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1

Competition Suits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is fromLessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will explore the topic of competition suits for the Winter Olympics, and will conduct an experiment to test the effects of air drag over the surface. Students will also create a new winter sport for the Olympics and design a competition suit for that sport.

2010-01-01

2

Suiting Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is about cleanroom technology and the importance of contamination control. Learners will discover the different types of industries that use cleanrooms. The activity centers on drawing a parallel between suiting up for the Genesis cleanroom and dressing to do a certain job or activity, and presenting the findings to the class. Includes a teacher's guide and students handouts. Video and audio clips are provided. This lesson 3 of 10 from the Dynamic Design: The Cleanroom module.

3

STS-2 suit preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight crew equipment specialists perform a checkout of an astronaut flight suit to be worn during STS-2 on Columbia. This particular suit is an Ejection Escape Suit (EES). Technician is examining the cuffs and sleeves (38928); equipment specialist installs prescription eyeglasses into the helmet of an astronaut flight suit (38929).

1981-01-01

4

Music Education Suites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes options for designing and equipping middle and high school music education suites, and suggests ways of gaining community support for including full service music suites in new and renovated school facilities. In addition to basic music suites, and practice rooms, other options detailed include: (1) small ensemble…

Kemp, Wayne

2009-01-01

5

Space Suit Thermal Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

1998-01-01

6

The BINSYN Program Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BINSYN program suite has been ported to a Linux-based operating system. The new program structure is a major revision from the original version and a public version is nearing completion. This paper describes research areas where the program suite is particularly applicabile.

Linnell, Albert P.

2012-04-01

7

Geochemistry and origin of the early Mesoproterozoic mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite association of the Serra da Providência suite and associated gabbros, central-eastern Rondônia, SW Amazonian Craton, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Serra da Providência suite (SPS) is constituted of quartz mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite and coeval mafic rocks, intruded during the 1.60-1.53 Ga interval into Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement (Jamari Complex) in the Juruena-Rondônia geochronologic province, SW Amazonian Craton. In this region the Serra da Providência suite consists of two batholiths and several small plutons represented by syeno-monzogranites and igneous quartz mangerite and charnockites. The Serra da Providência granites are ferroan, calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic and characterized by high Na2O + K2O, Rb, Zr, Y, Nb, Ta, Ce, Zn, Ga, and REE (except for Eu), moderate Ba, and low Sr, MgO, and CaO. Ga/Al, Y/Nb, FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) and K2O/Na2O ratios are high and Sr/Ba and Rb/Ba are low and are geochemically similar to typical A2-subtype granites. The SPS charnockites and quartz mangerites display values of FeOT, MgO, CaO, Ba, Rb, Sr, Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf similar to the SPS A-type granites. The occurrence of magnetite as an accessory phase and the high FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) in granites, charnockites and quartz mangerites suggest crystallization from a relatively oxidized magma and also explain the occurrence of titanite as a primary phase in these granites, similar to those reported in several localities of the Amazonian Craton. The parental magma of the mafic rocks of the SPS probably had mainly enriched sources and resulted from melting of heterogeneous mantle reservoirs with coherent chemical characteristics. Trace elements data indicate subduction-modified mantle sources for the mafic rocks that are in agreement with the post-collisional character of this magmatism. A large set of whole-rock Sm-Nd isotope data (Bettencourt et al., 1999; Scandolara, 2006; Santos et al., 2008 and this work) demonstrate that granites, charnockites and quartz mangerites of the study area are the product of magmas derived from interaction between enriched mantle derived magmas (in very subordinate proportions) and recycled crust in larger proportion. The source region is dominated by Paleoproterozoic material, but several samples yield Archaean model ages that are the first evidence for such ancient source materials in the SW Amazonian Craton. The Serra da Providência suite was emplaced during the post-collisional stage of the Juruena-Jamari arc and Madeirinha orogeny (Scandolara et al., 2011), and post-dates the collision between the Tapajós (Tapajós-Parima geochronological province, Pará, Brazil) and Bolívia (palaeocontinent which precedes Sunsás geochronological province) blocks. Its geochemical and structural features are coincident with those recognized in post-collisional granitoids. Geochemical data suggest that complex processes which involved crustal melting, fractional crystallization, magma mixing and, in some extent, crustal assimilation were responsible for the magmatism of the Serra da Providência suite. The magmas that constitute the Serra da Providência suite resulted from varying degrees of partial melting of a compositionally heterogeneous source. The nature of the source and the degree of melting exerted a significant control over compositional variation in some of the parental magmas which were also affected by subsequent fractional crystallization and mingling processes. Internal variations in composition observed in several bodies can be the result of incremental amalgamation of different magma pulses that varied mainly in the degree of partial melting.

Scandolara, Jaime E.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Dantas, Elton L.

2013-08-01

8

Orbit Software Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

2012-01-01

9

Astronomical Video Suites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer and visual artist Jose Francisco Salgado has directed two astronomical video suites to accompany live performances of classical music works. The suites feature awe-inspiring images, historical illustrations, and visualizations produced by NASA, ESA, and the Adler Planetarium. By the end of 2009, his video suites Gustav Holst's The Planets and Astronomical Pictures at an Exhibition will have been presented more than 40 times in over 10 countries. Lately Salgado, an avid photographer, has been experimenting with high dynamic range imaging, time-lapse, infrared, and fisheye photography, as well as with stereoscopic photography and video to enhance his multimedia works.

Francisco Salgado, Jose

2010-01-01

10

DSN Data Visualization Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DSN Data Visualization Suite is a set of computer programs and reusable Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that assist in the visualization and analysis of Deep Space Network (DSN) spacecraft-tracking data, which can include predicted and actual values of downlink frequencies, uplink frequencies, and antenna-pointing angles in various formats that can include tables of values and polynomial coefficients. The data can also include lists of antenna-pointing events, lists of antenna- limit events, and schedules of tracking activities. To date, analysis and correlation of these intricately related data before and after tracking have been difficult and time-consuming. The DSN Data Visualization Suite enables operators to quickly diagnose tracking-data problems before, during, and after tracking. The Suite provides interpolation on demand and plotting of DSN tracking data, correlation of all data on a given temporal point, and display of data with color coding configurable by users. The suite thereby enables rapid analysis of the data prior to transmission of the data to DSN control centers. At the control centers, the same suite enables operators to validate the data before committing the data to DSN subsystems. This software is also Web-enabled to afford its capabilities to international space agencies.

Bui, Bach X.; Malhotra, Mark R.; Kim, Richard M.

2009-01-01

11

Designing the Operative Suite  

PubMed Central

The planning of an operative suite involves many considerations, often of a highly technical nature. Requirements have become so diversified and have been elaborated so rapidly that standardization of requirements cannot be anticipated. The concept of grouping interdependent departments has brought the suite down to lower floors. Rooms have become larger to accommodate more monitoring and other equipment, and many more ancillary rooms have been found necessary. A wide wing with double or peripheral corridors is preferable. Air sterilization can be achieved by several methods. The doctors' dressing room is often a danger point in bacterial control and needs redesigning. Patient monitoring is increasing and some features can be built in. TV observation and teaching have tremendous potential but have not been adopted as widely as was anticipated some years ago. If a department needs extensive enlargement, it is much more satisfactory and usually cheaper to construct a new suite in another location.

Agnew, G. Harvey

1965-01-01

12

Spectroscopy Lab Suite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spectroscopy Lab Suite contains 10 simulations that illustrate optical emission and absorption from atoms and solids. These illustrations show bound state energy levels, electronic transitions, spectra, and illustrations of the physical systems being modeled. Instructions on using the simulations are provided with each.

Zollman, Dean

2010-08-10

13

Advanced Crew Escape Suit.  

PubMed

Design of the S1032 Launch Entry Suit (LES) began following the Challenger loss and NASA's decision to incorporate a Shuttle crew escape system. The LES (see Figure 1) has successfully supported Shuttle missions since NASA's Return to Flight with STS-26 in September 1988. In 1990, engineers began developing the S1035 Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) to serve as a replacement for the LES. The ACES was designed to be a simplified, lightweight, low-bulk pressure suit which aided self donning/doffing, provided improved comfort, and enhanced overall performance to reduce crew member stress and fatigue. Favorable crew member evaluations of a prototype led to full-scale development and qualification of the S1035 ACES between 1990 and 1992. Production of the S1035 ACES began in February 1993, with the first unit delivered to NASA in May 1994. The S1035 ACES first flew aboard STS-68 in August 1994 and will become the primary crew escape suit when the S1032 LES ends its service life in late 1995. The primary goal of the S1035 development program was to provide improved performance over that of the S1032 to minimize the stress and fatigue typically experienced by crew members. To achieve this, five fundamental design objectives were established, resulting in various material/configuration changes. PMID:11540717

1995-09-01

14

Space Suit Spins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space is a hostile environment where astronauts combat extreme temperatures, dangerous radiation, and a near-breathless vacuum. Life support in these unforgiving circumstances is crucial and complex, and failure is not an option for the devices meant to keep astronauts safe in an environment that presents constant opposition. A space suit must meet stringent requirements for life support. The suit has to be made of durable material to withstand the impact of space debris and protect against radiation. It must provide essential oxygen, pressure, heating, and cooling while retaining mobility and dexterity. It is not a simple article of clothing but rather a complex modern armor that the space explorers must don if they are to continue exploring the heavens

2005-01-01

15

Pressure suit joint analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A measurement system for simultaneously measuring torque and angular flexure in a pressure suit joint is described. One end of a joint under test is held rigid. A torque transducer is pivotably supported on the other movable end of a joint. A potentiometer is attached to the transducer by an arm. The wiper shaft of the potentiometer is gripped by a reference arm that rotates the wiper shaft the same angle as the flexure of joint. A signal is generated by the potentiometer which is representative of the joint flexure. A compensation circuit converts the output of the transducer to a signal representative of joint torque.

Vykukal, H. C.; Webbon, B. W. (inventors)

1982-01-01

16

Sustainability Learning Suites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sustainability learning suites is a set of learning objects created for people with a post-secondary science background, organized in six themes: Systems thinking; Sustainable development; Population; Energy; Water and Materials. The materials are designed on Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning and include: learning objectives, editable slides with notes and embedded classroom activities, activities of 1-3 hours, assessments, and a set of 24 videos. These materials were created by Jane Qiong Zhang and Linda Vanasupa in association with Julie B. Zimmerman and James Mihelcic with the assistance of grants from the National Science Foundation.

2012-12-20

17

[Signal Processing Suite Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our role in this project was to participate in the design of the signal processing suite to analyze plasma density measurements on board a small constellation (3 or 4) satellites in Low Earth Orbit. As we are new to space craft experiments, one of the challenges was to simply gain understanding of the quantity of data which would flow from the satellites, and possibly to interact with the design teams in generating optimal sampling patterns. For example, as the fleet of satellites were intended to fly through the same volume of space (displaced slightly in time and space), the bulk plasma structure should be common among the spacecraft. Therefore, an optimal, limited bandwidth data downlink would take advantage of this commonality. Also, motivated by techniques in ionospheric radar, we hoped to investigate the possibility of employing aperiodic sampling in order to gain access to a wider spatial spectrum without suffering aliasing in k-space.

Sahr, John D.; Mir, Hasan; Morabito, Andrew; Grossman, Matthew

2003-01-01

18

Nutrition systems for pressure suits.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

1973-01-01

19

GEOLOGIA E GEOCRONOLOGIA DOS GRANITÓIDES ARQUEANOS DA REGIÃO DE XINGUARA-PA E SUAS IMPLICAÇÕES NA EVOLUÇÃO DO TERRENO GRANITO-GREENSTONE DE RIO MARIA, CRÁTON AMAZÔNICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

GEOLOGY AND GEOCHRONOLOGY OF ARCHEAN GRANITOIDS OF THE XINGUARA REGION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE RIO MARIA GRANITE-GREENSTONE TERRANE, AMAZONIAN CRATON The Xinguara area, located in the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrain - Pará, is composed of several Archaean granitoids. Structures and fa bric elements visible at outcrop and microscopic scales, and zircon Pb-Pb ages suggest that these granitoids were

ALBANO ANTONIO DA; SILVA LEITE; ROBERTO DALL' AGNOL; MOACIR JOSÉ BUENANO; FERNANDO JACQUES ALTHOFF

20

Public Access Space Suit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the role a Public Access Space Suit (PASS) could have in the certification of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) for use in space tourism and other non-government activities. Two distinct classes of hazards are highlighted. The first class involve hazards which are common with civil aircraft but where the RLV exacerbates the safety issue. The second class of hazard are those unique to RLVs. From consideration of these hazards a specification for the PASS is derived. Also the additional roles the PASS could have on a space station are considered both as a continuation of the safety role and a means by which tourists could experience recreational “spacewalks”. It is shown no significant additional requirements are generated to perform these extra roles. A feasibility design for a PASS is presented showing how these requirements could be met. The PASS concept derived in this paper is intended to be an input into the overall evaluation of costs and approaches to space tourism with the objective of exploring whether it is the best route, not only to meet safety requirements, but also to enhance the marketability of any space tourism venture.

Hempsell, C. M.

21

Establishing an interventional nephrology suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures related to dialysis access are best performed in a center or suite designated specifically for that purpose. The facility can either be within a hospital or be a free-standing unit. Feasibility depends largely on the size of the end-stage renal disease population. Alternatives include existing interventional radiology or cardiac catheterization suites. Success of a dialysis access center requires attention

Randall L. Rasmussen

2002-01-01

22

Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “ Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Exploration” is an integrated countermeasure platform to mitigate the spaceflight-induced physiologic adaptation and de-conditioning that manifests during long-duration spaceflight and gravitational transitions. The V2Suit integrates flywheel gyroscopes and inertial measurement units within a wearable module that can be placed on the body segments, and when commanded in a coordinated manner provides a “ viscous resistance” during movements. The system architecture, human-system integration, and three six degree-of-freedom simulations are presented which describe the magnitude and direction of the gyroscopic torque and resulting force within the module during representative arm movements. The results demonstrate of the ability of the V2Suit module design to generate a reaction force along a specified direction and reject perturbations due to body kinematics - collectively illustrating the feasibility of the concept.

Duda, K. R.; Newman, D. J.

23

Orion ECLSS/Suit System - Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test (APIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Crew and Thermal Systems Division performed this test in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This testing is the first phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. APIST is the first in a series, which will consist of testing development hardware including the Carbon dioxide and Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) and the air revitalization loop fan with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2013, will utilize the CAMRAS and a development regulator with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying cabin and suit pressures. This paper will discuss the results and findings of APIST and will also discuss future testing.

Barido, Richard A.

2012-01-01

24

The Dichotomous HED Meteorite Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan is the largest suite of crustal rocks available from a differentiated asteroid. Attempts to unravel the petrogenetic history of the HED parent body have tacitly assumed that the suite is representative of the crust, and thus can be used to understand the differentiation history of the entire parent body. This assumption is a holdover from a time when we knew little about the HED parent body. Much has changed. Is this assumption still valid? HED Geochemistry: The HED suite is composed

Mittlefehldt, D. W.

2004-01-01

25

Next-Generation Space Suits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, MIT engineer Dava Newman is working to replace today's bulky, inflated space suits with a radical, sleek design that may one day allow astronauts to walk easily on Mars.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-03-31

26

Compositional Diversity in Volcanic Suites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use whole-rock major- and trace-element compositions of volcanic rocks to explore the origins of compositional variation in igneous suites. With the help of detailed step-by-step instructions, datasets from the Yellowstone and Crater Lake calderas are downloaded from the GEOROC database, imported into Excel spreadsheets, and graphed in the form of "Harker" diagrams to learn about the different petrogeneses of these two volcanic suites.

Ratajeski, Kent

27

Space Suit Joint Torque Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

Valish, Dana J.

2011-01-01

28

Orion Suit Loop Variable Pressure Regulator Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) integrates the cabin and pressure suits with the core life support systems to provide life support during contingency depressurized cabin operations. To provide the multipule suit pressures between nominal pressurized cabin suited operations, suit leak checks, depressurized cabin suited operations, and elevated suit pressure for denitrification, a variable pressure regulator is needed. This paper documents the development and integrated testing of the suit loop regulator for Orion.

Mosher, Michael; Vassallo, Andrew; Lewis, John F.; Campbell, Melissa

2014-01-01

29

Development of Power Assisting Suit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize a wearable power assisting suit for assisting a nurse to carry a patient in her arms, the power supply and control systems of the suit have to be miniaturized, and it has to be wireless and pipeline-less. The new wearable suit consists of shoulders, arms, back, waist and legs units to be fitted on the nurse's body. The arms, waist and legs have new pneumatic rotary actuators driven directly by micro air pumps supplied by portable Ni-Cd batteries. The muscle forces are sensed by a new muscle hardness sensor utilizing a sensing tip mounted on a force sensing film device. An embedded microcomputer is used for the calculations of control signals. The new wearable suit was applied practically to a human body and a series of movement experiments that weights in the arms were held and taken up and down was performed. Each unit of the suit could transmit assisting torque directly to each joint verifying its practicability.

Yamamoto, Keijiro; Ishii, Mineo; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Yoshimitsu, Toshihiro; Matsuo, Takashi

30

Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

1977-01-01

31

Navigation/Prop Software Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Navigation (Nav)/Prop software is used to support shuttle mission analysis, production, and some operations tasks. The Nav/Prop suite containing configuration items (CIs) resides on IPS/Linux workstations. It features lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle navigation and propellant analysis for all flight segments. This suite also includes trajectory server, archive server, and RAT software residing on MCC/Linux workstations. Navigation/Prop represents tool versions established during or after IPS Equipment Rehost-3 or after the MCC Rehost.

Bruchmiller, Tomas; Tran, Sanh; Lee, Mathew; Bucker, Scott; Bupane, Catherine; Bennett, Charles; Cantu, Sergio; Kwong, Ping; Propst, Carolyn

2012-01-01

32

Combinatorial Generation of Test Suites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testgen is a computer program that generates suites of input and configuration vectors for testing other software or software/hardware systems. As systems become ever more complex, often, there is not enough time to test systems against all possible combinations of inputs and configurations, so test engineers need to be selective in formulating test plans. Testgen helps to satisfy this need: In response to a test-suite-requirement-specification model, it generates a minimal set of test vectors that satisfies all the requirements.

Dvorak, Daniel L.; Barrett, Anthony C.

2009-01-01

33

Apollo space-suit materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and materials used in the Apollo space suit are discussed. The various materials and combinations of materials to obtain the desired type of protection are identified. Detailed descriptions are provided of the pressure garment, liquid cooled garment, extravehicular gloves, helmet, and boots.

Dawn, F. S.; Jarboe, R. L.

1971-01-01

34

Explosive Ordnance Disposal Protective Suit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosive ordnance disposal protective suit which includes trousers, a coat with collar, a protective helmet and a combination face shield-chest plate. The face shield-chest plate is supported and held in place by a pocket on the front of the coat. The...

R. Martone

1984-01-01

35

Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

2014-01-01

36

Mars EVA Suit Airlock (MESA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrium Space Infrastructure Division has begun an in-house research activity of an Earth-based simulation facility supporting future manned missions to Mars. This research unit will help to prepare and support planned missions in the following ways: 1) to enable the investigation and analysis of contamination issues in advance of a human visit to Mars; 2) as a design tool to investigate and simulate crew operations; 3) to simulate crew operation during an actual mission; 4) to enable on-surface scientific operations without leaving the shirt-sleeve habitation environment ("glove box principle"). The MESA module is a surface EVA facility attached to the main habitation or laboratory module, or mobile pressurized rover. It will be sealed, but not pressurized, and provide protection against the harsh Martian environment. This module will include a second crew airlock for safety reasons. The compartment can also be used to provide an external working bench and experiment area for the crew. A simpler MESA concept provides only an open shelter against wind and dust. This concept does not incorporate working and experimental areas. The principle idea behind the MESA concept is to tackle the issue of contamination by minimizing the decontamination processes needed to clean surface equipment and crew suit surfaces after an EVA excursion prior to the astronaut re-entering the habitable area. The technical solution envisages the use of a dedicated crew suit airlock. This airlock uses an EVA suit which is externally attached by its back-pack to the EVA compartment area facing the Martian environment. The crew donns the suit from inside the habitable volume through the airlock on the back of the suit. The surface EVA can be accomplished after closing the back-pack and detaching the suit. A special technical design concept foresees an extendable suit back-pack, so that the astronaut can operate outside and in the vincinity of the module. The key driver in the investigation is the problem of contamination of the habitable volume by EVA and sampling activities and the transport of Earth-generated contaminants to Mars.

Ransom, Stephen; Böttcher, Jörg; Steinsiek, Frank

37

Spinoff From a Moon Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Al Gross transferred expertise obtained as an ILC engineer for NASA's Apollo program to the manufacture of athletic shoes. Gross substituted DuPont's Hytrel plastic for foam materials in the shoe's midsole, eliminating cushioning loss caused by body weight. An external pressurized shell applied from space suit technology was incorporated into the shoe. Stiffness and cushioning properties of the midsole were "tuned" by varying material thickness and styling lines. A stress free "blow molding" process adapted from NASA space suit design was also utilized. The resulting compression chamber midsole performed well in tests. It allows AVIA to re-configure for specific sports and is a "first step" toward a durable, foamless, non-fatiguing midsole.

1991-01-01

38

VITA: A paperless hospital suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive user-friendly software suite, code-named VITA, was developed by the authors for implementing electronic medical record (EMR) systems of hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. VITA was designed as a web based application running off a central server. The paper describes the functional features of VITA, its mode of deployment and the challenges faced in adapting and adopting the system for

James Katende; Oluwaseyi Feyisetan; Abiola O Olaleye

2011-01-01

39

Test Suite Cooperative Framework on Software Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software testing has gradually played an important role in controlling the quality of software product. In this paper, we study the characteristics of test suites in software testing and analyze their structure. A novel test suite cooperative framework is presented for software testing based on the existing test suite. The framework can analyze different test suites with ontology and taxonomy, and help cooperation among the test suites to some extent. A tool has been developed with .NET platform to meet the requirements of designing cooperative test suite in software testing projects.

Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Genxing; Cai, Lizhi

40

Physics Suite Thinking Problems: Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on the topic of optics developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. Topics covered include Snell's law, the speed of light, electromagnetic waves, EM radiation, EM flux, lenses, mirrors, and diffraction. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-19

41

Anti-G Suit Inflation Rate Requirements,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The consensus concerning anti-G suit inflation requirements is 'the faster the better.' As the initiation of the anti-G suit inflation nears G onset, however, anti-G valve design becomes more complex in order to increase anti-G suit inflation rates, somet...

R. R. Burton

1988-01-01

42

Z-2 Suit Support Stand and MKIII Suit Center of Gravity Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's next generation spacesuits are the Z-Series suits, made for a range of possible exploration missions in the near future. The prototype Z-1 suit has been developed and assembled to incorporate new technologies that has never been utilized before in the Apollo suits and the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). NASA engineers tested the Z-1 suit extensively in order to developed design requirements for the new Z-2 suit. At the end of 2014, NASA will be receiving the new Z-2 suit to perform more testing and to further develop the new technologies of the suit. In order to do so, a suit support stand will be designed and fabricated to support the Z-2 suit during maintenance, sizing, and structural leakage testing. The Z-2 Suit Support Stand (Z2SSS) will be utilized for these purposes in the early testing stages of the Z-2 suit.

Nguyen, Tuan Q.

2014-01-01

43

Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two -fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z -2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z -1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

Ross, Amy J.

2012-01-01

44

Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mark III planetary technology demonstrator space suit can be tailored to an individual by swapping the modular components of the suit, such as the arms, legs, and gloves, as well as adding or removing sizing inserts in key areas. A method was sought to identify the transition from an ideal suit fit to a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using a metric of mobility-based human performance data. To this end, the degradation of the range of motion of the elbow and wrist of the suit as a function of suit sizing modifications was investigated to attempt to improve suit fit. The sizing range tested spanned optimal and poor fit and was adjusted incrementally in order to compare each joint angle across five different sizing configurations. Suited range of motion data were collected using a motion capture system for nine isolated and functional tasks utilizing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm by itself. Findings indicated that no single joint drives the performance of the arm as a function of suit size; instead it is based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb. To determine a size adjustment range where an individual can operate the suit at an acceptable level, a performance detriment limit was set. This user-selected limit reveals the task-dependent tolerance of the suit fit around optimal size. For example, the isolated joint motion indicated that the suit can deviate from optimal by as little as -0.6 in to -2.6 in before experiencing a 10% performance drop in the wrist or elbow joint. The study identified a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and developed a new way to gauge tolerances around optimal size.

Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2012-01-01

45

Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

Weinstein, Leonard Murray

2007-01-01

46

Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

47

Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two-fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z-2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z-1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

Ross, Amy

2013-01-01

48

Complexity of Sizing for Space Suit Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The `fit? of a garment is often considered to be a subjective measure of garment quality. However, some experts attest that a complaint of poor garment fit is a symptom of inadequate or excessive ease, the space between the garment and the wearer. Fit has traditionally been hard to quantify, and space suits are an extreme example, where fit is difficult to measure but crucial for safety and operability. A proper space suit fit is particularly challenging because of NASA?s need to fit an incredibly diverse population (males and females from the 1st to 99th percentile) while developing a minimum number of space suit sizes. Because so few sizes are available, the available space suits must be optimized so that each fits a large segment of the population without compromising the fit of any one wearer.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

49

The BRITNeY Suite Animation Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the BRITNeY suite, a tool which en- ables users to create visualizations of formal models. BRITNeY suite is integrated with CPN Tools, and we give an example of how to ex- tend a simple stop-and-wait protocol with a visualization in the form of message sequence charts. We also show examples of animations created during industrial projects to

Michael Westergaard; Kristian Bisgaard Lassen

2006-01-01

50

Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

2012-01-01

51

Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

2007-01-01

52

Suites of Dwarfs around nearby Giant Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog (UNGC) contains the most comprehensive summary of distances, radial velocities, and luminosities for 800 galaxies located within 11 Mpc from us. The high density of observables in the UNGC makes this sample indispensable for checking results of N-body simulations of cosmic structures on a ~1 Mpc scale. The environment of each galaxy in the UNGC was characterized by a tidal index ?1, depending on the separation and mass of the galaxy's main disturber (MD). We grouped UNGC galaxies with a common MD in suites, and ranked suite members according to their ?1. All suite members with positive ?1 are assumed to be physical companions of the MD. About 58% of the sample are members of physical groups. The distribution of suites by the number of members, n, follows a relation N(n) ~ n -2. The 20 most populated suites contain 468 galaxies, i.e., 59% of the UNGC sample. The fraction of MDs among the brightest galaxies is almost 100% and drops to 50% at MB = -18m. We discuss various properties of MDs, as well as galaxies belonging to their suites. The suite abundance practically does not depend on the morphological type, linear diameter, or hydrogen mass of the MD, the tightest correlation being with the MD dynamical mass. Dwarf galaxies around MDs exhibit well-known segregation effects: the population of the outskirts has later morphological types, richer H I contents, and higher rates of star formation activity. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing cases where dwarf spheroidal galaxies occur at the far periphery of the suites, as well as some late-type dwarfs residing close to MDs. Comparing simulation results with galaxy groups, most studies assume the Local Group is fairly typical. However, we recognize that the nearby groups significantly differ from each other and there is considerable variation in their properties. The suites of companions around the Milky Way and M31, consisting of the Local Group, do not quite seem to be a typical nearby group. The multiplicity of nearby groups of the number of their physical members can be described by the Hirsh-like index hg = 9, indicating that the Local Volume contains nine groups with populations exceeding nine companions to their MDs.

Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

2014-01-01

53

Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

Aitchison, Lindsay

2011-01-01

54

Effects of Varying Surface Inclines and Suit Pressure: Implications on Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suited human performance studies in reduced gravity environments to date include limited observations from Apollo Lunar surface Extravehicular Activities (EVA) and from previous studies conducted in partial gravity simulation environments. The Constellation Program EVA Systems Project office has initiated tests to develop design requirements for the next generation Lunar EVA suit. Theses studies were conducted in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility (SVMF) at Johnson Space Center from which the results provided recommendations for suit weight, mass, center of gravity, pressure, and suit kinematic constraints that optimize human performance in partial gravity environments.

Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Harvill, Lauren; Morency, Richard; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2008-01-01

55

Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion it will be tested in the 11' humanrated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model. The paper also provides a discussion of significant Z-2 configuration features, and how these components evolved from proposal concepts to final designs.

Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

2014-01-01

56

Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion it will be tested in the 11' human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model. The paper also provides a discussion of significant Z-2 configuration features, and how these components evolved from proposal concepts to final designs.

Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David

2014-01-01

57

Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

1999-01-01

58

Space suit extravehicular hazards protection development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is an overview of the development of the integral thermal/micrometeoroid garment (ITMG) used for protection of a space-suited crewmember from hazards of various extravehicular environments. These hazard conditions can range from thermal extremes, meteoroid and debris particles, and radiation conditions in near-earth orbits and free space to sand and dust environments encountered on lunar and planetary surfaces. Representative ITMG materials cross-section layups are identified and described for various space suit configurations ranging from the Gemini program to planned protective requirements and considerations for anticipated Space Station EV operations.

Kosmo, Joseph J.

1987-01-01

59

Space suit extravehicular hazards protection development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is an overview of the development of the integral thermal/micrometeoroid garment (ITMG) used for protection of a space-suited crewmember from hazards of various extravehicular environments. These hazard conditions can range from thermal extremes, meteoroid and debris particles, and radiation conditions in near-earth orbits and free space to sand and dust environments encountered on lunar or planetary surfaces. Representative ITMG materials cross-section layups are identified and described for various space-suit configurations ranging from the Gemini Program to planned protective requirements and considerations for anticipated Space Station EV operations.

Kosmo, Joseph J.

1987-01-01

60

Thermal Evaluation of a Polyvinylchloride Exposure Suit (Empress) and Comparison with Present Submarine Deck Exposure Suit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study determined the general performance and survival times afforded by the 'Empress' polyvinylchloride exposure suit (PVES) and the present submarine deck exposure suit in 44F water, 32F air, and 20 MPH wind speed. Tests were also conducted utilizing...

D. A. Hall J. J. Nobel

1968-01-01

61

EVA safety: Space suit system interoperability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results and the recommendations of the International Academy of Astronautics extravehicular activities (IAA EVA) Committee work are presented. The IAA EVA protocols and operation were analyzed for harmonization procedures and for the standardization of safety critical and operationally important interfaces. The key role of EVA and how to improve the situation based on the identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies were considered.

Skoog, A. I.; McBarron, J. W.; Abramov, L. P.; Zvezda, A. O.

1995-01-01

62

VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) Benchmark Suite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the development of a VHDL Benchmark Suite system. Each benchmark is designed to test one or more of a set of 71 VHDL language features in terms of the limitations of user's of vendor's system architecture, operating system, and VHDL ...

K. Serafino

1989-01-01

63

GROUND MOTION SUITE SELECTION FOR BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a suite of ground motions selected for the Boston area that are based on earthquakes catalogued in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUREG) database. Records from earthquakes recorded in Eastern North America or similar tectonic environment are scarce because the tectonic environment is generally stable and the distribution of strong-motion recording equipment in such regions worldwide is relatively

Sonia Sorabella; Laurie G. Baise; Eric M. Hines

2006-01-01

64

Diver's Suit Excess Gas Exhaust Valve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A valve for controlling venting of excess gas from a diving suit includes a valve body housing first and second rubber check valves arranged in series. A control knob is rotatable on the valve body to selectively open or close outlet ports for venting gas...

C. H. Dickson

1979-01-01

65

Remote Sensing Instrument Suite for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Payloads onboard of orbiting spacecrafts around planetary bodies of our solar system are very strongly limited in mass because of the challenging Dv requirements to transfer the spacecraft and its scientific payload from Earth to the selected body and perform the orbit insertion. Also the overall cost envelope of the mission play a major role in the limitation of possible payload mass. On the other hand a range of different instruments (cameras, UV- and IR-spectrometer, Gamma-ray, x-ray and neutron spectrometer, laser altimeter, etc…) are required to perform a successful exploration of the planetary body by means of remote sensing. A viable solution is a strong integration of the envisaged instruments into a suite of instruments rather than a collection of single more or less independent instruments. The suite has to share available resources as much as possible and uses a central data handling system and an optimised payload power supply. Use of newest technologies for the detectors helps to reduce or at least relax cooling requirements of the instrument suite. Combination of instrument apertures and optics lead to a further reduction in mass and help to simplify the thermal design of the spacecraft. In the frame of the BepiColombo mission the instruments onboard of the Planetary Orbiter (MPO) undergo such an integration and optimisation process. During the talk the proposed instruments suit architecture and the resulting reductions in resource requirements are presented and compared with a conventional instrumentation approach.

Falkner, P.; Erd, C.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

2003-04-01

66

The ISPD98 circuit benchmark suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1985-1993, the MCNC regularly introduced and maintained circuit benchmarks for use by the Design Automation community. However, during the last five years, no new circuits have been introduced that can be used for developing fundamental physical design applications, such as partitioning and placement. The largest circuit in the existing set of benchmark suites has over 100,000 modules, but the

Charles J. Alpert

1998-01-01

67

Cave biosignature suites: microbes, minerals, and Mars.  

