B.; Liggenstoffer, Audra S.; Youssef, Noha H.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

2014-01-01

204

DNA relatedness among strains of Streptomyces pathogenic to potato in France: description of three new species, S. europaeiscabiei sp. nov. and S. stelliscabiei sp. nov. associated with common scab, and S. reticuliscabiei sp. nov. associated with netted scab.  

PubMed

The genomic relatedness was evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridization for 23 strains (21 were pathogenic and two were saprophytic strains) isolated from lesions of common and netted scab in France and 19 strains from other countries, including type strains of Streptomyces species. Three genomospecies were defined within the conventional species of Streptomyces scabies, and these genomospecies were different from other pathogenic described species (Streptomyces acidiscabies, Streptomyces caviscabies) based on previously published phenotypic data. Two of these genomospecies (1 and 3) correspond to new species, for which the names Streptomyces europaeiscabiei sp. nov. (with type strain CFBP 4497T) and Streptomyces stelliscabiei sp. nov. (with type strain CFBP 4521T) are proposed. Genomospecies 2 corresponds to S. scabies (with type strain CFBP 4517T = ATCC 49173T), and includes only one French strain. The pathogenic strains associated with netted scab lesions constituted a new species that was named Streptomyces reticuliscabiei sp. nov. (with type strain CFBP 4531T). The G+C content of DNA from the three strains CFBP 4497T (S. europaeiscabiei), CFBP 4521T (S. stelliscabiei), CFBP 4531T (S. reticuliscabiei) was 71.3, 71.0 and 69.8 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the type strain CFBP 4497T was very similar to the type strain of S. scabies, whereas, the type strain of S. stelliscabiei, CFBP 4521T, was very similar to the type strain of Streptomyces bottropensis. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the type strain of S. reticuliscabiei, CFBP 4531T, differed extensively from the other strains of Streptomyces tested. PMID:10826791

Bouchek-Mechiche, K; Gardan, L; Normand, P; Jouan, B

2000-01-01

205

An integrative expression vector for strain improvement and environmental applications of the nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120.  

PubMed

An integrative expression vector, incorporating a cassette for genomic integration and expression of gene of interest into Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 was constructed. The cassette comprised of the following elements: (a) an intergenic non-coding region from Anabaena to facilitate its genomic integration (b) a strong functional PpsbA1 promoter from Anabaena for desired gene expression and (c) neomycin phosphotransferase gene with its own promoter for the selection of transformants. The cassette was cloned in the plasmid pBluescript II SK (+), which served as a suicide vector for Anabaena. The resultant plasmid designated as pFPN, when transferred into Anabaena by electrotransformation, integrated the cassette into Anabaena genome at the defined location. The vector was evaluated by cloning, transfer, integration and expression of the native hetR gene encoding a regulator of heterocyst differentiation. Formation of multiple heterocysts and enhanced nitrogenase activity of constitutively expressing hetR transformants of Anabaena established the utility of pFPN for basic molecular biology research and strain improvement. A transgene phoN encoding a non-specific acid phosphatase from Salmonella typhi was also transferred into Anabaena using pFPN. Strong constitutive expression of PhoN from PpsbA1 facilitated easier and sensitive visual screening of PhoN for tracking of transgenic Anabaena. The vector pFPN offers a stable integrative expression system for environmental application of genetically modified Anabaena strains. PMID:18367274

Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Parasnis, Anjali; Apte, Shree Kumar

2008-05-01

206

Production of S-(+)-ibuprofen from a nitrile compound by Acinetobacter sp. strain AK226.  

PubMed Central

S-(+)-2-(4'-Isobutylphenyl)propionic acid [S-(+)-ibuprofen] was produced from racemic 2-(4'-isobutylphenyl)propionitrile (Ibu-CN) by an isolated bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. strain AK226. Ammonium acetate, acetonitrile, or n-butyronitrile as a carbon source in the culture medium was effective for bacterial growth and induction of this activity. The optimum pH of the reaction was around 8.0. S-(+)-Ibuprofen formed from Ibu-CN by resting cells was present in a 95% enantiomeric excess. Acinetobacter sp. strain AK226 appeared to possess a nitrilase for Ibu-CN because 2-(4'-isobutylphenyl)propionamide was not detected in the reaction mixture and 2-(4'-isobutylphenyl)propionamide was not hydrolyzed to S-(+)-ibuprofen. Since S-(+)-ibuprofen was preferentially produced while the R enantiomer of Ibu-CN was left almost intact over the time course of the reaction, the putative nitrilase appeared to be highly specific for the S enantiomer of Ibu-CN. PMID:2285318

Yamamoto, K; Ueno, Y; Otsubo, K; Kawakami, K; Komatsu, K

1990-01-01

207

Metabolism of dibutylphthalate and phthalate by Micrococcus sp. strain 12B.  

PubMed Central

Micrococcus sp. strain 12B was isolated by enriching for growth with dibutylphthalate as the sole carbon and energy source. A pathway for the metabolism of dibutylphthalate and phthalate by micrococcus sp. strain 12B is proposed: dibutylphthalate leads to monobutylphthalate leads to phthalate leads to 3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxyphthalate leads to 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate leads to protocatechuate (3,4-dihdroxybenzoate). Protocatechuate is metabolized both by the meta-cleavage pathway through 4-carboxy-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde and 4-carboxy-2-hydroxymuconate to pyruvate and oxaloacetate and by the ortho-cleavage pathway to beta-ketoadipate. Dibutylphthalate- and phthalate-grown cells readily oxidized dibutylphthalate, phthalate, 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate, and protocatechuate. Extracts of cells grown with dibutylphthalate or phthalate contained the 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase and the enzymes of the protocatechuater 4,5-meta-cleavage pathway. Extracts of dibutylphthalate-grown cells also contained the protocatechuate ortho-cleavage pathway enzymes. The dibutylphthalate-hydrolyzing esterase and 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase were constitutively synthesized; phthalate-3,4-dioxygenase (and possibly the "dihydrodiol" dehydrogenase) was inducible by phthalate or a metabolite occurring before protocatechuate in the pathway; two protocatechuate oxygenases and subsequent enzymes were inducible by protocatechuate or a subsequent metabolic product. During growth at 37 degrees C, strain 12B gave clones at high frequency that had lost the ability to grow with phthalate esters. One of these nonrevertible mutants, strain 12B-Cl, lacked all of the enzymes required for the metabolism of dibutylphthalate through the protocatechuate meta-cleavage pathway. Enzymes for the metabolism of protocatechuate by the ortho-cleavage pathway were present in this strain grown with p-hydroxybenzoate or protocatechuate. PMID:7085570

Eaton, R W; Ribbons, D W

1982-01-01

208

Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus sp. Strain SK-3, a 4-Chlorobiphenyl- and 4-Clorobenzoic Acid-Degrading Bacterium  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, which can use 4-chlorobiphenyl and 4-clorobenzoic acid as the sole carbon source for growth. The draft genome sequence allowed the study of the polychlorinated biphenyl degradation mechanism and the recharacterization of the strain SK-3 as a Cupriavidus species. PMID:24994805

Vilo, Claudia; Benedik, Michael J.; Ilori, Matthew

2014-01-01

209

Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus sp. Strain SK-3, a 4-Chlorobiphenyl- and 4-Clorobenzoic Acid-Degrading Bacterium.  

PubMed

We report the draft genome sequence of Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, which can use 4-chlorobiphenyl and 4-clorobenzoic acid as the sole carbon source for growth. The draft genome sequence allowed the study of the polychlorinated biphenyl degradation mechanism and the recharacterization of the strain SK-3 as a Cupriavidus species. PMID:24994805

Vilo, Claudia; Benedik, Michael J; Ilori, Matthew; Dong, Qunfeng

2014-01-01

210

The Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardioides sp. Strain CF8 Reveals the Scope of Its Metabolic Capabilities.  

PubMed

Nocardioides sp. strain CF8 was isolated from a soil sample collected at the Hanford Department of Energy site, Richland, WA. The strain was identified in microcosms based on its ability to grow on butane and has been characterized for its potential applications in the biodegradation of halogenated hydrocarbons. Here, the draft genome sequence is reported. PMID:23833136

Kimbrel, Jeffrey A; Chang, Jeff; Arp, Daniel J; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A

2013-01-01

211

The Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardioides sp. Strain CF8 Reveals the Scope of Its Metabolic Capabilities  

PubMed Central

Nocardioides sp. strain CF8 was isolated from a soil sample collected at the Hanford Department of Energy site, Richland, WA. The strain was identified in microcosms based on its ability to grow on butane and has been characterized for its potential applications in the biodegradation of halogenated hydrocarbons. Here, the draft genome sequence is reported. PMID:23833136

Kimbrel, Jeffrey A.; Chang, Jeff; Arp, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

212

Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Bacterium Clavibacter sp. CF11, a Strain Producing Cold-Active Cellulase.  

PubMed

Clavibacter sp. strain CF11, which was isolated from soil at a tomato-planting greenhouse in Inner Mongolia, North China, has a high capability for producing cold-active cellulase at low temperatures. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain CF11, which comprises 2,437 protein-coding sequences and 49 RNA-coding sequences. PMID:25555737

Du, Ying; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Yonghui; Meng, Jianyu; Li, Heng; Wang, Ruigang; Li, Guojing; Feng, Fuying

2015-01-01

213

Genome Sequence of an Efficient Indole-Degrading Bacterium, Cupriavidus sp. Strain IDO, with Potential Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production Applications.  

PubMed

Cupriavidus sp. strain IDO has been shown to efficiently transform indole, and the genus of Cupriavidus has been described as a promising cell factory for polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis from low-cost wastes. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain IDO, which may provide useful genetic information on indole metabolism and polyhydroxyalkanoate production. PMID:25767238

Ma, Qiao; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhaojing; Li, Pengpeng; Tang, Hongzhi

2015-01-01

214

Genome Sequence of an Efficient Indole-Degrading Bacterium, Cupriavidus sp. Strain IDO, with Potential Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production Applications  

PubMed Central

Cupriavidus sp. strain IDO has been shown to efficiently transform indole, and the genus of Cupriavidus has been described as a promising cell factory for polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis from low-cost wastes. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain IDO, which may provide useful genetic information on indole metabolism and polyhydroxyalkanoate production. PMID:25767238

Ma, Qiao; Zhang, Zhaojing; Li, Pengpeng

2015-01-01

215

Draft Genome Sequence of Sulfurospirillum sp. Strain MES, Reconstructed from the Metagenome of a Microbial Electrosynthesis System  

PubMed Central

A draft genome of Sulfurospirillum sp. strain MES was isolated through taxonomic binning of a metagenome sequenced from a microbial electrosynthesis system (MES) actively producing acetate and hydrogen. The genome contains the nosZDFLY genes, which are involved in nitrous oxide reduction, suggesting the potential role of this strain in denitrification. PMID:25593246

Marshall, Christopher W.; May, Harold D.

2015-01-01

216

Draft Genome Sequence of Tatumella sp. Strain UCD-D_suzukii (Phylum Proteobacteria) Isolated from Drosophila suzukii Larvae.  

PubMed

Here we present the draft genome of Tatumella sp. strain UCD-D_suzukii, the first member of this genus to be sequenced. The genome contains 3,602,931 bp in 72 scaffolds. This strain was isolated from Drosophila suzukii larvae as part of a larger project to study the microbiota of D. suzukii. PMID:24762940

Dunitz, Madison I; James, Pamela M; Jospin, Guillaume; Eisen, Jonathan A; Coil, David A; Chandler, James Angus

2014-01-01

217

Draft Genome Sequence of Tatumella sp. Strain UCD-D_suzukii (Phylum Proteobacteria) Isolated from Drosophila suzukii Larvae  

PubMed Central

Here we present the draft genome of Tatumella sp. strain UCD-D_suzukii, the first member of this genus to be sequenced. The genome contains 3,602,931 bp in 72 scaffolds. This strain was isolated from Drosophila suzukii larvae as part of a larger project to study the microbiota of D. suzukii. PMID:24762940

Dunitz, Madison I.; James, Pamela M.; Jospin, Guillaume; Coil, David A.; Chandler, James Angus

2014-01-01

218

Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Bacterium Clavibacter sp. CF11, a Strain Producing Cold-Active Cellulase  

PubMed Central

Clavibacter sp. strain CF11, which was isolated from soil at a tomato-planting greenhouse in Inner Mongolia, North China, has a high capability for producing cold-active cellulase at low temperatures. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain CF11, which comprises 2,437 protein-coding sequences and 49 RNA-coding sequences. PMID:25555737

Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Yonghui; Meng, Jianyu; Li, Heng; Li, Guojing

2015-01-01

219

Whole-Genome Sequence of Burkholderia sp. Strain RPE67, a Bacterial Gut Symbiont of the Bean Bug Riptortus pedestris  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia sp. strain RPE67 is a bacterial symbiont isolated from a field-collected bean bug, Riptortus pedestris. To understand the genetic basis of the insect-microbe symbiosis, we performed whole-genome sequencing of the Burkholderia strain, revealing an 8.69-Mb genome consisting of three chromosomes and three plasmids. PMID:24948758

Takeshita, Kazutaka; Shibata, Tomoko F.; Nikoh, Naruo; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Fukatsu, Takema; Shigenobu, Shuji

2014-01-01

220

Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by Azotobacter sp. strain GP1.  

PubMed

A bacterium which utilizes 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from soil. The bacterium, designated strain GP1, was identified as an Azotobacter sp. TCP was the only chlorinated phenol which supported the growth of the bacterium. Resting cells transformed monochlorophenols, 2,6-dichlorophenol, and 2,3,6-trichlorophenol. Phenol and a number of phenolic compounds, including 4-methylphenol, all of the monohydroxybenzoates, and several dihydroxybenzoates, were very good carbon sources for Azotobacter sp. strain GP1. The organism utilized up to 800 mg of TCP per liter; the lag phase and time for degradation, however, were severely prolonged at TCP concentrations above 500 mg/liter. Repeated additions of 200 mg of TCP per liter led to accelerated degradation, with an optimum value of 100 mg of TCP per liter per h. TCP degradation was significantly faster in shaken than in nonshaken cultures. The optimum temperature for degradation was 25 to 30 degrees C. Induction studies, including treatment of the cells with chloramphenicol prior to TCP or phenol addition, revealed that TCP induced TCP degradation but not phenol degradation and that phenol induced only its own utilization. Per mol of TCP, 3 mol of Cl- was released. 2,6-Dichloro-p-benzoquinone was detected in the resting-cell medium of Azotobacter sp. strain GP1. By chemical mutagenesis, mutants blocked in either TCP degradation or phenol degradation were obtained. No mutant defective in the degradation of both phenols was found, indicating separate pathways for the dissimilation of the compounds. In some of the phenol-deficient mutants, pyrocatechol was found to accumulate, and in some of the TCP-deficient mutants, 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone was found to accumulate. PMID:1892382

Li, D Y; Eberspächer, J; Wagner, B; Kuntzer, J; Lingens, F

1991-07-01

221

Hexavalent Chromium Removal by a Paecilomyces sp. Fungal Strain Isolated from Environment  

PubMed Central

A resistant and capable fungal strain in removing hexavalent chromium was isolated from an environment near of Chemical Science Faculty, located in the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The strain was identified as Paecilomyces sp., by macro- and microscopic characteristics. Strain resistance of the strain to high Cr (VI) concentrations and its ability to reduce chromium were studied. When it was incubated in minimal medium with glucose, another inexpensive commercial carbon source like unrefined and brown sugar or glycerol, in the presence of 50?mg/L of Cr (VI), the strain caused complete disappearance of Cr (VI), with the concomitant production of Cr (III) in the growth medium after 7 days of incubation, at 28°C, pH 4.0, 100?rpm, and an inoculum of 38?mg of dry weight. Decrease of Cr (VI) levels from industrial wastes was also induced by Paecilomyces biomass. These results indicate that reducing capacity of chromate resistant filamentous fungus Cr (VI) could be useful for the removal of Cr (VI) pollution. PMID:20634988

Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Acosta-Rodríguez, Ismael

2010-01-01

222

Mineralization of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate (4-ABS) by Agrobacterium sp. strain PNS-1.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain, PNS-1, isolated from activated sludge, could utilize sulphanilic acid (4-ABS) as the sole organic carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. Determination and comparison of 16S r DNA sequences showed that the strain PNS-1 is closely related to the species of Agrobacterium genus. Growth on 4-ABS was accompanied with ammonia and sulfate release. TOC results showed complete mineralization of sulphanilic acid. This strain was highly specific for 4-ABS as none of the sulphonated aromatics used in the present study including other ABS isomers were utilized. Strain PNS-1 could, however, utilize all the tested monocyclic aromatic compounds devoid of a sulfonate group. No intermediates could be detected either in the growth phase or with dense cell suspensions. Presence of chloramphenicol completely inhibited 4-ABS degradation by cells pregrown on succinate, indicating that degradation enzymes are inducible. No plasmid could be detected in the Agrobacterium sp. Strain PNS-1 suggesting that 4-ABS degradative genes may be chromosomal encoded. PMID:16485085

Singh, Poonam; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Iyengar, Leela; Gurunath, Ramanathan

2006-12-01

223

Biodegradation of nitroglycerin in porous media and potential for bioaugmentation with Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1.  

PubMed

Nitroglycerin (NG) is a toxic explosive found as a contaminant of soil and groundwater. Several microbial strains are capable of partially reducing the NG molecule to dinitro or mononitroesters. Recently, a strain capable of growing on NG as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen (Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1) was isolated from contaminated soil. Despite the widespread presence of microbial strains capable of transforming NG in contaminated soils and sediments, the extent of NG biodegradation at contaminated sites is still unknown. In this study column experiments were conducted to investigate the extent of microbial degradation of NG in saturated porous media, specifically after bioaugmentation with JBH1. Initial experiments using sterile, low sorptivity sand, showed mineralization of NG after bioaugmentation with JBH1 in the absence of sources of carbon and nitrogen other than NG. Results could be modeled using a first order degradation rate of 0.14d(-1). Further experiments conducted using contaminated soil with high organic carbon content (highly sorptive) resulted in column effluents that did not contain NG although high dinitroester concentrations were observed. Bioaugmentation with JBH1 in sediments containing strains capable of partial transformation of NG resulted in complete mineralization of NG and faster degradation rates. PMID:23664478

Husserl, Johana; Hughes, Joseph B

2013-07-01

224

Metabolic engineering of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 for isobutanol production.  

PubMed

Global warming and decreasing fossil fuel reserves have prompted great interest in the synthesis of advanced biofuels from renewable resources. In an effort to address these concerns, we performed metabolic engineering of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 to develop a strain that can synthesize isobutanol under both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. With the expression of two heterologous genes from the Ehrlich pathway, the engineered strain can accumulate 90 mg/liter of isobutanol from 50 mM bicarbonate in a gas-tight shaking flask. The strain does not require any inducer (i.e., isopropyl ?-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG]) or antibiotics to maintain its isobutanol production. In the presence of glucose, isobutanol synthesis is only moderately promoted (titer = 114 mg/liter). Based on isotopomer analysis, we found that, compared to the wild-type strain, the mutant significantly reduced its glucose utilization and mainly employed autotrophic metabolism for biomass growth and isobutanol production. Since isobutanol is toxic to the cells and may also be degraded photochemically by hydroxyl radicals during the cultivation process, we employed in situ removal of the isobutanol using oleyl alcohol as a solvent trap. This resulted in a final net concentration of 298 mg/liter of isobutanol under mixotrophic culture conditions. PMID:23183979

Varman, Arul M; Xiao, Yi; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Tang, Yinjie J

2013-02-01

225

Biodegradation of fomesafen by strain Lysinibacillus sp. ZB-1 isolated from soil.  

PubMed

The fomesafen degrading bacterium ZB-1 was isolated from contaminated agricultural soil, and identified as Lysinibacillus sp. based on the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene. The strain could utilize fomesafen as the sole carbon source for growth, and the total degradation rate was 81.32% after 7 d of inoculation in mineral salts medium. Strain ZB-1 could also degrade other diphenyl ethers including lactofen and fluoroglycofen. The optimum temperature for fomesafen degradation by strain ZB-1 was 30 degrees C. The effect of fomesafen concentration on degradation was also examined. Cell-free extract of strain ZB-1 was able to degrade fomesafen and other diphenyl ethers. Metabolism of fomesafen was accompanied by a transient accumulation of a metabolite identified as [N-[4-{4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy}-2-methanamidephenyl]acetamide] using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, thus indicating a metabolic pathway involving reduction, acetylation of nitro groups and dechlorination. The inoculation of strain ZB-1 to soil treated with fomesafen resulted in a higher degradation rate than in noninoculated soil regardless of the soil sterilized or nonsterilized. PMID:19846192

Liang, Bo; Lu, Peng; Li, Huihui; Li, Rong; Li, Shunpeng; Huang, Xing

2009-12-01

226

Metabolic Engineering of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 for Isobutanol Production  

PubMed Central

Global warming and decreasing fossil fuel reserves have prompted great interest in the synthesis of advanced biofuels from renewable resources. In an effort to address these concerns, we performed metabolic engineering of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 to develop a strain that can synthesize isobutanol under both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. With the expression of two heterologous genes from the Ehrlich pathway, the engineered strain can accumulate 90 mg/liter of isobutanol from 50 mM bicarbonate in a gas-tight shaking flask. The strain does not require any inducer (i.e., isopropyl ?-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG]) or antibiotics to maintain its isobutanol production. In the presence of glucose, isobutanol synthesis is only moderately promoted (titer = 114 mg/liter). Based on isotopomer analysis, we found that, compared to the wild-type strain, the mutant significantly reduced its glucose utilization and mainly employed autotrophic metabolism for biomass growth and isobutanol production. Since isobutanol is toxic to the cells and may also be degraded photochemically by hydroxyl radicals during the cultivation process, we employed in situ removal of the isobutanol using oleyl alcohol as a solvent trap. This resulted in a final net concentration of 298 mg/liter of isobutanol under mixotrophic culture conditions. PMID:23183979

Varman, Arul M.; Xiao, Yi; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2013-01-01

227

Degradation of ethyl mercaptan and its major intermediate diethyl disulfide by Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2.  

PubMed

A Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2 that is able to efficiently metabolize ethyl mercaptan (EM) into diethyl disulfide (DEDS) through enzymatic oxidation was isolated from the activated sludge of a pharmaceutical wastewater plant. One hundred percent removal of 113.5 mg L(-1) EM and 110.3 mg L(-1) DEDS were obtained within 14 and 32 h, respectively. A putative EM degradation pathway that involved the catabolism via DEDS was proposed, which indicated DEDS were further mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2), bacterial cells, and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) through the transformation of element sulfur and ethyl aldehyde. Degradation kinetics for EM and DEDS with different initial concentrations by strain WL2 were evaluated using Haldane-Andrews model with maximum specific degradation rates of 3.13 and 1.33 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, and maximum degradation rate constants of 0.522 and 0.175 h(-1) using pseudo-first-order kinetic model were obtained. Results obtained that aerobic degradation of EM by strain WL2 was more efficient than those from previous studies. Substrate range studies of strain WL2 demonstrated its ability to degrade several mercaptans, disulfides, aldehydes, and methanol. All the results obtained highlight the potential of strain WL2 for the use in the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs). PMID:25398287

Wang, Xiangqian; Wu, Chao; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Li, Wei; Chen, Jianmeng; Chen, Dongzhi

2015-04-01

228

Novel Metabolic Transformation Pathway for Cyclic Imides in Blastobacter sp. Strain A17p-4  

PubMed Central

The metabolic transformation pathway for cyclic imides in microorganisms was studied in Blastobacter sp. strain A17p-4. This novel pathway involves, in turn, hydrolytic ring opening of a cyclic imide to yield a monoamidated dicarboxylate, hydrolytic deamidation of the monoamidated dicarboxylate to yield a dicarboxylate, and dicarboxylate transformation similar to that in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The initial step is catalyzed by a novel enzyme, imidase. Imidase and subsequent enzymes involved in this metabolic pathway are induced by some cyclic imides, such as succinimide and glutarimide. Induced cells metabolize various cyclic imides. PMID:16535426

Ogawa, J.; Soong, C. L.; Honda, M.; Shimizu, S.

1996-01-01

229

Two new antibiotic pyridones produced by a marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106.  

PubMed

Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC?? values of 24 ?M and 4 ?M, respectively. PMID:24663111

Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F

2014-03-01

230

Substrate Preferences in Biodesulfurization of Diesel Range Fuels by Rhodococcus sp. Strain ECRD-1  

PubMed Central

The range of sulfur compounds in fuel oil and the substrate range and preference of the biocatalytic system determine the maximum extent to which sulfur can be removed by biodesulfurization. We show that the biodesulfurization apparatus in Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 is able to attack all isomers of dibenzothiophene including those with at least four pendant carbons, with a slight preference for those substituted in the ?-position. With somewhat less avidity, this apparatus is also able to attack substituted benzothiophenes with between two and seven pendant carbons. Some compounds containing sulfidic sulfur are also susceptible to desulfurization, although we have not yet been able to determine their molecular identities. PMID:14532032

Prince, Roger C.; Grossman, Matthew J.

2003-01-01

231

Complete Genomic Sequence of the Filamentous Nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence of the entire genome of a filamentous cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, was determined. The genome of Anabaena consisted of a single chromosome (6,413,771 bp) and six plasmids, designated pCC7120? (408,101 bp), pCC7120? (186,614 bp), pCC7120? (101,965 bp), pCC7120? (55,414 bp), pCC7120? (40,340 bp), and pCC7120? (5,584 bp). The chromosome bears 5368 po- tential protein-encoding genes,

Takakazu Kaneko; Yasukazu Nakamura; C. Peter Wolk; Tanya Kuritz; Shigemi Sasamoto; Akiko Watanabe; Mayumi Iriguchi; Atsuko Ishikawa; Kumiko Kawashima; Takaharu Kimura; Yoshie Kishida; Mitsuyo Kohara; Midori Matsumoto; Ai Matsuno; Akiko Muraki; Naomi Nakazaki; Sayaka Shimpo; Masako Sugimoto; Masaki Takazawa; Manabu Yamada; Miho Yasuda; Satoshi Tabata

2001-01-01

232

Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp. Strain JS614?  

PubMed Central

Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium. PMID:21551312

Coleman, Nicholas V.; Wilson, Neil L.; Barry, Kerrie; Brettin, Thomas S.; Bruce, David C.; Copeland, Alex; Dalin, Eileen; Detter, John C.; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hammon, Nancy M.; Han, Shunsheng; Hauser, Loren J.; Israni, Sanjay; Kim, Edwin; Kyrpides, Nikolaos; Land, Miriam L.; Lapidus, Alla; Larimer, Frank W.; Lucas, Susan; Pitluck, Sam; Richardson, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Tapia, Roxanne; Thompson, Sue; Tice, Hope N.; Spain, Jim C.; Gossett, James G.; Mattes, Timothy E.

2011-01-01

233

Reclassification of strain CCM 132, previously classified as Kocuria varians, as Kocuria carniphila sp. nov.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive actinobacterium, previously classified as Kocuria varians, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The bacterium showed the peptidoglycan type Lys-Ala3 (variation A3alpha), MK-7(H2) was the major menaquinone and anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) were the major fatty acids. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics of the actinobacterium, a novel species, Kocuria carniphila sp. nov. (type strain, CCM 132T=DSM 16004T), is proposed. PMID:15653866

Tvrzová, Ludmila; Schumann, Peter; Sedlácek, Ivo; Pácová, Zdena; Spröer, Cathrin; Verbarg, Susanne; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M

2005-01-01

234

Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614  

SciTech Connect

Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

Coleman, Nicholas V [University of Sydney, Australia; Wilson, Neil L [University of Sydney, Australia; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kim, Edwin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, Sue [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Spain, Jim C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gossett, James G [Cornell University; Mattes, Timothy E [University of Iowa

2011-01-01

235

Two New Antibiotic Pyridones Produced by a Marine Fungus, Trichoderma sp. Strain MF106  

PubMed Central

Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC50 values of 24 ?M and 4 ?M, respectively. PMID:24663111

Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F.

2014-01-01

236

Characterization of the Upper Pathway Genes for Fluorene Metabolism in Terrabacter sp. Strain DBF63  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes involved in the degradation of fluorene to phthalate were characterized in the fluorene degrader Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63. The initial attack on both fluorene and 9-fluorenone was catalyzed by DbfA to yield 9-fluorenol and 1,1a-dihydroxy-1-hydro-9-fluorenone, respectively. The FlnB protein exhibited activities against both 9-fluorenol and 1,1a-dihydroxy-1-hydro-9-fluorenone to produce 9-fluorenone and 2-carboxy-2,3- dihydroxybiphenyl, respectively. FlnD is a heteromeric protein encoded

Hiroshi Habe; Jin-Sung Chung; Hiroyuki Kato; Yuko Ayabe; Kano Kasuga; Takako Yoshida; Hideaki Nojiri; Hisakazu Yamane; Toshio Omori

2004-01-01

237

Effect of pesticides on plant growth promoting traits of greengram-symbiont, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of herbicides (metribuzin and glyphosate), insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) and fungicides (hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) at the recommended and the higher dose rates on plant growth promoting activities of Bradyrhizobium sp. under in vitro conditions. The Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6 was isolated from nodules of greengram plants. Pesticide-concentration dependent progressive-decline was observed in plant growth promoting traits of the strain MRM6 apart from exo-polysaccharides which increased consistently on increasing pesticide concentrations. Generally, the highest toxicity to plant growth promoting characteristics of the Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6 was observed when the strain MRM6 was grown with three times the recommended field rates of glyphosate, imidacloprid and hexaconazole. PMID:21359648

Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2011-04-01

238

Isolation of Toxigenic Nocardiopsis Strains from Indoor Environments and Description of Two New Nocardiopsis Species, N. exhalans sp. nov. and N. umidischolae sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

Nocardiopsis strains were isolated from water-damaged indoor environments. Two strains (N. alba subsp. alba 704a and a strain representing a novel species, ES10.1) as well as strains of N. prasina, N. lucentensis, and N. tropica produced methanol-soluble toxins that paralyzed the motility of boar spermatozoa at <30 ?g of crude extract (dry weight) ml?1. N. prasina, N. lucentensis, N. tropica, and strain ES10.1 caused cessation of motility by dissipating the mitochondrial membrane potential, ??, of the boar spermatozoa. Indoor strain 704a produced a substance that destroyed cell membrane barrier function and depleted the sperm cells of ATP. Indoor strain 64/93 was antagonistic towards Corynebacterium renale. Two indoor Nocardiopsis strains were xerotolerant, and all five utilized a wide range of substrates. This combined with the production of toxic substances suggests good survival and potential hazard to human health in water-damaged indoor environments. Two new species, Nocardiopsis exhalans sp. nov. (ES10.1T) and Nocardiopsis umidischolae sp. nov. (66/93T), are proposed based on morphology, chemotaxonomic and physiological characters, phylogenetic analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociations. PMID:11526036

Peltola, Joanna S. P.; Andersson, Maria A.; Kämpfer, Peter; Auling, Georg; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S.; Rainey, Frederick A.

