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1

Competition Suits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is fromLessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will explore the topic of competition suits for the Winter Olympics, and will conduct an experiment to test the effects of air drag over the surface. Students will also create a new winter sport for the Olympics and design a competition suit for that sport.

2010-01-01

2

Space suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (inventors)

1973-01-01

3

Geochemistry and origin of the early Mesoproterozoic mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite association of the Serra da Providência suite and associated gabbros, central-eastern Rondônia, SW Amazonian Craton, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Serra da Providência suite (SPS) is constituted of quartz mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite and coeval mafic rocks, intruded during the 1.60-1.53 Ga interval into Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement (Jamari Complex) in the Juruena-Rondônia geochronologic province, SW Amazonian Craton. In this region the Serra da Providência suite consists of two batholiths and several small plutons represented by syeno-monzogranites and igneous quartz mangerite and charnockites. The Serra da Providência granites are ferroan, calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic and characterized by high Na2O + K2O, Rb, Zr, Y, Nb, Ta, Ce, Zn, Ga, and REE (except for Eu), moderate Ba, and low Sr, MgO, and CaO. Ga/Al, Y/Nb, FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) and K2O/Na2O ratios are high and Sr/Ba and Rb/Ba are low and are geochemically similar to typical A2-subtype granites. The SPS charnockites and quartz mangerites display values of FeOT, MgO, CaO, Ba, Rb, Sr, Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf similar to the SPS A-type granites. The occurrence of magnetite as an accessory phase and the high FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) in granites, charnockites and quartz mangerites suggest crystallization from a relatively oxidized magma and also explain the occurrence of titanite as a primary phase in these granites, similar to those reported in several localities of the Amazonian Craton. The parental magma of the mafic rocks of the SPS probably had mainly enriched sources and resulted from melting of heterogeneous mantle reservoirs with coherent chemical characteristics. Trace elements data indicate subduction-modified mantle sources for the mafic rocks that are in agreement with the post-collisional character of this magmatism. A large set of whole-rock Sm-Nd isotope data (Bettencourt et al., 1999; Scandolara, 2006; Santos et al., 2008 and this work) demonstrate that granites, charnockites and quartz mangerites of the study area are the product of magmas derived from interaction between enriched mantle derived magmas (in very subordinate proportions) and recycled crust in larger proportion. The source region is dominated by Paleoproterozoic material, but several samples yield Archaean model ages that are the first evidence for such ancient source materials in the SW Amazonian Craton. The Serra da Providência suite was emplaced during the post-collisional stage of the Juruena-Jamari arc and Madeirinha orogeny (Scandolara et al., 2011), and post-dates the collision between the Tapajós (Tapajós-Parima geochronological province, Pará, Brazil) and Bolívia (palaeocontinent which precedes Sunsás geochronological province) blocks. Its geochemical and structural features are coincident with those recognized in post-collisional granitoids. Geochemical data suggest that complex processes which involved crustal melting, fractional crystallization, magma mixing and, in some extent, crustal assimilation were responsible for the magmatism of the Serra da Providência suite. The magmas that constitute the Serra da Providência suite resulted from varying degrees of partial melting of a compositionally heterogeneous source. The nature of the source and the degree of melting exerted a significant control over compositional variation in some of the parental magmas which were also affected by subsequent fractional crystallization and mingling processes. Internal variations in composition observed in several bodies can be the result of incremental amalgamation of different magma pulses that varied mainly in the degree of partial melting.

Scandolara, Jaime E.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Dantas, Elton L.

2013-08-01

4

Music Education Suites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes options for designing and equipping middle and high school music education suites, and suggests ways of gaining community support for including full service music suites in new and renovated school facilities. In addition to basic music suites, and practice rooms, other options detailed include: (1) small ensemble…

Kemp, Wayne

2009-01-01

5

Estimation Program Interface Suite  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPI (Estimation Program Interface) SuiteTM is a Windows based suite of physical/chemical property and environmental fate estimation models developed by the EPA's Office of Pollution Prevention Toxics and Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC). EPI SuiteT...