PubMed

Earth's subsurface offers one of the best possible sites to search for microbial life and the characteristic lithologies that life leaves behind. The subterrain may be equally valuable for astrobiology. Where surface conditions are particularly hostile, like on Mars, the subsurface may offer the only habitat for extant lifeforms and access to recognizable biosignatures. We have identified numerous unequivocally biogenic macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical/geochemical cave biosignatures. However, to be especially useful for astrobiology, we are looking for suites of characteristics. Ideally, "biosignature suites" should be both macroscopically and microscopically detectable, independently verifiable by nonmorphological means, and as independent as possible of specific details of life chemistries--demanding (and sometimes conflicting) criteria. Working in fragile, legally protected environments, we developed noninvasive and minimal impact techniques for life and biosignature detection/characterization analogous to Planetary Protection Protocols. Our difficult field conditions have shared limitations common to extraterrestrial robotic and human missions. Thus, the cave/subsurface astrobiology model addresses the most important goals from both scientific and operational points of view. We present details of cave biosignature suites involving manganese and iron oxides, calcite, and sulfur minerals. Suites include morphological fossils, mineral-coated filaments, living microbial mats and preserved biofabrics, 13C and 34S values consistent with microbial metabolism, genetic data, unusual elemental abundances and ratios, and crystallographic mineral forms. PMID:12448994

Boston, P J; Spilde, M N; Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Soroka, D S; Kleina, L G; Lavoie, K H; Hose, L D; Mallory, L M; Dahm, C N; Crossey, L J; Schelble, R T

2001-01-01

68

Development of a space activity suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a series of prototype space activity suit (SAS) assemblies is discussed. The SAS is a new type of pressure suit designed especially for extravehicular activity. It consists of a set of carefully tailored elastic fabric garments which have been engineered to supply sufficient counterpressure to the body to permit subjects to breath O2 at pressures up to 200 mm Hg without circulatory difficulty. A closed, positive pressure breathing system (PPBS) and a full bubble helmet were also developed to complete the system. The ultimate goal of the SAS is to improve the range of activity and decrease the energy cost of work associated with wearing conventional gas filled pressure suits. Results are presented from both laboratory (1 atmosphere) and altitude chamber tests with subjects wearing various SAS assemblies. In laboratory tests lasting up to three hours, the SAS was worn while subjects breathed O2 at pressures up to 170 mm Hg without developing physiological problems. The only physiological symptoms apparent were a moderate tachycardia related to breathing pressures above 130 mm Hg, and a small collection of edema fluid in the hands. Both problems were considered to be related to areas of under-pressurization by the garments. These problems, it is suggested, can ultimately be corrected by the development of new elastic fabrics and tailoring techniques. Energy cost of activity, and mobility and dexterity of subjects in the SAS, were found to be superior to those in comparable tests on subjects in full pressure suits.

Annis, J. F.; Webb, P.

1971-01-01

69

lmbench: an extensible micro-benchmark suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY lmbench is a powerful and extensible suite of micro-benchmarks that measures a variety of important aspects of system performance. It has a powerful timing harness that manages most of the 'housekeeping' chores associated with benchmarking, making it easy to create new benchmarks that analyze systems or components of specific interest to the user. In many ways lmbench is a

Carl Staelin

2005-01-01

70

Cave Biosignature Suites: Microbes, Minerals, and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's subsurface offers one of the best possible sites to search for microbial life and the characteristic lithologies that life leaves behind. The subterrain may be equally valuable for astrobiology. Where surface conditions are particularly hostile, like on Mars, the subsurface may offer the only habitat for extant lifeforms and access to recognizable biosignatures. We have identified numerous unequivocally biogenic macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical/geochemical cave biosignatures. However, to be especially useful for astrobiology, we are looking for suites of characteristics. Ideally, "biosignature suites" should be both macroscopically and microscopically detectable, independently verifiable by nonmorphological means, and as independent as possible of specific details of life chemistries - demanding (and sometimes conflicting) criteria. Working in fragile, legally protected environments, we developed noninvasive and minimal impact techniques for life and biosignature detection/characterization analogous to Planetary Protection Protocols. Our difficult field conditions have shared limitations common to extraterrestrial robotic and human missions. Thus, the cave/subsurface astrobiology model addresses the most important goals from both scientific and operational points of view. We present details of cave biosignature suites involving manganese and iron oxides, calcite, and sulfur minerals. Suites include morphological fossils, mineral-coated filaments, living microbial mats and preserved biofabrics, 13C and 34S values consistent with microbial metabolism, genetic data, unusual elemental abundances and ratios, and crystallographic mineral forms.

Boston, P. J.; Spilde, M. N.; Northup, D. E.; Melim, L. A.; Soroka, D. S.; Kleina, L. G.; Lavoie, K. H.; Hose, L. D.; Mallory, L. M.; Dahm, C. N.; Crossey, L. J.; Schelble, R. T.

2001-03-01

71

Software Suite for Finite Difference Method Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a software suite for finite difference method (FDM) model construction, visualization and quasi-static simulation to be used in bioelectric field modeling. The aim of the software is to provide a full path from medical image data to simulation of bioelectric phenomena and results visualization. It is written in Java and can be run on various platforms while

T. Arola; M. Hannula; N. Narra; J. Malmivuo; J. Hyttinen

2006-01-01

72

What's New with MS Office Suites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If one buys a new PC, laptop, or netbook computer today, it probably comes preloaded with Microsoft Office 2010 Starter Edition. This is a significantly limited, advertising-laden version of Microsoft's suite of productivity programs, Microsoft Office. This continues the trend of PC makers providing ever more crippled versions of Microsoft's…

Goldsborough, Reid

2012-01-01

73

Introduction to the HPC Challenge Benchmark Suite  

SciTech Connect

The HPC Challenge benchmark suite has been released by the DARPA HPCS program to help define the performance boundaries of future Petascale computing systems. HPC Challenge is a suite of tests that examine the performance of HPC architectures using kernels with memory access patterns more challenging than those of the High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark used in the Top500 list. Thus, the suite is designed to augment the Top500 list, providing benchmarks that bound the performance of many real applications as a function of memory access characteristics e.g., spatial and temporal locality, and providing a framework for including additional tests. In particular, the suite is composed of several well known computational kernels (STREAM, HPL, matrix multiply--DGEMM, parallel matrix transpose--PTRANS, FFT, RandomAccess, and bandwidth/latency tests--b{sub eff}) that attempt to span high and low spatial and temporal locality space. By design, the HPC Challenge tests are scalable with the size of data sets being a function of the largest HPL matrix for the tested system.

Luszczek, Piotr; Dongarra, Jack J.; Koester, David; Rabenseifner,Rolf; Lucas, Bob; Kepner, Jeremy; McCalpin, John; Bailey, David; Takahashi, Daisuke

2005-04-25

74

Improving test suites via operational abstraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the operational difference technique for generating, augmenting, and minimizing test suites. The technique is analogous to structural code coverage techniques, but it operates in the semantic domain of program properties rather than the syntactic domain of program text.The operational difference technique automatically selects test cases; it assumes only the existence of a source of test cases. The

Michael Harder; Jeff Mellen; Michael D. Ernst

2003-01-01

75

Further tests of the suits reflectance model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments performed by stacking cotton leaves in the port of a spectroradiometer indicate that single leaf reflectance ceases to vary with more than two leaves in the visible region and eight leaves in the infrared region. Chance and LeMaster have shown that the Suits spectral reflectance model predicts an asymptotic dependence of crop reflectance on leaf area index (LAI) with crop reflectance static for leaf area indices in excess of two in the visible regions and six in the infrared regions of the spectrum. These results are experimentally verified in the field for Milam and Penjamo spring wheat, and a theoretical relationship is discussed that relates crop reflectance at 650 nm to crop canopy LAI. Experimental data are given that relate observer zenith angle to crop reflectance for wheat. The Suits reflectance model calculations for wheat fail to agree with this data.

Lemaster, E. W.; Chance, J. E.

1977-01-01

76

XTCE GOVSAT Tool Suite 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XTCE GOVSAT software suite contains three tools: validation, search, and reporting. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) Telemetric and Command Exchange (XTCE) GOVSAT Tool Suite is written in Java for manipulating XTCE XML files. XTCE is a Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and Object Management Group (OMG) specification for describing the format and information in telemetry and command packet streams. These descriptions are files that are used to configure real-time telemetry and command systems for mission operations. XTCE s purpose is to exchange database information between different systems. XTCE GOVSAT consists of rules for narrowing the use of XTCE for missions. The Validation Tool is used to syntax check GOVSAT XML files. The Search Tool is used to search (i.e. command and telemetry mnemonics) the GOVSAT XML files and view the results. Finally, the Reporting Tool is used to create command and telemetry reports. These reports can be displayed or printed for use by the operations team.

Rice, J. Kevin

2013-01-01

77

Cold water survival suits for aircrew.  

PubMed

Laboratory and sea trials were used to compare the effectiveness of three aircrew exposure garments--the British Mark 10, the United States CWU 21/P, and the Canadian U.VIC. Thermofloat jacket. The first two are waterproof coveralls, whereas the third is a neoprene-lined jacket designed on the basis of the "wet suit" concept. Rectal and skin temperatures, electrocardiograms and other variables were measured while subjects, wearing the suits, were immersed in water at temperatures of 70 degrees C and 10.5 degrees C. The three garments were found to be similar in the degree of thermal protection provided, but the Thermofloat jacket appeared superior in other ways and has the greater potential for development. A previously unreported observation was a marked reduction in core cooling rate after the expected linear fall in core temperature. This has possible implications in the conduct of research in this field. PMID:518448

White, G R; Roth, N J

1979-10-01

78

Catherine G. Coleman Dons Training Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut and mission specialist for STS-73, Catherine G. Coleman, dons a high fidelity training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F) in preparation for the mission. The STS-73 mission was the second flight of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2), managed by scientists and engineers from the Marshall Space Flight Center.

1994-01-01

79

Sealed Joints for Hard Suits or Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shoulder-to-arm joint allows wearer to move with considerable freedom while sealing wearer from outside environment. Inner wall is set of bellows, compressed at inner arm and expanded at outer arm, but degree of compression or expansion changes continuously as arm moves. Joint also used on diving suits and on manipulation sleeves for autoclaves and high-vacuum boxes, and as protective cover for articulated torque drives in hostile environments.

Vykukal, Hubert C.

1987-01-01

80

An MBSE Approach to Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA/Space Suit Development Office (ESSD) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) team has utilized MBSE in multiple programs. After developing operational and architectural models, the MBSE framework was expanded to link the requirements space to the system models through functional analysis and interfaces definitions. By documenting all the connections within the technical baseline, ESSD experienced significant efficiency improvements in analysis and identification of change impacts. One of the biggest challenges presented to the MBSE structure was a program transition and restructuring effort, which was completed successfully in 4 months culminating in the approval of a new EVA Technical Baseline. During this time three requirements sets spanning multiple DRMs were streamlined into one NASA-owned Systems Requirement Document (SRD) that successfully identified requirements relevant to the current hardware development effort while remaining extensible to support future hardware developments. A capability-based hierarchy was established to provide a more flexible framework for future space suit development that can support multiple programs with minimal rework of basic EVA/Space Suit requirements. This MBSE approach was most recently applied for generation of an EMU Demonstrator technical baseline being developed for an ISS DTO. The relatively quick turnaround of operational concepts, architecture definition, and requirements for this new suit development has allowed us to test and evolve the MBSE process and framework in an extremely different setting while still offering extensibility and traceability throughout ESSD projects. The ESSD MBSE framework continues to be evolved in order to support integration of all products associated with the SE&I engine.

Cordova, Lauren; Kovich, Christine; Sargusingh, Miriam

2012-01-01

81

Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

2010-01-01

82

Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at low pressures that simulate a PLSS environment. We obtained head/flow performance curves over a range of operating speeds, identified the maximum efficiency point for the blower, and used these results to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We designed a compact motor that can drive the blower under all anticipated operating requirements and operate with high efficiency during normal operation. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment. We produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSS ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm and consuming only 9 W of electric power and using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power blower can meet the performance requirements for future PLSSs.

Paul, Heather; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

2008-01-01

83

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on kinematics, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative (usually multiple choice) question that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include displacement, velocity, average velocity, speed, and interpreting position and velocity graphs. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

84

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on dynamics, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative (usually multiple choice) question that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include force, acceleration, normal force, friction, tension, and motion in two dimensions. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

85

DASCAR sensor suite and video data system  

SciTech Connect

A research program oriented toward the development of a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research has been conducted. This paper discusses the background to the project and the requirements for the data acquisition system. it also provides a brief system overview and describes two of the system`s five major elements, the sensor suite and the video data system, in detail. Components, functions, and specifications are covered Finally the paper addresses the central data collection/analysis facility which was assembled to manage the sensor and video data, and presents the potential uses of the data acquisition system.

Carter, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barickman, F.S. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, East Liberty, OH (United States). Vehicle Research and Test Center; Goodman, M.J. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Crash Avoidance Research

1996-12-31

86

Applications of Suits spectral model to wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Canopy reflectance calculations for a spring type Mexican wheat, Penjamo, are compared with published data on Scout winter wheat. Good agreement exists between model calculations and experimental data in the spectral range, 500 nm to 750 nm, suggesting that the model parameters for wheat can be applied to different cultivars of wheat in the same growth stage. Wheat canopy reflectance is dependent upon surface soil type and this dependency is examined with the Suits' spectral model. In this particular growth stage wheat reflectance is shown to be nearly independent of soil reflectance in the visible wavelengths and progressively dependent at longer wavelengths in the infrared.

Chance, J. E.

1977-01-01

87

Reading Like a Historian: Zoot Suit Riots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students analyze primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: What caused the Zoot Suit Riots? The teacher first provides background information on the incident and then the class looks at their textbook account and answers brief questions. Students then form pairs and analyze 2 documents: 1) a Los Angeles Daily News account of the riots and 2) a letter from the Committee for the Defense of Mexican American Youth, addressed to U.S. Vice President Wallace. For both, students answer guiding questions on a graphic organizer. A final class discussion contextualizes and corroborates the documents: Is one more reliable? What caused the riots?

Group, Stanford H.

2012-10-30

88

Physics Suite Sample Problems: Properties of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on properties of matter, developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. The topics include pressure, density, buoyancy, ideal gas law, and fluid flow rates. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-20

89

Software suite for finite difference method models.  

PubMed

We have developed a software suite for finite difference method (FDM) model construction, visualization and quasi-static simulation to be used in bioelectric field modeling. The aim of the software is to provide a full path from medical image data to simulation of bioelectric phenomena and results visualization. It is written in Java and can be run on various platforms while still supporting all features included. The software can be distributed across a network utilizing dedicated servers for calculation intensive tasks. Supported visualization modes are both two- and three-dimensional modes. PMID:17946057

Arola, T; Hannula, M; Narra, N; Malmivuo, J; Hyttinen, J

2006-01-01

90

Durable Suit Bladder with Improved Water Permeability for Pressure and Environment Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor permeability is shown to be useful in rejecting heat and managing moisture accumulation in launch-and-entry pressure suits. Currently this is accomplished through a porous Gortex layer in the Advanced Crew and Escape Suit (ACES) and in the baseline design of the Constellation Suit System Element (CSSE) Suit 1. Non-porous dense monolithic membranes (DMM) that are available offer potential improvements for water vapor permeability with reduced gas leak. Accordingly, three different pressure bladder materials were investigated for water vapor permeability and oxygen leak: ElasthaneTM 80A (thermoplastic polyether urethane) provided from stock polymer material and two custom thermoplastic polyether urethanes. Water vapor, carbon dioxide and oxygen permeability of the DMM's was measured in a 0.13 mm thick stand-alone layer, a 0.08 mm and 0.05 mm thick layer each bonded to two different nylon and polyester woven reinforcing materials. Additional water vapor permeability and mechanical compression measurements were made with the reinforced 0.05 mm thick layers, further bonded with a polyester wicking and overlaid with moistened polyester fleece thermal underwear .This simulated the pressure from a supine crew person. The 0.05 mm thick nylon reinforced sample with polyester wicking layer was further mechanically tested for wear and abrasion. Concepts for incorporating these materials in launch/entry and Extravehicular Activity pressure suits are presented.

Bue, Grant C.; Kuznetz, Larry; Orndoff, Evelyne; Tang, Henry; Aitchison, Lindsay; Ross, Amy

2009-01-01

91

GenePattern flow cytometry suite  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional flow cytometry data analysis is largely based on interactive and time consuming analysis of series two dimensional representations of up to 20 dimensional data. Recent technological advances have increased the amount of data generated by the technology and outpaced the development of data analysis approaches. While there are advanced tools available, including many R/BioConductor packages, these are only accessible programmatically and therefore out of reach for most experimentalists. GenePattern is a powerful genomic analysis platform with over 200 tools for analysis of gene expression, proteomics, and other data. A web-based interface provides easy access to these tools and allows the creation of automated analysis pipelines enabling reproducible research. Results In order to bring advanced flow cytometry data analysis tools to experimentalists without programmatic skills, we developed the GenePattern Flow Cytometry Suite. It contains 34 open source GenePattern flow cytometry modules covering methods from basic processing of flow cytometry standard (i.e., FCS) files to advanced algorithms for automated identification of cell populations, normalization and quality assessment. Internally, these modules leverage from functionality developed in R/BioConductor. Using the GenePattern web-based interface, they can be connected to build analytical pipelines. Conclusions GenePattern Flow Cytometry Suite brings advanced flow cytometry data analysis capabilities to users with minimal computer skills. Functionality previously available only to skilled bioinformaticians is now easily accessible from a web browser.

2013-01-01

92

Instrumentation suite at the MMT Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ten years since the converted 6.5m MMT was dedicated the observatory has built up an impressive suite of instrumentation to compliment the three interchangeable secondary mirrors. This review paper presents an up-to-date perspective on all the capabilities of our full range of instrumentation, highlighting newly commissioned instruments (the MMT and Magellan InfraRed Spectrograph (MMIRS), an infrared spectrograph) and new modes or upgrades for established instruments (such as; Red Channel, the MMT's workhorse spectrograph, Hectochelle, an optical fiber-fed, multi-object spectrograph and the AO instruments CLIO, a 5 micron camera and BLINC, a mid-infrared camera). The MMT's pioneering adaptive secondary mirror can be used with both natural guide stars (NGS) or with a Rayleigh laser guide star (LGS) system. The LGS has recently demonstrated wide-field partial compensation with ground layer adaptive optics and here we present progress to date. Finally, we report on the start of a project to investigate how the instrument suite has contributed to the science productivity the MMT over the last 10 years.

Hastie, M.; Williams, G. G.

2010-07-01

93

Integrated instrument simulator suites for Earth science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite (NEOS3) is a modular framework of forward simulations tools for remote sensing of Earth's Atmosphere from space. It was initiated as the Instrument Simulator Suite for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (ISSARS) under the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) to enable science users to perform simulations based on advanced atmospheric and simple land surface models, and to rapidly integrate in a broad framework any experimental or innovative tools that they may have developed in this context. The name was changed to NEOS3 when the project was expanded to include more advanced modeling tools for the surface contributions, accounting for scattering and emission properties of layered surface (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice, subsurface layers). NEOS3 relies on a web-based graphic user interface, and a three-stage processing strategy to generate simulated measurements. The user has full control over a wide range of customizations both in terms of a priori assumptions and in terms of specific solvers or models used to calculate the measured signals.This presentation will demonstrate the general architecture, the configuration procedures and illustrate some sample products and the fundamental interface requirements for modules candidate for integration.

Tanelli, Simone; Tao, Wei-Kwo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Butler, Carolyn; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Johnson, Michael P.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Tsang, Leung; Shams, Khawaja; Jaruwatanadilok, Sermsak; Oveisgharan, Shadi; Simard, Marc; Turk, Francis J.

2012-11-01

94

Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes  

SciTech Connect

The DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation & Computing (ASC) Program directs the development, demonstration and deployment of physics simulation codes. The defensible utilization of these codes for high-consequence decisions requires rigorous verification and validation of the simulation software. The physics and engineering codes used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) are arguably among the most complex utilized in computational science. Verification represents an important aspect of the development, assessment and application of simulation software for physics and engineering. The purpose of this note is to formally document the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by LANL, LLNL, and SNL, i.e., the Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite. Verification is often referred to as ensuring that ''the [discrete] equations are solved [numerically] correctly''. More precisely, verification develops evidence of mathematical consistency between continuum partial differential equations (PDEs) and their discrete analogues, and provides an approach by which to estimate discretization errors. There are two variants of verification: (1) code verification, which compares simulation results to known analytical solutions, and (2) calculation verification, which estimates convergence rates and discretization errors without knowledge of a known solution. Together, these verification analyses support defensible verification and validation (V&V) of physics and engineering codes that are used to simulate complex problems that do not possess analytical solutions. Discretization errors (e.g., spatial and temporal errors) are embedded in the numerical solutions of the PDEs that model the relevant governing equations. Quantifying discretization errors, which comprise only a portion of the total numerical simulation error, is possible through code and calculation verification. Code verification computes the absolute value of discretization errors relative to an exact solution of the governing equations. In contrast, calculation verification, which does not utilize a reference solution, combines an assessment of stable self-convergence and exact solution prediction to quantitatively estimate discretization errors. In FY01, representatives of the V&V programs at LANL, LLNL, and SNL identified a set of verification test problems for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) Program. Specifically, a set of code verification test problems that exercise relevant single- and multiple-physics packages was agreed upon. The verification test suite problems can be evaluated in multidimensional geometry and span both smooth and non-smooth behavior.

Brock, J S; Kamm, J R; Rider, W J; Brandon, S; Woodward, C; Knupp, P; Trucano, T G

2006-12-21

95

Astronaut Scott Carpenter and technician Joe Schmidt during suiting exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 flight, and Crew Equipment Specialist Joe Schmidt are before a suiting exercise. Schmidt is seen checking the gloves on the Carpenter's pressure suit.

1961-01-01

96

Sterile chamber operation with bio-isolator suit system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development and characteristics of protective suit to permit man to operate in biologically sterile environment are described. Construction of tunnel, flexible seals, and cooling system are analyzed. Illustration of isolation suit is provided.

Hueschen, R. M.

1972-01-01

97

Docking Fixture and Mechanism for a Protective Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suitlock assembly that comprises a docking fixture and mechanism has been invented to facilitate and accelerate donning and doffing of a sealed protective suit and/or to enable ingress and egress between the protective suit and a sealed vessel. The sealed protective suit could be a space suit, in which case the sealed vessel could be a spacecraft. Alternatively, the sealed suit could be an environmental protective suit of a type worn on Earth during cleanup of a hazardous-material site, in which case the sealed vessel could be a vehicle equipped to maintain a safe interior environment for workers in transit to and from the site. Figure 1 depicts a typical situation in which several crewmembers are working inside such a vehicle, one is working outside in a protective suit, and one is donning or doffing a protective suit while holding onto an overhead bar for support.

Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

2003-01-01

98

18. NBS SUIT LAB. OVERALL VIEW. ALL WORK TABLES WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. NBS SUIT LAB. OVERALL VIEW. ALL WORK TABLES WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT COMPONENTS AND SUPPLIES. TERRY WEST TO LEFT, AND PAUL DUMBACHER TO RIGHT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

99

Supporting tool suite for production proteomics  

PubMed Central

Summary: The large amount of data produced by proteomics experiments requires effective bioinformatics tools for the integration of data management and data analysis. Here we introduce a suite of tools developed at Vanderbilt University to support production proteomics. We present the Backup Utility Service tool for automated instrument file backup and the ScanSifter tool for data conversion. We also describe a queuing system to coordinate identification pipelines and the File Collector tool for batch copying analytical results. These tools are individually useful but collectively reinforce each other. They are particularly valuable for proteomics core facilities or research institutions that need to manage multiple mass spectrometers. With minor changes, they could support other types of biomolecular resource facilities. Availability and Implementation: Source code and executable versions are available under Apache 2.0 License at http://www.vicc.org/jimayersinstitute/data/ Contact: daniel.liebler@vanderbilt.edu

Ma, Ze-Qiang; Tabb, David L.; Burden, Joseph; Chambers, Matthew C.; Cox, Matthew B.; Cantrell, Michael J.; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Litton, Michael D.; Oreto, Michael R.; Schultz, William C.; Sobecki, Scott M.; Tsui, Tina Y.; Wernke, Gregory R.; Liebler, Daniel C.

2011-01-01

100

MGGPOD Monte Carlo suite (Weidenspointner+, 2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense and complex instrumental backgrounds, against which the much smaller signals from celestial sources have to be discerned, are a notorious problem for low- and intermediate-energy {gamma}-ray astronomy (~50keV-10MeV). Therefore, a detailed qualitative and quantitative understanding of instrumental line and continuum backgrounds is crucial for most stages of {gamma}-ray astronomy missions, ranging from the design and development of new instrumentation through performance prediction to data reduction. We have developed MGGPOD, a user-friendly suite of Monte Carlo codes built around the widely used GEANT (ver. 3.21) package, to simulate ab initio the physical processes relevant for the production of instrumental backgrounds. These include the build-up and delayed decay of radioactive isotopes as well as the prompt de-excitation of excited nuclei, both of which give rise to a plethora of instrumental {gamma}-ray background lines in addition to continuum backgrounds. The MGGPOD package and documentation are publicly available online (http://sigma-2.cesr.fr/spi/MGGPOD/). We demonstrate the capabilities of the MGGPOD suite by modeling high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectra recorded by the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) on board Wind during 1995. The TGRS is a Ge spectrometer operating in the 40keV-8MeV range. Because of its fine energy resolution, these spectra reveal the complex instrumental background in formidable detail, particularly the many prompt and delayed {gamma}-ray lines. We evaluate the successes and failures of the MGGPOD package in reproducing TGRS data and provide identifications for the numerous instrumental lines. (2 data files).

Weidenspointner, G.; Harris, M. J.; Sturner, S.; Teegarden, B. J.; Ferguson, C.

2005-06-01

101

Instrumenting Bomb Disposal Suits with Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bomb disposal suits contain a large amount of padding and armour to protect the wearer's vital organs in the case of explosion. The combination of the heavy (roughly 40kg) suit, physical exertion, and the environment in which these suits are worn can cause the wearer's temperat ure to rise to uncomfortable and potentially dangerous levels during missions. This paper reports

John Kemp; Elena I. Gaura; James Brusey

2008-01-01

102

Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

2000-01-01

103

Resource Discovery Network (RDN) Virtual Training Suite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaboration between 30 universities, this Virtual Training Suite provides 40 tutorials designed to help students, lecturers, and researchers improve their Internet information skills. Based on a United Kingdom initiative to offer free online training, these tutorials cover specific web skills for those in disciplines such as math, the history and philosophy of science, geography, bioresearch, earth science, and others. Each tutorial provides expert "tour guides" developed by universities, libraries, museums, and research institutes across the UK. Representative web-based resources are showcased, but the main objective is to teach users how to find the resources that match their particular needs and interests. The tutorials also focus on the critical and evaluative skills required to judge the merits of specific web resources. There is a glossary, a section for teacher resources, downloadable workbooks, and a discussion on how to cite Internet resources. Each tutorial includes quizzes and interactive exercises. Five hubs for tutorial development include: SOSIG (The Social Science Information Gateway), EEVL (The Internet Guide for Engineering, Mathematics and Computing), BIOME (Internet Resources in Health and Life Sciences), PSIgate (The Physical Sciences Information Gateway) and HUMBUL (The Humanities Hub).

2000-01-01

104

An advanced missile warning processing suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective missile warning and countermeasures remain an unfulfilled goal for the Air Force and others in the DOD community. To make the expectations a reality, newer sensors exhibiting the required sensitivity, field of regard, and spatial resolution are being developed and transitioned. The largest concern is in the first stage of a missile warning system: detection, in which all targets need to be detected with a high confidence and with very few false alarms. Typical fielded sensors are limited in their detection capability by either lack of sensitivity or by the presence of heavy background clutter, sun glints, and inherent sensor noise. Many threat environments include false alarm sources like burning fuels, flares, exploding ordinance, arc welders, and industrial emitters. Multicolor discrimination has been shown as one of the effective ways to improve the performance of missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. Its utility has been demonstrated in multiple demonstration and fielded systems. New exploitations of background and clutter spectral contents, coupled with advanced spatial and temporal filtering techniques, have resulted in a need to have a new baseline algorithm on which future processing advances may be judged against. This paper describes the AFRL Suite IIIc algorithm chain and its performance against long-range dim targets in clutter.

Montgomery, Joel B.; Sanderson, Richard B.; McCalmont, John F.; Johnson, R. S.; McDermott, D. J.; Taylor, M. J.

2008-05-01

105

The Space Environment Sensor Suite for NPOESS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Environment Sensor Suite (SESS) is a set of instruments of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) that takes measurements to produce space environment data products. The SESS includes a complement of instruments that provide in-situ data on particles, fields, aurora, and the ionosphere. The SESS team consists of the NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) -- the prime contractor for NPOESS, Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) -- lead systems integrator for SESS, key instrument/algorithm suppliers, and the science community advisors who represent the future users of SESS data products. This team has developed a baseline design and constellation that address the NPOESS requirements for the SESS-specific in-situ Environmental Data Records (EDRs). These EDRs are allocated to a Thermal Plasma Sensor (TPS), a Low Energy Particle Sensor (LEPS), a Medium Energy Particle Sensor (MEPS), and a High Energy Particle Sensor (HEPS) that are distributed on the multi-orbit NPOESS system architecture to satisfy the user community's performance and coverage needs. This paper will present details on the SESS sensors, the architecture and its expected performance.

Rodriguez, J. V.; Eastman, K. W.; Eraker, J. H.; Belue, J.; Citrone, P.; Bloom, J. D.; Christensen, T. E.; Talmadge, S.; Ubhayakar, S. K.; Denig, W. F.

2005-12-01

106

Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

Newman, Dava

2003-01-01

107

The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and relationship between objects in 2D and 3D formats, etc. Further, the article explains that the STA development is open source and it is based on the state of the art astrodynamics routines that are grouped into modules. The modules are programmed using the C++ language. The different STA modules are designed, developed, tested and verified by the different Universities. Software integration and overall validation is performed by ESA. Students are chosen to work in STA modules as part of their Master or PhD thesis programs. As part of their growing experience, the students learn how to write documentation for a space project using European Coorperation on Space Standardization (ECSS) standards, how to test and verify the software modules they write and, how to interact with ESA and each other in this process. Finally, the article concludes about the benefits of the STA initiative. The STA project allows a strong link among applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics disciplines by reinforcing the academic community with requirements and needs coming from space agencies and industry real needs and missions.

Ortega, Guillermo

108

A highly integrated payload suite for Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four Galilean moons have always held a public and scientific fascination due to their diverse and dynamic nature. Amongst the moons, Europa holds a special place for its potential liquid water ocean, beneath its icy crust. This prospect of water places Europa on a par with Mars in terms of its viability for harbouring life. The first hints of Europa's icy surface came from early telescopic observations, which noted an unusually high albedo. Ground based spectroscopy then demonstrated absorption features of relatively pure water ice. Imagery from Pioneer, Voyager, and more recently Galileo confirm this, with the kilometre scale resolution of Galileo showing what appear to be ice flows. The lack of cratering, pointing to a geologically recent surface, furthermore suggests that liquid water could well exist today. The Galileo Europa Mission (GEM) provided much more extensive data during its 8 close orbits, including limited areas of extremely high resolution imaging (6 m), and radio science that confirmed the differentiated nature of Europa. However, many fundamental questions remain that can best be answered by a dedicated orbiter. For example: - Does a liquid water ocean exist? What it its extent vertically and laterally? - What is the composition of the crust? - What are the geological processes operating? The importance of these most basic questions have inspired mission proposals from all of the major space agencies. In Europe, ESA have performed a study into a mission called the "Jupiter Minisat Explorer" in order to identify the key technologies that would have to be developed [1]. The key technological challenges are caused by the harsh Jovian radiation environment, the lack of solar energy available and the thermal problems of such a cold environment. Last, but not least, a payload must be designed that satisfies these requirements and is both low power and low mass. All of these factors dictate the use of a Highly Integrated Payload Suite (HIPS). Such a concept ensure that commonalities in the optics, electronics, data processing etc. are exploited to the maximum degree. The HIPS concept was proposed for BepiColombo payload and although not selected in the end for this mission, a limited subset of this payload is being developed to breadboard level, paving the way for similar instrument sets to be proposed for upcoming Cosmic Vision missions. The instrument suite presented here is designed to address the key science questions above and comprises two primary instruments. SILAT is an integrated high resolution camera and laser altimeter, sharing common optics. This will perform global high resolution imaging of the Europan surface, as well as providing detailed topography. The utility of such mapping for understanding the geological features and processes operating has been demonstrated unequivocally by exploiting the combined datasets of the MOLA instrument onboard MGS and HRSC on Mars Express. HIBRIS is a combined near infrared and thermal infrared spectrometer, including a radiometer mode. These imaging spectrometers again share common optics, and an uncooled microbolometer array is foreseen for the TIR and radiometer modes. In addition to these instruments, a radar sounder similar to the MARSIS instrument on Mars Express should be included for probing the subsurface properties. Each of these instruments is presented in more detail, including their mechanical design, development status and performance models at Europa. In addition, the calibration, test and programmatic issues that arise from both the HIPS philosophy and the Jovian environment are also addressed. References [1] Atzei, A.C. et al (2006), "The Jupiter Minisat Explorer, a Technology Reference Study", Acta Astronautica, In Press 2

Bentley, M.; Kraft, S.; Steiger, R.; Varlet, F.; Voigt, D.; Falkner, P.; Peacock, A.

