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1

Competition Suits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is fromLessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will explore the topic of competition suits for the Winter Olympics, and will conduct an experiment to test the effects of air drag over the surface. Students will also create a new winter sport for the Olympics and design a competition suit for that sport.

2010-01-01

2

Space suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (inventors)

1973-01-01

3

Suiting Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is about cleanroom technology and the importance of contamination control. Learners will discover the different types of industries that use cleanrooms. The activity centers on drawing a parallel between suiting up for the Genesis cleanroom and dressing to do a certain job or activity, and presenting the findings to the class. Includes a teacher's guide and students handouts. Video and audio clips are provided. This lesson 3 of 10 from the Dynamic Design: The Cleanroom module.

2012-08-03

4

Music Education Suites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes options for designing and equipping middle and high school music education suites, and suggests ways of gaining community support for including full service music suites in new and renovated school facilities. In addition to basic music suites, and practice rooms, other options detailed include: (1) small ensemble…

Kemp, Wayne

2009-01-01

5

Orbit Software Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

2012-01-01

6

DSN Data Visualization Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DSN Data Visualization Suite is a set of computer programs and reusable Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that assist in the visualization and analysis of Deep Space Network (DSN) spacecraft-tracking data, which can include predicted and actual values of downlink frequencies, uplink frequencies, and antenna-pointing angles in various formats that can include tables of values and polynomial coefficients. The data can also include lists of antenna-pointing events, lists of antenna- limit events, and schedules of tracking activities. To date, analysis and correlation of these intricately related data before and after tracking have been difficult and time-consuming. The DSN Data Visualization Suite enables operators to quickly diagnose tracking-data problems before, during, and after tracking. The Suite provides interpolation on demand and plotting of DSN tracking data, correlation of all data on a given temporal point, and display of data with color coding configurable by users. The suite thereby enables rapid analysis of the data prior to transmission of the data to DSN control centers. At the control centers, the same suite enables operators to validate the data before committing the data to DSN subsystems. This software is also Web-enabled to afford its capabilities to international space agencies.

Bui, Bach X.; Malhotra, Mark R.; Kim, Richard M.

2009-01-01

7

Designing the Operative Suite  

PubMed Central

The planning of an operative suite involves many considerations, often of a highly technical nature. Requirements have become so diversified and have been elaborated so rapidly that standardization of requirements cannot be anticipated. The concept of grouping interdependent departments has brought the suite down to lower floors. Rooms have become larger to accommodate more monitoring and other equipment, and many more ancillary rooms have been found necessary. A wide wing with double or peripheral corridors is preferable. Air sterilization can be achieved by several methods. The doctors' dressing room is often a danger point in bacterial control and needs redesigning. Patient monitoring is increasing and some features can be built in. TV observation and teaching have tremendous potential but have not been adopted as widely as was anticipated some years ago. If a department needs extensive enlargement, it is much more satisfactory and usually cheaper to construct a new suite in another location. PMID:5843868

Agnew, G. Harvey

1965-01-01

8

HootSuite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people with a wide range of social media responsibilities, HootSuite is a great way to stay connected. HootSuite allows individuals and business teams to coordinate social media connections with their easy-to-use interface that includes scheduled updates, one-click message dissemination, and smart-phone capabilities. The basic (and free) option allows for use of two RSS feeds, five social networks, and 30 days of statistical history. This version is compatible with all operating systems, including Linux.

9

PLANNING THE MUSIC SUITE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PUBLICATION DESIGNED TO IMPROVE THE PLANNING OF MUSIC SUITES IN SCHOOLS. THE INFORMATION CAN BE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF PLANS FOR NEW BUILDINGS AND IMPROVING FACILITIES FOR MUSIC EDUCATION IN EXISTING BUILDINGS. SECTIONS INCLUDED DEAL WITH--(1) THE MUSIC PROGRAM AND SPECIAL NEEDS OF THE MUSIC DEPARTMENT, (2) LOCATION OF MUSIC ROOMS, (3) TYPES…

HICK, BASIL L.; SAETVEIT, JOSEPH G.

10

Advanced Crew Escape Suit.  

PubMed

Design of the S1032 Launch Entry Suit (LES) began following the Challenger loss and NASA's decision to incorporate a Shuttle crew escape system. The LES (see Figure 1) has successfully supported Shuttle missions since NASA's Return to Flight with STS-26 in September 1988. In 1990, engineers began developing the S1035 Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) to serve as a replacement for the LES. The ACES was designed to be a simplified, lightweight, low-bulk pressure suit which aided self donning/doffing, provided improved comfort, and enhanced overall performance to reduce crew member stress and fatigue. Favorable crew member evaluations of a prototype led to full-scale development and qualification of the S1035 ACES between 1990 and 1992. Production of the S1035 ACES began in February 1993, with the first unit delivered to NASA in May 1994. The S1035 ACES first flew aboard STS-68 in August 1994 and will become the primary crew escape suit when the S1032 LES ends its service life in late 1995. The primary goal of the S1035 development program was to provide improved performance over that of the S1032 to minimize the stress and fatigue typically experienced by crew members. To achieve this, five fundamental design objectives were established, resulting in various material/configuration changes. PMID:11540717

1995-09-01

11

Spectroscopy Lab Suite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spectroscopy Lab Suite contains 10 simulations that illustrate optical emission and absorption from atoms and solids. These illustrations show bound state energy levels, electronic transitions, spectra, and illustrations of the physical systems being modeled. Instructions on using the simulations are provided with each.

Zollman, Dean

12

Space Suit Spins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space is a hostile environment where astronauts combat extreme temperatures, dangerous radiation, and a near-breathless vacuum. Life support in these unforgiving circumstances is crucial and complex, and failure is not an option for the devices meant to keep astronauts safe in an environment that presents constant opposition. A space suit must meet stringent requirements for life support. The suit has to be made of durable material to withstand the impact of space debris and protect against radiation. It must provide essential oxygen, pressure, heating, and cooling while retaining mobility and dexterity. It is not a simple article of clothing but rather a complex modern armor that the space explorers must don if they are to continue exploring the heavens

2005-01-01

13

20. NBS SUIT LAB. TABLE WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT PARTS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. NBS SUIT LAB. TABLE WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT PARTS AND TERRY WEST, A SPACE SUIT ASSEMBLY TECHNICIAN LOGGING SUIT PART DATA. PARTS ON THE TABLE ARE A HARD UPPER TORSO (HUT) (REAR LEFT), FULL HELMET (FRONT LEFT), TWO HELMETS WITHOUT PROTECTIVE VISORS, A PAIR OF GLOVES, AND A BACKPACK WITHOUT VOLUMETRIC COVER (REAR RIGHT). THE BACKPACK ATTACHES TO THE HUT TO MAKE-UP THE UPPER TORSO COMPONENTS OF THE SUIT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

14

Nutrition systems for pressure suits.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

1973-01-01

15

Refining the granulite suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early studies of rocks retrieved from the Moon during the Apollo missions defined a group of rocks as granulites or 'granulitic impactites'. This included rocks with cataclastic, granulitic, and poikilitic or poikiloblastic textures. Petrographic studies indicate that the textures of 'granulitic breccias' are significantly varied so as to redefine the granulitic suite into at least two distinct groups. The first group consists of rocks that have true granulitic textures: polygonal to rounded, equant grains that are annealed, and have triple junctions with small dispersions from the average 120 degrees. The second group of rocks have poikilitic or poikiloblastic textures, with subhedral to euhedral plagioclase and/or olivine grains enclosed in pyroxene oikocrysts. In some instances, the relationship between the minerals resembles an orthocumulate texture. Rocks previously thought of as granulites may have formed in more than one way. These formation mechanisms are briefly discussed.

Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Norman, Marc D.; Keil, Klaus; Cushing, Janet A.

1992-01-01

16

Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA).With an increased number

G. I. Severin; J. W. McBarron II

1995-01-01

17

Orion Suit Loop Variable Pressure Regulator Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) integrates the cabin and pressure suits with the core life support systems to provide life support during contingency depressurized cabin operations. To provide the multipule suit pressures between nominal pressurized cabin suited operations, suit leak checks, depressurized cabin suited operations, and elevated suit pressure for denitrification, a variable pressure regulator is needed. This paper documents the development and integrated testing of the suit loop regulator for Orion.

Mosher, Michael; Vassallo, Andrew; Lewis, John F.; Campbell, Melissa

2014-01-01

18

Orion ECLSS/Suit System Intermediate Pressure Integrated Suit Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intermediate Pressure Integrated Suit Test (IPIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. This test was performed in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division. This testing is the second phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. The IPIST configuration consisted of development hardware that included the CAMRAS, air revitalization loop fan and suit loop regulator. Two test subjects were in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2014, will utilize the same hardware with human test subjects in pressure suits at vacuum. This paper will discuss the results and findings of IPIST and will also discuss future testing.

Barido, Richard A.

2014-01-01

19

Next-Generation Space Suits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, MIT engineer Dava Newman is working to replace today's bulky, inflated space suits with a radical, sleek design that may one day allow astronauts to walk easily on Mars.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-03-31

20

Compositional Diversity in Volcanic Suites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use whole-rock major- and trace-element compositions of volcanic rocks to explore the origins of compositional variation in igneous suites. With the help of detailed step-by-step instructions, datasets from the Yellowstone and Crater Lake calderas are downloaded from the GEOROC database, imported into Excel spreadsheets, and graphed in the form of "Harker" diagrams to learn about the different petrogeneses of these two volcanic suites.

Kent Ratajeski

21

Space Suit Joint Torque Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

Valish, Dana J.

2011-01-01

22

Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

1977-01-01

23

Navigation/Prop Software Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Navigation (Nav)/Prop software is used to support shuttle mission analysis, production, and some operations tasks. The Nav/Prop suite containing configuration items (CIs) resides on IPS/Linux workstations. It features lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle navigation and propellant analysis for all flight segments. This suite also includes trajectory server, archive server, and RAT software residing on MCC/Linux workstations. Navigation/Prop represents tool versions established during or after IPS Equipment Rehost-3 or after the MCC Rehost.

Bruchmiller, Tomas; Tran, Sanh; Lee, Mathew; Bucker, Scott; Bupane, Catherine; Bennett, Charles; Cantu, Sergio; Kwong, Ping; Propst, Carolyn

2012-01-01

24

The DARPA internet protocol suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE MILITARY requirement for computer communications between heterogeneous computers on heterogeneous networks has driven the development of a standard suite of protocols to permit such communications to take place in a robust and flexible manner. These protocols support an architecture consisting of multiple packet switched networks interconnected by gateways. The DARPA experimental internet system consists of satellite, terrestrial, radio, and

B. Leiner; R. Cole; J. Postel; D. Mills

1985-01-01

25

Astronaut space suit communication antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut space suit communication antenna consists of a spring steel monopole in a blade-type configuration. This antenna is mounted in a copper cup filled with a potting compound that is recessed in the center to facilitate bending the blade flat for stowing when not in use.

Lindsey, J. F., III; Nason, G. H.

1968-01-01

26

Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

2014-01-01

27

EVA suit 2000: A joint European\\/Russian space suit design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study in 1992 showed the benefits of a common European\\/Russian space suit development, EVA Suit 2000, replacing the Russian space suit Orlan-DMA and the planned European Hermes EVA space suit at the turn of the century. This EVA Suit 2000 is a joint development initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA). The

I. P. Abramov; E. A. Albats

1995-01-01

28

Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration  

E-print Network

Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration The V2Suit, operational system The V2Suit is an enabler for space exploration mission technologies, including human THAT WILL REVOLUTIONIZE SPACE MISSIONS AND BENEFIT LIFE ON EARTH 2011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 2050 V2Suit

Bhatia, Sangeeta

29

Spinoff From a Moon Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Al Gross transferred expertise obtained as an ILC engineer for NASA's Apollo program to the manufacture of athletic shoes. Gross substituted DuPont's Hytrel plastic for foam materials in the shoe's midsole, eliminating cushioning loss caused by body weight. An external pressurized shell applied from space suit technology was incorporated into the shoe. Stiffness and cushioning properties of the midsole were "tuned" by varying material thickness and styling lines. A stress free "blow molding" process adapted from NASA space suit design was also utilized. The resulting compression chamber midsole performed well in tests. It allows AVIA to re-configure for specific sports and is a "first step" toward a durable, foamless, non-fatiguing midsole.

1991-01-01

30

Design of a biomechanically synergistic exotendon suit  

E-print Network

The focus of this thesis is on the design, development, and evaluation of a lightweight, exotendon suit for load carriage. The suit is intended to be worn underneath the wearer's own clothes for use in a military setting, ...

Graves, Carmen Marten-Ellis

2013-01-01

31

Z-2 Suit Support Stand and MKIII Suit Center of Gravity Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's next generation spacesuits are the Z-Series suits, made for a range of possible exploration missions in the near future. The prototype Z-1 suit has been developed and assembled to incorporate new technologies that has never been utilized before in the Apollo suits and the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). NASA engineers tested the Z-1 suit extensively in order to developed design requirements for the new Z-2 suit. At the end of 2014, NASA will be receiving the new Z-2 suit to perform more testing and to further develop the new technologies of the suit. In order to do so, a suit support stand will be designed and fabricated to support the Z-2 suit during maintenance, sizing, and structural leakage testing. The Z-2 Suit Support Stand (Z2SSS) will be utilized for these purposes in the early testing stages of the Z-2 suit.

Nguyen, Tuan Q.

2014-01-01

32

Ventilation index of helicopter pilot suits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main function of helicopter pilot suits used in offshore flights is to provide thermal protection in the event of cold water immersion and to allow maintenance of thermal comfort during normal use. As part of a larger study to assess the thermal characteristics of helicopter pilot suits, the ventilation index of four suits was determined using the methods outlined

PATRICK J. SULLIVAN; IGOR B. MEKJAVIC; NAOSHI KAKITSUBA

1987-01-01

33

2004-01-2292 RoboSuit: Robotic Augmentations for Future Space Suits  

E-print Network

2004-01-2292 RoboSuit: Robotic Augmentations for Future Space Suits David L. Akin Space Systems Laboratory, University of Maryland Copyright © 2004 Society of Automotive Engineers ABSTRACT Space suit. In such an environment, the need for breakthrough technology is to make the space suit into an augmentation of the human

Akin, David

34

Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two -fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z -2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z -1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

Ross, Amy J.

2012-01-01

35

EV space suit gloves (passive)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pair of pressure and thermal insulating overgloves to be used with an Extravehicular (EV) suit assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested. The design features extensive use of Nomex felt materials in lieu of the multiple layer insulation formerly used with the Apollo thermal glove. The glove theoretically satisfies all of the thermal requirements. The presence of the thermal glove does not degrade pressure glove tactility by more than the acceptable 10% value. On the other hand, the thermal glove generally degrades pressure glove mobility by more than the acceptable 10% value, primarily in the area of the fingers. Life cycling tests were completed with minimal problems. The thermal glove/pressure glove ensemble was also tested for comfort; the test subjects found no problems with the thermal glove although they did report difficulties with pressure points on the pressure glove which were independent of the thermal glove.

Fletcher, E. G.; Dodson, J. D.; Elkins, W.; Tickner, E. G.

1975-01-01

36

The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit for space habitation and exploration  

E-print Network

The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) is a countermeasure suit for sensorimotor adaptation and musculoskeletal deconditioning in microgravity. The V2suit will consist of modules containing arrays of control ...

Vasquez, Rebecca (Rebecca Ann)

2014-01-01

37

10 CFR 501.183 - Citizen suits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Investigations, Violations, Sanctions and Judicial Actions § 501.183 Citizen suits. (a) General. A person...

2010-01-01

38

Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide  

E-print Network

Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic.............................................................................................................................6 Modules Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

39

Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mark III planetary technology demonstrator space suit can be tailored to an individual by swapping the modular components of the suit, such as the arms, legs, and gloves, as well as adding or removing sizing inserts in key areas. A method was sought to identify the transition from an ideal suit fit to a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using a metric of mobility-based human performance data. To this end, the degradation of the range of motion of the elbow and wrist of the suit as a function of suit sizing modifications was investigated to attempt to improve suit fit. The sizing range tested spanned optimal and poor fit and was adjusted incrementally in order to compare each joint angle across five different sizing configurations. Suited range of motion data were collected using a motion capture system for nine isolated and functional tasks utilizing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm by itself. Findings indicated that no single joint drives the performance of the arm as a function of suit size; instead it is based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb. To determine a size adjustment range where an individual can operate the suit at an acceptable level, a performance detriment limit was set. This user-selected limit reveals the task-dependent tolerance of the suit fit around optimal size. For example, the isolated joint motion indicated that the suit can deviate from optimal by as little as -0.6 in to -2.6 in before experiencing a 10% performance drop in the wrist or elbow joint. The study identified a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and developed a new way to gauge tolerances around optimal size.

Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2012-01-01

40

Highly mobile space suit material optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the factors that control the flexibility of fabric space suit elements by examining a bending model of a pressurized fabric tube. Results from the model are used to evaluate the current direction in highly mobile EVA glove research and suggest that changes are necessary in the suit and glove fabric selection methodology.

John A. Main; Steven W. Peterson; Alvin M. Strauss

1995-01-01

41

The PRISM Benchmark Suite Marta Kwiatkowska  

E-print Network

The PRISM Benchmark Suite Marta Kwiatkowska Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford.a.parker@cs.bham.ac.uk Abstract--We present the PRISM benchmark suite: a col- lection of probabilistic models and property of which is the PRISM model checker [1]. Many models for use with PRISM are publicly available, either

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Iunctus Geomatics Corp. Ave South, suite 401  

E-print Network

Iunctus Geomatics Corp. 817-4th Ave South, suite 401 Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 0P3 1-877-604-2800 www lines. #12;Iunctus Geomatics Corp. 817-4th Ave South, suite 401 Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 0P3 1 60%: Location of the shifted scene, sceneID 25692140509191706042P6 #12;Iunctus Geomatics Corp. 817

Janée, Greg

43

Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

Weinstein, Leonard Murray

2007-01-01

44

Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two-fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z-2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z-1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

Ross, Amy

2013-01-01

45

Complexity of Sizing for Space Suit Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The `fit? of a garment is often considered to be a subjective measure of garment quality. However, some experts attest that a complaint of poor garment fit is a symptom of inadequate or excessive ease, the space between the garment and the wearer. Fit has traditionally been hard to quantify, and space suits are an extreme example, where fit is difficult to measure but crucial for safety and operability. A proper space suit fit is particularly challenging because of NASA?s need to fit an incredibly diverse population (males and females from the 1st to 99th percentile) while developing a minimum number of space suit sizes. Because so few sizes are available, the available space suits must be optimized so that each fits a large segment of the population without compromising the fit of any one wearer.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

46

Product development of a resistive athletic suit  

E-print Network

A preliminary prototype of a new athletic apparel product uses resistive straps, integrated within a suit, to provide muscular resistance. This developing fitness product allows users to exercise both their upper and lower ...

Desrochers, Christopher

2008-01-01

47

Zimbra Collaboration Suite 6.0.3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Zimbra Collaboration Suite is designed to be used in settings such as higher education, government offices, and various enterprising types. The main part of the Suite is an interactive email and calendar server that allows users in many different physical locations coordinate meetings, conferences, and even lets people link-up different email accounts. This particular version is compatible with computers running Linux or Mac OS X 10.5 and newer.

48

Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

2012-01-01

49

BioImage Suite: An integrated medical image analysis suite: An update  

PubMed Central

BioImage Suite is an NIH-supported medical image analysis software suite developed at Yale. It leverages both the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and the Insight Toolkit (ITK) and it includes many additional algorithms for image analysis especially in the areas of segmentation, registration, diffusion weighted image processing and fMRI analysis. BioImage Suite has a user-friendly user interface developed in the Tcl scripting language. A final beta version is freely available for download 1 PMID:25364771

Papademetris, Xenophon; Jackowski, Marcel P.; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; DiStasio, Marcello; Okuda, Hirohito; Constable, R. Todd; Staib, Lawrence H.

2010-01-01

50

Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

Watson, Richard D.

2014-01-01

51

Effects of Varying Surface Inclines and Suit Pressure: Implications on Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suited human performance studies in reduced gravity environments to date include limited observations from Apollo Lunar surface Extravehicular Activities (EVA) and from previous studies conducted in partial gravity simulation environments. The Constellation Program EVA Systems Project office has initiated tests to develop design requirements for the next generation Lunar EVA suit. Theses studies were conducted in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility (SVMF) at Johnson Space Center from which the results provided recommendations for suit weight, mass, center of gravity, pressure, and suit kinematic constraints that optimize human performance in partial gravity environments.

Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Harvill, Lauren; Morency, Richard; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2008-01-01

52

Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

Aitchison, Lindsay

2011-01-01

53

Noise characteristics of surgical space suits.  

PubMed

Several studies indicate that the noise generated by performing orthopedic surgery has the potential to cause hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss was found in 50% of the orthopedic surgeons studied using audiometric testing, with a greater incidence associated with years of practice. Noise produced by several orthopedic surgical instruments such as saws, drills, and hammers during surgery exceeds 100 dB, especially during knee replacement procedures. In one study, surgical space suits (personal protection systems) were suggested to help protect against noise-induced hearing loss, although space suit manufacturers do not market them as noise-reduction devices. A research protocol was developed to determine if commercially available surgical space suits help to reduce noise at the surgeon's ear. With the commercially available personal protection systems used in this research, there was no significant extra-helmet noise decrease by wearing the space suit. Sound inside the helmet at the level of the ear averaged 61 dBA, approximately the level of conversational speech, which may explain the difficulty the surgical staff may have hearing speech in the operating room when the space suit is worn with the fan on. If surgical noise is to be decreased, earplugs or muffs must be worn not only by the surgeon, but also by all personnel in the operating theater. At greatest risk may be the anesthesiologist, who may experience several orthopedic surgeries in a single day and is positioned close to the patient. PMID:19902889

Pearlman, Ronald T; Sandidge, Olisa

2009-11-01

54

[Radiation hygiene in interventional radiology suite].  

PubMed

Exposure of both patients and medical staff to relatively high doses of radiation is one of the features characteristic of interventional radiology (IR). Regulations regarding this kind of therapeutic management can be found in many legal references and recommendations of European Union Law. The purpose of the paper is collection and systematic analysis of activities and procedures associated with the question of radiation hygiene which should be observed in IR suites. Requirements regarding equipment of the IR suite, as well as radiation protection of patients and medical staff, constitute main questions included in the paper, worked out on the basis of valid regulations and occupational experience of the authors. Particular attention is paid to borderline requirements regarding modern IR suite equipment and its organization. Part of the paper is devoted to the understanding of physical laws of ionizing radiation in biological space and its surroundings. Understanding of physical laws, proper utilization of IR suite equipment, and strict compliance with recommendations of radiation protection by both patients and medical staff are critical for limitation of the harmful influence of radiation during interventional therapeutic procedures. An additional role of the paper is to make it easier to take decisions when creating new IR suites, in accordance with valid regulations and the rule of functionality. PMID:24493688

Garcarek, Jerzy; Falkowski, Aleksander; Janczak, Dariusz; Weyde, Wac?aw

2013-01-01

55

A CB protective firefighter turnout suit.  

PubMed

This paper describes research that developed a prototype chemical and biological (CB) protective firefighter suit. It is presented as a case study demonstrating an integrated systems approach to designing, developing and evaluating a protective clothing ensemble based on end user requirements. It includes a discussion of the process that was used to gain an understanding of firefighter performance needs for a structural turnout suit that also incorporated chemical protection. It describes the design features of the turnout suit that were developed to meet these expectations as well as the program of testing and evaluation used to characterize garment performance. It discusses ensemble level performance evaluations in instrumented fire manikin tests and man-in-stimulant test procedures. It describes studies conducted to determine the impact of prototype garment design features on heat stress, wear comfort and ergonomic function in structural firefighting applications. PMID:20540836

Barker, Roger; Deaton, Shawn; Liston, Gail; Thompson, Donald

2010-01-01

56

Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion it will be tested in the 11' human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model. The paper also provides a discussion of significant Z-2 configuration features, and how these components evolved from proposal concepts to final designs.

Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David

2014-01-01

57

Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion it will be tested in the 11' humanrated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model. The paper also provides a discussion of significant Z-2 configuration features, and how these components evolved from proposal concepts to final designs.

Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

2014-01-01

58

Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion the Z-2 will be tested in the 11 foot human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' that the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model.

Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

2014-01-01

59

Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

1999-01-01

60

Space suit extravehicular hazards protection development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is an overview of the development of the integral thermal/micrometeoroid garment (ITMG) used for protection of a space-suited crewmember from hazards of various extravehicular environments. These hazard conditions can range from thermal extremes, meteoroid and debris particles, and radiation conditions in near-earth orbits and free space to sand and dust environments encountered on lunar and planetary surfaces. Representative ITMG materials cross-section layups are identified and described for various space suit configurations ranging from the Gemini program to planned protective requirements and considerations for anticipated Space Station EV operations.

Kosmo, Joseph J.

1987-01-01

61

Development of a space activity suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a series of prototype space activity suit (SAS) assemblies is discussed. The SAS is a new type of pressure suit designed especially for extravehicular activity. It consists of a set of carefully tailored elastic fabric garments which have been engineered to supply sufficient counterpressure to the body to permit subjects to breath O2 at pressures up to 200 mm Hg without circulatory difficulty. A closed, positive pressure breathing system (PPBS) and a full bubble helmet were also developed to complete the system. The ultimate goal of the SAS is to improve the range of activity and decrease the energy cost of work associated with wearing conventional gas filled pressure suits. Results are presented from both laboratory (1 atmosphere) and altitude chamber tests with subjects wearing various SAS assemblies. In laboratory tests lasting up to three hours, the SAS was worn while subjects breathed O2 at pressures up to 170 mm Hg without developing physiological problems. The only physiological symptoms apparent were a moderate tachycardia related to breathing pressures above 130 mm Hg, and a small collection of edema fluid in the hands. Both problems were considered to be related to areas of under-pressurization by the garments. These problems, it is suggested, can ultimately be corrected by the development of new elastic fabrics and tailoring techniques. Energy cost of activity, and mobility and dexterity of subjects in the SAS, were found to be superior to those in comparable tests on subjects in full pressure suits.

Annis, J. F.; Webb, P.

1971-01-01

62

Antigravity Suits For Studies Of Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents results of research on use of "antigravity" suit, one applying positive pressure to lower body to simulate some effects of microgravity. Research suggests lower-body positive pressure is alternative to bed rest or immersion in water in terrestrial studies of cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes induced in humans by microgravity.

Kravik, Stein E.; Greenleaf, John

1992-01-01

63

The Space Environment Sensor Suite for NPOESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Environment Sensor Suite (SESS) is the set of instruments of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) that takes measurements to produce space-environment data products. The SESS includes a complement of instruments that provide in situ data on particles, fields, aurora, and the ionosphere. The SESS team consists of the NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), Northrop Grumman

K. W. Eastman; J. V. Rodriguez; J. H. Eraker; T. E. Christensen; S. K. Ubhayakar; W. F. Denig

2006-01-01

64

The Space Environment Sensor Suite for NPOESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Environment Sensor Suite (SESS) is a set of instruments of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) that takes measurements to produce space environment data products. The SESS includes a complement of instruments that provide in-situ data on particles, fields, aurora, and the ionosphere. The SESS team consists of the NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), Northrop Grumman

J. V. Rodriguez; K. W. Eastman; J. H. Eraker; J. Belue; P. Citrone; J. D. Bloom; T. E. Christensen; S. Talmadge; S. K. Ubhayakar; W. F. Denig

2005-01-01

65

977 Garfield, Suite 6 Eugene, OR 97402  

E-print Network

977 Garfield, Suite 6 Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-0001 EugeneOR@expresspros.com As a full · Professional Search and Contract · Flexible Staffing EUGENE EXPRESS OFFICE OVERVIEW Pat Murphy began with the first franchise in Lewiston, Idaho in 1974. Seeking new opportunities the Eugene office

Oregon, University of

66

Rodinia: A benchmark suite for heterogeneous computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and characterizes Rodinia, a benchmark suite for heterogeneous computing. To help architects study emerging platforms such as GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), Rodinia includes applications and kernels which target multi-core CPU and GPU platforms. The choice of applications is inspired by Berkeley's dwarf taxonomy. Our characterization shows that the Rodinia benchmarks cover a wide range of parallel communication

Shuai Che; Michael Boyer; Jiayuan Meng; David Tarjan; Jeremy W. Sheaffer; Sang-ha Lee; Kevin Skadron

2009-01-01

67

What's New with MS Office Suites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If one buys a new PC, laptop, or netbook computer today, it probably comes preloaded with Microsoft Office 2010 Starter Edition. This is a significantly limited, advertising-laden version of Microsoft's suite of productivity programs, Microsoft Office. This continues the trend of PC makers providing ever more crippled versions of Microsoft's…

Goldsborough, Reid

2012-01-01

68

In Outer Space without a Space Suit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-01-01

69

Dr. von Braun Discusses 'Bottle Suit' Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Wernher von Braun (center), then Chief of the Guided Missile Development Division at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, discusses a 'bottle suit' model with Dr. Heinz Haber (left), an expert on aviation medicine, and Willey Ley, a science writer on rocketry and space exploration. The three men were at the Disney studios appearing in the motion picture, entitled 'Man in Space.'

1954-01-01

70

Introduction to the HPC Challenge Benchmark Suite  

SciTech Connect

The HPC Challenge benchmark suite has been released by the DARPA HPCS program to help define the performance boundaries of future Petascale computing systems. HPC Challenge is a suite of tests that examine the performance of HPC architectures using kernels with memory access patterns more challenging than those of the High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark used in the Top500 list. Thus, the suite is designed to augment the Top500 list, providing benchmarks that bound the performance of many real applications as a function of memory access characteristics e.g., spatial and temporal locality, and providing a framework for including additional tests. In particular, the suite is composed of several well known computational kernels (STREAM, HPL, matrix multiply--DGEMM, parallel matrix transpose--PTRANS, FFT, RandomAccess, and bandwidth/latency tests--b{sub eff}) that attempt to span high and low spatial and temporal locality space. By design, the HPC Challenge tests are scalable with the size of data sets being a function of the largest HPL matrix for the tested system.

Luszczek, Piotr; Dongarra, Jack J.; Koester, David; Rabenseifner,Rolf; Lucas, Bob; Kepner, Jeremy; McCalpin, John; Bailey, David; Takahashi, Daisuke

2005-04-25

71

Space suit bioenergetics: framework and analysis of unsuited and suited activity.  

PubMed

Metabolic costs limit the duration and intensity of extravehicular activity (EVA), an essential component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. Energetics Framework: We present a framework for comparison of energetics data across and between studies. This framework, applied to locomotion, differentiates between muscle efficiency and energy recovery, two concepts often confused in the literature. The human run-walk transition in Earth gravity occurs at the point for which energy recovery is approximately the same for walking and running, suggesting a possible role for recovery in gait transitions. Muscular Energetics: Muscle physiology limits the overall efficiency by which chemical energy is converted through metabolism to useful work. Unsuited Locomotion: Walking and running use different methods of energy storage and release. These differences contribute to the relative changes in the metabolic cost of walking and running as gravity is varied, with the metabolic cost of locomoting at a given velocity changing in proportion to gravity for running and less than in proportion for walking. Space Suits: Major factors affecting the energetic cost of suited movement include suit pressurization, gravity, velocity, surface slope, and space suit configuration. Apollo lunar surface EVA traverse metabolic rates, while unexpectedly low, were higher than other activity categories. The Lunar Roving Vehicle facilitated even lower metabolic rates, thus longer duration EVAs. Muscles and tendons act like springs during running; similarly, longitudinal pressure forces in gas pressure space suits allow spring-like storage and release of energy when suits are self-supporting. PMID:18018432

Carr, Christopher E; Newman, Dava J

2007-11-01

72

AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.

Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

1990-01-01

73

The BTeV Software Tutorial Suite  

SciTech Connect

The BTeV Collaboration is starting to develop its C++ based offline software suite, an integral part of which is a series of tutorials. These tutorials are targeted at a diverse audience, including new graduate students, experienced physicists with little or no C++ experience, those with just enough C++ to be dangerous, and experts who need only an overview of the available tools. The tutorials must both teach C++ in general and the BTeV specific tools in particular. Finally, they must teach physicists how to find and use the detailed documentation. This report will review the status of the BTeV experiment, give an overview of the plans for and the state of the software and will then describe the plans for the tutorial suite.

Robert K. Kutschke

2004-02-20

74

In Outer Space without a Space Suit?  

E-print Network

The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen is lacking. In this case the main problem is how to satiate human blood with oxygen and delete carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide). The proposed system would enable a person to function in outer space without a space suit and, for a long time, without food. That is useful also in the Earth for sustaining working men in an otherwise deadly atmosphere laden with lethal particulates (in case of nuclear, chemical or biological war), in underground confined spaces without fresh air, under water or a top high mountains above a height that can sustain respiration.

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-06-24

75

In Outer Space without a Space Suit?  

E-print Network

The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen is lacking. In this case the main problem is how to satiate human blood with oxygen and delete carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide). The proposed system would enable a person to function in outer space without a space suit and, for a long time, without food. That is useful also in the Earth for sustaining working men in an otherwise deadly atmosphere laden with lethal particulates (in case of nuclear, chemical or biological war), in underground confined spaces without fresh air, under water or a top high mountains above a height that can sustain respiration.