6

Space Suit Thermal Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

1998-01-01

7

EMU Suit Performance Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must be built and tested with human subjects. However, numerous design iterations will occur before the hardware meets those requirements. Traditional draw-prototype-test paradigms for research and development are prohibitively expensive with today's shrinking Government budgets. Personnel at NASA are developing modern simulation techniques that focus on a human-centric design paradigm. These new techniques make use of virtual prototype simulations and fully adjustable physical prototypes of suit hardware. This is extremely advantageous and enables comprehensive design down-selections to be made early in the design process. Objectives: The primary objective was to test modern simulation techniques for evaluating the human performance component of two EMU suit concepts, pivoted and planar style hard upper torso (HUT). Methods: This project simulated variations in EVA suit shoulder joint design and subject anthropometry and then measured the differences in shoulder mobility caused by the modifications. These estimations were compared to human-in-the-loop test data gathered during past suited testing using four subjects (two large males, two small females). Results: Results demonstrated that EVA suit modeling and simulation are feasible design tools for evaluating and optimizing suit design based on simulated performance. The suit simulation model was found to be advantageous in its ability to visually represent complex motions and volumetric reach zones in three dimensions, giving designers a faster and deeper comprehension of suit component performance vs. human performance. Suit models were able to discern differing movement capabilities between EMU HUT configurations, generic suit fit concerns, and specific suit fit concerns for crewmembers based on individual anthropometry

Cowley, Matthew S.; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

8

Orbit Software Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

2012-01-01

9

Suited for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the basic functions of space suits for EVA astronauts. Space suits are also described from the past, present and future space missions. The contents include: 1) Why Do You Need A Space Suit?; 2) Generic EVA System Requirements; 3) Apollo Lunar Surface Cycling Certification; 4) EVA Operating Cycles for Mars Surface Missions; 5) Mars Surface EVA Mission Cycle Requirements; 6) Robustness Durability Requirements Comparison; 7) Carry-Weight Capabilities; 8) EVA System Challenges (Mars); 9) Human Planetary Surface Exploration Experience; 10) NASA Johnson Space Center Planetary Analog Activities; 11) Why Perform Remote Field Tests; and 12) Other Reasons Why We Perform Remote Field Tests.

Kosmo, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

10

Designing the Operative Suite  

PubMed Central

The planning of an operative suite involves many considerations, often of a highly technical nature. Requirements have become so diversified and have been elaborated so rapidly that standardization of requirements cannot be anticipated. The concept of grouping interdependent departments has brought the suite down to lower floors. Rooms have become larger to accommodate more monitoring and other equipment, and many more ancillary rooms have been found necessary. A wide wing with double or peripheral corridors is preferable. Air sterilization can be achieved by several methods. The doctors' dressing room is often a danger point in bacterial control and needs redesigning. Patient monitoring is increasing and some features can be built in. TV observation and teaching have tremendous potential but have not been adopted as widely as was anticipated some years ago. If a department needs extensive enlargement, it is much more satisfactory and usually cheaper to construct a new suite in another location. PMID:5843868

Agnew, G. Harvey

1965-01-01

11

HootSuite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people with a wide range of social media responsibilities, HootSuite is a great way to stay connected. HootSuite allows individuals and business teams to coordinate social media connections with their easy-to-use interface that includes scheduled updates, one-click message dissemination, and smart-phone capabilities. The basic (and free) option allows for use of two RSS feeds, five social networks, and 30 days of statistical history. This version is compatible with all operating systems, including Linux.

12

PLANNING THE MUSIC SUITE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PUBLICATION DESIGNED TO IMPROVE THE PLANNING OF MUSIC SUITES IN SCHOOLS. THE INFORMATION CAN BE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF PLANS FOR NEW BUILDINGS AND IMPROVING FACILITIES FOR MUSIC EDUCATION IN EXISTING BUILDINGS. SECTIONS INCLUDED DEAL WITH--(1) THE MUSIC PROGRAM AND SPECIAL NEEDS OF THE MUSIC DEPARTMENT, (2) LOCATION OF MUSIC ROOMS, (3) TYPES…

HICK, BASIL L.; SAETVEIT, JOSEPH G.

13

Advanced Crew Escape Suit.  