2001-01-01

239

Endophytic Colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia sp. Strain PsJN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed

Stephane Compant; Birgit Reiter; Angela Sessitsch; Jerzy Nowak; Christophe Clement; E. Ait Barka

2005-01-01

240

Bradyrhizobium sp. Strains That Nodulate the Leguminous Tree Acacia albida Produce Fucosylated and Partially Sulfated Nod Factors  

PubMed Central

We determined the structures of Nod factors produced by six different Bradyrhizobium sp. strains nodulating the legume tree Acacia albida (syn. Faidherbia albida). Compounds from all strains were found to be similar, i.e., O-carbamoylated and substituted by an often sulfated methyl fucose and different from compounds produced by Rhizobium-Mesorhizobium-Sinorhizobium strains nodulating other species of the Acaciae tribe. PMID:11055966

Ferro, Myriam; Lorquin, Jean; Ba, Salif; Sanon, Kadidia; Promé, Jean-Claude; Boivin, Catherine

2000-01-01

241

Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon Sequestration Systems  

SciTech Connect

A mutant ( 5) of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 constructed by inactivating five inorganic carbon sequestration systems did not take up CO2 or HCO3– and was unable to grow in air with or without glucose. The 4 mutant in which BicA is the only active inorganic carbon sequestration system showed low activity of HCO3– uptake and grew under these conditions but more slowly than the wild-type strain. The 5 mutant required 1.7% CO2 to attain half the maximal growth rate. Electron transport activity of the mutants was strongly inhibited under high light intensities, with the 5 mutant more susceptible to high light than the 4 mutant. The results implicated the significance of carbon sequestration in dissipating excess light energy.

Xu, Min; Bernat, Gabor; Singh, Abhay K.; Mi, Hualing; Rogner, Matthias; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Ogawa, Teruo

2008-09-10

242

Global Proteomic Analysis of the Chromate Response in Arthrobacter sp strain FB24  

SciTech Connect

A global proteomic evaluation of the response of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 to 5 mM and 20 mM Cr(VI) was conducted using both two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS). The changes in protein expression found with 2-DGE indicate alterations in central metabolism and amino acid synthesis. Proteome coverage increased from 22% with 2-DGE to 71% with LC/LC-MS/MS. The proteins exhibiting the highest levels of expression under Cr(VI) stress suggest intracellular sulfur limitation, which could be driven by competition for the sulfate (SO42-) transporter by the chromate (CrO42-) ion. These results are consistent with the growth defects seen with strain FB24 when Cr(VI) concentrations exceed 5 mM.

Henne, Kristene L.; Turse, Joshua E.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Tollaksen, Sandra L.; Lindberg, Carl; Babbnig, Gyorgy; Giometti, Carol S.; Nakatsu, Cindy N.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Konopka, Allan

2009-04-01

243

Role of heterotrophic bacteria in complete mineralization of trichloroethylene by Methylocystis sp. strain M.  

PubMed Central

Biodegradation experiments with radioactively labeled trichloroethylene showed that 32% of the radioactive carbon was converted to glyoxylic acid, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid and that the same percentage was converted to CO2 and CO after 140 h of incubation by a pure culture of a type II methane-utilizing bacterium, Methylocystis sp. strain M, isolated from a mixed culture, MU-81, in our laboratory. In contrast, these water-soluble (14C)trichloroethylene degradation products were completely or partially degraded further and converted to CO2 by the MU-81 mixed culture. This phenomenon was attributed to the presence of a heterotrophic bacterium (strain DA4), which was identified as Xanthobacter autotrophicus, in the MU-81 culture. The results indicate that the heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in complete trichloroethylene degradation by methanotrophs. PMID:1444420

Uchiyama, H; Nakajima, T; Yagi, O; Nakahara, T

1992-01-01

244

Chemotaxis of Burkholderia sp. Strain SJ98 towards chloronitroaromatic compounds that it can metabolise  

PubMed Central

Background Burkholderia sp. strain SJ98 is known for its chemotaxis towards nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) that are either utilized as sole sources of carbon and energy or co-metabolized in the presence of alternative carbon sources. Here we test for the chemotaxis of this strain towards six chloro-nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs), namely 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP), 2-chloro-3-nitrophenol (2C3NP), 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP), 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoate (2C4NB), 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate (4C2NB) and 5-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate (5C2NB), and examine its relationship to the degradation of such compounds. Results Strain SJ98 could mineralize 2C4NP, 4C2NB and 5C2NB, and co-metabolically transform 2C3NP and 2C4NB in the presence of an alternative carbon source, but was unable to transform 4C2NP under these conditions. Positive chemotaxis was only observed towards the five metabolically transformed CNACs. Moreover, the chemotaxis was induced by growth in the presence of the metabolisable CNAC. It was also competitively inhibited by the presence of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) that it could metabolise but not by succinate or aspartate. Conclusions Burkholderia sp. strain SJ98 exhibits metabolic transformation of, and inducible chemotaxis towards CNACs. Its chemotactic responses towards these compounds are related to its previously demonstrated chemotaxis towards NACs that it can metabolise, but it is independently inducible from its chemotaxis towards succinate or aspartate. PMID:22292983

2012-01-01

245

areABC Genes Determine the Catabolism of Aryl Esters in Acinetobacter sp. Strain ADP1  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1 is able to grow on a range of esters of aromatic alcohols, converting them to the corresponding aromatic carboxylic acids by the sequential action of three inducible enzymes: an areA-encoded esterase, an areB-encoded benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and an areC-encoded benzaldehyde dehydrogenase. The are genes, adjacent to each other on the chromosome and transcribed in the order areCBA, were located 3.5 kbp upstream of benK. benK, encoding a permease implicated in benzoate uptake, is at one end of the ben-cat supraoperonic cluster for benzoate catabolism by the ?-ketoadipate pathway. Two open reading frames which may encode a transcriptional regulator, areR, and a porin, benP, separate benK from areC. Each are gene was individually expressed to high specific activity in Escherichia coli. The relative activities against different substrates of the cloned enzymes were, within experimental error, identical to that of wild-type Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1 grown on either benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, or 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as the carbon source. The substrate preferences of all three enzymes were broad, encompassing a range of substituted aromatic compounds and in the case of the AreA esterase, different carboxylic acids. The areA, areB, and areC genes were individually disrupted on the chromosome by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette, and the rates at which the resultant strains utilized substrates of the aryl ester catabolic pathway were severely reduced as determined by growth competitions between the mutant and wild-type strains. PMID:10419955

Jones, Rheinallt M.; Collier, Lauren S.; Neidle, Ellen L.; Williams, Peter A.

1999-01-01

246

High-level chromate resistance in Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 requires previously uncharacterized accessory genes  

PubMed Central

Background The genome of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 contains a chromate resistance determinant (CRD), consisting of a cluster of 8 genes located on a 10.6 kb fragment of a 96 kb plasmid. The CRD includes chrA, which encodes a putative chromate efflux protein, and three genes with amino acid similarities to the amino and carboxy termini of ChrB, a putative regulatory protein. There are also three novel genes that have not been previously associated with chromate resistance in other bacteria; they encode an oxidoreductase (most similar to malate:quinone oxidoreductase), a functionally unknown protein with a WD40 repeat domain and a lipoprotein. To delineate the contribution of the CRD genes to the FB24 chromate [Cr(VI)] response, we evaluated the growth of mutant strains bearing regions of the CRD and transcript expression levels in response to Cr(VI) challenge. Results A chromate-sensitive mutant (strain D11) was generated by curing FB24 of its 96-kb plasmid. Elemental analysis indicated that chromate-exposed cells of strain D11 accumulated three times more chromium than strain FB24. Introduction of the CRD into strain D11 conferred chromate resistance comparable to wild-type levels, whereas deletion of specific regions of the CRD led to decreased resistance. Using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, we show that expression of each gene within the CRD is specifically induced in response to chromate but not by lead, hydrogen peroxide or arsenate. Higher levels of chrA expression were achieved when the chrB orthologs and the WD40 repeat domain genes were present, suggesting their possible regulatory roles. Conclusion Our findings indicate that chromate resistance in Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 is due to chromate efflux through the ChrA transport protein. More importantly, new genes have been identified as having significant roles in chromate resistance. Collectively, the functional predictions of these additional genes suggest the involvement of a signal transduction system in the regulation of chromate efflux and warrants further study. PMID:19758450

2009-01-01

247

Glycogen production for biofuels by the euryhaline cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 from an oceanic environment  

PubMed Central

Background Oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria and microalgae have attracted attention as an alternative carbon source for the next generation of biofuels. Glycogen abundantly accumulated in cyanobacteria is a promising feedstock which can be converted to ethanol through saccharification and fermentation processes. In addition, the utilization of marine cyanobacteria as a glycogen producer can eliminate the need for a freshwater supply. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a fast-growing marine coastal euryhaline cyanobacteria, however, the glycogen yield has not yet been determined. In the present study, the effects of light intensity, CO2 concentration, and salinity on the cell growth and glycogen content were investigated in order to maximize glycogen production in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. Results The optimal culture conditions for glycogen production in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 were investigated. The maximum glycogen production of 3.5 g L?1 for 7 days (a glycogen productivity of 0.5 g L?1 d?1) was obtained under a high light intensity, a high CO2 level, and a nitrogen-depleted condition in brackish water. The glycogen production performance in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 was the best ever reported in the ?-polyglucan (glycogen or starch) production of cyanobacteria and microalgae. In addition, the robustness of glycogen production in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 to salinity was evaluated in seawater and freshwater. The peak of glycogen production of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 in seawater and freshwater were 3.0 and 1.8 g L?1 in 7 days, respectively. Glycogen production in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 maintained the same level in seawater and half of the level in freshwater compared with the optimal result obtained in brackish water. Conclusions We conclude that Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 has high glycogen production activity and glycogen can be provided from coastal water accompanied by a fluctuation of salinity. This work supports Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 as a promising carbohydrate source for biofuel production. PMID:24959200

2014-01-01

248

Complete Genome Sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020, a Thermophilic Sporeformer Associated with a Dairy-Processing Environment  

PubMed Central

Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020 from a milk processing plant and report the complete genome of a dairy plant isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 3.75 Mb. PMID:22815439

Zhao, Yu; Caspers, Martien P.; Abee, Tjakko; Siezen, Roland J.

2012-01-01

249

Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Karyotype analysis of nine strains of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), collected on Lavandula sp. plants, evidenced showed that five of them had a standard 2n = 12 karyotype, one possessed a fragmentation of the X chromosome occurring at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one and three strains had a chromosome number 2n = 11 due to a non-reciprocal translocation of an autosome A3 onto an A1 chromosome. Interestingly, the terminal portion of the autosome A1 involved in the translocation was the same in all the three strains, as evidenced by FISH with the histone cluster as a probe. The study of telomeres in the Myzus persicae strain with the X fission evidenced that telomerase synthesised de novo telomeres at the breakpoints resulting in the stabilization of the chromosomal fragments. Lastly, despite the presence of a conserved telomerase, aphid genome is devoid of genes coding for shelterin, a complex of proteins involved in telomere functioning frequently reported as conserved in eukaryotes. The absence of this complex, also confirmed in the genome of other arthropods, suggests that the shift in the sequence of the telomeric repeats has been accompanied by other changes in the telomere components in arthropods in respect to other metazoans. PMID:25610541

Mandrioli, Mauro; Zanasi, Federica; Manicardi, Gian Carlo

2014-01-01

250

Rapid Aggregation of Biofuel-Producing Algae by the Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain RP1137  

PubMed Central

Algal biofuels represent one of the most promising means of sustainably replacing liquid fuels. However, significant challenges remain before alga-based fuels become competitive with fossil fuels. One of the largest challenges is the ability to harvest the algae in an economical and low-energy manner. In this article, we describe the isolation of a bacterial strain, Bacillus sp. strain RP1137, which can rapidly aggregate several algae that are candidates for biofuel production, including a Nannochloropsis sp. This bacterium aggregates algae in a pH-dependent and reversible manner and retains its aggregation ability after paraformaldehyde fixation, opening the possibility for reuse of the cells. The optimal ratio of bacteria to algae is described, as is the robustness of aggregation at different salinities and temperatures. Aggregation is dependent on the presence of calcium or magnesium ions. The efficiency of aggregation of Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 is between 70 and 95% and is comparable to that obtained by other means of harvest; however, the rate of harvest is fast, with aggregates forming in 30 s. PMID:23892750

Powell, Ryan J.

2013-01-01

251

Oxidative Pathway from Squalene to Geranylacetone in Arthrobacter sp. Strain Y-11  

PubMed Central

The reaction pathway from squalene to trans-geranylacetone in Arthrobacter sp. strain Y-11 was studied. The enzyme or enzymes catalyzing squalene degradation were found to be membrane bound. Stoichiometric analysis of a cell-free system revealed that the ratio of squalene to trans-geranylacetone changed from 1:2 to 1:1 as the reaction proceeded, indicating two steps in geranylacetone formation. The initial step was found to be oxygenase catalyzed, from the absolute requirement for molecular oxygen in geranylacetone formation and the incorporation of 18O into geranylacetone under 18O2 atmosphere. By using [3H]squalene as the substrate, we detected an intermediate in the pathway and identified it as 5,9,13-trimethyltetradeca-4,8,12-trienoic acid by mass spectrometry, infrared spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and chemical synthesis. We deduced that squalene was first oxidatively cleaved to geranylacetone and the intermediate, and that the intermediate was further metabolized to geranylacetone. We also synthesized some of the presumptive metabolites, such as 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-4,8,12-trien-2-one, and confirmed that they served as active precursors for geranylacetone formation. Based on these lines of evidence, we present here the pathway from squalene to trans-geranylacetone in Arthrobacter sp. strain Y-11. PMID:16347551

Ikeguchi, Naoki; Nihira, Takuya; Kishimoto, Atsuko; Yamada, Yasuhiro

1988-01-01

252

Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1 efficiently remediates di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.  

PubMed

This study describes how Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1, a novel isolate from heavily plastics-contaminated sewage sludge efficiently consumed the hazardous plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) as carbon source supplemented in a simple basal salt medium (BSM). Response surface methodology was employed for the statistical optimization of the process parameters such as temperature (32°C), agitation (200 rpm), DEHP concentration (10 mM), time (72 h) and pH (8.0). At these optimized conditions, experimentally observed DEHP degradation was 63%, while the predicted value was 59.2%; and the correlation coefficient between them was 0.998, i.e., highly significant and fit to the predicted model. Employing GC-MS analysis, the degradation pathway was partially deduced with intermediates such as mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and 2-ethyl hexanol. Briefly, this first report describes A. denitrificans strain SP1 as a highly efficient bacterium for completely remediating the hazardous DEHP (10 mM) in 96 h in BSM (50% consumed in 60 h), which offers great potentials for efficiently cleaning the DEHP-contaminated environments such as soil, sediments and water upon its deployment. PMID:25463861

Pradeep, S; Josh, M K Sarath; Binod, P; Devi, R Sudha; Balachandran, S; Anderson, Robin C; Benjamin, Sailas

2015-02-01

253

Combination of degradation pathways for naphthalene utilization in Rhodococcus sp. strain TFB  

PubMed Central

Rhodococcus sp. strain TFB is a metabolic versatile bacterium able to grow on naphthalene as the only carbon and energy source. Applying proteomic, genetic and biochemical approaches, we propose in this paper that, at least, three coordinated but independently regulated set of genes are combined to degrade naphthalene in TFB. First, proteins involved in tetralin degradation are also induced by naphthalene and may carry out its conversion to salicylaldehyde. This is the only part of the naphthalene degradation pathway showing glucose catabolite repression. Second, a salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that converts salicylaldehyde to salicylate is detected in naphthalene-grown cells but not in tetralin-or salicylate-grown cells. Finally, we describe the chromosomally located nag genes, encoding the gentisate pathway for salicylate conversion into fumarate and pyruvate, which are only induced by salicylate and not by naphthalene. This work shows how biodegradation pathways in Rhodococcus sp. strain TFB could be assembled using elements from different pathways mainly because of the laxity of the regulatory systems and the broad specificity of the catabolic enzymes. PMID:24325207

Tomás-Gallardo, Laura; Gómez-Álvarez, Helena; Santero, Eduardo; Floriano, Belén

2014-01-01

254

Biodegradation of crude oil by a newly isolated strain Rhodococcus sp. JZX-01.  

PubMed

A highly efficient oil-degrading bacteria JZX-01 was isolated from the oil-contaminated soil of the seacoast near the Boxi Offshore Oil Field of China. Morphological, physiological, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses indicated that JZX-01 was assigned to the genus Rhodococcus sp. This strain decomposed 65.27 ± 5.63 % of the crude oil in 9 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that even the long-chain hydrocarbons (C31-C38) and branched alkanes (pristine and phytane), which were regarded as the stubborn ones, could be degraded. Further study showed that the bacteria still has good oil degradation ability at low temperatures as well as under high salt conditions. Moreover, JZX-01 was found to have a biosurfactant-producing capacity, which significantly favors the surface tension reduction and crude oil degradation. The promising isolated strain Rhodococcus sp. JZX-01 could be further used for the bioremediation of oil-polluted soil or seawater in a wide range of temperatures and high salt conditions. PMID:23996118

Li, Chen; Zhou, Zheng-Xi; Jia, Xiao-Qiang; Chen, Yu; Liu, Jiao; Wen, Jian-Ping

2013-12-01

255

Composition of the carbohydrate granules of the cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 is an aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that temporally separates O2-sensitive N2 fixation from oxygenic photosynthesis. The energy and reducing power needed for N2 fixation appears to be generated by an active respiratory apparatus that utilizes the contents of large interthylakoidal carbohydrate granules. We report here on the carbohydrate and protein composition of the granules of Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142. The carbohydrate component is a glucose homopolymer with branches every nine residues and is chemically identical to glycogen. Granule-associated protein fractions showed temporal changes in the number of proteins and their abundance during the metabolic oscillations observed under diazotrophic conditions. There also were temporal changes in the protein pattern of the granule-depleted supernatant fractions from diazotrophic cultures. None of the granule-associated proteins crossreacted with antisera directed against several glycogen-metabolizing enzymes or nitrogenase, although these proteins were tentatively identified in supernatant fractions. It is suggested that the granule-associated proteins are structural proteins required to maintain a complex granule architecture.

Schneegurt, M. A.; Sherman, D. M.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

256

Growth of Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N on n-hexadecanol: physiological and ultrastructural characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The growth of Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N on hexadecanol results in the formation of intracytoplasmic membranes and intracellular rectangular inclusions containing one of the end products of hexadecanol metabolism, hexadecyl palmitate. The intracellular inclusions were purified and characterized as wax ester inclusions consisting of 85.6% hexadecyl palmitate, 4.8% hexadecanol, and 9.6% phospholipid, with a phospholipid-to-protein ratio of 0.42 ..mu..mol of lipid phosphate per mg of inclusion protein. The cellular lipids consisted of 69.8% hexadecyl palmitate, 22.8% phospholipid, 1.9% triglyceride, 4.7% mono- and diglyceride, 0.1% free fatty acid, and 0.8% hexadecanol, as compared with 98% hexadecyl palmitate and 1.9% triglyceride, which comprised the extracellular lipids. Cell-associated hexadecanol represented 0.05% of the exogenously supplied hexadecanol, with hexadecyl palmitate accounting for 14.7% of the total cellular dry weight. Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N possesses a mechanism for the intracellular packaging of hexadecyl palmitate in wax ester inclusions, which differ in structure and chemical composition from hydrocarbon inclusions isolated from hexadecane-grown cells.

Singer, M.E.; Tyler, S.M.; Finnerty, W.R.

1985-04-01

257

Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of foodborne Geobacillus stearothermophilus.  

PubMed

Geobacillus stearothermophilus is the main thermophilic spore former involved in flat sour spoilage of canned foods. Three typing methods were tested and applied to differentiate strains at intra-species level: panC sequence analysis, REP-PCR and M13-PCR. panC gene was highly conserved within the studied strains, suggesting a low intra-specific diversity. This was supported by REP-PCR primary assays and M13-PCR results. M13-PCR profile analysis succeeded in differentiating six closely related groups (at 79% threshold similarity) among 127 strains from a range of spoiled canned food products and from different canneries. Phenotypic traits were investigated among 20 selected strains representing groups and origins. Ranges of growth under different temperatures (from 40 °C to 70 °C), pH (from 5.0 to 6.5), NaCl concentrations (from 1 to 5%) and sporulation conditions poorly differed between strains, but wet heat resistance of spores showed a 20-fold variation between strains. Furthermore, in this study, strains that belonged to the same M13-PCR genetic group did not share phenotypic characteristics or common origin. The work emphasizes a low diversity within the G. stearothermophilus species but data from this study may contribute to a better control of G. stearothermophilus spoilage in canned food. PMID:25481066

Durand, Loïc; Planchon, Stella; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; Carlin, Frédéric; Remize, Fabienne

2015-02-01

258

Root colonization and systemic spreading of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 in grasses.  

PubMed Central

The invasive properties of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72, an endorhizospheric isolate of Kallar grass, on gnotobiotically grown seedlings of Oryza sativa IR36 and Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth were studied. Additionally, Azoarcus spp. were localized in roots of field-grown Kallar grass. To facilitate localization and to assure identity of bacteria, genetically engineered microorganisms expressing beta-glucuronidase were also used as inocula. beta-Glucuronidase staining indicated that the apical region of the root behind the meristem was the most intensively colonized. Light and electron microscopy showed that strain BH72 penetrated the rhizoplane preferentially in the zones of elongation and differentiation and colonized the root interior inter- and intracellularly. In addition to the root cortex, stelar tissue was also colonized; bacteria were found in the xylem. No evidence was obtained that Azoarcus spp. could reside in living plant cells; rather, plant cells were apparently destroyed after bacteria had penetrated the cell wall. A common pathogenicity test on tobacco leaves provided no evidence that representative strains of Azoarcus spp. are phytopathogenic. Compared with the control, inoculation with strain BH72 significantly promoted growth of rice seedlings. This effect was reversed when the plant medium was supplemented with malate (0.2 g/liter). N2 fixation was apparently not involved, because the same response was obtained with a nifK mutant of strain BH72, which has a Nif- phenotype. Also, Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of protein extracts from rice seedlings gave no indication that nitrogenase was present. PCR and Western immunoblotting, using primers specific for eubacteria and antibodies recognizing type-specific antigens, respectively, indicated that strain BH72 could colonize rice plants systemically, probably mediated by longitudinal spreading through vessels. Images PMID:8144457

Hurek, T; Reinhold-Hurek, B; Van Montagu, M; Kellenberger, E

1994-01-01

259

Root colonization and systemic spreading of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 in grasses.  

PubMed

The invasive properties of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72, an endorhizospheric isolate of Kallar grass, on gnotobiotically grown seedlings of Oryza sativa IR36 and Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth were studied. Additionally, Azoarcus spp. were localized in roots of field-grown Kallar grass. To facilitate localization and to assure identity of bacteria, genetically engineered microorganisms expressing beta-glucuronidase were also used as inocula. beta-Glucuronidase staining indicated that the apical region of the root behind the meristem was the most intensively colonized. Light and electron microscopy showed that strain BH72 penetrated the rhizoplane preferentially in the zones of elongation and differentiation and colonized the root interior inter- and intracellularly. In addition to the root cortex, stelar tissue was also colonized; bacteria were found in the xylem. No evidence was obtained that Azoarcus spp. could reside in living plant cells; rather, plant cells were apparently destroyed after bacteria had penetrated the cell wall. A common pathogenicity test on tobacco leaves provided no evidence that representative strains of Azoarcus spp. are phytopathogenic. Compared with the control, inoculation with strain BH72 significantly promoted growth of rice seedlings. This effect was reversed when the plant medium was supplemented with malate (0.2 g/liter). N2 fixation was apparently not involved, because the same response was obtained with a nifK mutant of strain BH72, which has a Nif- phenotype. Also, Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of protein extracts from rice seedlings gave no indication that nitrogenase was present. PCR and Western immunoblotting, using primers specific for eubacteria and antibodies recognizing type-specific antigens, respectively, indicated that strain BH72 could colonize rice plants systemically, probably mediated by longitudinal spreading through vessels. PMID:8144457

Hurek, T; Reinhold-Hurek, B; Van Montagu, M; Kellenberger, E

1994-04-01

260

Production of Novel Tetrahydroxyfuranyl Fatty Acids from ?-Linolenic Acid by Clavibacter sp. Strain ALA2  

PubMed Central

Previously, it was reported that a newly isolated microbial culture, Clavibacter sp. strain ALA2, produced trihydroxy unsaturated fatty acids, diepxoy bicyclic fatty acids, and tetrahydroxyfuranyl fatty acids (THFAs) from linoleic acid (C. T. Hou, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73:1359-1362, 1996; C. T. Hou and R. J. Forman III, J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24:275-276, 2000; C. T. Hou, H. Gardner, and W. Brown, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75:1483-1487, 1998; C. T. Hou, H. W. Gardner, and W. Brown, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78:1167-1169, 2001). In this study, we found that Clavibacter sp. strain ALA2 produced novel THFAs, including 13,16-dihydroxy-12-THFA, 15-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (13,16-dihydroxy-THFA), and 7,13,16-trihydroxy-12, 15-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (7,13,16-trihydroxy-THFA), from ?-linolenic acid (9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid). The chemical structures of these products were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. The optimum incubation temperature was 30°C for production of both hydroxy-THFAs. 13,16-Dihydroxy-THFA was detected after 2 days of incubation, and the concentration reached 45 mg/50 ml after 7 days of incubation; 7,13,16-trihydroxy-THFA was not detected after 2 days of incubation, but the concentration reached 9 mg/50 ml after 7 days of incubation. The total yield of both 13,16-dihydroxy-THFA and 7,13,16-trihydroxy-THFA was 67% (wt/wt) after 7 days of incubation at 30°C and 200 rpm. In previous studies, it was reported that Clavibacter sp. strain ALA2 oxidized the C-7, C-12, C-13, C-16, and C-17 positions of linoleic acid (n-6) into hydroxy groups. In this case, the bond between the C-16 and C-17 carbon atoms is saturated. In ?-linolenic acid (n-3), however, the bond between the C-16 and C-17 carbon atoms is unsaturated. It seems that enzymes of strain ALA2 oxidized the C-12-C-13 and C-16-C-17 double bonds into dihydroxy groups first and then converted them to hydroxy-THFAs. PMID:12839755

Hosokawa, Masashi; Hou, Ching T.; Weisleder, David

2003-01-01

261

Enzymatic transglycosylation of natural and modified nucleosides by immobilized thermostable nucleoside phosphorylases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and modified purine nucleosides have been synthesized using the recombinant thermostable enzymes purine nucleoside\\u000a phosphorylase II (E. C. 2.4.2.1) and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (E. C. 2.4.2.2) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-2194. The enzymes were produced in recombinant E. coli strains and covalently immobilized on aminopropylsilochrom AP-CPG-170 after heating the cell lysates and the removal of coagulated\\u000a thermolabile proteins. The resulting

S. A. Taran; K. N. Verevkina; S. A. Feofanov; A. I. Miroshnikov

2009-01-01

262

Lipopolysaccharides of plant-growth promoting Pseudomonas sp. strain WCS417r induce resistance in carnation to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of diseased plants could significantly be reduced when microconidia ofFusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi were inoculated into the stem and viable-, heat-killed cells or purified LPS of the bacteriumPseudomonas sp. strain WCS417r were applied to the roots. Because the competition betweenF. o. dianthi and the bacterium could be excluded, the disease suppression seems to be due to an induced

R. Van Peer; B. Schippers

1992-01-01

263

Complete Genome Sequence of Thermococcus sp. Strain 4557, a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Isolated from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Area  

PubMed Central

Thermococcus sp. strain 4557 is a hyperthermophilic anaerobic archaeon isolated from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent Guaymas Basin site in the Gulf of California at a depth of 2,000 m. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Thermococcus sp. 4557, which consists of a single circular chromosome of 2,011,320 bp with a G+C content of 56.08%. PMID:21914870

Wang, Xingna; Gao, Zhaoming; Xu, Xun; Ruan, Lingwei

2011-01-01

264

Toxicological effects of selective herbicides on plant growth promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing Klebsiella sp. strain PS19.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of four herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, clodinafop, metribuzin and glyphosate, on plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilization, siderophores, indole acetic acid, exo-polysaccharides, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia production by herbicide tolerant Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. The strain was isolated from mustard rhizosphere. The selected herbicides were applied two to three times at the recommended rates. Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 tolerated a concentration of 1600 ?g/ml each of quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop, and 3200 and 2800 ?g/ml of metribuzin and glyphosate, respectively. The activities of Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 observed under in vitro environment were persistent in the presence of all herbicides at lower rates. The plant growth promoting activities even-though decreased regularly, but was not lost completely, as the concentration of each herbicide was increased from the recommended to three times of higher doses. Among all herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, generally, showed maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting activities of Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. As an example, 40, 80 and 120 ?g/l of quizalafop-p-ethyl added to liquid culture Pikovskaya medium, decreased phosphate solubilizing activity of strain PS19 by 93, 95 and 97%, respectively over untreated control. The study revealed that the higher rates of herbicides though decreased the plant growth promoting activity but it did not completely inhibit the metabolic activities of strain PS19. The herbicide tolerance together with growth promoting activities observed under herbicide stress suggests that Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 could be used as bacterial preparation for facilitating the growth and yields of crops even in soils polluted with herbicides. PMID:20721665

Ahemad, Munees; Saghir Khan, Md

2011-02-01

265

Multiple Mechanisms of Uranium Immobilization by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solution was studied using a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe, Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6, under anaerobic, non growth conditions in bicarbonate and PIPES buffers. Inorganic phosphate was released by cells during the experiments providing ligands for formation of insoluble U(VI) phosphates. Phosphate release was most probably the result of anaerobic hydrolysis of intracellular polyphosphates accumulated by ES6 during aerobic growth. Microbial reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was also observed. However, the relative magnitudes of U(VI) removal by abiotic (phosphate-based) precipitation and microbial reduction depended on the buffer chemistry. In bicarbonate buffer, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed U precipitates containing nearly equal fractions of U(IV) and U(VI), whereas in PIPES buffer, U precipitates consisted primarily of U(VI). Mass balance calculations for U and P corroborate these observations. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR42TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed both extracellular and intracellular accumulation of U solids. The U(VI)-phosphate precipitates, confirmed by EDS as containing U and P in equimolar concentrations, had nanometer sized lath structure. When anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a known electron shuttle, was added to the experimental reactors, U reduction became the dominant removal mechanism, in contrast to primarily phosphate-mediated precipitation observed in the absence of AQDS. Uranium immobilization by abiotic precipitation or microbial reduction has been extensively reported; however, present work suggests that strain ES6 can remove U(VI) from solution simultaneously through precipitation with phosphate ligands and microbial reduction, depending on the environmental conditions. Cellulomonadaceae are environmentally relevant subsurface bacteria and here, for the first time, t 52 he presence of multiple U immobilization mechanisms within one organism is reported using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Brent Peyton; Viamajala, Sridhar; Robin Gerlach; William Apel; Rajesh Sani; Alice Dohnalkova; Thomas Borch

2011-02-01

266

Regulation of the Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP Cyanuric Acid Degradation Operon  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP is the model strain for studying bacterial degradation of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine. In this work, we focused on the expression of the atzDEF operon, involved in mineralization of the central intermediate of the pathway, cyanuric acid. Expression analysis of atzD-lacZ fusions in Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP and Pseudomonas putida showed that atzDEF is subjected to dual regulation in response to nitrogen limitation and cyanuric acid. The gene adjacent to atzD, orf99 (renamed here atzR), encoding a LysR-like regulator, was found to be required for both responses. Expression of atzR-lacZ was induced by nitrogen limitation and repressed by AtzR. Nitrogen regulation of atzD-lacZ and atzR-lacZ expression was dependent on the alternative ? factor ?N and NtrC, suggesting that the cyanuric acid degradation operon may be subject to general nitrogen control. However, while atzR is transcribed from a ?N-dependent promoter, atzDEF transcription appears to be driven from a ?70-type promoter. Expression of atzR from a heterologous promoter revealed that although NtrC regulation of atzD-lacZ requires the AtzR protein, it is not the indirect result of NtrC-activated AtzR synthesis. We propose that expression of the cyanuric acid degradation operon atzDEF is controlled by means of a complex regulatory circuit in which AtzR is the main activator. AtzR activity is in turn modulated by the presence of cyanuric acid and by a nitrogen limitation signal transduced by the Ntr system. PMID:15601699

García-González, Vicente; Govantes, Fernando; Porrúa, Odil; Santero, Eduardo

2005-01-01

267

Rhizosphere colonization and arsenic translocation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by arsenate reducing Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L.  