Bolonkin, Alexander

2008-01-01

76

Enhancements to the opera-3d suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPERA-3D suite of programs has been enhanced to include 2 additional 3 dimensional finite element based solvers, with complimentary features in the pre- and postprocessing. SOPRANO computes electromagnetic fields at high frequency including displacement current effects. It has 2 modules—a deterministic solution at a user defined frequency and an eigenvalue solution for modal analysis. It is suitable for designing microwave structures and cavities found in particle accelerators. SCALA computes electrostatic fields in the presence of space charge from charged particle beams. The user may define the emission characteristics of electrodes or plasma surfaces and compute the resultant space charge limited beams, including the presence of magnetic fields. Typical applications in particle accelerators are electron guns and ion sources. Other enhancements to the suite include additional capabilities in TOSCA and ELEKTRA, the static and dynamic solvers.

Riley, Christopher P.

1997-02-01

77

Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

2010-01-01

78

Complexity of Sizing for Space Suit Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘fit’ of a garment is often considered to be a subjective measure of garment quality. However, some experts attest that\\u000a a complaint of poor garment fit is a symptom of inadequate or excessive ease, the space between the garment and the wearer.\\u000a Fit has traditionally been hard to quantify, and space suits are an extreme example, where fit is

Elizabeth Benson; Sudhakar Rajulu

2009-01-01

79

STS-77 Commander John Casper suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-77 Commander John H. Casper finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building in preparation for his fourth trip into space. Casper and five fellow crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour launch window opening at 6:30 a.m. EDT, May 19.

1996-01-01

80

Catherine G. Coleman Dons Training Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut and mission specialist for STS-73, Catherine G. Coleman, dons a high fidelity training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F) in preparation for the mission. The STS-73 mission was the second flight of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2), managed by scientists and engineers from the Marshall Space Flight Center.

1994-01-01

81

An MBSE Approach to Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA/Space Suit Development Office (ESSD) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) team has utilized MBSE in multiple programs. After developing operational and architectural models, the MBSE framework was expanded to link the requirements space to the system models through functional analysis and interfaces definitions. By documenting all the connections within the technical baseline, ESSD experienced significant efficiency improvements in analysis and identification of change impacts. One of the biggest challenges presented to the MBSE structure was a program transition and restructuring effort, which was completed successfully in 4 months culminating in the approval of a new EVA Technical Baseline. During this time three requirements sets spanning multiple DRMs were streamlined into one NASA-owned Systems Requirement Document (SRD) that successfully identified requirements relevant to the current hardware development effort while remaining extensible to support future hardware developments. A capability-based hierarchy was established to provide a more flexible framework for future space suit development that can support multiple programs with minimal rework of basic EVA/Space Suit requirements. This MBSE approach was most recently applied for generation of an EMU Demonstrator technical baseline being developed for an ISS DTO. The relatively quick turnaround of operational concepts, architecture definition, and requirements for this new suit development has allowed us to test and evolve the MBSE process and framework in an extremely different setting while still offering extensibility and traceability throughout ESSD projects. The ESSD MBSE framework continues to be evolved in order to support integration of all products associated with the SE&I engine.

Cordova, Lauren; Kovich, Christine; Sargusingh, Miriam

2012-01-01

82

Advanced Space Suit Insulation Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For planetary applications, the space suit insulation has unique requirements because it must perform in a dynamic mode to protect humans in the harsh dust, pressure and temperature environments. Since the presence of a gaseous planetary atmosphere adds significant thermal conductance to the suit insulation, the current multi-layer flexible insulation designed for vacuum applications is not suitable in reduced pressure planetary environments such as that of Mars. Therefore a feasibility study has been conducted at NASA to identify the most promising insulation concepts that can be developed to provide an acceptable suit insulation. Insulation concepts surveyed include foams, microspheres, microfibers, and vacuum jackets. The feasibility study includes a literature survey of potential concepts, an evaluation of test results for initial insulation concepts, and a development philosophy to be pursued as a result of the initial testing and conceptual surveys. The recommended focus is on microfibers due to the versatility of fiber structure configurations, the wide choice of fiber materials available, the maturity of the fiber processing industry, and past experience with fibers in insulation applications

Trevino, Luis A.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.

2000-01-01

83

The bioenergetics of walking and running in space suits  

E-print Network

Space-suited activity is critical for human spaceflight, and is synonymous with human planetary exploration. Space suits impose kinematic and kinetic boundary conditions that affect movement and locomotion, and in doing ...

Carr, Christopher E. (Christopher Edward), 1976-

2005-01-01

84

Docking Fixture and Mechanism for a Protective Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suitlock assembly that comprises a docking fixture and mechanism has been invented to facilitate and accelerate donning and doffing of a sealed protective suit and/or to enable ingress and egress between the protective suit and a sealed vessel. The sealed protective suit could be a space suit, in which case the sealed vessel could be a spacecraft. Alternatively, the sealed suit could be an environmental protective suit of a type worn on Earth during cleanup of a hazardous-material site, in which case the sealed vessel could be a vehicle equipped to maintain a safe interior environment for workers in transit to and from the site. Figure 1 depicts a typical situation in which several crewmembers are working inside such a vehicle, one is working outside in a protective suit, and one is donning or doffing a protective suit while holding onto an overhead bar for support.

Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

2003-01-01

85

28 CFR 51.31 - Communications concerning voting suits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communications concerning voting suits. 51.31...VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Communications From Individuals and Groups § 51.31 Communications concerning voting suits....

2014-07-01

86

18. NBS SUIT LAB. OVERALL VIEW. ALL WORK TABLES WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. NBS SUIT LAB. OVERALL VIEW. ALL WORK TABLES WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT COMPONENTS AND SUPPLIES. TERRY WEST TO LEFT, AND PAUL DUMBACHER TO RIGHT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

87

Durable Suit Bladder with Improved Water Permeability for Pressure and Environment Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor permeability is shown to be useful in rejecting heat and managing moisture accumulation in launch-and-entry pressure suits. Currently this is accomplished through a porous Gortex layer in the Advanced Crew and Escape Suit (ACES) and in the baseline design of the Constellation Suit System Element (CSSE) Suit 1. Non-porous dense monolithic membranes (DMM) that are available offer potential improvements for water vapor permeability with reduced gas leak. Accordingly, three different pressure bladder materials were investigated for water vapor permeability and oxygen leak: ElasthaneTM 80A (thermoplastic polyether urethane) provided from stock polymer material and two custom thermoplastic polyether urethanes. Water vapor, carbon dioxide and oxygen permeability of the DMM's was measured in a 0.13 mm thick stand-alone layer, a 0.08 mm and 0.05 mm thick layer each bonded to two different nylon and polyester woven reinforcing materials. Additional water vapor permeability and mechanical compression measurements were made with the reinforced 0.05 mm thick layers, further bonded with a polyester wicking and overlaid with moistened polyester fleece thermal underwear .This simulated the pressure from a supine crew person. The 0.05 mm thick nylon reinforced sample with polyester wicking layer was further mechanically tested for wear and abrasion. Concepts for incorporating these materials in launch/entry and Extravehicular Activity pressure suits are presented.

Bue, Grant C.; Kuznetz, Larry; Orndoff, Evelyne; Tang, Henry; Aitchison, Lindsay; Ross, Amy

2009-01-01

88

UC DAVIS FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER 1909 Galileo Court, Suite B  

E-print Network

UC DAVIS FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER 1909 Galileo Court, Suite B Davis, CA 95618 Directions to the UC Davis Forensic Science Center: Exit I80 south on Richards Blvd. Richards Blvd. changes its name at the end of the court. Our office is on the right, Suite B. FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER SUITE B Key Contact

Peisert, Sean

89

Concept of Space Suit Enclosure for Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present advanced projects of the early XXI century are beginning to develop. These projects include lunar base development and manned missions to Mars. The space suit is one of the basic requirements for successful implementation of future programs. The space suit enclosure enables mobility of crewmembers wearing pressurized space suits which will be required to complete these missions. Requirements

I. Abramov; N. Moiseyev; A. Stoklitsky

90

Hormone-mediated suites as adaptations and evolutionary constraints  

E-print Network

Review Hormone-mediated suites as adaptations and evolutionary constraints Joel W. McGlothlin1, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA Hormones mediate the expression of suites of correlated within a hormone-mediated suite may, for example, lead to a change in the strength of the hormone signal

91

Modeling Space Suit Mobility: Applications to Design and Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) is increasingly being used in planning and training for EVA. A space suit model is an important, but often overlooked, component of an EVA simulation. Because of the inher- ent difficulties in collecting angle and torque data for space suit joints in realistic conditions, little data exists on the torques that a space suit's

P. B. Schmidt; D. J. Newman; E. Hodgson

2001-01-01

92

Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at low pressures that simulate a PLSS environment. We obtained head/flow performance curves over a range of operating speeds, identified the maximum efficiency point for the blower, and used these results to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We designed a compact motor that can drive the blower under all anticipated operating requirements and operate with high efficiency during normal operation. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment. We produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSS ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm and consuming only 9 W of electric power and using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power blower can meet the performance requirements for future PLSSs.

Paul, Heather; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

2008-01-01

93

DASCAR sensor suite and video data system  

SciTech Connect

A research program oriented toward the development of a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research has been conducted. This paper discusses the background to the project and the requirements for the data acquisition system. it also provides a brief system overview and describes two of the system`s five major elements, the sensor suite and the video data system, in detail. Components, functions, and specifications are covered Finally the paper addresses the central data collection/analysis facility which was assembled to manage the sensor and video data, and presents the potential uses of the data acquisition system.

Carter, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barickman, F.S. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, East Liberty, OH (United States). Vehicle Research and Test Center; Goodman, M.J. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Crash Avoidance Research

1996-12-31

94

Nebraska files suit to block disposal site  

SciTech Connect

Just when the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact thought things might be starting to go its way, the state of Nebraska, following instructions from Gov. Ben Nelson, has filed a new lawsuit to block development of an LLW disposal site within its borders. The suit maintains that the recently reconfigured proposed site (in which an area of wetlands was excluded) has not received [open quotes]community consent,[close quotes] as required by state law; says that site developer, US Ecology, has not obtained county consent; and asks that the court permanently prevent development of any LLW site in Nebraska until community consent is demonstrated.

Not Available

1993-12-01

95

Reading Like a Historian: Zoot Suit Riots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students analyze primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: What caused the Zoot Suit Riots? The teacher first provides background information on the incident and then the class looks at their textbook account and answers brief questions. Students then form pairs and analyze 2 documents: 1) a Los Angeles Daily News account of the riots and 2) a letter from the Committee for the Defense of Mexican American Youth, addressed to U.S. Vice President Wallace. For both, students answer guiding questions on a graphic organizer. A final class discussion contextualizes and corroborates the documents: Is one more reliable? What caused the riots?

Stanford History Education Group

2012-10-30

96

A Benchmark Suite for Behavior-Based Security Mechanisms This paper presents a benchmark suite for evaluating  

E-print Network

A Benchmark Suite for Behavior-Based Security Mechanisms Abstract This paper presents a benchmark suite for evaluating behavior-based security mechanisms. Behavior-based mechanisms are used to protect and run the benchmark programs. This benchmark suite aims to help evaluate the effec- tiveness of behavior

Kaeli, David R.

97

Integrated Instrument Simulator Suites for Earth Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite (NEOS3) is a modular framework of forward simulations tools for remote sensing of Earth's Atmosphere from space. It was initiated as the Instrument Simulator Suite for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (ISSARS) under the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) to enable science users to perform simulations based on advanced atmospheric and simple land surface models, and to rapidly integrate in a broad framework any experimental or innovative tools that they may have developed in this context. The name was changed to NEOS3 when the project was expanded to include more advanced modeling tools for the surface contributions, accounting for scattering and emission properties of layered surface (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice, subsurface layers). NEOS3 relies on a web-based graphic user interface, and a three-stage processing strategy to generate simulated measurements. The user has full control over a wide range of customizations both in terms of a priori assumptions and in terms of specific solvers or models used to calculate the measured signals.This presentation will demonstrate the general architecture, the configuration procedures and illustrate some sample products and the fundamental interface requirements for modules candidate for integration.

Tanelli, Simone; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Butler, Carolyn; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Johnson, Michael P.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Tsang, Leung; Shams, Khawaja; Jaruwatanadilok, Sermsak; Oveisgharan, Shadi; Simard, Marc; Turk, Francis J.

2012-01-01

98

Instrumentation suite at the MMT Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ten years since the converted 6.5m MMT was dedicated the observatory has built up an impressive suite of instrumentation to compliment the three interchangeable secondary mirrors. This review paper presents an up-to-date perspective on all the capabilities of our full range of instrumentation, highlighting newly commissioned instruments (the MMT and Magellan InfraRed Spectrograph (MMIRS), an infrared spectrograph) and new modes or upgrades for established instruments (such as; Red Channel, the MMT's workhorse spectrograph, Hectochelle, an optical fiber-fed, multi-object spectrograph and the AO instruments CLIO, a 5 micron camera and BLINC, a mid-infrared camera). The MMT's pioneering adaptive secondary mirror can be used with both natural guide stars (NGS) or with a Rayleigh laser guide star (LGS) system. The LGS has recently demonstrated wide-field partial compensation with ground layer adaptive optics and here we present progress to date. Finally, we report on the start of a project to investigate how the instrument suite has contributed to the science productivity the MMT over the last 10 years.

Hastie, M.; Williams, G. G.

2010-07-01

99

Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

2000-01-01

100

Wireless gyroscope suit for gait stability estimation.  

PubMed

Gait stability is primary in assessing individuals with high risk of falling, particularly the elderly. Custom made self-adjustable wireless gyroscope suit is used as a sensing device to quantify gait stability. A nonlinear time series analysis i.e. maximum Lyapunov exponent (?*) was employed to estimate the short term and long term stability and it is closely related to the ability of human neuro-muscular control system in maintaining gait stability. Experimental analysis and tests validated the efficacy of this novel approach. The results achieved are comparable with the findings of multiple kinematic and dynamic parameters derived from optical motion capture system and force platform which are widely used as gold standard. PMID:22256153

Gouwanda, Darwin; Senanayake, Namal A

2011-01-01

101

UniPOPS: Unified data reduction suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UniPOPS, a suite of programs and utilities developed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), reduced data from the observatory's single-dish telescopes: the Tucson 12-m, the Green Bank 140-ft, and archived data from the Green Bank 300-ft. The primary reduction programs, 'line' (for spectral-line reduction) and 'condar' (for continuum reduction), used the People-Oriented Parsing Service (POPS) as the command line interpreter. UniPOPS unified previous analysis packages and provided new capabilities; development of UniPOPS continued within the NRAO until 2004 when the 12-m was turned over to the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The submitted code is version 3.5 from 2004, the last supported by the NRAO.

Maddalena, Ronald J.; Garwood, Robert W.; Salter, Christopher J.; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Cram, Thomas R.; Morgan, Lorrie; Vance, Bob; Hudson, Jerome

2015-03-01

102

Supporting tool suite for production proteomics  

PubMed Central

Summary: The large amount of data produced by proteomics experiments requires effective bioinformatics tools for the integration of data management and data analysis. Here we introduce a suite of tools developed at Vanderbilt University to support production proteomics. We present the Backup Utility Service tool for automated instrument file backup and the ScanSifter tool for data conversion. We also describe a queuing system to coordinate identification pipelines and the File Collector tool for batch copying analytical results. These tools are individually useful but collectively reinforce each other. They are particularly valuable for proteomics core facilities or research institutions that need to manage multiple mass spectrometers. With minor changes, they could support other types of biomolecular resource facilities. Availability and Implementation: Source code and executable versions are available under Apache 2.0 License at http://www.vicc.org/jimayersinstitute/data/ Contact: daniel.liebler@vanderbilt.edu PMID:21965817

Ma, Ze-Qiang; Tabb, David L.; Burden, Joseph; Chambers, Matthew C.; Cox, Matthew B.; Cantrell, Michael J.; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Litton, Michael D.; Oreto, Michael R.; Schultz, William C.; Sobecki, Scott M.; Tsui, Tina Y.; Wernke, Gregory R.; Liebler, Daniel C.

2011-01-01

103

Supreme Court Rejects Federal Suits against HMOs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Supreme Court ruled yesterday that patients cannot sue HMOs in Federal court for giving doctors financial incentives to hold down treatment costs. Reversing a Federal Appeals Court decision that argued such suits could be allowed, Justice Souter, writing for a unanimous Court, concluded that Congress's intent in passing a 1973 law paving the way for HMOs was to affirm the entire concept of managed care, including its emphasis on creating profitability by keeping costs down. The court ruled that an Illinois woman could not sue her HMO under federal law for putting in place incentives that encouraged her doctor to delay diagnostic treatment of what would eventually become a ruptured appendix. The High Court was not swayed by the Court of Appeals's argument that one could distinguish between financial incentives that resulted in inappropriate or inadequate care and those that did not.

Charbonneau, David D.

104

Astro-E's Mission Independent Scheduling Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of Mission Scheduling software will be cheaper, easier to customize for a mission, and faster than current planning systems. TAKO (``Timeline Assembler, Keyword Oriented'', or in Japanese, ``octopus'') is our in-progress suite of software that takes database input and produces mission timelines. Our approach uses openly available hardware, software, and compilers, and applies current scheduling and N-body methods to reduce the scope of the problem. A flexible set of keywords lets the user define mission-wide and individual target constraints, and alter them on-the-fly. Our goal is that TAKO will be easily adapted for many missions, and will be usable with a minimum of training. The especially pertinent deadline of Astro-E's launch motivates us to convert theory into software within 2 years. The design choices, methods for reducing the data and providing flexibility, and steps to get TAKO up and running for any mission are discussed.

Antunes, A.; Saunders, A.; Hilton, P.

105

A small evaluation suite for Ada compilers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After completing a small Ada pilot project (OCC simulator) for the Multi Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) at Goddard last year, the use of Ada to develop OCCs was recommended. To help MSOCC transition toward Ada, a suite of about 100 evaluation programs was developed which can be used to assess Ada compilers. These programs compare the overall quality of the compilation system, compare the relative efficiencies of the compilers and the environments in which they work, and compare the size and execution speed of generated machine code. Another goal of the benchmark software was to provide MSOCC system developers with rough timing estimates for the purpose of predicting performance of future systems written in Ada.

Wilke, Randy; Roy, Daniel M.

1986-01-01

106

Suited Occupant Injury Potential During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Constellation Space Suit Element [CSSE], a new space-suit architecture will be created for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Microgravity Extra- Vehicular Activity [EVA], and post-landing crew operations, safety and, under emergency conditions, survival. The space suit is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort [LEA] suit architectures in that it utilizes rigid mobility elements in the scye (i.e., shoulder) and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also utilizes rigid thigh disconnect elements to create a quick disconnect approximately located above the knee. This feature allows commonality of the lower portion of the suit (from the thigh disconnect down), making the lower legs common across two suit configurations. This suit must interface with the Orion vehicle seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to the unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic vehicle events, risks have been identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series has been developed in coordination with the Injury Biomechanics Research Laboratory [IBRL] to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing includes use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices [ATDs; vernacularly referred to as "crash test dummies"], Post Mortem Human Subjects [PMHS], and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on test purpose and objectives; test hardware, facility, and setup; and preliminary results.

Dub, Mark O.; McFarland, Shane M.

2010-01-01

107

Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

Newman, Dava

2003-01-01

108

Innovative technology summary report: Sealed-seam sack suits  

SciTech Connect

Sealed-seam sack suits are an improved/innovative safety and industrial hygiene technology designed to protect workers from dermal exposure to contamination. Most of these disposable, synthetic-fabric suits are more protective than cotton suits, and are also water-resistant and gas permeable. Some fabrics provide a filter to aerosols, which is important to protection against contamination, while allowing air to pass, increasing comfort level of workers. It is easier to detect body-moisture breakthrough with the disposable suits than with cotton, which is also important to protecting workers from contamination. These suits present a safe and cost-effective (6% to 17% less expensive than the baseline) alternative to traditional protective clothing. This report covers the period from October 1996 to August 1997. During that time, sealed-seam sack suits were demonstrated during daily activities under normal working conditions at the C Reactor and under environmentally controlled conditions at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

NONE

1998-09-01

109

Test subject models uprated Apollo A6L pressure suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test subject models the uprated Apollo A6L pressure suit manufactured by International Latex Corporation, under contract to NASA. The suit incorporates changes recommended by the Apollo Review Board. The outer surface is of Beta fabric. The patches on shoulders, elbows, knees and back are of metal fiber cloth. The Beta fabric is made by Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation. The nylon fabric used in the suit was made by Dupont.

1967-01-01

110

A CAD Suite for High-Performance FPGA Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the current status of a suite of CADtools designed specifically for use by designers who aredeveloping high-performance configurable-computing applications.The basis of this tool suite is JHDL [1], a designtool originally conceived as a way to experiment withRun-Time Reconfigured (RTR) designs. However, whatbegan as a limited experiment to model RTR designs withJava has evolved into a comprehensive suite

Brad L. Hutchings; Peter Bellows; Joseph Hawkins; K. Scott Hemmert; Brent E. Nelson; Mike Rytting

1999-01-01

111

The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for space habitation and exploration  

PubMed Central

The “Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration” is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs) and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a “viscous resistance” during movements against a specified direction of “down”—initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from “down” initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

Duda, Kevin R.; Vasquez, Rebecca A.; Middleton, Akil J.; Hansberry, Mitchell L.; Newman, Dava J.; Jacobs, Shane E.; West, John J.

2015-01-01

112

Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space suit's mobility is critical to an astronaut's ability to perform work efficiently. As mobility increases, the astronaut can perform tasks for longer durations with less fatigue. Mobility can be broken down into two parts: range of motion (ROM) and torque. These two measurements describe how the suit moves and how much force it takes to move. Two methods were chosen to define mobility requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). One method focuses on range of motion and the second method centers on joint torque. A joint torque test was conducted to determine a baseline for current advanced space suit joint torques. This test utilized the following space suits: Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), I-Suit, D-Suit, Enhanced Mobility (EM)- ACES, and Mark III (MK-III). Data was collected data from 16 different joint movements of each suit. The results were then reviewed and CSSE joint torque requirement values were selected. The focus of this paper is to discuss trends observed during data analysis.

Matty, Jennifer

2010-01-01

113

Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

2009-01-01

114

Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

2009-01-01

115

The Inelastic Instrument suite at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

Abstract The instruments in the extensive suite of spectrometers at the SNS are in various stages of installation and commissioning. The Back Scattering Spectrometer (BASIS) is installed and is in commissioning. It's near backscattering analyzer crystals provide the 3 eV resolution as expected. BASIS will enter the user program in the fall of 2007. The ARCS wide angular-range thermal to epithermal neutron spectrometer will come on line in the fall of 2007 followed shortly by the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer. These two direct geometry instruments provide moderate resolution and the ability to trade resolution for flux. In addition both instruments have detector coverage out to 140o to provide a large Q range. The SEQUOIA spectrometer, complete in 2008, is the direct geometry instrument that will provide fine resolution in the thermal to epithermal range. The Spin-Echo spectrometer, to be completed on a similar time scale, will provide the finest energy resolution worldwide. The HYSPEC spectrometer, available no later than 2011, will provide polarized capabilities and optimized flux in the thermal energy range. Finally, the Vision chemical spectrometer will use crystal analyzers to study energy transfers into the epithermal range

Granroth, Garrett E [ORNL; Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Hagen, Mark E [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Ohl, Michael E [ORNL; Wildgruber, Christoph U [ORNL

2008-01-01

116

The lunar highland melt-rock suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Size can be used as a criterion to select 18 large (larger than 1 cm) samples from among 148 melt-rock fragments of all sizes. This selection provides a suite of large samples which represent the important chemical variants among highland melt rocks; each large sample has enough material for a number of sample-destructive studies, as well as for future reference. Cluster analysis of the total data base of 148 highland melt rocks shows six distinct groups: anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro ('highland basalt'), low K Fra Mauro, intermediate-K Fra Mauro, and high-K. Large samples are available for four of the melt-rock groups (gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro, and intermediate-K Fra Mauro). This sample selection reveals two subgroups of anorthositic gabbro (one anorthite-poor with negative Eu anomaly and one anorthite-rich without Eu anomaly). There is a sharp distinction between those Apollo 16 melt rocks and glasses which have both been classified as 'gabbroic anorthosite'.

Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

1978-01-01

117

Sample manipulation system for mars instrument suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative Sample Manipulation System (SMS) has been developed to accommodate sample presentation and transfer for up to 6 instrument stations. SMS contains eight sample cups, equally spaced on the circumference of a disk with a diameter of 20 cm. Each cup holds a 3mm diameter sample, 10mm in height. The system was designed and built to interface with an instrument suite consisting of a Quadrupole Analyzer, Laser Desorption Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS), Derivatization Station (DS), and Microscope Station. Precise manipulation of the sample is necessary for the TOF-MS mass spectrometer. Each sample cup has three degrees of freedom, allowing the TOF-MS to examine any spot on the surface of the sample; this also allows samples to be elevated into the DS. Additionally, evacuated environments are needed for laser operation and to avoid possible cross-sample contamination. Multiple reciprocating, rotary and crush seals have been employed to ensure appropriate pressures are maintained. Detailed design and operation descriptions as well as initial test results of the SMS prototype are presented.

Yucht, D.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Gorevan, S.; Mukherjee, S.

2003-04-01

118

Engineering Software Suite Validates System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EDAptive Computing Inc.'s (ECI) EDAstar engineering software tool suite, created to capture and validate system design requirements, was significantly funded by NASA's Ames Research Center through five Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. These programs specifically developed Syscape, used to capture executable specifications of multi-disciplinary systems, and VectorGen, used to automatically generate tests to ensure system implementations meet specifications. According to the company, the VectorGen tests considerably reduce the time and effort required to validate implementation of components, thereby ensuring their safe and reliable operation. EDASHIELD, an additional product offering from ECI, can be used to diagnose, predict, and correct errors after a system has been deployed using EDASTAR -created models. Initial commercialization for EDASTAR included application by a large prime contractor in a military setting, and customers include various branches within the U.S. Department of Defense, industry giants like the Lockheed Martin Corporation, Science Applications International Corporation, and Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, as well as NASA's Langley and Glenn Research Centers

2007-01-01

119

Automated structure solution with the PHENIX suite  

SciTech Connect

Significant time and effort are often required to solve and complete a macromolecular crystal structure. The development of automated computational methods for the analysis, solution, and completion of crystallographic structures has the potential to produce minimally biased models in a short time without the need for manual intervention. The PHENIX software suite is a highly automated system for macromolecular structure determination that can rapidly arrive at an initial partial model of a structure without significant human intervention, given moderate resolution, and good quality data. This achievement has been made possible by the development of new algorithms for structure determination, maximum-likelihood molecular replacement (PHASER), heavy-atom search (HySS), template- and pattern-based automated model-building (RESOLVE, TEXTAL), automated macromolecular refinement (phenix. refine), and iterative model-building, density modification and refinement that can operate at moderate resolution (RESOLVE, AutoBuild). These algorithms are based on a highly integrated and comprehensive set of crystallographic libraries that have been built and made available to the community. The algorithms are tightly linked and made easily accessible to users through the PHENIX Wizards and the PHENIX GUI.

Terwilliger, Thomas C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zwart, Peter H [LBNL; Afonine, Pavel V [LBNL; Grosse - Kunstleve, Ralf W [LBNL

2008-01-01

120

Automated Structure Solution with the PHENIX Suite  

SciTech Connect

Significant time and effort are often required to solve and complete a macromolecular crystal structure. The development of automated computational methods for the analysis, solution and completion of crystallographic structures has the potential to produce minimally biased models in a short time without the need for manual intervention. The PHENIX software suite is a highly automated system for macromolecular structure determination that can rapidly arrive at an initial partial model of a structure without significant human intervention, given moderate resolution and good quality data. This achievement has been made possible by the development of new algorithms for structure determination, maximum-likelihood molecular replacement (PHASER), heavy-atom search (HySS), template and pattern-based automated model-building (RESOLVE, TEXTAL), automated macromolecular refinement (phenix.refine), and iterative model-building, density modification and refinement that can operate at moderate resolution (RESOLVE, AutoBuild). These algorithms are based on a highly integrated and comprehensive set of crystallographic libraries that have been built and made available to the community. The algorithms are tightly linked and made easily accessible to users through the PHENIX Wizards and the PHENIX GUI.

Zwart, Peter H.; Zwart, Peter H.; Afonine, Pavel; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Hung, Li-Wei; Ioerger, Tom R.; McCoy, A.J.; McKee, Eric; Moriarty, Nigel; Read, Randy J.; Sacchettini, James C.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Storoni, L.C.; Terwilliger, Tomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

2008-06-09

121

Resource Discovery Network (RDN) Virtual Training Suite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaboration between 30 universities, this Virtual Training Suite provides 40 tutorials designed to help students, lecturers, and researchers improve their Internet information skills. Based on a United Kingdom initiative to offer free online training, these tutorials cover specific web skills for those in disciplines such as math, the history and philosophy of science, geography, bioresearch, earth science, and others. Each tutorial provides expert "tour guides" developed by universities, libraries, museums, and research institutes across the UK. Representative web-based resources are showcased, but the main objective is to teach users how to find the resources that match their particular needs and interests. The tutorials also focus on the critical and evaluative skills required to judge the merits of specific web resources. There is a glossary, a section for teacher resources, downloadable workbooks, and a discussion on how to cite Internet resources. Each tutorial includes quizzes and interactive exercises. Five hubs for tutorial development include: SOSIG (The Social Science Information Gateway), EEVL (The Internet Guide for Engineering, Mathematics and Computing), BIOME (Internet Resources in Health and Life Sciences), PSIgate (The Physical Sciences Information Gateway) and HUMBUL (The Humanities Hub).

2000-01-01

122

Morphing: A Novel Approach to Astronaut Suit Sizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fitting of a spacesuit to an astronaut is an iterative process consisting of two parts. The first uses anthropometric data to provide an approximation of the suit components that will fit the astronaut. The second part is the subjective fitting, where small adjustments are made based on the astronaut s preference. By providing a better approximation of the correct suit components, the entire fit process time can be reduced significantly. The goals of this project are twofold: (1) To evaluate the effectiveness of the existing sizing algorithm for the Mark III Hybrid suit and (2) to determine what additional components are needed in order to provide adequate sizing for the existing astronaut population. A single subject was scanned using a 3D whole-body scanner (VITUS 3D) in the Mark III suit in eight different poses and four subjects in minimal clothing were also scanned in similar poses. The 3D external body scans of the suit and the subject are overlaid and visually aligned in a customized MATLAB program. The suit components were contracted or expanded linearly along the subjects limbs to match the subjects segmental lengths. Two independent measures were obtained from the morphing program on four subjects and compared with the existing sizing information. Two of the four subjects were in correspondence with the sizing algorithm and morphing results. The morphing outcome for a third subject, incompatible with the suit, suggested that an additional arm element at least 6 inches smaller than the existing smallest suit component would need to be acquired. The morphing result of the fourth subject, deemed incompatible with the suit using the sizing algorithm, indicated a different suit configuration which would be compatible. This configuration matched with the existing suit fit check data.

Margerum, Sarah; Clowers, Kurt; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2006-01-01

123

Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

Watson, Richard D.

2014-01-01

124

The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and relationship between objects in 2D and 3D formats, etc. Further, the article explains that the STA development is open source and it is based on the state of the art astrodynamics routines that are grouped into modules. The modules are programmed using the C++ language. The different STA modules are designed, developed, tested and verified by the different Universities. Software integration and overall validation is performed by ESA. Students are chosen to work in STA modules as part of their Master or PhD thesis programs. As part of their growing experience, the students learn how to write documentation for a space project using European Coorperation on Space Standardization (ECSS) standards, how to test and verify the software modules they write and, how to interact with ESA and each other in this process. Finally, the article concludes about the benefits of the STA initiative. The STA project allows a strong link among applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics disciplines by reinforcing the academic community with requirements and needs coming from space agencies and industry real needs and missions.