PubMed

Design of the S1032 Launch Entry Suit (LES) began following the Challenger loss and NASA's decision to incorporate a Shuttle crew escape system. The LES (see Figure 1) has successfully supported Shuttle missions since NASA's Return to Flight with STS-26 in September 1988. In 1990, engineers began developing the S1035 Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) to serve as a replacement for the LES. The ACES was designed to be a simplified, lightweight, low-bulk pressure suit which aided self donning/doffing, provided improved comfort, and enhanced overall performance to reduce crew member stress and fatigue. Favorable crew member evaluations of a prototype led to full-scale development and qualification of the S1035 ACES between 1990 and 1992. Production of the S1035 ACES began in February 1993, with the first unit delivered to NASA in May 1994. The S1035 ACES first flew aboard STS-68 in August 1994 and will become the primary crew escape suit when the S1032 LES ends its service life in late 1995. The primary goal of the S1035 development program was to provide improved performance over that of the S1032 to minimize the stress and fatigue typically experienced by crew members. To achieve this, five fundamental design objectives were established, resulting in various material/configuration changes. PMID:11540717

1995-09-01

14

Space Suit Spins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space is a hostile environment where astronauts combat extreme temperatures, dangerous radiation, and a near-breathless vacuum. Life support in these unforgiving circumstances is crucial and complex, and failure is not an option for the devices meant to keep astronauts safe in an environment that presents constant opposition. A space suit must meet stringent requirements for life support. The suit has to be made of durable material to withstand the impact of space debris and protect against radiation. It must provide essential oxygen, pressure, heating, and cooling while retaining mobility and dexterity. It is not a simple article of clothing but rather a complex modern armor that the space explorers must don if they are to continue exploring the heavens

2005-01-01

15

20. NBS SUIT LAB. TABLE WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT PARTS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. NBS SUIT LAB. TABLE WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT PARTS AND TERRY WEST, A SPACE SUIT ASSEMBLY TECHNICIAN LOGGING SUIT PART DATA. PARTS ON THE TABLE ARE A HARD UPPER TORSO (HUT) (REAR LEFT), FULL HELMET (FRONT LEFT), TWO HELMETS WITHOUT PROTECTIVE VISORS, A PAIR OF GLOVES, AND A BACKPACK WITHOUT VOLUMETRIC COVER (REAR RIGHT). THE BACKPACK ATTACHES TO THE HUT TO MAKE-UP THE UPPER TORSO COMPONENTS OF THE SUIT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

16

Sustainability Learning Suites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sustainability learning suites is a set of learning objects created for people with a post-secondary science background, organized in six themes: Systems thinking; Sustainable development; Population; Energy; Water and Materials. The materials are designed on Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning and include: learning objectives, editable slides with notes and embedded classroom activities, activities of 1-3 hours, assessments, and a set of 24 videos. These materials were created by Jane Qiong Zhang and Linda Vanasupa in association with Julie B. Zimmerman and James Mihelcic with the assistance of grants from the National Science Foundation.

2012-12-20

17

Clementine sensor suite  

SciTech Connect

LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

Ledebuhr, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-15

18

Plasma Sensor Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress has been made towards the development of a new class of sensors which have the potential to overcome the temperature limitations found in conventional sensors, thus addressing an important measurement challenge faced in the measurement of high speed flows. The new approach is based on the a.c.-driven mass-flow laboratory plasma anemometer developed by Matlis et al. and uses a weakly ionized glow discharge encapsulated between two electrodes as the sensing element. These sensors will feature proven elements of the technology used in the plasma anemometer, but will be extended for high-temperature, multiparameter operation. The sensitivity to different parameters can be provided by the design and orientation of the electrodes. The objective is to replace conventional sensors which provide diagnostics in the laboratory but are known to fail in real-world applications with a suite of rugged sensors optimized to measure wall shear-stress, pressure, temperature, heat flux, mass-flow, strain, and gas species. The advantages of the plasma sensor are that it has no mechanical parts (like a pressure transducer diaphragm) to fatigue or break, its operation is insensitive to temperature, it has a very high frequency response (2MHz +), and its output can be received wirelessly. These advantages over other sensors makes it ideal for use in high speed flows.

Matlis, Eric; Bowles, Patrick; Corke, Thomas

2008-11-01

19

Orion Suit Loop Variable Pressure Regulator Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) integrates the cabin and pressure suits with the core life support systems to provide life support during contingency depressurized cabin operations. To provide the multiple suit pressures between nominal pressurized cabin suited operations, suit leak checks, depressurized cabin suited operations, and elevated suit pressure for denitrification, a variable pressure regulator is needed. This paper documents the development of the suit loop regulator for Orion.