PubMed

In the present study, six arsenic-resistant strains previously isolated were tested for their plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, in order to choose one model strain as an inoculum for sunflower plants in pot experiments. The aim was to investigate the effect of arsenic-resistant strain on sunflower growth and on arsenic uptake from arsenic contaminated soil. Based on plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L was chosen as an inoculum. Beside the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite via an Ars operon, the strain exhibited 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity and it was also able to produce siderophore and indole acetic acid. Pot experiments were conducted with an agricultural soil contaminated with arsenic (214 mg kg?¹). A real time PCR method was set up based on the quantification of ACR3(2) type of arsenite efflux pump carried by Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L, in order to monitor presence and colonisation of the strain in the bulk and rhizospheric soil. As a result of strain inoculation, arsenic uptake by plants was increased by 53 %, whereas ACR3(2) gene copy number in rhizospheric soil was 100 times higher in inoculated than in control pots, indicating the colonisation of strain. The results indicated that the presence of arsenate reducing strains in the rhizosphere of sunflower influences arsenic mobilization and promotes arsenic uptake by plant. PMID:23632906

Cavalca, Lucia; Corsini, Anna; Bachate, Sachin Prabhakar; Andreoni, Vincenza

2013-10-01

268

Metabolism of 2-Methylpropene (Isobutylene) by the Aerobic Bacterium Mycobacterium sp. Strain ELW1.  

PubMed

An aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1) that utilizes 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated and characterized. Strain ELW1 grew on 2-methylpropene (growth rate = 0.05 h(-1)) with a yield of 0.38 mg (dry weight) mg 2-methylpropene(-1). Strain ELW1 also grew more slowly on both cis- and trans-2-butene but did not grow on any other C2 to C5 straight-chain, branched, or chlorinated alkenes tested. Resting 2-methylpropene-grown cells consumed ethene, propene, and 1-butene without a lag phase. Epoxyethane accumulated as the only detected product of ethene oxidation. Both alkene consumption and epoxyethane production were fully inhibited in cells exposed to 1-octyne, suggesting that alkene oxidation is initiated by an alkyne-sensitive, epoxide-generating monooxygenase. Kinetic analyses indicated that 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane is rapidly consumed during 2-methylpropene degradation, while 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol is not a significant metabolite of 2-methylpropene catabolism. Degradation of 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane by 2-methylpropene-grown cells led to the accumulation and further degradation of 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, two sequential metabolites previously identified in the aerobic microbial metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Growth of strain ELW1 on 2-methylpropene, 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate was fully inhibited when cobalt ions were omitted from the growth medium, while growth on 3-hydroxybutyrate and other substrates was unaffected by the absence of added cobalt ions. Our results suggest that, like aerobic MTBE- and TBA-metabolizing bacteria, strain ELW1 utilizes a cobalt/cobalamin-dependent mutase to transform 2-hydroxyisobutyrate. Our results have been interpreted in terms of their impact on our understanding of the microbial metabolism of alkenes and ether oxygenates. PMID:25576605

Kottegoda, Samanthi; Waligora, Elizabeth; Hyman, Michael

2015-03-15

269

Modification of Norfloxacin by a Microbacterium sp. Strain Isolated from a Wastewater Treatment Plant?  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial residues found in municipal wastewater may increase selective pressure on microorganisms for development of resistance, but studies with mixed microbial cultures derived from wastewater have suggested that some bacteria are able to inactivate fluoroquinolones. Medium containing N-phenylpiperazine and inoculated with wastewater was used to enrich fluoroquinolone-modifying bacteria. One bacterial strain isolated from an enrichment culture was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as a Microbacterium sp. similar to a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Microbacterium azadirachtae (99.70%), and a nematode pathogen, “M. nematophilum” (99.02%). During growth in medium with norfloxacin, this strain produced four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses as 8-hydroxynorfloxacin, 6-defluoro-6-hydroxynorfloxacin, desethylene norfloxacin, and N-acetylnorfloxacin. The production of the first three metabolites was enhanced by ascorbic acid and nitrate, but it was inhibited by phosphate, amino acids, mannitol, formate, and thiourea. In contrast, N-acetylnorfloxacin was most abundant in cultures supplemented with amino acids. This is the first report of defluorination and hydroxylation of a fluoroquinolone by an isolated bacterial strain. The results suggest that some bacteria may degrade fluoroquinolones in wastewater to metabolites with less antibacterial activity that could be subject to further degradation by other microorganisms. PMID:21724893

Kim, Dae-Wi; Heinze, Thomas M.; Kim, Bong-Soo; Schnackenberg, Laura K.; Woodling, Kellie A.; Sutherland, John B.

2011-01-01

270

Overexpression of pknE Blocks Heterocyst Development in Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 ? †  

PubMed Central

The upstream intergenic regions for each of four genes encoding Ser/Thr kinases, all2334, pknE (alr3732), all4668, and all4838, were fused to a gfpmut2 reporter gene to determine their expression during heterocyst development in the cyanobacterium Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. strain PCC 7120. PpknE-gfp was upregulated after nitrogen step-down and showed strong expression in differentiating cells. Developmental regulation of pknE required a 118-bp upstream region and was abolished in a hetR mutant. A pknE mutant strain had shorter filaments with slightly higher heterocyst frequency than did the wild type. Overexpression of pknE from its native promoter inhibited heterocyst development in the wild type and in four mutant backgrounds that overproduce heterocysts. Overexpression of pknE from the copper-inducible petE promoter did not completely inhibit heterocyst development but caused a 24-h delay in heterocyst differentiation and cell bleaching 4 to 5 days after nitrogen step-down. Strains overexpressing pknE and containing PhetR-gfp or PpatS-gfp reporters failed to show developmental regulation of the reporters and had undetectable levels of HetR protein. Genetic epistasis experiments suggest that overexpression of pknE blocks HetR activity or downstream regulation. PMID:21421755

Saha, Sushanta K.; Golden, James W.

2011-01-01

271

Circadian rhythm of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in the dark.  

PubMed Central

The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 exhibited circadian rhythms in complete darkness. To monitor a circadian rhythm of the Synechocystis cells in darkness, we introduced a PdnaK1::luxAB gene fusion (S. Aoki, T. Kondo, and M. Ishiura, J. Bacteriol. 177:5606-5611, 1995), which was composed of a promoter region of the Synechocystis dnaK1 gene and a promoterless bacterial luciferase luxAB gene set, as a reporter into the chromosome of a dark-adapted Synechocystis strain. The resulting dnaK1-reporting strain showed bioluminescence rhythms with a period of 25 h (on agar medium supplemented with 5 mM glucose) for at least 7 days in darkness. The rhythms were reset by 12-h-light-12-h-dark cycles, and the period of the rhythms was temperature compensated for between 24 and 31 degrees C. These results indicate that light is not necessary for the oscillation of the circadian clock in Synechocystis. PMID:9294431

Aoki, S; Kondo, T; Wada, H; Ishiura, M

1997-01-01

272

Isolation and Characterization of “Dehalococcoides” sp. Strain MB, Which Dechlorinates Tetrachloroethene to trans-1,2-Dichloroethene? †  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to understand the microorganisms involved in the generation of trans-1,2-dichloroethene (trans-DCE), pure-culture “Dehalococcoides” sp. strain MB was isolated from environmental sediments. In contrast to currently known tetrachloroethene (PCE)- or trichloroethene (TCE)-dechlorinating pure cultures, which generate cis-DCE as the predominant product, Dehalococcoides sp. strain MB reductively dechlorinates PCE to trans-DCE and cis-DCE at a ratio of 7.3 (±0.4):1. It utilizes H2 as the sole electron donor and PCE or TCE as the electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Strain MB is a disc-shaped, nonmotile bacterium. Under an atomic force microscope, the cells appear singly or in pairs and are 1.0 ?m in diameter and ?150 nm in depth. The purity was confirmed by culture-based approaches and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis and was corroborated further by putative reductive dehalogenase (RDase) gene-based, quantitative real-time PCR. Although strain MB shares 100% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195, these two strains possess different dechlorinating pathways. Microarray analysis revealed that 10 putative RDase genes present in strain 195 were also detected in strain MB. Successful cultivation of strain MB indicates that the biotic process could contribute significantly to the generation of trans-DCE in chloroethene-contaminated sites. It also enhances our understanding of the evolution of this unusual microbial group, Dehalococcoides species. PMID:19633106

Cheng, Dan; He, Jianzhong

2009-01-01

273

Reduction of conjugal transfer efficiency by three restriction activities of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed Central

The efficiency of conjugal transfer of plasmids from Escherichia coli to the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was quantitated as a function of the number of restriction sites for the restriction enzymes carried by the recipient. In addition to the previously recognized isoschizomers of AvaI and AvaII, PCC 7120 was found to possess an isoschizomer of AvaIII. Plasmids modified in E. coli with methylases that protect in vitro against restriction by the three enzymes were transferred with high efficiency, nearly independent of the number of restriction sites on the plasmid. Plasmids left unprotected against one of the three restriction enzymes were transferred with lower efficiencies. For low numbers of sites, the efficiency of conjugal transfer decreased as an exponential function of the number of unprotected sites. The methods presented may be used to increase the efficiency of conjugal transfer into restriction-competent bacteria. PMID:9068647

Elhai, J; Vepritskiy, A; Muro-Pastor, A M; Flores, E; Wolk, C P

1997-01-01

274

Xanthan Lyase of Bacillus sp. Strain GL1 Liberates Pyruvylated Mannose from Xanthan Side Chains  

PubMed Central

When the bacterium Bacillus sp. strain GL1 was grown in a medium containing xanthan as the carbon source, the viscosity of the medium decreased in association with growth, showing that the bacterium had xanthan-depolymerizing enzymes. One of the xanthan-depolymerizing enzymes (xanthan lyase) was present in the medium and was found to be induced by xanthan. The xanthan lyase purified from the culture fluid was a monomer with a molecular mass of 75 kDa, and was most active at pH 5.5 and 50°C. The enzyme was highly specific for xanthan and produced pyruvylated mannose. The result indicates that the enzyme cleaved the linkage between the terminal pyruvylated mannosyl and glucuronyl residues in the side chain of xanthan. PMID:9758797

Hashimoto, Wataru; Miki, Hikaru; Tsuchiya, Noriaki; Nankai, Hirokazu; Murata, Kousaku

1998-01-01

275

Light-dependent expression of superoxide dismutase from cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.  

PubMed

The oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 inevitably evolves superoxide during photosynthesis. Synechocystis 6803 contains only one type of superoxide dismutase, designated as SodB; therefore, this protein plays an important role in preventing oxidative damages caused by light. Because there was no direct evidence that SodB in Synechocystis 6803 could be regulated by light, the relationship between SodB and light was investigated in the present study. The activity of SodB from the cells grown in continuous light culture was about 3.5-fold higher than that from the cells cultivated in continuous dark. Illumination maximally activated SodB within 12 h. The level of sodB mRNA increased 12-fold by light, and that of SodB protein proportionally. Therefore, the expression and activity of SodB from Synechocystis 6803 were dependent on the light. PMID:15744484

Kim, Jae-Hyun; Suh, Kyong Hoon

2005-03-01

276

Multiple polychlorinated biphenyl transformation systems in the gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1  

SciTech Connect

The cloned bphA gene of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1 was expressed in Rhodococcus erythropolis IAM1399 cells, resulting in the transformation of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls. Disruption of the bphA1 gene in RHA1 resulted in a lack of growth on biphenyl and a loss of PCB transformation activity. However, the bphA1 insertion mutant of RRA1, designated RDA1, retained the ability to transform PCB congeners when grown on ethylbenzene as its carbon source. It also transformed 4-chlorobiphenyl to 4-chlorobenzoate, although it was suspected to be deficient in bphB and bphC gene activities as well as bphA. This suggested that an alternative PCB degradation system distinct from the one encoded by the cloned bph genes was present.

Seto, Masashi; Masai, Eiji; Fukuda, Masao [Research Development Corp., Shinsan (Japan)]|[Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-01

277

Purification and properties of glutathione reductase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 7119  

SciTech Connect

An NADPH-glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) has been purified 6000-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 7119. The purified enzyme exhibits a specific activity of 249 U/mg and is characterized by being a dimeric flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing protein with a ratio of absorbance at 280 nm to absorbance at 462 nm of 5.8, a native molecular weight of 104,000, a Stokes radius of 4.13 nm, and a pI of 4.02. The enzyme activity is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and heavy-metal ions, especially in the presence of NADPH, with oxidized glutathione behaving as a protective agent. As is the case with the same enzyme from other sources, the kinetic data are consistent with a branched mechanism. Nevertheless, the cyanobacterial enzyme presents three distinctive

Serrano, A.; Rivas, J.; Losada, M.

1984-04-01

278

Methyl viologen responsive proteome dynamics of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120.  

PubMed

A proteomic approach was employed to elucidate the response of an agriculturally important microbe, Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120, to methyl viologen (MV). Exposure to 2 ?M MV caused 50% lethality (LD50 ) within 6 h and modified the cellular levels of several proteins. About 31 proteins increased in abundance and 24 proteins decreased in abundance, while 55 proteins showed only a minor change in abundance. Of these, 103 proteins were identified by MS. Levels of proteins involved in ROS detoxification and chaperoning activities were enhanced but that of crucial proteins involved in light and dark reactions of photosynthesis declined or constitutive. The abundance of proteins involved in carbon and energy biogenesis were altered. The study elaborated the oxidative stress defense mechanism deployed by Anabaena, identified carbon metabolism and energy biogenesis as possible major targets of MV sensitivity, and suggested potential biotechnological interventions for improved stress tolerance in Anabaena 7120. PMID:24946113

Panda, Bandita; Basu, Bhakti; Rajaram, Hema; Kumar Apte, Shree

2014-08-01

279

Organic solvent tolerance of halophilic alpha-amylase from a Haloarchaeon, Haloarcula sp. strain S-1.  

PubMed

A halophilic archaeon, Haloarcula sp. strain S-1, produced extracellular organic solvent-tolerant alpha-amylase. Molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 70 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This amylase exhibited maximal activity at 50 degrees C in buffer containing 4.3 M NaCl, pH 7.0. Moreover, the enzyme was active and stable in various organic solvents (benzene, toluene, and chloroform, etc.). Activity was not detected at low ionic strengths, but it was detected in the presence of chloroform at low salt concentrations. On the other hand, no activity was detected in the presence of ethyl alcohol and acetone. PMID:15378403

Fukushima, Tadamasa; Mizuki, Toru; Echigo, Akinobu; Inoue, Akira; Usami, Ron

2005-02-01

280

Characterization of the upper pathway genes for fluorene metabolism in Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63.  

PubMed

Genes involved in the degradation of fluorene to phthalate were characterized in the fluorene degrader Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63. The initial attack on both fluorene and 9-fluorenone was catalyzed by DbfA to yield 9-fluorenol and 1,1a-dihydroxy-1-hydro-9-fluorenone, respectively. The FlnB protein exhibited activities against both 9-fluorenol and 1,1a-dihydroxy-1-hydro-9-fluorenone to produce 9-fluorenone and 2'-carboxy-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, respectively. FlnD is a heteromeric protein encoded by flnD1 and ORF16, being a member of the class III two-subunit extradiol dioxygenase. FlnE was identified as a serine hydrolase for the meta-cleavage products that yield phthalate. PMID:15317800

Habe, Hiroshi; Chung, Jin-Sung; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ayabe, Yuko; Kasuga, Kano; Yoshida, Takako; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu; Omori, Toshio

2004-09-01

281

Saccharification of corn fiber using enzymes from Aureobasidium sp. strain NRRL Y-2311-1  

SciTech Connect

Crude enzyme preparations from Aureobasidium sp. strain NRRL Y-2311-1 were characterized and tested for the capacity to saccharify corn fiber. Cultures grown on xylan, corn fiber, and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated corn fiber produced specific levels of endoxylanase, amylase, protease, cellulose, and other activities. Using equal units of endoxylanase activity, crude enzymes from AHP-pretreated corn fiber cultures were most effective in saccharification. Multiple enzyme activities were implicated in this process. Pretreatment of corn fiber with AHP nearly doubled the susceptibility of hemicellulose to enzymatic digestion. Up to 138 mg xylose, 125 mg arabinose, and 490 mg glucose were obtained per g pretreated corn fiber under conditions tested. 31 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Leathers, T.D.; Gupta, S.C. [Dept. of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-06-01

282

Genomics of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. Strain MED134?†  

PubMed Central

Proteorhodopsin phototrophy is expected to have considerable impact on the ecology and biogeochemical roles of marine bacteria. However, the genetic features contributing to the success of proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria remain largely unknown. We investigated the genome of Dokdonia sp. strain MED134 (Bacteroidetes) for features potentially explaining its ability to grow better in light than darkness. MED134 has a relatively high number of peptidases, suggesting that amino acids are the main carbon and nitrogen sources. In addition, MED134 shares with other environmental genomes a reduction in gene copies at the expense of important ones, like membrane transporters, which might be compensated by the presence of the proteorhodopsin gene. The genome analyses suggest Dokdonia sp. MED134 is able to respond to light at least partly due to the presence of a strong flavobacterial consensus promoter sequence for the proteorhodopsin gene. Moreover, Dokdonia sp. MED134 has a complete set of anaplerotic enzymes likely to play a role in the adaptation of the carbon anabolism to the different sources of energy it can use, including light or various organic matter compounds. In addition to promoting growth, proteorhodopsin phototrophy could provide energy for the degradation of complex or recalcitrant organic matter, survival during periods of low nutrients, or uptake of amino acids and peptides at low concentrations. Our analysis suggests that the ability to harness light potentially makes MED134 less dependent on the amount and quality of organic matter or other nutrients. The genomic features reported here may well be among the keys to a successful photoheterotrophic lifestyle. PMID:22003006

González, José M.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Fernández-Gómez, Beatriz; Coll-Lladó, Montserrat; González-Velázquez, Mónica; Puigbò, Pere; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antoni; Goesmann, Alexander; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

2011-01-01

283

Photoheterotrophic Fluxome in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 and Its Implications for Cyanobacterial Bioenergetics.  

PubMed

This study investigated metabolic responses in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 to photosynthetic impairment. We used 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU; a photosystem II inhibitor) to block O2 evolution and ATP/NADPH generation by linear electron flow. Based on (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) and RNA sequencing, we have found that Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 employs a unique photoheterotrophic metabolism. First, glucose catabolism forms a cyclic route that includes the oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway and the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI) reaction. Glucose-6-phosphate is extensively degraded by the OPP pathway for NADPH production and is replenished by the reversed PGI reaction. Second, the Calvin cycle is not fully functional, but RubisCO continues to fix CO2 and synthesize 3-phosphoglycerate. Third, the relative flux through the complete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and succinate dehydrogenase is small under heterotrophic conditions, indicating that the newly discovered cyanobacterial TCA cycle (via the ?-aminobutyric acid pathway or ?-ketoglutarate decarboxylase/succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase) plays a minimal role in energy metabolism. Fourth, NAD(P)H oxidation and the cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I are the two main ATP sources, and the CEF accounts for at least 40% of total ATP generation from photoheterotrophic metabolism (without considering maintenance loss). This study not only demonstrates a new topology for carbohydrate oxidation but also provides quantitative insights into metabolic bioenergetics in cyanobacteria. PMID:25535269

You, Le; He, Lian; Tang, Yinjie J

2015-03-01

284

Paired cloning vectors for complementation of mutations in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120  

SciTech Connect

The clones generated in a sequencing project represent a resource for subsequent analysis of the organism whose genome has been sequenced. We describe an interrelated group of cloning vectors that either integrate into the genome or replicate, and that enhance the utility, for developmental and other studies, of the clones used to determine the genomic sequence of the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. One integrating vector is a mobilizable BAC vector that was used both to generate bridging clones and to complement transposon mutations. Upon addition of a cassette that permits mobilization and selection, pUC-based sequencing clones can also integrate into the genome and thereupon complement transposon mutations. The replicating vectors are based on cyanobacterial plasmid pDU1, whose sequence we report, and on broad-host-range plasmid RSF1010. The RSF1010- and pDU1-based vectors provide the opportunity to express different genes from either cell-type-specific or -generalist promoters, simultaneously from different plasmids in the same cyanobacterial cells. We show that pDU1 ORF4 and its upstream region play an essential role in the replication and copy number of pDU1, and that ORFs alr2887 and alr3546 (hetF{sub A}) of Anabaena sp. are required specifically for fixation of dinitrogen under oxic conditions.

Wolk, C. Peter Wolk [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Fan, Qing [Northwestern University, Evanston; Zhou, Ruanbao [Anhui Normal University, People's Republic of China; Huang, Guocun [University of Texas Southwestern Medical; Lechno-Yossef, Sigal [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Kuritz, Tanya [ORNL; Wojciuch, Elizabeth [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2007-01-01

285

Biodegradation of cefdinir by a novel yeast strain, Ustilago sp. SMN03 isolated from pharmaceutical wastewater.  

PubMed

Cefdinir, a semi-synthetic third generation cephalosporin antibiotic being considered as an emerging pollutant, demands removal from aquatic ecosystems. A yeast strain isolated from pharmaceutical wastewater which was identified as Ustilago sp. SMN03 by molecular techniques and was found to be capable of utilizing cefdinir as a sole carbon source. The isolate was found to degrade 81 % of cefdinir within 6 days under optimized conditions viz. pH 6.0, temperature 30 °C, a shaking speed of 120 rpm, an inoculum dosage of 4 % (w/v) and an initial cefdinir concentration of 200 mg L(-1). Kinetic studies revealed that cefdinir degradation followed the pseudo-first order model, a rate constant of 0.222 per day and a half-life period of 3.26 days. Using LC-MS analysis, six novel intermediates formed during the cefdinir degradation were identified and characterized. FT-IR analysis showed that the functional groups ranging from 1,766 to 1,519 cm(-1), characteristic for lactam ring were completely removed during the cefdinir degradation. The opening of the ?-lactam ring was one of the major steps in the cefdinir degradation process. Based on the results from the present study, a possible pathway of cefdinir degradation by Ustilago sp. SMN03 was proposed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on microbial degradation of cefdinir by yeast. PMID:25086584

Selvi, A; Salam, Jaseetha Abdul; Das, Nilanjana

2014-11-01

286

Genome-Wide Responses of the Model Archaeon Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1 to Oxygen Limitation  

PubMed Central

As part of a comprehensive postgenomic investigation of the model archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1, we used whole-genome DNA microarrays to compare transcriptional profiles of cells grown under anaerobic or aerobic conditions. When anaerobic growth supported by arginine fermentation was compared to aerobic growth, genes for arginine fermentation (arc) and anaerobic respiration (dms), using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the terminal electron acceptor, were highly upregulated, as was the bop gene, required for phototrophic growth. When arginine fermentation was compared to anaerobic respiration with TMAO, the arc and dms genes were both induced with arginine, while TMAO induced the bop gene and major gas vesicle protein (gvpAC) genes specifying buoyant gas vesicles. Anaerobic conditions with either TMAO or arginine also upregulated the cba genes, encoding one of three cytochrome oxidases. In-frame deletion of two COG3413 family regulatory genes, bat and dmsR, showed downregulation of the bop gene cluster and loss of purple membrane synthesis and downregulation of the dms operon and loss of anaerobic respiration capability, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis identified additional regulatory and sensor genes that are likely involved in the full range of cellular responses to oxygen limitation. Our results show that the Halobacterium sp. has evolved a carefully orchestrated set of responses to oxygen limitation. As conditions become more reducing, cells progressively increase buoyancy, as well as capabilities for phototrophy, scavenging of molecular oxygen, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. PMID:22865851

DasSarma, Priya; Zamora, Regie C.; Müller, Jochen A.

2012-01-01

287

Compositional and toxicological evaluation of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compositional analyses of Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 showed high protein (50-60%) and low fat (0.4-1%) content, and the ability to synthesize vitamin B12. The amino acid profile indicated that Cyanothece sp. was a balanced protein source. Fatty acids of the 18:3n-3 type were also present. Mineral analyses indicated that the cellular biomass may be a good source of Fe, Zn and Na. Caloric content was 4.5 to 5.1 kcal g dry weight-1 and the carbon content was approximately 40% on a dry weight basis. Nitrogen content was 8 to 9% on a dry weight basis and total nucleic acids were 1.3% on a dry weight basis. Short-term feeding studies in rats followed by histopathology found no toxicity or dietary incompatibility problems. The level of uric acid and allantoin in urine and tissues was low, suggesting no excess of nucleic acids, as sometimes reported in the past for a cyanobacteria-containing diet. The current work discusses the potential implications of these results for human nutrition applications.

Schneegurt, M. A.; Arieli, B.; McKeehen, J. D.; Stephens, S. D.; Nielsen, S. S.; Saha, P. R.; Trumbo, P. R.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

288

Coregulated genes link sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase and arsenic metabolism in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803.  

PubMed

Although the biogeochemistry of the two environmentally hazardous compounds arsenic and sulfide has been extensively investigated, the biological interference of these two toxic but potentially energy-rich compounds has only been hypothesized and indirectly proven. Here we provide direct evidence for the first time that in the photosynthetic model organism Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 the two metabolic pathways are linked by coregulated genes that are involved in arsenic transport, sulfide oxidation, and probably in sulfide-based alternative photosynthesis. Although Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 is an obligate photoautotrophic cyanobacterium that grows via oxygenic photosynthesis, we discovered that specific genes are activated in the presence of sulfide or arsenite to exploit the energy potentials of these chemicals. These genes form an operon that we termed suoRSCT, located on a transposable element of type IS4 on the plasmid pSYSM of the cyanobacterium. suoS (sll5036) encodes a light-dependent, type I sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase. The suoR (sll5035) gene downstream of suoS encodes a regulatory protein that belongs to the ArsR-type repressors that are normally involved in arsenic resistance. We found that this repressor has dual specificity, resulting in 200-fold induction of the operon upon either arsenite or sulfide exposure. The suoT gene encodes a transmembrane protein similar to chromate transporters but in fact functioning as an arsenite importer at permissive concentrations. We propose that the proteins encoded by the suoRSCT operon might have played an important role under anaerobic, reducing conditions on primordial Earth and that the operon was acquired by the cyanobacterium via horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25022856

Nagy, Csaba I; Vass, Imre; Rákhely, Gábor; Vass, István Zoltán; Tóth, András; Duzs, Agnes; Peca, Loredana; Kruk, Jerzy; Kós, Péter B

2014-10-01

289

DL-7-azatryptophan and citrulline metabolism in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 1F.  