109

Vehicle-network defensive aids suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defensive Aids Suites (DAS) developed for vehicles can be extended to the vehicle network level. The vehicle network, typically comprising four platoon vehicles, will benefit from improved communications and automation based on low latency response to threats from a flexible, dynamic, self-healing network environment. Improved DAS performance and reliability relies on four complementary sensor technologies including: acoustics, visible and infrared optics, laser detection and radar. Long-range passive threat detection and avoidance is based on dual-purpose optics, primarily designed for manoeuvring, targeting and surveillance, combined with dazzling, obscuration and countermanoeuvres. Short-range active armour is based on search and track radar and intercepting grenades to defeat the threat. Acoustic threat detection increases the overall robustness of the DAS and extends the detection range to include small calibers. Finally, detection of active targeting systems is carried out with laser and radar warning receivers. Synthetic scene generation will provide the integrated environment needed to investigate, develop and validate these new capabilities. Computer generated imagery, based on validated models and an acceptable set of benchmark vignettes, can be used to investigate and develop fieldable sensors driven by real-time algorithms and countermeasure strategies. The synthetic scene environment will be suitable for sensor and countermeasure development in hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The research effort focuses on two key technical areas: a) computing aspects of the synthetic scene generation and b) and development of adapted models and databases. OneSAF is being developed for research and development, in addition to the original requirement of Simulation and Modelling for Acquisition, Rehearsal, Requirements and Training (SMARRT), and is becoming useful as a means for transferring technology to other users, researchers and contractors. This procedure eliminates the need to construct ad hoc models and databases. The vehicle network can be modelled phenomenologically until more information is available. These concepts and approach will be discussed in the paper.

Rapanotti, John

2005-05-01

110

Innovative technology summary report: Sealed-seam sack suits  

SciTech Connect

Sealed-seam sack suits are an improved/innovative safety and industrial hygiene technology designed to protect workers from dermal exposure to contamination. Most of these disposable, synthetic-fabric suits are more protective than cotton suits, and are also water-resistant and gas permeable. Some fabrics provide a filter to aerosols, which is important to protection against contamination, while allowing air to pass, increasing comfort level of workers. It is easier to detect body-moisture breakthrough with the disposable suits than with cotton, which is also important to protecting workers from contamination. These suits present a safe and cost-effective (6% to 17% less expensive than the baseline) alternative to traditional protective clothing. This report covers the period from October 1996 to August 1997. During that time, sealed-seam sack suits were demonstrated during daily activities under normal working conditions at the C Reactor and under environmentally controlled conditions at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

NONE

1998-09-01

111

DYNA3D\\/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in

Lin

2011-01-01

112

Test subject models uprated Apollo A6L pressure suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test subject models the uprated Apollo A6L pressure suit manufactured by International Latex Corporation, under contract to NASA. The suit incorporates changes recommended by the Apollo Review Board. The outer surface is of Beta fabric. The patches on shoulders, elbows, knees and back are of metal fiber cloth. The Beta fabric is made by Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation. The nylon fabric used in the suit was made by Dupont.

1967-01-01

113

A Novel Wearable Instrumentation System for Bomb Disposal Suits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bomb disposal suits contain a large amount of padding and armour to protect the wearer’s vital organs in the case of explosion.\\u000a The combination of the heavy (roughly 40kg) suit, physical exertion, and the environment in which these suits are worn can\\u000a cause the wearer’s temperature to rise to uncomfortable and potentially dangerous levels during missions. This paper reports\\u000a on

John Kemp; Elena I. Gaura; James Brusey

114

Performance evaluation of advanced space suit concepts for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for an advanced space suit for Space Station EVA and the methods used to evaluate candidate suit concepts are examined. Two candidate Space Station suits, the AX-5 and the Mk. III, are described and illustrated. The methods to test these suits are discussed, including, tests at the NASA/Johnson Space Center Weightless Environment Training Facility, tests in the microgravity environment of the KC-135 aircraft, CO2 washout evaluations, component torque measurements, environmental hazards protection evaluations, and component cycle life verification.

Klaus, David M.; West, Philip R.

1989-01-01

115

Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

Watson, Richard D.

2014-01-01

116

Morphing: A Novel Approach to Astronaut Suit Sizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fitting of a spacesuit to an astronaut is an iterative process consisting of two parts. The first uses anthropometric data to provide an approximation of the suit components that will fit the astronaut. The second part is the subjective fitting, where small adjustments are made based on the astronaut s preference. By providing a better approximation of the correct suit components, the entire fit process time can be reduced significantly. The goals of this project are twofold: (1) To evaluate the effectiveness of the existing sizing algorithm for the Mark III Hybrid suit and (2) to determine what additional components are needed in order to provide adequate sizing for the existing astronaut population. A single subject was scanned using a 3D whole-body scanner (VITUS 3D) in the Mark III suit in eight different poses and four subjects in minimal clothing were also scanned in similar poses. The 3D external body scans of the suit and the subject are overlaid and visually aligned in a customized MATLAB program. The suit components were contracted or expanded linearly along the subjects limbs to match the subjects segmental lengths. Two independent measures were obtained from the morphing program on four subjects and compared with the existing sizing information. Two of the four subjects were in correspondence with the sizing algorithm and morphing results. The morphing outcome for a third subject, incompatible with the suit, suggested that an additional arm element at least 6 inches smaller than the existing smallest suit component would need to be acquired. The morphing result of the fourth subject, deemed incompatible with the suit using the sizing algorithm, indicated a different suit configuration which would be compatible. This configuration matched with the existing suit fit check data.

Margerum, Sarah; Clowers, Kurt; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2006-01-01

117

STS-73 MS Catherine G. Coleman suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman finishes donning her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. The seven-member crew of Mission STS-73 will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits another liftoff attempt at 9:50 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

118

Enforcement in environmental law: an economic analysis of citizen suits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous to 1970, state and federal agencies held exclusive enforcement responsibilities over the violation of pollution control standards. However, recognizing that the government had neither the time nor resources to provide full enforcement, Congress created citizen suits. Citizen suits, first amended to the Clean Air Act in 1970, authorize citizens to act as private attorney generals and to sue polluters

Wendy S. Naysnerski

1990-01-01

119

Data fusion concepts applied to a suite of dissimilar sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a discussion on the feasibility and usefulness of data fusion applied to a suite of dissimilar sensors. This suite comprises surveillance radar, forward looking infrared (FLIR), electronic support measurement (ESM), an interrogation friend and foe (IFF), a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), acoustic sensors and a data link (LINK 11). An analysis of applicable sensor fusion processes is

E. Bosse; Jean Roy; Dominic Grenier

1996-01-01

120

33 CFR 144.20-5 - Exposure suits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must be stowed in a readily accessible location in or near the berthing area of the person for whom the exposure suit is provided...watch or work station for a person whose cabin, stateroom, or berthing area (and the exposure suits stowed in that location)...

2009-07-01

121

33 CFR 144.20-5 - Exposure suits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must be stowed in a readily accessible location in or near the berthing area of the person for whom the exposure suit is provided...watch or work station for a person whose cabin, stateroom, or berthing area (and the exposure suits stowed in that location)...

2010-07-01

122

Physiological and Manikin Evaluations of Submarine-Deck Exposure Suits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) compared the standard (STD) submarine-deck exposure suit (SDES) with a more watertight, modified (MOD) version. The suits were compared on the thermal manikin, in both a static and a dynamic mode, and on...

B. A. Avellini J. W. Giblo

1988-01-01

123

Thermal modeling, analysis and control of a space suit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal dynamics of two space suits, the Space Shuttle EMU and the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit, are considered as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. The activities documented in this dissertation cover three related areas, modeling, analysis, and control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the operational Space Shuttle EMU is used to analyze the thermal

Anthony Bruce Campbell

1999-01-01

124

MUMPS Validation Suite, Version 7.4, 1989. User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MUMPS 89 Validation Suite is used to validate MUMPS interpreter or precompiler to ensure conformance to the Federal Standard as prescribed in FIPS PUB125. The revised version 7.4 was made to endow the validation suite with such features as computer de...

1989-01-01

125

Web information acquisition with Lixto Suite: a demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the Lixto Suite, a Web data extraction and transformation software kit for retrieving and converting information from various sources to various customer devices. With the Lixto Suite, nontechnical content managers can rapidly develop applications in the areas of m-commerce, e-commerce, content integration and corporate portals.

Robert Baumgartner; Michal Ceresna; Georg Gottlob; Marcus Herzog; Viktor Zigo

2003-01-01

126

33 CFR 144.20-5 - Exposure suits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exposure suits. This section applies to each MODU except those operating south of 32 degrees North latitude in the Atlantic Ocean or south of 35 degrees North latitude in all other waters. (a) Each MODU must carry an exposure suit for...

2013-07-01

127

Planetary Suit Hip Bearing Model for Predicting Design vs. Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. In order to verifying that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must eventually be built and tested with human subjects. Using computer models early in the design phase of new hardware development can be advantageous, allowing virtual prototyping to take place. Having easily modifiable models of the suit hard sections may reduce the time it takes to make changes to the hardware designs and then to understand their impact on suit and human performance. A virtual design environment gives designers the ability to think outside the box and exhaust design possibilities before building and testing physical prototypes with human subjects. Reductions in prototyping and testing may eventually reduce development costs. This study is an attempt to develop computer models of the hard components of the suit with known physical characteristics, supplemented with human subject performance data. Objectives: The primary objective was to develop an articulating solid model of the Mark III hip bearings to be used for evaluating suit design performance of the hip joint. Methods: Solid models of a planetary prototype (Mark III) suit s hip bearings and brief section were reverse-engineered from the prototype. The performance of the models was then compared by evaluating the mobility performance differences between the nominal hardware configuration and hardware modifications. This was accomplished by gathering data from specific suited tasks. Subjects performed maximum flexion and abduction tasks while in a nominal suit bearing configuration and in three off-nominal configurations. Performance data for the hip were recorded using state-of-the-art motion capture technology. Results: The results demonstrate that solid models of planetary suit hard segments for use as a performance design tool is feasible. From a general trend perspective, the suited performance trends were comparable between the model and the suited subjects. With the three off-nominal bearing configurations compared to the nominal bearing configurations, human subjects showed decreases in hip flexion of 64%, 6%, and 13% and in hip abduction of 59%, 2%, and 20%. Likewise the solid model showed decreases in hip flexion of 58%, 1%, and 25% and in hip abduction of 56%, 0%, and 30%, under the same condition changes from the nominal configuration. Differences seen between the model predictions and the human subject performance data could be attributed to the model lacking dynamic elements and performing kinematic analysis only, the level of fit of the subjects with the suit, the levels of the subject s suit experience.

Cowley, Matthew S.; Margerum, Sarah; Harvil, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

128

Shuttle Space Suit: Fabric/LCVG Model Validation. Chapter 8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed space suit computational model is being developed at the Langley Research Center for radiation exposure evaluation studies. The details of the construction of the space suit are critical to estimation of exposures and assessing the risk to the astronaut on EVA. Past evaluations of space suit shielding properties assumed the basic fabric layup (Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, fabric restraints, and pressure envelope) and LCVG could be homogenized as a single layer overestimating the protective properties over 60 percent of the fabric area. The present space suit model represents the inhomogeneous distributions of LCVG materials (mainly the water filled cooling tubes). An experimental test is performed using a 34-MeV proton beam and high-resolution detectors to compare with model-predicted transmission factors. Some suggestions are made on possible improved construction methods to improve the space suit s protection properties.

Wilson, J. W.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Ware, J.; Persans, A. E.

2003-01-01

129

Inertial motion capture system for biomechanical analysis in pressure suits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-invasive system has been developed at the University of Maryland Space System Laboratory with the goal of providing a new capability for quantifying the motion of the human inside a space suit. Based on an array of six microprocessors and eighteen microelectromechanical (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs), the Body Pose Measurement System (BPMS) allows the monitoring of the kinematics of the suit occupant in an unobtrusive, self-contained, lightweight and compact fashion, without requiring any external equipment such as those necessary with modern optical motion capture systems. BPMS measures and stores the accelerations, angular rates and magnetic fields acting upon each IMU, which are mounted on the head, torso, and each segment of each limb. In order to convert the raw data into a more useful form, such as a set of body segment angles quantifying pose and motion, a series of geometrical models and a non-linear complimentary filter were implemented. The first portion of this works focuses on assessing system performance, which was measured by comparing the BPMS filtered data against rigid body angles measured through an external VICON optical motion capture system. This type of system is the industry standard, and is used here for independent measurement of body pose angles. By comparing the two sets of data, performance metrics such as BPMS system operational conditions, accuracy, and drift were evaluated and correlated against VICON data. After the system and models were verified and their capabilities and limitations assessed, a series of pressure suit evaluations were conducted. Three different pressure suits were used to identify the relationship between usable range of motion and internal suit pressure. In addition to addressing range of motion, a series of exploration tasks were also performed, recorded, and analysed in order to identify different motion patterns and trajectories as suit pressure is increased and overall suit mobility is reduced. The focus of these evaluations was to quantify the reduction in mobility when operating in any of the evaluated pressure suits. This data should be of value in defining new low cost alternatives for pressure suit performance verification and evaluation. This work demonstrates that the BPMS technology is a viable alternative or companion to optical motion capture; while BPMS is the first motion capture system that has been designed specifically to measure the kinematics of a human in a pressure suit, its capabilities are not constrained to just being a measurement tool. The last section of the manuscript is devoted to future possible uses for the system, with a specific focus on pressure suit applications such in the use of BPMS as a master control interface for robot teleoperation, as well as an input interface for future robotically augmented pressure suits.

Di Capua, Massimiliano

130

Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step was to certify the equipment for manned used, which included generating a Hazard Analysis and giving a presentation to the Test Readiness Review Board. Both of these test support systems will perform critical roles in the development of next-generation space suits. They will used on a regular basis to test the NASA's new Z-2 Space Suit. The Space Suit Cooling System is now the primary cooling system for all advanced suit tests.

Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

2013-01-01

131

The physiology of spacecraft and space suit atmosphere selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors which are considered in arriving at control values and control ranges of the parameters established for spacecraft and space suit environments include physiological, engineering, operational cost, and safety considerations. A number of physiological considerations are discussed, including hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia, temperature regulation, and decompression sickness. The impact of these considerations on space craft and space suit atmosphere selection is considered. The past experience in controlling these parameters in the U.S. and Soviet spacecraft and space suits and the associated physical responses are also reviewed. Physiological factors currently under investigation are discussed, including decompression sickness.

Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J.; Nicogossian, A.

1991-01-01

132

19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, background north & east facades of Forest Hall. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

133

EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This "EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit" presentation covers several topics related to the medical implications and physiological effects of suited operations in space from the perspective of a physician with considerable first-hand Extravehicular Activity (EVA) experience. Key themes include EVA physiology working in a pressure suit in the vacuum of space, basic EVA life support and work support, Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspections and repairs, and discussions of the physical challenges of an EVA. Parazynski covers the common injuries and significant risks during EVAs, as well as physical training required to prepare for EVAs. He also shares overall suit physiological and medical knowledge with the next generation of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) system designers.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

134

12. Interior, guest suite on the second floor. Plaster ceiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Interior, guest suite on the second floor. Plaster ceiling with stencilled border design, plaster molded cornice, and window frame detail. - Trenton House Hotel, 20-24 North Warren Street & 1-19 East Hanover Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

135

46 CFR 108.649 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...suits, and lifebuoys. 108.649 Section 108.649 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.649...

2013-10-01

136

The use of underwater dynamometry to evaluate two space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four Astronauts were instrumented and donned one of three extravehicular activity (EVA) suits: the currently in use shuttle suit (STS), the Mark III (MK3), and the AX5. The STS was used as the comparison suit because of approved status. Each subject performed ten different exercises in each suit in three different manners (static, dynamic and fatigue) in two different environments, WETF and KC-135 (KC-135 not completed as of this report). Data were recorded from a flight qualified underwater dynamometer (Cybex power head) with a TEAC multichannel recorder/tape and downloaded into the VAX computer system for analysis. Also direct hard copy strip chart recordings were made for backup comparisons. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA procedure and results were graphed and reported without interpretation to the NASA/JSC ABL manager.

Squires, W. G.

1989-01-01

137

NASA Research Announcement for Space Suit Survivability Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the research activities for space suit survivability material enhancements. Self-sealing mechanisms for the pressure envelope were addressed, as were improvements in materials for cut, puncture, and hypervelocity impact resistance.

Fredrickson, Thad H.; Ware, Joanne S.; Lin, John K.; Pastore, Christopher M.

1998-01-01

138

55. FLIGHT SUIT MESS (GALLEY) CENTERLINE LOOKING TO PORT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. FLIGHT SUIT MESS (GALLEY) - CENTERLINE LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING REACH-REFRIGERATOR, GRIDDLE, COUNTER TOP, SINK AND DISH HOLDER. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

139

15. NBS TOP SIDE CONTROL ROOM. THE SUIT SYSTEMS CONSOLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. NBS TOP SIDE CONTROL ROOM. THE SUIT SYSTEMS CONSOLE IS USED TO CONTROL AIR FLOW AND WATER FLOW TO THE UNDERWATER SPACE SUIT DURING THE TEST. THE SUIT SYSTEMS ENGINEER MONITORS AIR FLOW ON THE PANEL TO THE LEFT, AND SUIT DATA ON THE COMPUTER MONITOR JUST SLIGHTLY TO HIS LEFT. WATER FLOW IS MONITORED ON THE PANEL JUST SLIGHTLY TO HIS RIGHT AND TEST VIDEO TO HIS FAR RIGHT. THE DECK CHIEF MONITORS THE DIVER'S DIVE TIMES ON THE COMPUTER IN THE UPPER RIGHT. THE DECK CHIEF LOGS THEM IN AS THEY ENTER THE WATER, AND LOGS THEM OUT AS THEY EXIT THE WATER. THE COMPUTER CALCULATES TOTAL DIVE TIME. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

140

Potential techniques and development activities in diver suit heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype compact reactor suitable for combustion of propane with oxygen under shallow as well as submerged deep submergence diving conditions is reported. The device is used to heat the circulating water in a water tube-type diving suit.

Shlosinger, A. P.

1972-01-01

141

Reliability performance testing of totally encapsulating chemical protective suits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to assure a high degree of reliability for totally encapsulating chemical protective (TECP) suits has been recognized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hazards Control Department for some time. We have conducted two series of wor...

J. S. Johnson P. M. Swearengen

1991-01-01

142

21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

143

Permeation Analyses of Protective Suits against Jet Fuel (JP-8).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Permeation analyses with jet fuel have been carried out on three different protective suits. The analyses were preformed with a multiple cell permeation system developed at Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (FFI). The analyses showed that the prote...

B. Pedersen L. Fullu

1999-01-01

144

Thermal modeling, analysis and control of a space suit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal dynamics of two space suits, the Space Shuttle EMU and the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit, are considered as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. The activities documented in this dissertation cover three related areas, modeling, analysis, and control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the operational Space Shuttle EMU is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the system with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are next considered. A transient model of the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit design is developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink, to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space Suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed. The observations and insights about the thermal dynamics of a space suit are then applied to the automatic thermal comfort control of the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit. Automatic thermal comfort control for the Advanced Space Suit is investigated using three proposed strategies. These strategies use a transient thermal comfort definition based on body heat storage. The first strategy is measurement based using a proposed body heat storage estimation method to determine the astronaut's thermal state. The second strategy is model based using a model to determine the desired liquid cooling garment inlet temperature to provide thermal comfort. The third strategy is a hybrid strategy combining the measurement based and model based approach using the Generalized Predictive Control framework. Each strategy then uses a resource allocation decision logic to determine which of three control mechanisms to use so that thermal comfort can be provided while minimizing the use of consumables. Accuracy and performance of the strategies are evaluated using simulations, highlighting their advantages and limitations.

Campbell, Anthony Bruce

145

STS-73 Mission Specialist Catherine Coleman suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman is assisted by a suit technician as she dons her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. STS-73 will be the first trip into space for Coleman, who will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits lift off during a window opening at 9:41 a.m. EDT, Oct. 7.

1995-01-01

146

STS-73 Payload Specialist Albert Sacco Jr. suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Payload Specialist Albert Sacco Jr. is assisted by a suit technician as he dons his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. The seven crew members assigned to Mission STS-73 will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits them and a liftoff scheduled to occur no earlier than 10:46 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

147

STS-73 Payload Specialist Albert Sacco Jr. suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Payload Specialist Albert Sacco Jr. finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. Sacco is one of two payload specialists assigned to the mission, and will be making his first trip into space. Awaiting Sacco and six fellow crew members at Launch Pad 39B is the Space Shuttle Columbia, scheduled to lift off at 9:41 a.m. EDT, Oct. 7.

1995-01-01

148

NetBench: a benchmarking suite for network processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we introduce NetBench, a benchmarking suite for network processors. NetBench contains a total of 9 applications that are representative of commercial applications for network processors. These applications are from all levels of packet processing; Small, low-level code fragments as well as large application level programs are included in the suite.Using SimpleScalar simulator we study the NetBench programs

Gokhan Memik; William H. Mangione-Smith; Wendong Hu

2001-01-01

149

The BRITNeY Suite: A Platform for Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a platform, the BRITNeY Suite, for experimenting with Coloured Petri nets. The BRITNeY Suite provides access to data-structures and a simulator for Coloured Petri nets via a powerful scripting language and plug-in-mechanism, thereby making it easy to perform customized simulations and visualizations of Coloured Petri net models. Additionally it is possible to make elaborate extensions building on

M. Westergaard

150

Water Vapor Permeability of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) crewmembers are expected to return to earth wearing a suit similar to the current Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). To ensure optimum cognitive performance, suited crewmembers must maintain their core body temperature within acceptable limits. There are currently several options for thermal maintenance in the post-landing phase. These include the current baseline, which uses an ammonia boiler, purge flow using oxygen in the suit, accessing sea water for liquid cooling garment (LCG) cooling and/or relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit. These options vary significantly in mass, power, engineering and safety factors, with relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit being the least difficult to implement. Data from previous studies indicates that the evaporative cooling capacity of the ACES was much higher than previously expected, but subsequent tests were performed for longer duration and higher metabolic rates to better define the water vapor permeability of the ACES. In these tests five subjects completed a series of tests performing low to moderate level exercise in order to control for a target metabolic rate while wearing the ACES in an environmentally controlled thermal chamber. Four different metabolic profiles at a constant temperature of 95 F and relative humidity of 50% were evaluated. These tests showed subjects were able to reject about twice as much heat in the permeable ACES as they were in an impermeable suit that had less thermal insulation. All of the heat rejection differential is attributed to the increased evaporation capability through the Gortex bladder of the suit.

Bue, Grant; Kuzneth, Larry; Gillis, David; Jones, Jeffery; Daniel, Brian; Gernhardt, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas

2009-01-01

151

STS-73 MS Michael E. Lopez-Alegria suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Mission Specialist Michael E. Lopez-Alegria finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building as a suit technician lends a helping hand. The seven crew members assigned to Mission STS-73 will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits them and a liftoff scheduled to occur no earlier than 10:46 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

152

MDO TEST SUITE AT NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Langley Research Center supports a wide variety of multidisciplinary designoptimization (MDO) research and requires a set of standard MDO test problems forevaluating and comparing the products of this research. This paper proposes a WorldWide-Web-based test suite for collecting, distributing, and maintaining the standard testproblems. A prototype suite of 10 test problems, including written problem descriptions,benchmark solution methods, sample

Sharon L. Padula; Natalia Alexandrov; Lawrence L. Green

1996-01-01

153

EVA Suit R and D for Performance Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must be built and tested with human subjects. However, numerous design iterations will occur before the hardware meets those requirements. Traditional draw-prototype-test paradigms for R&D are prohibitively expensive with today's shrinking Government budgets. Personnel at NASA are developing modern simulation techniques which focus on human-centric designs by creating virtual prototype simulations and fully adjustable physical prototypes of suit hardware. During the R&D design phase, these easily modifiable representations of an EVA suit's hard components will allow designers to think creatively and exhaust design possibilities before they build and test working prototypes with human subjects. It allows scientists to comprehensively benchmark current suit capabilities and limitations for existing suit sizes and sizes that do not exist. This is extremely advantageous and enables comprehensive design down-selections to be made early in the design process, enables the use of human performance as design criteria, and enables designs to target specific populations

Cowley, Matthew S.; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

154

SDI industry product suite: the SDI Industry Product Suite: simulation from the production line to the supply chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SDI Industry®Product Suite is a versatile, high-level simulation toolset for solving problems of whole enterprises. It adds important capabilities to an existing simulation package, Extend#8482;, which provides a robust simulation architecture and a wealth of existing building blocks. The SDI Industry Product Suite contains 5 specific elements for modeling the enterprise: SDI Database for high-speed data import\\/export; SDI Industry

Richard A. Phelps; David J. Parsons; Andrew J. Siprelle

2000-01-01

155

Space Suit CO2 Washout During Intravehicular Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space suit carbon dioxide (CO2) washout refers to the removal of CO2 gas from the oral-nasal area of a suited astronaut's (or crewmember's) helmet using the suit's ventilation system. Inadequate washout of gases can result in diminished mental/cognitive abilities as well as headaches and light headedness. In addition to general discomfort, these ailments can impair an astronaut s ability to perform mission-critical tasks ranging from flying the space vehicle to performing lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). During design development for NASA s Constellation Program (CxP), conflicting requirements arose between the volume of air flow that the new Orion manned space vehicle is allocated to provide to the suited crewmember and the amount of air required to achieve CO2 washout in a space suit. Historically, space suits receive 6.0 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of air flow, which has adequately washed out CO2 for EVAs. For CxP, the Orion vehicle will provide 4.5 acfm of air flow to the suit. A group of subject matter experts (SM Es) among the EVA Systems community came to an early consensus that 4.5 acfm may be acceptable for low metabolic rate activities. However, this value appears very risky for high metabolic rates, hence the need for further analysis and testing. An analysis was performed to validate the 4.5 acfm value and to determine if adequate CO2 washout can be achieved with the new suit helmet design concepts. The analysis included computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling cases, which modeled the air flow and breathing characteristics of a human wearing suit helmets. Helmet testing was performed at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to provide a gross-level validation of the CFD models. Although there was not a direct data correlation between the helmet testing and the CFD modeling, the testing data showed trends that are very similar to the CFD modeling. Overall, the analysis yielded results that were better than anticipated, with a few unexpected findings that could not easily be explained. Results indicate that 4.5 acfm is acceptable for CO2 washout and helmet design. This paper summarizes the results of this CO2 washout study.

Augustine, Phillip M.; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Sargusingh, Miriam M.

2010-01-01

156

Preliminary Shuttle Space Suit Shielding Model. Chapter 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two space suits in current usage within the space program: EMU [2] and Orlan-M Space Suit . The Shuttle space suit components are discussed elsewhere [2,5,6] and serve as a guide to development of the current model. The present model is somewhat simplified in details which are considered to be second order in their effects on exposures. A more systematic approach is ongoing on a part-by-part basis with the most important ones in terms of exposure contributions being addressed first with detailed studies of the relatively thin space suit fabric as the first example . Additional studies to validate the model of the head coverings (bubble, helmet, visors.. .) will be undertaken in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the model as it is now and to examine its impact on estimates of astronaut health risks. In this respect, the nonuniform distribution of mass of the space suit provides increased shielding in some directions and some organs. These effects can be most important in terms of health risks and especially critical to evaluation of potential early radiation effects .

Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, J. E.; Qualls, G. D.; Staritz, P. J.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Ware, J.; Persans, A. E.

2003-01-01

157

Web-based Tool Suite for Plasmasphere Information Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of tools that enable discovery of terrestrial plasmasphere characteristics from NASA IMAGE Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) images is described. The tool suite is web-accessible, allowing easy remote access without the need for any software installation on the user's computer. The features supported by the tool include reconstruction of the plasmasphere plasma density distribution from a short sequence of EUV images, semi-automated selection of the plasmapause boundary in an EUV image, and mapping of the selected boundary to the geomagnetic equatorial plane. EUV image upload and result download is also supported. The tool suite's plasmapause mapping feature is achieved via the Roelof and Skinner (2000) Edge Algorithm. The plasma density reconstruction is achieved through a tomographic technique that exploits physical constraints to allow for a moderate resolution result. The tool suite's software architecture uses Java Server Pages (JSP) and Java Applets on the front side for user-software interaction and Java Servlets on the server side for task execution. The compute-intensive components of the tool suite are implemented in C++ and invoked by the server via Java Native Interface (JNI).

Newman, T. S.; Wang, C.; Gallagher, D. L.

2005-12-01

158

STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-69 Mission Specialist James H. Newman dons his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. Note that Newman's name tag reads Pluto. The STS-69 crew has dubbed itself the Dog Crew II, continuing a spirit of camaraderie that began on an earlier flight, STS-53, on which STS-69 astronauts James Voss and David Walker were crew members. Each of the STS-69 crew members adopted a dog-theme name, and the crew is even sporting a Dog Crew II patch along with the traditional mission emblem. After donning their launch/ entry suits, Newman and four fellow crewmembers will depart for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour awaits liftoff during a two and a half hour window opening at 11:09 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

159

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith Suit Up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith gives a ''';thumbs up'''; while donning his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A suit technician stands ready to assist with final adjustments. This is Smith''';s second space flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Discovery awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission to service the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This will be the second HST servicing mission. Four back-to-back spacewalks are planned.

1997-01-01

160

STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker is assisted by a suit technician as she dons her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Her third spaceflight will be an historic one for Baker, a medical doctor, as she oversees the series of scientific investigations that will be conducted during the first docking of the U.S. Space Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir. Baker and six fellow crew members -- four Americans and two Russian cosmonauts -- will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff during a 10- minute launch window opening at 3:32 p.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

161

STS-72 Mission Specialist Dr. Daniel T. Barry suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Looking elated at the prospect of his upcoming spaceflight, STS- 72 Mission Specialist Dr. Daniel T. Barry dons his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. The trip into space will be the first for Barry, a medical doctor who also has a Ph.D. in electrical engineering. He and five fellow crew members will soon depart for Launch Pad 39, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during an approximately 49-minute window opening at about 4:18 am EST, January 11.

1996-01-01

162

A Suite of Criticality Benchmarks for Validating Nuclear Data  

SciTech Connect

The continuous-energy neutron data library ENDF60 for use with MCNP{trademark} was released in the fall of 1994, and was based on ENDF/B-Vl evaluations through Release 2. As part of the data validation process for this library, a number of criticality benchmark calculations were performed. The original suite of nine criticality benchmarks used to test ENDF60 has now been expanded to 86 benchmarks. This report documents the specifications for the suite of 86 criticality benchmarks that have been developed for validating nuclear data.

Stephanie C. Frankle

1999-04-01

163

STS-75 ission Specialist Jeffrey A. Hoffman suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-75 Mission Specialist Jeffrey A. Hoffman finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building as a suit technician assists him. Hoffman became an astronaut in 1979 and has flown in space four times, logging more than 834 hours on-orbit. He and six fellow crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half-hour launch window opening at 3:18 p.m. EST.

1996-01-01

164

Exploration Spacecraft and Space Suit Internal Atmosphere Pressure and Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of habitat atmospheres for future space missions is heavily driven by physiological and safety requirements. Lower EVA prebreathe time and reduced risk of decompression sickness must be balanced against the increased risk of fire and higher cost and mass of materials associated with higher oxygen concentrations. Any proposed increase in space suit pressure must consider impacts on space suit mass and mobility. Future spacecraft designs will likely incorporate more composite and polymeric materials both to reduce structural mass and to optimize crew radiation protection. Narrowed atmosphere design spaces have been identified that can be used as starting points for more detailed design studies and risk assessments.

Lange, Kevin; Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Campbell, Paul

2005-01-01

165

Suit settled over disclosure of student's HIV status.  

PubMed

The Montgomery (MD) County Board of Education settled a suit with a 17-year-old student whose HIV status was disclosed by a substitute teacher. Terms of the settlement are confidential. The teacher commented on the boy's status to other students, and the suit charged the teacher and the school board with negligence and invasion of privacy. The student was asymptomatic and there was no legitimate reason for the substitute teacher to know his HIV status. The student has not returned to school. PMID:11365071

1998-02-01

166

STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston E. Scott suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston Scott dons his launch and entry suit with the assistance of a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. This is Scotts second space flight. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Scott is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, during STS-87. He also performed a spacewalk on STS-72.

1997-01-01

167

STS-73 MS Michael E. Lopez-Alegria suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Mission Specialist Michael E. Lopez-Alegria dons his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. STS-73 will be the first trip into space for Lopez-Alegria, who considers both Madrid, Spain, and Mission Viejo, California, to be his hometowns. Lopez-Alegria and six fellow crew members will departly shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during a two and a half launch window opening at 9:41 a.m. EDT, Oct. 7.

1995-01-01

168

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2010-10-01

169

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2009-10-01

170

Suitport Feasibility: Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a space suit prototype on the second generation MMSEV cabin, and testing is planned using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. Pressurized testing will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, a suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents the design of a human rated second generation suitport, the design of a suit capable of supporting pressurized human donning through a suitport, ambient pressure testing of the suit with the suitport, and modifications to the JSC human rated chamber B to accept a suitport. Design challenges and solutions, as well as compromises required to develop the system, are presented. Initial human testing results are presented.

Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

2012-01-01

171

Safety Tips: Avoiding Negligence Suits in Chemistry Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various aspects related to negligence on the part of chemistry teachers. Areas addressed include negligence in tort law, avoiding negligence suits, proper instructions, proper supervision, equipment maintenance, and other considerations such as sovereign immunity, and contributory versus comparative negligence. (JN)

Gerlovich, Jack A.

1983-01-01

172

STS-73 Payload Specialist Albert Sacco Jr. suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Payload Specialist Albert Sacco Jr. gets a helping hand from a suit technician during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. The seven-member crew of Mission STS-73 will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits another liftoff attempt at 9:50 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

173

FEDspresso - CAFDE Based HLA Federation Development and Implementation Tool Suite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report developed under SBIR contract. During the Phase II effort, Synetics developed the OMSuite(TM) HLA Federation Development Tools - OMCase(TM) , OMBuilder(TM), OMSpector(TM), OMLex(TM), OMNet(TM), and OMManager(TM). The OMSuite(TM) tool suite provides...

J. T. Bachman S. M. Goss P. L. Gustavson L. M. Root

2000-01-01

174

Development of Power Assisting Suit for Assisting Nurse Labor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize a power assisting suit for assisting a nurse caring a patient in her arm, a hardness sensor of muscle using load cell and a pneumatic rotary actuator utilizing pressure cuffs have been developed. The power assisting suit consists of shoulders, arms, waist and legs made of aluminum, and is fitted on the nurse body. The power assisting suit is originated with the concept of a master and slave system in one body. The arms, waist and legs have the pneumatic rotary actuators. The pneumatic rotary actuators are constructed with pressure cuffs sandwiched between thin plates. The action of the arms, waist and legs of the nurse are sensed with the muscle hardness sensor utilizing load cell with diaphragm mounted on a sensing tip. The dent of the sensing tip corresponds to the hardness of the muscle so that exerting muscle force produces electric signal. This paper gives the design and characteristics of the power assisting suit using the cuff type pneumatic rotary actuators and the muscle hardness sensor verifying its practicability.

Yamamoto, Keijiro; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Ishii, Mineo; Matsuo, Takashi

175

Astronaut Scott Carpenter in pressure suit awaiting simulated mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter smiles, in his pressure suit, prior to participating in a simulated mission run at Cape Canaveral, Florida. Astronaut Carpenter had been selected as the prime pilot on the nation's second attempt to put a man into orbit around the earth.

1962-01-01

176

The PROMPT suite: interactive tools for ontology merging and mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the ontology-design field have developed the content for ontologies in many domain areas. This distributed nature of ontology development has led to a large number of ontologies covering overlapping domains. In order for these ontologies to be reused, they first need to be merged or aligned to one another. We developed a suite of tools for managing multiple

Natalya F. Noy; Mark A. Musen

2003-01-01

177

STS-73 Payload Specialist Fred W. Leslie suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Payload Specialist Fred W. Leslie gets a helping hand from a suit technician during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. The seven-member crew of Mission STS-73 will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits another liftoff attempt at 9:50 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

178

119. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

119. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6136, DETAIL OF DOOR SURROUND AND CORNER BLOCK (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

179

The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…

Chiodo, John J.

2013-01-01

180

American ASTP backup crew suited for testing of Apollo spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three members of the American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) backup crew are suited up for testing of the Apollo spacecraft at the Kenney Space Center. They are (from foreground) Astronauts Alan L. Bean, commander; Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot; and Jack R. Lousma, docking module pilot.

1975-01-01

181

Wearable motion capture suit with full-body tactile sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a system for capturing human movement and tactile data and methods for analyzing this data. We cannot fully capture the essence of motion without tactile information, and sometimes the lack of such information causes critical problems. To achieve a better understanding of motion behavior, we developed a wearable motion capture suit with full-body tactile sensors. We also

Yuki Fujimori; Yoshiyuki Ohmura; Tatsuya Harada; Yasuo Kuniyoshi

2009-01-01

182

Surgical suite environmental control system. [using halothane absorbing filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and experimental work for a systems analysis approach to the problem of surgical suit exhaust systems centered on evaluation of halothane absorbing filters. An activated charcoal-alumina-charcoal combination proved to be the best filter for eliminating halothane through multilayer absorption of gas molecules.

Higginbotham, E. J.; Jacobs, M. L.

1974-01-01

183

SOAR 89: Space Station. Space suit test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elements of the test program for the space suit to be used on Space Station Freedom are noted in viewgraph form. Information is given on evaluation objectives, zero gravity evaluation, mobility evaluation, extravehicular activity task evaluation, and shoulder joint evaluation.

Kosmo, Joseph J.; West, Philip; Rouen, Michael

1990-01-01

184

Well-Suited Partners: Psychoanalytic Research and Grounded Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is a "core activity" of "central importance in improving mental health and social care" (NIME, CAMHS National Conference, 2005). This paper examines the philosophical issues confronted when considering psychoanalytic clinical research. It is argued that a well-suited partnership can be formed between psychoanalytic clinical research and…

Anderson, Janet

2006-01-01

185

Mibench: a free, commercially representative embedded benchmark suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a set of commercially representative embedded programs and compares them to an existing benchmark suite, SPEC2000. A new version of SimpleScalar that has been adapted to the ARM instruction set is used to characterize the performance of the benchmarks using configurations similar to current and next generation embedded processors. Several characteristics distinguish the representative embedded programs from

Matthew R. Guthaus; Jeffrey S. Ringenberg; Dan Ernst; T Mudge; Rb Brown; Todd Austin

2001-01-01

186

Enhanced Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct

J R Kamm; J S Brock; S T Brandon; D L Cotrell; B Johnson; P Knupp; W Rider; T Trucano; V G Weirs

2008-01-01

187

The physiology of spacecraft and space suit atmosphere selection.  

PubMed

The majority of the environmental factors which comprise the spacecraft and space suit environments can be controlled at "Earth normal" values, at optimum values, or at other values decided upon by spacecraft designers. Factors which are considered in arriving at control values and control ranges of these parameters include physiological, engineering, operational cost, and safety considerations. Several of the physiological considerations, including hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia, temperature regulation, and decompression sickness are identified and their impact on spacecraft and space suit atmosphere selection are considered. The past experience in controlling these parameters in U.S. and Soviet spacecraft and space suits and the associated physiological responses are reviewed. Current areas of physiological investigation relating to environmental factors in spacecraft are discussed, particularly decompression sickness which can occur as a result of change in pressure from Earth to spacecraft or spacecraft to space suit. Physiological considerations for long-term lunar or Martian missions will have different impacts on atmosphere selection and may result in the selection of atmospheres different than those currently in use. PMID:11537121

Waligora, J M; Horrigan, D J; Nicogossian, A

1991-01-01

188

131. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FRIEZE, SOFFIT, AND CEILING DECORATION (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

189

Security problems in the TCP\\/IP protocol suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TCP\\/IP protocol suite, which is very widely used today, was developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Defense. Despite that, there are a number of serious security flaws inherent in the protocols, regardless of the correctness of any implementations. We describe a variety of attacks based on these flaws, including sequence number spoofing, routing attacks, source address spoofing,

S. M. Bellovin

1989-01-01

190

Towards a metrics suite for object oriented design  

Microsoft Academic Search

While software metrics are a generally desirable feature in the software management functions of project planning and project evaluation, they are of especial importance with a new technology such as the object-oriented approach. This is due to the significant need to train software engineers in generally accepted object-oriented principles. This paper presents theoretical work that builds a suite of metrics

Shyam R. Chidamber; Chris F. Kemerer

1991-01-01

191

Patients’ perception of sound levels in the surgical suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives: To measure sound levels that our patients are exposed to in the surgical suite and their perception of these sound levels.Design: Sound levels experienced by 100 patients undergoing general anesthesia for elective surgery during three phases: induction and maintenance of anesthesia in the operating room (OR), and recovery from anesthesia in the recovery room, were measured using a

Eugene H. C Liu; Su-Meng Tan

2000-01-01

192

Citizen Suits Against Private Industry Under the Clean Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizens suits against industrial dischargers have become an important way to enforce the Clean Water Act (CWA) since the 1977 amendments were passed. Most of the recent notices of intent to sue were submitted by environmental organizations which reviewed discharge monitoring reports (DMRs) to identify noncomplying companies. A review of legislative history indicates that the most widely debated issue concerns

RICHARD E. SCHWARTZ; DAVID P. HACKETT

1984-01-01

193

MUMPS, Validation Suite 1984. Version 7.2 User Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MUMPS 84 Validation Suite is used to validate MUMPS interpreter or precompiler to ensure conformance to the Federal Standard as prescribed in FIPS PUB125. It consists of 2,236 tests in 234 program routines, divided into 3 parts. Part-I is for the spec...

1988-01-01

194

Extravehicular Mobility Unit Training Suit Symptom Study Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to characterize the symptoms and injuries experienced by NASA astronauts during extravehicular activity (space walk) spacesuit training at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory at Ellington Field, Houston, Texas. We identified the frequency and incidence rates of symptoms by each general body location and characterized mechanisms of injury and effective countermeasures. Based on these findings a comprehensive list of recommendations was made to improve training, test preparation, and current spacesuit components, and to design the next -generation spacesuit. At completion of each test event a comprehensive questionnaire was produced that documented suit symptom comments, identified mechanisms of injury, and recommended countermeasures. As we completed our study we found that most extravehicular mobility unit suit symptoms were mild, self-limited, and controlled by available countermeasures. Some symptoms represented the potential for significant injury with short- and long-term consequences regarding astronaut health and interference with mission objectives. The location of symptoms and injuries that were most clinically significant was in the hands, shoulders, and feet. Correction of suit symptoms issues will require a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, early medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

Strauss, Samuel

2004-01-01

195

STS-73 MS Michael E. Lopez-Alegria suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-73 Mission Specialist Michael E. Lopez-Alegria is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. The seven-member crew of Mission STS-73 will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits another liftoff attempt at 9:50 a.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

196

Membrane-Based Water Evaporator for a Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A membrane-based water evaporator has been developed that is intended to serve as a heat-rejection device for a space suit. This evaporator would replace the current sublimator that is sensitive to contamination of its feedwater. The design of the membrane-based evaporator takes advantage of recent advances in hydrophobic micropore membranes to provide robust heat rejection with much less sensitivity to contamination. The low contamination sensitivity allows use of the heat transport loop as feedwater, eliminating the need for the separate feedwater system used for the sublimator. A cross section of the evaporator is shown in the accompanying figure. The space-suit cooling loop water flows into a distribution plenum, through a narrow annulus lined on both sides with a hydrophobic membrane, into an exit plenum, and returns to the space suit. Two perforated metal tubes encase the membranes and provide structural strength. Evaporation at the membrane inner surface dissipates the waste heat from the space suit. The water vapor passes through the membrane, into a steam duct and is vented to the vacuum environment through a back-pressure valve. The back-pressure setting can be adjusted to regulate the heat-rejection rate and the water outlet temperature.

Ungar, Eugene K.; McCann, Charles J.; O'Connell, Mary K.; Andrea, Scott

2004-01-01

197

Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with minimal redesign effort required such that the modular architecture can be quickly and efficiently honed into a specific mission point solution if required.

Hill, Terry R.

2010-01-01

198

Complexity of Fit, with Application to Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although fitting a garment is often considered more of an art than a science, experts suggest that a subjectively poor fit is a symptom of inappropriate ease, the space between the wearer and the garment. The condition of poor suit fit is a unique problem for the space program and it can be attributed primarily to: a) NASA s policy to accommodate a wide variety of people (males and females from 1st to 99th percentile range and with various shapes and sizes) and b) its requirement to deploy a minimum number of suit sizes for logistical reasons. These factors make the space suit fit difficult to assess, where a wide range of people must be fit by the minimum possible number of suits, and yet, fit is crucial for operability and safety. Existing simplistic sizing scheme do not account for wide variations in shape within a diverse population with very limited sizing options. The complex issue of fit has been addressed by a variety of methods, many of which have been developed by the military, which has always had a keen interest in fitting its diverse population but with a multitude of sizing options. The space program has significantly less sizing options, so a combination of these advanced methods should be used to optimize space suit size and assess space suit fit. Multivariate methods can be used to develop sizing schemes that better reflect the wearer population, and integrated sizing systems can form a compromise between fitting men and women. Range of motion and operability testing can be combined with subjective feedback to provide a comprehensive evaluation of fit. The amount of ease can be tailored using these methods, to provide enough extra room where it is needed, without compromising mobility and comfort. This paper discusses the problem of fit in one of its most challenging applications: providing a safe and comfortable spacesuit that will protect its wearer from the extreme environment of space. It will discuss the challenges and necessity of closely fitting its potential wearers, a group of people from a broad spectrum of the population, and will detail some of the methods that can be employed to ensure and validate a good fit.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

199

Mission Specialist Nicollier gets help suiting up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist Claude Nicollier of Switzerland waves while having his launch and entry suit checked by a suit techician during final launch preparations. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

200

Mission Specialist Grunsfeld gets help suiting up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) is assisted by a suit technician in donning his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

201

Mission Specialist Foale gets help suiting up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.) smiles as his launch and entry suit is checked by a suit techician during final launch preparations. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

202

Feasibility of Suited 10-km Ambulation "Walkback" on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews a study that examined the feasibility of having astronauts walk about 10 kilometers to the base in the event of a breakdown of the lunar rover. This was done in part to examine the possibility of having a single rover on the lunar exploration missions. Other objectives of the study are to: (1) Understand specific biomedical and human performance limitations of the suit compared to matched shirt-sleeve controls; (2) Collect metabolic and ground-reaction force data to develop an EVA simulator for use on future prebr eathe protocol verification tests (3) Provide data to estimate consum ables usage for input to suit and portable life support system (PLSS) design (4) Assess the cardiovascular and resistance exercise associa ted with partialgravity EVA for planning appropriate exploration exer cise countermeasures

Norcross, Jason; Lee, Lesley; DeWitt, John K.; Klein, Jill; Wessell, James; Gernhardt, Michael L.

2008-01-01

203

STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. Musgrave's sixth flight into space is noteworthy in two respects. First, he will tie NASA astronaut John Young's record for most number of spaceflights by any human being. Secondly, at age 61, Musgrave will be the oldest person ever to fly in space. He and four crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour window opening at 2:53 p.m. EST, Nov. 19.

1996-01-01

204

STS-71 Mission Specialist Bonnie J. Dunbar suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-71 Mission Specialist Bonnnie J. Dunbar looks relaxed and at ease as she finishes donning her launch entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. Dunbar is about to embark on her third trip into space; she also bears the distinction of having become one of the first U.S. astronauts to undergo cosmonaut training in Russia, and her expertise will be invaluable during STS-71, when the first docking of the U.S. Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir is scheduled to occur. Dunbar and the rest of the STS-71 flight crew will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis is poisied for liftoff during a 10-minute window opening at 3:32 p.m. EDT.

1995-01-01

205

Identification of new members within suites of amphiphilic marine siderophores  

PubMed Central

Marine bacterial isolates Vibrio sp. HC0601C5 and Halomonas meridiana str. HC4321C1 were isolated off the coast of southern California and were found to produce an expanded suite of previously identified amphiphilic siderophores. Specifically two new members of the amphibactin family, amphibactins S and T, which have a C14:1 ?-7 fatty acid and a saturated C12 fatty acid, respectively, were produced by Vibrio sp. HC0601C5. These siderophores are produced in addition to a number of previously described amphibactins and are excreted into the culture supernatant. Two new members of the aquachelin family of siderophores, aquachelins I and J, which have an hydroxylated C12 fatty acid and a saturated C10 fatty acid, respectively, were produced by Halomonas meridiana str. HC4321C1. These four new siderophores are more hydrophilic than their previously reported relatives, aquachelins A–D and the amphibactin suite of siderophores.

Vraspir, Julia M.; Holt, Pamela D.

2011-01-01

206

Expedition 4 crew member Carl E. Walz final suit checkout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expedition 4 crew member Carl E. Walz final suit checkout KSC-01PD-1721 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Expedition 4 crew member Carl E. Walz undergoes final suit check before launch on mission STS-108 Nov. 29. Top priorities for the STS-108 (UF-1) mission of Endeavour are rotation of the International Space Station Expedition Three and Expedition Four crews; bringing water, equipment and supplies to the station in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello; and completion of robotics tasks and a spacewalk to install thermal blankets over two pieces of equipment at the bases of the Space Station's solar wings. Liftoff is scheduled for 7:41 p.m. EST.

2001-01-01

207

STS-108 M.S. Tani suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-108 M.S. Tani suits up for launch KSC-01PD-1781 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-108 Mission Specialist Daniel M. Tani is happy to be suiting up for the second launch attempt of Space Shuttle Endeavour. The first attempt Dec. 4 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at KSC. The main goals of the mission are to carry the Expedition 4 crew to the International Space Station as replacement for Expedition 3; carry the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello filled with water, equipment and supplies; and install thermal blankets over equipment at the base of the ISS solar wings. STS-108 is the final Shuttle mission of 2001 and the 107th Shuttle flight overall. It is the 12th flight to the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for 5:19 p.m. EST Dec. 5, 2001, from Launch Pad 39B.

2001-01-01

208

STS-99 Mission Specialist Thiele dons suit for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-99 Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele of Germany smiles as suit technician Andre Denard, with United Space Alliance, helps him with his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), STS-99 is scheduled for liftoff at 12:30 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. The mission is expected to last 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Tuesday, Feb. 22, at 4:36 p.m. EST. This is the 97th Shuttle flight and 14th for Shuttle Endeavour.

2000-01-01

209

Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Instrument Performance Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) has been in operation for more than two years, and it has been providing the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) science community with ozone data in the Earth's atmosphere. The sensor suite has been extensively calibrated during the early orbit check and the intensive calibration and validation (ICV) phase. We evaluate calibrated sensor records (SDRs) through the cross-sensor calibration on both the SDR as well as Environmental Data Records (EDRs) levels. This paper will summarize the current status of the SDR performance and calibration. Examples of the analysis results from on-orbit solar calibration, stray-light calibration, as well as wavelength calibration will be provided.

Pan, S.; Flynn, L. E.; Wu, X.; Grotenhuis, M.

2013-12-01

210

STS-94 Mission Specialist Michael Gernhardt suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-94 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt is assisted into his launch/entry suit by a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He first flew in this capacity on STS- 69. He has been a professional deep sea diver and engineer and holds a doctorate in bioengineering. Gernhardt will be in charge of the Blue shift and as flight engineer will operate and maintain the orbiter while Halsell and Still are asleep as members of the Red shift. He will also back them up on the flight deck during the ascent and re-entry phases of the mission. Gernhardt and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 1:50 a.m. EDT, July opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center.

1997-01-01

211

IICBU 2008 - A Proposed Benchmark Suite for Biological Image Analysis  

PubMed Central

New technology for automated biological image acquisition has introduced the need for effective biological image analysis methods. These algorithms are constantly being developed by pattern recognition and machine vision experts, who tailor general computer vision techniques to the specific needs of biological imaging. However, computer scientists do not always have access to biological image datasets that can be used for computer vision research, and biologist collaborators who can assist in defining the biological questions are not always available. Here we propose a publicly available benchmark suite of biological image datasets that can be used by machine vision experts for developing and evaluating biological image analysis methods. The suite represents a set of practical real-life imaging problems in biology, and offers examples of organelles, cells and tissues, imaged at different magnifications and different contrast techniques. All datasets are available for free download at http://ome.grc.nia.nih.gov/iicbu2008.

Shamir, Lior; Orlov, Nikita; Eckley, D. Mark; Macura, Tomasz J.; Goldberg, Ilya G.

2008-01-01

212

STS-81 Mission Specialist Marsha Ivins suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-81 Mission Specialist Marsha S. Ivins gets a helping hand from a suit technician as she prepares to don the helmet of her launch/entry suit in the suitup room of the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. She is the veteran of three Shuttle flights and became an astronaut in 1984. Among other responsibilities, Ivins will perform photo and video surveys of the Russian Mir space station and operate the Kidsat experiment camera on the orbiters aft flight deck. She and five crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis will lift off during a 7-minute window that opens at 4:27 a.m. EST, January 12.

1997-01-01

213

STS-95 Mission Specialist Stephen Robinson suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson gives a thumbs up as he dons his flight suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with the help of suit tech George Brittingham (lower right). The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

214

STS-85 Mission Specialist Stephen Robinson suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-85 Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson smiles as he is assisted with his ascent/reentry flight suit by a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He has been a NASA employee since 1975 and has worked at Ames and Langley Research Centers. Robinson holds a doctorate in mechanical engineering and is a licensed pilot. He will assist Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam, Jr. with the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (CRISTA- SPAS-2) free-flyer and conduct Comet Hale-Bopp observations with the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System. Robinson will also coordinate photo and television data operations during the mission. The primary payload aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery is the CRISTA-SPAS- 2. Other payloads on the 11-day mission include the Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD), and Technology Applications and Science-1 (TAS-1) and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker-2 (IEH-2) experiments.

1997-01-01

215

Test procedure for OLF's helicopter transportation suit. Determining the function in wind and wave conditions of the immersion suit's ability to protect against water penetration and overflowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The test results are measured against the acceptance criteria in OLF's immersion suit specifications. Any water leakage, measured as weight increase of the clothing worn underneath the suit, shall be added to the test subject's immersion suit before the hypothermia test is carried out. Test group The test group, consisting of six people who are to undergo the test in

Gunnar Knudsen

216

Optimal Design of PCM Suit Based on Human Thermal Response Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper optimized and evaluated design of PCM suit based on the human thermal response experiment. The melting point and the distribution of PCM on the suit were optimized. It presents a proposal design of PCM suit which can keep human thermal comfort in high thermoresistance exposure suit. The result can also be applied in correlative studies on other kinds

Xiang ZHOU; Ying-Xin ZHU; Yin-Ping ZHANG; Ping GUAN

217

STS-107 Payload Commander Michael Anderson suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Payload Commander Michael Anderson completes suit check prior to Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown at the pad. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

2002-01-01

218

Non-Venting Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future EVA suits need processes and systems to control internal temperature and humidity without venting water to the environment. This paper describes an absorption-based cooling and dehumidification system as well as laboratory demonstrations of the key processes. There are two main components in the system: an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) that removes both sensible heat and latent heat from the pressure garment, and an absorber radiator that absorbs moisture and rejects heat to space by thermal radiation. This paper discusses the overall design of both components, and presents recent data demonstrating their operation. We developed a design and fabrication approach to produce prototypical heat/water absorbing elements for the ECDG, and demonstrated by test that these elements could absorb heat and moisture at a high flux. Proof-of-concept tests showed that an ECDG prototype absorbs heat and moisture at a rate of 85 W/ft under conditions that simulate operation in an EVA suit. The heat absorption was primarily due to direct absorption of water vapor. It is possible to construct large, flexible, durable cooling patches that can be incorporated into a cooling garment with this system. The proof-of-concept test data was scaled to calculate area needed for full metabolic loads, thus showing that it is feasible to use this technology in an EVA suit. Full-scale, lightweight absorber/radiator modules have also been built and tested. They can reject heat at a flux of 33 W/ft while maintaining ECDG operation at conditions that will provide a cool and dry environment inside the EVA suit.

Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

2011-01-01

219

Astronaut Ronald Evans is suited up for EVA training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, is assisted by technicians in suiting up for extravehicular activity (EVA) training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (49970); Evans participates in EVA training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The structure in the picture simulates the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) bay of the Apollo 17 Service Module (49971).

1972-01-01

220

SUNDIALS: Suite of nonlinear and differential\\/algebraic equation solvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUNDIALS is a suite of advanced computational codes for solving large-scale problems that can be modeled as a system of nonlinear algebraic equations, or as initial-value problems in ordinary differential or differential-algebraic equations. The basic versions of these codes are called KINSOL, CVODE, and IDA, respectively. The codes are written in ANSI standard C and are suitable for either serial

Alan C. Hindmarsh; Peter N. Brown; Keith E. Grant; Steven L. Lee; Radu Serban; Dan E. Shumaker; Carol S. Woodward

2005-01-01

221

Enhanced verification test suite for physics simulation codes  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations.

Kamm, James R.; Brock, Jerry S.; Brandon, Scott T.; Cotrell, David L.; Johnson, Bryan; Knupp, Patrick; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy G.; Weirs, V. Gregory

2008-09-01

222

The PARSEC benchmark suite: characterization and architectural implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and characterizes the Princeton Ap- plication Repository for Shared-Memory Computers (PAR- SEC), a benchmark suite for studies of Chip-Multiprocessors (CMPs). Previous available benchmarks for multiproces- sors have focused on high-performance computing applica- tions and used a limited number of synchronization meth- ods. PARSEC includes emerging applications in recogni- tion, mining and synthesis (RMS) as well as systems

Christian Bienia; Sanjeev Kumar; Jaswinder Pal Singh; Kai Li

2008-01-01

223

STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker signals he's ready to fly as he finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Walker, who is embarking on his fourth trip into space, will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A along with four fellow crew members. Awaiting the crew and liftoff at 11:09 a.m. EDT is the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

1995-01-01

224

STS-107 Mission Specialist David Brown suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Mission Specialist David Brown happily submits to suit check prior to Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown at the pad. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

2002-01-01

225

FRACK: A Freeware Flow and Transport Suite for Fractured Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRACK is a fractured media freeware flow and solute transport suite currently under development that is intended to serve as both a pre- and post-processor to MODFLOW. As a pre-processor, FRACK generates and maps networks of deterministic and\\/or stochastic fractures onto a regularly-spaced finite- difference grid, according to a fracture continuum method that closely approximates flow solutions to discrete fracture

Donald M. Reeves; Greg Pohll; David Benson

226

The Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Instrument Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer is a suite of three different instruments, a gamma subsystem (GS), a neutron spectrometer,\\u000a and a high-energy neutron detector, working together to collect data that will permit the mapping of elemental concentrations\\u000a on the surface of Mars. The instruments are complimentary in that the neutron instruments have greater sensitivity to low\\u000a amounts of hydrogen, but

W. V. Boynton; W. C. Feldman; I. G. Mitrofanov; L. G. Evans; R. C. Reedy; S. W. Squyres; R. Starr; J. I. Trombka; C. d'Uston; J. R. Arnold; P. A. J. Englert; A. E. Metzger; H. Wänke; J. Brückner; D. M. Drake; C. Shinohara; C. Fellows; D. K. Hamara; K. Harshman; K. Kerry; C. Turner; M. Ward; H. Barthe; K. R. Fuller; S. A. Storms; G. W. Thornton; J. L. Longmire; M. L. Litvak; A. K. Ton'chev

2004-01-01

227

SynBioSS: the synthetic biology modeling suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: SynBioSS is a suite of software for the modeling and simulation of synthetic genetic constructs. SynBioSS utilizes the registry of standard biological parts, a database of kinetic parame- ters, and both graphical and command-line interfaces to multiscale simulation algorithms. Availability: SynBioSS is available under the GNU General Public License at http:\\/\\/synbioss.sourceforge.net.

Anthony D. Hill; Jonathan R. Tomshine; Emma M. B. Weeding; Vassilios Sotiropoulos; Yiannis N. Kaznessis

2008-01-01

228

Generation of a vector suite for protein solubility screening.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein expression has become an invaluable tool for academic and biotechnological projects. With the use of high-throughput screening technologies for soluble protein production, uncountable target proteins have been produced in a soluble and homogeneous state enabling the realization of further studies. Evaluation of hundreds conditions requires the use of high-throughput cloning and screening methods. Here we describe a new versatile vector suite dedicated to the expression improvement of recombinant proteins (RP) with solubility problems. This vector suite allows the parallel cloning of the same PCR product into the 12 different expression vectors evaluating protein expression under different promoter strength, different fusion tags as well as different solubility enhancer proteins. Additionally, we propose the use of a new fusion protein which appears to be a useful solubility enhancer. Above all we propose in this work an economic and useful vector suite to fast track the solubility of different RP. We also propose a new solubility enhancer protein that can be included in the evaluation of the expression of RP that are insoluble in classical expression conditions. PMID:24616717

Correa, Agustín; Ortega, Claudia; Obal, Gonzalo; Alzari, Pedro; Vincentelli, Renaud; Oppezzo, Pablo

2014-01-01

229

The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantially to the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essential step in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite located in the interior of MSL's Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupled through solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on the same samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyze volatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In addition to measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conduct a sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction from sieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rover's robotic arm.

Mahaffy, Paul R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Cabane, Michel; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Carignan, Daniel; Cascia, Mark; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Everson, Paula; Franz, Heather; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.; Hawk, Douglas; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Jones, Andrea; Jordan, Patrick; Kellogg, James; Lewis, Jesse; Lyness, Eric; Malespin, Charles A.; Martin, David K.; Maurer, John; McAdam, Amy C.; McLennan, Douglas; Nolan, Thomas J.; Noriega, Marvin; Pavlov, Alexander A.; Prats, Benito; Raaen, Eric; Sheinman, Oren; Sheppard, David; Smith, James; Stern, Jennifer C.; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Jones, John; Gundersen, Cindy; Steele, Andrew; Wray, James; Botta, Oliver; Leshin, Laurie A.; Owen, Tobias; Battel, Steve; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Manning, Heidi; Squyres, Steven; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.; Raulin, Francois; Sternberg, Robert; Buch, Arnaud; Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Coscia, David; Szopa, Cyril; Teinturier, Samuel; Baffes, Curt; Feldman, Jason; Flesch, Greg; Forouhar, Siamak; Garcia, Ray; Keymeulen, Didier; Woodward, Steve; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan; Edmonson, Charles; Gorevan, Stephen; Mumm, Erik

2012-09-01

230

STS-91 Mission Specialist Ryumin suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-91 Mission Specialist and Russian cosmonaut Valery Victorovitch Ryumin is outfitted with his ascent/reentry flight suit and helmet by two suit technicians in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. The final suit fitting and checkout takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39A. He has been director of the Russian Shuttle-Mir program and flight director for the Salyut-7 and Mir space stations and is a veteran of three space flights with a total of 362 days in space. This will be Ryumin's first visit to Mir. However, his experience with Russian spacecraft in orbit will prove extremely valuable as he helps the crew with Mir equipment transfer operations. He will also be assessing the condition of the station for the Russian space program. STS-91 is scheduled to be launched on June 2 with a launch window opening around 6:10 p.m. EDT. The mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will return to Earth as a STS- 91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

1998-01-01

231

Astronaut Scott Carpenter in Hanger S crew quarters during suiting exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 flight, is seen in Hanger S crew quarters during a suiting exercise. He is assisted in suiting by technician Al Rochford. In this view, Carpenter is fully suited and is having his gloves adjusted (24622); Carpenter is seated in a mock-up of his pilot's seat while fully suited (24623); Carpenter, minus his helmet, smiles at camera as Rochford adjusts his suit (24624).

1965-01-01

232

Comparison of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suited and unsuited isolated joint strength measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study the strength of subjects suited in extravehicular mobility units (EMU's) - or Space Shuttle suits - was compared to the strength of unsuited subjects. The authors devised a systematic and complete data set that characterizes isolated joint torques for all major joints of EMU-suited subjects. Six joint motions were included in the data set. The joint conditions of six subjects were compared to increase our understanding of the strength capabilities of suited subjects. Data were gathered on suited and unsuited subjects. Suited subjects wore Class 3 or Class 1 suits, with and without thermal micrometeoroid garments (TMG's). Suited and unsuited conditions for each joint motion were compared. From this the authors found, for example, that shoulder abduction suited conditions differ from each other and from the unsuited condition. A second-order polynomial regression model was also provided. This model, which allows the prediction of suited strength when given unsuited strength information, relates the torques of unsuited conditions to the torques of all suited conditions. Data obtained will enable computer modeling of EMU strength, conversion from unsuited to suited data, and isolated joint strength comparisons between suited and unsuited conditions at any measured angle. From these data mission planners and human factors engineers may gain a better understanding of crew posture, and mobility and strength capabilities. This study also may help suit designers optimize suit strength, and provide a foundation for EMU strength modeling systems.

Maida, James C.; Demel, Kenneth J.; Morgan, David A.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Pandya, Abhilash K.

1996-01-01

233

Biomechanical comparison of the current army chemical, biological and radiological protection suit and two prototype suits. Technical report, October 1984-September 1985  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the biomechanical characteristics of the current U. S. Army CBR suit, Overgarment 84, and two prototypes, C and D, developed by the Naval Surface Warfare Center and the Marine Corps Research and Development Command. This study assessed the range of motion in the three CBR suits using a biomechanical analysis. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were used representing gross body movement. Measurements on each of the CBR suits and on a swim suit baseline were compared using a repeated measure ANOVA to determine which CBR suit was least restrictive as measured by the fourteen movements assessed. While the three CBR suits demonstrated a restriction in movement when compared to baseline measures, neither of the CBR suits differ significantly for each other. Implication of the data are discussed.

Styer, D.J.; Tamura, L.; Pepper, S.; Bachrach, A.J.

1986-12-01

234

Suitport Feasibility - Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a spacesuit while the spacesuit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a spacesuit prototype using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. This test will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents design of a human rated second generation suitport, modifications to the JSC human rated chamber B to accept a suitport, and a compatible space suit to support pressurized human donning of the pressurized suit through a suitport. Design challenges and solutions and compromises required to develop the system are presented. Initial human testing results are presented.

Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

2011-01-01

235

A Mission Management Application Suite for Airborne Science Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collection of data during airborne field campaigns is a critically important endeavor. It is imperative to observe the correct phenomena at the right time - at the right place to maximize the instrument observations. Researchers at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have developed an application suite known as the Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM). This suite is comprised of tools for mission design, flight planning, aircraft visualization and tracking. The mission design tool allows scientists to set mission parameters such as geographic boundaries and dates of the campaign. Based on these criteria, the tool intelligently selects potential data sets from a data resources catalog from which the scientist is able to choose the aircraft, instruments, and ancillary Earth science data sets to be provided for use in the remaining tool suite. The scientists can easily reconfigure and add data sets of their choosing for use during the campaign. The flight planning tool permits the scientist to assemble aircraft flight plans and to plan coincident observations with other aircraft, spacecraft or in situ observations. Satellite and ground-based remote sensing data and modeling data are used as background layers to aid the scientist in the flight planning process. Planning is crucial to successful collection of data and the ability to modify the plan and upload to aircraft navigators and pilots is essential for the agile collection of data. Most critical to successful and cost effective collection of data is the capability to visualize the Earth science data (airborne instruments, radiosondes, radar, dropsondes, etc.) and track the aircraft in real time. In some instances, aircraft instrument data is provided to ground support personnel in near-real time to visualize with the flight track. This visualization and tracking aspect of RTMM provides a decision support capability in conjunction with scientific collaboration portals to allow for scientists on the ground to communicate most effectively with scientists aboard the aircraft to achieve successful observations.

Goodman, H. M.; Meyer, P. J.; Blakeslee, R.; Regner, K.; Hall, J.; He, M.; Conover, H.; Garrett, M.; Harper, J.; Smith, T.; Grewe, A.; Real Time Mission Monitor Team

2011-12-01

236

STS-89 M.S. James F. Reilly suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-89 Mission Specialist James Reilly, Ph.D., smiles as he completes the donning of his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He holds a doctorate in geosciences. He and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour will lift off during a launch window that opens at 9:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22. STS-89 is the eighth of nine planned missions to dock the Space Shuttle with Russia's Mir space station.

1998-01-01

237

STS-104 MS Kavandi suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi adjusts her helmet as she dons her launch and entry suit before heading to the launch pad. This launch will be her third space flight. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-104 is targeted for 5:04 a.m., July 12, from Launch Pad 39B. The primary payload on the mission is the joint airlock module, which will be added to the International Space Station. The airlock will be the primary path for Space Station spacewalk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, and will also support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for EVA activity.

2001-01-01

238

STS-104 MS Reilly suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-104 Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh gets help donning his launch and entry suit before heading to the launch pad. This launch will be his first space flight. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-104 is targeted for 5:04 a.m., July 12, from Launch Pad 39B. The primary payload on the mission is the joint airlock module, which will be added to the International Space Station. The airlock will be the primary path for Space Station spacewalk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, and will also support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for EVA activity.

2001-01-01

239

STS-104 MS Gernhardt has suit check during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt has suit and fit check during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in Space Shuttle Atlantiss payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members participating are Commander Steven W. Lindsey, Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Janet Lynn Kavandi and James F. Reilly. The launch of Atlantis on mission STS-104 is scheduled no earlier than July 12 from Launch Pad 39B. The mission is the 10th flight to the International Space Station and carries the Joint Airlock Module.

2001-01-01

240

STS-89 M.S. Michael Anderson suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-89 Mission Specialist Michael Anderson smiles as he completes the donning of his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. A major in the U.S. Air Force, Anderson has a master of science degree in physics from Creighton University. He and six fellow crew members will soon depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour will lift off during a launch window that opens at 9:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22. STS-89 is the eighth of nine planned missions to dock the Space Shuttle with Russia's Mir space station.

1998-01-01

241

STS-107 Payload Commander Michael Anderson suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-107 Payload Commander Michael Anderson smiles as he undergoes suit check prior to Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown at the pad. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

2002-01-01

242

Alan Shepard in Space Suit before Mercury Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Profile of astronaut Alan Shepard in his silver pressure suit with the helmet visor closed as he prepares for his upcoming Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) launch. On May 5th 1961, Alan B. Shepard Jr. became the first American to fly into space. His Freedom 7 Mercury capsule flew a suborbital trajectory lasting 15 minutes 22 seconds. His spacecraft splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean where he and Freedom 7 were recovered by helicopter and transported to the awaiting aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain.

1961-01-01

243

STS-110 M.S. Smith suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Steven Smith relaxes during suit fit, which is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight to provide flight crews an opportunity to participate in simulated launch countdown activities. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

2002-01-01

244

STS-112 Pilot Melroy suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy finishes suiting up for launch. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss to the Station. Launch is scheduled for 3:46 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. .

2002-01-01

245

STS-106 Mission Specialist Lu suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-106 Mission Specialist Edward T. Lu smiles as he gets suited up in the Operations and Checkout Building before launch. This is Lu'''s second space flight. Space Shuttle Atlantis is set to lift off 8:45 a.m. EDT on the fourth flight to the International Space Station. During the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

2000-01-01

246

STS-101 Mission Specialist Williams suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-101 Mission Specialist Jeffrey N. Williams smiles after suiting up as he waits to head to Launch Pad 39A and launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station.

2000-01-01

247

STS-87 Pilot Steven W. Lindsey suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-87 Pilot Steven Lindsey dons his launch and entry suit with the help of two assistants in the Operations and Checkout Building. Shortly, he and the five other crew members of STS-87 will depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Although this is his first Shuttle flight, Lindsey has logged more than 2,700 hours of flying time in 49 different types of aircraft.

1997-01-01

248

STS-67 Payload Specialists Durrance and Parise suit up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-67 Payload Specialists Samuel T. Durrance (left) and Ronald A. Parise have finished donning their launch/entry suits and chat with astronaut Joe Tanner while waiting for the rest of the crew. The two payload specialists -- who are both making their second trip into space -- and five fellow crew members will soon depart for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is being readied for liftoff during a launch window opening at 1:37 a.m. EST, March 2.

1995-01-01

249

Physics Suite Sample Problems: Circular and Rotational Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on the topic of circular and rotational motion developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. Topics covered include rotational energy, torque, angular momentum, and rotational kinematics. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-18

250

STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, gives a thumbs up in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Dr. Doi is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Winston Scott during STS-87.

1997-01-01

251

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Oscillations and Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on waves and oscillations, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative question (usually multiple choice) that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include superpositioning, graph interpretation, wave velocity, and force related to masses on a spring. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

252

STS-107 Mission Specialist David Brown suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Mission Specialist David Brown waves as he completes suit check prior to Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown at the pad. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

2002-01-01

253

STS-80 Mission Specialist Tamara Jernigan suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-80 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan has finished donning her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building and signals that she's ready to fly. The veteran of three previous Shuttle flights will participate in two space walks on STS-80 to continue testing tools and techniques for International Space Station construction. She and four crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour window opening at 2:53 p.m. EST, Nov. 19.

1996-01-01

254

STS-87 Commander Kevin R. Kregel suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-87 Commander Kevin Kregel sits in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building holding a cap of his sons soccer team of which Kregel is the coach. Shortly, he and the five other crew members of STS-87 will depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. A veteran of two space flights (STS-70 and -78), Kregel has logged more than 618 hours in space.

1997-01-01

255

The SECO suite of codes for site Performance Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Modeling for Performance Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP ) has led to development of the SECO suite of codes for groundwater flow, particle tracking, and transport. Algorithm and code developments include the following areas: facilitation of grid convergence tests in multiple domains; correct treatment of transmissivity factors for unconfined aquifers; efficient multigrid algorithms; a formulation of brine Darcy flow equations that uses freshwater head as the dependent able; boundary-fitted coordinates; temporal high order particle tracking; an efficient and accurate implicit Finite Volume TVD algorithm for radionuclide transport in (possibly) fractured porous media; accurate calculation of advection via a flux-based modified method of characteristics; and Quality Assurance procedures.

Roache, P.J. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-03-01

256

STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart shows thumbs up for launch as he finishes suiting up. Lockhart will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 8:15 p.m. EST.

2002-01-01

257

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Properties of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on properties of matter, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative question (usually multiple choice) that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include pressure, fluid flux, fluid speed, and Bernoulli's equations. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

258

STS-93 Mission Specialist Coleman suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) gets help with her launch and entry suit from a suit tech. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

259

Development of NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3) is a web-based integrated simulator for Earth remote sensing applications. Initially developed for atmospheric remote sensing instruments, NEOS3 is equipped with start-of-the-art modules to enable the realistic simulation of satellite observables. The main objective of the development is to provide an advanced, sophisticated, and user-friendly simulator package that can be used by both scientists for research-oriented applications and by system engineers for an instrument design purpose. This system is accessible via a web interface and capable of distributing computationally intensive tasks to remote servers such as those at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division. Among other advanced models, the propagation models integrated in NEOS3 include DOMUS (DOppler MUltiple-Scattering simulator) and SHDOM (Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method) for simulation of radars and radiometers, respectively. These two models enable 3D simulation of wave propagation through the atmosphere. The electromagnetic scattering properties of snow and cloud ice particles can be obtained from the Snowfake database (built upon a realistic snow growth model and the Discrete Dipole Approximation technique). Alternatively, different libraries of models can be selected for individual components of the simulation procedure. The presentation will cover an overview of 3 distinct perspectives of the NEOS3 system: capabilities, architecture and basic workflow. It will serve as an introduction for prospective users as well as contributors who desire to further enhance this simulator suite by providing an improved model.

Niamsuwan, N.; Tanelli, S.; Johnson, M. P.; Jacob, J. C.

2012-12-01

260

STS-91 Pilot Gorie suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the help of a suit technician, STS-91 Pilot Dominic L. Gorie dons his flight suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39A. Gorie is on his first Shuttle mission. As a commander in the Navy, he flew combat missions in Operation Desert Storm and has earned a Distinguished Flying Cross as well as a master's degree in aviation systems. Along with backing up Precourt on the flight deck, Gorie will perform the final Shuttle-Mir undocking and flyaround. He will also assist with the transfer of materials to and from Mir and the photographic documentation of the space station. STS- 91 is scheduled to be launched on June 2 with a launch window opening around 6:10 p.m. EDT. The mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as a STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

1998-01-01

261

Comprehensive review of the converted MMT's instrument suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The converted 6.5m MMT Observatory has a powerful suite of new instrumentation accumulated over the last eight years. Pre-conversion instruments still in use at the f/9 Cassegrain focus are the facility Red and Blue Channel spectrographs (R = 240 - 6600) and the visiting spectropolarimeter (SPOL). Instruments using the f/5 spectroscopic configuration are the bench mounted 300-fiber spectrographs Hectospec (R=1000) and Hectochelle (R=30,000), and the single slit, cross-dispersed spectrograph MAESTRO (R=28,000 - 93,000). The f/5 imaging configuration offers Megacam, a 24' x 24' CCD mosaic camera and SWIRC, a YJH NIR imager. The MMT's pioneering f/15 adaptive secondary mirror enables high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy in the infrared with the ARIES, CLIO, PISCES and BLINC/MIRAC instruments. The AO system will shortly be significantly enhanced with the addition of a Rayleigh laser guide star system which is currently being commissioned. Upcoming instrumentation will include slit mask spectrographs in the infrared (MMIRS) and optical (BINOSPEC). This review paper presents all the available instruments capabilities and demonstrates how the observatory has become highly efficient at managing multiple secondary mirrors and a large instrument suite.

Hastie, M.; McLeod, B.

2008-08-01

262

Analysis of a Radiation Model of the Shuttle Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extravehicular activity (EVA) required to assemble the International Space Station (ISS) will take approximately 1500 hours with 400 hours of EVA per year in operations and maintenance. With the Space Station at an inclination of 51.6 deg the radiation environment is highly variable with solar activity being of great concern. Thus, it is important to study the dose gradients about the body during an EVA to help determine the cancer risk associated with the different environments the ISS will encounter. In this paper we are concerned only with the trapped radiation (electrons and protons). Two different scenarios are looked at: the first is the quiet geomagnetic periods in low Earth orbit (LEO) and the second is during a large solar particle event in the deep space environment. This study includes a description of how the space suit's computer aided design (CAD) model was developed along with a description of the human model. Also included is a brief description of the transport codes used to determine the total integrated dose at several locations within the body. Finally, the results of the transport codes when applied to the space suit and human model and a brief description of the results are presented.

Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Qualls, Garry D.; Wilson, John W.

2003-01-01

263

STS-96 Pilot Rick Husband suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-96 Pilot Rick D. Husband waves while being checked by a suit technician after donning his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. STS-96 is a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction.. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

264

Integration of APECS and VE-Suite for Data Overlay  

SciTech Connect

In the design of advanced power generation facilities, process simulation tools are being utilized to model plant behavior and quickly analyze results. While such tools enable investigation of crucial aspects of plant design, typical commercial process simulators still do not explore some plant design information, including high-fidelity data from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena, economics data used for policy decisions, operational data after the plant is constructed, and as-built information for use in as-designed models. Software tools must be created that allow disparate sources of information to be integrated for facilitating accurate and effective plant design. At the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) has been developed as an integrated software suite that combines process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus®) and high-fidelity equipment simulation (e.g., FLUENT®). In this paper, the integration of the high-fidelity CFD data with overall process data in a virtual power simulation environment will be described. More specifically, we will highlight VE-Suite, an open-source virtual engineering (VE) software toolkit, and its support of Aspen Plus® Hierarchy blocks via the VE-AspenUnit.

McCorkel, Doug (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Bivins, Gerrick (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Jordan, Terry; Bryden, Mark (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Zitney, S.E.; Widmann, John (ANSYS, Lebanon, NH); Osawe, Maxwell

2008-06-01

265

STS-93 Commander Collins suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves while a suit tech adjusts her boot, part of the launch and entry suit, during final launch preparations. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission. STS-93 is scheduled to lift off at 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. The target landing date is July 24 at 11:30 p.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

266

Results from an integrated AOTF-LDTOF spectrometer suite for planetary surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On future landed missions to Mars and small solar system bodies, efficient sample prescreening will be necessary to select interesting targets for further analysis by analytical instruments with very limited time and power resources. Near infrared spectroscopy is well suited for rapid and non-invasive identification of mineral classes, and for determining the possible presence of organic molecules. Here we describe a miniature acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) point spectrometer that is tunable from ~1.6 - 3.6 ? m. It identifies minerals associated with aqueous environments at sample scales of ~1 mm, as well as organic molecules and volatiles. The AOTF point spectrometer was integrated with a laser desorption time-of-flight (LDTOF) mass spectrometer developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and can be used to prescreen samples for evidence of organics before the laser desorption step and subsequent mass spectrometer measurement. The LDTOF mass spectrometer provides pulsed-laser desorption and analysis of refractory organic compounds up to 150,000 Da on a spatial scale of 50-100 ? m, determined by the laser spot size at the target. The recent integration of the two instruments allowed for coincident spectral measurements of geologic samples; follow-up measurements from the LDTOF were taken from an identical region on the samples of interest, allowing for a direct comparison between the two complementary data sets. We present measurements of a standard sample suite consisting of sulfates, carbonates, clay minerals, and iron oxides. We also compare AOTF and LDTOF spectra of calcite, as well as gypsum doped with phthalic acid and valine, and discuss the relationship between reflectance spectra acquired by the AOTF and the LDTOF mass spectra. Finally, we discuss measurements made of irradiated ices such as those found in areas of high astrobiological interest like Europa.

Chanover, N.; Voelz, D.; Glenar, D.; Xiao, Xifeng; Tawalbeh, R.; Uckert, K.; Boston, P.; Getty, S.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Mahaffy, P.; Li, Xiang

267

Enhanced Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations. The key points of this document are: (1) Verification deals with mathematical correctness of the numerical algorithms in a code, while validation deals with physical correctness of a simulation in a regime of interest. This document is about verification. (2) The current seven-problem Tri-Laboratory Verification Test Suite, which has been used for approximately five years at the DOE WP laboratories, is limited. (3) Both the methodology for and technology used in verification analysis have evolved and been improved since the original test suite was proposed. (4) The proposed test problems are in three basic areas: (a) Hydrodynamics; (b) Transport processes; and (c) Dynamic strength-of-materials. (5) For several of the proposed problems we provide a 'strong sense verification benchmark', consisting of (i) a clear mathematical statement of the problem with sufficient information to run a computer simulation, (ii) an explanation of how the code result and benchmark solution are to be evaluated, and (iii) a description of the acceptance criterion for simulation code results. (6) It is proposed that the set of verification test problems with which any particular code be evaluated include some of the problems described in this document. Analysis of the proposed verification test problems constitutes part of a necessary--but not sufficient--step that builds confidence in physics and engineering simulation codes. More complicated test cases, including physics models of greater sophistication or other physics regimes (e.g., energetic material response, magneto-hydrodynamics), would represent a scientifically desirable complement to the fundamental test cases discussed in this report. The authors believe that this document can be used to enhance the verification analyses undertaken at the DOE WP Laboratories and, thus, to improve the quality, credibility, and usefulness of the simulation codes that are analyzed with these problems.

Kamm, J R; Brock, J S; Brandon, S T; Cotrell, D L; Johnson, B; Knupp, P; Rider, W; Trucano, T; Weirs, V G

2008-10-10

268

CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even ...

B. Conger F. A. Korona J. Norcross M. Navarro

2014-01-01

269

46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214 Section 199.214 Shipping... Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must...passenger vessel must carry a thermal protective aid approved under approval series...

2013-10-01

270

Gemini 7 prime crew during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, talks with NASA space suit technician Clyde Teague during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16, Kennedy Space Center. Lovell wears the new lightweight space suit planned for use during the Gemini 7 mission (61756); Astronaut Frank Borman, comand pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, undergoes suiting up operations in Launch Complex 16 during prelaunch countdown. Medical biosensors are attached to his scalp (61757).

1965-01-01

271

Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments  

PubMed Central

An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical progression of research-inspired laboratory modules serves to “tour” the macroscopic characteristics of the fruit and the submicroscopic properties of its constituent cuticular biopolymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–visible, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods at increasingly detailed molecular levels. The modular curriculum can be tailored for specialty undergraduate courses or summer high school workshops. By applying analytical tools to investigate biopolymers, making connections between molecular and microscale structure, and linking both structural regimes to the functional properties of natural polymers, groundwork is established for further student investigations at the interface of chemistry with biology or chemical engineering.

Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

2013-01-01

272

STS-93 Mission Specialist Cady Coleman suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the third time, during final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) dons her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman, and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

273

STS-104 MS Reilly has suit check during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist James F. Reilly is happy to be going through suit and fit check during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in Space Shuttle Atlantiss payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members participating are Commander Steven W. Lindsey, Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Janet Lynn Kavandi and Michael L. Gernhardt. The launch of Atlantis on mission STS-104 is scheduled no earlier than July 12 from Launch Pad 39B. The mission is the 10th flight to the International Space Station and carries the Joint Airlock Module.

2001-01-01

274

STS-100 MS Parazynski suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Smiling, STS-100 Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski gives thumbs up for launch as he suits up in the Operations and Checkout Building. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS, which will be performed by Parazynski and Mission Specialist Chris A. Hadfield. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

2001-01-01

275

STS-100 MS Hadfield suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - STS-100 Mission Specialist Chris A. Hadfield is ready for launch after suiting up in the Operations and Checkout Building. Hadfield is with the Canadian Space Agency. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

2001-01-01

276

STS-104 MS Kavandi has suit check during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi looks at nearby crew members during suit and fit check during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in Space Shuttle Atlantiss payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members participating are Commander Steven W. Lindsey, Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Michael L. Gernhardt and James F. Reilly. The launch of Atlantis on mission STS-104 is scheduled no earlier than July 12 from Launch Pad 39B. The mission is the 10th flight to the International Space Station and carries the Joint Airlock Module.

2001-01-01

277

STS-100 MS Lonchakov suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Smiling, STS-100 Mission Specialist Yuri V. Lonchakov waves as he suits up for launch in the Operations and Checkout Building. Lonchakov is with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

2001-01-01

278

STS-100 MS Guidoni suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Happy to be suiting up for launch, STS-100 Mission Specialist Umberto Guidoni gives thumbs up. Guidoni is with the European Space Agency. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

2001-01-01

279

The Winds-Ions-Neutral Composition Suite (WINCS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Winds-Ions-Neutral Composition Suite (WINCS) instrument was designed and developed jointly by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for ionosphere-thermosphere investigations in orbit between 120 and 550 km altitude. The three WINCS instruments are: the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer WTS, the Ion-Drift and ion temperature Spectrometer IDS, and the Neutral and Ion Mass Spectrometer NMS/IMS. The WINCS design provides the following measurements in a single package with a low Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP): 7.6 x 7.6 x 7.1 cm outer dimensions, 0.75 kg total mass, and <1 Watt total power: neutral winds, neutral temperature, neutral density, neutral composition, ion drifts, ion temperature, ion density and ion composition. This paper will provide an overview of the WINCS design.

Nicholas, A. C.; Herrero, F.; Finne, T. T.; Jones, H. H.

2010-12-01

280

Mission Specialist Smith is suited and ready for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith signals he is suited up and ready for launch. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

281

STS-78 Mission Specialist Charles E. Brady suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-78 Mission Specialist Charles E. Brady Jr. is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A spaceflight rookie, Brady was selected by NASA to join the astronaut corps in March 1992; he is a medical doctor who also is a commander in the U.S. Navy. Along with six fellow crew members, he will depart the O&C in a short while and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour launch window opening at 10:49 a.m. EDT, June 20. STS-78 will be an extended duration flight during which extensive research will be conducted in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) located in the payload bay.

1996-01-01

282

STS-81 Mission Specialist Jerry Linenger suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-81 Mission Specialist Jerry Linenger waves to the camera in his launch/entry suit and helmet in the suitup room of the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He is on his second Shuttle flight and has been an astronaut since 1992. Linenger will become a member of the Mir 22 crew and replace astronaut John Blaha on the Russian space station for a four-month stay after the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis docks with the orbital habitat on flight day 3. A medical doctor and an exercise buff, Linenger will conduct physiological experiments during his stay on Mir. He and five crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis will lift off during a 7-minute window that opens at 4:27 a.m. EST, January 12.

1997-01-01

283

STS-108 M.S. Godwin suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-108 M.S. Godwin suits up for launch KSC-01PD-1777 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-108 Mission Specialist Linda A. Godwin is relaxed and happy to be preparing for the second launch attempt of Space Shuttle Endeavour. The first attempt Dec. 4 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at KSC. The main goals of the mission are to carry the Expedition 4 crew to the International Space Station as replacement for Expedition 3; carry the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello filled with water, equipment and supplies; and install thermal blankets over equipment at the base of the ISS solar wings. STS-108 is the final Shuttle mission of 2001 and the 107th Shuttle flight overall. It is the 12th flight to the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for 5:19 p.m. EST Dec. 5, 2001, from Launch Pad 39B.

2001-01-01

284

STS-95 Payload Specialist John Glenn suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, smiles as he dons his flight suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

285

STS-99 Mission Specialist Mohri dons suit for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-99 Mission Specialist Mamoru Mohri of Japan smiles as he dons his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), STS-99 is scheduled for liftoff at 12:30 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. The mission is expected to last 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Tuesday, Feb. 22, at 4:36 p.m. EST. This is the 97th Shuttle flight and 14th for Shuttle Endeavour.

2000-01-01

286

STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), smiles as she dons her flight suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

287

STS-101 Commander Halsell suits up for third launch attempt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. smiles while he finishes suiting up before heading a third time to Launch Pad 39A and launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The previous two launch attempts were scrubbed due to high cross winds at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This is the third assembly flight to the Space Station. After the 10-day mission, Atlantis is expected to land at KSC May 6 at about 12:03 p.m. EDT

2000-01-01

288

STS-101 Pilot Horowitz suits up for second launch attempt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-101 Pilot Scott J. Horowitz smiles while he finishes suiting up before heading a second time to Launch Pad 39A for launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The previous day's launch attempt was scrubbed due to high cross winds at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. Liftoff is targeted for 3:52 p.m. EDT. The mission is expected to last about 10 days, with Atlantis landing at KSC Saturday, May 6, about 11:53 a.m. EDT.

2000-01-01

289

STS-92 Pilot Pam Melroy suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-92 Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy smiles during suit check before heading out to the Astrovan for the ride to Launch Pad 39A. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

2000-01-01

290

STS-83 Payload Commander Janice Voss suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-83 Payload Commander Janice Voss smiles as she is assisted into her launch/entry suit in the Operations and checkout (O&C) Building. She has flown on STS-63 and STS-57. Voss holds a doctorate degree in aeronautics/astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has earned two NASA Space Flight Medals. As Payload Commander and a member of the Blue team, Voss will have overall responsibility for the operation of all of the MSL-1 experiments. During the experimentation phase of the mission, she will be working primarily with three combustion experiments. She and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.

1997-01-01

291

STS-78 Payload Specialist Robert Brent Thirsk suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-78 Payload Specialist Robert Brent Thirsk is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A representative of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Thirsk is one of four spaceflight rookies flying on STS-78. He is a physician who also has a master's degree in mechanical engineering. In a short while, Thirsk and his six fellow crew members will depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour launch window opening at 10:49 a.m. EDT, June 20. STS-78 will be an extended duration flight during which extensive research will be conducted in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) located in the payload bay.

1996-01-01

292

STS-88 Mission Specialist James Newman suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-88 Mission Specialist James H. Newman takes part in a complete suit check before launch. Newman holds a toy dog, 'Pluto,' representing the crew nickname Dog Crew 3 and Newman's nickname, Pluto. Mission STS-88 is expected to launch at 3:56 a.m. EST with the six-member crew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Dec. 3. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module, which the crew will be mating with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. The mission is expected to last 11 days, 19 hours and 49 minutes, landing at 10:17 p.m. EST on Dec. 14.

1998-01-01

293

Linear Analysis and Verification Suite for Edge Turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The edge and scrape-off-layer region of a tokamak plasma is subject to well known resistive and ideal instabilities that are driven by various curvature- and sheath-related mechanisms. While the boundary plasma is typically strongly turbulent in experiments, it is useful to have computational tools that can analyze the linear eigenmode structure, predict quantitative trends in growth rates and elucidate and the underlying drive mechanisms. Furthermore, measurement of the linear growth rate of unstable modes emerging from a known, established equilibrium configuration provides one of the few quantitative ways of rigorously benchmarking large-scale plasma turbulence codes with each other and with a universal standard. In this report, a suite of codes that can describe linearized, nonlocal (e.g. separatrix-spanning) modes in axisymmetric (realistic divertor), toroidal geometry is discussed. Examples of several benchmark comparisons are given, and future development plans for a new eigenvalue edge code are presented.

Myra, J R; Umansky, M

2008-04-24

294

STS-89 M.S. Salizhan Shakirovich Sharipov suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-89 Mission Specialist Salizhan Sharipov of the Russian Space Agency, at left, waves as he and his flight surgeon, Alexander Kulev, complete the donning of Sharipov's launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. In 1994, Sharipov graduated from Moscow State University with a degree in cartography. He and six fellow crew members will soon depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour will lift off during a launch window that opens at 9:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22. STS-89 is the eighth of nine planned missions to dock the Space Shuttle with Russia's Mir space station.

1998-01-01

295

STS-87 Payload Specialist Leonid K. Kadenyuk suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-87 Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine gives a thumbs up in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and the five other crew members of STS-87will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Kadenyuk will be flying his first mission on STS-87. During the mission, Kadenyuk will pollinate Brassica rapa plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment, or CUE, aboard Columbia. The CUE experiment is a collection of 10 plant space biology experiments that will fly in Columbias middeck and features an educational component that involves evaluating the effects of microgravity on Brassica rapa seedlings.

1997-01-01

296

STS-96 Commander Kent Rominger suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-96 Commander Kent V. Rominger dons his launch and entry suit, plus helmet, during final launch preparations. STS-96 is a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction.. Space Shuttle Discovery is due to launch today at 6:49 a.m. EDT. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

297

An air bearing fan for EVA suit ventilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The portable life-support system (PLSS) ventilation requirements are outlined, along with the application of a high-speed axial fan technology for extravehicular-activity (EVA) space-suit ventilation. Focus is placed on a mechanical design employing high-speed gas bearings, permanent magnet rotor, and current-fed chopper/inverter electronics. The operational characteristics of the fan unit and its applicability for use in a pure-oxygen environment are discussed. It delivers a nominal 0.17 cu m/min at 1.24 kPa pressure rise using 13.8 w of input power. It is shown that the overall selection of materials for all major component meets the NASA requirements.

Murry, Roger P.

1990-01-01

298

Tobacco control implications of the first European product liability suit  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine tobacco control implication of the first European product liability suit in Finland. Methods: Systematic search of internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet and at the British American Tobacco Guildford Depository. Results: Despite legal loss, the litigation contributed to subsequent tobacco control legislation in Finland. The proceedings revealed that the industry had concealed the health hazards of its products and, despite indisputable evidence, continued to deny them. The positions taken by the industry rocked its reliability as a social actor and thus weakened its chances of influencing tobacco policy. Despite fierce opposition from the tobacco industry, tobacco products were included in the product liability legislation, tobacco was entered on the Finnish list of carcinogens, and an extensive Tobacco Act was passed in Parliament. Conclusions: Tobacco litigation might not stand alone as a tool for public health policymaking but it may well stimulate national debate over the role of smoking in society and influence the policy agenda.

Hiilamo, H

2005-01-01

299

STS-83 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-83 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He first flew in this capacity on STS-69. He has been a professional deep sea diver and engineer and holds a doctorate in bioengineering. Gernhardt will be in charge of the Blue shift and as flight engineer will operate and maintain the orbiter while Halsell and Still are asleep as members of the Red shift. He will also back them up on the flight deck during the ascent and re- entry phases of the mission. Gernhardt and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.

1997-01-01

300

STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the third time, in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS- 93 Commander Eileen M. Collins tries on her helmet with her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

301

STS-93 Commander Collins suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the third launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves while having her launch and entry suit checked. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

302

[Life support--from space suit to biosphere].  

PubMed

Systems supporting human life and survival range from small items like oxygen masks or protective suits to the global biosphere. However, in a long run, the former ones cannot work without proper functioning of the latter. A consequence for biomedical research is the challenge to more fully understand, and to take into account, complex ecophysiological systems interdependencies. The development of life support systems (LSS) as used in manned flight significantly contribute to our understanding of life on a grand scale. A "medium-sized" materially closed LSS model is Biosphere 2, which completely recycles waste, provides clean air, potable water, and nutrient-dense food to a crew of 8 for basically unlimited time. PMID:7909974

Hinghofer-Szalkay, H

1993-01-01

303

Physics Suite Thinking Problems: Heat, Temperature, and Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on the topic of heat and thermodynamics developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. The topics include specific heat, intensive and extensive variables, energy and heat, and the relationship between kinetic energy and temperature. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-22

304

STS-89 Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-89 Commander Terrence Wilcutt smiles as he completes the donning of his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. A veteran of two space flights, he has logged more than 512 hours in space. He served as pilot on STS-68 and STS-79. He and six fellow crew members will soon depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour will lift off during a launch window that opens at 9:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22. STS-89 is the eighth of nine planned missions to dock the Space Shuttle with Russia's Mir space station.

1998-01-01

305

STS-92 Mission Specialist Lopez-Alegria suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-92 Mission Specialist Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (right) is visited by astronaut Kent Rominger (left), who was recently named Commander of the STS-100 mission. Lopez-Alegria is getting suited up for launch on mission STS-92, scheduled for 8:05 p.m. EDT. The mission is the fifth flight for the construction of the ISS. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. During the 11-day mission, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the International Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth ISS flight and Lab installation on the seventh ISS flight. This launch is the second for Lopez-Alegria. Landing is expected Oct. 21 at 3:55 p.m. EDT.

2000-01-01

306

Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: For every one hour spent performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, astronauts in the US space program spend approximately six to ten hours training in the EVA spacesuit at NASA-Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL). In 1997, NASA introduced the planar hard upper torso (HUT) EVA spacesuit which subsequently replaced the existing pivoted HUT. An extra joint in the pivoted shoulder allows increased mobility but also increased complexity. Over the next decade a number of astronauts developed shoulder problems requiring surgical intervention, many of whom performed EVA training in the NBL. This study investigated whether changing HUT designs led to shoulder injuries requiring surgical repair. Methods: US astronaut EVA training data and spacesuit design employed were analyzed from the NBL data. Shoulder surgery data was acquired from the medical record database, and causal mechanisms were obtained from personal interviews Analysis of the individual HUT designs was performed as it related to normal shoulder biomechanics. Results: To date, 23 US astronauts have required 25 shoulder surgeries. Approximately 48% (11/23) directly attributed their injury to training in the planar HUT, whereas none attributed their injury to training in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT design limits shoulder abduction to 90 degrees compared to approximately 120 degrees in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT also forces the shoulder into a forward flexed position requiring active retraction and extension to increase abduction beyond 90 degrees. Discussion: Multiple factors are associated with mechanisms leading to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Limitations to normal shoulder mechanics, suit fit, donning/doffing, body position, pre-existing injury, tool weight and configuration, age, in-suit activity, and HUT design have all been identified as potential sources of injury. Conclusion: Crewmembers with pre-existing or current shoulder injuries or certain anthropometric body types should conduct NBL EVA training in the pivoted HUT.

Scheuring, R. A.; McCulloch, P.; Van Baalen, Mary; Minard, Charles; Watson, Richard; Blatt, T.