Ortega, Guillermo

125

A highly integrated payload suite for Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four Galilean moons have always held a public and scientific fascination due to their diverse and dynamic nature. Amongst the moons, Europa holds a special place for its potential liquid water ocean, beneath its icy crust. This prospect of water places Europa on a par with Mars in terms of its viability for harbouring life. The first hints of Europa's icy surface came from early telescopic observations, which noted an unusually high albedo. Ground based spectroscopy then demonstrated absorption features of relatively pure water ice. Imagery from Pioneer, Voyager, and more recently Galileo confirm this, with the kilometre scale resolution of Galileo showing what appear to be ice flows. The lack of cratering, pointing to a geologically recent surface, furthermore suggests that liquid water could well exist today. The Galileo Europa Mission (GEM) provided much more extensive data during its 8 close orbits, including limited areas of extremely high resolution imaging (6 m), and radio science that confirmed the differentiated nature of Europa. However, many fundamental questions remain that can best be answered by a dedicated orbiter. For example: - Does a liquid water ocean exist? What it its extent vertically and laterally? - What is the composition of the crust? - What are the geological processes operating? The importance of these most basic questions have inspired mission proposals from all of the major space agencies. In Europe, ESA have performed a study into a mission called the "Jupiter Minisat Explorer" in order to identify the key technologies that would have to be developed [1]. The key technological challenges are caused by the harsh Jovian radiation environment, the lack of solar energy available and the thermal problems of such a cold environment. Last, but not least, a payload must be designed that satisfies these requirements and is both low power and low mass. All of these factors dictate the use of a Highly Integrated Payload Suite (HIPS). Such a concept ensure that commonalities in the optics, electronics, data processing etc. are exploited to the maximum degree. The HIPS concept was proposed for BepiColombo payload and although not selected in the end for this mission, a limited subset of this payload is being developed to breadboard level, paving the way for similar instrument sets to be proposed for upcoming Cosmic Vision missions. The instrument suite presented here is designed to address the key science questions above and comprises two primary instruments. SILAT is an integrated high resolution camera and laser altimeter, sharing common optics. This will perform global high resolution imaging of the Europan surface, as well as providing detailed topography. The utility of such mapping for understanding the geological features and processes operating has been demonstrated unequivocally by exploiting the combined datasets of the MOLA instrument onboard MGS and HRSC on Mars Express. HIBRIS is a combined near infrared and thermal infrared spectrometer, including a radiometer mode. These imaging spectrometers again share common optics, and an uncooled microbolometer array is foreseen for the TIR and radiometer modes. In addition to these instruments, a radar sounder similar to the MARSIS instrument on Mars Express should be included for probing the subsurface properties. Each of these instruments is presented in more detail, including their mechanical design, development status and performance models at Europa. In addition, the calibration, test and programmatic issues that arise from both the HIPS philosophy and the Jovian environment are also addressed. References [1] Atzei, A.C. et al (2006), "The Jupiter Minisat Explorer, a Technology Reference Study", Acta Astronautica, In Press 2

Bentley, M.; Kraft, S.; Steiger, R.; Varlet, F.; Voigt, D.; Falkner, P.; Peacock, A.

126

Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton in suit donning/doffing exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton, STS-3 pilot, takes part in a suit donning/doffing exercise aboard a KC-135 'zero-gravity' aircraft. Mission Specialist William F. Fisher, far left, holds a mirror to assist Fullerton with hose and cable linkups to his suit. Fullerton is wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) minus gloves and helmet.

1981-01-01

127

Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics  

E-print Network

Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics Kevin Jalbert, Jeremy S, Canada {kevin.jalbert, jeremy.bradbury}@uoit.ca Abstract--Mutation testing has traditionally been used to evaluate the effectiveness of test suites and provide confidence in the testing process. Mutation testing

Bradbury, Jeremy S.

128

Solving Single-suit Bridge Play: Winning and Knowing Why  

E-print Network

Solving Single-suit Bridge Play: Winning and Knowing Why Ian Frank 1 Complex Games Lab this algorithm by heuristically constraining the space of possible moves, and also provides the key to generating human understandable explanations of the resulting strategies. Using a canonical set of single-suit

Basin, David

129

EVA 2000: A European\\/Russian space suit concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the European manned space activities an EVA space suit system was being developed in the frame of the Hermes Space Vehicle Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The space suit was to serve the needs for all relevant extravehicular activities for the Hermes\\/Columbus operations planned to begin in 2004.For the present Russian manned space programme the relevant EVAs

I. P. Abramov

1995-01-01

130

A New Ablative Heat Shield Sensor Suite Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new sensor suite is developed to measure performance of ablative thermal protection systems used in planetary entry vehicles for robotic and human exploration. The new sensor suite measures ablation of the thermal protection system under extreme heating encountered during planetary entry. The sensor technology is compatible with a variety of thermal protection materials, and is applicable over a wide range of entry conditions.

Bose, Deepak

2014-01-01

131

Knowledge-based interactive design for men's suit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, The design knowledge and sensory knowledge related to men's suit were elicited and acquired from designers by interviewing, laddering and card sorting etc.. The former included design elements and design rules, and the latter referred to the sensory image and semantic space. Design elements of Men's suit were discussed and divided into nine parts: silhouette, style line

Hong Lu; Yan Chen

2010-01-01

132

STS-73 MS Catherine G. Coleman suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman finishes donning her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. The seven-member crew of Mission STS-73 will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits another liftoff attempt at 9:50 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

133

Red Hat Cluster Suite Configuring and Managing a  

E-print Network

Red Hat Cluster Suite Configuring and Managing a Cluster #12;Red Hat Cluster Suite: Configuring and Managing a Cluster Copyright © 2000-2004 by Red Hat, Inc.Mission Critical Linux, Inc.K.M. Sorenson Red Hat:42) For Part I Using the Red Hat Cluster Manager and Part III Appendixes, permission is granted to copy

Westall, James M.

134

Subdivision of the Kureyka suite based on amphiaspid (Agnatha) assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents data on the stratigraphic distribution of the amphiaspids in the northwest of the Siberian Platform (the Kureyka and Razvedochnyy suites) and on the Taymyr peninsula (the Belokamensk and Uryum beds). On the basis of a study of the Kureyka and Noril'sk sections, three units were distinguished within the Kureyka suite, each characterized by particular assemblages of amphiaspids.

L. I. Novitskaya

1977-01-01

135

Diffusion Modeling in BrainSuite13 Justin P. Haldar  

E-print Network

Diffusion Modeling in BrainSuite13 Justin P. Haldar #12;Outline Introduction Diffusion in BrainSuite13 Diffusion Modeling Tracking Analysis Other Resources Conclusion 2 #12;Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Fractional Anisotropy Anomalous Exponent Kurtosis Motivation 3 Diffusion MRI provides unique

Leahy, Richard M.

136

Enforcement in environmental law: an economic analysis of citizen suits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous to 1970, state and federal agencies held exclusive enforcement responsibilities over the violation of pollution control standards. However, recognizing that the government had neither the time nor resources to provide full enforcement, Congress created citizen suits. Citizen suits, first amended to the Clean Air Act in 1970, authorize citizens to act as private attorney generals and to sue polluters

Wendy S. Naysnerski

1990-01-01

137

19. NBS SUIT LAB. STORAGE SHELF WITH LIQUID COOLING VENTILATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. NBS SUIT LAB. STORAGE SHELF WITH LIQUID COOLING VENTILATION GARMENT (LCVG), SUIT GLOVES, WAIST INSERTS, UPPER AND LOWER ARMS (LEFT, FROM TOP TO BOTTOM), LOWER TORSO ASSEMBLIES (LTA) (MIDDLE RIGHT TO LOWER RIGHT). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

138

Planetary Suit Hip Bearing Model for Predicting Design vs. Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. In order to verifying that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must eventually be built and tested with human subjects. Using computer models early in the design phase of new hardware development can be advantageous, allowing virtual prototyping to take place. Having easily modifiable models of the suit hard sections may reduce the time it takes to make changes to the hardware designs and then to understand their impact on suit and human performance. A virtual design environment gives designers the ability to think outside the box and exhaust design possibilities before building and testing physical prototypes with human subjects. Reductions in prototyping and testing may eventually reduce development costs. This study is an attempt to develop computer models of the hard components of the suit with known physical characteristics, supplemented with human subject performance data. Objectives: The primary objective was to develop an articulating solid model of the Mark III hip bearings to be used for evaluating suit design performance of the hip joint. Methods: Solid models of a planetary prototype (Mark III) suit s hip bearings and brief section were reverse-engineered from the prototype. The performance of the models was then compared by evaluating the mobility performance differences between the nominal hardware configuration and hardware modifications. This was accomplished by gathering data from specific suited tasks. Subjects performed maximum flexion and abduction tasks while in a nominal suit bearing configuration and in three off-nominal configurations. Performance data for the hip were recorded using state-of-the-art motion capture technology. Results: The results demonstrate that solid models of planetary suit hard segments for use as a performance design tool is feasible. From a general trend perspective, the suited performance trends were comparable between the model and the suited subjects. With the three off-nominal bearing configurations compared to the nominal bearing configurations, human subjects showed decreases in hip flexion of 64%, 6%, and 13% and in hip abduction of 59%, 2%, and 20%. Likewise the solid model showed decreases in hip flexion of 58%, 1%, and 25% and in hip abduction of 56%, 0%, and 30%, under the same condition changes from the nominal configuration. Differences seen between the model predictions and the human subject performance data could be attributed to the model lacking dynamic elements and performing kinematic analysis only, the level of fit of the subjects with the suit, the levels of the subject s suit experience.

Cowley, Matthew S.; Margerum, Sarah; Harvil, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

139

Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

2007-01-01

140

Shuttle Space Suit: Fabric/LCVG Model Validation. Chapter 8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed space suit computational model is being developed at the Langley Research Center for radiation exposure evaluation studies. The details of the construction of the space suit are critical to estimation of exposures and assessing the risk to the astronaut on EVA. Past evaluations of space suit shielding properties assumed the basic fabric layup (Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, fabric restraints, and pressure envelope) and LCVG could be homogenized as a single layer overestimating the protective properties over 60 percent of the fabric area. The present space suit model represents the inhomogeneous distributions of LCVG materials (mainly the water filled cooling tubes). An experimental test is performed using a 34-MeV proton beam and high-resolution detectors to compare with model-predicted transmission factors. Some suggestions are made on possible improved construction methods to improve the space suit s protection properties.

Wilson, J. W.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Ware, J.; Persans, A. E.

2003-01-01

141

CASS—CFEL-ASG software suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Max Planck Advanced Study Group (ASG) at the Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL) has created the CFEL-ASG Software Suite CASS to view, process and analyse multi-parameter experimental data acquired at Free Electron Lasers (FELs) using the CFEL-ASG Multi Purpose (CAMP) instrument Strüder et al. (2010) [6]. The software is based on a modular design so that it can be adjusted to accommodate the needs of all the various experiments that are conducted with the CAMP instrument. In fact, this allows the use of the software in all experiments where multiple detectors are involved. One of the key aspects of CASS is that it can be used either 'on-line', using a live data stream from the free-electron laser facility's data acquisition system to guide the experiment, and 'off-line', on data acquired from a previous experiment which has been saved to file. Program summary Program title: CASS Catalogue identifier: AEMP_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public Licence, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167073 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1065056 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Intel x86-64. Operating system: GNU/Linux (for information about restrictions see outlook). RAM: >8 GB Classification: 2.3, 3, 15, 16.4. External routines: Qt-Framework[1], SOAP[2], (optional HDF5[3], VIGRA[4], ROOT[5], QWT[6]) Nature of problem: Analysis and visualisation of scientific data acquired at Free-Electron-Lasers Solution method: Generalise data access and storage so that a variety of small programming pieces can be linked to form a complex analysis chain. Unusual features: Complex analysis chains can be built without recompiling the program Additional comments: An updated extensive documentation of CASS is available at [7]. Running time: Depending on the data size and complexity of analysis algorithms. References: [1] http://qt.nokia.com [2] http://www.cs.fsu.edu/~engelen/soap.html [3] http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5/ [4] http://hci.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/vigra/ [5] http://root.cern.ch [6] http://qwt.sourceforge.net/ [7] http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/personalhomes/gitasg/cass

Foucar, Lutz; Barty, Anton; Coppola, Nicola; Hartmann, Robert; Holl, Peter; Hoppe, Uwe; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Küpper, Jochen; Scholz, Mirko; Techert, Simone; White, Thomas A.; Strüder, Lothar; Ullrich, Joachim

2012-10-01

142

Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

2014-11-01

143

The physiology of spacecraft and space suit atmosphere selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors which are considered in arriving at control values and control ranges of the parameters established for spacecraft and space suit environments include physiological, engineering, operational cost, and safety considerations. A number of physiological considerations are discussed, including hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia, temperature regulation, and decompression sickness. The impact of these considerations on space craft and space suit atmosphere selection is considered. The past experience in controlling these parameters in the U.S. and Soviet spacecraft and space suits and the associated physical responses are also reviewed. Physiological factors currently under investigation are discussed, including decompression sickness.

Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J.; Nicogossian, A.

1991-01-01

144

A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead. PMID:23202204

Dini, Gianluca; Duca, Angelica Lo

2012-01-01

145

Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step was to certify the equipment for manned used, which included generating a Hazard Analysis and giving a presentation to the Test Readiness Review Board. Both of these test support systems will perform critical roles in the development of next-generation space suits. They will used on a regular basis to test the NASA's new Z-2 Space Suit. The Space Suit Cooling System is now the primary cooling system for all advanced suit tests.

Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

2013-01-01

146

will become the pair. There are \\Gamma 4 ways to choose the suits for the pair, and 4 ways to choose the suit of  

E-print Network

to choose the suits for the triple, and \\Gamma 4 2 \\Delta ways to choose the suits for the double. Thus wewill become the pair. There are \\Gamma 4 2 \\Delta ways to choose the suits for the pair, and 4 ways to choose the suit of the singletons. Thus there are \\Gamma 13 4 \\Delta \\Lambda 4 \\Lambda \\Gamma 4 2 \\Delta

Ribet, Kenneth A.

147

30/03/08 1:36 PMFact Sheet NSA Suite B Cryptography Page 1 of 3http://www.nsa.gov/ia/industry/crypto_suite_b.cfm  

E-print Network

30/03/08 1:36 PMFact Sheet NSA Suite B Cryptography Page 1 of 3http://www.nsa.gov/ia/industry/crypto_suite_b.cfm >>Fact Sheet NSA Suite B Cryptography Background: The sustained and rapid advance of information and National Security Information (CNSSP-15), the National Security Agency (NSA) announced Suite B Cryptography

Soltys, Michael

148

The Extreme Benchmark Suite : measuring high-performance embedded systems  

E-print Network

The Extreme Benchmark Suite (XBS) is designed to support performance measurement of highly parallel "extreme" processors, many of which are designed to replace custom hardware implementations. XBS is designed to avoid many ...

Gerding, Steven (Steven Bradley)

2005-01-01

149

Engineering a robotic exoskeleton for space suit simulation  

E-print Network

Novel methods for assessing space suit designs and human performance capabilities are needed as NASA prepares for manned missions beyond low Earth orbit. Current human performance tests and training are conducted in space ...

Meyen, Forrest Edward

2013-01-01

150

EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This "EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit" presentation covers several topics related to the medical implications and physiological effects of suited operations in space from the perspective of a physician with considerable first-hand Extravehicular Activity (EVA) experience. Key themes include EVA physiology working in a pressure suit in the vacuum of space, basic EVA life support and work support, Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspections and repairs, and discussions of the physical challenges of an EVA. Parazynski covers the common injuries and significant risks during EVAs, as well as physical training required to prepare for EVAs. He also shares overall suit physiological and medical knowledge with the next generation of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) system designers.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

151

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN  

E-print Network

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE and Construction Key words: Preventive conservation, traditional conservation practices, risk reduction, heritage management Abstract The concept of "preventive conservation" is relatively old as it has already been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

33. SOLARIUM AND TERRACE IN EXECUTIVE SUITE LOOKING NORTH PAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. SOLARIUM AND TERRACE IN EXECUTIVE SUITE LOOKING NORTH PAST SLIDING GLASS WALL THAT DIVIDES SOLARIUM FROM EXECUTIVE DINING ROOM - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, Twelfth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

153

NASA Research Announcement for Space Suit Survivability Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the research activities for space suit survivability material enhancements. Self-sealing mechanisms for the pressure envelope were addressed, as were improvements in materials for cut, puncture, and hypervelocity impact resistance.

Fredrickson, Thad H.; Ware, Joanne S.; Lin, John K.; Pastore, Christopher M.

1998-01-01

154

124. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6154, SUPPORT STAFF ROOM (FORMERLY STUDY) (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

155

Mechanical counter-pressure space suit design using active materials  

E-print Network

Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) space suits have the potential to greatly improve the mobility of astronauts as they conduct planetary exploration activities; however, the underlying technologies required to provide ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2014-01-01

156

15. NBS TOP SIDE CONTROL ROOM. THE SUIT SYSTEMS CONSOLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. NBS TOP SIDE CONTROL ROOM. THE SUIT SYSTEMS CONSOLE IS USED TO CONTROL AIR FLOW AND WATER FLOW TO THE UNDERWATER SPACE SUIT DURING THE TEST. THE SUIT SYSTEMS ENGINEER MONITORS AIR FLOW ON THE PANEL TO THE LEFT, AND SUIT DATA ON THE COMPUTER MONITOR JUST SLIGHTLY TO HIS LEFT. WATER FLOW IS MONITORED ON THE PANEL JUST SLIGHTLY TO HIS RIGHT AND TEST VIDEO TO HIS FAR RIGHT. THE DECK CHIEF MONITORS THE DIVER'S DIVE TIMES ON THE COMPUTER IN THE UPPER RIGHT. THE DECK CHIEF LOGS THEM IN AS THEY ENTER THE WATER, AND LOGS THEM OUT AS THEY EXIT THE WATER. THE COMPUTER CALCULATES TOTAL DIVE TIME. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

157

The use of underwater dynamometry to evaluate two space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four Astronauts were instrumented and donned one of three extravehicular activity (EVA) suits: the currently in use shuttle suit (STS), the Mark III (MK3), and the AX5. The STS was used as the comparison suit because of approved status. Each subject performed ten different exercises in each suit in three different manners (static, dynamic and fatigue) in two different environments, WETF and KC-135 (KC-135 not completed as of this report). Data were recorded from a flight qualified underwater dynamometer (Cybex power head) with a TEAC multichannel recorder/tape and downloaded into the VAX computer system for analysis. Also direct hard copy strip chart recordings were made for backup comparisons. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA procedure and results were graphed and reported without interpretation to the NASA/JSC ABL manager.

Squires, W. G.

1989-01-01

158

21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

159

Pilot Fullerton dons ejection escape suit (EES) on middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot Fullerton dons ejection escape suit (EES) (high altitude pressure garment) life preserver unit (LPU) on forward port side of middeck above potable water tank. Fullerton also adjusts lapbelt fitting and helmet holddown strap.

1982-01-01

160

Corrections of the NIST Statistical Test Suite for Randomness  

E-print Network

It is well known that the NIST statistical test suite was used for the evaluation of AES candidate algorithms. We have found that the test setting of Discrete Fourier Transform test and Lempel-Ziv test of this test suite are wrong. We give four corrections of mistakes in the test settings. This suggests that re-evaluation of the test results should be needed.

Song-Ju Kim; Ken Umeno; Akio Hasegawa

2004-01-27

161

STS-73 Pilot Kent V. Rominger suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Pilot Kent V. Rominger gets a helping hand from a suit technican as he finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. About to take his first trip into space, Rominger and six fellow crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during a launch window opening at 9:41 a.m. EDT, Oct. 7.

1995-01-01

162

Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space suit s mobility is critical to an astronaut s ability to perform work efficiently. As mobility increases, the astronaut can perform tasks for longer durations with less fatigue. The term mobility, with respect to space suits, is defined in terms of two key components: joint range of motion and joint torque. Individually these measures describe the path which in which a joint travels and the force required to move it through that path. Previous space suits mobility requirements were defined as the collective result of these two measures and verified by the completion of discrete functional tasks. While a valid way to impose mobility requirements, such a method does necessitate a solid understanding of the operational scenarios in which the final suit will be performing. Because the Constellation space suit system requirements are being finalized with a relatively immature concept of operations, the Space Suit Element team elected to define mobility in terms of its constituent parts to increase the likelihood that the future pressure garment will be mobile enough to enable a broad scope of undefined exploration activities. The range of motion requirements were defined by measuring the ranges of motion test subjects achieved while performing a series of joint maximizing tasks in a variety of flight and prototype space suits. The definition of joint torque requirements has proved more elusive. NASA evaluated several different approaches to the problem before deciding to generate requirements based on unmanned joint torque evaluations of six different space suit configurations being articulated through 16 separate joint movements. This paper discusses the experiment design, data analysis and results, and the process used to determine the final values for the Constellation pressure garment joint torque requirements.

Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

2009-01-01

163

MDO TEST SUITE AT NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Langley Research Center supports a wide variety of multidisciplinary designoptimization (MDO) research and requires a set of standard MDO test problems forevaluating and comparing the products of this research. This paper proposes a WorldWide-Web-based test suite for collecting, distributing, and maintaining the standard testproblems. A prototype suite of 10 test problems, including written problem descriptions,benchmark solution methods, sample

Sharon L. Padula; Natalia Alexandrov; Lawrence L. Green

1996-01-01

164

STS-73 Mission Specialist Catherine Coleman suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman is assisted by a suit technician as she dons her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. STS-73 will be the first trip into space for Coleman, who will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits lift off during a window opening at 9:41 a.m. EDT, Oct. 7.

1995-01-01

165

STS-67 Payload Commander Tamara Jernigan Suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-67 Payload Commander Tamara E. Jernigan is donning her launch/entry suit with assistance from a suit technician. Along with six fellow crew members, Jernigan -- who is about to fly into space for the third time -- will soon depart for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is being readied for liftoff during a launch window opening at 1:37 a.m. EST, March 2.

1995-01-01

166

Water Vapor Permeability of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) crewmembers are expected to return to earth wearing a suit similar to the current Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). To ensure optimum cognitive performance, suited crewmembers must maintain their core body temperature within acceptable limits. There are currently several options for thermal maintenance in the post-landing phase. These include the current baseline, which uses an ammonia boiler, purge flow using oxygen in the suit, accessing sea water for liquid cooling garment (LCG) cooling and/or relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit. These options vary significantly in mass, power, engineering and safety factors, with relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit being the least difficult to implement. Data from previous studies indicates that the evaporative cooling capacity of the ACES was much higher than previously expected, but subsequent tests were performed for longer duration and higher metabolic rates to better define the water vapor permeability of the ACES. In these tests five subjects completed a series of tests performing low to moderate level exercise in order to control for a target metabolic rate while wearing the ACES in an environmentally controlled thermal chamber. Four different metabolic profiles at a constant temperature of 95 F and relative humidity of 50% were evaluated. These tests showed subjects were able to reject about twice as much heat in the permeable ACES as they were in an impermeable suit that had less thermal insulation. All of the heat rejection differential is attributed to the increased evaporation capability through the Gortex bladder of the suit.

Bue, Grant; Kuzneth, Larry; Gillis, David; Jones, Jeffery; Daniel, Brian; Gernhardt, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas

2009-01-01

167

Elastic-Tether Suits for Artificial Gravity and Exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Body suits harnessed to systems of elastic tethers have been proposed as means of approximating the effects of normal Earth gravitation on crewmembers of spacecraft in flight to help preserve the crewmembers physical fitness. The suits could also be used on Earth to increase effective gravitational loads for purposes of athletic training. The suit according to the proposal would include numerous small tether-attachment fixtures distributed over its outer surface so as to distribute the artificial gravitational force as nearly evenly as possible over the wearer s body. Elastic tethers would be connected between these fixtures and a single attachment fixture on a main elastic tether that would be anchored to a fixture on or under a floor. This fixture might include multiple pulleys to make the effective length of the main tether great enough that normal motions of the wearer cause no more than acceptably small variations in the total artificial gravitational force. Among the problems in designing the suit would be equalizing the load in the shoulder area and keeping tethers out of the way below the knees to prevent tripping. The solution would likely include running tethers through rings on the sides. Body suits with a weight or water ballast system are also proposed for very slight spinning space-station scenarios, in which cases the proposed body suits will easily be able to provide the equivalency of a 1-G or even greater load.

Torrance, Paul; Biesinger, Paul; Rybicki, Daniel D.

2005-01-01

168

Materials and Textile Architecture Analyses for Mechanical Counter-Pressure Space Suits using Active Materials  

E-print Network

Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) space suits have the potential to improve the mobility of astronauts as they conduct planetary exploration activities. MCP suits differ from traditional gas-pressurized space suits by ...

Buechley, Leah

169

Space Suit CO2 Washout During Intravehicular Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space suit carbon dioxide (CO2) washout refers to the removal of CO2 gas from the oral-nasal area of a suited astronaut's (or crewmember's) helmet using the suit's ventilation system. Inadequate washout of gases can result in diminished mental/cognitive abilities as well as headaches and light headedness. In addition to general discomfort, these ailments can impair an astronaut s ability to perform mission-critical tasks ranging from flying the space vehicle to performing lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). During design development for NASA s Constellation Program (CxP), conflicting requirements arose between the volume of air flow that the new Orion manned space vehicle is allocated to provide to the suited crewmember and the amount of air required to achieve CO2 washout in a space suit. Historically, space suits receive 6.0 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of air flow, which has adequately washed out CO2 for EVAs. For CxP, the Orion vehicle will provide 4.5 acfm of air flow to the suit. A group of subject matter experts (SM Es) among the EVA Systems community came to an early consensus that 4.5 acfm may be acceptable for low metabolic rate activities. However, this value appears very risky for high metabolic rates, hence the need for further analysis and testing. An analysis was performed to validate the 4.5 acfm value and to determine if adequate CO2 washout can be achieved with the new suit helmet design concepts. The analysis included computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling cases, which modeled the air flow and breathing characteristics of a human wearing suit helmets. Helmet testing was performed at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to provide a gross-level validation of the CFD models. Although there was not a direct data correlation between the helmet testing and the CFD modeling, the testing data showed trends that are very similar to the CFD modeling. Overall, the analysis yielded results that were better than anticipated, with a few unexpected findings that could not easily be explained. Results indicate that 4.5 acfm is acceptable for CO2 washout and helmet design. This paper summarizes the results of this CO2 washout study.

Augustine, Phillip M.; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Sargusingh, Miriam M.

2010-01-01

170

The DaCHS Multi-protocol VO Server  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GAVO's Data Center Helper Suite (DaCHS) is a suite of tools for publishing data to the Virtual Observatory. It implements all major VO protocols (SCS, SIAP, SSAP, TAP, OAI-PMH). The integrated management and ingestion component allow defining metadata, structure, and services once and re-use the definition throughout the publication cycle from initial metadata aquisition to registry record generation. It has been driving GAVO's data center since 2008 and is now deployed in multiple locations around the globe. This poster briefly describes the design of the system as well as a bird's-eye view of data publishing with DaCHS.

Demleitner, M.

2014-05-01

171

Multifunctional Cooling Garment for Space Suit Environmental Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these future space suits face daunting challenges, since they must maintain healthy and comfortable conditions inside the suit for longduration missions while minimizing weight and water venting. We have demonstrated the feasibility of an innovative, multipurpose garment for thermal and humidity control inside a space suit pressure garment that is simple, rugged, compact, and lightweight. The garment is a based on a conventional liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that has been modified to directly absorb latent heat as well as sensible heat. This hybrid garment will prevent buildup of condensation inside the pressure garment, prevent loss of water by absorption in regenerable CO2 removal beds, and conserve water through use of advanced lithium chloride absorber/radiator (LCAR) technology for nonventing heat rejection. We have shown the feasibility of this approach by sizing the critical components for the hybrid garment, developing fabrication methods, building and testing a proof-of-concept system, and demonstrating by test that its performance is suitable for use in space suit life support systems.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Ferl, Janet

2014-01-01

172

Multifunctional Cooling Garment for Space Suit Environmental Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these future space suits face daunting challenges, since they must maintain healthy and comfortable conditions inside the suit for long-duration missions while minimizing weight and water venting. We have demonstrated the feasibility of an innovative, multipurpose garment for thermal and humidity control inside a space suit pressure garment that is simple, rugged, compact, and lightweight. The garment is a based on a conventional liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that has been modified to directly absorb latent heat as well as sensible heat. This hybrid garment will prevent buildup of condensation inside the pressure garment, prevent loss of water by absorption in regenerable CO2 removal beds, and conserve water through use of advanced lithium chloride absorber/radiator (LCAR) technology for nonventing heat rejection. We have shown the feasibility of this approach by sizing the critical components for the hybrid garment, developing fabrication methods, building and testing a proof-of-concept system, and demonstrating by test that its performance is suitable for use in space suit life support systems.

Izenson, Michael; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Ferl, Janet; Cencer, Daniel

2015-01-01

173

Preliminary Shuttle Space Suit Shielding Model. Chapter 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two space suits in current usage within the space program: EMU [2] and Orlan-M Space Suit . The Shuttle space suit components are discussed elsewhere [2,5,6] and serve as a guide to development of the current model. The present model is somewhat simplified in details which are considered to be second order in their effects on exposures. A more systematic approach is ongoing on a part-by-part basis with the most important ones in terms of exposure contributions being addressed first with detailed studies of the relatively thin space suit fabric as the first example . Additional studies to validate the model of the head coverings (bubble, helmet, visors.. .) will be undertaken in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the model as it is now and to examine its impact on estimates of astronaut health risks. In this respect, the nonuniform distribution of mass of the space suit provides increased shielding in some directions and some organs. These effects can be most important in terms of health risks and especially critical to evaluation of potential early radiation effects .

Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, J. E.; Qualls, G. D.; Staritz, P. J.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Ware, J.; Persans, A. E.

2003-01-01

174

STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman dons his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. Note that Newman's name tag reads Pluto. The STS-69 crew has dubbed itself the Dog Crew II, continuing a spirit of camaraderie that began on an earlier flight, STS-53, on which STS-69 astronauts James Voss and David Walker were crew members. Each of the STS-69 crew members adopted a dog-theme name, and the crew is even sporting a Dog Crew II patch along with the traditional mission emblem. After donning their launch/ entry suits, Newman and four fellow crewmembers will depart for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour awaits liftoff during a two and a half hour window opening at 11:09 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

175

Suited versus Unsuited Analog Astronaut Performance Using the Aouda.X Space Suit Simulator: The DELTA Experiment of MARS2013.  

PubMed

Space suit simulators are used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) during Mars analog missions. Flight planning and EVA productivity require accurate time estimates of activities to be performed with such simulators, such as experiment execution or traverse walking. We present a benchmarking methodology for the Aouda.X space suit simulator of the Austrian Space Forum. By measuring and comparing the times needed to perform a set of 10 test activities with and without Aouda.X, an average time delay was derived in the form of a multiplicative factor. This statistical value (a second-over-second time ratio) is 1.30 and shows that operations in Aouda.X take on average a third longer than the same operations without the suit. We also show that activities predominantly requiring fine motor skills are associated with larger time delays (between 1.17 and 1.59) than those requiring short-distance locomotion or short-term muscle strain (between 1.10 and 1.16). The results of the DELTA experiment performed during the MARS2013 field mission increase analog mission planning reliability and thus EVA efficiency and productivity when using Aouda.X. Key Words: Extravehicular activity (EVA)-Space suit mobility-Flight planning-Aouda.X-Suited versus unsuited performance-Productivity-Resource optimization-Analog missions-Human factors-Time delay. Astrobiology 15, 283-290. PMID:25811713

Soucek, Alexander; Ostkamp, Lutz; Paternesi, Roberta

2015-04-01

176

Exploration Spacecraft and Space Suit Internal Atmosphere Pressure and Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of habitat atmospheres for future space missions is heavily driven by physiological and safety requirements. Lower EVA prebreathe time and reduced risk of decompression sickness must be balanced against the increased risk of fire and higher cost and mass of materials associated with higher oxygen concentrations. Any proposed increase in space suit pressure must consider impacts on space suit mass and mobility. Future spacecraft designs will likely incorporate more composite and polymeric materials both to reduce structural mass and to optimize crew radiation protection. Narrowed atmosphere design spaces have been identified that can be used as starting points for more detailed design studies and risk assessments.

Lange, Kevin; Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Campbell, Paul

2005-01-01

177

STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker is assisted by a suit technician as she dons her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Her third spaceflight will be an historic one for Baker, a medical doctor, as she oversees the series of scientific investigations that will be conducted during the first docking of the U.S. Space Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir. Baker and six fellow crew members -- four Americans and two Russian cosmonauts -- will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff during a 10- minute launch window opening at 3:32 p.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

178

STS-77 Pilot Curtis Brown Jr. suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-77 Pilot Curtis L. Brown Jr. is completing the task of putting on his launch/entry suit with assistance from a suit technician. STS-77 will mark the third trip into space for Brown, who was selected to join the astronaut program in June 1987. He and five fellow crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour launch window opening at 6:30 a.m. EDT, May 19.

1996-01-01

179

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith Suit Up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith gives a ''';thumbs up'''; while donning his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A suit technician stands ready to assist with final adjustments. This is Smith''';s second space flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Discovery awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission to service the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This will be the second HST servicing mission. Four back-to-back spacewalks are planned.

1997-01-01

180

STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston E. Scott suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston Scott dons his launch and entry suit with the assistance of a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. This is Scotts second space flight. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Scott is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, during STS-87. He also performed a spacewalk on STS-72.