Mosher, Michael; Lewis, John F.; Campbell, Melissa

2012-01-01

20

Orion Suit Loop Variable Pressure Regulator Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) integrates the cabin and pressure suits with the core life support systems to provide life support during contingency depressurized cabin operations. To provide the multipule suit pressures between nominal pressurized cabin suited operations, suit leak checks, depressurized cabin suited operations, and elevated suit pressure for denitrification, a variable pressure regulator is needed. This paper documents the development and integrated testing of the suit loop regulator for Orion.

Mosher, Michael; Vassallo, Andrew; Lewis, John F.; Campbell, Melissa

2014-01-01

21

The Dichotomous HED Meteorite Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan is the largest suite of crustal rocks available from a differentiated asteroid. Attempts to unravel the petrogenetic history of the HED parent body have tacitly assumed that the suite is representative of the crust, and thus can be used to understand the differentiation history of the entire parent body. This assumption is a holdover from a time when we knew little about the HED parent body. Much has changed. Is this assumption still valid? HED Geochemistry: The HED suite is composed

Mittlefehldt, D. W.

2004-01-01

22

Orion ECLSS/Suit System - Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test (APIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Crew and Thermal Systems Division performed this test in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This testing is the first phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. APIST is the first in a series, which will consist of testing development hardware including the Carbon dioxide and Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) and the air revitalization loop fan with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2013, will utilize the CAMRAS and a development regulator with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying cabin and suit pressures. This paper will discuss the results and findings of APIST and will also discuss future testing.

Barido, Richard A.

2012-01-01

23

Next-Generation Space Suits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, MIT engineer Dava Newman is working to replace today's bulky, inflated space suits with a radical, sleek design that may one day allow astronauts to walk easily on Mars.

2011-02-01

24

Compositional Diversity in Volcanic Suites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use whole-rock major- and trace-element compositions of volcanic rocks to explore the origins of compositional variation in igneous suites. With the help of detailed step-by-step instructions, datasets from the Yellowstone and Crater Lake calderas are downloaded from the GEOROC database, imported into Excel spreadsheets, and graphed in the form of "Harker" diagrams to learn about the different petrogeneses of these two volcanic suites.

Ratajeski, Kent

25

Space Suit Joint Torque Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

Valish, Dana J.

2011-01-01

26

Development of Power Assisting Suit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize a wearable power assisting suit for assisting a nurse to carry a patient in her arms, the power supply and control systems of the suit have to be miniaturized, and it has to be wireless and pipeline-less. The new wearable suit consists of shoulders, arms, back, waist and legs units to be fitted on the nurse's body. The arms, waist and legs have new pneumatic rotary actuators driven directly by micro air pumps supplied by portable Ni-Cd batteries. The muscle forces are sensed by a new muscle hardness sensor utilizing a sensing tip mounted on a force sensing film device. An embedded microcomputer is used for the calculations of control signals. The new wearable suit was applied practically to a human body and a series of movement experiments that weights in the arms were held and taken up and down was performed. Each unit of the suit could transmit assisting torque directly to each joint verifying its practicability.

Yamamoto, Keijiro; Ishii, Mineo; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Yoshimitsu, Toshihiro; Matsuo, Takashi

27

Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

1977-01-01

28

Navigation/Prop Software Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Navigation (Nav)/Prop software is used to support shuttle mission analysis, production, and some operations tasks. The Nav/Prop suite containing configuration items (CIs) resides on IPS/Linux workstations. It features lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle navigation and propellant analysis for all flight segments. This suite also includes trajectory server, archive server, and RAT software residing on MCC/Linux workstations. Navigation/Prop represents tool versions established during or after IPS Equipment Rehost-3 or after the MCC Rehost.

Bruchmiller, Tomas; Tran, Sanh; Lee, Mathew; Bucker, Scott; Bupane, Catherine; Bennett, Charles; Cantu, Sergio; Kwong, Ping; Propst, Carolyn