2011-01-01

307

Active Learning Suite: Simulation-Based E-learning Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Active Learning Suite (ALSuite) is a highly interactive simulation-based online learning system for SMET education and corporate training. It uses real-life situations and objects, such as those related to the home, automobiles, sports, and telecommunications as the context for science and technology investigations. ALSuite is comprised of Simulations, Virtual Experiments, Interactive Lessons, a scriptable and animated Instructor's Assistant, assessment, authoring and ancillary tools, and more. The current version of Active Learning Suite includes the following modules: Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Mobile Telephony Wired Telephony Golf Mechanics Fiber Optics Fundamentals of Wireless Communications The problems and virtual experiments in ALSuite are designed to challenge learners to develop effective problem-solving and critical thinking skills. This enables the learner to discover the connections between scientific theory and concepts and their practical applications in technology. ALSuite helps teachers meld advanced emerging technologies with science and inquiry content, processes, and skills to meet the National and State Science Education Standards, and the Benchmarks for Science Literacy.The ALSuite software implements technologies that can provide instructional opportunities in many ways, whether at a campus/school (traditional teaching), at home (warm-ups, post-class tasks, or self-learning), or through distance learning. ALSuite is intended for problem-based learning and "learning-by-doing," however, it can facilitate more traditional learning and teaching strategies as well.Educational software resources for thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, telecommunications, fiber optics, cellular/mobile phone, and wireless fundamentals curricula. As well as for introductory physics and principles of technology.

2009-11-04

308

Comparing apples and oranges: the Community Intercomparison Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual representation and comparison of geoscientific datasets presents a huge challenge due to the large variety of file formats and spatio-temporal sampling of data (be they observations or simulations). The Community Intercomparison Suite attempts to greatly simplify these tasks for users by offering an intelligent but simple command line tool for visualisation and colocation of diverse datasets. In addition, CIS can subset and aggregate large datasets into smaller more manageable datasets. Our philosophy is to remove as much as possible the need for specialist knowledge by the user of the structure of a dataset. The colocation of observations with model data is as simple as: "cis col ::" which will resample the simulation data to the spatio-temporal sampling of the observations, contingent on a few user-defined options that specify a resampling kernel. CIS can deal with both gridded and ungridded datasets of 2, 3 or 4 spatio-temporal dimensions. It can handle different spatial coordinates (e.g. longitude or distance, altitude or pressure level). CIS supports both HDF, netCDF and ASCII file formats. The suite is written in Python with entirely publicly available open source dependencies. Plug-ins allow a high degree of user-moddability. A web-based developer hub includes a manual and simple examples. CIS is developed as open source code by a specialist IT company under supervision of scientists from the University of Oxford as part of investment in the JASMIN superdatacluster facility at the Centre of Environmental Data Archival.

Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip; Pascoe, Stephen

2014-05-01

309

Mafic rocks of the Adirondack Highlands: One suite or many  

SciTech Connect

Mafic rocks in the granulite facies terrane of the Adirondack Highlands form at least 3 and possibly as many as 6 groups, based on field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria. Most abundant is the olivine metagabbro-amphibolite group (OMA), equivalent to the mafic suite'' of Olson (J. Petrol. 33:471, 1992). OMA occurs in irregular to tabular bodies, locally with intrusive relations, in all major rock types in the E and central Highlands. OMA is strongly olivine normative and forms a continuous differentiation series (Olson, 1992). Plagioclase-two pyroxene-garnet granulites (PGG) form dikes up to several m wide, in anorthositic host rocks. PGG are ferrogabbroic or ferrodioritic and approximately silica saturated. Two subgroups differ sharply in Mg, P, and trace elements. Ferrodiorite and monzodiorite gneisses (FMG), quartz normative and commonly migmatitic, occur in several large bodies in the NE Highlands and as extensive thin sheets in the W and SE Highlands, in association with anorthositic rocks. Three subgroups are distinguishable using Mg/Fe ratios and trace elements. Major element least-squares modeling suggests that both PGG and FMG could be derived by fractionation of gabbroic anorthosite liquids. A differentiation series is not evident, however, and both trace element (Ba, Rb, Sr, Zr and REE) data and normative plagioclase (An [>=] plag. in anorthosite) indicate a more complex origin. One subgroup of FMG may be early cumulates of the mangerite-charnockite suite. The chemistry of OMA, PGG, and FMG reflects their evolved nature and cannot be readily interpreted in terms of magma sources.

Whitney, P.R. (Geological Survey, Albany, NY (United States). New York State Museum)

1993-03-01

310

Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

2010-01-01

311

Development of a Precision Agriculture Tool Suite Using ArcPad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field collection of data for precision agriculture applications is well suited for a handheld computer connected to a GPS receiver. An integrated suite of data collection tools has been developed by the University of Kentucky based on ArcPad 6 technology using ArcPad Application Builder. The tool suite includes field boundary and feature mapping, crop scouting features, grid soil sampling

Benjamin K. Koostra; Timothy S. Stombaugh; Teri C. Dowdy

312

The Tenet real-time protocol suite: design, implementation, and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many future applications will require guarantees on network performance, such as bounds on throughput, delay, delay jitter, and reliability. To address this need, we have designed, simu- lated, and implemented a suite of network protocols to support real-time channels (network con- nections with mathematically provable performance guarantees). The protocols, which constitute the prototype Tenet Real-Time Protocol Suite ( Suite 1),

Anindo Banerjea; Domenico Ferrari; Bruce A. Mah; Mark Moran; Dinesh C. Verma; Hui Zhang

1996-01-01

313

Astronaut Scott Carpenter in Hanger S crew quarters during suiting activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 flight, is seen in Hanger S crew quarters during a preflight suiting activity at Cape Canaveral, Florida. He is assisted in suiting by technician Al Rochford. In this view, Carpenter is fully suited and is having his gloves adjusted.

1964-01-01

314

A suit calorimeter for energy balance studies on humans during heavy exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of the suit calorimeter originally developed in 1972 was used in combination with indirect respiratory calorimetry. The modification included increased cooling capacity of the suit by means of an increased density of cooling tubes and a variable water flow pump which permitted higher flow rates. This has made the suit calorimeter a very effective heat exchanger that could

Leif Hambræus; Anders Sjödin; Paul Webb; Anders Forslund; Katarina Hambræus; Torkel Hambræus

1994-01-01

315

Docear: an academic literature suite for searching, organizing and creating academic literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demonstration-paper we introduce Docear, an 'academic literature suite'. Docear offers to scientists what an office suite like Microsoft Office offers to office workers. While an office suite bundles various applications for office workers (word processing, spreadsheets, presentation software, etc.), Docear bundles several applications for scientists: academic search engine, PDF reader, reference manager, word processor, mind mapping module, and

Joeran Beel; Bela Gipp; Stefan Langer; Marcel Genzmehr

2011-01-01

316

+G(z) Protection Afforded by Standard and Preacceleration Inflations of the Bladder and Capstan Type G-Suits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Positive (+Gz) rapid onset acceleration tolerances were determined on 8 male subjects: without a G-suit, G-suit not inflated; and G-suit inflated. Three types of suits were used on each subject: standard bladder, CSU-12/P; and two types of capstan suits w...

M. J. Parkhurst R. R. Burton S. D. Leverett

1973-01-01

317

Philosophies Applied in the Selection of Space Suit Joint Range of Motion Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space suits are the most important tool for astronauts working in harsh space and planetary environments; suits keep crewmembers alive and allow them to perform exploration, construction, and scientific tasks on a routine basis over a period of several months. The efficiency with which the tasks are performed is largely dictated by the mobility features of the space suit. For previous space suit development programs, the mobility requirements were written as pure functional mobility requirements that did not separate joint ranges of motion from the joint torques. The Constellation Space Suit Element has the goal to make more quantitative mobility requirements that focused on the individual components of mobility to enable future suit designers to build and test systems more effectively. This paper details the test planning and selection process for the Constellation space suit pressure garment range of motion requirements.

Aitchison, Lindsway; Ross, Amy; Matty, Jennifer

2009-01-01

318

Using Piezoelectric Ceramics for Dust Mitigation of Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The particles that make up moon dust and Mars soil can be hazardous to an astronaut s health if not handled properly. In the near future, while exploring outer space, astronauts plan to wander the surfaces of unknown planets. During these explorations, dust and soil will cling to their space suits and become imbedded in the fabric. The astronauts will track moon dust and mars soil back into their living quarters. This not only will create a mess with millions of tiny air-born particles floating around, but will also be dangerous in the case that the fine particles are breathed in and become trapped in an astronaut s lungs. research center are investigating ways to remove these particles from space suits. This problem is very difficult due to the nature of the particles: They are extremely small and have jagged edges which can easily latch onto the fibers of the fabric. For the past summer, I have been involved in researching the potential problems, investigating ways to remove the particles, and conducting experiments to validate the techniques. The current technique under investigation uses piezoelectric ceramics imbedded in the fabric that vibrate and shake the particles free. The particles will be left on the planet s surface or collected a vacuum to be disposed of later. The ceramics vibrate when connected to an AC voltage supply and create a small scale motion similar to what people use at the beach to shake sand off of a beach towel. Because the particles are so small, similar to volcanic ash, caution must be taken to make sure that this technique does not further inbed them in the fabric and make removal more difficult. Only a very precise range of frequency and voltage will produce a suitable vibration. My summer project involved many experiments to determine the correct range. Analysis involved hands on experience with oscilloscopes, amplifiers, piezoelectrics, a high speed camera, microscopes and computers. perfect this technology. Someday, vibration to remove dust may a vital component to the space exploration program. In order to mitigate this problem, engineers and scientists at the NASA-Glenn Further research and experiments are planned to better understand and ultimately

Angel, Heather K.

2004-01-01

319

Species Differentiation of a Diverse Suite of Bacillus Spores by Mass Spectrometry-Based Protein Profiling  

PubMed Central

In this study, we demonstrate the versatility of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) protein profiling for the species differentiation of a diverse suite of Bacillus spores. MALDI-TOFMS protein profiles of 11 different strains of Bacillus spores, encompassing nine different species, were evaluated. Bacillus species selected for MALDI-TOFMS analysis represented the spore-forming bacterial diversity of typical class 100K clean room spacecraft assembly facilities. A one-step sample treatment and MALDI-TOFMS preparation were used to minimize the sample preparation time. A library of MALDI-TOFMS spectra was created from these nine Bacillus species, the most diverse protein profiling study of the genus reported to date. Linear correlation analysis was used to successfully differentiate the MALDI-TOFMS protein profiles from all strains evaluated in this study. The MALDI-TOFMS protein profiles were compared with 16S rDNA sequences for their bacterial systematics and molecular phylogenetic affiliations. The MALDI-TOFMS profiles were found to be complementary to the 16S rDNA analysis. Proteomic studies of Bacillus subtilis 168 were pursued to identify proteins represented by the biomarker peaks in the MALDI-TOFMS spectrum. Four small, acid-soluble proteins (A, B, C, and D), one DNA binding protein, hypothetical protein ymf J, and four proteins associated with the spore coat and spore coat formation (coat JB, coat F, coat T, and spoIVA) were identified. The ability to visualize higher-molecular-mass coat proteins (10 to 25 kDa) as well as smaller proteins (<10 kDa) with MALDI-TOFMS profiling is critical for the complete and effective species differentiation of the Bacillus genus.

Dickinson, Danielle N.; La Duc, Myron T.; Haskins, William E.; Gornushkin, Igor; Winefordner, James D.; Powell, David H.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2004-01-01

320

Hurricane forecasts using a suite of large-scale models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an account of the performance of a multimodel ensemble for real time forecasts of Atlantic tropical cyclones during 2004, 2005 and 2006. The Florida State University (FSU) superensemble is based on a suite of model forecasts and the interpolated official forecast that were received in real time at the National Hurricane Center. The FSU superensemble is a multimodel ensemble that utilizes forecasts from the member models by removing their individual biases based on a recent past history of their performances. This superensemble carries separate statistical weights for track and intensity forecasts for every 6 h of the member model forecasts. The real time results from 2004 show an improvement up to 15% for track forecasts and up to 11% for intensity forecasts for the superensemble compared to other models and consensus aids. During 2005, the superensemble intensity performance was best for most lead times. The consistency of the superensemble forecasts of track are also illustrated for several storms of 2004 season. The superensemble methodology produced impressive intensity forecasts for Rita and Wilma during 2005. The study shows the capability of the superensemble in predicting rapidly intensifying storms when most member models failed to capture their strengthening.

Krishnamurti, T. N.; Biswas, Mrinal K.; Mackey, Brian P.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ruscher, Paul H.

2011-08-01

321

STS-93 Mission Specialist Coleman suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) waves after donning her launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission. STS-93 is scheduled to lift off at 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. The target landing date is July 24 at 11:30 p.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

322

STS-103 Mission Specialist Smith suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After donning his launch and entry suit, sts-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith shows a positive attitude over the second launch attempt for Space Shuttle Discovery. The previous launch attempt on Dec. 17 was scrubbed about 8:52 p.m. due to numerous violations of weather launch commit criteria at KSC. Smith and other crew members Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Francois Clervoy of France are scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

323

MPScope: a versatile software suite for multiphoton microscopy.  

PubMed

MPScope is a software suite to control and analyze data from custom-built multiphoton laser scanning fluorescence microscopes. The acquisition program MPScan acquires, displays and stores movies, linescans, image stacks or arbitrary regions from up to four imaging channels and up to two analog inputs, while plotting the intensity of regions of interest in real-time. Bidirectional linescans allow 256 x 256 pixel frames to be acquired at up to 10 fps with typical galvanometric scanners. A fast stack mode combines movie acquisition with continuous z-focus motion and adjustment of laser intensity for constant image brightness. Fast stacks can be automated by custom programs running in an integrated scripting environment, allowing a 1 mm(3) cortical volume to be sampled in 1 billion voxels in approximately 1 h. The analysis program MPView allows viewing of stored frames, projections, automatic detection of cells and plotting of their average intensity across frames, direct frame transfer to Matlab, AVI movie creation and file export to ImageJ. The combination of optimized code, multithreading and COM (Common Object Model) technologies enables MPScope to fully take advantage of custom-built two-photon microscopes and to simplify their realization. PMID:16621010

Nguyen, Quoc-Thang; Tsai, Philbert S; Kleinfeld, David

2006-09-30

324

Performance of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

through the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program, in partnership with the National Aeronautical and Space Administration, launched the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, a risk reduction and data continuity mission, on 28 October 2011. The JPSS program is executing the S-NPP Calibration and Validation program to ensure that the data products comply with the requirements of the sponsoring agencies. The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) consists of two telescopes feeding three detectors measuring solar radiance scattered by the Earth's atmosphere directly and solar irradiance by using diffusers. The measurements are used to generate estimates of total column ozone and vertical ozone profiles for use in near-real-time applications and extension of ozone climate data records. The calibration and validation efforts are progressing well, and both Level 1 (Sensor Data Records) and Level 2 (Ozone Environmental Data Records) have advanced to release at Provisional Maturity. This paper provides information on the product performance over the first 22 months of the mission. The products are evaluated through the use of internal consistency analysis techniques and comparisons to other satellite instrument and ground-based products. The initial performance finds total ozone showing negative bias of 2 to 4% with respect to correlative products and ozone profiles often within ±5% in the middle and upper stratosphere of current operational products. Potential improvements in the measurements and algorithms are identified. These will be implemented in coming months to reduce the differences further.

Flynn, L.; Long, C.; Wu, X.; Evans, R.; Beck, C. T.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.; Yu, W.; Zhang, Z.; Niu, J.; Beach, E.; Hao, Y.; Pan, C.; Sen, B.; Novicki, M.; Zhou, S.; Seftor, C.

2014-05-01

325

STS-105 Commander Horowitz suits up for another launch attempt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-105 Commander Scott Horowitz is helped with his launch and entry suit for the second launch attempt after a 24-hour weather delay. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off at about 5:12 p.m. Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Launch is currently scheduled for 5:15 p.m. EDT Aug. 10. Highlighting the mission will be the rotation of the International Space Station crew, the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Included in the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS will be installed on the P6 truss, which holds the Station'''s giant U.S. solar arrays, batteries and the cooling radiators. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

2001-01-01

326

STS-99 Mission Specialist Voss suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-99 Mission Specialist Janice Voss (Ph.D.) smiles as she dons her launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, liftoff is scheduled for 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m. EST.

2000-01-01

327

STS-93 Mission Specialist Hawley suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) smiles after donning his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission. STS-93 is scheduled to lift off at 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. The target landing date is July 24 at 11:30 p.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

328

STS-99 Mission Specialist Thiele suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-99 Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele, who is with the European Space Agency, smiles as he dons his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, liftoff is scheduled for 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot- long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m. EST.

2000-01-01

329

The Scalable HeterOgeneous Computing (SHOC) Benchmark Suite  

SciTech Connect

Scalable heterogeneous computing systems, which are composed of a mix of compute devices, such as commodity multicore processors, graphics processors, reconfigurable processors, and others, are gaining attention as one approach to continuing performance improvement while managing the new challenge of energy efficiency. As these systems become more common, it is important to be able to compare and contrast architectural designs and programming systems in a fair and open forum. To this end, we have designed the Scalable HeterOgeneous Computing benchmark suite (SHOC). SHOC's initial focus is on systems containing graphics processing units (GPUs) and multi-core processors, and on the new OpenCL programming standard. SHOC is a spectrum of programs that test the performance and stability of these scalable heterogeneous computing systems. At the lowest level, SHOC uses microbenchmarks to assess architectural features of the system. At higher levels, SHOC uses application kernels to determine system-wide performance including many system features such as intranode and internode communication among devices. SHOC includes benchmark implementations in both OpenCL and CUDA in order to provide a comparison of these programming models.

Danalis, Antonios [ORNL] [ORNL; Marin, Gabriel [ORNL] [ORNL; McCurdy, Collin B [ORNL] [ORNL; Meredith, Jeremy S [ORNL] [ORNL; Roth, Philip C [ORNL] [ORNL; Spafford, Kyle L [ORNL] [ORNL; Tipparaju, Vinod [ORNL] [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

330

STS-94 Payload Commander Janice E. Voss suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-94 Payload Commander Janice Voss smiles and gives a thumbs-up as she is assisted into her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. She has flown on STS-83, STS-63 and STS-57. Voss holds a doctorate degree in aeronautics/astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has earned two NASA Space Flight Medals. As Payload Commander and a member of the Blue team, Voss will have overall responsibility for the operation of all of the MSL-1 experiments. During the experimentation phase of the mission, she be working primarily with three combustion experiments. She and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens that opens at 1:50 a.m. EDT, July 1. The launch window was opened 47 minutes early to improve the opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center.

1997-01-01

331

Background data collection suite for atmospheric remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developing algorithms for remote sensing of chemical and biological warfare agents, it is imperative to have a good understanding of the background radiance signal and environmental characteristics that influence detection. Factors such as thermal contrast, interferent atmospheric constituents, spatial clutter, and temporal variations should all be investigated for both the development and performance modeling of field sensors. To aid in the investigation of these topics as well as to provide data for current simulation tools, JHU/APL has constructed an automated data collection suite capable of simultaneous radiometric measurements in the longwave IR (8?m - 12?m) and midwave IR (3?m - 5?m) while also measuring a host of relevant atmospheric parameters. The primary radiometric sensor, an ABB Bomem MR304, is mounted on a pan/tilt system that is used to scan regions of interest while periodically generating calibration data. This paper describes the system design requirements, specifications of the individual components, and the overall system performance. In addition, data from field exercises are presented.

Lazarevich, A. K.; Oursler, D. A.; Baldwin, K. C.

2006-06-01

332

Shielding design for a PET imaging suite: a case study.  

PubMed

The introduction of positron emission tomography into the clinical environment presents the medical health physicist with another challenge to his/her shielding acumen. On one hand, elaborate models can be employed, but most of these are beyond the resources possessed by most institutions. On the other hand, one could perform the analysis using simplifying assumptions (e.g., point source geometry, with or without build-up). This kind of approach would likely overestimate the shielding requirements. Such over-design is not ALARA. In fact, over-design could place such tight engineering or cost constraints on a project as to make it untenable. Recently, this designer was faced with the need to design a PET imaging suite with both engineering and time constraints. This paper describes an approach using resources readily available to medical health physicists. By using the dimensions of the bottle manikin (BOMAB) phantom as a guide, a human-form source was developed. Combined with a point-kernel shielding code, the exposure environment was readily modeled and shielding recommendations developed. In addition, to validate the model, results from preoperational instrument surveys and integrating dosimeters are discussed. PMID:12751198

Methé, Brian M

2003-05-01

333

MEME Suite: tools for motif discovery and searching  

PubMed Central

The MEME Suite web server provides a unified portal for online discovery and analysis of sequence motifs representing features such as DNA binding sites and protein interaction domains. The popular MEME motif discovery algorithm is now complemented by the GLAM2 algorithm which allows discovery of motifs containing gaps. Three sequence scanning algorithms—MAST, FIMO and GLAM2SCAN—allow scanning numerous DNA and protein sequence databases for motifs discovered by MEME and GLAM2. Transcription factor motifs (including those discovered using MEME) can be compared with motifs in many popular motif databases using the motif database scanning algorithm Tomtom. Transcription factor motifs can be further analyzed for putative function by association with Gene Ontology (GO) terms using the motif-GO term association tool GOMO. MEME output now contains sequence LOGOS for each discovered motif, as well as buttons to allow motifs to be conveniently submitted to the sequence and motif database scanning algorithms (MAST, FIMO and Tomtom), or to GOMO, for further analysis. GLAM2 output similarly contains buttons for further analysis using GLAM2SCAN and for rerunning GLAM2 with different parameters. All of the motif-based tools are now implemented as web services via Opal. Source code, binaries and a web server are freely available for noncommercial use at http://meme.nbcr.net.

Bailey, Timothy L.; Boden, Mikael; Buske, Fabian A.; Frith, Martin; Grant, Charles E.; Clementi, Luca; Ren, Jingyuan; Li, Wilfred W.; Noble, William S.

2009-01-01

334

STS-93 Commander Collins waves after suiting up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves after donning her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

335

STS-93 Commander Collins suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins gets help donning her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

336

Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

2006-01-01

337

Calibration of the Solar Orbiter Energetic Particle Detector Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the current status and plans for the calibration of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite on ESA's Solar Orbiter mission. Solar Orbiter is scheduled to launch in January 2017, instrument delivery in January 2015. EPD consists of four sensors: the SupraThermal Electron and Proton (STEP) sensor covers electrons (protons) from 2 (3) keV up to 100 keV, the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) from 20 to 300 (7000) keV, the Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS) determines the ionic composition from ~0.05 to ~10 MeV/nuc (species dependent), and the High Energy Telescope (HET) measures electrons and protons (ions) from 0.3 to 30 and 10 to >100 MeV/nuc (20 - 200 MeV/nuc species dependent). EPT, HET, and SIS have two approximately opposite-facing fields of view, EPT, and HET share a common electronics box, two EPT/HET sensors allow the determination of second-order anisotropies (a total of 4 FoVs). Apart from the use of radioactive sources, STEP will be calibrated at the Kiel calibration facilities, EPT both at Kiel (electrons and low-energy protons) as well as at PTB in Braunschweig. SIS will undergo calibration at the LBL 88' cyclotron, HET at HIMAC in Chiba, Japan. Tests of the electron/protons discrimination of EPT show the expected behavior, HET prototypes have already been calibrated and the results will be shown.

Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Panitzsch, L.; Boettcher, S.; Mason, G. M.; Kohler, J.; Ho, G. C.; Boden, S.; Grunau, J.; Steinhagen, J.; Terasa, C.; Yu, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Blanco, J.

2013-12-01

338

Model for Predicting the Performance of Planetary Suit Hip Bearing Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a space suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. During the development period of the suit numerous design iterations need to occur before the hardware meets human performance requirements. Using computer models early in the design phase of hardware development is advantageous, by allowing virtual prototyping to take place. A virtual design environment allows designers to think creatively, exhaust design possibilities, and study design impacts on suit and human performance. A model of the rigid components of the Mark III Technology Demonstrator Suit (planetary-type space suit) and a human manikin were created and tested in a virtual environment. The performance of the Mark III hip bearing model was first developed and evaluated virtually by comparing the differences in mobility performance between the nominal bearing configurations and modified bearing configurations. Suited human performance was then simulated with the model and compared to actual suited human performance data using the same bearing configurations. The Mark III hip bearing model was able to visually represent complex bearing rotations and the theoretical volumetric ranges of motion in three dimensions. The model was also able to predict suited human hip flexion and abduction maximums to within 10% of the actual suited human subject data, except for one modified bearing condition in hip flexion which was off by 24%. Differences between the model predictions and the human subject performance data were attributed to the lack of joint moment limits in the model, human subject fitting issues, and the limited suit experience of some of the subjects. The results demonstrate that modeling space suit rigid segments is a feasible design tool for evaluating and optimizing suited human performance. Keywords: space suit, design, modeling, performance

Cowley, Matthew S.; Margerum, Sarah; Hharvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2012-01-01

339

VOLCWORKS: A suite for optimization of hazards mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making hazards maps is a process linking basic science, applied science and engineering for the benefit of the society. The methodologies for hazards maps' construction have evolved enormously together with the tools that allow the forecasting of the behavior of the materials produced by different eruptive processes. However, in spite of the development of tools and evolution of methodologies, the utility of hazards maps has not changed: prevention and mitigation of volcanic disasters. Integration of different tools for simulation of different processes for a single volcano is a challenge to be solved using software tools including processing, simulation and visualization techniques, and data structures in order to build up a suit that helps in the construction process starting from the integration of the geological data, simulations and simplification of the output to design a hazards/scenario map. Scientific visualization is a powerful tool to explore and gain insight into complex data from instruments and simulations. The workflow from data collection, quality control and preparation for simulations, to achieve visual and appropriate presentation is a process that is usually disconnected, using in most of the cases different applications for each of the needed processes, because it requires many tools that are not built for the solution of a specific problem, or were developed by research groups to solve particular tasks, but disconnected. In volcanology, due to its complexity, groups typically examine only one aspect of the phenomenon: ash dispersal, laharic flows, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and ballistic projectile ejection, among others. However, when studying the hazards associated to the activity of a volcano, it is important to analyze all the processes comprehensively, especially for communication of results to the end users: decision makers and planners. In order to solve this problem and connect different parts of a workflow we are developing the suite VOLCWORKS, whose principle is to have a flexible-implementation architecture allowing rapid development of software to the extent specified by the needs including calculations, routines, or algorithms, both new and through redesign of available software in the volcanological community, but especially allowing to include new knowledge, models or software transferring them to software modules. The design is component-oriented platform, which allows incorporating particular solutions (routines, simulations, etc.), which can be concatenated for integration or highlighting information. The platform includes a graphical interface with capabilities for working in different visual environments that can be focused to the particular work of different types of users (researchers, lecturers, students, etc.). This platform aims to integrate simulation and visualization phases, incorporating proven tools (now isolated). VOLCWORKS can be used under different operating systems (Windows, Linux and Mac OS) and fit the context of use automatically and at runtime: in both tasks and their sequence, such as utilization of hardware resources (CPU, GPU, special monitors, etc.). The application has the ability to run on a laptop or even in a virtual reality room with access to supercomputers.

Delgado Granados, H.; Ramírez Guzmán, R.; Villareal Benítez, J. L.; García Sánchez, T.

2012-04-01

340

Assessing the effectiveness of Defensive Aids Suite technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern anti-tank weapons and the requirement of rapid deployment have significantly reduced the quantity and effectiveness of passive armor in protecting land vehicles. This new development has led to replacing the main battle tank by a light armored vehicle with at least the same level of survivability achievable by advances in sensor, computer and countermeasure technology to detect, identify and defeat potential threats. The integration of various technologies into a Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) can be designed and analyzed by combining field trials and laboratory data with modeling and simulation. This complementary approach will also make an optimal use of available resources and encourage collaboration with other researchers working towards a common goal. This modeling capability can be easily transferred to other researchers in the field by using a quick prototyping environment such as MATLAB. The code generated from MATLAB will be used for further analysis in an operational research simulator such as ModSAF. Once calibrated with a previous trial, ModSAF will be used to plan future trials. An important feature of ModSAF is the use of scripted input files to plan and implement a fixed battle based on accepted doctrine and tactics. Survivability of a DAS-equipped vehicle can be assessed relative to a basic vehicle without a DAS. In later stages, more complete DAS systems will be analyzed to determine the optimum configuration of the DAS components and the effectiveness of a DAS-equipped vehicle for a particular mission. These concepts and approach will be discussed in the paper.

Rapanotti, John L.; DeMontigny-Leboeuf, Annie; Palmarini, Marc; Cantin, Andre

2001-09-01

341

Bioassay of thermal protection afforded by candidate flight suit fabrics.  

PubMed

The United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) porcine cutaneous bioassay technique was used to determine what mitigating effect four thermally protective flight suit fabrics would have on fire-induced skin damage. The fabrics were 4.8-ox twill weave Nomex aramide, 4.5-oz stabilized twill weave polybenzimidazole, 4.8-oz plain weave experimental high-temperature polymer (HT4), and 4.8-oz plain weave Nomex aramide (New Weave Nomex or NWN). Each fabric sample was assayed 20 times in each of four configurations: as a single layer in contact with the skin; as a single layer with a 6.35 mm (0.25 in) air gap between fabric and skin; in conjuction with a cotton T-shirt with no air gaps; and, finally, in conjuction with a T-shirt with a 6.35 mm air gap between T-shirt and fabric. Bare skin was used as a control. A JP-4 fueled furnace was used as a thermal source and was adjested to deliver a mean heat flux of 3.07 cal/cm2/s. The duration of exposure was 5 s. Four hundred burn sites were graded using clinical observation and microscopic techniques. Used as single layers, none of the fabrics demonstrated superiority in providing clinically significant protection. When used with a cotton T-shirt, protection was improved. Protection improved progressively for all fabrics and configuration when an air gap was introduced. The experimental high-temperature polymer consistently demonstrated lower heat flux transmission in all configurations, but did not significantly reduce clinical burns. PMID:518445

Knox, F S; Wachtel, T L; McCahan, G R

1979-10-01

342

Developing defensive aids suite technology on a virtual battlefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment are limiting the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. The integration of various technologies into a Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) can be designed and analyzed by combining field trials and laboratory data with modeling and simulation. MATLAB is used as a quick prototyping tool to model DAS systems and facilitate transfer to other researchers. The DAS model can be transferred from MATLAB or programmed directly in ModSAF (Modular Semi-Automated Forces), which is used to construct the virtual battlefield. Through scripted input files, a fixed battle approach ensures implementation and analysis meeting the requirements of three different interests. These three communities include the scientists and engineers, military and operations research. This approach ensures the modelling of processes known to be important regardless of the level of information available about the system. A system can be modelled phenomenologically until more information is available. Further processing of the simulation can be used to optimize the vehicle for a specific mission. ModSAF will be used to analyze and plan trials and develop DAS technology for future vehicles. Survivability of a DAS-equipped vehicle can be assessed relative to a basic vehicle without a DAS. In later stages, more complete DAS systems will be analyzed to determine the optimum configuration of the DAS components and the effectiveness of a DAS-equipped vehicle for specific missions. These concepts and approach will be discussed in the paper.

Rapanotti, John L.; DeMontigny-Leboeuf, Annie; Palmarini, Marc; Cantin, Andre

2002-07-01

343

An evaluation of three anti-G suit concepts for shuttle reentry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to compare the standard anti-G launch-entry suit (LES) with a reentry full-coverage anti-G suit (REAGS) and a REAGS without an abdominal bladder (AB). (The inflated AB is the most uncomfortable G-suit component). Intravenous Lasix, a diuretic, was used to induce the fluid loss seen during space flight. Using the Armstrong Laboratory Centrifuge, data collected from seven subjects have shown that less anti-G suit pressure is required to maintain eye-level systolic blood pressure above 70 mmHg when the REAGS or REAGS without AB is worn during simulated shuttle reentry G-profiles when compared to the current LES G-suit. The REAGS without AB was significantly more comfortable than the standard anti-G suit.

Krutz, R. W., Jr.; Burton, R. R.; Sawin, C. F.

1992-01-01

344

Navy-developed life support systems for fully enclosed protective suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and performance of an environmental control unit capable of supporting a man in an impermeable suit at ambient temperatures up to 140 F for periods of up to two hrs is reported. The basic suit operation consists of cooling by wet ice contained in a suitcase. The system is designed to circulate and cool the air within the suit, to remove excess moisture and carbon dioxide, and to maintain a safe oxygen level.

Orner, G. M.; Audet, N. F.

1972-01-01

345

Back view of test subject modeling uprated Apollo A6L pressure suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Back view of test subject modeling the uprated Apollo A6L pressure suit manufactured by International Latex Corporation, under contract to NASA. The suit incorporates changes recommended by the Apollo Review Board. The outer surface is of Beta fabric. The patches on shoulders, elbows, knees and back are of metal fiber cloth. The Beta fabric is made by Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation. The nylon fabric used in the suit was made by Dupont.