1997-01-01

181

Performance of new space suit designs is typically tested quantitatively in laboratory tests, at both the  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Performance of new space suit designs is typically tested quantitatively in laboratory in earlier generation suits. This paper details the equipment design and test methodology for extended space suit in realistic simulations of its operating environment. INTRODUCTION Space suit design is a field

Akin, David

182

Enable an IMS application as a Web service running in IMS Enterprise Suite SOAP  

E-print Network

Enable an IMS application as a Web service running in IMS Enterprise Suite SOAP Gateway Skill Level® Developer for System z® and IMS Enterprise Suite SOAP Gateway. About this tutorial This tutorial takes you by using IBM Rational Developer for System z and IMS Enterprise Suite SOAP Gateway. IMS Enterprise Suite

183

Suitport Feasibility: Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a space suit prototype on the second generation MMSEV cabin, and testing is planned using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. Pressurized testing will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, a suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents the design of a human rated second generation suitport, the design of a suit capable of supporting pressurized human donning through a suitport, ambient pressure testing of the suit with the suitport, and modifications to the JSC human rated chamber B to accept a suitport. Design challenges and solutions, as well as compromises required to develop the system, are presented. Initial human testing results are presented.

Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

2012-01-01

184

Mibench: a free, commercially representative embedded benchmark suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a set of commercially representative embedded programs and compares them to an existing benchmark suite, SPEC2000. A new version of SimpleScalar that has been adapted to the ARM instruction set is used to characterize the performance of the benchmarks using configurations similar to current and next generation embedded processors. Several characteristics distinguish the representative embedded programs from

Matthew R. Guthaus; Jeffrey S. Ringenberg; Dan Ernst; T Mudge; Rb Brown; Todd Austin

2001-01-01

185

CBR Fermenter Suite Frequently asked questions: Updated Jun 2011  

E-print Network

CBR Fermenter Suite Frequently asked questions: Updated Jun 2011 What kind of fermentation Yes Yes Yes No No No No Bacterial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pichia Yes Yes Yes Yes No No NoFermentations Insect/Animal Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes For Number of fermenters 3-L Rushton impeller x 3 Bacterial

Strynadka, Natalie

186

The test suite generation problem: Optimal instances and their implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the test suite generation problem (TSG) for software systems, I is a set of n input parameters where each I 2 I has (I) data values, and O is a collection of subsets ofI where the interactions of the parameters in each O 2O are thought to aect the outcome of the system. A test case for (I;O; )

Christine T. Cheng

2007-01-01

187

Surgical suite environmental control system. [using halothane absorbing filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and experimental work for a systems analysis approach to the problem of surgical suit exhaust systems centered on evaluation of halothane absorbing filters. An activated charcoal-alumina-charcoal combination proved to be the best filter for eliminating halothane through multilayer absorption of gas molecules.

Higginbotham, E. J.; Jacobs, M. L.

1974-01-01

188

The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…

Chiodo, John J.

2013-01-01

189

DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

Lin, J I

2011-01-25

190

16 PLANET EARTH Summer 2014 pace suit fitted: check. Helmet  

E-print Network

the challenges of living and working on Mars. The Red Planet is considered to be the nearest planet16 PLANET EARTH Summer 2014 S pace suit fitted: check. Helmet secured: check. Radio transmitter terrain. It's another sunny day on Mars, even though the temperature is still below zero. It's a good

Brierley, Andrew

191

Certification of EEOC Class Suits under Rule 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes, functions, and underlying policies of both rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and Title VII indicate that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission should be required to certify when it brings class action suits. Available from University of Chicago Law School, 1111 E. 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637; single issue $3.50.…

Becker, Mary E.

1979-01-01

192

CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011  

E-print Network

CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011 Please note that fees can be changed-Mill For yeast cells (volume > 1-L) 30 min 37.50$ BeadBeater For yeast cells (volume : Fermenter user must harvest but CBR can provide bottles for the use of CBR centrifuge 7-L Fermenters

Strynadka, Natalie

193

LOUISIANA STATE BOARD OF NURSING 5207 ESSEN LANE, SUITE 6  

E-print Network

LOUISIANA STATE BOARD OF NURSING 5207 ESSEN LANE, SUITE 6 BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA 70809 PRECEPTOR program. This form shall be reviewed during the on-site survey of the nursing program by the Louisiana of Responsibility Signature of Preceptor Name Printed I certify that I have visually inspected the current Louisiana

194

Test suite reduction and prioritization with call trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tool that (i) constructs tree-based models of a program's behavior during testing and (ii) em- ploys these trees while reordering and reducing a test suite. Using either a dynamic call tree or a calling context tree, the test reduction component identifies a subset of the original tests that covers the same call tree paths. The prioritiza-

Adam M. Smith; Joshua Geiger; Gregory M. Kapfhammer; Mary Lou Soffa

2007-01-01

195

Developing a conversational travel advisor with ADVISOR SUITE  

E-print Network

in current and future e-tourism (see, e.g. Werthner, 2003; Ricci & del Missier, 2004). However, developingDeveloping a conversational travel advisor with ADVISOR SUITE Dietmar Jannacha , Markus Zankera Informatics University Klagenfurt, Austria {dietmar,markus}@ifit.uni-klu.ac.at b e-tourism competence center

Jannach, Dietmar

196

Astronaut Performance: Implications for Future Space Suit Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantified astronaut task performance will lead to enhanced training, more efficient crew operations, and optimized mission planning. In order to systematically address the relationships between the astronaut, tasks to be accomplished, and environment, analytical models were developed in conjunction with pressurized space suit experiments and state of the art robotic technology. A joint angle and torque database was compiled for

A. L. Frazer; B. M. Pitts; J. A. Hoffman; D. J. Newman

2002-01-01

197

The Chameleon Suit--a liberated future for space explorers.  

PubMed

Mankind's spacefaring future demands the ability to work freely and frequently in space. Traditional spacesuit systems burden both the spacefarer and the mission, limiting the extent to which this is possible. The spacefarer is burdened by a pressure suit designed for isolation from the environment and a life support system designed to replace everything our environment normally provides. The space mission is burdened by this equipment and the expendable materials to operate and maintain it. We aren't free to work in space as frequently, as long, or in all of the locations envisioned. The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) has sponsored research on an alternative concept, the "Chameleon Suit", that seeks to liberate future explorers and missions from these limitations. The Chameleon Suit system works with the environment in an adaptive fashion to minimize hardware and expendable materials. To achieve this, functions of the life support system are integrated with the pressure suit using emerging materials and design technology. Technologies under study include shape change polymers and electroemissive materials to modify heat transfer characteristics of the spacesuit "skin" achieving thermoregulation analogous to that in natural biological systems. This approach was shown to be feasible for many space missions during the Phase 1 study program. The current Phase 2 program is investigating more aggressive concepts aimed at eliminating most of the hardware currently included in the spacesuit's life support backpack. This paper describes the concept, study results to date, and possible impacts on future human space exploration. PMID:12959138

Hodgson, Edward

2003-06-01

198

Department of Urology 333 City Blvd. West, Suite 2100  

E-print Network

Department of Urology 333 City Blvd. West, Suite 2100 Orange, CA 92868 714.456.5371 Copyright CENTER Minimally Invasive Urologic Surgery Training Program We welcome your participation. MINI-FELLOWSHIP University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Department of Urology The UC Irvine Surgical Education

Cramer, Karina

199

Extravehicular Mobility Unit Training Suit Symptom Study Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to characterize the symptoms and injuries experienced by NASA astronauts during extravehicular activity (space walk) spacesuit training at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory at Ellington Field, Houston, Texas. We identified the frequency and incidence rates of symptoms by each general body location and characterized mechanisms of injury and effective countermeasures. Based on these findings a comprehensive list of recommendations was made to improve training, test preparation, and current spacesuit components, and to design the next -generation spacesuit. At completion of each test event a comprehensive questionnaire was produced that documented suit symptom comments, identified mechanisms of injury, and recommended countermeasures. As we completed our study we found that most extravehicular mobility unit suit symptoms were mild, self-limited, and controlled by available countermeasures. Some symptoms represented the potential for significant injury with short- and long-term consequences regarding astronaut health and interference with mission objectives. The location of symptoms and injuries that were most clinically significant was in the hands, shoulders, and feet. Correction of suit symptoms issues will require a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, early medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

Strauss, Samuel

2004-01-01

200

Spherical harmonic results for the 3D Kobayashi Benchmark suite  

SciTech Connect

Spherical harmonic solutions are presented for the Kobayashi benchmark suite. The results were obtained with Ardra, a scalable, parallel neutron transport code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The calculations were performed on the IBM ASCI Blue-Pacific computer at LLNL.

Brown, P N; Chang, B; Hanebutte, U R

1999-03-02

201

Space Suit Environment Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In three previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of this technology. That testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment with both simulated and real human metabolic loads, and in both open and closed-loop configurations. The Orion ARS is designed to also support space-suited operations in a depressurized cabin, so the next step in developmental testing at JSC was to test the ARS technology in a typical closed space suit-loop environment with low-pressure oxygen inside the process loop and vacuum outside the loop. This was the first instance of low-pressure, high-oxygen, closed-loop testing of the Orion ARS technology, and it was conducted with simulated human metabolic loads in March 2009. The test investigated pressure drops and flow balancing through two different styles of prototype suit umbilical connectors. General swing-bed performance was tested with both umbilical configurations, as well as with a short jumper line installed in place of the umbilicals. Other interesting results include observations on the thermal effects of swing-bed operation in a vacuum environment and a recommendation of cycle time to maintain acceptable suit atmospheric CO2 and moisture levels.

Button, Amy B.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Cox, Marlon R.

2010-01-01

202

Apollo 13 crewmembers in suiting room prior to launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot, appears to be relaxing in the suiting room at Kennedy Space Center prior to launch. Swigert replaced Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II when it was discovered that Mattingly had been exposed to the measles (34847); Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., commander for Apollo 13 mission, undergoes spacesuit checks a few hours before launch (34848).

1970-01-01

203

The Global Health Group 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200  

E-print Network

The Global Health Group 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200 San Francisco, CA 94105, USA tel: 415.597.4660 fax: 415.597.8299 UCSF Global Health Group Research Assistant (limited hire) The UCSF Global Health Group (http://globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/global-health-group) seeks a candidate with experience

Derisi, Joseph

204

The Global Health Group 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200  

E-print Network

The Global Health Group 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200 San Francisco, CA 94105, USA tel: 415.597.4660 fax: 415.597.8299 UCSF Global Health Group Research Assistant (limited hire) The UCSF Global Health Group (http://globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/global-health-group) seeks

Klein, Ophir

205

Human Resource Services 555 S Howes Street, Suite 213  

E-print Network

Human Resource Services 555 S Howes Street, Suite 213 Campus Delivery 6004 Page | 1 www.hrs.colostate.edu 5/2008 Human Resource Services Verification of Student Status at Other Institution DATE: TO: Registrar, Institution FROM: Human Resource Services ­ Records RE: SSN: Name: Department Number & Name

206

Security problems in the TCP\\/IP protocol suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TCP\\/IP protocol suite, which is very widely used today, was developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Defense. Despite that, there are a number of serious security flaws inherent in the protocols, regardless of the correctness of any implementations. We describe a variety of attacks based on these flaws, including sequence number spoofing, routing attacks, source address spoofing,

S. M. Bellovin

1989-01-01

207

SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY THE GRADUATE SCHOOL Suite 220 BOWNE HALL  

E-print Network

SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY THE GRADUATE SCHOOL · Suite 220 BOWNE HALL ORIENTATION SCHEDULE UNIVERSITYSlice portal, Student Services pagelet, which is accessible via the web during prescribed times. The MySlice portal can be accessed from any internet-connected computer on or off campus, web address: https

Mohan, Chilukuri K.

208

In the wake of a negligent release law suit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several staff members at a state psychiatric hospital were found negligent in a jury trial for having released a psychiatric patient who subsequently killed a member of the plaintiff's family. This study explored the impact of the law suit on the hospital staff members as individuals and on the functioning of the institution. Self-report measures revealed that both named defendants

Norman G. Poythress; Stanley L. Brodsky

1992-01-01

209

TAMPA BAY TECHNOLOGY INCUBATOR 3802 SPECTRUM BOULEVARD, SUITE 100  

E-print Network

TAMPA BAY TECHNOLOGY INCUBATOR 3802 SPECTRUM BOULEVARD, SUITE 100 TAMPA, FLORIDA 33612 WWW.USFCONNECT.ORG Approved for use until 6/30/14 TAMPA BAY TECHNOLOGY INCUBATOR SELECTION & ELIGBILITY CRITERIA The following are criteria that the Tampa Bay Technology Incubator evaluates before admitting a company. A forprofit

Arslan, Hüseyin

210

The AM-Bench: An Android Multimedia Benchmark Suite  

E-print Network

The AM-Bench: An Android Multimedia Benchmark Suite Chayong Lee Euna Kim Hyesoon Kim School benchmark for Android platforms (AM-Bench). The AM-Bench consists of several multimedia benchmarks running on Android platforms. We explain the characteristics of the AM-Bench and compare performance on four Android

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

211

Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with minimal redesign effort required such that the modular architecture can be quickly and efficiently honed into a specific mission point solution if required.

Hill, Terry R.

2010-01-01

212

Comparison of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suited and unsuited isolated joint strength measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study the strength of subjects suited in extravehicular mobility units (EMU's) - or Space Shuttle suits - was compared to the strength of unsuited subjects. The authors devised a systematic and complete data set that characterizes isolated joint torques for all major joints of EMU-suited subjects. Six joint motions were included in the data set. The joint conditions of six subjects were compared to increase our understanding of the strength capabilities of suited subjects. Data were gathered on suited and unsuited subjects. Suited subjects wore Class 3 or Class 1 suits, with and without thermal micrometeoroid garments (TMG's). Suited and unsuited conditions for each joint motion were compared. From this the authors found, for example, that shoulder abduction suited conditions differ from each other and from the unsuited condition. A second-order polynomial regression model was also provided. This model, which allows the prediction of suited strength when given unsuited strength information, relates the torques of unsuited conditions to the torques of all suited conditions. Data obtained will enable computer modeling of EMU strength, conversion from unsuited to suited data, and isolated joint strength comparisons between suited and unsuited conditions at any measured angle. From these data mission planners and human factors engineers may gain a better understanding of crew posture, and mobility and strength capabilities. This study also may help suit designers optimize suit strength, and provide a foundation for EMU strength modeling systems.

Maida, James C.; Demel, Kenneth J.; Morgan, David A.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Pandya, Abhilash K.

1996-01-01

213

Library & Computer Suite Rules 2013 The Library and Computer Suite form a key resource for the College, and should be  

E-print Network

. 3. The Library and Computer Suite should be places where individuals can work in quiet, clean of the Librarian. #12;14. By request of the majority of students, laptops may not be used on the ground floor equipment (e.g. monitors, scanners, printers, mice) should be disconnected and moved from the machines

Steiner, Ullrich

214

Complexity of Fit, with Application to Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although fitting a garment is often considered more of an art than a science, experts suggest that a subjectively poor fit is a symptom of inappropriate ease, the space between the wearer and the garment. The condition of poor suit fit is a unique problem for the space program and it can be attributed primarily to: a) NASA s policy to accommodate a wide variety of people (males and females from 1st to 99th percentile range and with various shapes and sizes) and b) its requirement to deploy a minimum number of suit sizes for logistical reasons. These factors make the space suit fit difficult to assess, where a wide range of people must be fit by the minimum possible number of suits, and yet, fit is crucial for operability and safety. Existing simplistic sizing scheme do not account for wide variations in shape within a diverse population with very limited sizing options. The complex issue of fit has been addressed by a variety of methods, many of which have been developed by the military, which has always had a keen interest in fitting its diverse population but with a multitude of sizing options. The space program has significantly less sizing options, so a combination of these advanced methods should be used to optimize space suit size and assess space suit fit. Multivariate methods can be used to develop sizing schemes that better reflect the wearer population, and integrated sizing systems can form a compromise between fitting men and women. Range of motion and operability testing can be combined with subjective feedback to provide a comprehensive evaluation of fit. The amount of ease can be tailored using these methods, to provide enough extra room where it is needed, without compromising mobility and comfort. This paper discusses the problem of fit in one of its most challenging applications: providing a safe and comfortable spacesuit that will protect its wearer from the extreme environment of space. It will discuss the challenges and necessity of closely fitting its potential wearers, a group of people from a broad spectrum of the population, and will detail some of the methods that can be employed to ensure and validate a good fit.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

215

STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman is suited up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman is assisted during suit-up activities by Lockheed Suit Technician Valerie McNeil from Johnson Space Center in KSC's Operations and Checkout Building. Altman and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Altman is participating in a life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body - - the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

1998-01-01

216

Two HIV-positive lawyers file suits alleging mistreatment.  

PubMed

Two mistreatment and discrimination lawsuits have been filed by HIV-positive attorneys against their employers. In the first suit, [name removed], a 16-year employee of the American Bar Association (ABA), asks for $16.6 million for violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), negligence, and intentional infliction of emotional distress. [Name removed] claims that months after notifying his supervisor that he tested positive for HIV antibodies he was put on probation and then fired. In a separate case, [name removed], an 11-year veteran of the San Francisco law firm of [name removed] & [name removed], filed a one million dollar suit. [Name removed] claims that he was eased out of his corporate law practice after notifying his supervisors that he was HIV-positive. PMID:11363562

1996-06-14

217

Role of the consultant obstetrician in the delivery suite.  

PubMed

The role of consultant obstetricians is under considerable debate. This has particularly focused on the role of consultants in intrapartum care. The article explores the role of the consultant in delivery suite from the view point of a consultant, a clinical director, a training programme director and a chief executive. These viewpoints determine a range of common themes which mean the duties of consultants over their career lifecycle need to be addressed; the need to expand consultant posts; and the tensions which inevitably occur. The authors believe these need to be addressed because of the need to ensure consultant roles in delivery suite are developed as a key part of seeing quality improvement. PMID:10185762

Hackett, M; Gee, H

1998-01-01

218

STS-99 Mission Specialist Thiele dons suit for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-99 Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele of Germany smiles as suit technician Andre Denard, with United Space Alliance, helps him with his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), STS-99 is scheduled for liftoff at 12:30 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. The mission is expected to last 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Tuesday, Feb. 22, at 4:36 p.m. EST. This is the 97th Shuttle flight and 14th for Shuttle Endeavour.

2000-01-01

219

Mission Specialist Foale gets help suiting up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.) smiles as his launch and entry suit is checked by a suit techician during final launch preparations. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

220

Treatment of complex neurovascular lesions: an interdisciplinary angio suite approach  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse our initial experience using an interdisciplinary angio suite approach to neurosurgical treatment of complex neurovascular lesions and expound technical feasibility and possible applications. Subjects: Six out of 451 patients with cranial or spinal neurovascular lesions were surgically treated in the angio suite (biplane angiographic system) during a 28-month observation period. Clinical baseline data, radiological and intraoperative findings as well as clinical and radiological outcome were assessed. Results: A ventral spinal perimedullary arteriovenous malformation, a ventral spinal perimedullary fistula, two diffuse frontal dural arteriovenous fistulas, a multifocal temporal arteriovenous malformation and a partially embolized fronto-temporo-basal dural arteriovenous fistula were successfully treated with angiographically confirmed complete occlusion and unimpaired neurological condition of the patients at the 12-month follow up. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of this approach and points out possible indications, namely ventrally located spinal lesions and diffuse, deep seated cranial lesions. PMID:24409203

Breyer, Tobias; Wrede, Karsten H.; Stein, Klaus-Peter; Wanke, Isabel; Grams, Astrid E.; Gizewski, Elke R.; Schlamann, Marc; Forsting, Michael; Sandalcioglu, I. Erol; Sure, Ulrich

2014-01-01

221

U.S. agrigenetics: suit filed against NIH.  

PubMed

Three environmental groups have filed suit against the National Institutes of Health in an attempt to block an experiment approved in April by the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. The experiment, designed by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, to enhance the frost resistance of crops, would release genetically engineered organisms into the general environment for the first time. The suit, filed in a federal court in the District of Columbia, claims that releasing frost-resistant bacteria into the environment could have damaging ecological consequences, that NIH should have issued an environmental impact assessment before approving any experiment involving the release of genetically engineered organisms, and that the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee lacks the expertise to assess environmental risks. PMID:11653490

David, Peter

1983-09-22

222

STS-94 Mission Specialist Michael Gernhardt suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-94 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt is assisted into his launch/entry suit by a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He first flew in this capacity on STS- 69. He has been a professional deep sea diver and engineer and holds a doctorate in bioengineering. Gernhardt will be in charge of the Blue shift and as flight engineer will operate and maintain the orbiter while Halsell and Still are asleep as members of the Red shift. He will also back them up on the flight deck during the ascent and re-entry phases of the mission. Gernhardt and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 1:50 a.m. EDT, July opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center.

1997-01-01

223

STS-81 Mission Specialist Marsha Ivins suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-81 Mission Specialist Marsha S. Ivins gets a helping hand from a suit technician as she prepares to don the helmet of her launch/entry suit in the suitup room of the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. She is the veteran of three Shuttle flights and became an astronaut in 1984. Among other responsibilities, Ivins will perform photo and video surveys of the Russian Mir space station and operate the Kidsat experiment camera on the orbiters aft flight deck. She and five crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis will lift off during a 7-minute window that opens at 4:27 a.m. EST, January 12.

1997-01-01

224

Feasibility of Suited 10-km Ambulation "Walkback" on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews a study that examined the feasibility of having astronauts walk about 10 kilometers to the base in the event of a breakdown of the lunar rover. This was done in part to examine the possibility of having a single rover on the lunar exploration missions. Other objectives of the study are to: (1) Understand specific biomedical and human performance limitations of the suit compared to matched shirt-sleeve controls; (2) Collect metabolic and ground-reaction force data to develop an EVA simulator for use on future prebr eathe protocol verification tests (3) Provide data to estimate consum ables usage for input to suit and portable life support system (PLSS) design (4) Assess the cardiovascular and resistance exercise associa ted with partialgravity EVA for planning appropriate exploration exer cise countermeasures

Norcross, Jason; Lee, Lesley; DeWitt, John K.; Klein, Jill; Wessell, James; Gernhardt, Michael L.

2008-01-01

225

Expedition 4 crew member Carl E. Walz final suit checkout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expedition 4 crew member Carl E. Walz final suit checkout KSC-01PD-1721 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Expedition 4 crew member Carl E. Walz undergoes final suit check before launch on mission STS-108 Nov. 29. Top priorities for the STS-108 (UF-1) mission of Endeavour are rotation of the International Space Station Expedition Three and Expedition Four crews; bringing water, equipment and supplies to the station in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello; and completion of robotics tasks and a spacewalk to install thermal blankets over two pieces of equipment at the bases of the Space Station's solar wings. Liftoff is scheduled for 7:41 p.m. EST.

2001-01-01

226

STS-76 Mission Specialist Shannon Lucid suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-76 Mission Specialist Shannon W. Lucid is donning her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. A veteran space traveler who is embarking on her fifth Shuttle flight, Lucid has spent the better part of the last year training in Russia to become the first American woman assigned to fly on the Russian Space Station Mir. She will remain on Mir until August when she returns to Earth with the crew of STS-79. Once suitup activities are completed the six-member STS-76 flight crew will depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during an approximately seven- minute launch window opening around 3:13 a.m. EST, March 22.

1996-01-01

227

STS-107 Payload Commander Michael Anderson suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Payload Commander Michael Anderson completes suit check prior to Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown at the pad. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

2002-01-01

228

Theory and Design of Microwave-Tube Simulator Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of microwave-tube simulator suite (MTSS) is reported. MTSS is an integrated full-featured software package for microwave-tube analysis and design. It includes a friendly user-interface module and three physics simulators. Microwave-tube design environment is the user-interface module, which provides a powerful solid-modeling front end and graphical and computational postprocessing functionality. Electron optics simulator (EOS) is a fully 3-D finite-element

Bin Li; Zhong Hai Yang; Jian Qing Li; Xiao Fang Zhu; Tao Huang; Quan Hu; Yu Lu Hu; Li Xu; Jun Jian Ma; Li Liao; Li Xiao; Guo Xian He

2009-01-01

229

FRACK: A Freeware Flow and Transport Suite for Fractured Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRACK is a fractured media freeware flow and solute transport suite currently under development that is intended to serve as both a pre- and post-processor to MODFLOW. As a pre-processor, FRACK generates and maps networks of deterministic and\\/or stochastic fractures onto a regularly-spaced finite- difference grid, according to a fracture continuum method that closely approximates flow solutions to discrete fracture

Donald M. Reeves; Greg Pohll; David Benson

230

Non-Venting Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future EVA suits need processes and systems to control internal temperature and humidity without venting water to the environment. This paper describes an absorption-based cooling and dehumidification system as well as laboratory demonstrations of the key processes. There are two main components in the system: an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) that removes both sensible heat and latent heat from the pressure garment, and an absorber radiator that absorbs moisture and rejects heat to space by thermal radiation. This paper discusses the overall design of both components, and presents recent data demonstrating their operation. We developed a design and fabrication approach to produce prototypical heat/water absorbing elements for the ECDG, and demonstrated by test that these elements could absorb heat and moisture at a high flux. Proof-of-concept tests showed that an ECDG prototype absorbs heat and moisture at a rate of 85 W/ft under conditions that simulate operation in an EVA suit. The heat absorption was primarily due to direct absorption of water vapor. It is possible to construct large, flexible, durable cooling patches that can be incorporated into a cooling garment with this system. The proof-of-concept test data was scaled to calculate area needed for full metabolic loads, thus showing that it is feasible to use this technology in an EVA suit. Full-scale, lightweight absorber/radiator modules have also been built and tested. They can reject heat at a flux of 33 W/ft while maintaining ECDG operation at conditions that will provide a cool and dry environment inside the EVA suit.

Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

2011-01-01

231

Enhanced verification test suite for physics simulation codes  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations.

Kamm, James R.; Brock, Jerry S.; Brandon, Scott T.; Cotrell, David L.; Johnson, Bryan; Knupp, Patrick; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy G.; Weirs, V. Gregory

2008-09-01

232

Evaluation of sensors for use inside chemical protective suits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organizations such as the military, hazardous materials units, first responders and industries involved in the processing and manufacture of chemicals all have requirements for specialized whole body protection for those people in their organizations whose job it is to work with toxic chemicals on a day to day basis or in emergency situations. Currently, excluding chemical biological (CB) challenge scenarios, there is no routine monitoring of the possible ingress of toxic chemicals within chemical protective suits. Under existing national standards, swatches of the protective suit fabric are usually tested for chemical breakthrough and if they meet certain criteria, the suit is considered to provide adequate protection to the individual. Despite advances in protection level research provided by full system protective clothing tests, inexpensive, real-time, sensitive and robust chemical monitoring systems for use both under protective clothing and within a challenge environment, remains a technologically deficient area. This paper presents the results of a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of miniature detectors for monitoring real-time volatile organic chemical (VOC) challenges under chemical protective clothing and in closed environments where such suits are used. Nine gas sensors of n-type semiconductor design (Figaro Engineering Inc) were assessed for their response to a dichloromethane concentration of 560 ppm at a temperature of 23 degrees Celsius and relative humidity of 20%. Absolute voltage output, speed of response to dichloromethane exposure, and time required to return to zero, were considered. The top ranked sensor was further evaluated for its calibration response to a range of dichloromethane concentrations up to 560 ppm. Variables that were considered include effect of temperature and relative humidity, hysteresis and repeatability. Increasing RH causes an increase in the zero output of the sensor with an approximate linear relationship. The sensor response was characterized by minimal hysteresis, indicating that calibration values over the short term are very stable. Calibration responses measured on different days were in excellent agreement.

Russell, Derrick A.; Duncan, E. J. S.; Hunt, Stephen; Gudgin Dickson, Eva F.; Weagle, Glenn E.

1999-11-01

233

Electrical Analysis Tool Suite for Inductrial Energy Audits  

E-print Network

Electrical Analysis Tool Suite for Industrial Energy Audits Texas A&M University, Industrial Assessment Center Franco Morelli May 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May... 20-23, 2014 AGENDA Current Available Tools Analysis Tools Demand Visualization Weather Disaggregation Demand Aberrations Photovoltaic Optimization Demand Scheduling Automatic Report Generation Demonstration ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings of the Thrity...

Morelli, F.

2014-01-01

234

The Pan-STARRS PS4 telescope suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pan-STARRS project is planning to build a suite of four telescopes (PS4) on the summit of Mauna Kea at the site of the current University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. These telescopes will have the goal of surveying the entire sky visible from a single site in 5 colors (g, r, i, z, and y) on the time scale of

Jeffrey S. Morgan; William Burgett; Jose U. Teran

2008-01-01

235

SUNDIALS: Suite of nonlinear and differential\\/algebraic equation solvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUNDIALS is a suite of advanced computational codes for solving large-scale problems that can be modeled as a system of nonlinear algebraic equations, or as initial-value problems in ordinary differential or differential-algebraic equations. The basic versions of these codes are called KINSOL, CVODE, and IDA, respectively. The codes are written in ANSI standard C and are suitable for either serial

Alan C. Hindmarsh; Peter N. Brown; Keith E. Grant; Steven L. Lee; Radu Serban; Dan E. Shumaker; Carol S. Woodward

2005-01-01

236

STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker signals he's ready to fly as he finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Walker, who is embarking on his fourth trip into space, will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A along with four fellow crew members. Awaiting the crew and liftoff at 11:09 a.m. EDT is the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

1995-01-01

237

Worker's suit barred due to failure to exhaust grievance procedure.  

PubMed

[Name removed] lost two AIDS discrimination suits against Exxon Corp. [Name removed]'s first suit alleged he was demoted to a lower-paying job as an office assistant because of AIDS discrimination. Under [name removed]'s union agreement, the employee must exhaust grievance procedures before taking a complaint to court. Federal Judge Edith Brown Clement dismissed [name removed]'s breach-of-contract claim as a violation of the collective bargaining agreement in [name removed]'s union. [Name removed] claimed he believed that pursuing the grievance procedure would be useless. The judge said a "mere subjective belief or conclusory assertion of futility is insufficient." She added the plaintiff bears the burden of producing evidence supporting the claim that the use of grievance procedures would have been futile. [Name removed] lost a second suit, a claim under the American with Disabilities Act (ADA), because of the statute of limitations. Under Louisiana law, [name removed] failed to file the case less than 300 days after the adverse employment action. PMID:11367271

1999-10-15

238

The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantially to the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essential step in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite located in the interior of MSL's Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupled through solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on the same samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyze volatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In addition to measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conduct a sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction from sieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rover's robotic arm,

Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Christopher R.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Arvey, Robert; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.; Jordan, Partick; Kellogg, James; Lewis, Jesse; Martin, David K.; Maurer, John; McAdam, Amy C.; McLennan, Douglas; Pavlov, Alexander A.; Raaen, Eric; Schinman, Oren

2012-01-01

239

Audit method suited for DSS in clinical environment.  

PubMed

This chapter presents a novel online method to audit predictive models using a Bayesian perspective. The auditing model has been specifically designed for Decision Support Systems (DSSs) suited for clinical or research environments. Taking as starting point the working diagnosis supplied by the clinician, this method compares and evaluates the predictive skills of those models able to answer to that diagnosis. The approach consists in calculating the posterior odds of a model through the composition of a prior odds, a static odds, and a dynamic odds. To do so, this method estimates the posterior odds from the cases that the comparing models had in common during the design stage and from the cases already viewed by the DSS after deployment in the clinical site. In addition, if an ontology of the classes is available, this method can audit models answering related questions, which offers a reinforcement to the decisions the user already took and gives orientation on further diagnostic steps.The main technical novelty of this approach lies in the design of an audit model adapted to suit the decision workflow of a clinical environment. The audit model allows deciding what is the classifier that best suits each particular case under evaluation and allows the detection of possible misbehaviours due to population differences or data shifts in the clinical site. We show the efficacy of our method for the problem of brain tumor diagnosis with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). PMID:25417078

Vicente, Javier

2015-01-01

240

Towards a Unified Test Case Suite for Global Atmospheric Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric dynamical core is the principal component of Earth system models and is responsible for solving the equations of motion in the global domain. The past few years have seen a surge of activity in the dynamical core community as modeling groups from all over the world have adopted new technologies for computational fluid dynamics and adjusted to the software requirements of massively parallel computer systems. It is widely acknowledged that standardized testing of dynamical cores is very important to verify consistency, accuracy and performance of atmospheric models. However, until recently, only a few test cases have been available for dynamical core intercomparison of model results in both the dry and moist formulations. The Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP) that has been held at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in August 2012 showcased many next-generation atmospheric models. One consequence of this summer school has been the development of a test case suite for intercomparison of dynamical cores which examined many known issues with numerical models of the atmosphere. With participation from 18 current and upcoming atmospheric models, these test cases gave us the opportunity to compare and contrast differences in several different numerical formulations. The tests examine a variety of problems, including basic advection in 3D, simulations on a reduced planet at non-hydrostatic scales and tests incorporating basic moist processes and simplified physics. Here we will present this test case suite and identify the motivation behind the design of this suite and some preliminary results.

Ullrich, P. A.; Jablonowski, C.; Kent, J.; Reed, K. A.; Taylor, M. A.; Lauritzen, P. H.; Nair, R. D.

2012-12-01

241

The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory(MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatilesextracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantiallyto the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essentialstep in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite locatedin the interior of MSLs Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole massspectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupledthrough solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on thesame samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyzevolatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In additionto measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conducta sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction fromsieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rovers roboticarm.

Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Chris R.; Cabane, M.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, L.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Carignan, Daniel; Cascia, Mark; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Everson, Paula; Franz, Heather; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.