2012-01-01

29

Mars EVA Suit Airlock (MESA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrium Space Infrastructure Division has begun an in-house research activity of an Earth-based simulation facility supporting future manned missions to Mars. This research unit will help to prepare and support planned missions in the following ways: 1) to enable the investigation and analysis of contamination issues in advance of a human visit to Mars; 2) as a design tool to investigate and simulate crew operations; 3) to simulate crew operation during an actual mission; 4) to enable on-surface scientific operations without leaving the shirt-sleeve habitation environment ("glove box principle"). The MESA module is a surface EVA facility attached to the main habitation or laboratory module, or mobile pressurized rover. It will be sealed, but not pressurized, and provide protection against the harsh Martian environment. This module will include a second crew airlock for safety reasons. The compartment can also be used to provide an external working bench and experiment area for the crew. A simpler MESA concept provides only an open shelter against wind and dust. This concept does not incorporate working and experimental areas. The principle idea behind the MESA concept is to tackle the issue of contamination by minimizing the decontamination processes needed to clean surface equipment and crew suit surfaces after an EVA excursion prior to the astronaut re-entering the habitable area. The technical solution envisages the use of a dedicated crew suit airlock. This airlock uses an EVA suit which is externally attached by its back-pack to the EVA compartment area facing the Martian environment. The crew donns the suit from inside the habitable volume through the airlock on the back of the suit. The surface EVA can be accomplished after closing the back-pack and detaching the suit. A special technical design concept foresees an extendable suit back-pack, so that the astronaut can operate outside and in the vincinity of the module. The key driver in the investigation is the problem of contamination of the habitable volume by EVA and sampling activities and the transport of Earth-generated contaminants to Mars.

Ransom, Stephen; Böttcher, Jörg; Steinsiek, Frank

30

Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration  

E-print Network

Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration The V2Suit, operational system The V2Suit is an enabler for space exploration mission technologies, including human THAT WILL REVOLUTIONIZE SPACE MISSIONS AND BENEFIT LIFE ON EARTH 2011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 2050 V2Suit

Bhatia, Sangeeta

31

Spinoff From a Moon Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Al Gross transferred expertise obtained as an ILC engineer for NASA's Apollo program to the manufacture of athletic shoes. Gross substituted DuPont's Hytrel plastic for foam materials in the shoe's midsole, eliminating cushioning loss caused by body weight. An external pressurized shell applied from space suit technology was incorporated into the shoe. Stiffness and cushioning properties of the midsole were "tuned" by varying material thickness and styling lines. A stress free "blow molding" process adapted from NASA space suit design was also utilized. The resulting compression chamber midsole performed well in tests. It allows AVIA to re-configure for specific sports and is a "first step" toward a durable, foamless, non-fatiguing midsole.

1991-01-01

32

Emergency space-suit helmet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A frusto-conically shaped distensible component is described which inflates to encircle a portion of the wearer's head and carries a collapsible member which automatically extends over the remaining portion of the head. A pulley arrangement secured between the walls of the distensible component automatically extends and retracts the collapsible member. When deflated, the unit is carried on the back of the wearer so as to provide an automatic emergency space suit helmet.

Smith, H. A. (inventor)

1970-01-01

33

INTERCONTINENTAL SUITES HOTEL 8800 Euclid Avenue  

E-print Network

-bedroom suites include a living room, dining area, microwave oven, refrigerator and wet bar · Wireless high availability and subject to change and limitations) The InterContinental Suites Hotel is designed to meet

Rollins, Andrew M.

34

Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two -fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z -2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z -1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

Ross, Amy J.

2012-01-01

35

Physics Suite Thinking Problems: Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on the topic of optics developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. Topics covered include Snell's law, the speed of light, electromagnetic waves, EM radiation, EM flux, lenses, mirrors, and diffraction. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-19

36

Physics Suite Thinking Problems: Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on the topic of electricity developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. Topics covered include electric fields, resistors, capacitors, parallel and series combinations, Coulomb's Law, Kirchoff's rules, dipoles, and calculating capacitance. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-19

37

EV space suit gloves (passive)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pair of pressure and thermal insulating overgloves to be used with an Extravehicular (EV) suit assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested. The design features extensive use of Nomex felt materials in lieu of the multiple layer insulation formerly used with the Apollo thermal glove. The glove theoretically satisfies all of the thermal requirements. The presence of the thermal glove does not degrade pressure glove tactility by more than the acceptable 10% value. On the other hand, the thermal glove generally degrades pressure glove mobility by more than the acceptable 10% value, primarily in the area of the fingers. Life cycling tests were completed with minimal problems. The thermal glove/pressure glove ensemble was also tested for comfort; the test subjects found no problems with the thermal glove although they did report difficulties with pressure points on the pressure glove which were independent of the thermal glove.

Fletcher, E. G.; Dodson, J. D.; Elkins, W.; Tickner, E. G.