1967-01-01

346

Reducing the Size of the Test Suite by Genetic Algorithm and Concept Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Test-suite reduction can provide us with a smaller set of test cases that preserve the original coverageoften a dramatically\\u000a smaller set. One potential drawback with test suite reduction is that this might affect the quality of the test suite in terms\\u000a of fault finding the problem and determine its effect when testing. Based on observations from our previous experimental studies

S. Selvakumar; M. R. C. Dinesh; C. Dhineshkumar; N. Ramaraj

347

Development and use of an air-cooled suit for work in nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use and problems associated with an air-supplied hot-entry suit are described. The suit enables inspection and maintenance staff to enter environments of 60C for prolonged periods of time. A description of the suit, the operating procedures and safety precautions are given. A garment for entry into 80C environments and which is suitable for maintenance work involving welding is being

G. FEATHERSTONE

1988-01-01

348

Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the NASA Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on detailed results of the testing that has been conducted under this test series thus far.

McFarland, Shane M.

2011-01-01

349

The Walkback Test: A Study to Evaluate Suit and Life Support System Performance Requirements for a 10 Kilometer Traverse in a Planetary Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As planetary suit and planetary life support systems develop, specific design inputs for each system relate to a presently unanswered question concerning operational concepts: What distance can be considered a safe walking distance for a suited EVA crew member exploring the surface of the Moon to "walk-back" to the habitat in the event of a rover breakdown, taking into consideration the planned EVA tasks as well as the possible traverse back to the habitat? It has been assumed, based on Apollo program experience, that 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) will be the maximum EVA excursion distance from the lander or habitat to ensure the crew member s safe return to the habitat in the event of a rover failure. To investigate the feasibility of performing a suited 10 km Walkback, NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to design and implement the Lunar Walkback Test . The test was designed not only to determine the feasibility of a 10 km excursion, but also to collect human performance, biomedical, and biomechanical data relevant to optimizing space suit design and life support system sizing. These data will also be used to develop follow-on studies to understand interrelationships of such key parameters as suit mass, inertia, suit pressure, and center of gravity (CG), and the respective influences of each on human performance.

Vos, Jessica R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lee, Lesley

2007-01-01

350

Spherical Coordinate Systems for Streamlining Suited Mobility Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When describing human motion, biomechanists generally report joint angles in terms of Euler angle rotation sequences. However, there are known limitations in using this method to describe complex motions such as the shoulder joint during a baseball pitch. Euler angle notation uses a series of three rotations about an axis where each rotation is dependent upon the preceding rotation. As such, the Euler angles need to be regarded as a set to get accurate angle information. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to visualize and understand these complex motion representations. One of our key functions is to help design engineers understand how a human will perform with new designs and all too often traditional use of Euler rotations becomes as much of a hindrance as a help. It is believed that using a spherical coordinate system will allow ABF personnel to more quickly and easily transmit important mobility data to engineers, in a format that is readily understandable and directly translatable to their design efforts. Objectives: The goal of this project is to establish new analysis and visualization techniques to aid in the examination and comprehension of complex motions. Methods: This project consisted of a series of small sub-projects, meant to validate and verify the method before it was implemented in the ABF's data analysis practices. The first stage was a proof of concept, where a mechanical test rig was built and instrumented with an inclinometer, so that its angle from horizontal was known. The test rig was tracked in 3D using an optical motion capture system, and its position and orientation were reported in both Euler and spherical reference systems. The rig was meant to simulate flexion/extension, transverse rotation and abduction/adduction of the human shoulder, but without the variability inherent in human motion. In the second phase of the project, the ABF estimated the error inherent in a spherical coordinate system, and evaluated how this error would vary within the reference frame. This stage also involved expanding a kinematic model of the shoulder, to include the torso, knees, ankle, elbows, wrists and neck. Part of this update included adding a representation of 'roll' about an axis, for upper arm and lower leg rotations. The third stage of the project involved creating visualization methods to assist in interpreting motion in a spherical frame. This visualization method will be incorporated in a tool to evaluate a database of suited mobility data, which is currently in development.

Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew S.; Harvill. Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

351

Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or ˜1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comprobable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability, and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit.

Doerr, DonaldF.

2001-08-01

352

Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or approximately 1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comparable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Doerr, D. F.

2001-01-01

353

Physiological and engineering study of advanced thermoregulatory systems for extravehicular space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations of thermal control for extravehicular space suits are reported. The characteristics of independent cooling of temperature and removal of excess heat from separate regions of the body, and the applications of heat pipes in protective suits are discussed along with modeling of the human thermal system.

Chato, J. C.; Hertig, B. A.

1972-01-01

354

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2013-10-01

355

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Instrument Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energetic particle, Composition, and Thermal plasma (ECT) instrument suite was selected recently by NASA as part of the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission. In this presentation, we summarize the RBSP-ECT science investigation. The ECT suite contains a well-proven complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements in the inner magnetosphere. The coordinated ECT particle measurements, analyzed

H. E. Spence; E. Kepko; G. Reeves; H. Funsten; M. Thomsen; M. Henderson; R. Friedl; R. Skoug; V. Jordanova; J. Fennell; J. B. Blake; J. Clemmons; T. O'Brien; J. Green; T. Onsager; S. Elkington; D. Baker; X. Li; J. Goldstein; D. Young; J. Jahn; R. Thorne; M. Hudson; R. Horne; S. Bourdarie; I. Mann

2006-01-01

356

Evaluation of the Operator Protection Factors Offered by Positive Pressure Air Suits against Airborne Microbiological Challenge  

PubMed Central

Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories.

Steward, Jackie A.; Lever, Mark S.

2012-01-01

357

Describing the NPOESS Preparatory Project Visible\\/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Environmental Data Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Visible\\/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the instruments that make up the suite of sensors on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) scheduled to launch in 2010. VIIRS will produce seven Environmental Data Records (EDRs) describing cloud properties. The VIIRS Cloud EDRs include the Cloud Optical Thickness (COT), Cloud Effective Particle Size Parameter (CEPS), Cloud Top Pressure (CTP),

C. Hoffman; B. Guenther; H. Kilcoyne; G. Mineart; K. St. Germain; B. Reed

2008-01-01

358

40 CFR 2.214 - Defense of Freedom of Information Act suits; participation by affected business.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Defense of Freedom of Information Act suits; participation...Business Information § 2.214 Defense of Freedom of Information Act suits; participation...and EPA is sued by a requester under the Freedom of Information Act for disclosure of...

2013-07-01

359

Towards the integration of textile sensors in a wireless monitoring suit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present textile sensors for the equipment of a wireless monitoring suit. The suit is intended for the monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration rate of children in a hospital environment. Special attention is given to the dedicated sensor interface circuits. The sensors, which are entirely fabricated out of textile, are integrated in a prototype belt of

M. Catrysse; R. Puers; C. Hertleer; L. Van Langenhove; H. van Egmond; D. Matthys

2004-01-01

360

The Geant4 Hadronic Verification Suite for the Cascade Energy Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Geant4 hadronic process verification suite has been designed to test and optimize Geant4 hadronic models in the cascade energy range. It focuses on quantities relevant to the LHC radiation environment and spallation source targets. The general structure of the suite is presented, including the user interface, stages of verification, management of experimental data, event generation, and comparison of results

V N Ivanchenko; G. Folger; J. P. Wellisch; T. Koi; D. H. Wright

2003-01-01

361

CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with the EM-ACES demonstrating slightly better CO2 washout than the REI suit, but not statistically significant. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future ground testing in the REI and EM-ACES.

Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

2011-01-01

362

Checkout and Standard Use Procedures for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational pressure range is the range to which the suit can be nominally operated for manned testing. The top end of the nominal operational pressure range is equivalent to 1/2 the proof pressure. Structural pressure is 1.5 times the specified test pressure for any given test. Proof pressure is the maximum unmanned pressure to which the suit was tested by the vendor prior to delivery. The maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 90% of the proof pressure. The pressure systems RVs are set to keep components below their MAWPs. If the suit is pressurized over its MAWP, the suit will be taken out of service and an in-depth inspection/review of the suit will be performed before the suit is put back in service. The procedures outlined in this document should be followed as written. However, the suit test engineer (STE) may make redline changes real-time, provided those changes are recorded in the anomaly section of the test data sheet. If technicians supporting suit build-up, check-out, and/or test execution believe that a procedure can be improved, they should notify their lead. If procedures are incorrect to the point of potentially causing hardware damage or affecting safety, bring the problem to the technician lead and/or STE s attention and stop work until a solution (temporary or permanent) is authorized. Certain steps in the procedure are marked with a DV , for Designated Verifier. The Designated Verifier for this procedure is an Advanced Space Suit Technology Development Laboratory technician, not directly involved in performing the procedural steps, who will verify that the step was performed as stated. The steps to be verified by the DV were selected based on one or more of the following criteria: the step was deemed significant in ensuring the safe performance of the test, the data recorded in the step is of specific interest in monitoring the suit system operation, or the step has a strong influence on the successful completion of test objectives. Prior to all manned test activities, Advanced Suit Test Data Sheet (TDS) Parts A-E shall be completed to verify system and team are ready for test. Advanced Suit TDS Parts F-G shall be completed at the end of the suited activity. Appendix B identifies tha appropriate Mark III suit emergency event procedures.

Valish, Dana J.

2012-01-01

363

Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

1977-01-01

364

Integrated Suit Test 1 - A Study to Evaluate Effects of Suit Weight, Pressure, and Kinematics on Human Performance during Lunar Ambulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to design the next generation Lunar suit, NASA has initiated a series of tests aimed at understanding the human physiological and biomechanical affects of space suits under a variety of conditions. The first of these tests was the EVA Walkback Test (ICES 2007-01-3133). NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to conduct the second test of the series, titled Integrated Suit Test 1 (IST-1), from March 6 through July 24, 2007. Similar to the Walkback Test, this study was performed with the Mark III (MKIII) EVA Technology Demonstrator suit, a treadmill, and the Partial Gravity Simulator in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. The data collected for IST-1 included metabolic rates, ground reaction forces, biomechanics, and subjective workload and controllability feedback on both suited and unsuited (shirt-sleeve) astronaut subjects. For IST-1 the center of gravity was controlled to a nearly perfect position while the weight, pressure and biomechanics (waist locked vs. unlocked) were varied individually to evaluate the effects of each on the ability to perform level (0 degree incline) ambulation in simulated Lunar gravity. The detailed test methodology and preliminary key findings of IST-1 are summarized in this report.

Gernhardt, Michael L.; Norcross, Jason; Vos, Jessica R.

2008-01-01

365

The effect of drag suit training on 50-m freestyle performance.  

PubMed

Little research has evaluated the effects of drag suit training in swimming; these effects need to be explored further to optimize their use in training. For this 5-week training study, 18 subjects were divided evenly into 2 groups: control group and drag suit-trained group. Both groups performed weekly training routines that included 3 sprint sets. These sprint sets were performed by both the groups; however, the drag suit training group wore the drag suit, and the control group wore their typical training attire. We evaluated the swimmers' 50-m performance using a test set of six 50-m sprints on a 10-minute interval before and after the training program. The test set was performed twice (on 2 different days) where the swimmers were tested once in the drag suit and once in their regular training attire; the order of testing was randomized. Final time, stroke rate, and distance per stroke were collected. We observed that the drag suit-trained group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in distance per stoke while wearing the drag suit and the control group showed a significant increase in stroke rate and decrease in distance per stroke (in both suits). It is suggested to include some amounts of drag suit training in periods where swimming volume may decrease. Sets that are short in distance and performed at high intensity with sufficient rest to allow swimmers to maintain high stroke integrity should help athletes maintain techniques. We suggest incorporating the drag suit into the training regimen and should be considered a valuable resistive training device for swimming. PMID:22371092

Dragunas, Andrew J; Dickey, James P; Nolte, Volker W

2012-04-01

366

The Apollo Number: Space Suits, Self-Support, and the Walk-Run Transition  

PubMed Central

Background How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (<0.5 g), running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. Methodology/Principal Findings The walk-run transition (denoted *) correlates with the Froude Number (Fr?=?v2/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L). Human unsuited Fr* is relatively constant (?0.5) with gravity but increases substantially with decreasing gravity below ?0.4 g, rising to 0.9 in 1/6 g; space suits appear to lower Fr*. Because of pressure forces, space suits partially (1 g) or completely (lunar-g) support their own weight. We define the Apollo Number (Ap?=?Fr/M) as an expected invariant of locomotion under manipulations of M, the ratio of human-supported to total transported mass. We hypothesize that for lunar suited conditions Ap* but not Fr* will be near 0.9, because the Apollo Number captures the effect of space suit self-support. We used the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal and other sources to identify 38 gait events during lunar exploration for which we could determine gait type (walk/lope/run) and calculate Ap. We estimated the binary transition between walk/lope (0) and run (1), yielding Fr* (0.36±0.11, mean±95% CI) and Ap* (0.68±0.20). Conclusions/Significance The Apollo Number explains 60% of the difference between suited and unsuited Fr*, appears to capture in large part the effects of space suits on the walk-run transition, and provides several testable predictions for space suit locomotion and, of increasing relevance here on Earth, exoskeleton locomotion. The knowledge of how space suits affect gait transitions can be used to optimize space suits for use on the Moon and Mars.

Carr, Christopher E.; McGee, Jeremy

2009-01-01

367

CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future ground testing in the REI-suit and EM-ACES.

Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

2012-01-01

368

Hazard Analysis for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Used in One-g Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Hazard Analysis document encompasses the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) and associated ancillary equipment. It has been prepared using JSC17773, "Preparing Hazard Analyses for JSC Ground Operation", as a guide. The purpose of this document is to present the potential hazards involved in ground (23 % maximum O2, One-g) operations of the Mark III and associated ancillary support equipment system. The hazards listed in this document are specific to suit operations only; each supporting facility (Bldg. 9, etc.) is responsible for test specific Hazard Analyses. A "hazard" is defined as any condition that has the potential for harming personnel or equipment. This analysis was performed to document the safety aspects associated with manned use of the Mark III for pressurized and unpressurized ambient, ground-based, One-g human testing. The hazards identified herein represent generic hazards inherent to all standard JSC test venues for nominal ground test configurations. Non-standard test venues or test specific configurations may warrant consideration of additional hazards analysis prior to test. The cognizant suit engineer is responsible for the safety of the astronaut/test subject, space suit, and suit support personnel. The test requester, for the test supported by the suit test engineer and suited subject, is responsible for overall safety and any necessary Test Readiness Reviews (TRR).

Mitchell, Kate; Ross, Amy; Blanco, Raul; Wood, Art

2012-01-01

369

The DaCHS Multi-protocol VO Server  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GAVO's Data Center Helper Suite (DaCHS) is a suite of tools for publishing data to the Virtual Observatory. It implements all major VO protocols (SCS, SIAP, SSAP, TAP, OAI-PMH). The integrated management and ingestion component allow defining metadata, structure, and services once and re-use the definition throughout the publication cycle from initial metadata aquisition to registry record generation. It has been driving GAVO's data center since 2008 and is now deployed in multiple locations around the globe. This poster briefly describes the design of the system as well as a bird's-eye view of data publishing with DaCHS.

Demleitner, M.

2014-05-01

370

Skin Temperatures During Unaided Egress: Unsuited and While Wearing the NASA Launch and Entry or Advanced Crew Escape Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two flight suits currently worn by crew members during Shuttle launch and landing, the Launch and Entry Suit (LES) and the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), are designed to protect crew members in the case of emergency. Although the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) worn under the flight suits was designed to counteract the heat storage of the suits, the suits may increase thermal stress and limit the astronaut's egress capabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess the thermal loads experienced by crew members during a simulated emergency egress before and after spaceflight. Comparisons of skin temperatures were made between the preflight unsuited and suited conditions. between the pre- and postflight suited conditions, and between the two flight suits.

Woodruff, Kristin K.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.

2000-01-01

371

Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of US andRussian EVA Suits  

SciTech Connect

Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc.(ERI) participationin the NASA Johnson Space Center sponsored studycharacterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types ofspace suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assemblyof the International Space Station (ISS). Measurements using passivedetectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the USEMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suitsand a tissue equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electronbeams at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Duringirradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as afunction of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of thetwo suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reductionin electron dosewas measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to anincrease in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeVproton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs atfive organ locations inside a tissue equivalent phantom, exposed bothwith and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13 to 27percent reduction in total dose and a 0 to 25 percent reduction in doseequivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone.Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suitirradiations forthe lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to besmaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be asignificant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within thetwo EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-Mhelmets was 2 to 14 percent greater than that measured in the barephantom head.

Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

2001-10-26

372

Helicopter pilot suits for offshore application. A survey of thermal comfort and ergonomic design.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the existing problems associated with helicopter pilot survival suits currently in use. A survey was conducted of helicopter pilots from both Canadian commercial and military disciplines. Pilots commented on eight different types of survival suits. Reduced thermal comfort as well as lack of ventilation were the two most common criticisms of the pilot suits. The 'greenhouse' effect, common to helicopter cockpits, results in hot working ambients both in summer and winter. The air cooling mechanisms employed in summer may cause a 'chilling' effect following an on-ground stand-by where cockpit temperatures may reach 40 degrees C. Thermal stress may also be induced with high cockpit temperatures caused by the sun's radiation in winter and summer. Suit design was another area considered. 72% and 86% of military and commercial pilots respectively felt their freedom of movement was hindered by their survival suits. Certain designs were considered more hazardous than others with regard to clips and hooks catching switches on the control panel. Difficulty in donning suits appeared to be a universal problem irrespective of type of suit used. Lack of comfort and movement in addition to thermal stress may lead to reduced time to fatigue and, thus, occurrence of errors and accidents. The results of this survey reflect the inadequacies of the helicopter pilot survival suits presently in use. It is suggested that evaluation of these suits be made on the basis of their ventilation capabilities, ergonomic design and thermal properties in a variety of ambient environments. PMID:15676618

Gaul, C A; Mekjavic, I B

1987-06-01

373

Work and Fatigue Characteristics of Unsuited and Suited Humans During Isolated, Isokinetic Joint Motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of a pressurized suit on human performance were investigated. The suit is known as an Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) and is worn by astronauts while working outside of their space craft in low earth orbit. Isolated isokinetic joint torques of three female and three male subjects (all experienced users of the suit) were measured while working at 100% and 80% of their maximum voluntary torque (MVT). It was found that the average decrease in the total amount of work done when the subjects were wearing the EMU was 48% and 41% while working at 100% and 80% MVT, respectively. There is a clear relationship between the MVT and the time and amount of work done until fatigue. In general the stronger joints took longer to fatigue and did more work than the weaker joints. However, it is not clear which joints are most affected by the EMU suit in terms of the amount of work done. The average amount of total work done increased by 5.2% and 20.4% for the unsuited and suited cases, respectively, when the subject went from working at 100% to 80% MVT. Also, the average time to fatigue increased by 9.2% and 25.6% for the unsuited and suited cases, respectively, when the subjects went from working at 100% to 80% MVT. The EMU also decreased the joint range of motion. It was also found that the experimentally measured torque decay could be predicted by a logarithmic equation. The absolute average error in the predictions was found to be 18.3% and 18.9% for the unsuited and suited subject, respectively, working at 100% MVT, and 22.5% and 18.8% for the unsuited and suited subject, respectively, working at 80% MVT. These results could be very useful in the design of future EMU suits, and planning of Extra-Vehicular Activit). (EVA) for the upcoming International Space Station assembly operations.

Gonzalez, L. Javier; Maida, James C.; Miles, Erica H.; Rajulu, S. L.; Pandya, A. K.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

374

Remelting and Remobilization in a Magmatic Arc: the St Peter Suite, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermo-mechanical models of magmatic arcs suggest that intermittent intrusion of magma batches should lead to remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks as a result of fluctuations in temperature and water content. However, examples of remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks, formed during arc-building, are surprisingly rare. We investigate the evolution of magmatic rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic St Peter Suite, in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. This suite records multiple intrusions, magma hybridization, and the remelting and remobilization of these intrusions to form migmatites and newly-formed leucocratic magmas. In this paper we detail first how multiple magma batches interact with one another as liquids and mushes during syn-magmatic deformation phases, and then detail the nature of migmatites resulting from anatexis of these same magmatic rocks and the resulting channel ways that allowed for magma remobilization. LA-ICP/MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded crystallization ages of 1647±12 Ma for an early diorite-to-granite suite, and 1604±12 Ma for a later magmatic suite of broadly similar composition. Both these suites underwent anatectic events. Titanite from late-formed leucosomes found within D2 shear zones in the older suite, yielded SHRIMP U/Pb age of 1605±7 Ma, within error of the age of the younger suite. We therefore infer that intrusion, crystallization and remelting/remobilization of this younger suite of rocks occurred within 10-15 M.yr. Thus, the St Peter Suite exposures record many of the key processes expected in arcs, including the prediction that early intrusive arc rocks remelt to form younger more fractionated magmas.

Symington, Neil; Weinberg, Roberto; Hasalová, Pavlina

2014-05-01

375

Argon used as dry suit insulation gas for cold-water diving  

PubMed Central

Background Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection should be based on physical activity, the temperature of the water, and the duration of exposure. A dry suit, a diving suit filled with gas, is the most common diving suit in cold water. Air is the traditional dry suit inflation gas, whereas the thermal conductivity of argon is approximately 32% lower compared to that of air. This study evaluates the benefits of argon, compared to air, as a thermal insulation gas for a dry suit during a 1-h cold-water dive by divers of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Methods Seven male Special Forces divers made (in total) 19 dives in a diving basin with water at 13°C at a depth of 3 m for 1 h in upright position. A rubber dry suit and woollen undergarment were used with either argon (n = 13) or air (n = 6) (blinded to the divers) as suit inflation gas. Core temperature was measured with a radio pill during the dive. Before, halfway, and after the dive, subjective thermal comfort was recorded using a thermal comfort score. Results No diver had to abort the test due to cold. No differences in core temperature and thermal comfort score were found between the two groups. Core temperature remained unchanged during the dives. Thermal comfort score showed a significant decrease in both groups after a 60-min dive compared to baseline. Conclusions In these tests the combination of the dry suit and undergarment was sufficient to maintain core temperature and thermal comfort for a dive of 1 h in water at 13°C. The use of argon as a suit inflation gas had no added value for thermal insulation compared to air for these dives.

2013-01-01

376

Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

Mitchell, Kathryn C.

2010-01-01

377

Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a larger anthropometric portion of the astronaut population, and elements tested only in the unsuited condition need to be evaluated with an EVA suit and appropriate analog environment.

Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

2009-01-01

378

CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future inlet vent designs and ground testing.

Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

2014-01-01

379

CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test is to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III space suit across a range of workload and flow rates. As a secondary objective, results will be compared to the predicted CO2 concentrations and used to refine existing CFD models. These CFD models will then be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit, which maximizes oronasal CO2 washout. This test has not been completed, but is planned for January 2014. The results of this test will be incorporated into this paper. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects will be tested in the Mark-III space suit with each subject performing two test sessions to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations will be evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure will be maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects will wear the suit while walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) will be tested at each workload. Subjects will wear an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and will be allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 will be monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate will be calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements will be used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future inlet vent design and ground testing in the Mark-III.

Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

2014-01-01

380

CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Realtime metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future inlet vent designs and ground testing.

Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

2014-01-01

381

75 FR 80809 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Club in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia: Sierra Club v. Jackson, No. 10-cv-0859 (D.D.C.) Plaintiff filed a deadline suit to compel the Administrator to respond to an administrative petition seeking...

2010-12-23

382

76 FR 56757 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the United States District Court for the District of Columbia: Sierra Club v. Jackson, No. 1; 11-cv-00636 (D.D.C.). Plaintiff's filed a deadline suit to compel the Administrator to respond to an administrative petition seeking...

2011-09-14

383

The Atmospheric Characterization for Exploration and Science (ACES) Instrument Suite for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACES instrument suite is designed to address the highest priority lower atmosphere goals identified by MEPAG, and to address both Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) and science goals identified for the Mars 2020 mission.

Rafkin, S.; Banfield, D.; Andrews, J.; Soto, A.; Nowicki, K.; Case, T.; Dissly, R.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, A.; Fenton, L.; Genzer, M.; Karatekin, O.; Lange, C. F.; Merrison, J.; Neal, K.

2014-06-01

384

Maximum acceptable inherent buoyancy limit for aircrew/passenger helicopter immersion suit systems.  

PubMed

Helicopter crew and passengers flying over cold water wear immersion suits to provide hypothermic protection in case of ditching in cold water. The suits and linings have trapped air in the material to provide the necessary insulation and are thus very buoyant. By paradox, this buoyancy may be too much for a survivor to overcome in escaping from the cabin of a rapidly sinking inverted helicopter. The Canadian General Standard Board requested that research be conducted to investigate what should be the maximum inherent buoyancy in an immersion suit that would not inhibit escape, yet would provide adequate thermal insulation. This experiment reports on 12 subjects who safely escaped with 146N (33 lbf) of added buoyancy from a helicopter underwater escape trainer. It discusses the logic for and recommendation that the inherent buoyancy in a helicopter crew/passenger immersion suit system should not exceed this figure. PMID:15676666

Brooks, C J

1988-12-01

385

Rescue Simulation - NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp  

NASA Video Gallery

The White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging studen...

386

NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp  

NASA Video Gallery

The White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging studen...

387

NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp  

NASA Video Gallery

The NASA White Sands Test Facility Totally Encapsulating Suit (TES) Boot Camp prepares students to deal with normal propellant operations, emergency events, and pre-operation planning by engaging s...

388

Raeddningsdraekt foer Ubatspersonal: Slutrapport (Survival Suit for Submarine Personnel: Summary of Evaluation Studies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Survival suits for submarine personnel should be able to protect against drowning and hypothermia for long periods under severe weather conditions. The Division of Naval Medicine of the Swedish Defense Research Establishment has carried out a series of te...

M. Gennser A. Larsson H. Oernhagen

1993-01-01

389

The MERG Suite: Tools for discovering competencies and associated learning resources  

PubMed Central

Background As the demands for competency-based education grow, the need for standards-based tools to allow for publishing and discovery of competency-based learning content is more pressing. This project focused on developing federated discovery services for competency-based medical e-learning content. Methods We built a tool suite for authoring and discovery of medical e-learning metadata. The end-user usability of the tool suite was evaluated through a web-based survey. Results The suite, implemented as an open-source system, was evaluated to identify areas for improvement. Conclusion The MERG suite is a starting point for organizations implementing competency-based e-learning resources.

Bhupatiraju, Ravi Teja; Hersh, William R; Smothers, Valerie; Fordis, Michael; Greene, Peter S

2008-01-01

390

Design and Development of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ventilation subsystems in future space suits require a dedicated ventilation fan. The unique requirements for the ventilation fan - including stringent safety requirements and the ability to increase output to operate in buddy mode - combine to make a reg...

H. L. Paul M. G. Izenson R. W. Hill S. D. Phillips W. Chen

2011-01-01

391

Labeled line drawing of launch and entry suit identifies various components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Line drawings illustrate how a crewmember would be seated during space shuttle launch and entry in the mission specialist seat wearing the launch and entry suit (LES), a partial pressure suit. Front and profile drawings are labeled with numbers. The legend for the views includes: 1) Mission Specialist seat; 2) crewman; 3) helmet; 4) anti-exposure / counter pressure garment; 5) boots; 6) parachute harness; 7) parachute pack; 8) life raft with sea dye marker; 9) suit mounted oxygen (O2) manifold; 10) anti-gravity (anti-g) suit controller; 11) emergency O2 supply; 12) seawars; 13) ventilation fan; 14) orbiter O2 line; 15) headset interface unit (HIU); 16) communication (COMM) line to HIU; 17) flotation device. Crew escape system (CES) and LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions.

1988-01-01

392

PROPOSED SUITE OF MODELS FOR ESTIMATING DOSE RESULTING FROM EXPOSURES BY THE DERMAL ROUTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent risk assessment guidance emphasizes consideration of mechanistic factors for influencing disposition of a toxicant. To incorporate mechanistic information into risk assessment, a suite of models is proposed for use in characterizing and quantifying dosimetry of toxic age...

393

78 FR 51186 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...suit filed by Air Alliance Houston, California Communities Against Toxics, Coalition For A Safe Environment, Community In-Power and Development Association, Del Amo Action Committee, Environmental Integrity Project, Louisiana Bucket...

2013-08-20

394

The effect of scavenging on nitrous oxide pollution in the delivery suite.  

PubMed

United States standards recommend limits to occupational exposure to nitrous oxide. This can be achieved by the scavenging of waste anaesthetic gases, a routine practice in the operating suite, but less common in the delivery suite. In this study, nitrous oxide levels in the delivery room were measured, and scavenged and unscavenged levels were compared. Unacceptable levels of nitrous oxide were found in unscavenged delivery rooms, and in the majority of cases, scavenging reduced nitrous oxide pollution to within recommended limits. PMID:7848248

Heath, B J; Done, M; Balog, O; Ziccone, S; Rosewarne, F

1994-08-01

395

Some problems of selection and evaluation of the Martian suit enclosure concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important tasks for preparation of a future manned mission to Mars is to create a space suit, which ensures efficient and safe operation of the man on the planet surface. The concept of space suit (SS) utilisation on the Mars surface will be determined mainly by the Mars mission scenario. Currently the preference is given to utilisation of robotics with the crew driving a Mars rover vehicle, whereby the suit will be used solely as an additional safety means. However, one cannot exclude the necessity of a durable self-contained stay of the man outside a pressurised compartment, to pick up, for instance, soil samples or do certain repair work in case of an emergency. The requirements to the Mars suit and especially to the personal self-contained life support system (LSS) will depend in many respects on the Mars environmental conditions, the space vehicle system concept and performance characteristics, the airlock and its interface design, the availability of expendable elements for the LSS, etc. The paper reviews principal problems, which have to be solved during development of the Martian suit. A special attention is paid to the issue of suited man mobility during traversing on the planet surface. The paper also reviews the arguments for application of a suit semi-rigid design concept and evaluates potentialities of using certain elements of the existing "Orlan" type suit. The paper presents results of a number of studies on selection of the planetary SS enclosure concept and on experimental evaluation of mobility of the lower torso and leg enclosures in conjunction with a specially designed prototype model (tentative model) of the SS enclosure.

Abramov, Isaak; Moiseyev, Nikolay; Stoklitsky, Anatoly

2005-12-01

396

TRex - An Open-Source Tool for Quality Assurance of TTCN-3 Test Suites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comprehensive test of modern communication systems leads to large and complex test suites which have to be maintained throughout the system life-cycle. Experience with those written in the standardised Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) has shown that the maintenance of test suites is a non-trivial task and its burden can be reduced with appropriate tool support. To this

Benjamin Zeiss; Helmut Neukirchen; Jens Grabowski; Dominic Evans; Paul Baker

397

Main problems of the Russian Orlan-M space suit utilization for EVAs on the ISS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years the Russian Orlan-M space suits have been improved as applied to their operational requirements for the ISS. A special attention is paid to enhancement of EVA crew efficiency and safety.The paper considers the main problems regarding specific features of the Russian space suit operation in the ISS, and analyses measures on their solution.In particular, the problems

I. P. Abramov; S. S. Pozdnyakov; G. I. Severin; A. Yu. Stoklitsky

2001-01-01

398

The SDI Industry Product Suite: simulation from the production line to the supply chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SDI Industry(R)Product Suite is a versatile, high-level simulation toolset for solving problems of whole enterprises. It adds important capabilities to an existing simulation package, ExtendTM , which provides a robust simulation architecture and a wealth of existing building blocks. The SDI Industry Product Suite contains 5 specific elements for modeling the enterprise: SDI Database for high-speed data import\\/export; SDI

Richard A. Phelps; David J. Parsons; A. J. Siprelle

2000-01-01

399

Human skin in vitro permeation of bentazon and isoproturon formulations with or without protective clothing suit.  

PubMed

Skin exposures to chemicals may lead, through percutaneous permeation, to a significant increase in systemic circulation. Skin is the primary route of entry during some occupational activities, especially in agriculture. To reduce skin exposures, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is recommended. PPE efficiency is characterized as the time until products permeate through material (lag time, Tlag). Both skin and PPE permeations are assessed using similar in vitro methods; the diffusion cell system. Flow-through diffusion cells were used in this study to assess the permeation of two herbicides, bentazon and isoproturon, as well as four related commercial formulations (Basagran(®), Basamais(®), Arelon(®) and Matara(®)). Permeation was measured through fresh excised human skin, protective clothing suits (suits) (Microchem(®) 3000, AgriSafe Pro(®), Proshield(®) and Microgard(®) 2000 Plus Green), and a combination of skin and suits. Both herbicides, tested by itself or as an active ingredient in formulations, permeated readily through human skin and tested suits (Tlag < 2 h). High permeation coefficients were obtained regardless of formulations or tested membranes, except for Microchem(®) 3000. Short Tlag, were observed even when skin was covered with suits, except for Microchem(®) 3000. Kp values tended to decrease when suits covered the skin (except when Arelon(®) was applied to skin covered with AgriSafe Pro and Microgard(®) 2000), suggesting that Tlag alone is insufficient in characterizing suits. To better estimate human skin permeations, in vitro experiments should not only use human skin but also consider the intended use of the suit, i.e., the active ingredient concentrations and type of formulations, which significantly affect skin permeation. PMID:23820846

Berthet, Aurélie; Hopf, Nancy B; Miles, Alexandra; Spring, Philipp; Charrière, Nicole; Garrigou, Alain; Baldi, Isabelle; Vernez, David

2014-01-01

400

A method of evaluating efficiency during space-suited work in a neutral buoyancy environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose was to investigate efficiency as related to the work transmission and the metabolic cost of various extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks during simulated microgravity (whole body water immersion) using three space suits. Two new prototype space station suits, AX-5 and MKIII, are pressurized at 57.2 kPa and were tested concurrently with the operationally used 29.6 kPa shuttle suit. Four male astronauts were asked to perform a fatigue trial on four upper extremity exercises during which metabolic rate and work output were measured and efficiency was calculated in each suit. The activities were selected to simulate actual EVA tasks. The test article was an underwater dynamometry system to which the astronauts were secured by foot restraints. All metabolic data was acquired, calculated, and stored using a computerized indirect calorimetry system connected to the suit ventilation/gas supply control console. During the efficiency testing, steady state metabolic rate could be evaluated as well as work transmitted to the dynamometer. Mechanical efficiency could then be calculated for each astronaut in each suit performing each movement.