2012-01-01

242

STS-91 Mission Specialist Ryumin suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-91 Mission Specialist and Russian cosmonaut Valery Victorovitch Ryumin is outfitted with his ascent/reentry flight suit and helmet by two suit technicians in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. The final suit fitting and checkout takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39A. He has been director of the Russian Shuttle-Mir program and flight director for the Salyut-7 and Mir space stations and is a veteran of three space flights with a total of 362 days in space. This will be Ryumin's first visit to Mir. However, his experience with Russian spacecraft in orbit will prove extremely valuable as he helps the crew with Mir equipment transfer operations. He will also be assessing the condition of the station for the Russian space program. STS-91 is scheduled to be launched on June 2 with a launch window opening around 6:10 p.m. EDT. The mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will return to Earth as a STS- 91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

1998-01-01

243

Generation of a vector suite for protein solubility screening  

PubMed Central

Recombinant protein expression has become an invaluable tool for academic and biotechnological projects. With the use of high-throughput screening technologies for soluble protein production, uncountable target proteins have been produced in a soluble and homogeneous state enabling the realization of further studies. Evaluation of hundreds conditions requires the use of high-throughput cloning and screening methods. Here we describe a new versatile vector suite dedicated to the expression improvement of recombinant proteins (RP) with solubility problems. This vector suite allows the parallel cloning of the same PCR product into the 12 different expression vectors evaluating protein expression under different promoter strength, different fusion tags as well as different solubility enhancer proteins. Additionally, we propose the use of a new fusion protein which appears to be a useful solubility enhancer. Above all we propose in this work an economic and useful vector suite to fast track the solubility of different RP. We also propose a new solubility enhancer protein that can be included in the evaluation of the expression of RP that are insoluble in classical expression conditions. PMID:24616717

Correa, Agustín; Ortega, Claudia; Obal, Gonzalo; Alzari, Pedro; Vincentelli, Renaud; Oppezzo, Pablo

2014-01-01

244

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington Quadrangle  

E-print Network

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington Quadrangle Melville, NY 11747-4502 USA and Permissions, American Institute of Physics, Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington Quadrangle, Melville, NY 11747-4502 USA

Garrido, Pedro L.

245

DEPARTMENT OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY Two Medical Park, Suite 404, Columbia, SC 29203  

E-print Network

and Sports Medicine in advance of your first visit. The Orthopaedic Clinic is located at Two Medical Park, Lower Level, Suite L9/ L10. The Sports Medicine Clinic is located at Two Medical Park, Suite 104

Almor, Amit

246

The use of anti-gravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemmorhage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history and use as well as the physiology of the use of antigravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemorrhages is reviewed. The use of this suit is highly recommended, especially for first aid.

Kravik, S.; Landmark, K.

1980-01-01

247

Robotic Joint Torque Testing: A Critical Tool in the Development of Pressure Suit Mobility Elements  

E-print Network

Pressure suits allow pilots and astronauts to survive in extreme environments at the edge of Earth’s atmosphere and in the vacuum of space. One obstacle that pilots and astronauts face is that gas-pressurized suits stiffen ...

Meyen, Forrest Edward

248

Space suit simulator for partial gravity extravehicular activity experimentation and training  

E-print Network

During human space exploration, mobility is extremely limited when working inside a pressurized space suit. Astronauts perform extensive training on Earth to become accustomed to space suit-imposed high joint torques and ...

Gilkey, Andrea L. (Andrea Lynn)

2012-01-01

249

Suitport Feasibility - Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a spacesuit while the spacesuit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a spacesuit prototype using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. This test will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents design of a human rated second generation suitport, modifications to the JSC human rated chamber B to accept a suitport, and a compatible space suit to support pressurized human donning of the pressurized suit through a suitport. Design challenges and solutions and compromises required to develop the system are presented. Initial human testing results are presented.

Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

2011-01-01

250

The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's.The Soviet-Russian space programme

Michail N. Doodnik

2002-01-01

251

Gemini 7 prime crew during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, talks with NASA space suit technician Clyde Teague during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16, Kennedy Space Center. Lovell wears the new lightweight space suit planned for use during the Gemini 7 mission (61756); Astronaut Frank Borman, comand pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, undergoes suiting up operations in Launch Complex 16 during prelaunch countdown. Medical biosensors are attached to his scalp (61757).

1965-01-01

252

Physiological responses to wearing the space shuttle launch and entry suit and the prototype advanced crew escape suit compared to the unsuited condition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch and entry suit (LES) is a life support suit worn during Orbiter ascent and descent. The impact of suit weight and restricted mobility on egress from the Orbiter during an emergency is unknown. An alternate suit - the advanced crew escape suite (ACES) - is being evaluated. The physiological responses to ambulatory exercise of six subjects wearing the LES and ACES were measured and compared to those measurements taken while unsuited. Dependent variables included heart rate and metabolic response to treadmill walking at 5.6 km/h (3.5 mph), and also bilateral concentric muscle strength about the knee, shoulder, and elbow. No significant (p greater than 0.06) differences in heart rate or metabolic variables were measured in either suit while walking at 5.6 km/h. Significant (p less than 0.05) decreases in all metabolic variables were remarked when both suits were compared to the unsuited condition. There were no significant (p greater than 0.05) differences among the three suit conditions at 30 or 180 deg/s for muscles about the elbow and knee; however, about the shoulder, a significant (p = 0.0215) difference between the ACES and the unsuited condition was noted. Therefore, wearing a life support suit while performing Orbiter egress imposes a significant metabolic demand on crewmembers. Selective upper body strength movements may be compromised.

Barrows, Linda H.; Mcbrine, John J.; Hayes, Judith C.; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Greenisen, Michael C.

1993-01-01

253

Designing for the Future: The New Open Suite of Programs and Peer Review Process  

E-print Network

Designing for the Future: The New Open Suite of Programs and Peer Review Process Questions and Answers 1 Rationale 1. If the changes to the Open Suite of Programs and peer review process are successful, what will CIHR have achieved? Our goal in designing the new Open Suite of Programs and peer review

Charette, André

254

Conformance Test Architecture and Test Suite for ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2007  

E-print Network

Conformance Test Architecture and Test Suite for ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2007 Fernando L. Podio Dylan Yaga Christofer J. McGinnis NISTIR 7791 #12;NISTIR 7791 Conformance Test Architecture and Test Suite for ANSI of these standards and the associated conformance test architectures and test suites. The ANSI/NIST-ITL standard

255

Assessing feasibility of electrochromic space suit radiators for reducing extravehicular activity water consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water consumption for space suit thermal control is a limiting factor on long-term space exploration missions. A concept is proposed for an integrated, flexible suit radiator using infrared electrochromic materials for modulated heat rejection from the suit. Properties of electrochromic materials, the structure of electrochromic devices, and relevant heat transfer processes are presented as background information. Analytical methods are employed

Jonathan Glen Metts

2010-01-01

256

Space Suited Crew Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Array A-Z PSE Decoupled  

E-print Network

: : I Pt ·::., p.~ Space Suited Crew Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Array A-Z PSE Decoupled TICN On January ZZ, 1971, the BxA Crew Engineering group performed a lG, space- suited handling Letter No. 9712-111). The purpose of the test was to determine if a space-suited deployment of the shroud

Rathbun, Julie A.

257

Characterization of a lower-body exoskeleton for simulation of space-suited locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous analysis of suited and unsuited locomotion energetics, we found evidence that space suits act as springs during running. Video images from the lunar surface suggest that knee torques create, in large part, this spring effect. We hypothesized that a lower-body exoskeleton, properly constructed, could be used to simulate the knee torques of a range of space suits.

Christopher E. Carr; Dava J. Newman

2008-01-01

258

Ensuring of long operation life of the orbiting station EVA space suit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia has gained a lot of experience in operating the space suits (SS) during the extravehicular activities (EVA) by the crews of SALYUT-6, SALYUT-7 and MIR orbiting stations. A total of 21 Orlan-type space suits of various models were operated onboard the orbiting stations (OS) during almost 20 years period. Some of these space suits served up to 3 years

I. P. Abramov; G. M. Glazov; V. I. Svertshek; A. Yu. Stoklitsky

1997-01-01

259

A Novel Method for Breath Capture Inside a Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Any non-robotic mission to the Mars surface will need to rely on various life support technologies. The large metabolic generation rate and low tolerance to elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Mars atmosphere make CO2 removal one of the preeminent tasks in this domain. In addition, these same features provide a strong impetus for using regenerable CO2 removal technologies. In the past, many of these regenerable technologies have relied on the low partial pressure CO2 surrounding the vehicle to provide an ultimate sink for removing this gas contaminant, however any Mars mission will have to overcome the presence of the Mars atmosphere. This paper describes the investigation of methods to capture the exhaled CO2 from a suited crewmember before it becomes diluted with the high volumetric air flow present within the space suit. Typical expired air contains CO2 partial pressures in the range of 20-35 mm Hg. This research investigated methods to capture this high partial pressure CO2 prior to its dilution with the low partial pressure CO2 ventilation flow. Specifically the research looked at potential designs for a collection cup for use inside the space suit helmet. This collection cup should not be considered the same as a breathing mask typical of that worn by firefighters, etc. Instead, the collection cup is a non-contact device that makes use of detailed analyses of the ventilation flow environment within the helmet. The research used a detailed Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code called Fluent to provide modeling of the various gas species (CO2, water vapor, O2) as they pass through a helmet. This same model was used to numerically evaluate several different collection cup designs for this same CO2 segregation effort.

Paul, Heather; Filburn, Tom

2007-01-01

260

Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit suits up before launch. This will be his first Shuttle flight. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

2002-01-01

261

Alan Shepard in Space Suit before Mercury Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Profile of astronaut Alan Shepard in his silver pressure suit with the helmet visor closed as he prepares for his upcoming Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) launch. On May 5th 1961, Alan B. Shepard Jr. became the first American to fly into space. His Freedom 7 Mercury capsule flew a suborbital trajectory lasting 15 minutes 22 seconds. His spacecraft splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean where he and Freedom 7 were recovered by helicopter and transported to the awaiting aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain.

1961-01-01

262

STS-101 Mission Specialist Williams suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-101 Mission Specialist Jeffrey N. Williams smiles after suiting up as he waits to head to Launch Pad 39A and launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station.

2000-01-01

263

STS-106 Mission Specialist Lu suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-106 Mission Specialist Edward T. Lu smiles as he gets suited up in the Operations and Checkout Building before launch. This is Lu'''s second space flight. Space Shuttle Atlantis is set to lift off 8:45 a.m. EDT on the fourth flight to the International Space Station. During the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

2000-01-01

264

STS-89 M.S. James F. Reilly suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-89 Mission Specialist James Reilly, Ph.D., smiles as he completes the donning of his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He holds a doctorate in geosciences. He and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour will lift off during a launch window that opens at 9:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22. STS-89 is the eighth of nine planned missions to dock the Space Shuttle with Russia's Mir space station.

1998-01-01

265

STS-107 Payload Commander Michael Anderson suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-107 Payload Commander Michael Anderson smiles as he undergoes suit check prior to Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown at the pad. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

2002-01-01

266

STS-89 M.S. Michael Anderson suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-89 Mission Specialist Michael Anderson smiles as he completes the donning of his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. A major in the U.S. Air Force, Anderson has a master of science degree in physics from Creighton University. He and six fellow crew members will soon depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour will lift off during a launch window that opens at 9:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22. STS-89 is the eighth of nine planned missions to dock the Space Shuttle with Russia's Mir space station.

1998-01-01

267

Fluorine in Olivines from Plutonic, Extrusive, and Hypabyssal Suites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine contents in a wide range of naturally-occurring olivine grains were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) using a Cs+ primary beam, detection of negative secondary ions and an auxiliary electron gun for charge neutralization. A range of minerals and glasses containing 3 to 1300 ppm F were used to calibrate the secondary ion signal. Matrix effects appear to be small, and because fluorine has a high electron affinity, sensitivity is high (sub-ppm). Olivines from the study by Simkin and Smith (J. Geol., 1970) were analyzed for their F contents and span a range of suites that include upper mantle xenoliths and kimberlites, plutonic intrusives, ophiolites, shallow hypabyssal picrites and teschenites, and extrusive alkaline and tholeiitic basalts. Overall, the olivines in this study show a range of F concentrations from 0.5 to 32 ppm. Olivines from high- pressure environments show the highest individual and average F values, however large variations are also observed in this suite. Mantle xenoliths from this sample collection show a maximum and average F value of 14 and 4.1 ppm, respectively, and one olivine from kimberlite contains 32 ppm F. Earlier analyses from our laboratory (Hervig and Bell, 2005 Fall AGU) show a larger range in F from mantle-derived olivines. Plutonic intrusives and ophiolites, including layered intrusives and cumulates, show a range of F contents from 0.5 to 15 ppm, with an average value of 4 ppm. Olivines from the Kiglapait layered intrusion, Labrador show F content increasing with degree of fractional crystallization until the P2O5 content of the rock begins to increase. At this point, F in olivine decreases, presumably indicating partitioning of F into apatite. In the Hawaiian suites studied, F in olivine was high (8-12 ppm) in evolved andesites and lower (1-8 ppm) in more primitive basalts. Hypabyssal suites include a peridotite dike from Skye, (F < 1 ppm), a chilled olivine dolerite from Bornaskitaig (F = 2 ppm), a picrite from Igdlorsuit, Greenland (F = 4 ppm), and a teschenite from Black Jack Sill, Australia (F = 1.5 ppm). Fluorine measurements on the Simkin and Smith olivines are consistent with earlier observations that F is highest in OH-rich olivines (i.e., upper mantle xenoliths in kimberlites; Hervig & Bell, AGU Fall Mtg 2005).

Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.; Bell, D. R.

2007-12-01

268

The interventional neuroradiology suite as an operating room.  

PubMed

The evolution of new neurointerventional techniques, along with improved imaging and catheter developments, has changed the interventional suite into a subspecialized operating room. This article discusses this operating room as a combination of neuroanesthesia, neuromonitoring, nursing, and technician support coordinated by the neruointerventionalist. The coordination of elective and emergent intervention is also discussed, from conception to completion of the plan, including arteriovenous emoblization, endovascular aneurysm obliteration, intra-arterial thrombolysis, extracranial and intracranial carotid angioplasty, and stenting. Specific examples are illustrated, including pharmacologic intervention complementing these techniques. PMID:10565866

Armonda, R A; Thomas, J E; Rosenwasser, R H

2000-01-01

269

STS-104 MS Kavandi suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi adjusts her helmet as she dons her launch and entry suit before heading to the launch pad. This launch will be her third space flight. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-104 is targeted for 5:04 a.m., July 12, from Launch Pad 39B. The primary payload on the mission is the joint airlock module, which will be added to the International Space Station. The airlock will be the primary path for Space Station spacewalk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, and will also support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for EVA activity.

2001-01-01

270

STS-104 MS Reilly suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-104 Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh gets help donning his launch and entry suit before heading to the launch pad. This launch will be his first space flight. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-104 is targeted for 5:04 a.m., July 12, from Launch Pad 39B. The primary payload on the mission is the joint airlock module, which will be added to the International Space Station. The airlock will be the primary path for Space Station spacewalk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, and will also support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for EVA activity.

2001-01-01

271

STS-110 M.S. Smith suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Steven Smith relaxes during suit fit, which is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight to provide flight crews an opportunity to participate in simulated launch countdown activities. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

2002-01-01

272

STS-87 Commander Kevin R. Kregel suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-87 Commander Kevin Kregel sits in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building holding a cap of his sons soccer team of which Kregel is the coach. Shortly, he and the five other crew members of STS-87 will depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. A veteran of two space flights (STS-70 and -78), Kregel has logged more than 618 hours in space.

1997-01-01

273

STS-80 Mission Specialist Tamara Jernigan suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-80 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan has finished donning her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building and signals that she's ready to fly. The veteran of three previous Shuttle flights will participate in two space walks on STS-80 to continue testing tools and techniques for International Space Station construction. She and four crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour window opening at 2:53 p.m. EST, Nov. 19.

1996-01-01

274

STS-112 Commander Ashby suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Commander Jeffrey Ashby finishes suiting up for launch. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss to the Station. Launch is scheduled for 3:46 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B.

2002-01-01

275

STS-112 M.S. Wolf suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Mission Specialist David Wolf suits up for launch, just hours away. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss to the Station. Launch is scheduled for 3:46 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. .

2002-01-01

276

STS-112 Pilot Melroy suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy finishes suiting up for launch. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss to the Station. Launch is scheduled for 3:46 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. .

2002-01-01

277

STS-112 M.S. Magnus suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus finishes suiting up before launch. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss to the Station. Launch is scheduled for 3:46 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B.

2002-01-01

278

Space Suit Technologies Protect Deep-Sea Divers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working on NASA missions allows engineers and scientists to hone their skills. Creating devices for the high-stress rigors of space travel pushes designers to their limits, and the results often far exceed the original concepts. The technologies developed for the extreme environment of space are often applicable here on Earth. Some of these NASA technologies, for example, have been applied to the breathing apparatuses worn by firefighters, the fire-resistant suits worn by racecar crews, and, most recently, the deep-sea gear worn by U.S. Navy divers.

2008-01-01

279

STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart shows thumbs up for launch as he finishes suiting up. Lockhart will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 8:15 p.m. EST.

2002-01-01

280

The SECO suite of codes for site Performance Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Modeling for Performance Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP ) has led to development of the SECO suite of codes for groundwater flow, particle tracking, and transport. Algorithm and code developments include the following areas: facilitation of grid convergence tests in multiple domains; correct treatment of transmissivity factors for unconfined aquifers; efficient multigrid algorithms; a formulation of brine Darcy flow equations that uses freshwater head as the dependent able; boundary-fitted coordinates; temporal high order particle tracking; an efficient and accurate implicit Finite Volume TVD algorithm for radionuclide transport in (possibly) fractured porous media; accurate calculation of advection via a flux-based modified method of characteristics; and Quality Assurance procedures.

Roache, P.J. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-03-01

281

STS-108 Commander Gorie has his suit fitted during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-108 Commander Dominic L. Gorie gets help with his helmet during suit and pre-pack fit check. Gorie and other crew members are preparing to take part in a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT also includes emergency exit training from the orbiter and launch pad. STS-108 is a Utilization Flight that will carry the replacement Expedition 4 crew to the International Space Station, as well as the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, filled with supplies and equipment. The l1-day mission is scheduled for launch Nov. 29 on Space Shuttle Endeavour.

2001-01-01

282

Species Differentiation of a Diverse Suite of Bacillus Spores by Mass Spectrometry-Based Protein Profiling  

PubMed Central

In this study, we demonstrate the versatility of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) protein profiling for the species differentiation of a diverse suite of Bacillus spores. MALDI-TOFMS protein profiles of 11 different strains of Bacillus spores, encompassing nine different species, were evaluated. Bacillus species selected for MALDI-TOFMS analysis represented the spore-forming bacterial diversity of typical class 100K clean room spacecraft assembly facilities. A one-step sample treatment and MALDI-TOFMS preparation were used to minimize the sample preparation time. A library of MALDI-TOFMS spectra was created from these nine Bacillus species, the most diverse protein profiling study of the genus reported to date. Linear correlation analysis was used to successfully differentiate the MALDI-TOFMS protein profiles from all strains evaluated in this study. The MALDI-TOFMS protein profiles were compared with 16S rDNA sequences for their bacterial systematics and molecular phylogenetic affiliations. The MALDI-TOFMS profiles were found to be complementary to the 16S rDNA analysis. Proteomic studies of Bacillus subtilis 168 were pursued to identify proteins represented by the biomarker peaks in the MALDI-TOFMS spectrum. Four small, acid-soluble proteins (A, B, C, and D), one DNA binding protein, hypothetical protein ymf J, and four proteins associated with the spore coat and spore coat formation (coat JB, coat F, coat T, and spoIVA) were identified. The ability to visualize higher-molecular-mass coat proteins (10 to 25 kDa) as well as smaller proteins (<10 kDa) with MALDI-TOFMS profiling is critical for the complete and effective species differentiation of the Bacillus genus. PMID:14711677

Dickinson, Danielle N.; La Duc, Myron T.; Haskins, William E.; Gornushkin, Igor; Winefordner, James D.; Powell, David H.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2004-01-01

283

Web Server Suite for Complex Mixture Analysis by Covariance NMR  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of the chemical composition of biological samples is a main focus of systems biology and metabolomics. Their comprehensive study requires reliable, efficient, and automatable methods to identify and quantify the underlying metabolites. Because nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a rich source of molecular information, it has a unique potential for this task. Here we present a suite of public web servers (http://spinportal.magnet.fsu.edu), termed COLMAR, that facilitates complex mixture analysis by NMR. The COLMAR web portal presently consists of three servers: COLMAR covariance calculates the covariance NMR spectrum from an NMR input dataset, such as a TOCSY spectrum; COLMAR DemixC method decomposes the 2D covariance TOCSY spectrum into a reduced set of non-redundant 1D cross sections or traces, which belong to individual mixture components; COLMAR query screens the traces against a NMR spectral database to identify individual compounds. Examples are presented that illustrate the utility of this web server suite for complex mixture analysis. PMID:19634130

Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steve; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Brüschweiler, Rafael

2010-01-01

284

Intraoperative contamination and space suits: a potential mechanism.  

PubMed

The body exhaust suit (BES) of Charnley creates 'negative pressure' inside the gown using intake/outtake tubing. Modern 'space suit' (SS) systems incorporate helmet-based intake fans, which use the hood material as a filter and create 'positive pressure' inside the gown. While early studies of BES demonstrate a clear reduction in infection rates following arthroplasty, recent clinical data on SS use has paradoxically reported a marked increase. We hypothesized that the positive pressure inside the gown could carry air and particles via the unsealed area around the surgeon's cuff into the operative field. We performed 12 simulated operations with the surgeons hands covered in fluorescent 0.5 micron powder that approximates the size of shedded skin squames. Photographs under UV light and air particle counts were used to compare potential contamination rates between SS and conventional gowns using a standardised scoring system. The highest powder migration was seen in the SS group with a score of 15.3 out of 28. No powder migration was seen in the standard gown group (p = 0.028). This study provides a plausible explanation for the increase in infection rates seen with SS use. We recommend SS be considered for personal protection only and supplemented with sealant tape around the inner glove. PMID:23412319

Young, Simon W; Chisholm, Carl; Zhu, Mark

2014-04-01

285

STS-93 Mission Specialist Coleman suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) gets help with her launch and entry suit from a suit tech. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

286

Analysis of a Radiation Model of the Shuttle Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extravehicular activity (EVA) required to assemble the International Space Station (ISS) will take approximately 1500 hours with 400 hours of EVA per year in operations and maintenance. With the Space Station at an inclination of 51.6 deg the radiation environment is highly variable with solar activity being of great concern. Thus, it is important to study the dose gradients about the body during an EVA to help determine the cancer risk associated with the different environments the ISS will encounter. In this paper we are concerned only with the trapped radiation (electrons and protons). Two different scenarios are looked at: the first is the quiet geomagnetic periods in low Earth orbit (LEO) and the second is during a large solar particle event in the deep space environment. This study includes a description of how the space suit's computer aided design (CAD) model was developed along with a description of the human model. Also included is a brief description of the transport codes used to determine the total integrated dose at several locations within the body. Finally, the results of the transport codes when applied to the space suit and human model and a brief description of the results are presented.

Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Qualls, Garry D.; Wilson, John W.

2003-01-01

287

38 CFR 14.514 - Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials; indemnification of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...a) Suits against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs...

2010-07-01

288

38 CFR 14.514 - Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials; indemnification of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...a) Suits against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs...

2013-07-01

289

38 CFR 14.514 - Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials; indemnification of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...a) Suits against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs...

2012-07-01

290

38 CFR 14.514 - Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials; indemnification of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...a) Suits against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs...

2014-07-01

291

38 CFR 14.514 - Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials; indemnification of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...Suits by or against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs officials...a) Suits against United States or Department of Veterans Affairs...

2011-07-01

292

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2010-04-01

293

Philosophies Applied in the Selection of Space Suit Joint Range of Motion Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space suits are the most important tool for astronauts working in harsh space and planetary environments; suits keep crewmembers alive and allow them to perform exploration, construction, and scientific tasks on a routine basis over a period of several months. The efficiency with which the tasks are performed is largely dictated by the mobility features of the space suit. For previous space suit development programs, the mobility requirements were written as pure functional mobility requirements that did not separate joint ranges of motion from the joint torques. The Constellation Space Suit Element has the goal to make more quantitative mobility requirements that focused on the individual components of mobility to enable future suit designers to build and test systems more effectively. This paper details the test planning and selection process for the Constellation space suit pressure garment range of motion requirements.

Aitchison, Lindsway; Ross, Amy; Matty, Jennifer

2009-01-01

294

Enhanced Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations. The key points of this document are: (1) Verification deals with mathematical correctness of the numerical algorithms in a code, while validation deals with physical correctness of a simulation in a regime of interest. This document is about verification. (2) The current seven-problem Tri-Laboratory Verification Test Suite, which has been used for approximately five years at the DOE WP laboratories, is limited. (3) Both the methodology for and technology used in verification analysis have evolved and been improved since the original test suite was proposed. (4) The proposed test problems are in three basic areas: (a) Hydrodynamics; (b) Transport processes; and (c) Dynamic strength-of-materials. (5) For several of the proposed problems we provide a 'strong sense verification benchmark', consisting of (i) a clear mathematical statement of the problem with sufficient information to run a computer simulation, (ii) an explanation of how the code result and benchmark solution are to be evaluated, and (iii) a description of the acceptance criterion for simulation code results. (6) It is proposed that the set of verification test problems with which any particular code be evaluated include some of the problems described in this document. Analysis of the proposed verification test problems constitutes part of a necessary--but not sufficient--step that builds confidence in physics and engineering simulation codes. More complicated test cases, including physics models of greater sophistication or other physics regimes (e.g., energetic material response, magneto-hydrodynamics), would represent a scientifically desirable complement to the fundamental test cases discussed in this report. The authors believe that this document can be used to enhance the verification analyses undertaken at the DOE WP Laboratories and, thus, to improve the quality, credibility, and usefulness of the simulation codes that are analyzed with these problems.

Kamm, J R; Brock, J S; Brandon, S T; Cotrell, D L; Johnson, B; Knupp, P; Rider, W; Trucano, T; Weirs, V G

2008-10-10

295

STS-101 Commander Halsell suits up for third launch attempt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. smiles while he finishes suiting up before heading a third time to Launch Pad 39A and launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The previous two launch attempts were scrubbed due to high cross winds at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This is the third assembly flight to the Space Station. After the 10-day mission, Atlantis is expected to land at KSC May 6 at about 12:03 p.m. EDT

2000-01-01

296

STS-99 Mission Specialist Mohri dons suit for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-99 Mission Specialist Mamoru Mohri of Japan smiles as he dons his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), STS-99 is scheduled for liftoff at 12:30 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. The mission is expected to last 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Tuesday, Feb. 22, at 4:36 p.m. EST. This is the 97th Shuttle flight and 14th for Shuttle Endeavour.

2000-01-01

297

STS-92 Pilot Pam Melroy suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-92 Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy smiles during suit check before heading out to the Astrovan for the ride to Launch Pad 39A. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

2000-01-01

298

STS-101 Pilot Horowitz suits up for second launch attempt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-101 Pilot Scott J. Horowitz smiles while he finishes suiting up before heading a second time to Launch Pad 39A for launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The previous day's launch attempt was scrubbed due to high cross winds at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. Liftoff is targeted for 3:52 p.m. EDT. The mission is expected to last about 10 days, with Atlantis landing at KSC Saturday, May 6, about 11:53 a.m. EDT.

2000-01-01

299

STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), smiles as she dons her flight suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

300

STS-95 Payload Specialist John Glenn suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, smiles as he dons his flight suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

301

User Guide for the STAYSL PNNL Suite of Software Tools  

SciTech Connect

The STAYSL PNNL software suite provides a set of tools for working with neutron activation rates measured in a nuclear fission reactor, an accelerator-based neutron source, or any neutron field to determine the neutron flux spectrum through a generalized least-squares approach. This process is referred to as neutron spectral adjustment since the preferred approach is to use measured data to adjust neutron spectra provided by neutron physics calculations. The input data consist of the reaction rates based on measured activities, an initial estimate of the neutron flux spectrum, neutron activation cross sections and their associated uncertainties (covariances), and relevant correction factors. The output consists of the adjusted neutron flux spectrum and associated covariance matrix, which is useful for neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations.

Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Johnson, Christian D.

2013-02-27

302

An air bearing fan for EVA suit ventilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The portable life-support system (PLSS) ventilation requirements are outlined, along with the application of a high-speed axial fan technology for extravehicular-activity (EVA) space-suit ventilation. Focus is placed on a mechanical design employing high-speed gas bearings, permanent magnet rotor, and current-fed chopper/inverter electronics. The operational characteristics of the fan unit and its applicability for use in a pure-oxygen environment are discussed. It delivers a nominal 0.17 cu m/min at 1.24 kPa pressure rise using 13.8 w of input power. It is shown that the overall selection of materials for all major component meets the NASA requirements.

Murry, Roger P.

1990-01-01

303

STS-89 M.S. Bonnie Dunbar suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-89 Mission Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, Ph.D., smiles as she completes the donning of her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Dr. Dunbar completed her doctorate at the University of Houston in Texas. Her multi-disciplinary dissertation (materials science and physiology) involved evaluating the effects of simulated space flight on bone strength and fracture toughness. She and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour will lift off during a launch window that opens at 9:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22. STS-89 is the eighth of nine planned missions to dock the Space Shuttle with Russia's Mir space station.

1998-01-01

304

STS-78 Mission Specialist Charles E. Brady suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-78 Mission Specialist Charles E. Brady Jr. is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A spaceflight rookie, Brady was selected by NASA to join the astronaut corps in March 1992; he is a medical doctor who also is a commander in the U.S. Navy. Along with six fellow crew members, he will depart the O&C in a short while and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour launch window opening at 10:49 a.m. EDT, June 20. STS-78 will be an extended duration flight during which extensive research will be conducted in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) located in the payload bay.

1996-01-01

305

STS-81 Mission Specialist Jerry Linenger suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-81 Mission Specialist Jerry Linenger waves to the camera in his launch/entry suit and helmet in the suitup room of the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He is on his second Shuttle flight and has been an astronaut since 1992. Linenger will become a member of the Mir 22 crew and replace astronaut John Blaha on the Russian space station for a four-month stay after the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis docks with the orbital habitat on flight day 3. A medical doctor and an exercise buff, Linenger will conduct physiological experiments during his stay on Mir. He and five crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis will lift off during a 7-minute window that opens at 4:27 a.m. EST, January 12.

1997-01-01

306

STS-99 Commander Kregel suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-99 Commander Kevin Kregel waves as he suits up during final launch preparations. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, liftoff is scheduled for 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m. EST.

2000-01-01

307

STS-88 Mission Specialist James Newman suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-88 Mission Specialist James H. Newman takes part in a complete suit check before launch. Newman holds a toy dog, 'Pluto,' representing the crew nickname Dog Crew 3 and Newman's nickname, Pluto. Mission STS-88 is expected to launch at 3:56 a.m. EST with the six-member crew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Dec. 3. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module, which the crew will be mating with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. The mission is expected to last 11 days, 19 hours and 49 minutes, landing at 10:17 p.m. EST on Dec. 14.

1998-01-01

308

STS-95 Commander Curtis Brown suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. tests his flight suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

309

STS-83 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-83 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He first flew in this capacity on STS-69. He has been a professional deep sea diver and engineer and holds a doctorate in bioengineering. Gernhardt will be in charge of the Blue shift and as flight engineer will operate and maintain the orbiter while Halsell and Still are asleep as members of the Red shift. He will also back them up on the flight deck during the ascent and re- entry phases of the mission. Gernhardt and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.

1997-01-01

310

STS-85 Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-85 Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam, Jr. looks down at his glove as a suit technician helps him with the other as he undergoes suitup in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He is a lieutenant commander in the Navy and is a former radar intercept officer. Curbeam holds a masters degree in aeronautical engineering and was selected as an astronaut in 1994. On TS-85, Curbeam will serve as the expert for the operation of the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (CRISTA-SPAS-2) free-flyer, Technology Applications and Science-1 (TAS-1) and science, and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker-2 payloads. He will also serve as the flight engineer during ascent and reentry operations.

1997-01-01

311

STS-78 Payload Specialist Robert Brent Thirsk suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-78 Payload Specialist Robert Brent Thirsk is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A representative of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Thirsk is one of four spaceflight rookies flying on STS-78. He is a physician who also has a master's degree in mechanical engineering. In a short while, Thirsk and his six fellow crew members will depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour launch window opening at 10:49 a.m. EDT, June 20. STS-78 will be an extended duration flight during which extensive research will be conducted in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) located in the payload bay.

1996-01-01

312

STS-88 Commander Robert Cabana suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-88 Commander Robert D. Cabana gives a thumbs up during suit check before launch. Mission STS-88 is expected to lift off at 3:56 a.m. EST with the six-member crew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Dec. 3. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module, which the crew will be mating with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. The mission is expected to last 11 days, 19 hours and 49 minutes, landing at 10:17 p.m. EST on Dec. 14.