PubMed Central

An alternative route for the primary assimilation of ammonia proceeds via glutamine synthetase-carbamyl phosphate synthetase and its inherent glutaminase activity in Anabaena sp. strain 1F, a marine filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. Evidence for the presence of this possible alternative route to glutamate was provided by the use of amino acid analogs as specific enzyme inhibitors, enzymological studies, and radioistopic labeling experiments. The amino acid pool patterns of continuous cultures of Anabaena sp. strain 1F were markedly influenced by the nitrogen source. A relatively high concentration of glutamate was maintained in the amino acid pools of all cultures irrespective of the nitrogen source, reflecting the central role of glutamate in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of 1.0 microM azaserine increased the intracellular pools of glutamate and glutamine. All attempts to detect any enzymatic activity for glutamate synthase by measuring the formation of L-[14C]glutamate from 2-keto-[1-14C]glutarate and glutamine failed. The addition of 10 microM DL-7-azatryptophan caused a transient accumulation of intracellular citrulline and alanine which was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol. The in vitro activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase and glutaminase increased severalfold in the presence of azatryptophan. Results from radioisotopic labeling experiments with [14C]bicarbonate and L-[1-14C]ornithine also indicated that citrulline was formed via carbamyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine transcarbamylase. In addition to its effects on nitrogen metabolism, azatryptophan also affected carbon metabolism by inhibiting photosynthetic carbon assimilation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Images PMID:2880834

Chen, C H; Van Baalen, C; Tabita, F R

1987-01-01

290

Coregulated Genes Link Sulfide:Quinone Oxidoreductase and Arsenic Metabolism in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC6803  

PubMed Central

Although the biogeochemistry of the two environmentally hazardous compounds arsenic and sulfide has been extensively investigated, the biological interference of these two toxic but potentially energy-rich compounds has only been hypothesized and indirectly proven. Here we provide direct evidence for the first time that in the photosynthetic model organism Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 the two metabolic pathways are linked by coregulated genes that are involved in arsenic transport, sulfide oxidation, and probably in sulfide-based alternative photosynthesis. Although Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 is an obligate photoautotrophic cyanobacterium that grows via oxygenic photosynthesis, we discovered that specific genes are activated in the presence of sulfide or arsenite to exploit the energy potentials of these chemicals. These genes form an operon that we termed suoRSCT, located on a transposable element of type IS4 on the plasmid pSYSM of the cyanobacterium. suoS (sll5036) encodes a light-dependent, type I sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase. The suoR (sll5035) gene downstream of suoS encodes a regulatory protein that belongs to the ArsR-type repressors that are normally involved in arsenic resistance. We found that this repressor has dual specificity, resulting in 200-fold induction of the operon upon either arsenite or sulfide exposure. The suoT gene encodes a transmembrane protein similar to chromate transporters but in fact functioning as an arsenite importer at permissive concentrations. We propose that the proteins encoded by the suoRSCT operon might have played an important role under anaerobic, reducing conditions on primordial Earth and that the operon was acquired by the cyanobacterium via horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25022856

Nagy, Csaba I.; Vass, Imre; Rákhely, Gábor; Vass, István Zoltán; Tóth, András; Duzs, Ágnes; Peca, Loredana; Kruk, Jerzy

2014-01-01

291

Genes encoding two isocitrate dehydrogenase isozymes of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1.  

PubMed Central

The genes coding for two structurally different isocitrate dehydrogenase isozymes (IDH-I and IDH-II) of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1, were cloned and sequenced. Open reading frames of the genes (icdI and icdII) are 1,248 and 2,229 bp in length, respectively. The amino acid sequences predicted from the open reading frames of icdI and icdII corresponded to the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified IDH-I and IDH-II, respectively. No homology was found between the deduced amino acid sequences of the isozymes; however, the IDH-I, a dimeric enzyme, had a high amino acid sequence identity (74.3%) to the Escherichia coli IDH. The deduced amino acid sequence of the IDH-II, a monomeric enzyme, was not related to any known sequence. However, the IDH-II had an amino acid sequence homologous to that of a cyanogen bromide-cleaved peptide containing a putative active-site methionyl residue of the monomeric IDH of Azotobacter vinelandii. The two genes (icdlI and icdII) were found to be tandemly located in the same orientation. Northern (RNA) blot analyses showed that the two genes are transcribed independently. Primer extension experiments located single transcriptional start sites 39 and 96 bp upstream of the start codons of icdI and icdII, respectively. The amount of icdI transcript but not icdII increased when Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1 cells were cultured in acetate minimal medium. Images PMID:8226630

Ishii, A; Suzuki, M; Sahara, T; Takada, Y; Sasaki, S; Fukunaga, N

1993-01-01

292

DL-7-azatryptophan and citrulline metabolism in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 1F  

SciTech Connect

An alternative route for the primary assimilation of ammonia proceeds via glutamine synthetase-carbamyl phosphate synthetase and its inherent glutaminase activity in Anabaena sp. strain 1F, a marine filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. Evidence for the presence of this possible alternative route to glutamate was provided by the use of amino acid analogs as specific enzyme inhibitors, enzymological studies, and radioistopic labeling experiments. The amino acid pool patterns of continuous cultures of Anabaena sp. strain 1F were markedly influenced by the nitrogen source. A relatively high concentration of glutamate was maintained in the amino acid pools of all cultures irrespective of the nitrogen source, reflecting the central role of glutamate in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of 1.0 microM azaserine increased the intracellular pools of glutamate and glutamine. All attempts to detect any enzymatic activity for glutamate synthase by measuring the formation of L-(/sup 14/C)glutamate from 2-keto-(1-/sup 14/C)glutarate and glutamine failed. The addition of 10 microM DL-7-azatryptophan caused a transient accumulation of intracellular citrulline and alanine which was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol. The in vitro activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase and glutaminase increased severalfold in the presence of azatryptophan. Results from radioisotopic labeling experiments with (/sup 14/C)bicarbonate and L-(1-/sup 14/C)ornithine also indicated that citrulline was formed via carbamyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine transcarbamylase. In addition to its effects on nitrogen metabolism, azatryptophan also affected carbon metabolism by inhibiting photosynthetic carbon assimilation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution.

Chen, C.H.; Van Baalen, C.; Tabita, F.R.

1987-03-01

293

Structure of the detoxification catalyst mercuric ion reductase from Bacillus sp. strain RC607  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEVERAL hundred million tons of toxic mercurials are dispersed in the biosphere1. Microbes can detoxify organo-mercurials and mercury salts through sequential action of two enzymes, organomercury lyase2 and mercuric ion reductase (MerA) 3-5. The latter, a homodimer with homology to the FAD-dependent disulphide oxidoreductases6, catalyses the reaction NADPH + Hg(II) --> NADP+ + H+Hg(0), one of the very rare enzymic reactions with metal substrates. Human glutathione reductase7,8 serves as a reference molecule for FAD-dependent disulphide reductases and between its primary structure9 and that of MerA from Tn501 (Pseudomonas), Tn21 (Shigella), pI258 (Staphylococcus) and Bacillus, 25-30% of the residues have been conserved10,11. All MerAs have a C-terminal extension about 15 residues long but have very varied N termini. Although the enzyme from Streptomyces lividans has no addition, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Tn5Ol and Bacillus sp. strain RC607 it has one and two copies respectively of a domain of 80-85 residues, highly homologous to MerP, the periplasmic component of proteins encoded by the mer operon11. These domains can be proteolytically cleaved off without changing the catalytic efficiency3. We report here the crystal structure of MerA from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus sp. strain RC607. Analysis of its complexes with nicotinamide dinucleotide substrates and the inhibitor Cd(II) reveals how limited structural changes enable an enzyme to accept as substrate what used to be a dangerous inhibitor. Knowledge of the mode of mercury ligation is a prerequisite for understanding this unique detoxification mechanism.

Schiering, N.; Kabsch, W.; Moore, M. J.; Distefano, M. D.; Walsh, C. T.; Pai, E. F.

1991-07-01

294

Alr0397 Is an Outer Membrane Transporter for the Siderophore Schizokinen in Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron uptake in proteobacteria by TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters represents a well-explored subject. In contrast, the same process has been scarcely investigated in cyanobacteria. The heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is known to secrete the siderophore schizokinen, but its transport system has remained unidentified. Inspection of the genome of strain PCC 7120 shows that only one gene encoding

Kerstin Nicolaisen; Suncana Moslavac; Anastazia Samborski; Marianne Valdebenito; Klaus Hantke; Iris Maldener; Alicia M. Muro-Pastor; Enrique Flores; Enrico Schleiff

2008-01-01

295

Harnessing eugenol as a substrate for production of aromatic compounds with recombinant strains of Amycolatopsis sp. HR167  

Microsoft Academic Search

To harness eugenol as cheap substrate for the biotechnological production of aromatic compounds, the vanillyl alcohol oxidase gene (vaoA) from Penicillium simplicissimum CBS 170.90 was cloned in an expression vector suitable for Gram-positive bacteria and expressed in the vanillin-tolerant Gram-positive strain Amycolatopsis sp. HR167. Recombinant strains harboring hybrid plasmid pRLE6SKvaom exhibited a specific vanillyl alcohol oxidase activity of 1.1U\\/g protein.

Jörg Overhage; Alexander Steinbüchel; Horst Priefert

2006-01-01

296

Physiological and molecular genetic analyses of vinyl chloride and ethene biodegradation in Nocardioides sp. strain JS614  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 utilizes vinyl chloride and ethene as carbon and energy sources. JS614 could be influential in natural attenuation and biogeochemical ethene cycling, and useful for bioremediation, biocatalysis and metabolic engineering, but a fundamental understanding of the physiological and genetic basis of vinyl chloride and ethene assimilation in strain JS614 is required. Alkene monooxygenase (AkMO) activity was demonstrated

Timothy E. Mattes; Nicholas V. Coleman; Jim C. Spain; James M. Gossett

2005-01-01

297

Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz

Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

2008-01-01

298

Draft Genome Sequence of Thalassotalea sp. Strain ND16A Isolated from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected from a Depth of 1,055 Meters.  

PubMed

Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A belongs to the family Colwelliaceae and was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea water at a depth of 1,055 m. Members of Colwelliaceae are ubiquitous marine heterotrophs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A, a member of the newly described genus Thalassotalea. PMID:25428976

Stelling, Savannah C; Techtmann, Stephen M; Utturkar, Sagar M; Alshibli, Noor K; Brown, Steven D; Hazen, Terry C

2014-01-01

299

Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingobacterium sp. Strain ML3W, Isolated from Wings of Myotis lucifugus Infected with White Nose Syndrome.  

PubMed

Sphingobacterium sp. strain ML3W was isolated from the wing of a bat infected with white nose syndrome. We report the complete 5.33-Mb genome sequence of Sphingobacterium sp. strain ML3W, obtained using Pacific Biosciences technology. Being the second complete Sphingobacterium sequence, this will increase knowledge of the genus. PMID:25614576

Smith, Stephen A; Krasucki, Stephen P; McDowell, John V; Balke, Virginia L

2015-01-01

300

Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingobacterium sp. Strain ML3W, Isolated from Wings of Myotis lucifugus Infected with White Nose Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sphingobacterium sp. strain ML3W was isolated from the wing of a bat infected with white nose syndrome. We report the complete 5.33-Mb genome sequence of Sphingobacterium sp. strain ML3W, obtained using Pacific Biosciences technology. Being the second complete Sphingobacterium sequence, this will increase knowledge of the genus. PMID:25614576

Smith, Stephen A.; Krasucki, Stephen P.; McDowell, John V.

2015-01-01

301

Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain A3H3, Isolated from Arsenic-Rich Marine Sediments.  

PubMed

We report the genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain A3H3, a bacterium with a high tolerance to arsenite, isolated from multicontaminated sediments of the l'Estaque harbor in Marseille, France. The genome is composed of a 5,489,893-bp chromosome and a 157,085-bp plasmid. PMID:24115546

Koechler, Sandrine; Plewniak, Frédéric; Barbe, Valérie; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Jost, Bernard; Joulian, Catherine; Philipps, Muriel; Vicaire, Serge; Vincent, Stéphanie; Ye, Tao; Bertin, Philippe N

2013-01-01

302

Functional nodFE genes are present in Sinorhizobium sp. strain MUS10, a symbiont of tropical legume Sesbania rostrata  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sinorhizobium sp. strain MUS10, a rhizobium from the Indian subcontinent, forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on the stems and roots of tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. The structure of Nod factors (NFs) of MUS10 are similar to those of Azorhizobium caulinodans, S. saheli bv sesbaniae and S. terangae bv...

303

Complete Genome Sequence of Rahnella sp Strain Y9602, a Gammaproteobacterium Isolate from Metal- and Radionuclide-Contaminated Soil  

SciTech Connect

Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 is a gammaproteobacterium isolated from contaminated subsurface soils that is capable of promoting uranium phosphate mineralization as a result of constitutive phosphatase activity. Here we report the first complete genome sequence of an isolate belonging to the genus Rahnella.

Martinez, Robert J [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Sobeckya, Patricia A. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2012-01-01

304

Draft Genome Sequence of the Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Sphingobium sp. Strain Ant17, Isolated from Antarctic Soil  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Sphingobium sp. strain Ant17, an aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium that was isolated from Antarctic oil-contaminated soil. An analysis of this genome can lead to insights into the mechanisms of xenobiotic degradation processes at low temperatures and potentially aid in bioremediation applications. PMID:24723703

Guerrero, Leandro D.; Makhalanyane, Thulani P.; Aislabie, Jackie M.

2014-01-01

305

Draft Genome Sequence of Nitrosospira sp. Strain APG3, a Psychrotolerant Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Sandy Lake Sediment  

PubMed Central

Bacteria in the genus Nitrosospira play vital roles in the nitrogen cycle. Nitrosospira sp. strain APG3 is a psychrotolerant betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from freshwater lake sediment. The draft genome revealed that it represents a new species of cluster 0 Nitrosospira, which is presently not represented by described species. PMID:24201205

Garcia, Juan C.; Le, Vang Q.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Klotz, Martin G.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

2013-01-01

306

Draft Genome Sequence of Nitrosospira sp. Strain APG3, a Psychrotolerant Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Sandy Lake Sediment.  

PubMed

Bacteria in the genus Nitrosospira play vital roles in the nitrogen cycle. Nitrosospira sp. strain APG3 is a psychrotolerant betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from freshwater lake sediment. The draft genome revealed that it represents a new species of cluster 0 Nitrosospira, which is presently not represented by described species. PMID:24201205

Garcia, Juan C; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Le, Vang Q; Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G; Nielsen, Jeppe L

2013-01-01

307

Genome Sequence of the Deep-Sea Denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. Strain MT-1, Isolated from the Mariana Trench  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain MT-1 was the first deep-sea denitrifier isolated and characterized from mud recovered from a depth of 11,000 m in the Mariana Trench. We report here the genome sequence of this bacterium, which contributes to our understanding of denitrification and bioenergetics in the deep sea. PMID:25523772

Fujinami, Shun; Oikawa, Yuji; Araki, Takuma; Shinmura, Yui; Midorikawa, Ryota; Ishizaka, Hikari; Kato, Chiaki; Horikoshi, Koki; Ito, Masahiro

2014-01-01

308

Complete Genome Sequence of Pelosinus sp. Strain UFO1 Assembled Using Single-Molecule Real-Time DNA Sequencing Technology  

PubMed Central

Pelosinus species can reduce metals such as Fe(III), U(VI), and Cr(VI) and have been isolated from diverse geographical regions. Five draft genome sequences have been published. We report the complete genome sequence for Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 using only PacBio DNA sequence data and without manual finishing. PMID:25189589

Brown, Steven D.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Magnuson, Timothy S.; Ray, Allison E.; Poole, Farris L.; Lancaster, W. Andrew; Thorgersen, Michael P.; Adams, Michael W. W.

2014-01-01

309

Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulosimicrobium sp. Strain MM, Isolated from Arsenic-Rich Microbial Mats of a Himalayan Hot Spring  

PubMed Central

Microbial mats situated at the Manikaran hot springs (>95°C) are characterized by their high arsenic content (140 ppb), qualifying as a stressed niche. Here, we report the annotated draft genome (3.85 Mb) of Cellulosimicrobium sp. strain MM, isolated from these microbial mats, consisting of 3,718 coding sequences, with an average % G+C of 74.4%. PMID:25301656

Sharma, Anukriti; Hira, Princy; Shakarad, Mallikarjun

2014-01-01

310

Draft Genome Sequence and Comparative Analysis of the Superb Aromatic-Hydrocarbon Degrader Rhodococcus sp. Strain DK17  

PubMed Central

Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 is capable of utilizing various derivatives of benzene and bicyclics containing both aromatic and alicyclic moieties as sole carbon and energy sources. Here, we present the 9,107,362-bp draft genome sequence of DK17 and its genomic analysis in comparison with other members of the genus Rhodococcus. PMID:22843580

Yoo, Miyoun; Kim, Dockyu; Choi, Ki Young; Chae, Jong-Chan; Zylstra, Gerben J.

2012-01-01

311

Involvement of nitric oxide synthase in sucrose-enhanced hydrogen peroxide tolerance of Rhodococcus sp. strain APG1,  

E-print Network

Involvement of nitric oxide synthase in sucrose-enhanced hydrogen peroxide tolerance of Rhodococcus Lancaster, Jr. Abstract Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) tolerance of Rhodococcus sp. strain APG1, previously; Hydrogen peroxide tolerance; Plant­microorganism interaction; Endophytic colonization Bacteria colonize

Cohen, Michael F.

312

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. Strain BSC154, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah  

PubMed Central

Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways. PMID:25395651

Bailey, Alexis C.; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

2014-01-01

313

Draft Genome Sequence of Microvirga sp. Strain BSC39, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah  

PubMed Central

Microvirga sp. BSC39 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC39 genome contains iron siderophore uptake and hydrolysis enzymes; however, it lacks siderophore synthesis pathways, suggesting the uptake of siderophores produced by neighboring microbes. PMID:25395650

Bailey, Alexis C.; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

2014-01-01

314

Draft Genome Sequence of Massilia sp. Strain BSC265, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah  

PubMed Central

Massilia sp. BSC265 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC265 genome contains a complete dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathway as well as a TCA cycle, making it a facultative anaerobe. PMID:25395652

Bailey, Alexis C.; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

2014-01-01

315

Draft Genome Sequence of Thauera sp. Strain SWB20, Isolated from a Singapore Wastewater Treatment Facility Using Gel Microdroplets  

PubMed Central

We report here the genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singaporean wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets (GMDs) and single-cell genomics (SCG). This approach provided a single clonal microcolony that was sufficient to obtain a 4.9-Mbp genome assembly of an ecologically relevant Thauera species. PMID:25792053

Davenport, Karen W.; Li, Po-E; Ahmed, Sanaa A.; Daligault, Hajnalka; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Kunde, Yuliya; McMurry, Kim; Lo, Chien-Chi; Reitenga, Krista G.; Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Shen, Xiaohong; Frietze, Seth; Wang, Dongping; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Schuster, Stephan; Chain, Patrick S.; Han, Cliff

2015-01-01

316

Complete genome sequence of the bacterium Methylovorus sp. strain MP688, a high-level producer of pyrroloquinolone quinone.  

PubMed

Methylotrophic bacteria are widespread microbes which can use one carbon compound as their only carbon and energy sources. Here we report the finished, annotated genome sequence of the methylotrophic bacterium Methylovorus sp. strain MP688, which was isolated from soil for high-level production of pyrroloquinolone quinone (PQQ) in our lab. PMID:21148725

Xiong, Xiang-Hua; Zhi, Jing-Juan; Yang, Lu; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xin; Cui, Yan-Jiu; Dong, Fang; Li, Miao-Xin; Yang, Yan-Xin; Wei, Na; An, Jia-Jia; Du, Bao-Hua; Liang, Long; Zhang, Jing-Sheng; Zhou, Wei; Cheng, Shao-Feng; He, Tao; Wang, Li; Chen, Hui-Peng; Liu, Dang-Sheng; Zhang, Wei-cai

2011-02-01

317

Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain Ant30-3, a Psychrotolerant Bacterium with Biodegradative Attribute Isolated from Antarctica  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain Ant30-3, isolated from fuel-contaminated Antarctic soil, exhibited distinctive psychrotolerant attributes and the potential for degrading aromatic hydrocarbon compounds at cold temperatures. We report here the 6.14-Mb draft genome of Ant30-3, which will provide insights into the genomic basis for the psychrotolerant and biodegradative properties of this bacterium. PMID:24903870

Basu, Malay K.; Crowley, Michael; Aislabie, Jackie; Bej, Asim K.

2014-01-01

318

Draft Genome Sequence of Treponema sp. Strain JC4, a Novel Spirochete Isolated from the Bovine Rumen  

PubMed Central

Morphologically and biochemically diverse members of the Treponema genus are present in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, yet very little is understood about their functional importance to this microbiome. Here we describe the annotated draft genome sequence of Treponema sp. strain JC4, a novel spirochete isolated from a bovine rumen sample. PMID:22815447

Rosewarne, Carly P.; Cheung, Jane L.; Smith, Wendy J. M.; Evans, Paul N.; Tomkins, Nigel W.; Denman, Stuart E.; Ó Cuív, Páraic

2012-01-01

319

Rhizobium sp. strain BN4 (a selenium oxyanion-reducing bacterium) 16S rRNA gene complete sequence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study used 1482 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence methods in conjunction with other biochemical and morphological studies to confirm the identification of a bacterium (refer to as the BN4 strain) as a Rhizobium sp. The 16S rRNA gene sequence places it with the Rhizobium clade that includes R. d...

320

Genome Sequence of the Leaf-Colonizing Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain 5B6, Isolated from a Cherry Tree  

PubMed Central

Plant growth-promoting bacteria colonize various habitats, including the phyllosphere. Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain 5B6, which was isolated from the leaf of a cherry tree. The 3.9-Mb genome uncovers its potential for understanding the nature of leaf colonization as well as antibiosis against plant pathogens. PMID:22740678

Kim, Byung Kwon; Chung, Joon-hui; Kim, Seon-Young; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hoon; Song, Ju Yeon; Yu, Dong Su

2012-01-01

321

Draft Genome Sequence of Chryseobacterium sp. Strain P1-3, a Keratinolytic Bacterium Isolated from Poultry Waste  

PubMed Central

Chryseobacterium sp. strain P1-3, harboring keratin degrading activity, has recently been isolated from poultry waste. Here, we report the 4.6-Mbp draft genome sequence of the keratinolytic bacterium with a G+C content of 37.0% and 4,087 protein-coding genes. PMID:25428979

Park, Gun-Seok; Hong, Sung-Jun; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Jung, Byung Kwon; Choi, JungBae; Kwak, Yunyoung; Back, Chang-Gi; Jung, Hee-Young

2014-01-01

322

Draft Genome Sequence of MCPA-Degrading Sphingomonas sp. Strain ERG5, Isolated from a Groundwater Aquifer in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Sphingomonas sp. strain ERG5 was isolated from a bacterial community, originating from a groundwater aquifer polluted with low pesticide concentrations. This bacterium degrades 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a wide spectrum of concentrations and has been shown to function in bioaugmented sand filters. Genes associated with MCPA degradation are situated on a putative conjugative plasmid. PMID:25676756

Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Sørensen, Sebastian R.; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

2015-01-01

323

Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain Ant20, Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil on Ross Island, Antarctica.  

PubMed

Here, we present the draft genome of Sphingomonas sp. strain Ant20, isolated from oil-polluted soil near Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica. The genome of this aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium provides valuable information on the microbially mediated biodegradation of aromatic compounds in cold-climate systems. PMID:25573925

Ronca, Sandra; Frossard, Aline; Guerrero, Leandro D; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Aislabie, Jackie M; Cowan, Don A

2015-01-01

324

Draft Genome Sequence and Description of Janthinobacterium sp. Strain CG3, a Psychrotolerant Antarctic Supraglacial Stream Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Here we present the draft genome sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. strain CG3, a psychrotolerant non-violacein-producing bacterium that was isolated from the Cotton Glacier supraglacial stream. The genome sequence of this organism will provide insight as to the mechanisms necessary for bacteria to survive in UV-stressed icy environments. PMID:24265494

Smith, Heidi; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Franklin, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Daligault, Hajnalka; Erkkila, Tracy; Goodwin, Lynne; Gu, Wei; Xu, Yan; Chain, Patrick

2013-01-01

325

Genome Sequence of the Deep-Sea Denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. Strain MT-1, Isolated from the Mariana Trench.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas sp. strain MT-1 was the first deep-sea denitrifier isolated and characterized from mud recovered from a depth of 11,000 m in the Mariana Trench. We report here the genome sequence of this bacterium, which contributes to our understanding of denitrification and bioenergetics in the deep sea. PMID:25523772

Fujinami, Shun; Oikawa, Yuji; Araki, Takuma; Shinmura, Yui; Midorikawa, Ryota; Ishizaka, Hikari; Kato, Chiaki; Horikoshi, Koki; Ito, Masahiro; Tamegai, Hideyuki

2014-01-01

326

Draft Genome Sequence and Description of Janthinobacterium sp. Strain CG3, a Psychrotolerant Antarctic Supraglacial Stream Bacterium.  

PubMed

Here we present the draft genome sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. strain CG3, a psychrotolerant non-violacein-producing bacterium that was isolated from the Cotton Glacier supraglacial stream. The genome sequence of this organism will provide insight as to the mechanisms necessary for bacteria to survive in UV-stressed icy environments. PMID:24265494

Smith, Heidi; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Foreman, Christine; Franklin, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Daligault, Hajnalka; Erkkila, Tracy; Goodwin, Lynne; Gu, Wei; Xu, Yan; Chain, Patrick

2013-01-01

327

Physicochemical Parameters for Growth of the Sea Ice Bacteria Glaciecola punicea ACAM 611T and Gelidibacter sp. Strain IC158  

PubMed Central

The water activity and pH ranges for growth of Glaciecola punicea (a psychrophile) were extended when this organism was grown at suboptimal rather than optimal temperatures. No such extension was observed for Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158 (a psychrotolerant bacterium) at analogous temperatures. Salinity and pH may be primary physicochemical parameters controlling bacterial community development in sea ice. PMID:10427082

Nichols, D. S.; Greenhill, A. R.; Shadbolt, C. T.; Ross, T.; McMeekin, T. A.

1999-01-01

328

Biodegradation of n-Alkylcycloalkanes and n-Alkylbenzenes via New Pathways in Alcanivorax sp. Strain MBIC 4326  

PubMed Central

The degradation of long-chain n-alkylbenzenes and n-alkylcyclohexanes by Alcanivorax sp. strain MBIC 4326 was investigated. The alkyl side chain of these compounds was mainly processed by ?-oxidation. In the degradation of n-alkylcyclohexanes, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid was formed as an intermediate. This compound was further transformed to benzoic acid via 1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid. PMID:11282659

Dutta, Tapan K.; Harayama, Shigeaki

2001-01-01

329

Draft Genome Sequence of Microvirga sp. Strain BSC39, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah.  

PubMed

Microvirga sp. BSC39 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC39 genome contains iron siderophore uptake and hydrolysis enzymes; however, it lacks siderophore synthesis pathways, suggesting the uptake of siderophores produced by neighboring microbes. PMID:25395650

Bailey, Alexis C; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Raymond, Jason

2014-01-01

330

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. Strain BSC154, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah.  

PubMed

Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways. PMID:25395651

Bailey, Alexis C; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Raymond, Jason

2014-01-01

331

Draft Genome Sequence of Massilia sp. Strain BSC265, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah.  

PubMed

Massilia sp. BSC265 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC265 genome contains a complete dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathway as well as a TCA cycle, making it a facultative anaerobe. PMID:25395652

Bailey, Alexis C; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Raymond, Jason

2014-01-01

332

Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain Ant20, Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil on Ross Island, Antarctica  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome of Sphingomonas sp. strain Ant20, isolated from oil-polluted soil near Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica. The genome of this aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium provides valuable information on the microbially mediated biodegradation of aromatic compounds in cold-climate systems. PMID:25573925

Ronca, Sandra; Frossard, Aline; Guerrero, Leandro D.; Makhalanyane, Thulani P.; Aislabie, Jackie M.

2015-01-01

333

Draft Genome Sequence of Thauera sp. Strain SWB20, Isolated from a Singapore Wastewater Treatment Facility Using Gel Microdroplets.  

PubMed

We report here the genome sequence of Thauera sp. strain SWB20, isolated from a Singaporean wastewater treatment facility using gel microdroplets (GMDs) and single-cell genomics (SCG). This approach provided a single clonal microcolony that was sufficient to obtain a 4.9-Mbp genome assembly of an ecologically relevant Thauera species. PMID:25792053

Dichosa, Armand E K; Davenport, Karen W; Li, Po-E; Ahmed, Sanaa A; Daligault, Hajnalka; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Kunde, Yuliya; McMurry, Kim; Lo, Chien-Chi; Reitenga, Krista G; Daughton, Ashlynn R; Shen, Xiaohong; Frietze, Seth; Wang, Dongping; Johnson, Shannon L; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Schuster, Stephan; Chain, Patrick S; Han, Cliff

2015-01-01

334

NOPA IS ASSOCIATED WITH CELL SURFACE APPENDAGES PRODUCED BY THE TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM OF RHIZOBIUM SP. STRAIN NGR234  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, which is capable of interacting with a large number of legumes, utilizes a variety of signaling molecules to establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses. Among these are nodulation outer proteins (Nops) that transit through a type III secretion system (TTSS). Abolition of Nop se...

335

Draft Genome Sequence of Haloferax sp. Strain ATB1, Isolated from a Semi-Arid Region in the Brazilian Caatinga  

PubMed Central

Organisms in the Haloferax genus are extreme halophiles that grow in environments with pH values between 4 and 12, and temperatures between 0°C and 60°C. In the present study, a draft of the first Haloferax sp. strain ATB1 genome isolated from the region of Cariri (in Paraíba State, Brazil) is presented. PMID:25125649

Castro, Wendel de Oliveira; Torres-Ballesteros, Adriana Maria; Nakayama, Cristina Rossi; Melo, Itamar Soares; Pellizari, Vivian Helena; Silva, Artur

2014-01-01

336

Effect of enterocin EJ97 against Geobacillus   stearothermophilus vegetative cells and endospores in canned foods and beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geobacillus stearothermophilus is a thermophilic bacterium typically responsible for the flat-sour spoilage of low-acid canned food with high water activity.\\u000a Control of vegetative cells and spores of G. stearothermophilus strains CECT 48 and CECT 49 by enterocin EJ97 produced by Enterococcus faecalis EJ97 is described. Both strains were highly sensitive to EJ97 in a culture medium. In samples from canned foods inoculated\\u000a with

Pilar Martínez Viedma; Hikmate Abriouel; Nabil Ben Omar; Rosario Lucas López; Antonio Gálvez

2010-01-01

337

Regioselective oxidation of xylene isomers by Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 is able to utilize a variety of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, phenol, toluene, and o-xylene, as growth substrates. Although DK17 is unable to grow on m- and p-xylene, this strain could transform these two xylene isomers to some extent after induction by o-xylene. The major accumulating compounds formed during the degradation of m- and p-xylene by DK17 were isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectral techniques. Both xylene isomers were transformed to dihydroxylated compounds by what must be two successive hydroxylation events: m-xylene was converted to 2,4-dimethylresorcinol and p-xylene was converted to 2,5-dimethylhydroquinone. The rigorous structural identification of 2,4-dimethylresorcinol and 2,5-dimethylhydroquinone demonstrates that DK17 can perform distinct regioselective hydroxylations depending on the position of the substituent groups on the aromatic ring. PMID:12829288

Kim, Dockyu; Kim, Young-Soo; Jung, Jae Woo; Zylstra, Gerben J; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Seong-Ki; Kim, Eungbin

2003-06-27

338

Differential Degradation of Bicyclics with Aromatic and Alicyclic Rings by Rhodococcus sp. Strain DK17 ?  