Greenisen, Michael C.; West, Phillip; Newton, Frederick K.; Gilbert, John H.; Squires, William G.

1991-01-01

401

Relation of heavy mineral suites to Pleistocene to Holocene shoreline sequences in Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The major Pleistocene paleobarrier island complexes recognized on the Georgia coastal plain may represent two distinct shoreline sequences. This is suggested by differences in geomorphology and in heavy mineral suites. The higher and older Talbot, Penholoway, Wicomico, Okefenokee and Waycross complexes are characterized by large, linear, undissected sand bodies. The younger Pamlico, Princess Anne and Silver Bluff complexes consist of small, stubby and complexly dissected sand bodies and are similar to those developed on the Holocene shoreline. The average labile (1.88), ilmenite/leucoxene (1.28), and ZTR (22.07) indices of the three older complexes indicate distinctly more mature heavy mineral suites than the average labile, (8.88) ilmenite/leucoxene (4.54), and ZTR (18.42) indices in the younger complexes. The heavy mineral suites of the older shoreline sequence exhibit little variation in mineralogy. The heavy mineral suites in the younger sequence exhibit a greater range in mineralogy, and the suites change progressively from the Pamlico through the Silver Bluff complexes. Continuation of these trends is evident in the heavy mineral suite of the Holocene deposits. The increasing range in composition also indicates the relatively immaturity of the younger complexes. The difference in heavy mineral content between the older (0.53 wt. %) and the younger (1.33 wt. %) shoreline sequences may result from increased weathering and removal of the labile components during a warm inter-glacial period.

Cocker, M.D. (Georgia Geologic Survey, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-03-01

402

Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

Goodenough, K. M.; Thomas, R. J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R. M.; Schofield, D. I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R. D.; Rafahatelo, J. -M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A. V.; Randriamananjara, T.

2010-01-01

403

The Finuda Experiment at DA?NE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DA?NE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

Lucherini, V.

2010-10-01

404

The Finuda Experiment at DA?NE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DA?NE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

Lucherini, V.

405

The Finuda Experiment on DA?NE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DA?ne) is a spectrometer built to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on spectroscopy and decay of ?-hypernuclei. Due to the nice performances of the apparatus and its ability to reconstruct secondary vertices, it proved suited to study also final states with several particles (including neutron), hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

Lucherini, Vincenzo

406

The Effect of the United States Supreme Court's Eleventh Amendment Jurisprudence on Clean Water Act Citizen Suits: Muddied Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article focuses on the impact of the Court's Eleventh Amendment jurisprudence on citizen suits authorized under the Clean Water Act (CWA), because that law's cooperative federalism structure is typical of many other environmental laws, and because citizen suits have historically played a critical role in its implementation. The CWA's citizen suit provision (section 505), which specifically incorporates the Eleventh

Hope M. Babcock

2004-01-01

407

The Waveform Suite: A robust platform for accessing and manipulating seismic waveforms in MATLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Waveform Suite, developed at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, is an open-source collection of MATLAB classes that provide a means to import, manipulate, display, and share waveform data while ensuring integrity of the data and stability for programs that incorporate them. Data may be imported from a variety of sources, such as Antelope, Winston databases, SAC files, SEISAN, .mat files, or other user-defined file formats. The waveforms being manipulated in MATLAB are isolated from their stored representations, relieving the overlying programs from the responsibility of understanding the specific format in which data is stored or retrieved. The waveform class provides an object oriented framework that simplifies manipulations to waveform data. Playing with data becomes easier because the tedious aspects of data manipulation have been automated. The user is able to change multiple waveforms simultaneously using standard mathematical operators and other syntactically familiar functions. Unlike MATLAB structs or workspace variables, the data stored within waveform class objects are protected from modification, and instead are accessed through standardized functions, such as get and set; these are already familiar to users of MATLAB’s graphical features. This prevents accidental or nonsensical modifications to the data, which in turn simplifies troubleshooting of complex programs. Upgrades to the internal structure of the waveform class are invisible to applications which use it, making maintenance easier. We demonstrate the Waveform Suite’s capabilities on seismic data from Okmok and Redoubt volcanoes. Years of data from Okmok were retrieved from Antelope and Winston databases. Using the Waveform Suite, we built a tremor-location program. Because the program was built on the Waveform Suite, modifying it to operate on real-time data from Redoubt involved only minimal code changes. The utility of the Waveform Suite as a foundation for large developments is demonstrated with the Correlation Toolbox for MATLAB. This mature package contains 50+ codes for carrying out various type of waveform correlation analyses (multiplet analysis, clustering, interferometry, …) This package is greatly strengthened by delegating numerous book-keeping and signal processing tasks to the underlying Waveform Suite. The Waveform Suite’s built-in tools for searching arbitrary directory/file structures is demonstrated with matched video and audio from the recent eruption of Redoubt Volcano. These tools were used to find subsets of photo images corresponding to specific seismic traces. Using Waveform’s audio file routines, matched video and audio were assembled to produce outreach-quality eruption products. The Waveform Suite is not designed as a ready-to-go replacement for more comprehensive packages such as SAC or AH. Rather, it is a suite of classes which provide core time series functionality in a MATLAB environment. It is designed to be a more robust alternative to the numerous ad hoc MATLAB formats that exist. Complex programs may be created upon the Waveform Suite’s framework, while existing programs may be modified to take advantage of the Waveform Suites capabilities.

Reyes, C. G.; West, M. E.; McNutt, S. R.

2009-12-01

408

Dressing for Altitude: U.S. Aviation Pressure Suits--Wiley Post to Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its earliest days, flight has been about pushing the limits of technology and, in many cases, pushing the limits of human endurance. The human body can be the limiting factor in the design of aircraft and spacecraft. Humans cannot survive unaided at high altitudes. There have been a number of books written on the subject of spacesuits, but the literature on the high-altitude pressure suits is lacking. This volume provides a high-level summary of the technological development and operational use of partial- and full-pressure suits, from the earliest models to the current high altitude, full-pressure suits used for modern aviation, as well as those that were used for launch and entry on the Space Shuttle. The goal of this work is to provide a resource on the technology for suits designed to keep humans alive at the edge of space. Hopefully, future generations will learn from the hard-fought lessons of the past. NASA is committed to the future of aerospace, and a key component of that future is the workforce. Without these men and women, technological advancements would not be possible. Dressing for Altitude is designed to provide the history of the technology and to explore the lessons learned through years of research in creating, testing, and utilizing today s high-altitude suits. It is our hope that this information will prove helpful in the development of future suits. Even with the closeout of the Space Shuttle and the planned ending of the U-2 program, pressure suits will be needed for protection as long as humans seek to explore high frontiers. The NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate is committed to the training of the current and future aerospace workforce. This book and the other books published by the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are in support of this commitment. Hopefully, you will find this book a valuable resource for many years to come.

Jenkins, Dennis R.

2012-01-01

409

The Next Generation of Cold Immersion Dry Suit Design Evolution for Hypothermia Prevention  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This new utility patent is an active design that relies on the lung's role as an organic heat exchanger for providing deep body core heating of air. It is based on the fact that the greatest heat loss mechanism for an insulated human body immersed in a cold water environment is due to heat loss through respiration. This innovation successfully merges two existing technologies (cold immersion suit and existing valve technologies) to produce a new product that helps prevent against the onset of hypothermia at sea. During normal operations, a human maintains an approximate body temperature of [98.6 F (37 C)]. A mechanism was developed to recover the warm temperature from the body and reticulate it in a survival suit. The primary intention is to develop an encompassing systems design that can both easily and cost effectively be integrated in all existing currently manufactured cold water survival suits, and as such, it should be noted that the cold water immersion suit is only used as a framework or tool for laying out the required design elements. At the heart of the suit is the Warm Air Recovery (WAR) system, which relies on a single, large Main Purge Valve (MPV) and secondary Purge Valves (PV) to operate. The main purge valve has a thin membrane, which is normally closed, and acts as a one-way check valve. When warm air is expelled from the lungs, it causes the main purge valve to open. Air forced from the MPV is dumped directly into the suit, thereby providing warmth to the torso, legs, and arms. A slight positive over-pressure in the suit causes warm waste air (or water if the suit is punctured) to be safely vented into the sea through large PVs located at the bottom of each arm and leg. The secondary purge valves act to prevent the buildup of large concentrations of CO2 gas and help guard against asphyxia. It is noted that the MPV causes the inhalation and exhalation cycles to be completely isolated from one another in the current suit design.

Galofaro, Joel

2013-01-01

410

Following Suit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid growth of international fundraising by educational institutions is an outgrowth of an unprecedented, large-scale exchange of products, people, and cultures. Institutions that previously had taken a piecemeal approach to global education have embraced a global mission, and advancement is falling in sync. International fundraising also…

Pulley, John

2012-01-01

411

Cool Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acurex developed a heat stress alleviating, liquid cooled helmet liner for military pilots after a series of accidents in Vietnam suggested heat exhaustion as the cause. System pumped a cooled liquid through channels in the helmet liner proved effective in eliminating 40-60% of stored body heat.

1987-01-01

412

Main problems of the Russian Orlan-M space suit utilization for EVAs on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years the Russian Orlan-M space suits have been improved as applied to their operational requirements for the ISS. A special attention is paid to enhancement of EVA crew efficiency and safety. The paper considers the main problems regarding specific features of the Russian space suit operation in the ISS, and analyses measures on their solution. In particular, the problems associated with the following are considered: enhancement of the anthropometric range for the EVA crewmembers; use of some US EMU elements and unified NASA equipment elements; Orlan-M operation support in the wide range of the ISS thermal conditions; use of Simplified Aid For Extravehicular activity Rescue (SAFER) designed as a self-rescue device, which will be used for an EVA crewmember return in the event that he (she) breaks away inadvertently from the ISS surface. The paper states the main space suit differences with reference to solution of the above problems. The paper presents briefly the design of space suit arms developed for crewmembers with small anthropometric parameters, as well as peculiarities and test results for the gloves with enhanced thermal protection. Measures on further space suit development with the purpose to improve its performances are considered.

Abramov, I. P.; Pozdnyakov, S. S.; Severin, G. I.; Stoklitsky, A. Yu.

2001-03-01

413

Hepburn intrusive suite: Peraluminous plutonism within a closing back-arc basin, Wopmay orogen, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Hepburn metamorphic-plutonic internal zone of the Wopmay orogen (Northwest Territories, Canada) there are two chronologically and petrologically distinct plutonic associations. The more voluminous of the two, the older 1.885 Ga Hepburn intrusive suite, includes rocks ranging in composition from gabbro to granite, peraluminous granite dominating. The younger 1.855 Ga neighboring Bishop intrusive suite (also gabbro to granite) represents the waning stages of a well-documented calc-alkaline arc, the Great Bear magmatic zone. The petrological distinctions between the two suites are all late-acquired features imposed primarily by contrasting environments of emplacement. Hepburn magmas were intruded within a closing, dominantly sedimentary, back-arc basin. Magma emplacement was synchronous with crustal imbrication, regional metamorphism, and translation of the basin-fill units onto Archean crust. Significant assimilation of sedimentary host rocks by the rising Hepburn magmas occurred, whereas the postregional metamorphism emplacement of the Bishop magmas precluded similar assimilation. The gabbroic contribution observed in the Hepburn intrusive suite is interpreted to reflect a mantle-derived precursor inherited from the back-arc rifting event that immediately preceded emplacement of the suite.

Lalonde, André E.

1989-03-01

414

Results and applications of a space suit range-of-motion study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The range of motion of space suits has traditionally been described using limited 2-D mapping of limb, torso, or arm movements performed in front of an orthogonal grid. A new technique for recovering extra-vehicular (EVA) space suit range-of-motion data during underwater testing was described in a paper presented by the author at the 1988 conference. The new technique uses digitized data which is automatically acquired from video images of the subject. Three-dimensional trajectories are recovered from these data, and can be displayed using 2-D computer graphics. Results of using this technique for the current shuttle EVA suit during underwater simulated weightlessness testing are discussed. Application of the data for use in animating anthropometric computer models is highlighted.

Reinhardt, AL

1989-01-01

415

Pose Measurement Performance of the Argon Relative Navigation Sensor Suite in Simulated Flight Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Argon is a flight-ready sensor suite with two visual cameras, a flash LIDAR, an on- board flight computer, and associated electronics. Argon was designed to provide sensing capabilities for relative navigation during proximity, rendezvous, and docking operations between spacecraft. A rigorous ground test campaign assessed the performance capability of the Argon navigation suite to measure the relative pose of high-fidelity satellite mock-ups during a variety of simulated rendezvous and proximity maneuvers facilitated by robot manipulators in a variety of lighting conditions representative of the orbital environment. A brief description of the Argon suite and test setup are given as well as an analysis of the performance of the system in simulated proximity and rendezvous operations.

Galante, Joseph M.; Eepoel, John Van; Strube, Matt; Gill, Nat; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Hyslop, Andrew; Patrick, Bryan

2012-01-01

416

Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

2008-01-01

417

Fabrication and performance analysis of a DEA cuff designed for dry-suit applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for manufacturing a cylindrical dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is presented. The cylindrical DEA can be used in fabricating the cuff area of dry-suits where the garment is very tight and wearing the suit is difficult. When electrically actuated, the DEA expands radially and the suit can be worn more comfortably. In order to study the performance of the DEA, a customized testing setup was designed, and silicone-made cuff samples with different material stiffnesses were tested. Analytical and FEM modeling were considered to evaluate the experimental output. The results revealed that although the stiffness of the DEA material has a direct relationship with the radial constrictive pressure caused by mechanically stretching the DEA, it has a minor effect on the actuation pressure. It was also found that stacking multiple layers of the DEA to fabricate a laminated structure enabled the attainment of a desired variation of pressure required for the implementation of an electrically tunable cuff.

Ahmadi, S.; Camacho Mattos, A.; Barbazza, A.; Soleimani, M.; Boscariol, P.; Menon, C.

2013-03-01

418

Test plan for personnel protective equipment bubble suit decontamination feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

This test plan defines the details for performing a study to determine the feasibility of using a shower based system to decontaminate personnel protective equipment (PPE) bubble (encapsulation) suits worn by personnel as they are egressing a mixed-TRU contamination zone. The testing will be performed using an EPA rated Level A fully encapsulating suit. The person directly involved in the suit contamination and shower processes will be provided with Level A protection. This test plan provides a description of the test apparatus, provides details of the tests to be performed, defines the sampling procedures and controls, and defines the analytical methods for the samples collected. The test plan also discusses the data management and the reporting of the test result and the quality assurance and safety requirements for the study. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Menkhaus, D.E.

1990-08-01

419

A suite of software for processing MicroED data of extremely small protein crystals  

PubMed Central

Electron diffraction of extremely small three-dimensional crystals (MicroED) allows for structure determination from crystals orders of magnitude smaller than those used for X-ray crystallography. MicroED patterns, which are collected in a transmission electron microscope, were initially not amenable to indexing and intensity extraction by standard software, which necessitated the development of a suite of programs for data processing. The MicroED suite was developed to accomplish the tasks of unit-cell determination, indexing, background subtraction, intensity measurement and merging, resulting in data that can be carried forward to molecular replacement and structure determination. This ad hoc solution has been modified for more general use to provide a means for processing MicroED data until the technique can be fully implemented into existing crystallographic software packages. The suite is written in Python and the source code is available under a GNU General Public License.

Iadanza, Matthew G.; Gonen, Tamir

2014-01-01

420

Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System. With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water "super-Q" - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

Hill, Terry; Taylor ,Brandon W.

2012-01-01

421

Reach Envelope and Field of Vision Quantification in Mark III Space Suit using Delaunay Triangulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) project is focused on the development of a rover vehicle that can be utilized by two crewmembers during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) on the moon and Mars. The current SCOUT vehicle can transport two suited astronauts riding in open cockpit seats. Among the aspects currently being developed is the cockpit design and layout. This process includes the identification of possible locations for a socket to which a crewmember could connect a portable life support system (PLSS) for recharging power, air, and cooling while seated in the vehicle. The spaces in which controls and connectors may be situated within the vehicle are constrained by the reach and vision capabilities of the suited crewmembers. Accordingly, quantification of the volumes within which suited crewmembers can both see and reach relative to the vehicle represents important information during the design process.

Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Thaxton, Sherry S.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

2006-01-01

422

Software Suite to Support In-Flight Characterization of Remote Sensing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characterization software suite was developed to facilitate NASA's in-flight characterization of commercial remote sensing systems. Characterization of aerial and satellite systems requires knowledge of ground characteristics, or ground truth. This information is typically obtained with instruments taking measurements prior to or during a remote sensing system overpass. Acquired ground-truth data, which can consist of hundreds of measurements with different data formats, must be processed before it can be used in the characterization. Accurate in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems relies on multiple field data acquisitions that are efficiently processed, with minimal error. To address the need for timely, reproducible ground-truth data, a characterization software suite was developed to automate the data processing methods. The characterization software suite is engineering code, requiring some prior knowledge and expertise to run. The suite consists of component scripts for each of the three main in-flight characterization types: radiometric, geometric, and spatial. The component scripts for the radiometric characterization operate primarily by reading the raw data acquired by the field instruments, combining it with other applicable information, and then reducing it to a format that is appropriate for input into MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission), an Air Force Research Laboratory-developed radiative transport code used to predict at-sensor measurements. The geometric scripts operate by comparing identified target locations from the remote sensing image to known target locations, producing circular error statistics defined by the Federal Geographic Data Committee Standards. The spatial scripts analyze a target edge within the image, and produce estimates of Relative Edge Response and the value of the Modulation Transfer Function at the Nyquist frequency. The software suite enables rapid, efficient, automated processing of ground truth data, which has been used to provide reproducible characterizations on a number of commercial remote sensing systems. Overall, this characterization software suite improves the reliability of ground-truth data processing techniques that are required for remote sensing system in-flight characterizations.

Stanley, Thomas; Holekamp, Kara; Gasser, Gerald; Tabor, Wes; Vaughan, Ronald; Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Kenton, Ross

2014-01-01

423

A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Space Suit Joint Ranges of Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, NASA is attempting to use the vast collection of space suit mobility data from 50 years worth of space suit testing to build predictive analysis tools to aid in early architecture decisions for future missions and exploration programs. However, the design engineers must first understand if and how data generated by different methodologies can be compared directly and used in an essentially interchangeable manner. To address this question, the isolated joint range of motion data from two different test series were compared. Both data sets were generated from participants wearing the Mark III Space Suit Technology Demonstrator (MK-III), Waist Entry I-suit (WEI), and minimal clothing. Additionally the two tests shared a common test subject that allowed for within subject comparisons of the methods that greatly reduced the number of variables in play. The tests varied in their methodologies: the Space Suit Comparative Technologies Evaluation used 2-D photogrammetry to analyze isolated ranges of motion while the Constellation space suit benchmarking and requirements development used 3-D motion capture to evaluate both isolated and functional joint ranges of motion. The isolated data from both test series were compared graphically, as percent differences, and by simple statistical analysis. The results indicated that while the methods generate results that are statistically the same (significance level p= 0.01), the differences are significant enough in the practical sense to make direct comparisons ill advised. The concluding recommendations propose direction for how to bridge the data gaps and address future mobility data collection to allow for backward compatibility.

Aitchison, Lindsay T.

2012-01-01

424

The European space suit, a design for productivity and crew safety.  

PubMed

In order to fulfill the two major mission objectives, i.e. support planned and unplanned external servicing of the COLUMBUS FFL and support the HERMES vehicle for safety critical operations and emergencies, the European Space Suit System baseline configuration incorporates a number of design features, which shall enhance the productivity and the crew safety of EVA astronauts. The work in EVA is today--and will be for several years--a manual work. Consequently, to improve productivity, the first challenge is to design a suit enclosure which minimizes movement restrictions and crew fatigue. It is covered by the "ergonomic" aspect of the suit design. Furthermore, it is also necessary to help the EVA crewmember in his work, by giving him the right information at the right time. Many solutions exist in this field of Man-Machine Interface, from a very simple system, based on cuff check lists, up to advanced systems, including Head-Up Displays. The design concept for improved productivity encompasses following features: easy donning/doffing thru rear entry, suit ergonomy optimisation, display of operational information in alpha-numerical and graphical form, and voice processing for operations and safety critical information. Concerning crew safety the major design features are: a lower R-factor for emergency EVA operations thru increased suit pressure, zero prebreath conditions for normal operations, visual and voice processing of all safety critical functions, and an autonomous life support system to permit unrestricted operations around HERMES and the CFFL. The paper analyses crew safety and productivity criteria and describes how these features are being built into the design of the European Space Suit System. PMID:11537126

Skoog, A I; Berthier, S; Ollivier, Y

1991-01-01

425

A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Space Suit Joint Ranges of Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Advanced Exploration Systems Program, NASA is attempting to use the vast collection of space suit mobility data from 50 years worth of space suit testing to build predictive analysis tools to aid in early architecture decisions for future missions and exploration programs. However, the design engineers must first understand if and how data generated by different methodologies can be compared directly and used in an essentially interchangeable manner. To address this question, the isolated joint range of motion data from two different test series were compared. Both data sets were generated from participants wearing the Mark III Space Suit Technology Demonstrator (MK-III), Waist Entry I-suit (WEI), and minimal clothing. Additionally the two tests shared a common test subject that allowed for within subject comparisons of the methods that greatly reduced the number of variables in play. The tests varied in their methodologies: the Space Suit Comparative Technologies Evaluation used 2D photogrammetry to analyze isolated ranges of motion while the Constellation space suit benchmarking and requirements development used 3D motion capture to evaluate both isolated and functional joint ranges of motion. The isolated data from both test series were compared graphically, as percent differences, and by simple statistical analysis. The results indicated that while the methods generate results that are statistically the same (significance level p= 0.01), the differences are significant enough in the practical sense to make direct comparisons ill advised. The concluding recommendations propose direction for how to bridge the data gaps and address future mobility data collection to allow for backward compatibility.

Aitchison, Lindsay; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

426

Decision fusion benefits assessment in a three-sensor suite framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various decision fusion strategies postulated recently for target detection in the context of a three-sensor suite are analyzed in depth to delineate the domains of beneficial fusion and determine the extent of such benefits. This is similar in scope to earlier temporal fusion studies on suites with only two sensors, except that the present analysis is limited to fusion strategies involving only a single set of observations from the sensors. Instead, the added flexibility in the design of fusion strategies resulting from an increase in the number of sensors to three is defined and assessed. The analysis covers two basic categories of fusion strategies. The first is a single-stage fusion wherein the decision outputs of all the three sensor subsystems are fused simultaneously using one or four different strategies, namely, AND logic, simple majority logic, firm-decisions-only majority logic, and a no-firm-contradiction logic. The second is a two-stage fusion strategy, wherein either an AND or an OR logic is used at the first stage combining the decisions of two of the sensor subsystems, followed by a similar logic choice combining the fused decision from the first level with the decision from the third sensor subsystem, resulting once again in four possible alternative strategies. First, each of the strategies is compared to the single-sensor performance to delineate the corresponding domain and extent of the fusion where in all the three sensors in the suite have identical expected performance characteristics. Next, a detailed comparative assessment of these strategies is made under the same assumption of identical sensor characteristics. The set of eight fusion strategies under the three-sensor suite is then compared with the two simple Boolean (AND logic and OR logic) strategies under the two-sensor suite to delineate the benefits domain of adding the third sensor to the suite.

Dasarathy, Belur V.

1998-02-01

427

The recovery and utilization of space suit range-of-motion data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for recovering data for the range of motion of a subject wearing a space suit is described along with the validation of this technique on an EVA space suit. Digitized data are automatically acquired from video images of the subject; three-dimensional trajectories are recovered from these data, and can be displayed using three-dimensional computer graphics. Target locations are recovered using a unique video processor and close-range photogrammetry. It is concluded that such data can be used in such applications as the animation of anthropometric computer models.

Reinhardt, AL; Walton, James S.

1988-01-01

428

Mandatory pre-suit mediation: local malpractice reform benefiting patients and healthcare providers.  

PubMed

The Florida Patient Safety and Pre-Suit Mediation Program (FLPSMP) was implemented as a pilot program to provide patients of healthcare providers and facilities associated with the University of Florida Health Science Center with timely and fair compensation when injured and to combat rising healthcare legal liability expenses. Prior to filing a formal lawsuit, participants of the FLPSMP join in a confidential and nonbinding pre-suit mediation conducted by a neutral third-party mediator. The process fosters confidential and candid communication between doctors and patients, saving thousands of dollars in legal expenses for both patients and providers. PMID:20979162

Jenkins, Randall C; Warren, Lindsay A; Gravenstein, Nikolaus

2010-01-01

429

A flight-rated liquid-cooled garment for use within a full-pressure suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight rated liquid cooled garment system for use inside a full pressure suit has been designed, fabricated, and tested. High temperature tests with this system have indicated that heat is absorbed at a rate decreasing from 224 kg-cal/hr to 143 kg-cal/hr over a 40-min period. The first 30 min are very comfortable; thereafter a gradual heat load builds that results in mild sweating at the end of the 40-min period. In flight tests during hot weather when this cooling system was worn under a regulation flight suit, the pilot reported that temperatures were comfortable and that the garment prevented sweating.

Carpenter, R.; Winter, W. R.

1972-01-01

430

Use of Variable Pressure Suits, Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of variable pressure suits, intermittent recompression and Nitrox breathing mixtures to allow for multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a day. This new operational concept of multiple short EVAs requires short purge times and shorter prebreathes to assure rapid egress with a minimal loss of the vehicular air. Preliminary analysis has begun to evaluate the potential benefits of the intermittent recompression, and Nitrox breathing mixtures when used with variable pressure suits to enable reduce purges and prebreathe durations.

Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

2009-01-01

431

Work and fatigue characteristics of unsuited and suited humans during isolated isokinetic joint motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of a pressurized suit on human performance were investigated. The suit is known as an Extra-Vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) and is worn by astronauts while working outside their spacecraft in a low earth orbit. Isolated isokinetic joint torques of three female and three male subjects (all experienced users of the suit in 1G gravity) were measured while working at 100% and 80% of their maximum voluntary torque (MVT, which is synonymous with maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)). It was found that the average decrease in the total amount of work (the sum of the work in each repetition until fatigue) done when the subjects were wearing the EMU were 48% and 41% while working at 100% and 80% MVT, respectively. There is a clear relationship between the MVT and the time and amount of work done until fatigue. Here, the time to fatigue is defined as the ending time of the repetition for which the computed work done during that repetition dropped below 50% of the work done during the first repetition. In general the stronger joints took longer to fatigue and did more work than the weaker joints. It was found that the EMU decreases the work output at the wrist and shoulder joints the most, due to the EMU joint geometry. The EMU also decreased the joint range of motion. The average total amount of work done by the test subjects increased by 5.2% (20.4%) for the unsuited (suited) case, when the test subjects decreased the level of effort from 100% to 80% MVT. Also, the average time to fatigue increased by 9.2% (25.6%) for the unsuited (suited) case, when the test subjects decreased the level of effort from 100% to 80% MVT. It was also found that the experimentally measured torque decay could be predicted by a logarithmic equation. The absolute average errors in the predictions were found to be 18.3% and 18.9% for the unsuited and suited subjects, respectively, when working at 100% MVT, and 22.5% and 18.8% for the unsuited and suited subjects, respectively, when working at 80% MVT. These results could be very useful in the design of future EMU suits and the planning of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the future International Space Station assembly operations.

Gonzalez, L. Javier; Maida, J. C.; Miles, E. H.; Rajulu, S. L.; Pandya, A. K.

2002-01-01

432

Apollo/Skylab suit program management systems study. Volume 2: Cost analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The business management methods employed in the performance of the Apollo-Skylab Suit Program are studied. The data accumulated over the span of the contract as well as the methods used to accumulate the data are examined. Management methods associated with the monitoring and control of resources applied towards the performance of the contract are also studied and recommended upon. The primary objective is the compilation, analysis, and presentation of historical cost performance criteria. Cost data are depicted for all phases of the Apollo-Skylab program in common, meaningful terms, whereby the data may be applicable to future suit program planning efforts.

1974-01-01

433

Describing the NPOESS Preparatory Project Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Environmental Data Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the instruments that make up the suite of sensors on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) scheduled to launch in 2010. VIIRS will produce seven Environmental Data Records (EDRs) describing cloud properties. The VIIRS Cloud EDRs include the Cloud Optical Thickness (COT), Cloud Effective Particle Size Parameter (CEPS), Cloud Top Pressure (CTP), Cloud Top Height (CTH), Cloud Top Temperature (CTT), Cloud Cover/Layers (CCL), and Cloud Base Height (CBH). This paper will describe the VIIRS algorithms used to generate these EDRs and provide a current estimate of performance based on pre-Launch test data.

Hoffman, C.; Guenther, B.; Kilcoyne, H.; Mineart, G.; St. Germain, K.; Reed, B.

2008-12-01

434

Suits reflectance models for wheat and cotton: theoretical and experimental tests.  

PubMed

Plant canopy reflectance models developed by Suits are tested for cotton and Penjamo winter wheat. Properties of the models are discussed, and the concept of model depth is developed. The models' predicted exchange symmetry for specular irradiance with respect to sun polar angle and observer polar angle agreed with field data for cotton and wheat. Model calculations and experimental data for wheat reflectance vs sun angle disagreed. Specular reflectance from 0.50micro to 1.10 microm shows fair agreement between the model and wheat measurements. An Appendix includes the physical and optical parameters for wheat necessary to apply Suits' models. PMID:20168501

Chance, J E; Lemaster, E W

1977-02-01

435

STS-26 Pilot Covey checks flight suit sleeve decal during wardrobe fitting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey uses mirrors to check the fit of flight coveralls (jump suit) during wardrobe fitting conducted at the Boeing Building near JSC. Covey is one of five veteran astronauts in training for NASA's first Shuttle flight since the Challenger accident 01-28-86.

1987-01-01

436

Using human resource management suites to exploit team process improvement models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the degree of support of the Human Resource Management System (HRMS) Suite of Oracle Applications' ERP System for People Capability Maturity Model (P-CMM) was examined. The analysis is carried out through key practices of each key process area in P-CMM levels. Each key process area (KPA) in the second and third levels is mapped to the functionality

Oktay Turetken; Onur Demirors

2002-01-01

437

Proton and Electron Threshold Energy Measurements for Extravehicular Activity Space Suits. Chapter 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of ISS will require more than 1000 hours of EVA. Outside of ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the suits at various locations. Measurements of the water-equivalent thickness of both US. and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing CT scans. Specific regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a differential range shift technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6-MeV electron and 155-MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was reestablished. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range-energy tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This report provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and results.

Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.

2003-01-01

438

A new methane control and prediction software suite for longwall mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents technical and application aspects of a new software suite, MCP (Methane Control and Prediction), developed for addressing some of the methane and methane control issues in longwall coal mines. The software suite consists of dynamic link library (DLL) extensions to MS-Access TM, written in C++. In order to create the DLLs, various statistical, mathematical approaches, prediction and classification artificial neural network (ANN) methods were used. The current version of MCP suite (version 1.3) discussed in this paper has four separate modules that (a) predict the dynamic elastic properties of coal-measure rocks, (b) predict ventilation emissions from longwall mines, (c) determine the type of degasification system that needs to be utilized for given situations and (d) assess the production performance of gob gas ventholes that are used to extract methane from longwall gobs. These modules can be used with the data from basic logs, mining, longwall panel, productivity, and coal bed characteristics. The applications of these modules separately or in combination for methane capture and control related problems will help improve the safety of mines. The software suite's version 1.3 is discussed in this paper. Currently, it's new version 2.0 is available and can be downloaded from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/products/product180.htm free of charge. The models discussed in this paper can be found under "ancillary models" and under "methane prediction models" for specific U.S. conditions in the new version.

Dougherty, Heather N.; Özgen Karacan, C.

2011-09-01

439

An Evaluation Framework for the Analysis of Covert Channels in the TCP\\/IP Protocol Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information hiding techniques can be used by criminals and terrorists to communicate over covert channels within the TCP\\/IP protocol suite and can be used to overcome firewalls and most other forms of network intrusion detection and prevention systems. In this work we describe the covert channel concept and weaknesses in the five layered TCP\\/IP layered model. We then present an

David Llamas; Alan Miller; Colin Allison

2005-01-01

440

A Thin Security Layer Protocol over IP Protocol on TCP\\/IP Suite for Security Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed a security enhancement for TCP\\/IP suite. This enhancement adds three modules to TCP\\/IP. These are security policy, security control, and data security layer. Unlike IPsec, which plugs all security enforcements into IP layer, the proposed architecture distributes the proposed module into their relevant layer. The security policy belongs to application layer, and the security control

Mohammad Al-Jarrah; Abdel-Karim R. Tamimi

2006-01-01