1998-01-01

313

Mission Specialist Smith is suited and ready for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith signals he is suited up and ready for launch. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

314

STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr. suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr., gives a thumbs-up after he is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Halsell is on his third space flight, having served as pilot of both STS-74 and STS-65. He is a lieutenant colonel in the Air Force and a former SR-71 Blackbird test pilot and holds master's degrees in management and space operations. Halsell will have responsibility for the success of the mission and will operate and maintain Columbia during the Red, or second shift. He will also assist with a materials science experiment and a protein crystal growth payload during the 16-day mission. Halsell and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.

1997-01-01

315

STS-93 Mission Specialist Cady Coleman suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the third time, during final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) dons her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman, and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

316

STS-89 Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-89 Commander Terrence Wilcutt smiles as he completes the donning of his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. A veteran of two space flights, he has logged more than 512 hours in space. He served as pilot on STS-68 and STS-79. He and six fellow crew members will soon depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour will lift off during a launch window that opens at 9:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22. STS-89 is the eighth of nine planned missions to dock the Space Shuttle with Russia's Mir space station.

1998-01-01

317

STS-87 Payload Specialist Leonid K. Kadenyuk suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-87 Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine gives a thumbs up in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and the five other crew members of STS-87will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Kadenyuk will be flying his first mission on STS-87. During the mission, Kadenyuk will pollinate Brassica rapa plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment, or CUE, aboard Columbia. The CUE experiment is a collection of 10 plant space biology experiments that will fly in Columbias middeck and features an educational component that involves evaluating the effects of microgravity on Brassica rapa seedlings.

1997-01-01

318

STS-103 Pilot Kelly suits up before launch.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly is suited up and ready for the second launch attempt of Space Shuttle Discovery. The previous launch attempt on Dec. 17 was scrubbed about 8:52 p.m. due to numerous violations of weather launch commit criteria at KSC. Kelly and fellow crew members Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Francois Clervoy of France are scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

319

Pilot Kelly is suited and ready for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly signals he is ready for launch after suiting up in the Operations and Checkout Building. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

320

STS-98 MS Jones suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- While donning his launch and entry suit, STS-98 Mission Specialist Thomas Jones holds a reminder that the crew will be in space on Valentine'''s Day during the 11-day mission. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks, by Curbeam and Jones, are required to complete the planned construction work during the mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program.

2001-01-01

321

Linear Analysis and Verification Suite for Edge Turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The edge and scrape-off-layer region of a tokamak plasma is subject to well known resistive and ideal instabilities that are driven by various curvature- and sheath-related mechanisms. While the boundary plasma is typically strongly turbulent in experiments, it is useful to have computational tools that can analyze the linear eigenmode structure, predict quantitative trends in growth rates and elucidate and the underlying drive mechanisms. Furthermore, measurement of the linear growth rate of unstable modes emerging from a known, established equilibrium configuration provides one of the few quantitative ways of rigorously benchmarking large-scale plasma turbulence codes with each other and with a universal standard. In this report, a suite of codes that can describe linearized, nonlocal (e.g. separatrix-spanning) modes in axisymmetric (realistic divertor), toroidal geometry is discussed. Examples of several benchmark comparisons are given, and future development plans for a new eigenvalue edge code are presented.

Myra, J R; Umansky, M

2008-04-24

322

Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox during TCDT suit fit check  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox adjusts his launch and entry suit during fit check, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

2002-01-01

323

Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox during TCDT suit fit check  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox adjusts his gloves during fit check of his launch and entry suit, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

2002-01-01

324

STS-113 cosmonaut Budarin during suit check for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin relaxes during fit check of his launch and entry suit, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

2002-01-01

325

VEGAS, the VERITAS Gamma-ray Analysis Suite  

E-print Network

VERITAS, the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System, is an array of four 12 m diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for gamma-ray astronomy above 100 GeV currently in operation in Arizona. The VERITAS Collaboration has developed VEGAS, the VERITAS Gamma-ray Analysis Suite, a data-analysis software package for the processing of single- and multiple-telescope data produced by the array. The package consists of a core of six stages as well as visualisation and diagnostic components. It has been developed in C++ using modern objected-oriented design patterns to be highly flexible, configurable and extendable. VEGAS utilises CERN's ROOT data-analysis framework and runs on Linux and Mac OS X systems. The architecture and structure of the VEGAS package will be described in detail while the data analysis algorithms are described in additional papers.

P. Cogan; for the VERITAS Collaboration

2007-09-26

326

A security suite for wireless body area networks  

E-print Network

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have gained a lot of research attention in recent years since they offer tremendous benefits for remote health monitoring and continuous, real-time patient care. However, as with any wireless communication, data security in WBANs is a challenging design issue. Since such networks consist of small sensors placed on the human body, they impose resource and computational restrictions, thereby making the use of sophisticated and advanced encryption algorithms infeasible. This calls for the design of algorithms with a robust key generation / management scheme, which are reasonably resource optimal. This paper presents a security suite for WBANs, comprised of IAMKeys, an independent and adaptive key management scheme for improving the security of WBANs, and KEMESIS, a key management scheme for security in inter-sensor communication. The novelty of these schemes lies in the use of a randomly generated key for encrypting each data frame that is generated independently at both the s...

Sampangi, Raghav V; Urs, Shalini R; Sampalli, Srinivas

2012-01-01

327

Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments.  

PubMed

An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical progression of research-inspired laboratory modules serves to "tour" the macroscopic characteristics of the fruit and the submicroscopic properties of its constituent cuticular biopolymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods at increasingly detailed molecular levels. The modular curriculum can be tailored for specialty undergraduate courses or summer high school workshops. By applying analytical tools to investigate biopolymers, making connections between molecular and microscale structure, and linking both structural regimes to the functional properties of natural polymers, groundwork is established for further student investigations at the interface of chemistry with biology or chemical engineering. PMID:23526490

Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E

2013-03-12

328

STS-103 Mission Specialist Grunsfeld suits up before launch.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After donning his launch and entry suit, STS-103 Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) signals he's ready for the second launch attempt of Space Shuttle Discovery. The previous launch attempt on Dec. 17 was scrubbed about 8:52 p.m. due to numerous violations of weather launch commit criteria at KSC. Grunsfeld and other crew members Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Francois Clervoy of France are scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

329

Comparing apples and oranges: the Community Intercomparison Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual representation and comparison of geoscientific datasets presents a huge challenge due to the large variety of file formats and spatio-temporal sampling of data (be they observations or simulations). The Community Intercomparison Suite attempts to greatly simplify these tasks for users by offering an intelligent but simple command line tool for visualisation and colocation of diverse datasets. In addition, CIS can subset and aggregate large datasets into smaller more manageable datasets. Our philosophy is to remove as much as possible the need for specialist knowledge by the user of the structure of a dataset. The colocation of observations with model data is as simple as: "cis col ::" which will resample the simulation data to the spatio-temporal sampling of the observations, contingent on a few user-defined options that specify a resampling kernel. CIS can deal with both gridded and ungridded datasets of 2, 3 or 4 spatio-temporal dimensions. It can handle different spatial coordinates (e.g. longitude or distance, altitude or pressure level). CIS supports both HDF, netCDF and ASCII file formats. The suite is written in Python with entirely publicly available open source dependencies. Plug-ins allow a high degree of user-moddability. A web-based developer hub includes a manual and simple examples. CIS is developed as open source code by a specialist IT company under supervision of scientists from the University of Oxford as part of investment in the JASMIN superdatacluster facility at the Centre of Environmental Data Archival.

Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip; Pascoe, Stephen

2014-05-01

330

Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

2010-01-01

331

An Integrated Suite of Tools to support Human Factors Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Human Factors Engineering (HFE) work for the nuclear industry imposes special demands on the practitioner in terms of the scope, complexity and safety requirements for humans in nuclear installations. Unfortunately HFE lags behind other engineering disciplines in the development and use of modern, powerful tools for the full range of analysis and design processes. HFE does not appear to be an attractive market for software and hardware developers and as a result, HFE practitioners usually have to rely on inefficient general-purpose tools like standard office software, or they have to use expensive special-purpose tools that offer only part of the solution they require and which also do not easily integrate with other tools. There have been attempts to develop generic software tools to support the HFE analyst and also to achieve some order and consistency in format and presentation. However, in spite of many years of development, very few tools have emerged that have achieved these goals. This would suggest the need for special tools, but existing commercial products have been found inadequate and to date not a single tool has been developed that adequately supports the special requirements of HFE work for the nuclear industry. This paper describes an integrated suite of generic as well as purpose-built tools that facilitate information solicitation, issues tracking, work domain analysis, functional requirements analysis, function allocation, operational sequence analysis, task analysis and development of HSI design requirements. In combination, this suite of tools supports the analytical as well as the representational aspects of key HFE activities primarily for new NPPs, including capturing information from subject matter experts and various source documents directly into the appropriate tool and then linking, analyzing and extending that information further to represent detailed functional and task information, and ultimately HSI design requirements. The paper also describes a tool developed especially for functional requirements analysis, function allocation, and task analysis.

Jacques V Hugo

2001-08-01

332

Mafic rocks of the Adirondack Highlands: One suite or many  

SciTech Connect

Mafic rocks in the granulite facies terrane of the Adirondack Highlands form at least 3 and possibly as many as 6 groups, based on field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria. Most abundant is the olivine metagabbro-amphibolite group (OMA), equivalent to the mafic suite'' of Olson (J. Petrol. 33:471, 1992). OMA occurs in irregular to tabular bodies, locally with intrusive relations, in all major rock types in the E and central Highlands. OMA is strongly olivine normative and forms a continuous differentiation series (Olson, 1992). Plagioclase-two pyroxene-garnet granulites (PGG) form dikes up to several m wide, in anorthositic host rocks. PGG are ferrogabbroic or ferrodioritic and approximately silica saturated. Two subgroups differ sharply in Mg, P, and trace elements. Ferrodiorite and monzodiorite gneisses (FMG), quartz normative and commonly migmatitic, occur in several large bodies in the NE Highlands and as extensive thin sheets in the W and SE Highlands, in association with anorthositic rocks. Three subgroups are distinguishable using Mg/Fe ratios and trace elements. Major element least-squares modeling suggests that both PGG and FMG could be derived by fractionation of gabbroic anorthosite liquids. A differentiation series is not evident, however, and both trace element (Ba, Rb, Sr, Zr and REE) data and normative plagioclase (An [>=] plag. in anorthosite) indicate a more complex origin. One subgroup of FMG may be early cumulates of the mangerite-charnockite suite. The chemistry of OMA, PGG, and FMG reflects their evolved nature and cannot be readily interpreted in terms of magma sources.

Whitney, P.R. (Geological Survey, Albany, NY (United States). New York State Museum)

1993-03-01

333

Active Learning Suite: Simulation-Based E-learning Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Active Learning Suite (ALSuite) is a highly interactive simulation-based online learning system for SMET education and corporate training. It uses real-life situations and objects, such as those related to the home, automobiles, sports, and telecommunications as the context for science and technology investigations. ALSuite is comprised of Simulations, Virtual Experiments, Interactive Lessons, a scriptable and animated Instructor's Assistant, assessment, authoring and ancillary tools, and more. The current version of Active Learning Suite includes the following modules: Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Mobile Telephony Wired Telephony Golf Mechanics Fiber Optics Fundamentals of Wireless Communications The problems and virtual experiments in ALSuite are designed to challenge learners to develop effective problem-solving and critical thinking skills. This enables the learner to discover the connections between scientific theory and concepts and their practical applications in technology. ALSuite helps teachers meld advanced emerging technologies with science and inquiry content, processes, and skills to meet the National and State Science Education Standards, and the Benchmarks for Science Literacy.The ALSuite software implements technologies that can provide instructional opportunities in many ways, whether at a campus/school (traditional teaching), at home (warm-ups, post-class tasks, or self-learning), or through distance learning. ALSuite is intended for problem-based learning and "learning-by-doing," however, it can facilitate more traditional learning and teaching strategies as well.Educational software resources for thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, telecommunications, fiber optics, cellular/mobile phone, and wireless fundamentals curricula. As well as for introductory physics and principles of technology.

334

Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: For every one hour spent performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, astronauts in the US space program spend approximately six to ten hours training in the EVA spacesuit at NASA-Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL). In 1997, NASA introduced the planar hard upper torso (HUT) EVA spacesuit which subsequently replaced the existing pivoted HUT. An extra joint in the pivoted shoulder allows increased mobility but also increased complexity. Over the next decade a number of astronauts developed shoulder problems requiring surgical intervention, many of whom performed EVA training in the NBL. This study investigated whether changing HUT designs led to shoulder injuries requiring surgical repair. Methods: US astronaut EVA training data and spacesuit design employed were analyzed from the NBL data. Shoulder surgery data was acquired from the medical record database, and causal mechanisms were obtained from personal interviews Analysis of the individual HUT designs was performed as it related to normal shoulder biomechanics. Results: To date, 23 US astronauts have required 25 shoulder surgeries. Approximately 48% (11/23) directly attributed their injury to training in the planar HUT, whereas none attributed their injury to training in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT design limits shoulder abduction to 90 degrees compared to approximately 120 degrees in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT also forces the shoulder into a forward flexed position requiring active retraction and extension to increase abduction beyond 90 degrees. Discussion: Multiple factors are associated with mechanisms leading to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Limitations to normal shoulder mechanics, suit fit, donning/doffing, body position, pre-existing injury, tool weight and configuration, age, in-suit activity, and HUT design have all been identified as potential sources of injury. Conclusion: Crewmembers with pre-existing or current shoulder injuries or certain anthropometric body types should conduct NBL EVA training in the pivoted HUT.

Scheuring, R. A.; McCulloch, P.; Van Baalen, Mary; Minard, Charles; Watson, Richard; Blatt, T.

2011-01-01

335

Interaction of Space Suits with Windblown Soil: Preliminary Mars Wind Tunnel Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments in the Mars Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center show that under Mars conditions, spacesuit materials are highly susceptible to dust contamination when exposed to windblown soil. This effect was suspected from knowledge of the interaction of electrostatically adhesive dust with solid surfaces in general. However, it is important to evaluate the respective roles of materials, meteorological and radiation effects, and the character of the soil. The tunnel permits evaluation of dust contamination and sand abrasion of space suits by simulating both pressure and wind conditions on Mars. The long-term function of space suits on Mars will be primarily threatened by dust contamination. Lunar EVA activities caused heavy contamination of space suits, but the problem was never seriously manifest because of the brief utilization of the suits, and the suits were never reused. Electrostatically adhering dust grains have various detrimental effects: (1) penetration and subsequent wear of suit fabrics, (2) viewing obscuration through visors and scratching/pitting of visor surfaces, (3) penetration, wear, and subsequent seizing-up of mechanical suit joints, (4) changes in albedo and therefore of radiation properties of external heat-exchanger systems, (5) changes in electrical conductivity of suit surfaces which may affect tribocharging of suits and create spurious discharge effects detrimental to suit electronics/radio systems. Additional information is contained in the original.

Marshall, J.; Bratton, C.; Kosmo, J.; Trevino, R.

1999-09-01

336

Don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits is disclosed. The support stand is designed for use in one-g environments; however, certain features of the stand can be used on future spacecraft, lunar, or planetary bases. The present invention has a retainer which receives a protrucing lug fixed on the torso section of the space suit. When the lug is locked in the retainer, the space suit is held in a generally upright position. In a one-g environment a portable ladder is positioned adjacent to the rear entry of the space suit supported by the stand. The astronaut climbs up the ladder and grasps a hand bar assembly positioned above the rear entry. The astronaut then slips his legs through the open rear entry and down into the abdominal portion of the suite. The astronaut then lowers himself fully into the suit. The portable ladder is then removed and the astronaut can close the rear entry door. The lug is then disengaged from the retainer and the astronaut is free to engage in training exercises in the suit. When suit use is over, the astronaut returns to the stand and inserts the lug into the retainer. A technician repositions the ladder. The astronaut opens the rear entry door, grasps the hand bar assembly and does a chin-up to extricate himself from the suit. The astronaut climbs down the movable ladder while the suit is supported by the stand.

Kosmo, Joseph J. (inventor); Tri, Terry O. (inventor); Spenny, William E. (inventor); West, Philip R. (inventor)

1988-01-01

337

Don/Doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits is disclosed. The support stand is designed for use in one-g environments; however, certain features of the stand can be used on future space-craft, lunar or planetary bases. The present invention has a retainer which receives a protruding lug fixed on the torso section of the space suit. When the lug is locked in the retainer, the space suit is held in a generally upright position. In a one-g environment a portable ladder is positioned adjacent to the rear entry of the space suit supported by the stand. The astronaut climbs up the ladder and grasps a hand bar assembly positioned above the rear entry. The astronaut then slips his legs through the open rear entry and down into the abdominal portion of the suit. The astronaut then lowers himself fully into the suit. The portable ladder is then removed and the astronaut can close the rear entry door. The lug is then disengaged from the retainer and the astronaut is free to engage in training exercises in the suit. When suit use is over, the astronaut returns to the stand and inserts the lug into the retainer. A technician repositions the ladder. The astronaut opens the rear entry door, grasps the hand bar assembly and does a chin-up to extricate himself from the suit. The astronaut climbs down the movable ladder while the suit is supported by the stand.

Kosmo, Joseph J. (Inventor); Tri, Terry O. (Inventor); Spenny, William E. (Inventor); West, Philip R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

338

Model for Predicting the Performance of Planetary Suit Hip Bearing Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a space suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. During the development period of the suit numerous design iterations need to occur before the hardware meets human performance requirements. Using computer models early in the design phase of hardware development is advantageous, by allowing virtual prototyping to take place. A virtual design environment allows designers to think creatively, exhaust design possibilities, and study design impacts on suit and human performance. A model of the rigid components of the Mark III Technology Demonstrator Suit (planetary-type space suit) and a human manikin were created and tested in a virtual environment. The performance of the Mark III hip bearing model was first developed and evaluated virtually by comparing the differences in mobility performance between the nominal bearing configurations and modified bearing configurations. Suited human performance was then simulated with the model and compared to actual suited human performance data using the same bearing configurations. The Mark III hip bearing model was able to visually represent complex bearing rotations and the theoretical volumetric ranges of motion in three dimensions. The model was also able to predict suited human hip flexion and abduction maximums to within 10% of the actual suited human subject data, except for one modified bearing condition in hip flexion which was off by 24%. Differences between the model predictions and the human subject performance data were attributed to the lack of joint moment limits in the model, human subject fitting issues, and the limited suit experience of some of the subjects. The results demonstrate that modeling space suit rigid segments is a feasible design tool for evaluating and optimizing suited human performance. Keywords: space suit, design, modeling, performance

Cowley, Matthew S.; Margerum, Sarah; Hharvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2012-01-01

339

Comparisons of three anti-G suit configurations during long duration, low onset, +Gz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Little physiologic data exist on the effects of long duration, low onset, hypergravity (+G). Space shuttle crewmembers are subjected to low +G forces (less than +3G) for upwards of 30 minutes during reentry. A similar reentry profile is predicted for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The physiologic effects of this acceleration stress are compounded by the loss of body water experienced during microgravity. Currently, a standard 5 bladder anti-G suit is being used during shuttle reentry. There have been complaints of discomfort using this suit, mainly due to the abdominal bladder. This study compared the effectiveness of three anti-G suit configurations in volume depleted subjects during a simulated space shuttle reentry profile. Methods: Seven male subjects were given intravenous Lasix in a dose from 20-40 mg to induce a total body weight loss of 3 plus or minus 1.5 percent. Approximately six hours after the injection, the subjects donned one of three anti-G suits - a standard 5 bladder anti-G suit, an extended coverage anti-G suit (the advanced technology anti-G suit or ATAGS), or an extended coverage anti-G suit without an abdominal bladder (the reentry anti-G suit or REAGS). All subjects were exposed to a simulated space shuttle reentry profile. Non-invasive eye-level blood pressure (ELBP) was monitored throughout the +G exposure. When systolic ELBP dropped below 70 mmHg, the anti-G suit was inflated in 0.5 psig increments to the pressure required to maintain 70 mmHg ELBP. Each subject rode with all three suits. Comparisons were made between the final pressure required in each suit to maintain ELBP and subjective reports of comfort. Results: The mean final suit pressure required to maintain ELBP was 1.1 psi, in both the ATAGS and REAGS versus 1.8 psi in the standard suit. In addition, the subjects rated the REAGS suit highest on the comfort scale, citing the absence of the abdominal bladder as the main reason. Conclusions: Overall, the REAGS suit was the superior anti-G suit during long duration, low onset +G. This is based on its ability to maintain ELBP and still remain comfortable when inflated for prolonged periods of time.

Stegmann, B. J.; Krutz, R. W.; Burton, R. R.; Sawin, C. F.

1992-01-01

340

Characterization of a lower-body exoskeleton for simulation of space-suited locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous analysis of suited and unsuited locomotion energetics, we found evidence that space suits act as springs during running. Video images from the lunar surface suggest that knee torques create, in large part, this spring effect. We hypothesized that a lower-body exoskeleton, properly constructed, could be used to simulate the knee torques of a range of space suits. Here we report characterization of a lower-body exoskeleton. Equivalent spring stiffness of each exoskeleton leg varies as a function of exoskeleton knee angle and load, and the exoskeleton joint-torque relationship closely matches the current NASA space suit, or Extravehicular Mobility Unit, knee torques in form and magnitude. We have built an exoskeleton with two physical non-linear springs, which achieve space-suit like joint-torques. Therefore space-suit legs act as springs, with this effect most pronounced when locomotion requires large changes in knee flexion such as during running.

Carr, Christopher E.; Newman, Dava J.

2008-02-01

341

Back view of test subject modeling uprated Apollo A6L pressure suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Back view of test subject modeling the uprated Apollo A6L pressure suit manufactured by International Latex Corporation, under contract to NASA. The suit incorporates changes recommended by the Apollo Review Board. The outer surface is of Beta fabric. The patches on shoulders, elbows, knees and back are of metal fiber cloth. The Beta fabric is made by Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation. The nylon fabric used in the suit was made by Dupont.

1967-01-01

342

NSA Suite B and its significance for non-USA organisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005 the US security authority NSA published a catalog of cryptographic methods to serve as the basis for the modernisation of the national cryptographic technology in the USA. The catalog is known by the name “Suite B” and has also generated great interest far beyond the borders of the USA. Suite B could exert appreciable influence on the application of cryptography for years to come. This paper covers the significance of Suite B for European organisations.

Schmeh, Klaus

343

Using Piezoelectric Ceramics for Dust Mitigation of Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The particles that make up moon dust and Mars soil can be hazardous to an astronaut s health if not handled properly. In the near future, while exploring outer space, astronauts plan to wander the surfaces of unknown planets. During these explorations, dust and soil will cling to their space suits and become imbedded in the fabric. The astronauts will track moon dust and mars soil back into their living quarters. This not only will create a mess with millions of tiny air-born particles floating around, but will also be dangerous in the case that the fine particles are breathed in and become trapped in an astronaut s lungs. research center are investigating ways to remove these particles from space suits. This problem is very difficult due to the nature of the particles: They are extremely small and have jagged edges which can easily latch onto the fibers of the fabric. For the past summer, I have been involved in researching the potential problems, investigating ways to remove the particles, and conducting experiments to validate the techniques. The current technique under investigation uses piezoelectric ceramics imbedded in the fabric that vibrate and shake the particles free. The particles will be left on the planet s surface or collected a vacuum to be disposed of later. The ceramics vibrate when connected to an AC voltage supply and create a small scale motion similar to what people use at the beach to shake sand off of a beach towel. Because the particles are so small, similar to volcanic ash, caution must be taken to make sure that this technique does not further inbed them in the fabric and make removal more difficult. Only a very precise range of frequency and voltage will produce a suitable vibration. My summer project involved many experiments to determine the correct range. Analysis involved hands on experience with oscilloscopes, amplifiers, piezoelectrics, a high speed camera, microscopes and computers. perfect this technology. Someday, vibration to remove dust may a vital component to the space exploration program. In order to mitigate this problem, engineers and scientists at the NASA-Glenn Further research and experiments are planned to better understand and ultimately

Angel, Heather K.

2004-01-01

344

Heat stress and a countermeasure in the Shuttle rescueman's suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rescue of the astronaut flight crew from a contingency landing may risk exposure of the rescue crew to toxic propellants spilling from potentially ruptured tanks in the crew module area. An Aquala dry diver's suit has been in service by the rescue team to preclude exposure, especially in the water rescue scenario. Heat stress has become a factor of concern in recent years when older and less physically-fit team members work in this suit. Methods: Field testing was initiated using fully instrumented rescue men in a simulated scenario to determine the extent of heat stress. Two tests were accomplished, one in the normal (N) configuration and one with a proposed cooling countermeasure, the Steele vest (S). Results: Heat stress was high as indicated by average rectal temperatures (Tre) of 38.28 degrees C(100.9 degrees F) after the 45 minute protocol. Slopes of the regression equations describing the increase in Tre with time were greater (P less than 0.05) with N (0.073 plus or minus .008) compared to S (0.060 plus or minus .007). Projection of time to the 38.89 degree C (102 degree F) limit was increased by 15.3 percent with the vest. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) was higher (P less than 0.05) in N (38.33 plus or minus .11 degrees C) compared to S (34.33 plus or minus .39 degrees C). Average heart rate was higher (P less than 0.05 in N than S. Sweat loss, as measured by weight loss, was more (P less than 0.05) for N (1.09 plus or minus .09 kg versus 0.77 plus or minus .06 kg). Air usage, while slightly less for S, was not statistically different. Conclusion: The use of the cool vest provided significant relief from thermal stress in spite of the addition of 3.4 kg (7.5 pounds) weight and some loss in mobility.

Doerr, D. F.; Reed, H.; Convertino, V. A.

1992-01-01

345

Evaluation of the Leslie Harris Centre Suite of Applied Research Funds  

E-print Network

Evaluation of the Leslie Harris Centre Suite ........................................................................................................ 8 2.0 EVALUATION FOCUS AND APPROACH ................................................................................. 9 2.1 EVALUATION APPROACH

deYoung, Brad

346

Acute lower limb ischemia associated with use of an immersion suit.  

PubMed

External compression is a rare cause of acute lower limb ischemia. Workers required to wear immersion suits during helicopter simulation training are exposed to external compressive forces which can alter the hemodynamics in arterial bypass conduits. Herein a case of arterial thromboembolization to the lower limb following the wearing of an immersion suit, in a patient who had undergone arterial bypass surgery 13 yr previously is presented. The potential for this episode of acute leg ischemia being a direct result of the compressive forces exerted by the immersion suit and the possible implications for wearers of immersion suits following arterial graft surgery is discussed. PMID:18717121

Henderson, Dan J; Ridgway, Dan M; Kamath, Sadashiv; Harries, Richard; Samy, Ahmed K

2008-08-01

347

Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses o detailed results of the testing that has ben conducted under this test series thus far.

McFarland, Shane M.

2010-01-01

348

Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the NASA Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on detailed results of the testing that has been conducted under this test series thus far.

McFarland, Shane M.

2011-01-01

349

STS-91 Mission Specialist Kavandi suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-91 Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi gives a smile and a thumbs-up as two technicians help her with her flight suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39A. She is on her first Shuttle flight. Kavandi was selected as an astronaut candidate in 1994. She holds a doctorate in analytical chemistry and has received two patents. On this mission, she will be responsible for the SPACEHAB module aboard Discovery which will be used to transport supplies to Mir and bring back U.S. experiment hardware that has been in operation aboard the space station. She will also assist Chang-Diaz with AMS operations. STS-91 is scheduled to be launched on June 2 with a launch window opening around 6:10 p.m. EDT. The mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will return to Earth as a STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

1998-01-01

350

STS-91 Commander Precourt suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-91 Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt holds his arms up and smiles during the final checkout of his flight suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. The test is conducted prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39A. He is on his fourth space flight and third trip to Mir. Precourt is a colonel in the Air Force and has more than 6,500 hours of flight experience in more than 50 types of civil and military aircraft. He will have overall responsibility for the mission and will perform the final docking with the Russian space station. STS-91 is scheduled to be launched on June 2 with a launch window opening around 6:10 p.m. EDT. The mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as a STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

1998-01-01

351

STS-93 Mission Specialist Hawley suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) smiles after donning his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission. STS-93 is scheduled to lift off at 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. The target landing date is July 24 at 11:30 p.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

352

Interferometric diagnostic suite for ultrafast laser ablation of metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a suite of novel techniques to measure important characteristics in intense ultrashort laser solid target experiments such as critical surface displacement, ablation depth, and plasma characteristics. Measurement of these important characteristics on an ultrafast (~50 fs) time scale is important in understanding the primary event mechanisms in laser ablation of metal targets. Unlike traditional methods that infer these characteristics from spectral power shifts, phase shifts in frequency domain interferometry (FDI) or laser breakthrough studies of multiple shots on bulk materials, these techniques directly measure these characteristics from a single ultrafast heating pulse. These techniques are based on absolute displacement interferometry and nanotopographic applications of wavefront sensors. By applying all these femtosecond time-resolved techniques to a range of materials (Al, Au, and Au on plastic) over a range of pulse energies (1011 to 1016 W/cm2) and pulse durations (50 to 700 fs), greater insight into the ablation mechanism and its pulse parameter dependencies can be determined. Comparison of these results with hydrocode software programs also reveals the applicability of hydrocode models.

Clarke, Steven A.; Rodriguez, George; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Forsman, Andrew

2004-09-01

353

A modular suite of hardware enabling spaceflight cell culture research.  

PubMed

BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Research Partnership Center (RPC), has developed and operated various middeck payloads launched on 23 shuttle missions since 1991 in support of commercial space biotechnology projects. Modular cell culture systems are contained within the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) suite of flight-qualified hardware, compatible with Space Shuttle, SPACEHAB, Spacelab and International Space Station (ISS) EXPRESS Rack interfaces. As part of the CGBA family, the Isothermal Containment Module (ICM) incubator provides thermal control, data acquisition and experiment manipulation capabilities, including accelerometer launch detection for automated activation and thermal profiling for culture incubation and sample preservation. The ICM can accommodate up to 8 individually controlled temperature zones. Command and telemetry capabilities allow real-time downlink of data and video permitting remote payload operation and ground control synchronization. Individual cell culture experiments can be accommodated in a variety of devices ranging from 'microgravity test tubes' or standard 100 mm Petri dishes, to complex, fed-batch bioreactors with automated culture feeding, waste removal and multiple sample draws. Up to 3 levels of containment can be achieved for chemical fixative addition, and passive gas exchange can be provided through hydrophobic membranes. Many additional options exist for designing customized hardware depending on specific science requirements. PMID:16145798

Hoehn, Alexander; Klaus, David M; Stodieck, Louis S

2004-03-01

354

STS-99 Mission Specialist Thiele suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-99 Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele, who is with the European Space Agency, smiles as he dons his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, liftoff is scheduled for 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot- long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m. EST.

2000-01-01

355

STS-99 Mission Specialist Voss suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-99 Mission Specialist Janice Voss (Ph.D.) smiles as she dons her launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, liftoff is scheduled for 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m. EST.

2000-01-01

356

Torso sizing ring construction for hard space suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hard suit for use in space or diving applications having an adjustable length torso covering that will fit a large variety of wearers is described. The torso covering comprises an upper section and a lower section which interconnect so that the covering will fit wearers with short torsos. One or more sizing rings may be inserted between the upper and lower sections to accommodate larger torso sizes as required. Since access of the astronaut to the torso covering is preferably through an opening in the back of the upper section (which is closed off by the backpack), the rings slant upward-forward from the lower edge of the opening. The lower edge of the upper covering section has a coupler which slants upward-forward from the lower edge of the back opening. The lower torso section has a similarly slanted coupler which may interfit with the upper section coupler to accommodate the smallest torso size. One or more sizing rings may be inserted between the coupler sections of the upper and lower torso sections to accommodate larger torsos. Each ring has an upper coupler which may interfit with the upper section coupler and a lower coupler which may interfit with the lower section coupler.

Vykukal, H. C.

1986-01-01

357

STS-103 Mission Specialist Smith suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After donning his launch and entry suit, sts-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith shows a positive attitude over the second launch attempt for Space Shuttle Discovery. The previous launch attempt on Dec. 17 was scrubbed about 8:52 p.m. due to numerous violations of weather launch commit criteria at KSC. Smith and other crew members Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Francois Clervoy of France are scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

358

STS-94 Commander James D. Halsell suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-94 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr., puts his left glove on while he is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Halsell is on his fourth space flight, having served as commander of STS-83 and pilot of both STS-74 and STS-65. He is a lieutenant colonel in the Air Force and a former SR-71 Blackbird test pilot and holds masters degrees in management and space operations. Halsell will have uresponsibility for the success of the mission and will operate and maintain Columbia during the Red, or second shift. He will also assist with a materials science experiment and a protein crystal growth payload during the 16-day mission. Halsell and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 1:50 a.m. EDT, July opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center.