PubMed Central

The metabolically versatile Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 is able to grow on tetralin and indan but cannot use their respective desaturated counterparts, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene and indene, as sole carbon and energy sources. Metabolite analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry clearly show that (i) the meta-cleavage dioxygenase mutant strain DK180 accumulates 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2-naphthalene diol, 1,2-indene diol, and 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-1,2-diol from tetralin, indene, and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, respectively, and (ii) when expressed in Escherichia coli, the DK17 o-xylene dioxygenase transforms tetralin, indene, and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene into tetralin cis-dihydrodiol, indan-1,2-diol, and cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, respectively. Tetralin, which is activated by aromatic hydroxylation, is degraded successfully via the ring cleavage pathway to support growth of DK17. Indene and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene do not serve as growth substrates because DK17 hydroxylates them on the alicyclic ring and further metabolism results in a dead-end metabolite. This study reveals that aromatic hydroxylation is a prerequisite for proper degradation of bicyclics with aromatic and alicyclic rings by DK17 and confirms the unique ability of the DK17 o-xylene dioxygenase to perform distinct regioselective hydroxylations. PMID:21965391

Kim, Dockyu; Yoo, Miyoun; Choi, Ki Young; Kang, Beom Sik; Kim, Tai Kyoung; Hong, Soon Gyu; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Kim, Eungbin

2011-01-01

339

Genetic analysis of amino acid transport in the facultatively heterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6803.  

PubMed Central

The existence of active transport systems (permeases) operating on amino acids in the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6803 was demonstrated by following the initial rates of uptake with 14C-labeled amino acids, measuring the intracellular pools of amino acids, and isolating mutants resistant to toxic amino acids. One class of mutants (Pfa1) corresponds to a regulatory defect in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids, but two other classes (Can1 and Aza1) are defective in amino acid transport. The Can1 mutants are defective in the active transport of three basic amino acids (arginine, histidine, and lysine) and in one of two transport systems operating on glutamine. The Aza1 mutants are not affected in the transport of the basic amino acids but have lost the capacity to transport all other amino acids except glutamate. The latter amino acid is probably transported by a third permease which could be identical to the Can1-independent transport operating on glutamine. Thus, genetic evidence suggests that strain 6803 has only a small number of amino acid transport systems with fairly broad specificity and that, with the exception of glutamine, each amino acid is accumulated by only one major transport system. Compared with heterotrophic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, these permeases are rather inefficient in terms of affinity (apparent Km ranging from 6 to 60 microM) and of Vmax. PMID:3115962

Labarre, J; Thuriaux, P; Chauvat, F

1987-01-01

340

Algicidal metabolites produced by Bacillus sp. strain B1 against Phaeocystis globosa.  

PubMed

The bloom of Phaeocystis globosa has broken out frequently in the coastal areas of China in recent years, which has led to substantial economic losses. This study shows that Bacillus sp. strain B1, which was previously identified by our group, is effective in regulating P. globosa by excreting active metabolites. Heat stability, pH stability and molecular weight range of the algicidal compounds from strain B1 were measured and the results demonstrated that the algicidal activities of these compounds were not affected by pH or temperature variation. The algicidal compounds extracted with methanol were isolated and purified by ODS-A column chromatography and HPLC. The algicidal compounds corresponding to peaks 2-5 eluted from HPLC were further analysed by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). PeakView™ Software determined the compounds corresponding to peaks 2-5 to be L-histidine, o-tyrosine, N-acetylhistamine and urocanic acid on the basis of the accurate mass information, the isotopic pattern and MS-MS spectra. Furthermore, these compounds were also able to eliminate Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum donghaiense and Heterosigma akashiwo. This is the first report of bacteria-derived algicidal compounds being identified only by Q-TOF-MS and PeakView™ Software, and these compounds may be used as the constituents of algicides in the future. PMID:24370882

Zhao, Ling; Chen, Lina; Yin, Pinghe

2014-03-01

341

Natural Electrotransformation of Lightning-Competent Pseudomonas sp. Strain N3 in Artificial Soil Microcosms  

PubMed Central

The lightning-competent Pseudomonas sp. strain N3, recently isolated from soil, has been used to study the extent of natural electrotransformation (NET) or lightning transformation as a horizontal gene transfer mechanism in soil. The variation of electrical fields applied to the soil with a laboratory-scale lightning system provides an estimate of the volume of soil affected by NET. Based on the range of the electric field that induces NET of Pseudomonas strain N3, the volume of soil, where NET could occur, ranges from 2 to 950 m3 per lightning strike. The influence of DNA parameters (amount, size, and purity) and DNA soil residence time were also investigated. NET frequencies (electrotransformants/recipient cells) ranged from 10?8 for cell lysate after 1 day of residence in soil to 4 × 10?7 with a purified plasmid added immediately before the lightning. The electrical field gradient (in kilovolts per cm) also played a role as NET frequencies ranging from 1 × 10?5 at 2.3 kV/cm to 1.7 × 10?4 at 6.5 kV/cm. PMID:16597934

Cérémonie, Hélène; Buret, François; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M.

2006-01-01

342

Plasmid-mediated mineralization of carbofuran by Sphingomonas sp. strain CF06.  

PubMed Central

A bacterial strain (CF06) that mineralized both the carbonyl group and the aromatic ring of the insecticide carbofuran and that is capable of using carbofuran as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from a soil in Washington state. Phospholipid fatty acid and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis indicate that CF06 is a Sphingomonas sp. CF06 contains five plasmids, at least some of which are required for metabolism of carbofuran. Loss of the plasmids induced by growth at 42 degrees C resulted in the inability of the cured strain to grow on carbofuran as a sole source of carbon. Introduction of the plasmids confers on Pseudomonas fluorescens M480R the ability to use carbofuran as a sole source of carbon for growth and energy. Of the five plasmids, four are rich in insertion sequence elements and contain large regions of overlap. Rearrangements, deletions, and loss of individual plasmids that resulted in the loss of the carbofuran-degrading phenotype were observed following introduction of Tn5. PMID:9097429

Feng, X; Ou, L T; Ogram, A

1997-01-01

343

Using Transcriptomics To Improve Butanol Tolerance of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are emerging as promising hosts for production of advanced biofuels such as n-butanol and alkanes. However, cyanobacteria suffer from the same product inhibition problems as those that plague other microbial biofuel hosts. High concentrations of butanol severely reduce growth, and even small amounts can negatively affect metabolic processes. An understanding of how cyanobacteria are affected by their biofuel product can enable identification of engineering strategies for improving their tolerance. Here we used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess the transcriptome response of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 to two concentrations of exogenous n-butanol. Approximately 80 transcripts were differentially expressed at 40 mg/liter butanol, and 280 transcripts were different at 1 g/liter butanol. Our results suggest a compromised cell membrane, impaired photosynthetic electron transport, and reduced biosynthesis. Accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scaled with butanol concentration. Using the physiology and transcriptomics data, we selected several genes for overexpression in an attempt to improve butanol tolerance. We found that overexpression of several proteins, notably, the small heat shock protein HspA, improved tolerance to butanol. Transcriptomics-guided engineering created more solvent-tolerant cyanobacteria strains that could be the foundation for a more productive biofuel host. PMID:24056459

Anfelt, Josefine; Hallström, Björn; Nielsen, Jens; Uhlén, Mathias

2013-01-01

344

Multiple Mechanisms of Uranium Immobilization by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solution was studied using a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe, Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6, under anaerobic, non-growth conditions in bicarbonate and PIPES buffers. Inorganic phosphate was released by cells during the experiments providing ligands for formation of insoluble U(VI) phosphates. Phosphate release was most probably the result of anaerobic hydrolysis of intracellular polyphosphates accumulated by ES6 during aerobic growth. Microbial reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was also observed. However, the relative magnitudes of U(VI) removal by abiotic (phosphate-based) precipitation and microbial reduction depended on the buffer chemistry. In bicarbonate buffer, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy showed that U in the solid phase was present primarily as a non-uraninite U(IV) phase, whereas in PIPES buffer, U precipitates consisted primarily of U(VI)-phosphate. In both bicarbonate and PIPES buffer, net release of cellular phosphate was measured to be lower than that observed in U-free controls suggesting simultaneous precipitation of U and PO3-4 . In PIPES, U(VI) phosphates formed a significant portion of U precipitates and mass balance estimates of U and P along with XAFS data corroborate this hypothesis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of samples from PIPES treatments indeed showed both extracellular and intracellular accumulation of U solids with nanometer sized lath structures that contained U and P. In bicarbonate, however, more phosphate was removed than required to stoichiometrically balance the U(VI)/U(IV) fraction determined by XAFS, suggesting that U(IV) precipitated together with phosphate in this system. When anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a known electron shuttle, was added to the experimental reactors, the dominant removal mechanism in both buffers was reduction to a non-uraninite U(IV) phase. Uranium immobilization by abiotic precipitation or microbial reduction has been extensively reported; however, the present work suggests that strain ES6 can remove U(VI) from solution simultaneously through precipitation with phosphate ligands and microbial reduction, depending on the environmental conditions. Cellulomonadaceae are environmentally relevant subsurface bacteria and here, for the first time, the presence of multiple U immobilization mechanisms within one organism is reported using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Peyton, Brent M.; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin; Apel, William; Sani, Rajesh K.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Borch, Thomas

2011-02-24

345

Multiple mechanisms of uranium immobilization by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.  

PubMed

Removal of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solution was studied using a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe, Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6, under anaerobic, non-growth conditions in bicarbonate and PIPES buffers. Inorganic phosphate was released by cells during the experiments providing ligands for formation of insoluble U(VI) phosphates. Phosphate release was most probably the result of anaerobic hydrolysis of intracellular polyphosphates accumulated by ES6 during aerobic growth. Microbial reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was also observed. However, the relative magnitudes of U(VI) removal by abiotic (phosphate-based) precipitation and microbial reduction depended on the buffer chemistry. In bicarbonate buffer, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy showed that U in the solid phase was present primarily as a non-uraninite U(IV) phase, whereas in PIPES buffer, U precipitates consisted primarily of U(VI)-phosphate. In both bicarbonate and PIPES buffer, net release of cellular phosphate was measured to be lower than that observed in U-free controls suggesting simultaneous precipitation of U and PO?³?. In PIPES, U(VI) phosphates formed a significant portion of U precipitates and mass balance estimates of U and P along with XAFS data corroborate this hypothesis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of samples from PIPES treatments indeed showed both extracellular and intracellular accumulation of U solids with nanometer sized lath structures that contained U and P. In bicarbonate, however, more phosphate was removed than required to stoichiometrically balance the U(VI)/U(IV) fraction determined by XAFS, suggesting that U(IV) precipitated together with phosphate in this system. When anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a known electron shuttle, was added to the experimental reactors, the dominant removal mechanism in both buffers was reduction to a non-uraninite U(IV) phase. Uranium immobilization by abiotic precipitation or microbial reduction has been extensively reported; however, the present work suggests that strain ES6 can remove U(VI) from solution simultaneously through precipitation with phosphate ligands and microbial reduction, depending on the environmental conditions. Cellulomonadaceae are environmentally relevant subsurface bacteria and here, for the first time, the presence of multiple U immobilization mechanisms within one organism is reported using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. PMID:20872821

Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Boyanov, Maxim I; Peyton, Brent M; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin; Apel, William A; Sani, Rajesh K; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kemner, Kenneth M; Borch, Thomas

2011-02-01

346

Alginate-Dependent Gene Expression Mechanism in Sphingomonas sp. Strain A1  

PubMed Central

Sphingomonas sp. strain A1, a Gram-negative bacterium, directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm through a periplasmic alginate-binding protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette transporter. The polysaccharide is degraded to monosaccharides via the formation of oligosaccharides by endo- and exotype alginate lyases. The strain A1 proteins for alginate uptake and degradation are encoded in both strands of a genetic cluster in the bacterial genome and inducibly expressed in the presence of alginate. Here we show the function of the alginate-dependent transcription factor AlgO and its mode of action on the genetic cluster and alginate oligosaccharides. A putative gene within the genetic cluster seems to encode a transcription factor-like protein (AlgO). Mutant strain A1 (?AlgO mutant) cells with a disrupted algO gene constitutively produced alginate-related proteins. DNA microarray analysis indicated that wild-type cells inducibly transcribed the genetic cluster only in the presence of alginate, while ?AlgO mutant cells constitutively expressed the genetic cluster. A gel mobility shift assay showed that AlgO binds to the specific intergenic region between algO and algS (algO-algS). Binding of AlgO to the algO-algS intergenic region diminished with increasing alginate oligosaccharides. These results demonstrated a novel alginate-dependent gene expression mechanism. In the absence of alginate, AlgO binds to the algO-algS intergenic region and represses the expression of both strands of the genetic cluster, while in the presence of alginate, AlgO dissociates from the algO-algS intergenic region via binding to alginate oligosaccharides produced through the lyase reaction and subsequently initiates transcription of the genetic cluster. This is the first report on the mechanism by which alginate regulates the expression of the gene cluster. PMID:24816607

Hayashi, Chie; Takase, Ryuichi; Momma, Keiko; Maruyama, Yukie; Murata, Kousaku

2014-01-01

347

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production by new Bacillus sp. strains isolated from brazilian soil.  

PubMed

Three strains of Bacillus sp. (BACRP, BACNC-1 and BACAR) were isolated from soil adhered to cassava husk. CGTase specific activity for the three isolated strains was higher when cultivated at 40°C. Potato starch, cassava starch, maltodextrin and glucose were used as carbon source and growth temperatures varied from 25 to 55°C. The three isolates presented higher CGTase specific activity when cultivated with potato starch at 40°C. Isolated BACRP and BACAR presented specific activity of 4.0×10(-3) and 2.2×10(-3) U/mg prot at pH 7.0, respectively, when cultivated in mediums added with NaCl 2%; at pH 10,0 their activities were of 3.4×10(-3) and 3.0×10(-3) U/mg prot, respectively, in the same concentration of NaCl. On the other hand, the isolated BACNC-1 presented activity specific of 2.4×10(-3) U/mg prot when cultivated at pH 7.0 added of NaCl 1%, and at pH 10.0 the specific activity was of 3.4×10(-3) U/mg prot without NaCl addition. This work also showed the presence of cyclodextrins formed during fermentation process and that precipitation with acetone or lyophilization followed by dialysis was efficient at removing CDs (cyclodextrins), thus, eliminating interference in the activity assays. The enzyme produced by the BACAR strain was partially purified and ?-CD was liberated as a reaction product. PMID:24031289

Menocci, Vivian; Goulart, Antonio José; Adalberto, Paulo Roberto; Tavano, Olga Luisa; Marques, Daniela Parreira; Contiero, Jonas; Monti, Rubens

2008-10-01

348

Soluble Methane Monooxygenase Gene Clusters from Trichloroethylene-Degrading Methylomonas sp. Strains and Detection of Methanotrophs during In Situ Bioremediation  

PubMed Central

The soluble MMO (sMMO) gene clusters from group I methanotrophs were characterized. An 8.1-kb KpnI fragment from Methylomonas sp. strain KSWIII and a 7.5-kb SalI fragment from Methylomonas sp. strain KSPIII which contained the sMMO gene clusters were cloned and sequenced. The sequences of these two fragments were almost identical. The sMMO gene clusters in the fragment consisted of six open reading frames which were 52 to 79% similar to the corresponding genes of previously described sMMO gene clusters of the group II and group X methanotrophs. The phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences of sMMO demonstrated that the sMMOs from these strains were closer to that from M. capsulatus Bath in the group X methanotrophs than to those from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Methylocystis sp. strain M in the group II methanotrophs. Based on the sequence data of sMMO genes of our strains and other methanotrophs, we designed a new PCR primer to amplify sMMO gene fragments of all the known methanotrophs harboring the mmoX gene. The primer set was successfully used for detecting methanotrophs in the groundwater of trichloroethylene-contaminated sites during in situ-biostimulation treatments. PMID:10583965

Shigematsu, Toru; Hanada, Satoshi; Eguchi, Masahiro; Kamagata, Yoichi; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Kurane, Ryuichiro

1999-01-01

349

The pacL gene of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 encodes a Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase.  

PubMed

An ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake activity was identified in plasma membrane vesicles prepared from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. This activity was insensitive to agents which collapse pH gradients and membrane potentials but sensitive to vanadate, indicating that the activity is catalyzed by a P-type Ca(2+)-ATPase. A gene was cloned from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 by using a degenerate oligonucleotide based on a sequence conserved among P-type ATPases. This gene (pacL) encodes a product similar in structure to eukaryotic Ca(2+)-ATPases. We have shown that pacL encodes a Ca(2+)-ATPase by demonstrating that a strain in which pacL is disrupted has no Ca(2+)-ATPase activity associated with its plasma membrane. In addition, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was restored to the delta pacL strain by introducing pacL into a second site in the Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 chromosome. PMID:8021228

Berkelman, T; Garret-Engele, P; Hoffman, N E

1994-07-01

350

Improvement in symbiotic efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by coinoculation of Bacillus strains with Mesorhizobium sp. Cicer.  

PubMed

Rhizobacteria belonging to Bacillus sp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Ten Bacillus strains were studied for their antifungal activity, effect on seedling emergence and plant growth promotion. Two Bacillus strains CBS127 and CBS155 inhibited the growth of all the four pathogenic fungi tested on nutrient agar medium plates in vitro. Seed inoculation with different Bacillus strains showed stimulatory effect on root and shoot growth at 10 d of observation in comparison to control whereas four Bacillus strains CBS24, CBS127, CBS129 and CBS155 caused retardation of shoot growth at 10 d. Maximum nodule-promoting effect was observed with Bacillus strains CBS106, CBS127 and CBS155. The symbiotic effectiveness of Mesorhizobium sp. Cicer strain Ca181 was further improved on coinoculation with six Bacillus strains i.e. CBS9, CBS17, CBS20, CBS106, CBS127 and CBS155 at 80 d of plant growth under sterile conditions and shoot dry weight ratios increased 1.62 to 1.74 times those of Mesorhizobium-inoculated treatments, suggesting the usefulness of introduced rhizobacteria in improving crop productivity. PMID:23100640

Sivaramaiah, N; Malik, D K; Sindhu, S S

2007-03-01

351

Identification of Sesquiterpene Synthases from Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120? †  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are a rich source of natural products and are known to produce terpenoids. These bacteria are the major source of the musty-smelling terpenes geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are found in many natural water supplies; however, no terpene synthases have been characterized from these organisms to date. Here, we describe the characterization of three sesquiterpene synthases identified in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 (terpene synthase NS1) and Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 (terpene synthases NP1 and NP2). The second terpene synthase in N. punctiforme (NP2) is homologous to fusion-type sesquiterpene synthases from Streptomyces spp. shown to produce geosmin via an intermediate germacradienol. The enzymes were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and their terpene products were structurally identified as germacrene A (from NS1), the eudesmadiene 8a-epi-?-selinene (from NP1), and germacradienol (from NP2). The product of NP1, 8a-epi-?-selinene, so far has been isolated only from termites, in which it functions as a defense compound. Terpene synthases NP1 and NS1 are part of an apparent minicluster that includes a P450 and a putative hybrid two-component protein located downstream of the terpene synthases. Coexpression of P450 genes with their adjacent located terpene synthase genes in E. coli demonstrates that the P450 from Nostoc sp. can be functionally expressed in E. coli when coexpressed with a ferredoxin gene and a ferredoxin reductase gene from Nostoc and that the enzyme oxygenates the NS1 terpene product germacrene A. This represents to the best of our knowledge the first example of functional expression of a cyanobacterial P450 in E. coli. PMID:18658271

Agger, Sean A.; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Hoye, Thomas R.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

2008-01-01

352

Genome Sequence of Rhizobium sp. Strain CCGE510, a Symbiont Isolated from Nodules of the Endangered Wild Bean Phaseolus albescens  

PubMed Central

We present the genome sequence of Rhizobium sp. strain CCGE510, a nitrogen fixing bacterium taxonomically affiliated with the R. leguminosarum-R. etli group, isolated from wild Phaseolus albescens nodules grown in native pine forests in western Mexico. P. albescens is an endangered bean species phylogenetically related to P. vulgaris. In spite of the close host relatedness, Rhizobium sp. CCGE510 does not establish an efficient symbiosis with P. vulgaris. This is the first genome of a Rhizobium symbiont from a Phaseolus species other than P. vulgaris, and it will provide valuable new insights about symbiont-host specificity. PMID:23105056

Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E.; Rogel, Marco A.; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Martínez-Romero, Julio; Sánchez, Federico

2012-01-01

353

Cloning of a Novel Arylamidase Gene from Paracoccus sp. Strain FLN-7 That Hydrolyzes Amide Pesticides  

PubMed Central

The bacterial isolate Paracoccus sp. strain FLN-7 hydrolyzes amide pesticides such as diflubenzuron, propanil, chlorpropham, and dimethoate through amide bond cleavage. A gene, ampA, encoding a novel arylamidase that catalyzes the amide bond cleavage in the amide pesticides was cloned from the strain. ampA contains a 1,395-bp open reading frame that encodes a 465-amino-acid protein. AmpA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and homogenously purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. AmpA is a homodimer with an isoelectric point of 5.4. AmpA displays maximum enzymatic activity at 40°C and a pH of between 7.5 and 8.0, and it is very stable at pHs ranging from 5.5 to 10.0 and at temperatures up to 50°C. AmpA efficiently hydrolyzes a variety of secondary amine compounds such as propanil, 4-acetaminophenol, propham, chlorpropham, dimethoate, and omethoate. The most suitable substrate is propanil, with Km and kcat values of 29.5 ?M and 49.2 s?1, respectively. The benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron and hexaflumuron) are also hydrolyzed but at low efficiencies. No cofactor is needed for the hydrolysis activity. AmpA shares low identities with reported arylamidases (less than 23%), forms a distinct lineage from closely related arylamidases in the phylogenetic tree, and has different biochemical characteristics and catalytic kinetics with related arylamidases. The results in the present study suggest that AmpA is a good candidate for the study of the mechanism for amide pesticide hydrolysis, genetic engineering of amide herbicide-resistant crops, and bioremediation of amide pesticide-contaminated environments. PMID:22544249

Zhang, Jun; Yin, Jin-Gang; Hang, Bao-Jian; Cai, Shu; Li, Shun-Peng

2012-01-01

354

Characterization of a new Providencia sp. strain X1 producing multiple xylanases on wheat bran.  

PubMed

Providencia sp. strain X1 showing the highest xylanase activity among six bacterial isolates was isolated from saw-dust decomposing site. Strain X1 produced cellulase-free extracellular xylanase, which was higher in wheat bran medium than in xylan medium, when cultivated at pH 8.0 and 35°C. Zymogram analysis of crude preparation of enzymes obtained while growing on wheat bran and birchwood xylan revealed the presence of seven and two distinct xylanases with estimated molecular weight of 33; 35; 40; 48; 60; 75; and 95?kDa and 33 and 44?kDa, respectively. The crude xylanases were produced on wheat bran medium and showed optimum activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C. The thermotolerance studies showed activity retention of 100% and 85% at 40°C and 60°C after 30 min preincubation at pH 9.0. It was tolerant to lignin, ferulic acid, syringic acid, and guaiacol and retained 90% activity after ethanol treatment. The enzyme preparation was also tolerant to methanol and acetone and showed good activity retention in the presence of metal ions such as Fe2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and Ca2+. The crude enzyme preparation was classified as endoxylanase based on the product pattern of xylan hydrolysis. Pretreatment of kraft pulp with crude xylanases for 3?h at 60°C led to a decrease in kappa number by 28.5%. The properties of present xylanases make them potentially useful for industrial applications. PMID:24348154

Raj, Abhay; Kumar, Sharad; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Kumar, Mahadeo

2013-01-01

355

Characterization of a New Providencia sp. Strain X1 Producing Multiple Xylanases on Wheat Bran  

PubMed Central

Providencia sp. strain X1 showing the highest xylanase activity among six bacterial isolates was isolated from saw-dust decomposing site. Strain X1 produced cellulase-free extracellular xylanase, which was higher in wheat bran medium than in xylan medium, when cultivated at pH 8.0 and 35°C. Zymogram analysis of crude preparation of enzymes obtained while growing on wheat bran and birchwood xylan revealed the presence of seven and two distinct xylanases with estimated molecular weight of 33; 35; 40; 48; 60; 75; and 95?kDa and 33 and 44?kDa, respectively. The crude xylanases were produced on wheat bran medium and showed optimum activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C. The thermotolerance studies showed activity retention of 100% and 85% at 40°C and 60°C after 30 min preincubation at pH 9.0. It was tolerant to lignin, ferulic acid, syringic acid, and guaiacol and retained 90% activity after ethanol treatment. The enzyme preparation was also tolerant to methanol and acetone and showed good activity retention in the presence of metal ions such as Fe2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and Ca2+. The crude enzyme preparation was classified as endoxylanase based on the product pattern of xylan hydrolysis. Pretreatment of kraft pulp with crude xylanases for 3?h at 60°C led to a decrease in kappa number by 28.5%. The properties of present xylanases make them potentially useful for industrial applications. PMID:24348154

Kumar, Sharad; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Kumar, Mahadeo

2013-01-01

356

Isolation and characterization of multiple adenylate cyclase genes from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed Central

Adenylate cyclase genes, designated cyaA, cyaB1, cyaB2, cyaC, and cyaD, were isolated from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 by complementation of a strain of Escherichia coli defective for the presence of cya. These genes encoded polypeptides consisting of 735, 859, 860, 1,155, and 546 amino acid residues, respectively. Deduced amino acid sequences of the regions near the C-terminal ends of these cya genes were similar to those of catalytic domains of eukaryotic adenylate cyclases. The remaining part of each cya gene towards its N-terminal end showed a characteristic structure. CyaA had two putative membrane-spanning regions. Both CyaB1 and CyaB2 had regions that were very similar to the cyclic GMP (cGMP)-binding domain of cGMP-stimulated cGMP phosphodiesterase. CyaC consisted of four distinct domains forming sequentially from the N terminus: a response regulator-like domain, a histidine kinase-like domain, a response regulator-like domain, and the catalytic domain of adenylate cyclase. CyaD contained the forkhead-associated domain in its N-terminal region. Expression of these genes was examined by reverse transcription-PCR. The transcript of cyaC was shown to be predominant in this cyanobacterium. The cellular cyclic AMP level in the disruptant of the cyaC mutant was much lower than that in the wild type. PMID:9171404

Katayama, M; Ohmori, M

1997-01-01

357

Cloning of a novel arylamidase gene from Paracoccus sp. strain FLN-7 that hydrolyzes amide pesticides.  

PubMed

The bacterial isolate Paracoccus sp. strain FLN-7 hydrolyzes amide pesticides such as diflubenzuron, propanil, chlorpropham, and dimethoate through amide bond cleavage. A gene, ampA, encoding a novel arylamidase that catalyzes the amide bond cleavage in the amide pesticides was cloned from the strain. ampA contains a 1,395-bp open reading frame that encodes a 465-amino-acid protein. AmpA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and homogenously purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. AmpA is a homodimer with an isoelectric point of 5.4. AmpA displays maximum enzymatic activity at 40°C and a pH of between 7.5 and 8.0, and it is very stable at pHs ranging from 5.5 to 10.0 and at temperatures up to 50°C. AmpA efficiently hydrolyzes a variety of secondary amine compounds such as propanil, 4-acetaminophenol, propham, chlorpropham, dimethoate, and omethoate. The most suitable substrate is propanil, with K(m) and k(cat) values of 29.5 ?M and 49.2 s(-1), respectively. The benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron and hexaflumuron) are also hydrolyzed but at low efficiencies. No cofactor is needed for the hydrolysis activity. AmpA shares low identities with reported arylamidases (less than 23%), forms a distinct lineage from closely related arylamidases in the phylogenetic tree, and has different biochemical characteristics and catalytic kinetics with related arylamidases. The results in the present study suggest that AmpA is a good candidate for the study of the mechanism for amide pesticide hydrolysis, genetic engineering of amide herbicide-resistant crops, and bioremediation of amide pesticide-contaminated environments. PMID:22544249

Zhang, Jun; Yin, Jin-Gang; Hang, Bao-Jian; Cai, Shu; He, Jian; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Li, Shun-Peng

2012-07-01

358

Metabolomic Analysis of Cold Acclimation of Arctic Mesorhizobium sp. Strain N33  

PubMed Central

Arctic Mesorhizobium sp. N33 isolated from nodules of Oxytropis arctobia in Canada’s eastern Arctic has a growth temperature range from 0°C to 30°C and is a well-known cold-adapted rhizobia. The key molecular mechanisms underlying cold adaptation in Arctic rhizobia remains totally unknown. Since the concentration and contents of metabolites are closely related to stress adaptation, we applied GC-MS and NMR to identify and quantify fatty acids and water soluble compounds possibly related to low temperature acclimation in strain N33. Bacterial cells were grown at three different growing temperatures (4°C, 10°C and 21°C). Cells from 21°C were also cold-exposed to 4°C for different times (2, 4, 8, 60 and 240 minutes). We identified that poly-unsaturated linoleic acids 18?2 (9, 12) & 18?2 (6, 9) were more abundant in cells growing at 4 or 10°C, than in cells cultivated at 21°C. The mono-unsaturated phospho/neutral fatty acids myristoleic acid 14?1(11) were the most significantly overexpressed (45-fold) after 1hour of exposure to 4°C. As reported in the literature, these fatty acids play important roles in cold adaptability by supplying cell membrane fluidity, and by providing energy to cells. Analysis of water-soluble compounds revealed that isobutyrate, sarcosine, threonine and valine were more accumulated during exposure to 4°C. These metabolites might play a role in conferring cold acclimation to strain N33 at 4°C, probably by acting as cryoprotectants. Isobutyrate was highly upregulated (19.4-fold) during growth at 4°C, thus suggesting that this compound is a precursor for the cold-regulated fatty acids modification to low temperature adaptation. PMID:24386418

Ghobakhlou, Abdollah; Laberge, Serge; Antoun, Hani; Wishart, David S.; Xia, Jianguo; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Mandal, Rupasri

2013-01-01

359

A Novel (S)-6-Hydroxynicotine Oxidase Gene from Shinella sp. Strain HZN7  

PubMed Central

Nicotine is an important environmental toxicant in tobacco waste. Shinella sp. strain HZN7 can metabolize nicotine into nontoxic compounds via variations of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. However, the catabolic mechanism of this variant pathway at the gene or enzyme level is still unknown. In this study, two 6-hydroxynicotine degradation-deficient mutants, N7-M9 and N7-W3, were generated by transposon mutagenesis. The corresponding mutant genes, designated nctB and tnp2, were cloned and analyzed. The nctB gene encodes a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase that converts (S)-6-hydroxynicotine into 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and then spontaneously hydrolyzes into 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine. The deletion and complementation of the nctB gene showed that this enzyme is essential for nicotine or (S)-6-hydroxynicotine degradation. Purified NctB could also convert (S)-nicotine into N-methylmyosmine, which spontaneously hydrolyzed into pseudooxynicotine. The kinetic constants of NctB toward (S)-6-hydroxynicotine (Km = 0.019 mM, kcat = 7.3 s?1) and nicotine (Km = 2.03 mM, kcat = 0.396 s?1) indicated that (S)-6-hydroxynicotine is the preferred substrate in vivo. NctB showed no activities toward the R enantiomer of nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine. Strain HZN7 could degrade (R)-nicotine into (R)-6-hydroxynicotine without any further degradation. The tnp2 gene from mutant N7-W3 encodes a putative transposase, and its deletion did not abolish the nicotine degradation activity. This study advances the understanding of the microbial diversity of nicotine biodegradation. PMID:25002425

Qiu, Jiguo; Wei, Yin; Ma, Yun; Wen, Rongti; Wen, Yuezhong

2014-01-01

360

Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Facultative Methanotroph Methylocystis sp. Strain SB2 Grown on Methane or Ethanol  

PubMed Central

A minority of methanotrophs are able to utilize multicarbon compounds as growth substrates in addition to methane. The pathways utilized by these microorganisms for assimilation of multicarbon compounds, however, have not been explicitly examined. Here, we report the draft genome of the facultative methanotroph Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 and perform a detailed transcriptomic analysis of cultures grown with either methane or ethanol. Evidence for use of the canonical methane oxidation pathway and the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from methane was obtained, as well as for operation of the complete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the ethylmalonyl-coenzyme A (EMC) pathway. Experiments with Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 grown on methane revealed that genes responsible for the first step of methane oxidation, the conversion of methane to methanol, were expressed at a significantly higher level than those for downstream oxidative transformations, suggesting that this step may be rate limiting for growth of this strain with methane. Further, transcriptomic analyses of Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 grown with ethanol compared to methane revealed that on ethanol (i) expression of the pathway of methane oxidation and the serine cycle was significantly reduced, (ii) expression of the TCA cycle dramatically increased, and (iii) expression of the EMC pathway was similar. Based on these data, it appears that Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 converts ethanol to acetyl-coenzyme A, which is then funneled into the TCA cycle for energy generation or incorporated into biomass via the EMC pathway. This suggests that some methanotrophs have greater metabolic flexibility than previously thought and that operation of multiple pathways in these microorganisms is highly controlled and integrated. PMID:24610846

Vorobev, Alexey; Jagadevan, Sheeja; Jain, Sunit; Anantharaman, Karthik; Dick, Gregory J.; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

2014-01-01

361

Oxidation of naphthalene by a multicomponent enzyme system from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816.  