1975-01-01

38

Physics Suite Sample Problems: Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on the topic of magnetism developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. The topics include magnetic forces and fields, magnetic induction, mass spectrometers, Ampere's Law, inducing current, and Faraday's Law. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-22

39

The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit for space habitation and exploration  

E-print Network

The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) is a countermeasure suit for sensorimotor adaptation and musculoskeletal deconditioning in microgravity. The V2suit will consist of modules containing arrays of control ...

Vasquez, Rebecca (Rebecca Ann)

2014-01-01

40

Gemini astronauts in full pressure suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prime crew for the Gemini 3 mission are photographed in full length portraits in their space suits. Viril I. Grissom (left) and John Young are seen with the portable suit air conditioners connected and their helmets on (19431); Four Gemini astronauts are photographed in full pressure suits. From left to right are John Young and Virgil I. Grissom, the prime crew for Gemini 3; as well as Walter M. Schirra and Thomas P. Stafford, their backup crew (19432).

1964-01-01

41

Contamination avoidance detector test suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination avoidancerefers to the military doctrine of avoiding or minimizing the effects of Chemical and Biological (CB) threats. The location, identification and tracking of CB hazards are also major concern for Homeland CB defense. Several advanced detector systems for both chemical and biological threats are being developed for the Armed Services. Current test equipment and methodologies are inadequate for the complete evaluation of these emerging detector systems. Improvements are needed across the entire test spectrum from agent-simulation correction studies and equipment upgrades to field testing techniques. The Contamination Avoidance Detector Test Suite (CADTS) project is funded by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) under the auspices of the Director for Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E). This agency is responsible to DoD and congress for the adequate testing of any military hardware before release to the warfighter. This paper discusses the issues involved in CB testing and provides an overview of the characteristics and status of the key capabilities that were selected for funding.

Maret, Arthur R.; Castillo, Lorraine C.; Meadows, Eddie; Condie, Lyman W.

2003-08-01

42

Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mark III planetary technology demonstrator space suit can be tailored to an individual by swapping the modular components of the suit, such as the arms, legs, and gloves, as well as adding or removing sizing inserts in key areas. A method was sought to identify the transition from an ideal suit fit to a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using a metric of mobility-based human performance data. To this end, the degradation of the range of motion of the elbow and wrist of the suit as a function of suit sizing modifications was investigated to attempt to improve suit fit. The sizing range tested spanned optimal and poor fit and was adjusted incrementally in order to compare each joint angle across five different sizing configurations. Suited range of motion data were collected using a motion capture system for nine isolated and functional tasks utilizing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm by itself. Findings indicated that no single joint drives the performance of the arm as a function of suit size; instead it is based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb. To determine a size adjustment range where an individual can operate the suit at an acceptable level, a performance detriment limit was set. This user-selected limit reveals the task-dependent tolerance of the suit fit around optimal size. For example, the isolated joint motion indicated that the suit can deviate from optimal by as little as -0.6 in to -2.6 in before experiencing a 10% performance drop in the wrist or elbow joint. The study identified a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and developed a new way to gauge tolerances around optimal size.

Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2012-01-01

43

The PRISM Benchmark Suite Marta Kwiatkowska  

E-print Network

The PRISM Benchmark Suite Marta Kwiatkowska Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford.a.parker@cs.bham.ac.uk Abstract--We present the PRISM benchmark suite: a col- lection of probabilistic models and property of which is the PRISM model checker [1]. Many models for use with PRISM are publicly available, either

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

BDP: BrainSuite Diffusion Pipeline  

E-print Network

BrainSuite13 GUI bdp13.exe bdp13.sh #12; Co-register diffusion and MPRAGE scan Distortion correction: Distortion correction #12; Estimates diffusion tensors FA, MD, color-FA Axial, Radial diffusivity ODFsBDP: BrainSuite Diffusion Pipeline Chitresh Bhushan #12; Quantify microstructural tissue

Leahy, Richard M.