1997-01-01

359

STS-93 Mission Specialist Coleman suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) waves after donning her launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission. STS-93 is scheduled to lift off at 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. The target landing date is July 24 at 11:30 p.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

360

A modular suite of hardware enabling spaceflight cell culture research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Research Partnership Center (RPC), has developed and operated various middeck payloads launched on 23 shuttle missions since 1991 in support of commercial space biotechnology projects. Modular cell culture systems are contained within the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) suite of flight-qualified hardware, compatible with Space Shuttle, SPACEHAB, Spacelab and International Space Station (ISS) EXPRESS Rack interfaces. As part of the CGBA family, the Isothermal Containment Module (ICM) incubator provides thermal control, data acquisition and experiment manipulation capabilities, including accelerometer launch detection for automated activation and thermal profiling for culture incubation and sample preservation. The ICM can accommodate up to 8 individually controlled temperature zones. Command and telemetry capabilities allow real-time downlink of data and video permitting remote payload operation and ground control synchronization. Individual cell culture experiments can be accommodated in a variety of devices ranging from 'microgravity test tubes' or standard 100 mm Petri dishes, to complex, fed-batch bioreactors with automated culture feeding, waste removal and multiple sample draws. Up to 3 levels of containment can be achieved for chemical fixative addition, and passive gas exchange can be provided through hydrophobic membranes. Many additional options exist for designing customized hardware depending on specific science requirements.

Hoehn, Alexander; Klaus, David M.; Stodieck, Louis S.

2004-01-01

361

Complete suite of geochemical values computed using wireline logs  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical values of [open quotes]black shale[close quotes] source rocks can be computed from a complete suite of wireline log data. The computed values are: Total Organic Carbon (Wt%). S1, S2, S3, Hydrogen Index, Oxygen Index, Atomic H/C and O/C ratios, Genetic Potential (S1+S2), S2/S3, and Transfomation Ratio (S1/(S1+S2)). The results are most reliable when calibrated to laboratory analyses of samples in the study area. However, in the absence of samples, reasonable estimates can be made using calibration data from analogous depositional and thermal environments and/or professional judgement and experience. The evaluations provide answers to critical geochemical questions relative to: (1) Organic Matter Quantity; T.O.C. (Wt%), S1, and S2. (2) Kerogen Types; I, II, and III, based on T.O.C. vs S2 cross plot and the van Krevelen diagram of Atomic O/C vs Atomic H/C ratios. (3) Thermal Maturation levels; Transfomation Ratio can be converted to Level of Organic Metamorphism (LOM), pyrolysis Tmax (degC), Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro), Time Temperature Index (TTI) and others. Various analog plots and cross plots can be prepared for interpretation. Case history examples are shown and discussed. Lowstand fan deposits on Barbados were studied in outcrop to construct a conceptual reservoir model for prediction of facies assemblages.

Lancaster, J.R. (Evaluation, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)); Atkinson, A. (Occidental International Exploration Production co., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

362

Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

2006-01-01

363

Performance of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAA, through the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program, in partnership with the National Aeronautical and Space Administration, launched the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, a risk reduction and data continuity mission, on 28 October 2011. The JPSS program is executing the S-NPP Calibration and Validation program to ensure that the data products comply with the requirements of the sponsoring agencies. The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) consists of two telescopes feeding three detectors measuring solar radiance scattered by the Earth's atmosphere directly and solar irradiance by using diffusers. The measurements are used to generate estimates of total column ozone and vertical ozone profiles for use in near-real-time applications and extension of ozone climate data records. The calibration and validation efforts are progressing well, and both Level 1 (Sensor Data Records) and Level 2 (Ozone Environmental Data Records) have advanced to release at Provisional Maturity. This paper provides information on the product performance over the first 22 months of the mission. The products are evaluated through the use of internal consistency analysis techniques and comparisons to other satellite instrument and ground-based products. The initial performance finds total ozone showing negative bias of 2 to 4% with respect to correlative products and ozone profiles often within ±5% in the middle and upper stratosphere of current operational products. Potential improvements in the measurements and algorithms are identified. These will be implemented in coming months to reduce the differences further.

Flynn, L.; Long, C.; Wu, X.; Evans, R.; Beck, C. T.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.; Yu, W.; Zhang, Z.; Niu, J.; Beach, E.; Hao, Y.; Pan, C.; Sen, B.; Novicki, M.; Zhou, S.; Seftor, C.

2014-05-01

364

The Pan-STARRS PS4 telescope suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-STARRS project is planning to build a suite of four telescopes (PS4) on the summit of Mauna Kea at the site of the current University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. These telescopes will have the goal of surveying the entire sky visible from a single site in 5 colors (g, r, i, z, and y) on the time scale of approximately 1 week at a spatial resolution limited primarily by the quality of the site. To accomplish this task each of these four telescopes will be equipped with a Giga-Pixel camera, a camera shutter, and a 6 filter mechanism. A prototype telescope for this project (PS1) that includes all of these subsystems is already under going commissioning. The project is currently involved in developing the Environmental Impact Statement that is required to build the PS4 array of telescopes. We give an overview here of the scientific goals, the instrumentation package, the telescope design, and the enclosure design for the PS4 system.

Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Burgett, William; Teran, Jose U.

2008-07-01

365

The Walkback Test: A Study to Evaluate Suit and Life Support System Performance Requirements for a 10 Kilometer Traverse in a Planetary Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As planetary suit and planetary life support systems develop, specific design inputs for each system relate to a presently unanswered question concerning operational concepts: What distance can be considered a safe walking distance for a suited EVA crew member exploring the surface of the Moon to "walk-back" to the habitat in the event of a rover breakdown, taking into consideration the planned EVA tasks as well as the possible traverse back to the habitat? It has been assumed, based on Apollo program experience, that 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) will be the maximum EVA excursion distance from the lander or habitat to ensure the crew member s safe return to the habitat in the event of a rover failure. To investigate the feasibility of performing a suited 10 km Walkback, NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to design and implement the Lunar Walkback Test . The test was designed not only to determine the feasibility of a 10 km excursion, but also to collect human performance, biomedical, and biomechanical data relevant to optimizing space suit design and life support system sizing. These data will also be used to develop follow-on studies to understand interrelationships of such key parameters as suit mass, inertia, suit pressure, and center of gravity (CG), and the respective influences of each on human performance.

Vos, Jessica R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lee, Lesley

2007-01-01

366

VOLCWORKS: A suite for optimization of hazards mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making hazards maps is a process linking basic science, applied science and engineering for the benefit of the society. The methodologies for hazards maps' construction have evolved enormously together with the tools that allow the forecasting of the behavior of the materials produced by different eruptive processes. However, in spite of the development of tools and evolution of methodologies, the utility of hazards maps has not changed: prevention and mitigation of volcanic disasters. Integration of different tools for simulation of different processes for a single volcano is a challenge to be solved using software tools including processing, simulation and visualization techniques, and data structures in order to build up a suit that helps in the construction process starting from the integration of the geological data, simulations and simplification of the output to design a hazards/scenario map. Scientific visualization is a powerful tool to explore and gain insight into complex data from instruments and simulations. The workflow from data collection, quality control and preparation for simulations, to achieve visual and appropriate presentation is a process that is usually disconnected, using in most of the cases different applications for each of the needed processes, because it requires many tools that are not built for the solution of a specific problem, or were developed by research groups to solve particular tasks, but disconnected. In volcanology, due to its complexity, groups typically examine only one aspect of the phenomenon: ash dispersal, laharic flows, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and ballistic projectile ejection, among others. However, when studying the hazards associated to the activity of a volcano, it is important to analyze all the processes comprehensively, especially for communication of results to the end users: decision makers and planners. In order to solve this problem and connect different parts of a workflow we are developing the suite VOLCWORKS, whose principle is to have a flexible-implementation architecture allowing rapid development of software to the extent specified by the needs including calculations, routines, or algorithms, both new and through redesign of available software in the volcanological community, but especially allowing to include new knowledge, models or software transferring them to software modules. The design is component-oriented platform, which allows incorporating particular solutions (routines, simulations, etc.), which can be concatenated for integration or highlighting information. The platform includes a graphical interface with capabilities for working in different visual environments that can be focused to the particular work of different types of users (researchers, lecturers, students, etc.). This platform aims to integrate simulation and visualization phases, incorporating proven tools (now isolated). VOLCWORKS can be used under different operating systems (Windows, Linux and Mac OS) and fit the context of use automatically and at runtime: in both tasks and their sequence, such as utilization of hardware resources (CPU, GPU, special monitors, etc.). The application has the ability to run on a laptop or even in a virtual reality room with access to supercomputers.

Delgado Granados, H.; Ramírez Guzmán, R.; Villareal Benítez, J. L.; García Sánchez, T.

2012-04-01

367

Development of the DL\\/H-1 full pressure suit for private spaceflight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to detail the need for full pressure suits to protect spaceflight participants during the experimental phases of flight testing of new space vehicles. It also details the objectives, historical background, basis for design, problems encountered by the designers and final development of the DL\\/H-1 full pressure suit. It will include justification for its use

Pablo de León; Gary L. Harris

2010-01-01

368

Towards the integration of textile sensors in a wireless monitoring suit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present textile sensors for the equipment of a wireless monitoring suit. The suit is intended for the monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration rate of children in a hospital environment. Special attention is given to the dedicated sensor interface circuits. The sensors, which are entirely fabricated out of textile, are integrated in a prototype belt of

M. Catrysse; R. Puers; C. Hertleer; L. Van Langenhove; H. van Egmond; D. Matthys

2004-01-01

369

Surviving and Thriving in the IPSI Suite Environment. An Active Learning Guide for Educators and Trainers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed to help users and trainers to use the expert system called IPSI Suite. The first section provides an introduction and overview to the IPSI Suite, an integrated software package that, at its basic level, facilitates the following processes: (1) course curriculum development, (2) lesson planning, and (3) student performance…

Buddin, Ike

370

Information Professionals Stay Free in the MarcEdit Metadata Suite  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features MarcEdit, a free, Windows-based, metadata editing software suite that is developed and supported by the author as part of his contribution to the library profession. MarcEdit Suite is a tool that helps one with MARC coding and conversion and to perform database cleanups, to generate temporary electronic journal holdings, or…

Reese, Terry

2004-01-01

371

46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214 Section...Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger...section, each passenger vessel must carry a thermal protective aid approved under...

2011-10-01

372

46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214 Section...Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger...section, each passenger vessel must carry a thermal protective aid approved under...

2010-10-01

373

Investigation of equilibria in solution. Determination of equilibrium constants with the HYPERQUAD suite of programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new suite of 10 programs concerned with equilibrium constants and solution equilibria is described. The suite includes data preparation programs, pretreatment programs, equilibrium constant refinement and post-run analysis. Data preparation is facilitated by a customized data editor. The pretreatment programs include manual trial and error data fitting, speciation diagrams, end-point determination, absorbance error determination, spectral baseline corrections, factor analysis

Peter Gans; Antonio Sabatini; Alberto Vacca

1996-01-01

374

Interaction of Space Suits with Windblown Soil: Preliminary Mars Wind Tunnel Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mars Wind Tunnel experiments at NASA Ames show that space suit materials are highly susceptibility to dust adhesion when exposed to windblown soil. Long-term function of space suits on Mars could be threatened by the tenacity of the dust contamination.

J. Marshall; C. Bratton; J. Kosmo; R. Trevino

1999-01-01

375

A full-pressure space suit with bailout capabilities for experimental suborbital vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of a full-pressure space suit to be used in the Argentine Gauchito suborbital space vehicle. Rationales for providing full-pressure suits with bailout capabilities for both crew and passengers are first discussed. Mishaps during past US and Russian space missions are also presented to show how the hazards of reentry and landing can be mitigated by

Pablo de León; Mark R. Williamson

2007-01-01

376

EVA space suit architecture: Low earth orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the challenges encountered in planning and developing the next generation space suit as NASA embarks on the ensuing phase of human exploration with the Constellation Program (CxP). The enabling portion of this program is the development of innovative spacefaring vehicles and space suits, to meet the extreme environments using ground-breaking methods not yet attempted. In the summer

Terry R. Hill; Brian J. Johnson

2010-01-01

377

The experience in operation and improving the Orlan-type space suits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays significant experience has been gained in Russia concerning extravehicular activity (EVA) with cosmonauts wearing a semi-rigid space suit of the “Orlan” type.The conditions for the cosmonauts' vital activities, the operational and ergonomic features of the space suit and its reliability are the most critical factors defining the efficiency of the scheduled operation to be performed by the astronaut and

I. P. Abramov

1995-01-01

378

Physiological and engineering study of advanced thermoregulatory systems for extravehicular space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations of thermal control for extravehicular space suits are reported. The characteristics of independent cooling of temperature and removal of excess heat from separate regions of the body, and the applications of heat pipes in protective suits are discussed along with modeling of the human thermal system.

Chato, J. C.; Hertig, B. A.

1972-01-01

379

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2012-10-01

380

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2014-10-01

381

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2010-10-01

382

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2013-10-01

383

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2011-10-01

384

Evaluation of the Operator Protection Factors Offered by Positive Pressure Air Suits against Airborne Microbiological Challenge  

PubMed Central

Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories. PMID:23012620

Steward, Jackie A.; Lever, Mark S.

2012-01-01

385

Ground-Motion Suite Selection for Eastern North America E. M. Hines, M.ASCE1  

E-print Network

Ground-Motion Suite Selection for Eastern North America E. M. Hines, M.ASCE1 ; L. G. Baise2 ; and S. S. Swift3 Abstract: Ground-motion suite selection for Eastern North America (ENA) is distinguished: Earthquakes; Ground motion; Structural behavior; Seismic effects; North America. Author keywords: Ground

Hines, Eric

386

Paying for Prisoner Suits: How the Source of Damages Impacts State  

E-print Network

Paying for Prisoner Suits: How the Source of Damages Impacts State Correctional Agencies' Behavior JOSHUA J. FOUGERE This Note addresses an often overlooked issue facing state prisoners suing for federal- eral courts to intervene in state prisoner suits, the inconsistent findings lead this Note to caution

Biasutti, Michela

387

The Energetic Particle Detector Suite for Solar Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple processes in the solar atmosphere or near the Sun are capable of energizing electrons and ions which are remotely observed as Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. SEP events are of great interest not only because they can cause large radiation increases in the interplanetary space and over the Earth's polar regions, but also because they are part of a broad range of astrophysical sources of energetic particles. Since astrophysical particle accelerators cannot be studied directly, SEPs provide the best opportunity to study all aspects of the problem, namely the acceleration process itself and the ways in which the particles escape the source and travel to remote sites. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) addresses two primary science goals of Solar Orbiter: 1) What are the sources of energetic particles and how are they accelerated to high energy? 2) How are solar energetic particles released from their sources and distributed in time? To address these questions, the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite consists of five sensors measuring electrons, protons, and ions from helium to iron, and operating at partly overlapping energy ranges from 2 keV up to 200 MeV/n. The five EPD sensors are the SupraThermal Elec-trons, Ions, Neutrals (STEIN) sensor, the Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS), the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT), the Low Energy Telescope (LET), and the High Energy Telescope (HET). All sensors share a Common Data Processing Unit (CDPU), and EPT and HET share a common E-Box. EPT/HET and LET consist of two separate sensors with multiple viewing directions. The overall energy coverage achieved with the EPD sensors is 0.002 MeV to 20 MeV for electrons, 0.003 MeV to 100 MeV for protons, 0.008 MeV/n to 200 MeV/n for heavy ions (species-dependent), and 3 keV 30 keV for neutral atoms.

Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Lin, R. P.; Mason, G. M.; Heber, B.; Valtonen, E.; Sanchez, S.; Blanco, J.; Prieto, M.; Martin, C.; Ho, G.; Andrews, B.; Burmeister, S.; Boettcher, S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Seimetz, L.; Schuster, B.

388

What is a medication guide suits patients' needs?  

PubMed

  In order for a patient to read a medication guide and develop appropriate behavior regarding use of the medication, the guide should suit patients' needs. In medical care, the primary needs of patients are preventing/curing disease and/or relieving symptoms. Certainly, patients would like knowledge about what can be expected after taking a medication. However, current "Drug Guides for Patients" are based on drug labeling, which is essentially a medically sophisticated instruction manual for medical professionals who have existing knowledge about the medical treatment of the disease. Thus, there seems to be a gap in patients' needs and the contents of existing drug guides. Consequently, this disconnect may be part of the reason Drug Guides for Patients have been underused. If a patient treatment guide, which gives an overview of the disease and possible treatment strategies, is provided in conjunction with a drug guide, this combination may be useful for satisfying patients' needs. In addition, patients generally prefer detailed drug information. Consistently, surveys have revealed that many patients would like to get more information about prescribed medicine than what is frequently provided in medical practice. Furthermore, one survey reported that detailed information about possible side effects resulted in improved compliance. The need to provide patients with drug information can be considered from three points of view: patients' rights, best decision-making by the patient, and minimizing risks. Although in daily practice doctors and pharmacists may have some difficulty providing detailed medication information that includes all possible risks, more effective ways to communicate this information to patients have been suggested. PMID:25747229

Sato, Tsugumichi

2015-01-01

389

Micro flame-based detector suite for universal gas sensing.  

SciTech Connect

A microflame-based detector suit has been developed for sensing of a broad range of chemical analytes. This detector combines calorimetry, flame ionization detection (FID), nitrogen-phosphorous detection (NPD) and flame photometric detection (FPD) modes into one convenient platform based on a microcombustor. The microcombustor consists in a micromachined microhotplate with a catalyst or low-work function material added to its surface. For the NPD mode a low work function material selectively ionizes chemical analytes; for all other modes a supported catalyst such as platinum/alumina is used. The microcombustor design permits rapid, efficient heating of the deposited film at low power. To perform calorimetric detection of analytes, the change in power required to maintain the resistive microhotplate heater at a constant temperature is measured. For FID and NPD modes, electrodes are placed around the microcombustor flame zone and an electrometer circuit measures the production of ions. For FPD, the flame zone is optically interrogated to search for light emission indicative of deexcitation of flame-produced analyte compounds. The calorimetric and FID modes respond generally to all hydrocarbons, while sulfur compounds only alarm in the calorimetric mode, providing speciation. The NPD mode provides 10,000:1 selectivity of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds over hydrocarbons. The FPD can distinguish between sulfur and phosphorous compounds. Importantly all detection modes can be established on one convenient microcombustor platform, in fact the calorimetric, FID and FPD modes can be achieved simultaneously on only one microcombustor. Therefore, it is possible to make a very universal chemical detector array with as little as two microcombustor elements. A demonstration of the performance of the microcombustor in each of the detection modes is provided herein.

Hamilton, Thomas Warren; Washburn, Cody M.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Manley, Robert George; Lewis, Patrick Raymond; Miller, James Edward; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Okandan, Murat

2005-11-01

390

A Freezable Heat Exchanger for Space Suit Radiator Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut s metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to space, thus becoming the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the astronaut during an EVA can reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator. Radiators have no moving parts and are thus highly reliable. Past freezable radiators have been too heavy, but the weight can be greatly reduced by placing a small and freeze tolerant heat exchanger between the astronaut and radiator, instead of making the very large radiator freeze tolerant. Therefore, the key technological innovation to improve space suit radiator performance was the development of a lightweight and freezable heat exchanger that accommodates the variable heat load generated by the astronaut. Herein, we present the heat transfer performance of a newly designed heat exchanger that endured several freeze / thaw cycles without any apparent damage. The heat exchanger was also able to continuously turn down or turn up the heat rejection to follow the variable load.

Nabity, James A.; Mason, Georgia R.; Copeland, Robert J.; Trevino, Luis a.

2008-01-01

391

Checkout and Standard Use Procedures for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational pressure range is the range to which the suit can be nominally operated for manned testing. The top end of the nominal operational pressure range is equivalent to 1/2 the proof pressure. Structural pressure is 1.5 times the specified test pressure for any given test. Proof pressure is the maximum unmanned pressure to which the suit was tested by the vendor prior to delivery. The maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 90% of the proof pressure. The pressure systems RVs are set to keep components below their MAWPs. If the suit is pressurized over its MAWP, the suit will be taken out of service and an in-depth inspection/review of the suit will be performed before the suit is put back in service. The procedures outlined in this document should be followed as written. However, the suit test engineer (STE) may make redline changes real-time, provided those changes are recorded in the anomaly section of the test data sheet. If technicians supporting suit build-up, check-out, and/or test execution believe that a procedure can be improved, they should notify their lead. If procedures are incorrect to the point of potentially causing hardware damage or affecting safety, bring the problem to the technician lead and/or STE s attention and stop work until a solution (temporary or permanent) is authorized. Certain steps in the procedure are marked with a DV , for Designated Verifier. The Designated Verifier for this procedure is an Advanced Space Suit Technology Development Laboratory technician, not directly involved in performing the procedural steps, who will verify that the step was performed as stated. The steps to be verified by the DV were selected based on one or more of the following criteria: the step was deemed significant in ensuring the safe performance of the test, the data recorded in the step is of specific interest in monitoring the suit system operation, or the step has a strong influence on the successful completion of test objectives. Prior to all manned test activities, Advanced Suit Test Data Sheet (TDS) Parts A-E shall be completed to verify system and team are ready for test. Advanced Suit TDS Parts F-G shall be completed at the end of the suited activity. Appendix B identifies tha appropriate Mark III suit emergency event procedures.

Valish, Dana J.

2012-01-01

392

CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with the EM-ACES demonstrating slightly better CO2 washout than the REI suit, but not statistically significant. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future ground testing in the REI and EM-ACES.

Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

2011-01-01

393

A transitional alkalic dolerite dike suite of Mesozoic age in Southeastern New England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dike rocks from the New England platform of Rhode Island and adjacent Massachusetts consist of premetamorphic and post-metamorphic suites. The older group includes metamorphosed dolerite, minette, and schistose dioritic rocks. Post-metamorphic dikes consist of dolerite and sparse monchiquite. The post-metamorphic dolerites are of comparable age to the Eastern North American dolerite suite associated with the Mesozoic basins along the eastern seaboard of North America. However, the southeastern New England dolerites exhibit mineralogy and chemistry more typical of a transitional alkalic suite compared to the more subalkalic tholeiitic dolerites of the Eastern North American suite. Both suites are compatible with a rift tectonic setting, but the more alkalic dolerites may represent a deeper source of small volume melts compared to the Eastern North American dolerites. These more alkaline melts may have concentrated at local centers, or they may be typical of flank dolerites as opposed to the less alkalic varieties that occur within the central axial rift.

Hermes, O. Don; Rao, J. M.; Dickenson, M. P.; Pierce, T. A.

1984-12-01

394

Space Suit Performance: Methods for Changing the Quality of Quantitative Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suits will enable astronauts to perform to their maximum capacity, prototype suits must be built and tested with human subjects. However, engineers and flight surgeons often have difficulty understanding and applying traditional representations of human data without training. To overcome these challenges, NASA is developing modern simulation and analysis techniques that focus on 3D visualization. Early understanding of actual performance early on in the design cycle is extremely advantageous to increase performance capabilities, reduce the risk of injury, and reduce costs. The primary objective of this project was to test modern simulation and analysis techniques for evaluating the performance of a human operating in extra-vehicular space suits.

Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

395

Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

1977-01-01

396

Skin Temperatures During Unaided Egress: Unsuited and While Wearing the NASA Launch and Entry or Advanced Crew Escape Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two flight suits currently worn by crew members during Shuttle launch and landing, the Launch and Entry Suit (LES) and the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), are designed to protect crew members in the case of emergency. Although the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) worn under the flight suits was designed to counteract the heat storage of the suits, the suits may increase thermal stress and limit the astronaut's egress capabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess the thermal loads experienced by crew members during a simulated emergency egress before and after spaceflight. Comparisons of skin temperatures were made between the preflight unsuited and suited conditions. between the pre- and postflight suited conditions, and between the two flight suits.

Woodruff, Kristin K.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.

2000-01-01

397

Remelting and Remobilization in a Magmatic Arc: the St Peter Suite, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermo-mechanical models of magmatic arcs suggest that intermittent intrusion of magma batches should lead to remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks as a result of fluctuations in temperature and water content. However, examples of remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks, formed during arc-building, are surprisingly rare. We investigate the evolution of magmatic rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic St Peter Suite, in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. This suite records multiple intrusions, magma hybridization, and the remelting and remobilization of these intrusions to form migmatites and newly-formed leucocratic magmas. In this paper we detail first how multiple magma batches interact with one another as liquids and mushes during syn-magmatic deformation phases, and then detail the nature of migmatites resulting from anatexis of these same magmatic rocks and the resulting channel ways that allowed for magma remobilization. LA-ICP/MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded crystallization ages of 1647×12 Ma for an early dioritic-to-granitic suite, and 1604×12 Ma for a later magmatic suite of broadly similar composition. Both these suites underwent anatectic events. Titanite from late-formed leucosomes found within D2 shear zones in the older suite, yielded SHRIMP U/Pb age of 1605×7 Ma, within error of the age of the younger suite. We therefore infer that intrusion, crystallization and remelting/remobilization of this younger suite of rocks occurred within 10-15 M.yr. We propose that the St Peter Suite exposures represent a frozen-in record of a continuous, multi-stage, repetitive process, common to the core of arcs where multiple magma intrusions drive multiple hybridization events and fluctuations in temperature and water-content trigger remelting and remobilization of the more fractionated sectors of earlier intrusive. Thus, the St Peter Suite record many of the key processes expected in arcs, including the prediction that early intrusive arc rocks remelt to form younger more fractionated magmas.

Symington, N.; Weinberg, R. F.; Hasalova, P.

2013-12-01

398

The Apollo Number: Space Suits, Self-Support, and the Walk-Run Transition  

PubMed Central

Background How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (<0.5 g), running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. Methodology/Principal Findings The walk-run transition (denoted *) correlates with the Froude Number (Fr?=?v2/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L). Human unsuited Fr* is relatively constant (?0.5) with gravity but increases substantially with decreasing gravity below ?0.4 g, rising to 0.9 in 1/6 g; space suits appear to lower Fr*. Because of pressure forces, space suits partially (1 g) or completely (lunar-g) support their own weight. We define the Apollo Number (Ap?=?Fr/M) as an expected invariant of locomotion under manipulations of M, the ratio of human-supported to total transported mass. We hypothesize that for lunar suited conditions Ap* but not Fr* will be near 0.9, because the Apollo Number captures the effect of space suit self-support. We used the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal and other sources to identify 38 gait events during lunar exploration for which we could determine gait type (walk/lope/run) and calculate Ap. We estimated the binary transition between walk/lope (0) and run (1), yielding Fr* (0.36±0.11, mean±95% CI) and Ap* (0.68±0.20). Conclusions/Significance The Apollo Number explains 60% of the difference between suited and unsuited Fr*, appears to capture in large part the effects of space suits on the walk-run transition, and provides several testable predictions for space suit locomotion and, of increasing relevance here on Earth, exoskeleton locomotion. The knowledge of how space suits affect gait transitions can be used to optimize space suits for use on the Moon and Mars. PMID:19672305

Carr, Christopher E.; McGee, Jeremy

2009-01-01

399

QUANTIFICAÇÃO DA INFLUÊNCIA DA ESPESSURA DA MAMA NA QUALIDADE DA IMAGEM MAMOGRÁFICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A compressão mamária é fundamental na qualidade da imagem mamográfica. Ela é responsável pelo posicionamento das estruturas da mama o mais próximo possível do filme reduzindo a dispersão e a magnificação da estrutura mamária. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de quantificar o quanto à compressão influência na qualidade da imagem mamográfica. Para isso foram obtidas imagens no Mamógrafo

Alécio Fiel Filho; Silvia C. M. Rodrigues; Engenharia Biomédica

400

Study of the suit inflation effect on crew safety during landing using a full-pressure IVA suit for new-generation reentry space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, manned space capsules have been recognized as beneficial and reasonable human space vehicles again. The Dragon capsule already achieved several significant successes. The Orion capsule is going to be sent to a high-apogee orbit without crews for experimental purposes in September 2014. For such human-rated space capsules, the study of acceleration impacts against the human body during splashdown is essential to ensure the safety of crews. Moreover, it is also known that wearing a full pressure rescue suit significantly increases safety of a crew, compared to wearing a partial pressure suit. This is mainly because it enables the use of a personal life support system independently in addition to that which installed in the space vehicle. However, it is unclear how the inflation of the full pressure suit due to pressurization affects the crew safety during splashdown, especially in the case of the new generation manned space vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of the suit inflation on crew safety against acceleration impact during splashdown. For this objective, the displacements of the safety harness in relation with the suit, a human surrogate, and the crew seats during pressurizing the suit in order to determine if the safety and survivability of a crew can be improved by wearing a full pressure suit. For these tests, the DL/H-1 full pressure IVA suit, developed by Pablo de Leon and Gary L. Harris, will be used. These tests use image analysis techniques to determine the displacements. It is expected, as a result of these tests, that wearing a full pressure suit will help to mitigate the impacts and will increase the safety and survivability of a crew during landing since it works as a buffer to mitigate impact forces during splashdown. This work also proposes a future plan for sled test experiments using a sled facility such as the one in use by the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for experimental validation of the work presented as part of this thesis.

Wataru, Suzuki

401

Integrated Suit Test 1 - A Study to Evaluate Effects of Suit Weight, Pressure, and Kinematics on Human Performance during Lunar Ambulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to design the next generation Lunar suit, NASA has initiated a series of tests aimed at understanding the human physiological and biomechanical affects of space suits under a variety of conditions. The first of these tests was the EVA Walkback Test (ICES 2007-01-3133). NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to conduct the second test of the series, titled Integrated Suit Test 1 (IST-1), from March 6 through July 24, 2007. Similar to the Walkback Test, this study was performed with the Mark III (MKIII) EVA Technology Demonstrator suit, a treadmill, and the Partial Gravity Simulator in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. The data collected for IST-1 included metabolic rates, ground reaction forces, biomechanics, and subjective workload and controllability feedback on both suited and unsuited (shirt-sleeve) astronaut subjects. For IST-1 the center of gravity was controlled to a nearly perfect position while the weight, pressure and biomechanics (waist locked vs. unlocked) were varied individually to evaluate the effects of each on the ability to perform level (0 degree incline) ambulation in simulated Lunar gravity. The detailed test methodology and preliminary key findings of IST-1 are summarized in this report.

Gernhardt, Michael L.; Norcross, Jason; Vos, Jessica R.

2008-01-01

402

CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future ground testing in the REI-suit and EM-ACES.

Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

2012-01-01

403

Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit.  

PubMed

Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or approximately 1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comparable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit. PMID:11669132

Doerr, D F

2001-01-01

404

Spherical Coordinate Systems for Streamlining Suited Mobility Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When describing human motion, biomechanists generally report joint angles in terms of Euler angle rotation sequences. However, there are known limitations in using this method to describe complex motions such as the shoulder joint during a baseball pitch. Euler angle notation uses a series of three rotations about an axis where each rotation is dependent upon the preceding rotation. As such, the Euler angles need to be regarded as a set to get accurate angle information. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to visualize and understand these complex motion representations. One of our key functions is to help design engineers understand how a human will perform with new designs and all too often traditional use of Euler rotations becomes as much of a hindrance as a help. It is believed that using a spherical coordinate system will allow ABF personnel to more quickly and easily transmit important mobility data to engineers, in a format that is readily understandable and directly translatable to their design efforts. Objectives: The goal of this project is to establish new analysis and visualization techniques to aid in the examination and comprehension of complex motions. Methods: This project consisted of a series of small sub-projects, meant to validate and verify the method before it was implemented in the ABF's data analysis practices. The first stage was a proof of concept, where a mechanical test rig was built and instrumented with an inclinometer, so that its angle from horizontal was known. The test rig was tracked in 3D using an optical motion capture system, and its position and orientation were reported in both Euler and spherical reference systems. The rig was meant to simulate flexion/extension, transverse rotation and abduction/adduction of the human shoulder, but without the variability inherent in human motion. In the second phase of the project, the ABF estimated the error inherent in a spherical coordinate system, and evaluated how this error would vary within the reference frame. This stage also involved expanding a kinematic model of the shoulder, to include the torso, knees, ankle, elbows, wrists and neck. Part of this update included adding a representation of 'roll' about an axis, for upper arm and lower leg rotations. The third stage of the project involved creating visualization methods to assist in interpreting motion in a spherical frame. This visualization method will be incorporated in a tool to evaluate a database of suited mobility data, which is currently in development.

Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew S.; Harvill. Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

405

Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or ˜1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comprobable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability, and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit.

Doerr, DonaldF.

2001-08-01

406

Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or approximately 1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comparable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Doerr, D. F.

2001-01-01

407

Hazard Analysis for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Used in One-g Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Hazard Analysis document encompasses the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) and associated ancillary equipment. It has been prepared using JSC17773, "Preparing Hazard Analyses for JSC Ground Operation", as a guide. The purpose of this document is to present the potential hazards involved in ground (23 % maximum O2, One-g) operations of the Mark III and associated ancillary support equipment system. The hazards listed in this document are specific to suit operations only; each supporting facility (Bldg. 9, etc.) is responsible for test specific Hazard Analyses. A "hazard" is defined as any condition that has the potential for harming personnel or equipment. This analysis was performed to document the safety aspects associated with manned use of the Mark III for pressurized and unpressurized ambient, ground-based, One-g human testing. The hazards identified herein represent generic hazards inherent to all standard JSC test venues for nominal ground test configurations. Non-standard test venues or test specific configurations may warrant consideration of additional hazards analysis prior to test. The cognizant suit engineer is responsible for the safety of the astronaut/test subject, space suit, and suit support personnel. The test requester, for the test supported by the suit test engineer and suited subject, is responsible for overall safety and any necessary Test Readiness Reviews (TRR).