PubMed Central

The initial reactions in the oxidation of naphthalene by Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816 involves the enzymatic incorporation of one molecule of oxygen into the aromatic nucleus to form (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction, naphthalene dioxygenase, was resolved into three protein components, designated A, B, and C, by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Incubation of naphthalene with components A, B, and C in the presence of NADH resulted in the formation of (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. The ratio of oxygen and NADH utilization to product formation was 1:1:1. NADPH also served as an electron donor for naphthalene oxygenation. However, its activity was less than 50% of that observed with NADH. Component A showed NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activity which was stimulated by the addition of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. A similar stimulation was observed when these flavin nucleotides were added to the naphthalene dioxygenase assay system. These preliminary observations indicate that naphthalene dioxygenase has properties in common with both monooxygenase and dioxygenase multicomponent enzyme systems. Images PMID:7037744

Ensley, B D; Gibson, D T; Laborde, A L

1982-01-01

362

Kinetics of molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue by Bacillus sp. strain A.rzi.  

PubMed

Molybdenum is very toxic to agricultural animals. Mo-reducing bacterium can be used to immobilize soluble molybdenum to insoluble forms, reducing its toxicity in the process. In this work the isolation of a novel molybdate-reducing Gram positive bacterium tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. strain A.rzi from a metal-contaminated soil is reported. The cellular reduction of molybdate to molybdenum blue occurred optimally at 4 mM phosphate, using 1% (w/v) glucose, 50 mM molybdate, between 28 and 30 °C and at pH 7.3. The spectrum of the Mo-blue product showed a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. Inhibitors of bacterial electron transport system (ETS) such as rotenone, sodium azide, antimycin A, and potassium cyanide could not inhibit the molybdenum-reducing activity. At 0.1 mM, mercury, copper, cadmium, arsenic, lead, chromium, cobalt, and zinc showed strong inhibition on molybdate reduction by crude enzyme. The best model that fitted the experimental data well was Luong followed by Haldane and Monod. The calculated value for Luong's constants p max, K(s), S(m), and n was 5.88 ?mole Mo-blue hr(-1), 70.36 mM, 108.22 mM, and 0.74, respectively. The characteristics of this bacterium make it an ideal tool for bioremediation of molybdenum pollution. PMID:24369531

Othman, A R; Bakar, N A; Halmi, M I E; Johari, W L W; Ahmad, S A; Jirangon, H; Syed, M A; Shukor, M Y

2013-01-01

363

Isolation of a Paenibacillus sp. Strain and Structural Elucidation of Its Broad-Spectrum Lipopeptide Antibiotic  

PubMed Central

This research was initiated to search for novel antimicrobial compounds produced by food or environmental microorganisms. A new bacterial strain, designated OSY-SE, which produces a unique and potent antimicrobial agent was isolated from soil. The isolate was identified as a Paenibacillus sp. through cultural, biochemical, and genetic analyses. An antimicrobial compound was extracted from Paenibacillus OSY-SE with acetonitrile and purified using liquid chromatography. After analyses by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the antimicrobial compound was determined to be a cyclic lipopeptide consisting of a C15 fatty acyl (FA) chain and 13 amino acids. The deduced sequence is FA-Orn-Val-Thr-Orn-Ser-Val-Lys-Ser-Ile-Pro-Val-Lys-Ile. The carboxyl-terminal Ile is connected to Thr by ester linkage. The new compound, designated paenibacterin, showed antagonistic activities against most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, including Listeria monocytogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Paenibacterin is resistant to trypsin, lipase, ?-glucosidase, and lysozyme. Its antimicrobial activity was lost after digestion by pronase and polymyxin acylase. Paenibacterin is readily soluble in water and fairly stable to exposure to heat and a wide range of pH values. The new isolate and its antimicrobial agent are being investigated for usefulness in food and medical applications. PMID:22367082

Guo, Yaoqi; Huang, En; Yuan, Chunhua; Zhang, Liwen

2012-01-01

364

Aerobic biodegradation of 2,4-Dinitroanisole by Nocardioides sp. strain JS1661.  

PubMed

2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is an insensitive munition ingredient used in explosive formulations as a replacement for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Little is known about the environmental behavior of DNAN. There are reports of microbial transformation to dead-end products, but no bacteria with complete biodegradation capability have been reported. Nocardioides sp. strain JS1661 was isolated from activated sludge based on its ability to grow on DNAN as the sole source of carbon and energy. Enzyme assays indicated that the first reaction involves hydrolytic release of methanol to form 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP). Growth yield and enzyme assays indicated that 2,4-DNP underwent subsequent degradation by a previously established pathway involving formation of a hydride-Meisenheimer complex and release of nitrite. Identification of the genes encoding the key enzymes suggested recent evolution of the pathway by recruitment of a novel hydrolase to extend the well-characterized 2,4-DNP pathway. PMID:25281383

Fida, Tekle Tafese; Palamuru, Shannu; Pandey, Gunjan; Spain, Jim C

2014-12-01

365

A further insight into the mechanism of Ag + biosorption by Lactobacillus sp. strain A09  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of Ag + biosorption by resting cell of Lactobacillus sp. strain A09 has been further investigated at the molecular level using spectroscopic techniques. The values of estimated equilibrium constants, rate constants, half-life periods and apparent enthalpies of the binding reaction were calculated via the determination of Ag + adsorbed by the biomass using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The reductive ratio of the Ag + to Ag 0 by the A09 biomass was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis for sulfur and nitrogen atomic contents in dry powder of the biomass with EA-1110 elemental analysis (EA) showed that amino acid residues retaining the reductive property of Ag + to Ag 0 are very small quantity, whereas glucose content in the hydrolysates of the biomass analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis) indicated that the amount of reducing sugars in the biomass is much larger than 2.71%. The fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry on blank and silver-loaded biomass demonstrated that the chemical functional group such as the free aldehyde group of the hemiacetalic hydroxyl group from reducing sugars, i.e. the hydrolysates of the polysaccharides from the cell wall plays a leading role in serving as the electron donor for reducing the Ag + to Ag 0. This result was further supported by characterizations on the interaction of the Ag + with glucose using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy.

Lin, Zhongyu; Zhou, Chaohui; Wu, Jianming; Zhou, Jianzhang; Wang, Lin

2005-04-01

366

Inhibitor studies of dissimilative Fe(III) reduction by Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 ("Pseudomonas ferrireductans")  

PubMed Central

Aerobic respiration and dissimilative iron reduction were studied in pure, batch cultures of Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 ("Pseudomonas ferrireductans"). Specific respiratory inhibitors were used to identify elements of electron transport chains involved in the reduction of molecular oxygen and Fe(III). When cells were grown at a high oxygen concentration, dissimilative iron reduction occurred via an abbreviated electron transport chain. The induction of alternative respiratory pathways resulted from growth at low oxygen tension (less than 0.01 atm [1 atm = 101.29 kPa]). Induced cells were capable of O2 utilization at moderately increased rates; dissimilative iron reduction was accelerated by a factor of 6 to 8. In cells grown at low oxygen tension, dissimilative iron reduction appeared to be uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation. Models of induced and uninduced electron transport chains, including a mathematical treatment of chemical inhibition within the uninduced, aerobic electron transport system, are presented. In uninduced cells respiring anaerobically, electron transport was limited by ferrireductase activity. This limitation may disappear among induced cells. PMID:2428308

Arnold, R G; DiChristina, T J; Hoffmann, M R

1986-01-01

367

Spirocyclic Drimanes from the Marine Fungus Stachybotrys sp. Strain MF347  

PubMed Central

A novel spirocyclic drimane coupled by two drimane fragment building blocks 2 and a new drimane 1 were identified in mycelia and culture broth of Stachybotrys sp. MF347. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means. This is the first example of spirocyclic drimane coupled by a spirodihydrobenzofuranlactam unit and a spirodihydroisobenzofuran unit; and the connecting position being N-C instead of an N and N connecting unit. Strain MF347 produced also the known spirocyclic drimanes stachybocin A (12) and stachybocin B (11) featured by two sesquiterpene-spirobenzofuran structural units connected by a lysine residue; the known spirocyclic drimanes chartarlactam O (5); chartarlactam K (6); F1839A (7); stachybotrylactam (8); stachybotramide (9); and 2?-acetoxystachybotrylactam acetate (10); as well as ilicicolin B (13), a known sesquiterpene. The relative configuration of two known spirobenzofuranlactams (3 and 4) was determined. All compounds were subjected to biological activity tests. The spirocyclic drimane 2, 11, and 12, as well as the sesquiterpene 13, exhibited antibacterial activity against the clinically relevant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:24694571

Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Malien, Susann; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F.

2014-01-01

368

Purification and Properties of a Xylan-Binding Endoxylanase from Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. Strain K-1  

PubMed Central

An alkaliphilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain K-1, produces extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanases, ?-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and acetyl esterase when grown in xylan medium. One of the extracellular xylanases that is stable in an alkaline state was purified to homogeneity by affinity adsorption-desorption on insoluble xylan. The enzyme bound to insoluble xylan but not to crystalline cellulose. The molecular mass of the purified xylan-binding xylanase was estimated to be approximately 23 kDa. The enzyme was stable at alkaline pHs up to 12. The optimum temperature and optimum pH of the enzyme activity were 60°C and 5.5, respectively. Metal ions such as Fe2+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ greatly increased the xylanase activity, whereas Mn2+ strongly inhibited it. We also demonstrated that the enzyme could hydrolyze the raw lignocellulosic substances effectively. The enzymatic products of xylan hydrolysis were a series of short-chain xylooligosaccharides, indicating that the enzyme was an endoxylanase. PMID:9925602

Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Kyu, Khin Lay; Tanticharoen, Morakot

1999-01-01

369

Purification and some properties of an alkaline xylanase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain 41M-1.  

PubMed

An alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain, 41M-1, isolated from soil produced multiple xylanases extracellularly. One of these xylanases was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and anion-exchange chromatography. The moleculr mass of this enzyme (xylanase J) was 36 kDa, and the isoelectric point was pH 5.3. Xylanase J was most active at pH 9.0. The optimum temperature for the activity at pH 9.0 was around 50 degrees C. The enzyme was stable up to 55 degrees C at pH 9.0 for 30 min. Xylanase J was completely inhibited by the Hg2+ion and N-bromosuccinimide. The predominant products of xylan hydrolysate were xylobiose, xylotriose, and higher oligosaccharides, indicating that the enzyme was an endoxylanase. The apparent Km and Vmax values on xylan were 3.3 mg/ml and 1,100 micromol-1 mg-1, respectively. Xylanase J showed high sequence homology with the xylanases from Bacillus pumilus and Clostridium acetobutylicum in the N-terminal region. Xylanase J acted on neither crystalline cellulose nor carboxymethyl cellulose, indicating a possible application of the enzyme in biobleaching processes. PMID:8292206

Nakamura, S; Wakabayashi, K; Nakai, R; Aono, R; Horikoshi, K

1993-07-01

370

Utilization of Ganglioside-Degrading Paenibacillus sp. Strain TS12 for Production of Glucosylceramide  

PubMed Central

Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are membrane constituents of vertebrates and are known to have important roles in cellular differentiation, adhesion, and recognition. We report here the isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading gangliotetraose-series gangliosides and a new method for the production of glucosylceramide with this bacterium. GM1a ganglioside was found to be sequentially degraded by Paenibacillus sp. strain TS12, which was isolated from soil, as follows: GM1a ? asialo GM1 ? asialo GM2 ? lactosylceramide ? glucosylceramide. TS12 was found to produce a series of ganglioside-degrading enzymes, such as sialidases, ?-galactosidases, and ?-hexosaminidases. TS12 also produced ?-glucosidases, but glucosylceramide was somewhat resistant to the bacterial enzyme under the conditions used. Taking advantage of the specificity, we developed a new method for the production of glucosylceramide using TS12 as a biocatalyst. The method involves the conversion of crude bovine brain gangliosides to glucosylceramide by coculture with TS12 and purification of the product by chromatography with Wakogel C-300 HG. PMID:12406710

Sumida, Tomomi; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Ito, Makoto

2002-01-01

371

Characterization of a Novel Phenol Hydroxylase in Indoles Biotranformation from a Strain Arthrobacter sp. W1  

PubMed Central

Background Indigoids, as popular dyes, can be produced by microbial strains or enzymes catalysis. However, the new valuable products with their transformation mechanisms, especially inter-conversion among the intermediates and products have not been clearly identified yet. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate novel microbial catalytic processes for indigoids production systematically. Findings A phenol hydroxylase gene cluster (4,606 bp) from Arthrobacter sp. W1 (PHw1) was obtained. This cluster contains six components in the order of KLMNOP, which exhibit relatively low sequence identities (37–72%) with known genes. It was suggested that indole and all the tested indole derivatives except for 3-methylindole were transformed to various substituted indigoid pigments, and the predominant color products derived from indoles were identified by spectrum analysis. One new purple product from indole, 2-(7-oxo-1H-indol-6(7H)-ylidene) indolin-3-one, should be proposed as the dimerization of isatin and 7-hydroxylindole at the C-2 and C-6 positions. Tunnel entrance and docking studies were used to predict the important amino acids for indoles biotransformation, which were further proved by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the phenol hydroxylase from genus Arthrobacter could transform indoles to indigoids with new chemical compounds being produced. Our work should show high insights into understanding the mechanism of indigoids bio-production. PMID:23028517

Li, Xinliang; Zhang, Xuwang; Zhou, Jiti

2012-01-01

372

Response surface optimization for efficient dye removal by isolated strain Pseudomonas sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response surface methodology (RSM) involving the central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize three important process variables for the decolourization of synthetic dye solutions containing Remazol Turquoise Blue (RTB) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) with isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. The interaction between three variables i.e. Initial concentration of dye, carbon source and nitrogen source were studied and modeled. According to the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results the predicted results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results (R 2: 0.9726; Adj R 2: 0.9480 for RTB and R 2: 0.9789; Adj R 2: 0.9750 for RB5) which indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data from the second order polynomial regression model. Mathematical models were developed by the proposed system, for each process variable showed the effect of each factor and their interactions on biodecolourization process. The optimum concentrations of Dye, Carbon source, and Nitrogen source were found to be 20 mgL-1, 1.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L, respectively for RTB and RB5 to obtain maximum dye removing capacity. Predicted values were validated with experimental results, which indicated appropriateness of the employed model and the success of RSM.

Senthilkumar, Shanmugam; Perumalsamy, Muthiah; Prabhuy, Harinarayan; AhmedBasha, Chiya; Anantharaman, Narayan

2012-09-01

373

Response surface optimization for efficient dye removal by isolated strain Pseudomonas sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response surface methodology (RSM) involving the central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize three important process variables for the decolourization of synthetic dye solutions containing Remazol Turquoise Blue (RTB) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) with isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. The interaction between three variables i.e. Initial concentration of dye, carbon source and nitrogen source were studied and modeled. According to the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results the predicted results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results ( R 2: 0.9726; Adj R 2: 0.9480 for RTB and R 2: 0.9789; Adj R 2: 0.9750 for RB5) which indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data from the second order polynomial regression model. Mathematical models were developed by the proposed system, for each process variable showed the effect of each factor and their interactions on biodecolourization process. The optimum concentrations of Dye, Carbon source, and Nitrogen source were found to be 20 mgL-1, 1.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L, respectively for RTB and RB5 to obtain maximum dye removing capacity. Predicted values were validated with experimental results, which indicated appropriateness of the employed model and the success of RSM.

Senthilkumar, Shanmugam; Perumalsamy, Muthiah; Prabhuy, Harinarayan Janardhana; AhmedBasha, Chiya; Anantharaman, Narayan

2012-09-01

374

Cloning and characterization of two xyloglucanases from Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21.  

PubMed

Two xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (xyloglucanases [XEGs]), XEG5 and XEG74, with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21, which degrades tamarind seed xyloglucan. The genes encoding these XEGs were cloned and sequenced. Based on their amino acid sequences, the catalytic domains of XEG5 and XEG74 were classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 74, respectively. XEG5 is the first xyloglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. XEG5 lacks a carbohydrate-binding module, while XEG74 has an X2 module and a family 3 type carbohydrate-binding module at its C terminus. The two XEGs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant forms of the enzymes were purified and characterized. Both XEGs had endoglucanase active only toward xyloglucan and not toward Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, barley beta-1,3/1,4-glucan, or xylan. XEG5 is a typical endo-type enzyme that randomly cleaves the xyloglucan main chain, while XEG74 has dual endo- and exo-mode activities or processive endo-mode activity. XEG5 digested the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXGXXXG to produce XXXG, whereas XEG74 digestion of XXXGXXXG resulted in XXX, XXXG, and GXXXG, suggesting that this enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond of unbranched Glc residues. Analyses using various oligosaccharide structures revealed that unique structures of xyloglucan oligosaccharides can be prepared with XEG74. PMID:16332739

Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakai, Tomonori; Kameda, Yoshiro; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

2005-12-01

375

Discovery and Characterization of a 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Oxidase from Methylovorus sp. Strain MP688  

PubMed Central

In the search for useful and renewable chemical building blocks, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) has emerged as a very promising candidate, as it can be prepared from sugars. HMF can be oxidized to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), which is used as a substitute for petroleum-based terephthalate in polymer production. On the basis of a recently identified bacterial degradation pathway for HMF, candidate genes responsible for selective HMF oxidation have been identified. Heterologous expression of a protein from Methylovorus sp. strain MP688 in Escherichia coli and subsequent enzyme characterization showed that the respective gene indeed encodes an efficient HMF oxidase (HMFO). HMFO is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing oxidase and belongs to the glucose-methanol-choline-type flavoprotein oxidase family. Intriguingly, the activity of HMFO is not restricted to HMF, as it is active with a wide range of aromatic primary alcohols and aldehydes. The enzyme was shown to be relatively thermostable and active over a broad pH range. This makes HMFO a promising oxidative biocatalyst that can be used for the production of FDCA from HMF, a reaction involving both alcohol and aldehyde oxidations. PMID:24271187

Dijkman, Willem P.

2014-01-01

376

Spirocyclic drimanes from the marine fungus Stachybotrys sp. strain MF347.  

PubMed

A novel spirocyclic drimane coupled by two drimane fragment building blocks 2 and a new drimane 1 were identified in mycelia and culture broth of Stachybotrys sp. MF347. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means. This is the first example of spirocyclic drimane coupled by a spirodihydrobenzofuranlactam unit and a spirodihydroisobenzofuran unit; and the connecting position being N-C instead of an N and N connecting unit. Strain MF347 produced also the known spirocyclic drimanes stachybocin A (12) and stachybocin B (11) featured by two sesquiterpene-spirobenzofuran structural units connected by a lysine residue; the known spirocyclic drimanes chartarlactam O (5); chartarlactam K (6); F1839A (7); stachybotrylactam (8); stachybotramide (9); and 2?-acetoxystachybotrylactam acetate (10); as well as ilicicolin B (13), a known sesquiterpene. The relative configuration of two known spirobenzofuranlactams (3 and 4) was determined. All compounds were subjected to biological activity tests. The spirocyclic drimane 2, 11, and 12, as well as the sesquiterpene 13, exhibited antibacterial activity against the clinically relevant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:24694571

Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Malien, Susann; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F

2014-04-01

377

Enniatins of Fusarium sp. strain F31 and their inhibition of Botrytis cinerea spore germination.  

PubMed

A spectrum of enniatins was isolated from Fusarium sp. strain F31 by bioassay-guided isolation directed against Botrytis cinerea. Two new enniatins, J(2) (7) and J(3) (8), were co-isolated and both contained, in addition to three hydroxyisovaleric acid units, N-methylated l-alanine, l-valine, and l-isoleucine units, differing only in their primary sequence. Two other enniatins, named enniatin J(1) (1) and enniatin K(1) (6), each containing two N-Me-l-Val units and one N-Me-l-Ala or alpha-N-Me-l-butyric acid unit, respectively, were isolated for the first time without directed biosynthesis. The enniatin structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods, and the absolute configuration of the amino acids (l) and hydroxyisovaleric acid (d) was consistent with all previously isolated enniatins. The known enniatins B (2), B(1) (4), B(2) (5), and B(4) (3) were also isolated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of pure enniatins against Botrytis cinerea was 75 microg/mL. PMID:15165149

Pohanka, Anton; Capieau, Kristof; Broberg, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Stenström, Elna; Kenne, Lennart

2004-05-01

378

Characterization of the Protocatechuic Acid Catabolic Gene Cluster from Streptomyces sp. Strain 2065  

PubMed Central

Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.3) catalyzes the ring cleavage step in the catabolism of aromatic compounds through the protocatechuate branch of the ?-ketoadipate pathway. A protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase was purified from Streptomyces sp. strain 2065 grown in p-hydroxybenzoate, and the N-terminal sequences of the ?- and ?-subunits were obtained. PCR amplification was used for the cloning of the corresponding genes, and DNA sequencing of the flanking regions showed that the pcaGH genes belonged to a 6.5-kb protocatechuate catabolic gene cluster; at least seven genes in the order pcaIJFHGBL appear to be transcribed unidirectionally. Analysis of the cluster revealed the presence of a pcaL homologue which encodes a fused ?-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase/?-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase previously identified in the pca gene cluster from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP. The pcaIJ genes encoded proteins with a striking similarity to succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):3-oxoacid CoA transferases of eukaryotes and contained an indel which is strikingly similar between high-G+C gram-positive bacteria and eukaryotes. PMID:10742233

Iwagami, Sakura G.; Yang, Keqian; Davies, Julian

2000-01-01

379

Acquired thermotolerance and heat shock in the extremely thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus sp. strain B12  

SciTech Connect

The extreme thermophile Sulfolobus sp. strain B12 exhibits an acquired thermotolerance response. Thus, survival of cells from a 70{degrees}C culture at the lethal temperature of 92{degrees}C was enhanced by as much as 6 orders of magnitude over a 2-h period if the culture was preheated to 88{degrees}C for 60 min or longer before being exposed to the lethal temperature. In eubacteria and eucaryotes, acquired thermotolerance correlates with the induced synthesis of a dozen or so proteins known as heat shock proteins. In this Sulfolobus species, it correlates with the preferential synthesis of primarily one major protein (55 kilodaltons) and, to a much lesser extent, two minor proteins (28 and 35 kilodaltons). Since the synthesis of all other proteins was radically reduced and these proteins were apparently not degraded or exported, their relative abundance within the cell increased during the time the cells were becoming thermotolerant. They could not yet be related to known heat shock proteins. In immunoassays, they were not cross-reactive with antibodies against heat shock proteins from Escherichia coli (DnaK and GroE), which are highly conserved between eubacteria and eucaryotes. However, it appears that if acquired thermotolerance depends on the synthesis of protective proteins, then in this extremely thermophilic archaebacterium it depends primarily on one protein.

Trent, J.D.; Osipiuk, J.; Pinkau, T. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie, Munich (Germany, F.R.))

1990-03-01

380

Isolation of Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. strains from decaying woods and characterization of their potential for cellulose deconstruction.  

PubMed

Prospection of cellulose-degrading bacteria in natural environments allows the identification of novel cellulases and hemicellulases that could be useful in second-generation bioethanol production. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from decaying native forest soils by enrichment on cellulose as sole carbon source. There was a predominance of Gram positive isolates that belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Many primary isolates with cellulolytic activity were not pure cultures. From these consortia, isolation of pure constituents was attempted in order to test the hypothesis whether microbial consortia are needed for full degradation of complex substrates. Two isolates, CB1-2-A-5 and VG-4-A-2, were obtained as the pure constituents of CB1-2 and VG-4 consortia, respectively. Based on 16S RNA sequence, they could be classified as Variovorax paradoxus and Paenibacillus alvei. Noteworthy, only VG-4 consortium showed measurable xylan degrading capacity and signs of filter paper degradation. However, no xylan or filter paper degrading capacities were observed for the pure cultures isolated from it, suggesting that other members of this consortium were necessary for these hydrolyzing activities. Our results indicated that Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. as well as VG-4 consortium, might be a useful source of hydrolytic enzymes. Moreover, although Variovorax sp. had been previously identified in metagenomic studies of cellulolytic communities, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of this microorganism as a cellulolytic genus. PMID:23301200

Ghio, Silvina; Lorenzo, Gonzalo Sabarís Di; Lia, Verónica; Talia, Paola; Cataldi, Angel; Grasso, Daniel; Campos, Eleonora

2012-01-01

381

Isolation of Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. strains from decaying woods and characterization of their potential for cellulose deconstruction  

PubMed Central

Prospection of cellulose-degrading bacteria in natural environments allows the identification of novel cellulases and hemicellulases that could be useful in second-generation bioethanol production. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from decaying native forest soils by enrichment on cellulose as sole carbon source. There was a predominance of Gram positive isolates that belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Many primary isolates with cellulolytic activity were not pure cultures. From these consortia, isolation of pure constituents was attempted in order to test the hypothesis whether microbial consortia are needed for full degradation of complex substrates. Two isolates, CB1-2-A-5 and VG-4-A-2, were obtained as the pure constituents of CB1-2 and VG-4 consortia, respectively. Based on 16S RNA sequence, they could be classified as Variovorax paradoxus and Paenibacillus alvei. Noteworthy, only VG-4 consortium showed measurable xylan degrading capacity and signs of filter paper degradation. However, no xylan or filter paper degrading capacities were observed for the pure cultures isolated from it, suggesting that other members of this consortium were necessary for these hydrolyzing activities. Our results indicated that Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. as well as VG-4 consortium, might be a useful source of hydrolytic enzymes. Moreover, although Variovorax sp. had been previously identified in metagenomic studies of cellulolytic communities, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of this microorganism as a cellulolytic genus. PMID:23301200

Ghio, Silvina; Lorenzo, Gonzalo Sabarís Di; Lia, Verónica; Talia, Paola; Cataldi, Angel; Grasso, Daniel; Campos, Eleonora

2012-01-01

382

Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6  

SciTech Connect

Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

2011-09-01

383

Influence of carbon sources and electron shuttles on ferric iron reduction by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.  