Mitchell, Kate; Ross, Amy; Blanco, Raul; Wood, Art

2012-01-01

408

Work and Fatigue Characteristics of Unsuited and Suited Humans During Isolated, Isokinetic Joint Motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of a pressurized suit on human performance were investigated. The suit is known as an Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) and is worn by astronauts while working outside of their space craft in low earth orbit. Isolated isokinetic joint torques of three female and three male subjects (all experienced users of the suit) were measured while working at 100% and 80% of their maximum voluntary torque (MVT). It was found that the average decrease in the total amount of work done when the subjects were wearing the EMU was 48% and 41% while working at 100% and 80% MVT, respectively. There is a clear relationship between the MVT and the time and amount of work done until fatigue. In general the stronger joints took longer to fatigue and did more work than the weaker joints. However, it is not clear which joints are most affected by the EMU suit in terms of the amount of work done. The average amount of total work done increased by 5.2% and 20.4% for the unsuited and suited cases, respectively, when the subject went from working at 100% to 80% MVT. Also, the average time to fatigue increased by 9.2% and 25.6% for the unsuited and suited cases, respectively, when the subjects went from working at 100% to 80% MVT. The EMU also decreased the joint range of motion. It was also found that the experimentally measured torque decay could be predicted by a logarithmic equation. The absolute average error in the predictions was found to be 18.3% and 18.9% for the unsuited and suited subject, respectively, working at 100% MVT, and 22.5% and 18.8% for the unsuited and suited subject, respectively, working at 80% MVT. These results could be very useful in the design of future EMU suits, and planning of Extra-Vehicular Activit). (EVA) for the upcoming International Space Station assembly operations.

Gonzalez, L. Javier; Maida, James C.; Miles, Erica H.; Rajulu, S. L.; Pandya, A. K.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

409

Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

Mitchell, Kathryn C.

2010-01-01

410

Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were severely abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub-layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, shares the results of the testing, and provides recommendations for future work.

Mitchell, Kathryn

2009-01-01

411

Remelting and Remobilization in a Magmatic Arc: the St Peter Suite, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermo-mechanical models of magmatic arcs suggest that intermittent intrusion of magma batches should lead to remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks as a result of fluctuations in temperature and water content. However, examples of remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks, formed during arc-building, are surprisingly rare. We investigate the evolution of magmatic rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic St Peter Suite, in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. This suite records multiple intrusions, magma hybridization, and the remelting and remobilization of these intrusions to form migmatites and newly-formed leucocratic magmas. In this paper we detail first how multiple magma batches interact with one another as liquids and mushes during syn-magmatic deformation phases, and then detail the nature of migmatites resulting from anatexis of these same magmatic rocks and the resulting channel ways that allowed for magma remobilization. LA-ICP/MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded crystallization ages of 1647±12 Ma for an early diorite-to-granite suite, and 1604±12 Ma for a later magmatic suite of broadly similar composition. Both these suites underwent anatectic events. Titanite from late-formed leucosomes found within D2 shear zones in the older suite, yielded SHRIMP U/Pb age of 1605±7 Ma, within error of the age of the younger suite. We therefore infer that intrusion, crystallization and remelting/remobilization of this younger suite of rocks occurred within 10-15 M.yr. Thus, the St Peter Suite exposures record many of the key processes expected in arcs, including the prediction that early intrusive arc rocks remelt to form younger more fractionated magmas.

Symington, Neil; Weinberg, Roberto; Hasalová, Pavlina

2014-05-01

412

The use of antigravity suits in the treatment of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension is an uncommon disease characterized by a drop in blood pressure when going from a recumbent to a standing position. Treatment by medication generally produces poor results. Three patients at the Royal Hospital in Oslo were treated with antigravity suits and all were able to maintain adequate blood pressures in the standing position. One patient improved dramatically and was able to take short walks while wearing the suit. The two other patients, however, felt that wearing the suits eventually became uncomfortable. This treatment represents a useful treatment alternative for intractable cases.

Landmark, K.; Kravik, S.

1980-01-01

413

Preliminary results of mental workload and task engagement assessment using electroencephalogram in a space suit.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present preliminary results of subject's mental workload and task engagement assessment in an experimental space suit. We have quantified the mental workload and task engagement based on changes in electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG signals were collected from subjects scalp using a commercial wireless EEG device in two experimental conditions - when subjects did not wear space suit (control condition) and when subjects wore space suit. Brain state changes were estimated and compared with the direct responses for different tasks and different conditions. We found that the spacesuit experiment introduced a greater mental workload where subject's stress levels were higher than control experiment. PMID:23366693

Rabbi, Ahmed F; Zony, Abongwa N; de Leon, Pablo; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

2012-01-01

414

Overview of the Development for a Suite of Low-Thrust Trajectory Analysis Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA intercenter team has developed a suite of low-thrust trajectory analysis tools to make a significant improvement in three major facets of low-thrust trajectory and mission analysis. These are: 1) ease of use, 2) ability to more robustly converge to solutions, and 3) higher fidelity modeling and accuracy of results. Due mostly to the short duration of the development, the team concluded that a suite of tools was preferred over having one integrated tool. This tool-suite, their characteristics, and their applicability will be described. Trajectory analysts can read this paper and determine which tool is most appropriate for their problem.

Kos, Larry D.; Polsgrove, Tara; Hopkins, Randall; Thomas, Dan; Sims, Jon A.

2006-01-01

415

Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a larger anthropometric portion of the astronaut population, and elements tested only in the unsuited condition need to be evaluated with an EVA suit and appropriate analog environment.

Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

2009-01-01

416

CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Realtime metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future inlet vent designs and ground testing.

Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

2014-01-01

417

Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy, and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject, and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit, and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit. Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future inlet vent designs and ground testing.

Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

2014-01-01

418

CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future inlet vent designs and ground testing.

Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

2014-01-01

419

CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test is to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III space suit across a range of workload and flow rates. As a secondary objective, results will be compared to the predicted CO2 concentrations and used to refine existing CFD models. These CFD models will then be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit, which maximizes oronasal CO2 washout. This test has not been completed, but is planned for January 2014. The results of this test will be incorporated into this paper. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects will be tested in the Mark-III space suit with each subject performing two test sessions to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations will be evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure will be maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects will wear the suit while walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) will be tested at each workload. Subjects will wear an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and will be allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 will be monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate will be calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements will be used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future inlet vent design and ground testing in the Mark-III.

Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

2014-01-01

420

20 CFR 30.616 - What happens if this type of tort suit was filed prior to October 30, 2000?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AMENDED Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.616 What...covered Part B employee's employment-related exposure to beryllium or radiation that were included in the tort suit prior to...

2010-04-01

421

20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees...1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS...423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

2013-04-01

422

20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees...1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS...423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

2011-04-01

423

20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees...1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS...423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

2012-04-01

424

20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees...1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS...423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

2014-04-01

425

Assessment and preliminary model development of shape memory polymers mechanical counter pressure space suits  

E-print Network

This thesis seeks to assess the viability of a space qualified shape memory polymer (SMP) mechanical counter pressure (MCP) suit. A key development objective identified by the International Space Exploration Coordination ...

Wee, Brian (Brian J.)

2013-01-01

426

NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp - Duration: 1:05.  

NASA Video Gallery

The White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging studen...

427

What was uniform about the fin-de-siècle sailor suit?  

PubMed

The sailor suits widely worn by children in late-nineteenth-century Britain have been interpreted at the time, and since, as expressions of an Imperial ethos. Yet, a closer examination of the ways that these garments were produced by mass manufacturers, mediated by advertisers and fashion advisors and consumed by families makes us question this characterization. Manufacturers interpreted sailor suits not as unchanging uniforms but as fashion items responding to seasonal changes. Consumers used them to assert social identities and social distinctions, selecting from the multiple variants available. Cultural commentators described sailor suits as emulating Royal practice—but also as ‘common’ and to be avoided. A close analysis of large samples of images and texts from the period 1870–1900 reveals how these different meanings overlapped, making the fin-de-siècle sailor suit a garment that undermines many of our assumptions. PMID:21954488

Rose, Clare

2011-01-01

428

Space exploration challenges : characterization and enhancement of space suit mobility and planetary protection policy analysis  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses two challenges associated with advanced space and planetary exploration: characterizing and improving the mobility of current and future gas pressurized space suits; and developing effective domestic ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2010-01-01

429

NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp - Duration: 1:11.  

NASA Video Gallery

The NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging s...

430

THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Student Loan Office HEATLTH SCIENCE CENTER 62 South Dunlap, Suite 107  

E-print Network

THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Student Loan Office HEATLTH SCIENCE CENTER 62 South Dunlap, Suite 107: _________________________________ As attested to by my signature, I hereby request and authorize the University of Tennessee to stop payment

Cui, Yan

431

Maximum acceptable inherent buoyancy limit for aircrew/passenger helicopter immersion suit systems.  

PubMed

Helicopter crew and passengers flying over cold water wear immersion suits to provide hypothermic protection in case of ditching in cold water. The suits and linings have trapped air in the material to provide the necessary insulation and are thus very buoyant. By paradox, this buoyancy may be too much for a survivor to overcome in escaping from the cabin of a rapidly sinking inverted helicopter. The Canadian General Standard Board requested that research be conducted to investigate what should be the maximum inherent buoyancy in an immersion suit that would not inhibit escape, yet would provide adequate thermal insulation. This experiment reports on 12 subjects who safely escaped with 146N (33 lbf) of added buoyancy from a helicopter underwater escape trainer. It discusses the logic for and recommendation that the inherent buoyancy in a helicopter crew/passenger immersion suit system should not exceed this figure. PMID:15676666

Brooks, C J

1988-12-01

432

78 FR 51186 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...suit filed by Air Alliance Houston, California Communities Against Toxics, Coalition For A Safe Environment, Community In-Power and Development Association, Del Amo Action Committee, Environmental Integrity Project, Louisiana Bucket...

2013-08-20

433

Labeled line drawing of launch and entry suit identifies various components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Line drawings illustrate how a crewmember would be seated during space shuttle launch and entry in the mission specialist seat wearing the launch and entry suit (LES), a partial pressure suit. Front and profile drawings are labeled with numbers. The legend for the views includes: 1) Mission Specialist seat; 2) crewman; 3) helmet; 4) anti-exposure / counter pressure garment; 5) boots; 6) parachute harness; 7) parachute pack; 8) life raft with sea dye marker; 9) suit mounted oxygen (O2) manifold; 10) anti-gravity (anti-g) suit controller; 11) emergency O2 supply; 12) seawars; 13) ventilation fan; 14) orbiter O2 line; 15) headset interface unit (HIU); 16) communication (COMM) line to HIU; 17) flotation device. Crew escape system (CES) and LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions.

1988-01-01

434

Rescue Simulation - NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp - Duration: 70 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

The White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging studen...

435

Development of a mechanical counter pressure Bio-Suit System for planetary exploration  

E-print Network

Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is critical for human spaceflight and particularly for human planetary exploration. The MIT Man Vehicle Laboratory is developing a Bio-Suit EVA System, based on mechanical counterpressure ...

Sim, Zhe Liang

2006-01-01

436

Requirements and Sizing Investigation for Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Trace Contaminant Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), located within the ventilation loop of the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS), is responsible for removing hazardous trace contaminants from the space suit ventilation flow. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that evaluated if trace contaminant control could be accomplished without a TCCS, relying on suit leakage, ullage loss from the carbon dioxide and humidity control system, and other factors. Trace contaminant generation rates were revisited to verify that values reflect the latest designs for Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS) pressure garment materials and PLSS hardware. Additionally, TCCS sizing calculations were performed and a literature survey was conducted to review the latest developments in trace contaminant technologies.

Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Waguespack, Glenn

2010-01-01

437

Results of the Particulate Contamination Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon and eventually to Mars, designing the most effective, efficient, and robust space suit life support system that will operate successfully in these dusty environments is vital. There is some knowledge of the contaminants and level of infiltration expected from the Lunar and Mars dust, however risk mitigation strategies and filtration designs to prevent contamination within the space suit life support system are still undefined. A trade study was initiated to identify and address these concerns, and to develop new requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS). This trade study investigates historical methods of particulate contamination control in space suits and vehicles, and evaluated the possibility of using commercial technologies for this application. In addition, the trade study examined potential filtration designs. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study.

Cognata, Thomas J.; Conger, Bruce; Paul, Heather L.

2009-01-01

438

Understanding human-space suit interaction to prevent injury during extravehicular activity  

E-print Network

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is a critical component of human spaceflight. Working in gas-pressurized space suits, however, causes fatigue, unnecessary energy expenditure, and injury. The problem of injury is particularly ...

Anderson, Allison P. (Allison Paige)

2014-01-01

439

The Apollo Number: space suits, self-support, and the walk-run  

E-print Network

Background: How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity ...

McGee, Jeremy

440

An investigation of space suit mobility with applications to EVA operations  

E-print Network

The primary aim of this thesis is to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited extravehicular activity (EVA) by compiling a detailed database of the torques needed to ...

Schmidt, Patricia Barrett, 1974-

2001-01-01

441

The MERG Suite: Tools for discovering competencies and associated learning resources  

PubMed Central

Background As the demands for competency-based education grow, the need for standards-based tools to allow for publishing and discovery of competency-based learning content is more pressing. This project focused on developing federated discovery services for competency-based medical e-learning content. Methods We built a tool suite for authoring and discovery of medical e-learning metadata. The end-user usability of the tool suite was evaluated through a web-based survey. Results The suite, implemented as an open-source system, was evaluated to identify areas for improvement. Conclusion The MERG suite is a starting point for organizations implementing competency-based e-learning resources. PMID:18479525

Bhupatiraju, Ravi Teja; Hersh, William R; Smothers, Valerie; Fordis, Michael; Greene, Peter S

2008-01-01

442

20 CFR 30.618 - What happens if this type of tort suit was filed after December 28, 2001?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tort suit was filed after December 28, 2001? 30.618 Section 30.618 Employees...tort suit was filed after December 28, 2001? (a) If a tort suit described in § 30.615 was filed after December 28, 2001, the claimant or claimants will be...

2010-04-01

443

Batholiths, plutons, and suites: nomenclature for granitoid rocks of Westland—Nelson, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granitoid rocks of Westland-—Nelson are classified into five geographically distinct batholiths and four suites. Each suite consists of rocks of similar petrographic and chemical characteristics (and probably similar age) which transgress the batholith boundaries.It is suggested that the terms Tuhua Formation and Tuhua Intrusive Group be abandoned, although Tuhua Orogeny is retained as a broad term for mid-Paleozoic orogenic events.

A. J. Tulloch

1988-01-01

444

Pressure-constrained, reduced-DOF, interconnected parallel manipulators with applications to space suit design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents the concept of a Morphing Upper Torso, an innovative pressure suit design that incorporates robotic elements to enable a resizable, highly mobile and easy to don\\/doff spacesuit. The torso is modeled as a system of interconnected, pressure-constrained, reduced-DOF, wire-actuated parallel manipulators, that enable the dimensions of the suit to be reconfigured to match the wearer. The kinematics,

Shane Earl Jacobs

2009-01-01

445

Main problems of the Russian Orlan-M space suit utilization for EVAs on the ISS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years the Russian Orlan-M space suits have been improved as applied to their operational requirements for the ISS. A special attention is paid to enhancement of EVA crew efficiency and safety.The paper considers the main problems regarding specific features of the Russian space suit operation in the ISS, and analyses measures on their solution.In particular, the problems

I. P. Abramov; S. S. Pozdnyakov; G. I. Severin; A. Yu. Stoklitsky

2001-01-01

446

Revolutionary Design for Astronaut Exploration — Beyond the Bio-Suit System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bio-Suit System is designed to revolutionize human space exploration by providing enhanced astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) locomotion and performance based on the concepts of a `second skin' capability. The novel Bio-Suit concept provides an overall exploration system realized through symbiotic relationships between a suite of advanced technologies, creative design, human modeling and analysis, and new mission operations techniques. By working at the intersection of engineering, design, life sciences and operations, new emergent capabilities and interrelationships result for applications to space missions, medical rehabilitation, and extreme sports activities. In many respects, the Bio-Suit System mimics Nature (biomimetics). For example, the second skin is capable of augmenting our biological skin by providing mechanical counter-pressure. We have designed and tested prototypes that prove mechanical counter-pressure feasibility. The `epidermis' of our second skin suit is patterned from 3D laser scans that incorporate human skin strain field maps for maximum mobility and natural movements, while requiring minimum energy expenditure for exploration tasks. We provide a technology roadmap for future design, pressure production and technology investments for the Bio-Suit System. Woven into the second skin are active materials to enhance human performance as well as to provide necessary performance metrics (i.e., energy expenditure). Wearable technologies will be embedded throughout the Bio-Suit System to place the explorer in an information-rich environment enabling real-time mission planning, prediction, and visualization. The Bio-Suit System concept augments human capabilities by coupling human and robotic abilities into a hybrid of the two, to the point where the explorer is hardly aware of the boundary between innate human performance and robotic activities.

Newman, Dava J.; Canina, Marita; Trotti, Guillermo L.

2007-01-01

447

Ages and petrogenetic significance of igneous mangerite-charnockite suites associated with massif anorthosites, Grenville Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

U-Pb ages of zircon fractions of major anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) igneous suites imply that this magmatism inaugurated what is widely regarded as the Grenvillian event between about 1.16 and 1.12 Ga ago over about two-thirds of the Grenville Province east, northeast, and southeast of the Central Metasedimentary Belt. Pre-Grenvillian AMCG suites about 1.36 and 1.64 Ga old have much more restricted

Ronald F. Emslie; Patricia A. Hunt

1990-01-01

448

Le mauvais rsultat tout de suite, ou le bon rsultat trop tard ?  

E-print Network

LE BON R�SULTAT TROP TARD ? #12;J.M. Muller COLLOQUIUM JACQUES MORGENSTERN ­ MARS 2004 Arithmétique TOUT DE SUITE, OU LE BON R�SULTAT TROP TARD ? 1 #12;J.M. Muller COLLOQUIUM JACQUES MORGENSTERN ­ MARS SUITE, OU LE BON R�SULTAT TROP TARD ? 3 #12;J.M. Muller COLLOQUIUM JACQUES MORGENSTERN ­ MARS 2004

Muller, Jean-Michel

449

Developing a new, passive diffusion sampler suite to detect helium anomalies associated with volcanic unrest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helium (He) concentration and 3He/4He anomalies in soil gas and spring water are potentially powerful tools for investigating hydrothermal circulation associated with volcanism and could perhaps serve as part of a hazards warning system. However, in operational practice, He and other gases are often sampled only after volcanic unrest is detected by other means. A new passive diffusion sampler suite, intended to be collected after the onset of unrest, has been developed and tested as a relatively low-cost method of determining He-isotope composition pre- and post-unrest. The samplers, each with a distinct equilibration time, passively record He concentration and isotope ratio in springs and soil gas. Once collected and analyzed, the He concentrations in the samplers are used to deconvolve the time history of the He concentration and the 3He/4He ratio at the collection site. The current suite consisting of three samplers is sufficient to deconvolve both the magnitude and the timing of a step change in in situ concentration if the suite is collected within 100 h of the change. The effects of temperature and prolonged deployment on the suite's capability of recording He anomalies have also been evaluated. The suite has captured a significant 3He/4He soil gas anomaly at Horseshoe Lake near Mammoth Lakes, California. The passive diffusion sampler suite appears to be an accurate and affordable alternative for determining He anomalies associated with volcanic unrest.

Dame, Brittany E.; Solomon, D. Kip; Evans, William C.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.

2015-03-01

450

Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

2010-01-01

451

A method of evaluating efficiency during space-suited work in a neutral buoyancy environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose was to investigate efficiency as related to the work transmission and the metabolic cost of various extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks during simulated microgravity (whole body water immersion) using three space suits. Two new prototype space station suits, AX-5 and MKIII, are pressurized at 57.2 kPa and were tested concurrently with the operationally used 29.6 kPa shuttle suit. Four male astronauts were asked to perform a fatigue trial on four upper extremity exercises during which metabolic rate and work output were measured and efficiency was calculated in each suit. The activities were selected to simulate actual EVA tasks. The test article was an underwater dynamometry system to which the astronauts were secured by foot restraints. All metabolic data was acquired, calculated, and stored using a computerized indirect calorimetry system connected to the suit ventilation/gas supply control console. During the efficiency testing, steady state metabolic rate could be evaluated as well as work transmitted to the dynamometer. Mechanical efficiency could then be calculated for each astronaut in each suit performing each movement.

Greenisen, Michael C.; West, Phillip; Newton, Frederick K.; Gilbert, John H.; Squires, William G.

1991-01-01

452

Relation of heavy mineral suites to Pleistocene to Holocene shoreline sequences in Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The major Pleistocene paleobarrier island complexes recognized on the Georgia coastal plain may represent two distinct shoreline sequences. This is suggested by differences in geomorphology and in heavy mineral suites. The higher and older Talbot, Penholoway, Wicomico, Okefenokee and Waycross complexes are characterized by large, linear, undissected sand bodies. The younger Pamlico, Princess Anne and Silver Bluff complexes consist of small, stubby and complexly dissected sand bodies and are similar to those developed on the Holocene shoreline. The average labile (1.88), ilmenite/leucoxene (1.28), and ZTR (22.07) indices of the three older complexes indicate distinctly more mature heavy mineral suites than the average labile, (8.88) ilmenite/leucoxene (4.54), and ZTR (18.42) indices in the younger complexes. The heavy mineral suites of the older shoreline sequence exhibit little variation in mineralogy. The heavy mineral suites in the younger sequence exhibit a greater range in mineralogy, and the suites change progressively from the Pamlico through the Silver Bluff complexes. Continuation of these trends is evident in the heavy mineral suite of the Holocene deposits. The increasing range in composition also indicates the relatively immaturity of the younger complexes. The difference in heavy mineral content between the older (0.53 wt. %) and the younger (1.33 wt. %) shoreline sequences may result from increased weathering and removal of the labile components during a warm inter-glacial period.

Cocker, M.D. (Georgia Geologic Survey, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-03-01

453

DAEdALUS and Dark Matter Detection  

E-print Network

Among laboratory probes of dark matter, fixed-target neutrino experiments are particularly well-suited to search for light weakly-coupled dark sectors. In this paper, we show that the DAEdALUS source setup---an 800 MeV proton beam impinging on a target of graphite and copper---can improve the present LSND bound on dark photon models by an order of magnitude over much of the accessible parameter space for light dark matter when paired with a suitable neutrino detector such as LENA. Interestingly, both DAEdALUS and LSND are sensitive to dark matter produced from off-shell dark photons. We show for the first time that LSND can be competitive with searches for visible dark photon decays, and that fixed-target experiments have sensitivity to a much larger range of heavy dark photon masses than previously thought. We review the mechanism for dark matter production and detection through a dark photon mediator, discuss the beam-off and beam-on backgrounds, and present the sensitivity in dark photon kinetic mixing for both the DAEdALUS/LENA setup and LSND in both the on- and off-shell regimes.

Yonatan Kahn; Gordan Krnjaic; Jesse Thaler; Matthew Toups

2015-03-12

454

Desapareceu "voz da cincia"  

E-print Network

Desapareceu "voz da ciência" contra o nuclear em Portugal Obituário Lurdes Ferreira e Ricardo, em Lisboa. Tinha 79 anos e dedicou a maior parte da sua vida profissional ao IST. Cerca de vinte anos depois, foi protagonista da luta contra a instalação de uma central nuclear em Portugal, em Ferrei. Ao

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

455

The geochemical nature of the Archean Ancient Gneiss Complex and Granodiorite Suite, Swaziland: a preliminary study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ancient Gneiss Complex (AGC) of Swaziland, an Archean gray gneiss complex, lies southeast and south of the Barberton greenstone belt and includes the most structurally complex and highly metamorphosed portions of the eastern Kaapvaal craton. The AGC is not precisely dated but apparently is older than 3.4 Ga. The AGC consists of three major units: (a) a bimodal suite of closely interlayered siliceous, low-K gneisses and metabasalt; (b) homogeneous tonalite gneiss; and (c) interlayered siliceous microcline gneiss, metabasalt, and minor metasedimentary rocks - termed the metamorphite suite. A geologically younger gabbro-diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite suite, the Granodiorite Suite, is spatially associated with the AGC and intrusive into it. The bimodal suite consists largely of two types of low-K siliceous gneiss: one has SiO2 14%, low Rb/Sr ratios, and depleted heavy rare earth elements (REE's); the other has SiO2 > 75%, Al2O3 < 13%, high Rb/Sr ratios, and relatively abundant REE's except for negative Eu anomalies. The interlayered metabasalt ranges from komatiitic to tholeiitic compositions. Lenses of quartz monzonitic gneiss of K2O/Na2O close to 1 form a minor part of the bimodal suite. Tonalitic to trondhjemitic migmatite locally is abundant and has major-element abundances similar to those of non-migmatitic varieties. The siliceous gneisses of the metamorphic suite show low Al2O, K2O/Na2O ratios of about 1, high Rb/Sr ratios, moderate REE abundances and negative Eu anomalies. K/Rb ratios of siliceous gneisses of the bimodal suite are very low (???130); of the tonalitic gneiss, low (???225); of the siliceous gneiss of the metamorphite suite, moderate (???300); and of the Granodiorite Suite, high (???400). Rocks of the AGC differ geochemically in several ways from the siliceous volcanic and hypabyssal rocks of the Upper Onverwacht Group and from the diapirs of tonalite and trondhjemite that intrude the Swaziland Group. ?? 1978.

Hunter, D.R.; Barker, F.; Millard, H.T., Jr.

1978-01-01

456

Dressing for Altitude: U.S. Aviation Pressure Suits--Wiley Post to Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its earliest days, flight has been about pushing the limits of technology and, in many cases, pushing the limits of human endurance. The human body can be the limiting factor in the design of aircraft and spacecraft. Humans cannot survive unaided at high altitudes. There have been a number of books written on the subject of spacesuits, but the literature on the high-altitude pressure suits is lacking. This volume provides a high-level summary of the technological development and operational use of partial- and full-pressure suits, from the earliest models to the current high altitude, full-pressure suits used for modern aviation, as well as those that were used for launch and entry on the Space Shuttle. The goal of this work is to provide a resource on the technology for suits designed to keep humans alive at the edge of space. Hopefully, future generations will learn from the hard-fought lessons of the past. NASA is committed to the future of aerospace, and a key component of that future is the workforce. Without these men and women, technological advancements would not be possible. Dressing for Altitude is designed to provide the history of the technology and to explore the lessons learned through years of research in creating, testing, and utilizing today s high-altitude suits. It is our hope that this information will prove helpful in the development of future suits. Even with the closeout of the Space Shuttle and the planned ending of the U-2 program, pressure suits will be needed for protection as long as humans seek to explore high frontiers. The NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate is committed to the training of the current and future aerospace workforce. This book and the other books published by the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are in support of this commitment. Hopefully, you will find this book a valuable resource for many years to come.

Jenkins, Dennis R.

2012-01-01

457

V-SUIT Model Validation Using PLSS 1.0 Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic portable life support system (PLSS) simulation software Virtual Space Suit (V-SUIT) has been under development at the Technische Universitat Munchen since 2011 as a spin-off from the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) project. The MATLAB(trademark)-based V-SUIT simulates space suit portable life support systems and their interaction with a detailed and also dynamic human model, as well as the dynamic external environment of a space suit moving on a planetary surface. To demonstrate the feasibility of a large, system level simulation like V-SUIT, a model of NASA's PLSS 1.0 prototype was created. This prototype was run through an extensive series of tests in 2011. Since the test setup was heavily instrumented, it produced a wealth of data making it ideal for model validation. The implemented model includes all components of the PLSS in both the ventilation and thermal loops. The major components are modeled in greater detail, while smaller and ancillary components are low fidelity black box models. The major components include the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) CO2 removal system, the Primary and Secondary Oxygen Assembly (POS/SOA), the Pressure Garment System Volume Simulator (PGSVS), the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS), the heat exchanger between the ventilation and thermal loops, the Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and finally the Liquid Cooling Garment Simulator (LCGS). Using the created model, dynamic simulations were performed using same test points also used during PLSS 1.0 testing. The results of the simulation were then compared to the test data with special focus on absolute values during the steady state phases and dynamic behavior during the transition between test points. Quantified simulation results are presented that demonstrate which areas of the V-SUIT model are in need of further refinement and those that are sufficiently close to the test results. Finally, lessons learned from the modelling and validation process are given in combination with implications for the future development of other PLSS models in V-SUIT.

Olthoff, Claas

2015-01-01

458

Petroleum Generation Potential of Bituminous Mudstones in Tomsk Region Bazhen Suite (Western Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article reviews the prognosis for Bazhen suite HC generation potential in order to select primary commercially exploitable areas. A map of generation potential density for Bazhen suite passive reserves has been plotted. It is based on published papers on calculation of organic carbon concentration using the data of exploration and prospect well gamma-ray logging. The deliverables are compared with geochemical core examination results. Lithological heterogeneity of deposits underlying the Bazhen suite is systemized in order to estimate the possible decrease of the suite generation potential due to hydrocarbon migration to underlying deposits. Three types of cross-sections are distinguished - predominately sandy, alternating silt-argillous and argillous. An estimate of the proportion of Bazhen suite generation potential required for the discovered hydrocarbon deposit formation within oilgathering fields of the first (sandy) type thoroughly explored by deep-hole drilling was carried out. Both quantitative (types 1, 3) and qualitative (type 2) estimations of decrease of the initial generation potential density are carried out for the above-mentioned types. Taking into account the specific character of shale oil development, a further work is required in order to design for each type its individual set of shale strata operating conditions.

Belozerov, V. B.; Baranov, V. E.; Dmitriev, A. Y.

2015-02-01

459

Thermal Performance Of Space Suit Elements With Aerogel Insulation For Moon And Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible fiber-reinforced aerogel composites were studied for use as insulation materials of a future space suit for Moon and Mars exploration. High flexibility and good thermal insulation properties of fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composites at both high and low vacuum conditions make it a promising insulation candidate for the space suit application. This paper first presents the results of a durability (mechanical cycling) study of these aerogels composites in the context of retaining their thermal performance. The study shows that some of these Aerogels materials retained most of their insulation performance after up to 250,000 cycles of mechanical flex cycling. This paper also examines the problem of integrating these flexible aerogel composites into the current space suit elements. Thermal conductivity evaluations are proposed for different types of aerogels space suit elements to identify the lay-up concept that may have the best overall thermal performance for both Moon and Mars environments. Potential solutions in mitigating the silica dusting issue related to the application of these aerogels materials for the space suit elements are also discussed.

Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Trevino, Luis A.

2006-01-01

460

Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

2003-01-01

461

Heat strain and heat stress for workers wearing protective suits at a hazardous waste site  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the effects of heat stress when full body protective suits are worn, heart rates, oral temperatures and environmental parameters were measured for five unacclimatized male workers (25-33 years of age) who performed sampling activities during hazardous waste clean-up operations. The protective ensembles included laminated PVC-Tyvec chemical resistant hood suits with rubber boots, gloves, full facepiece dual cartridge respirators and hard hats. For comparison, measurements also were performed when the men worked at a similar level of activity while they wore ordinary work clothes. A comparison of the heart rates for the men working with and without suits indicated that wearing the suits imposed a heat stress equivalent to adding 6/sup 0/ to 11/sup 0/C (11/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/F) to the ambient WBGT index. A similar result was obtained by calculating the WBGT in the microclimate inside the suits and comparing it to the ambient WBGT. These results indicate the following: 1) there exists a significant risk of heat injury during hazardous waste work when full body protective clothing is worn, and 2) threshold limit values for heat stress established by the ACGIH must be lowered substantially before extending them to cover workers under these conditions.

Paull, J.M.; Rosenthal, F.S.

1987-05-01

462

Flexible Packaging Concept for a Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neither the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the space suit currently used for space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) missions, nor the Apollo EMU, the space suit successfully used on previous lunar missions, will satisfy the requirements for the next generation Constellation Program (CxP) lunar suit. The CxP system or Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) must be able to tolerate more severe environmental and use conditions than any previous system. These conditions include missions to the severely cold lunar poles and up to 100 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) excursions without ground maintenance. Much effort is focused on decreasing the mass and volume of the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) over previous suit designs in order to accommodate the required increase in functionality. This paper documents the progress of a conceptual packaging effort of a flexible backpack for the CSSE PLSS. The flexible backpack concept relies on a foam protection system to absorb, distribute, and dissipate the energy from falls on the lunar surface. Testing and analysis of the foam protection system concept that was conducted during this effort indicates that this method of system packaging is a viable solution.

Thomas, Gretchen; Dillon, Paul; Oliver, Joe; Zapata, Felipe

2009-01-01