PubMed

Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity. PMID:21318474

Gerlach, Robin; Field, Erin K; Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Apel, William A; Cunningham, Al B

2011-09-01

384

Isolation of a gene (pbsC) required for siderophore biosynthesis in fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. strain M114  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iron-regulated gene, pbsC, required for siderophore production in fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. strain M114 has been identified. A kanamycin-resistance cassette was inserted at specific restriction sites within a 7 kb genomic fragment of M114 DNA and by marker exchange two siderophore-negative mutants, designated M1 and M2, were isolated. The nucleotide sequence of approximately 4 kb of the region flanking the

Claire Adams; David N. Dowling; Dan J. O'Sullivan; Fergal O'Gara

1994-01-01

385

On the Origins of Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase: Purification, Substrates, and Prevalence of AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP  

PubMed Central

Cyanuric acid hydrolase (AtzD) from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was purified to homogeneity. Of 22 cyclic amides and triazine compounds tested, only cyanuric acid and N-methylisocyanuric acid were substrates. Other cyclic amidases were found not to hydrolyze cyanuric acid. Ten bacteria that use cyanuric acid as a sole nitrogen source for growth were found to contain either atzD or trzD, but not both genes. PMID:12788776

Fruchey, Isaac; Shapir, Nir; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

2003-01-01

386

Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain P482, a Tomato Rhizosphere Isolate with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity  

PubMed Central

The tomato rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas sp. strain P482 is a member of a diverse group of fluorescent pseudomonads. P482 produces a yet unidentified broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound(s), active inter alia (i.a.) against Dickeya spp. Here, we present a nearly complete genome of P482 obtained by a hybrid assembly of Illumina and PacBio sequencing data. PMID:24970823

Krzyzanowska, Dorota M.; Ossowicki, Adam

2014-01-01

387

Purification, molecular characterization and reactivity with aromatic compounds of a laccase from basidiomycete Trametes sp. strain AH28-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently isolated basidiomycete, Trametes sp. strain AH28-2, can be induced to produce a high level of laccases when grown on a cellobiose-asparagine liquid medium. After induction by kraft lignin, two major isozymes were detected in the fermentation supernatant of the fungus. The principal component laccase A, which accounts for about 85% of the total activity, can be purified to

Y. Z. Xiao; X. M. Tu; J. Wang; M. Zhang; Q. Cheng; W. Y. Zeng; Y. Y. Shi

2003-01-01

388

An antagonistic rhizoplane bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain ECS101 physiologically stresses a spinach root rot pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed that an antagonistic rhizoplane bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain EC-S101 induces excessive lateral and apical branching in the hyphae of a root rot phytopathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides AC-5 resulting in radial growth inhibition of hyphae in a dual culture assay. Confocal laser scanning microscopic observations\\u000a using fluorescent stains indicated an increased quantity of nuclei and lipid bodies in the affected

Abhinandan Deora; Yasuyuki Hashidoko; Yuriko Aoyama; Toshiaki Ito; Satoshi Tahara

2006-01-01

389

Purification and Characterization of the Coniferyl Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain HR199 and Molecular Characterization of the Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase (CALDH) of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 (DSM7063), which catalyzes the NAD 1 -dependent oxidation of coniferyl aldehyde to ferulic acid and which is induced during growth with eugenol as the carbon source, was purified and characterized. The native protein exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 86,000 6 5,000 Da, and the subunit mass was 49.5 6

SANDRA ACHTERHOLT; HORST PRIEFERT; ALEXANDER STEINBUCHEL

1998-01-01

390

Identification and molecular characterization of the eugenol hydroxylase genes (ehyA\\/ehyB) of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene loci ehyA and ehyB, which are involved in the bioconversion of eugenol to coniferyl alcohol by Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 (DSM 7063), were identified as the structural genes of a eugenol hydroxylase that represents an enzyme of\\u000a the flavocytochrome c class. These genes were localized downstream of the eugenol catabolism genes vanA and vanB, encoding vanillate-O-demethylase, on an

Horst Priefert; Jörg Overhage; Alexander Steinbüchel

1999-01-01

391

Identification and Characterization of Genes Encoding Carbazole 1,9a-Dioxygenase in Pseudomonas sp. Strain CA10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequence analysis of the flanking regions of the carBC genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 revealed that there were two open reading frames (ORFs) ORF4 and ORF5, in the upstream region of carBC. Similarly, three ORFs, ORF6 to ORF8, were found in the downstream region of carBC. The deduced amino acid sequences of ORF6 and ORF8 showed homologies with

SHIN-ICHI SATO; JEONG-WON NAM; KANO KASUGA; HIDEAKI NOJIRI; HISAKAZU YAMANE; TOSHIO OMORI

1997-01-01

392

Surface Charge Properties of and Cu(II) Adsorption by Spores of the Marine Bacillus sp. Strain SG1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spores of marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 are capable of oxidizing Mn(II) and Co(II), which results in the precipitation of Mn(III, IV) and Co(III) oxides and hydroxides on the spore surface. The spores also bind other heavy metals; however, little is known about the mechanism and capacity of this metal binding. In this study the characteristics of the spore surface

LEE M. HE; BRADLEY M. TEBO

1998-01-01

393

Bioremediation of BTEX Hydrocarbons: Effect of Soil Inoculation with the Toluene-Growing Fungus Cladophialophora Sp. Strain T1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, (BTEX) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was studied in soil microcosms. Soil inoculation with the toluene-metabolising fungusCladophialophora sp. strain T1 was evaluated in sterile and non-sterile soil. Induction of biodegradation capacity following BTEX addition was faster in the soil native microflora than in axenic soil cultures of the fungus. Toluene, ethylbenzenes,

F. X. Prenafeta-Boldú; H. Ballerstedt; J. Gerritse; J. T. C. Grotenhuis

2004-01-01

394

Draft Genome Sequence of a Sulfide-Oxidizing, Autotrophic Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium, Chloroflexus sp. Strain MS-G (Chloroflexi)  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of the thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus sp. strain MS-G (Chloroflexi), isolated from Mushroom Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) was sequenced and comprises 4,784,183 bp in 251 contigs. The draft genome is predicted to encode 4,059 protein coding genes, 49 tRNA encoding genes, and 3 rRNA operons. PMID:25189583

Thiel, Vera; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Ward, David M.

2014-01-01

395

Draft Genome Sequence of Marine Bacterium Streptomyces sp. Strain CNQ431, a Producer of the Cytokine Inhibitor Splenocin  

PubMed Central

Currently, corticosteroids are the most potent anti-inflammatory drugs on the market. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. strain CNQ431, which produces cytokine inhibitors, termed splenocins, which display potent suppression of cytokine production at a comparable level to that of corticosteroids. The genome is approximately 498,750 bp with 72.03% G+C content. PMID:25614558

Yu, Mingjia; Dai, Zheng

2015-01-01

396

Draft Genome Sequence of a Sulfide-Oxidizing, Autotrophic Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium, Chloroflexus sp. Strain MS-G (Chloroflexi).  

PubMed

The draft genome sequence of the thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus sp. strain MS-G (Chloroflexi), isolated from Mushroom Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) was sequenced and comprises 4,784,183 bp in 251 contigs. The draft genome is predicted to encode 4,059 protein coding genes, 49 tRNA encoding genes, and 3 rRNA operons. PMID:25189583

Thiel, Vera; Hamilton, Trinity L; Tomsho, Lynn P; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E; Schuster, Stephan C; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

2014-01-01

397

Isolation and Partial Characterization of Antagonistic Peptides Produced by Paenibacillus sp. Strain B2 Isolated from the Sorghum Mycorrhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paenibacillus sp. strain B2, isolated from the mycorrhizosphere of sorghum colonized by Glomus mosseae, produces an antagonistic factor. This factor has a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against fungi. The antagonistic factor was isolated from the bacterial culture medium and purified by cation-exchange, reverse-phase, and size exclusion chromatography. The purified factor could be separated

S. Selim; J. Negrel; C. Govaerts; S. Gianinazzi; D. van Tuinen

2005-01-01

398

Genes involved in the synthesis of the exopolysaccharide methanolan by the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus sp. strain 12S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylobacillus sp. strain 12S produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS), methanolan, composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. Twenty-four ORFs flanking a Tn5 insertion site in an EPS- deficient mutant were identified, and 21 genes (epsCBAKLDEFGHIJMNOPQRSTU) were predicted to participate in methanolan synthesis on the basis of the features of the primary sequence. Gene disruption analyses revealed that epsABCEFGIJNOP and epsR are required

Takako Yoshida; Yuko Ayabe; Masaaki Yasunaga; Yusuke Usami; Hiroshi Habe; Hideaki Nojiri; Toshio Omori

2003-01-01

399

Gene replacement of adenylate kinase in the gram-positive thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus disrupts adenine nucleotide homeostasis and reduces cell viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic bacteria are of great value for industry and research communities. Unfortunately, the cellular processes and mechanisms of these organisms remain largely understudied. In the present study, we investigate how the inactivation of adenylate kinase (AK) affects the adenine nucleotide homeostasis of a gram-positive moderate thermophile, Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain NUB3621-R. AK plays a major role in the adenine nucleotide homeostasis

Rafael Couñago; Yousif Shamoo

2005-01-01

400

Selectivity among organic sulfur compounds in one- and two-liquid-phase cultures of Rhodococcus sp. strain JVH1.  

PubMed

The selectivity of Rhodococcus sp. strain JVH1 among selected sulfidic and thiophenic compounds was investigated in both single-liquid-phase (aqueous) cultures and in two-liquid-phase cultures, where the sulfur compounds were dissolved in 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane as the immiscible organic carrier phase. In the single-liquid-phase cultures, Rhodococcus sp. strain JVH1 showed a preference for benzyl sulfide over both 1,4-dithiane and benzothiophene. An increased lag was observed in the degradation of benzyl sulfone and benzothiophene sulfone when both compounds were present. These results were consistent with a competitive inhibition mechanism, affecting both sulfur oxidation and carbon-sulfur bond cleavage. In the two-liquid-phase cultures, the effect of partitioning between the two liquid phases dominated the desulfurization activity of the culture. This partitioning resulted in an apparent absence of selectivity, as well as decreases in lag time, extent of degradation, and time to completion of degradation. Desulfurization activity also depended on the growth phase of the cultures. Mass transfer rate limitations were not observed at the low degradation rates of 0.02 mmol day(-1) l(-1). Owing to the importance of partitioning, Rhodococcus sp. strain JVH1 is predicted to show nonselective activity towards the sulfur species in a whole crude oil. PMID:17091345

Kirkwood, Kathlyn M; Foght, Julia M; Gray, Murray R

2007-08-01

401

Localization and Characterization of the Carbon Tetrachloride Transformation Activity of Pseudomonas sp. Strain KC  

PubMed Central

Previous research has established that Pseudomonas sp. strain KC rapidly transforms carbon tetrachloride (CT) to carbon dioxide (45 to 55%), a nonvolatile fraction (45 to 55%), and a cell-associated fraction ((equiv)5%) under denitrifying, iron-limited conditions. The present study provides additional characterization of the nonvolatile fraction, demonstrates that electron transfer plays a role in the transformation, and establishes the importance of both extracellular and intracellular factors. Experiments with (sup14)C-labeled CT indicate that more than one nonvolatile product is produced during CT transformation by strain KC. One of these products, accounting for about 20% of the [(sup14)C]CT transformed, was identified as formate on the basis of its elution time from an ion-exchange column, its boiling point, and its conversion to (sup14)CO(inf2) when incubated with formate dehydrogenase. Production of formate requires transfer of two electrons to the CT molecule. The role of electron transfer was also supported by experiments demonstrating that stationary-phase cells that do not transform CT can be stimulated to transform CT when supplemented with acetate (electron donor), nitrate (electron acceptor), or a protonophore (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone). The location of transformation activity was also evaluated. By themselves, washed cells did not transform CT to a significant degree. Occasionally, CT transformation was observed by cell-free culture supernatant, but this activity was not reliable. Rapid and reliable CT transformation was only obtained when washed whole cells were reconstituted with culture supernatant, indicating that both extracellular and intracellular factors are normally required for CT transformation. Fractionation of culture supernatant by ultrafiltration established that the extracellular factor or factors are small, with an apparent molecular mass of less than 500 Da. The extracellular factor or factors were stable after lyophilization to powder and were extractable with acetone. Addition of micromolar levels of iron inhibited CT transformation in whole cultures, but the level of iron needed to inhibit CT transformation was over 100-fold higher for washed cells reconstituted with a 10,000-Da supernatant filtrate. Thus, the inhibitory effects of iron are exacerbated by a supernatant factor or factors with a molecular mass greater than 10,000 Da. PMID:16534941

Dybas, M. J.; Tatara, G. M.; Criddle, C. S.

1995-01-01

402

Novel tripartite aromatic acid transporter essential for terephthalate uptake in Comamonas sp. strain E6.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that a novel type of aromatic acid transporter, which is similar to the tripartite tricarboxylate transporter (TTT), is involved in terephthalate (TPA) uptake by Comamonas sp. strain E6. This suggestion was based on the presence of the putative TPA-binding protein gene, tphC, in the TPA catabolic operon. The tphC gene is essential for growth on TPA and is similar to the genes encoding TTT-like substrate-binding proteins. Here we identified two sets of E6 genes, tctBA and tpiBA, which encode TTT-like cytoplasmic transmembrane proteins. Disruption of tctA showed no influence on TPA uptake but resulted in a complete loss of the uptake of citrate. This loss suggests that tctA is involved in citrate uptake. On the other hand, disruption of tpiA or tpiB demonstrated that both genes are essential for TPA uptake. Only when both tphC and tpiBA were introduced with the TPA catabolic genes into cells of a non-TPA-degrading Pseudomonas strain did the resting cells of the transformant acquire the ability to convert TPA. From all these results, it was concluded that the TPA uptake system consists of the TpiA-TpiB membrane components and TPA-binding TphC. Interestingly, not only was the tpiA mutant of E6 unable to grow on TPA or isophthalate, it also showed significant growth delays on o-phthalate and protocatechuate. These results suggested that the TpiA-TpiB membrane components are able to interact with multiple substrate-binding proteins. The tpiBA genes were constitutively transcribed as a single operon in E6 cells, whereas the transcription of tphC was positively regulated by TphR. TPA uptake by E6 cells was completely inhibited by a protonophore, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, indicating that the TPA uptake system requires a proton motive force. PMID:23913423

Hosaka, Masaru; Kamimura, Naofumi; Toribami, Shotaro; Mori, Kosuke; Kasai, Daisuke; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji

2013-10-01

403

Novel Tripartite Aromatic Acid Transporter Essential for Terephthalate Uptake in Comamonas sp. Strain E6  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that a novel type of aromatic acid transporter, which is similar to the tripartite tricarboxylate transporter (TTT), is involved in terephthalate (TPA) uptake by Comamonas sp. strain E6. This suggestion was based on the presence of the putative TPA-binding protein gene, tphC, in the TPA catabolic operon. The tphC gene is essential for growth on TPA and is similar to the genes encoding TTT-like substrate-binding proteins. Here we identified two sets of E6 genes, tctBA and tpiBA, which encode TTT-like cytoplasmic transmembrane proteins. Disruption of tctA showed no influence on TPA uptake but resulted in a complete loss of the uptake of citrate. This loss suggests that tctA is involved in citrate uptake. On the other hand, disruption of tpiA or tpiB demonstrated that both genes are essential for TPA uptake. Only when both tphC and tpiBA were introduced with the TPA catabolic genes into cells of a non-TPA-degrading Pseudomonas strain did the resting cells of the transformant acquire the ability to convert TPA. From all these results, it was concluded that the TPA uptake system consists of the TpiA-TpiB membrane components and TPA-binding TphC. Interestingly, not only was the tpiA mutant of E6 unable to grow on TPA or isophthalate, it also showed significant growth delays on o-phthalate and protocatechuate. These results suggested that the TpiA-TpiB membrane components are able to interact with multiple substrate-binding proteins. The tpiBA genes were constitutively transcribed as a single operon in E6 cells, whereas the transcription of tphC was positively regulated by TphR. TPA uptake by E6 cells was completely inhibited by a protonophore, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, indicating that the TPA uptake system requires a proton motive force. PMID:23913423

Hosaka, Masaru; Kamimura, Naofumi; Toribami, Shotaro; Mori, Kosuke; Kasai, Daisuke; Fukuda, Masao

2013-01-01

404

Multiple copies of a bile acid-inducible gene in Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708.  

PubMed Central

Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 is an anaerobic intestinal bacterium which possesses inducible bile acid 7-dehydroxylation activity. Several new polypeptides are produced in this strain following induction with cholic acid. Genes coding for two copies of a bile acid-inducible 27,000-dalton polypeptide (baiA1 and baiA2) have been previously cloned and sequenced. We now report on a gene coding for a third copy of this 27,000-dalton polypeptide (baiA3). The baiA3 gene has been cloned in lambda DASH on an 11.2-kilobase DNA fragment from a partial Sau3A digest of the Eubacterium DNA. DNA sequence analysis of the baiA3 gene revealed 100% homology with the baiA1 gene within the coding region of the 27,000-dalton polypeptides. The baiA2 gene shares 81% sequence identity with the other two genes at the nucleotide level. The flanking nucleotide sequences associated with the baiA1 and baiA3 genes are identical for 930 bases in the 5' direction from the initiation codon and for at least 325 bases in the 3' direction from the stop codon, including the putative promoter regions for the genes. An additional open reading frame (occupying from 621 to 648 bases, depending on the correct start codon) was found in the identical 5' regions associated with the baiA1 and baiA3 clones. The 5' sequence 930 bases upstream from the baiA1 and baiA3 genes was totally divergent. The baiA2 gene, which is part of a large bile acid-inducible operon, showed no homology with the other two genes either in the 5' or 3' direction from the polypeptide coding region, except for a 15-base-pair presumed ribosome-binding site in the 5' region. These studies strongly suggest that a gene duplication (baiA1 and baiA3) has occurred and is stably maintained in this bacterium. Images PMID:2376563

Gopal-Srivastava, R; Mallonee, D H; White, W B; Hylemon, P B

1990-01-01

405

Real-Time Solvent Tolerance Analysis of Pseudomonas sp. Strain VLB120?C Catalytic Biofilms? †  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are ubiquitous surface-associated microbial communities embedded in an extracellular polymeric (EPS) matrix, which gives the biofilm structural integrity and strength. It is often reported that biofilm-grown cells exhibit enhanced tolerance toward adverse environmental stress conditions, and thus there has been a growing interest in recent years to use biofilms for biotechnological applications. We present a time- and locus-resolved, noninvasive, quantitative approach to study biofilm development and its response to the toxic solvent styrene. Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120?C-BT-gfp1 was grown in modified flow-cell reactors and exposed to the solvent styrene. Biofilm-grown cells displayed stable catalytic activity, producing (S)-styrene oxide continuously during the experimental period. The pillar-like structure and growth rate of the biofilm was not influenced by the presence of the solvent. However, the cells experience severe membrane damage during styrene treatment, although they obviously are able to adapt to the solvent, as the amount of permeabilized cells decreased from 75 to 80% down to 40% in 48 h. Concomitantly, the fraction of concanavalin A (ConA)-stainable EPS increased, substantiating the assumption that those polysaccharides play a major role in structural integrity and enhanced biofilm tolerance toward toxic environments. Compared to control experiments with planktonic grown cells, the Pseudomonas biofilm adapted much better to toxic concentrations of styrene, as nearly 65% of biofilm cells were not permeabilized (viable), compared to only 7% in analogous planktonic cultures. These findings underline the robustness of biofilms under stress conditions and its potential for fine chemical syntheses. PMID:21193676

Halan, Babu; Schmid, Andreas; Buehler, Katja

2011-01-01

406

X-Ray crystallographic and mutational studies of fluoroacetate dehalogenase from Burkholderia sp. strain FA1.  

PubMed

Fluoroacetate dehalogenase catalyzes the hydrolytic defluorination of fluoroacetate to produce glycolate. The enzyme is unique in that it catalyzes the cleavage of a carbon-fluorine bond of an aliphatic compound: the bond energy of the carbon-fluorine bond is among the highest found in natural products. The enzyme also acts on chloroacetate, although much less efficiently. We here determined the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme from Burkholderia sp. strain FA1 as the first experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of fluoroacetate dehalogenase. The enzyme belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily and exists as a homodimer. Each subunit consists of core and cap domains. The catalytic triad, Asp104-His271-Asp128, of which Asp104 serves as the catalytic nucleophile, was found in the core domain at the domain interface. The active site was composed of Phe34, Asp104, Arg105, Arg108, Asp128, His271, and Phe272 of the core domain and Tyr147, His149, Trp150, and Tyr212 of the cap domain. An electron density peak corresponding to a chloride ion was found in the vicinity of the N(epsilon1) atom of Trp150 and the N(epsilon2) atom of His149, suggesting that these are the halide ion acceptors. Site-directed replacement of each of the active-site residues, except for Trp150, by Ala caused the total loss of the activity toward fluoroacetate and chloroacetate, whereas the replacement of Trp150 caused the loss of the activity only toward fluoroacetate. An interaction between Trp150 and the fluorine atom is probably an absolute requirement for the reduction of the activation energy for the cleavage of the carbon-fluorine bond. PMID:19218394

Jitsumori, Keiji; Omi, Rie; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Kurata, Atsushi; Mihara, Hisaaki; Miyahara, Ikuko; Hirotsu, Ken; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

2009-04-01

407

Characterization of the Isophthalate Degradation Genes of Comamonas sp. Strain E6?  

PubMed Central

The isophthalate (IPA) degradation gene cluster (iphACBDR) responsible for the conversion of IPA into protocatechuate (PCA) was isolated from Comamonas sp. strain E6, which utilizes phthalate isomers as sole carbon and energy sources via the PCA 4,5-cleavage pathway. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, the iphA, iphC, iphB, iphD, and iphR genes were predicted to code for an oxygenase component of IPA dioxygenase (IPADO), a periplasmic IPA binding receptor, a 1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-cyclohexadiene-1,5-dicarboxylate (1,5-DCD) dehydrogenase, a reductase component of IPADO, and an IclR-type transcriptional regulator, respectively. The iphACBDR genes constitute a single transcriptional unit, and transcription of the iph catabolic operon was induced during growth of E6 on IPA. The iphA, iphD, and iphB genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Crude IphA and IphD converted IPA in the presence of NADPH into a product which was transformed to PCA by IphB. These results suggested that IPADO is a two-component dioxygenase that consists of a terminal oxygenase component (IphA) and a reductase component (IphD) and that iphB encodes the 1,5-DCD dehydrogenase. Disruption of iphA and iphB resulted in complete loss of growth of E6 on IPA. Inactivation of iphD significantly affected growth on IPA, and the iphC mutant did not grow on IPA at neutral pH. These results indicated that the iphACBD genes are essential for the catabolism of IPA in E6. Disruption of iphR resulted in faster growth of E6 on IPA, suggesting that iphR encodes a repressor for the iph catabolic operon. Promoter analysis of the operon supported this notion. PMID:19933340

Fukuhara, Yuki; Inakazu, Keisuke; Kodama, Norimichi; Kamimura, Naofumi; Kasai, Daisuke; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji

2010-01-01

408

Comparative characterization of two distinct hydrogenases from Anabaena sp. strain 7120.  

PubMed Central

Two distinct hydrogenases, hereafter referred to as "uptake" and "reversible" hydrogenase, were extracted from Anabaena sp. strain 7120 and partially purified. The properties of the two enzymes were compared in cell-free extracts. Uptake hydrogenase was largely particulate, and although membrane bound, it could catalyze an oxyhydrogen reaction. Particulate and solubilized uptake hydrogenase could catalyze H2 uptake with a variety of artificial electron acceptors which had midpoint potentials above 0 mV. Reversible hydrogenase was soluble, could donate electrons rapidly to electron acceptors of both positive and negative midpoint potential, and could evolve H2 rapidly when provided with reduced methyl viologen. Uptake hydrogenase was irreversibly inactivated by O2, whereas reversible hydrogenase was reversibly inactivated and could be reactivated by exposure to dithionite or H2. Reversible hydrogenase was stable to heating at 70 degrees C, but uptake hydrogenase was inactivated with a half-life of 12 min at this temperature. Uptake hydrogenase was eluted from Sephadex G-200 in a single peak of molecular weight 56,000, whereas reversible hydrogenase was eluted in two peaks with molecular weights of 165,000 and 113,000. CO was competitive with H2 for each enzyme; the Ki's for CO were 0.0095 atm for reversible hydrogenase and 0.039 atm for uptake hydrogenase. The pH optima for H2 evolution and H2 uptake by reversible hydrogenase were 6 and 9, respectively. Uptake hydrogenase existed in two forms with pH optima of 6 and 8.5. Both enzymes had very low Km's for H2, and neither was inhibited by C2H2. PMID:6783615

Houchins, J P; Burris, R H

1981-01-01

409

Initiation and ontogeny of vesicles in cultured Frankia sp. strain HFPArI3  

SciTech Connect

Removal of combined nitrogen from the medium of Frankia sp. strain HFPArI3 induced the formation of specialized structures, called vesicles, which are the proposed site of nitrogen fixation. After 5 to 8 h of culture on N-free medium, newly formed vesicles, termed provesicles arose from tips of some hyphae. These structures were spherical, phase dark, ca. 1.5 to 2.0 ..mu..m in diameter, and were not associated with acetylene reduction (nitrogenase) activity. Provesicles reached their greatest frequency after ca. 24 h of N-free culture. Provesicles increased in size to become mature vesicles which first appeared after 18 to 20 h of N-free culture. They were ca. 2.5 ..mu..m in diameter, phase bright, and reached their greatest frequency after 5 to 6 days, at which time nitrogenase activity peaked. Some vesicles eventually became damaged structurally and took on the appearance of ghosts. Transmission electron micrographs revealed an increase in size from provesicle to mature vesicle. Also evident with the micrographs were the presence of a septum between the young provesicle and parental hypha, the presence of glycogen in some young vesicles, the development of internal septations as vesicles matured, and the degradation of cytoplasm and internal septae in ghost vesicles. The extent to which the formation of vesicles is reversible by the addition of NH/sub 4//sup +/ was investigated. Commitment times of 3.2 and 6.5 h were obtained for provesicles and vesicles, respectively. A concentration-dependent inhibition of nitrogenase by NH/sub 4//sup +/ was demonstrated. The structure of preexisting vesicles was also affected by addition of NH/sub 4//sup +/ to the culture medium.

Fontaine, M.S.; Lancelle, S.A.; Torrey, J.G.

1984-12-01

410

Heterologous expression and characterization of the manganese-oxidizing protein from Erythrobacter sp. strain SD21.  

PubMed

The manganese (Mn)-oxidizing protein (MopA) from Erythrobacter sp. strain SD21 is part of a unique enzymatic family that is capable of oxidizing soluble Mn(II). This enzyme contains two domains, an animal heme peroxidase domain, which contains the catalytic site, followed by a C-terminal calcium binding domain. Different from the bacterial Mn-oxidizing multicopper oxidase enzymes, little is known about MopA. To gain a better understanding of MopA and its role in Mn(II) oxidation, the 238-kDa full-length protein and a 105-kDa truncated protein containing only the animal heme peroxidase domain were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Despite having sequence similarity to a peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide did not stimulate activity, nor was activity significantly decreased in the presence of catalase. Both pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and hemin increased Mn-oxidizing activity, and calcium was required. The Km for Mn(II) of the full-length protein in cell extract was similar to that of the natively expressed protein, but the Km value for the truncated protein in cell extract was approximately 6-fold higher than that of the full-length protein, suggesting that the calcium binding domain may aid in binding Mn(II). Characterization of the heterologously expressed MopA has provided additional insight into the mechanism of bacterial Mn(II) oxidation, which will aid in understanding the role of MopA and Mn oxidation in bioremediation and biogeochemical cycling. PMID:25172859

Nakama, Katherine; Medina, Michael; Lien, Ahn; Ruggieri, Jordan; Collins, Krystle; Johnson, Hope A

2014-11-01

411

Characterization of an acetyl xylan esterase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2  

SciTech Connect

A 1,067-bp cDNA, designated axeA, coding for an acetyl xylan esterase (AxeA) was cloned from the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2. The gene had an open reading frame of 939 bp encoding a polypeptide of 313 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 34,845 Da. An active esterase using the original start codon of the cDNA was synthesized in Escherichia coli. Two active forms of the esterase were purified from recombinant E. coli cultures. The size difference of 8 amino acids was a result of cleavages at two different sites within the signal peptide. The enzyme released acetate from several acetylated substrates, including acetylated xylan. The activity toward acetylated xylan was tripled in the presence of recombinant xylanase A from the same fungus. Using p-nitrophenyl acetate as a substrate, the enzyme had a K{sub m} of 0.9 mM and a V{sub max} of 785 {micro}mol min{sup {minus}} mg{sup {minus}1}. It had temperature and pH optima of 30 C and 9.0, respectively. AxeA had 56% amino acid identity with BnaA, an acetyl xylan esterase of Neocallimastix patriciarum, but the Orpinomyces AxeA was devoid of a noncatalytic repeated peptide domain (NCRPD) found at the carboxy terminus of the Neocallimastix BnaA. The NCRPD found in many glycosyl hydrolases and esterases of anaerobic fungi has been postulated to function as a docking domain for cellulase-hemicellulase complexes, similar to the dockerin of the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum.

Blum, D.L.; Li, X.L.; Chen, H.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

1999-09-01

412

AmyM, a Novel Maltohexaose-Forming ?-Amylase from Corallococcus sp. Strain EGB.  

PubMed

A novel ?-amylase, AmyM, was purified from the culture supernatant of Corallococcus sp. strain EGB. AmyM is a maltohexaose-forming exoamylase with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa. Based on the results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprinting of AmyM and by comparison to the genome sequence of Corallococcus coralloides DSM 2259, the AmyM gene was identified and cloned into Escherichia coli. amyM encodes a secretory amylase with a predicted signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues, which showed no significant identity with known and functionally verified amylases. amyM was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells with a hexahistidine tag. The signal peptide efficiently induced the secretion of mature AmyM in E. coli. Recombinant AmyM (rAmyM) was purified by Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) affinity chromatography, with a specific activity of up to 14,000 U/mg. rAmyM was optimally active at 50°C in Tris-HCl buffer (50 mM; pH 7.0) and stable at temperatures of <50°C. rAmyM was stable over a wide range of pH values (from pH 5.0 to 10.0) and highly tolerant to high concentrations of salts, detergents, and various organic solvents. Its activity toward starch was independent of calcium ions. The Km and Vmax of recombinant AmyM for soluble starch were 6.61 mg ml(-1) and 44,301.5 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. End product analysis showed that maltohexaose accounted for 59.4% of the maltooligosaccharides produced. These characteristics indicate that AmyM has great potential in industrial applications. PMID:25576603

Li, Zhoukun; Wu, Jiale; Zhang, Biying; Wang, Fei; Ye, Xianfeng; Huang, Yan; Huang, Qiang; Cui, Zhongli

2015-03-15

413

Purification, characterization, and properties of an aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646.  

PubMed Central

An aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646 was purified 196-fold by a combination of Mono-Q, Reactive Green 19 agarose affinity, and hydroxyapatite chromatographies. The purified enzyme runs as a single band of 140 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass was estimated to be 163 +/- 3.8 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that this enzyme is a monomeric protein. The binding of the enzyme to Reactive Green 19 agarose was Mg2+ dependent. The binding capacity was estimated to be about 0.2 mg of Reactive Green agarose per ml in the presence of 10 mM MgCl2. This enzyme can catalyze the reduction of a wide range of aryl carboxylic acids, including substituted benzoic acids, phenyl-substituted aliphatic acids, heterocyclic carboxylic acids, and polyaromatic ring carboxylic acids, to produce the corresponding aldehydes. The Km values for benzoate, ATP, and NADPH were determined to be 645 +/- 75, 29.3 +/- 3.1, and 57.3 +/- 12.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax was determined to be 0.902 +/- 0.04 micromol/min/mg of protein. Km values for (S)-(+)-alpha-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)-benzeneacetic acid (ibuprofen) and its (R)-(-) isomer were determined to be 155 +/- 18 and 34.5 +/- 2.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax for the (S)-(+) and (R)-(-) isomers were 1.33 and 0.15 micromol/min/mg of protein, respectively. Anthranilic acid is a competitive inhibitor with benzoic acid as a substrate, with a Ki of 261 +/- 30 microM. The N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of a 76-kDa peptide from limited alpha-chymotrypsin digestion were determined. PMID:9171390

Li, T; Rosazza, J P

1997-01-01

414

Characterization of the Response to Zinc Deficiency in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120  

PubMed Central

Zur regulators control zinc homeostasis by repressing target genes under zinc-sufficient conditions in a wide variety of bacteria. This paper describes how part of a survey of duplicated genes led to the identification of the open reading frame all2473 as the gene encoding the Zur regulator of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. All2473 binds to DNA in a zinc-dependent manner, and its DNA-binding sequence was characterized, which allowed us to determine the relative contribution of particular nucleotides to Zur binding. A zur mutant was found to be impaired in the regulation of zinc homeostasis, showing sensitivity to elevated concentrations of zinc but not other metals. In an effort to characterize the Zur regulon in Anabaena, 23 genes containing upstream putative Zur-binding sequences were identified and found to be regulated by Zur. These genes are organized in six single transcriptional units and six operons, some of them containing multiple Zur-regulated promoters. The identities of genes of the Zur regulon indicate that Anabaena adapts to conditions of zinc deficiency by replacing zinc metalloproteins with paralogues that fulfill the same function but presumably with a lower zinc demand, and with inducing putative metallochaperones and membrane transport systems likely being involved in the scavenging of extracellular zinc, including plasma membrane ABC transport systems and outer membrane TonB-dependent receptors. Among the Zur-regulated genes, the ones showing the highest induction level encode proteins of the outer membrane, suggesting a primary role for components of this cell compartment in the capture of zinc cations from the extracellular medium. PMID:22389488

Napolitano, Mauro; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Robinson, Nigel J.

2012-01-01

415

Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned food and coconut milk samples by addition of enterocin AS48  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested on a cocktail of two Geobacillus stearothermophilus strains in canned food samples (corn and peas), and in coconut milk. AS-48 (7?g\\/g) reduced viable cell counts below detection levels in samples from canned corn and peas stored at 45°C for 30 days. In coconut milk, bacterial inactivation by AS-48 (1.75?g\\/ml) was even faster. In

Pilar Martínez Viedma; Hikmate Abriouel; Nabil Ben Omar; Rosario Lucas López; Eva Valdivia; Antonio Gálvez

2009-01-01

416

Application of gyrB and parE sequence similarity analyses for differentiation of species within the genus Geobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary structures of the genes encoding the ?-subunits of a type II topoisomerase (gyrase, gyrB) and a type IV topoisomerase (parE) were determined for 15 strains of thermophilic bacteria of the genus Geobacillus. The obtained sequences were used for analysis of the phylogenetic similarity between members of this genus. Comparison of\\u000a the phylogenetic trees of geobacilli constructed on the

T. P. Tourova; A. V. Korshunova; E. M. Mikhailova; D. Sh. Sokolova; A. B. Poltaraus; T. N. Nazina

2010-01-01

417

Genome sequence of the acid-tolerant Burkholderia sp. strain WSM2230 from Karijini National Park, Australia  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia sp. strain WSM2230 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming acid-tolerant rod isolated from acidic soil collected in 2001 from Karijini National Park, Western Australia, using Kennedia coccinea (Coral Vine) as a host. WSM2230 was initially effective in nitrogen-fixation with K. coccinea, but subsequently lost symbiotic competence. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain WSM2230, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,309,801 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 33 scaffolds of 33 contigs containing 5,590 protein-coding genes and 63 RNA-only encoding genes. The genome sequence of WSM2230 failed to identify nodulation genes and provides an explanation for the observed failure of the laboratory grown strain to nodulate. The genome of this strain is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197440

Walker, Robert; Watkin, Elizabeth; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; O’Hara, Graham; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Lobos, Elizabeth; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

2013-01-01

418

Natural Transformation in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Bacteria: Identification and Characterization of Novel, Closely Related Competence Genes in Acinetobacter sp. Strain BD413 and Thermus thermophilus HB27  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesophile Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 and the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB27 display high frequencies of natural transformation. In this study we identified and characterized a novel competence gene in Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413, comA, whose product displays significant similarities to the competence proteins ComA and ComEC in Neisseria and Bacillus species. Transcription of comA correlated with growth phase-dependent

ALEXANDRA FRIEDRICH; THOMAS HARTSCH; BEATE AVERHOFF

2001-01-01

419

Biotransformation of eugenol to vanillin by a mutant of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 constructed by disruption of the vanillin dehydrogenase ( vdh ) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catabolism of eugenol in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 (DSM7063) proceeds via coniferyl alcohol, coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, vanillin, vanillate and protocatechuate,\\u000a which is further degraded by the ortho-cleavage pathway. The vanillin dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, which catalyses the NAD+-dependent oxidation of vanillin to vanillate, was inactivated by the insertion of omega elements into the vdh gene, which

J. Overhage; H. Priefert; J. Rabenhorst; A. Steinbüchel

1999-01-01

420

Mn(II) Oxidation Is Catalyzed by Heme Peroxidases in “Aurantimonas manganoxydans” Strain SI85-9A1 and Erythrobacter sp. Strain SD-21?  

PubMed Central

A new type of manganese-oxidizing enzyme has been identified in two alphaproteobacteria, “Aurantimonas manganoxydans” strain SI85-9A1 and Erythrobacter sp. strain SD-21. These proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry of manganese-oxidizing bands visualized by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in-gel activity assays and fast protein liquid chromatography-purified proteins. Proteins of both alphaproteobacteria contain animal heme peroxidase and hemolysin-type calcium binding domains, with the 350-kDa active Mn-oxidizing protein of A. manganoxydans containing stainable heme. The addition of both Ca2+ ions and H2O2 to the enriched protein from Aurantimonas increased manganese oxidation activity 5.9-fold, and the highest activity recorded was 700 ?M min?1 mg?1. Mn(II) is oxidized to Mn(IV) via an Mn(III) intermediate, which is consistent with known manganese peroxidase activity in fungi. The Mn-oxidizing protein in Erythrobacter sp. strain SD-21 is 225 kDa and contains only one peroxidase domain with strong homology to the first 2,000 amino acids of the peroxidase protein from A. manganoxydans. The heme peroxidase has tentatively been named MopA (manganese-oxidizing peroxidase) and sheds new light on the molecular mechanism of Mn oxidation in prokaryotes. PMID:19411418

Anderson, C. R.; Johnson, H. A.; Caputo, N.; Davis, R. E.; Torpey, J. W.; Tebo, B. M.

2009-01-01

421

Strain and culture medium optimization for production enhancement of prodiginines from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. GQQ-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mutant (GQQ-M6) of a Sponge-Derived streptomyces sp. GQQ-10 obtained by UV-induced mutation was used for producing prodiginines (PGs). Single factor experiments and orthogonal array design (OAD) methods were employed for medium optimization. In the single factor method, the effects of soluble starch, glucose, soybean flour, yeast extract and sodium acetate on PGs production were investigated individually. In the subsequent OAD experiments, the concentrations of these 5 key nutritional components combined with salinity were further adjusted. The mutant strain GQQ-M6 gave a 2.2-fold higher PGs production than that of the parent strain; OAD experiments offered a PGs yield of 61mg L-1, which was 10 times higher than that of the initial GQQ-10 strain under the original cultivation mode.

Li, Xueping; Zhang, Guojian; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun

2012-09-01

422

HylA, an alternative hydrolase for initiation of catabolism of the phenylurea herbicide linuron in Variovorax sp. strains.  

PubMed

Variovorax sp. strain WDL1, which mineralizes the phenylurea herbicide linuron, expresses a novel linuron-hydrolyzing enzyme, HylA, that converts linuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). The enzyme is distinct from the linuron hydrolase LibA enzyme recently identified in other linuron-mineralizing Variovorax strains and from phenylurea-hydrolyzing enzymes (PuhA, PuhB) found in Gram-positive bacteria. The dimeric enzyme belongs to a separate family of hydrolases and differs in Km, temperature optimum, and phenylurea herbicide substrate range. Within the metal-dependent amidohydrolase superfamily, HylA and PuhA/PuhB belong to two distinct protein families, while LibA is a member of the unrelated amidase signature family. The hylA gene was identified in a draft genome sequence of strain WDL1. The involvement of hylA in linuron degradation by strain WDL1 is inferred from its absence in spontaneous WDL1 mutants defective in linuron hydrolysis and its presence in linuron-degrading Variovorax strains that lack libA. In strain WDL1, the hylA gene is combined with catabolic gene modules encoding the downstream pathways for DCA degradation, which are very similar to those present in Variovorax sp. SRS16, which contains libA. Our results show that the expansion of a DCA catabolic pathway toward linuron degradation in Variovorax can involve different but isofunctional linuron hydrolysis genes encoding proteins that belong to evolutionary unrelated hydrolase families. This may be explained by divergent evolution and the independent acquisition of the corresponding genetic modules. PMID:23811502

Bers, K; Batisson, I; Proost, P; Wattiez, R; De Mot, R; Springael, D

2013-09-01

423

HylA, an Alternative Hydrolase for Initiation of Catabolism of the Phenylurea Herbicide Linuron in Variovorax sp. Strains  

PubMed Central

Variovorax sp. strain WDL1, which mineralizes the phenylurea herbicide linuron, expresses a novel linuron-hydrolyzing enzyme, HylA, that converts linuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). The enzyme is distinct from the linuron hydrolase LibA enzyme recently identified in other linuron-mineralizing Variovorax strains and from phenylurea-hydrolyzing enzymes (PuhA, PuhB) found in Gram-positive bacteria. The dimeric enzyme belongs to a separate family of hydrolases and differs in Km, temperature optimum, and phenylurea herbicide substrate range. Within the metal-dependent amidohydrolase superfamily, HylA and PuhA/PuhB belong to two distinct protein families, while LibA is a member of the unrelated amidase signature family. The hylA gene was identified in a draft genome sequence of strain WDL1. The involvement of hylA in linuron degradation by strain WDL1 is inferred from its absence in spontaneous WDL1 mutants defective in linuron hydrolysis and its presence in linuron-degrading Variovorax strains that lack libA. In strain WDL1, the hylA gene is combined with catabolic gene modules encoding the downstream pathways for DCA degradation, which are very similar to those present in Variovorax sp. SRS16, which contains libA. Our results show that the expansion of a DCA catabolic pathway toward linuron degradation in Variovorax can involve different but isofunctional linuron hydrolysis genes encoding proteins that belong to evolutionary unrelated hydrolase families. This may be explained by divergent evolution and the independent acquisition of the corresponding genetic modules. PMID:23811502

Bers, K.; Batisson, I.; Proost, P.; Wattiez, R.; De Mot, R.

2013-01-01

424

Physical and Metabolic Interactions of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain F9-D79 during Growth on Crude Oil and Effect of a Chemical Surfactant on Them  

PubMed Central

Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-?m cocci rather than 2.5-?m rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects. PMID:11571196

Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Ward, Owen P.

2001-01-01

425

Genome Analysis Coupled with Physiological Studies Reveals a Diverse Nitrogen Metabolism in Methylocystis sp. Strain SC2  

PubMed Central

Background Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 can adapt to a wide range of methane concentrations. This is due to the presence of two isozymes of particulate methane monooxygenase exhibiting different methane oxidation kinetics. To gain insight into the underlying genetic information, its genome was sequenced and found to comprise a 3.77 Mb chromosome and two large plasmids. Principal Findings We report important features of the strain SC2 genome. Its sequence is compared with those of seven other methanotroph genomes, comprising members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. While the pan-genome of all eight methanotroph genomes totals 19,358 CDS, only 154 CDS are shared. The number of core genes increased with phylogenetic relatedness: 328 CDS for proteobacterial methanotrophs and 1,853 CDS for the three alphaproteobacterial Methylocystaceae members, Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 and strain Rockwell, and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. The comparative study was coupled with physiological experiments to verify that strain SC2 has diverse nitrogen metabolism capabilities. In correspondence to a full complement of 34 genes involved in N2 fixation, strain SC2 was found to grow with atmospheric N2 as the sole nitrogen source, preferably at low oxygen concentrations. Denitrification-mediated accumulation of 0.7 nmol 30N2/hr/mg dry weight of cells under anoxic conditions was detected by tracer analysis. N2 production is related to the activities of plasmid-borne nitric oxide and nitrous oxide reductases. Conclusions/Perspectives Presence of a complete denitrification pathway in strain SC2, including the plasmid-encoded nosRZDFYX operon, is unique among known methanotrophs. However, the exact ecophysiological role of this pathway still needs to be elucidated. Detoxification of toxic nitrogen compounds and energy conservation under oxygen-limiting conditions are among the possible roles. Relevant features that may stimulate further research are, for example, absence of CRISPR/Cas systems in strain SC2, high number of iron acquisition systems in strain OB3b, and large number of transposases in strain Rockwell. PMID:24130670

Blom, Jochen; Liesack, Werner

2013-01-01

426

Light-activated heterotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803: a blue-light-requiring process.  

PubMed Central

A glucose-tolerant strain of Synechocystis sp. strain 6803 will not grow on glucose under complete darkness unless given a daily pulse of white light, typically 5 min of 40 mumol m-2 s-1 (light-pulsed conditions). The light pulse is insufficient for photoautotrophy, as glucose is required and growth yield is dependent on glucose concentration. Growth rate is independent of fluence, but growth yield is dependent on fluence, saturating at 40 to 75 mumol m-2 s-1. A Synechocystis strain 6803 psbA mutant strain grows under light-pulsed conditions at rates similar to those for the glucose-tolerant strain, indicating that photosystem II is not required for growth. The relative spectral sensitivity of the growth of light-pulsed cultures (growth only in blue light, 400 to 500 nm, maximum at 450 nm) precludes energetic contribution from cyclic electron transport around photosystem I. Pulses of long-wavelength light (i.e., 550 and 650 nm) did not support the growth of Synechocystis strain 6803 and, when supplied before or after a blue-light pulse, did not inhibit blue-light-stimulated growth of Synechocystis strain 6803. We conclude that the required blue-light pulse does not support growth via photosynthetic electron transport but appears instead to function as an environmental signal regulating heterotrophic metabolism, cell division, or other photomorphogenic processes. We have termed the growth of Synechocystis strain 6803 pulsed with light and kept otherwise in complete darkness light-activated heterotrophic growth. This observation of a blue-light requirement for the growth of Synechocystis strain 6803 represents a novel blue light effect on the growth of a cyanobacterium. PMID:1902208

Anderson, S L; McIntosh, L

1991-01-01

427

Production and downstream processing of (1?3)-?-D-glucan from mutant strain of Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31750  

PubMed Central

We isolated a mutant that produced higher levels of curdlan than the wild strain Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31750 by chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl-N-nitro-nitrosoguanidine. The mutant strain produced 66?g/L of curdlan in 120?h with a yield of (0.88) while, the wild strain produced 41?g/L in 120?h with a yield of (0.62) in a stirred bioreactor. The mutant could not produce curdlan when the pH was shifted from 7.0 to 5.5 after nitrogen depletion as followed for wild strain. In contrast, pH optimum for cell growth and curdlan production for mutant was found to be 7.0. We optimized the downstream processing of curdlan by varying different volumes of NaOH and HCl for extraction and precipitation of curdlan. The molecular weight of the purified curdlan from the wild and mutant strain was 6.6?×?105?Da and 5.8?×?105?Da respectively. The monosaccharide analyses confirm that curdlan from both wild and mutant strain contains only glucose units. From the NMR and FTIR data, it has been confirmed that curdlan was exclusively composed of ? (1???3)-D-glucan residues. PMID:22681895

2012-01-01

428

Degradation of recalcitrant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by a dioxin-degrader Rhodococcus sp. strain p52.  

PubMed

This study investigates the ability of Rhodococcus sp. strain p52, a dioxin degrader, to biodegrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain p52 can use linear alkanes (tetradecane, tetracosane, and dotriacontane), branched alkane (pristane), and aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and phenanthrene) as sole carbon and energy sources. Specifically, the strain removes 85.7 % of tetradecane within 48 h at a degradation rate of 3.8 mg h(-1) g(-1) dry cells, and 79.4 % of tetracosane, 66.4 % of dotriacontane, and 63.9 % of pristane within 9-11 days at degradation rates of 20.5, 14.7, and 20.3 mg day(-1) g(-1) dry cells, respectively. Moreover, strain p52 consumes 100 % naphthalene and 55.3 % phenanthrene within 9-11 days at respective degradation rates of 16 and 12.9 mg day(-1) g(-1) dry cells. Metabolites of the petroleum hydrocarbons by strain p52 were analyzed. Genes encoding alkane-hydroxylating enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme (CYP185) and two alkane-1-monooxygenases, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The transcriptional activities of these genes in the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed potential of strain p52 to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:24859700

Yang, Hai-Yan; Jia, Rui-Bao; Chen, Bin; Li, Li

2014-09-01

429

A short-filament mutant of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 that fragments in nitrogen-deficient medium.  

PubMed Central

Strain 129 is a fragmentation mutant of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Growing with fixed nitrogen, this mutant forms filaments that are much shorter than wild-type filaments. Following starvation for fixed nitrogen, strain 129 becomes nearly unicellular and forms few heterocysts, although electron microscopy suggests that proheterocysts form while fragmentation occurs. Starvation for sulfate, phosphate, iron, and calcium does not cause this fragmentation. The affected gene in strain 129, fraC, was cloned by complementation and characterized. It encodes a unique 179-amino-acid protein rich in phenylalanine. Insertional inactivation of the chromosomal copy of fraC results in a phenotype identical to that of strain 129, while complementation using a truncated version of FraC results in only partial complementation of the original mutant. Heterocysts could be induced to form in N-replete cultures of strain 129, as in wild-type cells, by supplying extra copies of the hetR gene on a plasmid. Thus, FraC is required for the integrity of cell junctions in general but is apparently not directly involved in normal differentiation and nitrogen fixation. PMID:7883709

Bauer, C C; Buikema, W J; Black, K; Haselkorn, R

1995-01-01

430

Isolation and sequence analysis of polyketide synthase genes from the daunomycin-producing Streptomyces sp. strain C5.  

PubMed Central

A contiguous region of about 30 kbp of DNA putatively encoding reactions in daunomycin biosynthesis was isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain C5 DNA. The DNA sequence of an 8.1-kbp EcoRI fragment, which hybridized with actI polyketide synthase (PKS) and actIII polyketide reductase (PKR) gene probes, was determined, revealing seven complete open reading frames (ORFs), two in one cluster and five in a divergently transcribed cluster. The former two genes are likely to encode PKR and a bifunctional cyclase/dehydrase. The five latter genes encode: (i) a homolog of TcmH, an oxygenase of the tetracenomycin biosynthesis pathway; (ii) a PKS Orf1 homolog; (iii) a PKS Orf2 homolog (chain length factor); (iv) a product having moderate sequence identity with Escherichia coli beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase III but lacking the conserved active site; and (v) a protein highly similar to several acyltransferases. The DNA within the 8.1-kbp EcoRI fragment restored daunomycin production to two dauA non-daunomycin-producing mutants of Streptomyces sp. strain C5 and restored wild-type antibiotic production to Streptomyces coelicolor B40 (act VII; nonfunctional cyclase/dehydrase), and to S. coelicolor B41 (actIII) and Streptomyces galilaeus ATCC 31671, strains defective in PKR activity. Images PMID:7928998

Ye, J; Dickens, M L; Plater, R; Li, Y; Lawrence, J; Strohl, W R

1994-01-01

431

Isolation and complementation of mutants of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 unable to grow aerobically on dinitrogen  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 unable to grow aerobically on dinitrogen were isolated by mutagenesis with UV irradiation, followed by a period of incubation in yellow light and then by penicillin enrichment. A cosmid vector, pRL25C, containing replicons functional in Escherichia coli and in Anabaena species was constructed. DNA from wild-type Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was partially digested with Sau3AI, and size-fractionated fragments about 40 kilobases (kb) in length were ligated into the phosphatase-treated unique BamHI site of pRL25C. A library of 1054 cosmid clones was generated in E. coli DH1 bearing helper plasmid pDS4101. A derivative of conjugative plasmid RP-4 was transferred to this library by conjugation, and the library was replicated to lawns of mutant Anabaena strains with defects in the polysaccharide layer of the envelopes of the heterocysts. Mutant EF116 was complemented by five cosmids, three of which were subjected to detailed restriction mapping; a 2.8-kb fragment of DNA derived from one of the cosmids was found to complement EF116. Mutant EF113 was complemented by a single cosmid, which was also restriction mapped, and was shown to be complemented by a 4.8-kb fragment of DNA derived from this cosmid.

Wolk, C.P.; Cai, Y.; Cardemil, L.; Flores, E.; Hohn, B.; Murry, M.; Schmetterer, G.; Schrautemeier, B.; Wilson, R.

1988-03-01

432

Harnessing eugenol as a substrate for production of aromatic compounds with recombinant strains of Amycolatopsis sp. HR167.  

PubMed

To harness eugenol as cheap substrate for the biotechnological production of aromatic compounds, the vanillyl alcohol oxidase gene (vaoA) from Penicillium simplicissimum CBS 170.90 was cloned in an expression vector suitable for Gram-positive bacteria and expressed in the vanillin-tolerant Gram-positive strain Amycolatopsis sp. HR167. Recombinant strains harboring hybrid plasmid pRLE6SKvaom exhibited a specific vanillyl alcohol oxidase activity of 1.1U/g protein. Moreover, this strain had gained the ability to grow on eugenol as sole carbon source. The intermediates coniferyl alcohol, coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, guajacol, and vanillic acid were detected as excreted compounds during growth on eugenol, whereas vanillin could only be detected in trace amounts. Resting cells of Amycolatopsis sp. HR167 (pRLE6SKvaom) produced coniferyl alcohol from eugenol with a maximum conversion rate of about 2.3 mmol/h/l of culture, and a maximum coniferyl alcohol concentration of 4.7 g/1 was obtained after 16 h biotransformation without further optimization. Beside coniferyl alcohol, traces of coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid were also detected. PMID:16677732

Overhage, Jörg; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Priefert, Horst

2006-09-18

433

Safety evaluation of a thermolysin enzyme produced from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.  

PubMed

Thermolysin is a zinc metalloprotease that has potential uses in the food industry. The safety of thermolysin has not been demonstrated before, and therefore a series of standard toxicological tests to assess its potential toxicity was undertaken. The thermolysin used in this study was derived from the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus, which had undergone chemical mutagenesis to generate strains with increased thermolysin production. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice showed that thermolysin powder is not acutely toxic with an oral LD?? of more than 18,000 mg/kg (2520 mg/kg thermolysin protein) in rats and more than 24,000 mg/kg (3360 mg/kg protein) in mice. Subchronic feeding studies in rats for 91 days at doses up to 1000 mg/kg (390 mg/kg protein) revealed no significant differences between treated and non-treated groups and a No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) of 1000 mg/kg (390 mg/kg protein) per day was established. Results from genotoxicity tests such as in vitro chromosomal aberration assay and in vivo mouse micronucleus were negative. Allergenicity sequence analysis revealed no evidence suggesting that thermolysin is an allergen. The data presented in this study support the conclusion that thermolysin is safe for use in food production. PMID:23831195

Ke, Qingdong; Chen, Alice; Minoda, Masashi; Yoshida, Hiromichi

2013-09-01

434

Characterization of a novel angular dioxygenase from fluorene-degrading Sphingomonas sp. strain LB126  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the genes involved in the initial attack on fluorene by Sphingomonas sp. LB126 were investigated. The ? and ? subunits of a dioxygenase complex (FlnA1A2), showing 63% and 51% sequence identity respectively, with the subunits of an angular dioxygenase from Gram-positive Terrabacter sp. DBF63, were identified. When overexpressed in E. coli, FlnA1A2 was responsible for the angular

Luc Schuler; Sinead M. Ni Chadhain; Yves Jouanneau; Christine Meyer; Gerben J. Zylstra; Pascal Hols; Spiros N. Agathos

2009-01-01

435

Genetic, physiological and biochemical characterization of Bacillus sp . strain RMB7 exhibiting plant growth promoting and broad spectrum antifungal activities.  

PubMed

BackgroundPlant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are functionally diverse group of bacteria having immense potential as biofertilizers and biopesticides. Depending upon their function, they may serve as partial replacements for chemical fertilizer or pesticides as an eco-friendly and cost-effective alternatives as compared to their synthetic counterparts. Therefore, isolation, characterization and practical evaluation of PGPRs having the aforementioned multifaceted beneficial characteristics, are essentially required. This study describes the detailed polyphasic characterization of Bacillus sp. strain RMB7 having profound broad spectrum antifungal activity and plant growth promoting potential.ResultsBased on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain RMB7 was identified as Bacillus specie. This strain exhibited the production of 8 mg. L¿1of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It was able to solubilize 50.6 mg. L¿1 tri-calcium phosphate, reduced 601¿mol acetylene h¿1/vial and inhibited >70% growth of nine fungal phytopathogens tested in vitro. Under natural pathogen pressure, inoculation with strain RMB7 and RMB7-supernatant conferred resistance by arugula plant against Pythium irregulare with a concurrent growth improvement over non-inoculated plants. The T-RFLP analysis based on 16S rRNA gene showed that inoculation with RMB7 or its supernatant have a major impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial population. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the production of lipopeptide surfactins as well as iturin A presence in crude extract of RMB7. PCR-amplification further confirmed the presence of genes involved in the biosynthesis of these two bioactive lipopeptide compounds.ConclusionsThe data show that Bacillus sp. strain RMB7 has multifaceted beneficial characteristics. It may be an ideal plant growth promoting as well as biocontrol agent, for its integrated use in disease and nutrient management strategies. PMID:25338952

Ali, Saira; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Iqbal, Mazhar; Lazarovits, George

2014-10-24

436

Identification of a Third Sulfate Activation System in Sinorhizobium sp. Strain BR816: the CysDN Sulfate Activation Complex  

PubMed Central

Sinorhizobium sp. strain BR816 possesses two nodPQ copies, providing activated sulfate (3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate [PAPS]) needed for the biosynthesis of sulfated Nod factors. It was previously shown that the Nod factors synthesized by a nodPQ double mutant are not structurally different from those of the wild-type strain. In this study, we describe the characterization of a third sulfate activation locus. Two open reading frames were fully characterized and displayed the highest similarity with the Sinorhizobium meliloti housekeeping ATP sulfurylase subunits, encoded by the cysDN genes. The growth characteristics as well as the levels of Nod factor sulfation of a cysD mutant (FAJ1600) and a nodP1 nodQ2 cysD triple mutant (FAJ1604) were determined. FAJ1600 shows a prolonged lag phase only with inorganic sulfate as the sole sulfur source, compared to the wild-type parent. On the other hand, FAJ1604 requires cysteine for growth and produces sulfate-free Nod factors. Apigenin-induced nod gene expression for Nod factor synthesis does not influence the growth characteristics of any of the strains studied in the presence of different sulfur sources. In this way, it could be demonstrated that the “household” CysDN sulfate activation complex of Sinorhizobium sp. strain BR816 can additionally ensure Nod factor sulfation, whereas the symbiotic PAPS pool, generated by the nodPQ sulfate activation loci, can be engaged for sulfation of amino acids. Finally, our results show that rhizobial growth defects are likely the reason for a decreased nitrogen fixation capacity of bean plants inoculated with cysD mutant strains, which can be restored by adding methionine to the plant nutrient solution. PMID:12676676

Snoeck, Carla; Verreth, Christel; Hernández-Lucas, Ismael; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Vanderleyden, Jos

2003-01-01

437

Metabolism of the Aliphatic Nitramine 4-Nitro-2,4-Diazabutanal by Methylobacterium sp. Strain JS178  

PubMed Central

The aliphatic nitramine 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB; C2H5N3O3) is a ring cleavage metabolite that accumulates during the aerobic degradation of the energetic compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by various Rhodococcus spp. NDAB is also produced during the alkaline hydrolysis of either RDX or octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and during the photolysis of RDX. Traces of NDAB were observed in a soil sampled from an ammunition-manufacturing facility contaminated with both HMX and RDX, suggesting natural attenuation. In this study, we report the isolation of a soil bacterium that is able to degrade NDAB under aerobic conditions. The isolate is a pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph affiliated with the genus Methylobacterium. The strain, named Methylobacterium sp. strain JS178, degrades NDAB as a sole nitrogen source, with concomitant growth and formation of 1 molar equivalent of nitrous oxide (N2O). Comparison of the growth yield of strain JS178 grown on NDAB, nitrite (NO2?), or ammonium (NH4+) as a nitrogen source revealed that 1 N equivalent is assimilated from each mole of NDAB, which completes the nitrogen mass balance. In radiotracer experiments, strain JS178 mineralized 1 C of the [14C]NDAB produced in situ from [14C]RDX by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22. Studies on the regulation of NDAB degradation indicated that allantoin, an intermediate in the purine catabolic pathway and a central molecule in the storage and transport of nitrogen in plants, up-regulated the enzyme(s) involved in the degradation of the nitramine. The results reveal the potential for the sequential participation of rhodococci and methylobacteria to effect the complete degradation of RDX. PMID:16085803

Fournier, Diane; Trott, Sandra; Hawari, Jalal; Spain, Jim

2005-01-01

438

Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter sp. Strain YZS-X1-1, a Denitrifying Bacterium Isolated from Freshwater Pond Sludge in China  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter sp. strain YZS-X1-1 was isolated from freshwater pond sludge in China. Here, we present the draft genome of strain YZS-X1-1, which consists of 3,278,660 bases, with a G+C content of 42.1%. PMID:25676772

Zhang, Honggang; Li, Xinzhi; Zhang, Bingzhao

2015-01-01

439

Draft Genome Sequence of Uncultivated Desulfosporosinus sp. Strain Tol-M, Obtained by Stable Isotope Probing Using [13C6]Toluene  

PubMed Central

A draft Desulfosporosinus genome was assembled from the metagenome of a methanogenic [13C6]toluene-degrading community. The Desulfosporosinus sp. strain Tol-M genome is distinguished from that of previously published Desulfosporosinus strain by containing bss, bbs, and bam genes encoding enzymes for anaerobic biodegradation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons and lacking dsrAB genes for dissimilatory sulfate reduction. PMID:25593260

Abu Laban, Nidal; Tan, BoonFei; Dao, Anh

2015-01-01

440