45

A parallel java grande benchmark suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing interest is being shown in the use of Java for large scale or Grande applications. This new use of Java places specific demands on the Java execution environments that can be tested using the Java Grande benchmark suite [5], [6], [7]. The large processing requirements of Grande applications makes parallelisation of interest. A suite of parallel benchmarks has been

L. A. Smith; J. Mark Bull; J. Obdrzálek

2001-01-01

46

DPF: A Data Parallel Fortran Benchmark Suite  

E-print Network

DPF: A Data Parallel Fortran Benchmark Suite Yu Charlie Hu S. Lennart Johnsson Dimitris Kehagias Parallel Processing Symposium, Geneva, Switzerland, April 1997. #12; DPF: A Data Parallel Fortran Benchmark@deas.harvard.edu Abstract We present the Data Parallel Fortran (DPF) benchmark suite, a set of data parallel Fortran codes

Johnsson, S. Lennart

47

A Parallel Java Grande Benchmark Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing interest is being shown in the use of Java for large scale or Grande applications. This new use of Java places speci.c demands on the Java execution environments that can be tested using the Java Grande benchmark suite [5], [6], [7]. The large processing requirements of Grande applications makes parallelisation of interest. A suite of parallel benchmarks has been

L. A. Smith; J. M. Bull; J. Obdrizalek

2001-01-01

48

TSNLP - Test Suites for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing language technology industry needs measurement tools to allow researchers, engineers, managers, and customers to track development, evaluate and assure quality, and assess suitability for a variety of applications.The TSNLP (Test Suites for Natural Language Processing) project has investigated various aspects of the construction, maintenance and application of systematic test suites as diagnostic and evaluation tools for NLP applications.

Sabine Lehmann; Stephan Oepen; Sylvie Regnier-Prost; Klaus Netter; Veronika Lux; Judith Klein; Kirsten Falkedal; Frederik Fouvry; Dominique Estival; Eva Dauphin; Herve Compagnion; Judith Baur; Lorna Balkan; Doug Arnold

1996-01-01

49

A Python Experiment Suite THOMAS RUCKSTIE  

E-print Network

A Python Experiment Suite THOMAS R¨UCKSTIE� Technische Universit¨at M¨unchen, Germany J¨URGEN SCHMIDHUBER Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Lugano, Switzerland We introduce the Python Experiment Suite, an open source software tool written in Python, that supports scientists, engineers

Schmidhuber, Juergen

50

Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

51

Complexity of Sizing for Space Suit Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The `fit? of a garment is often considered to be a subjective measure of garment quality. However, some experts attest that a complaint of poor garment fit is a symptom of inadequate or excessive ease, the space between the garment and the wearer. Fit has traditionally been hard to quantify, and space suits are an extreme example, where fit is difficult to measure but crucial for safety and operability. A proper space suit fit is particularly challenging because of NASA?s need to fit an incredibly diverse population (males and females from the 1st to 99th percentile) while developing a minimum number of space suit sizes. Because so few sizes are available, the available space suits must be optimized so that each fits a large segment of the population without compromising the fit of any one wearer.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

52

Zimbra Collaboration Suite 6.0.3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Zimbra Collaboration Suite is designed to be used in settings such as higher education, government offices, and various enterprising types. The main part of the Suite is an interactive email and calendar server that allows users in many different physical locations coordinate meetings, conferences, and even lets people link-up different email accounts. This particular version is compatible with computers running Linux or Mac OS X 10.5 and newer.

53

Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

2012-01-01

54

Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

2007-01-01

55

Effects of Varying Surface Inclines and Suit Pressure: Implications on Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suited human performance studies in reduced gravity environments to date include limited observations from Apollo Lunar surface Extravehicular Activities (EVA) and from previous studies conducted in partial gravity simulation environments. The Constellation Program EVA Systems Project office has initiated tests to develop design requirements for the next generation Lunar EVA suit. Theses studies were conducted in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility (SVMF) at Johnson Space Center from which the results provided recommendations for suit weight, mass, center of gravity, pressure, and suit kinematic constraints that optimize human performance in partial gravity environments.

Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Harvill, Lauren; Morency, Richard; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2008-01-01

56

Widget Integration with Ericsson Business Communication Suite; Anpassning av "widget" till Ericssons "Business Communication Suite".  

E-print Network

?? Ericssons Business Communication Suite (BCS) är en Unified Communication-lösning, och är avsedd för större företag och teleoperatörer. BCS erbjuder tjänster som snabbmeddelanden, videosamtal, lägga… (more)

Marklund, Alexander

2012-01-01

57

Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion it will be tested in the 11' human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model. The paper also provides a discussion of significant Z-2 configuration features, and how these components evolved from proposal concepts to final designs.

Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David

2014-01-01

58

Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion the Z-2 will be tested in the 11 foot human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' that the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model.

Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

2014-01-01

59

Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion it will be tested in the 11' humanrated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model. The paper also provides a discussion of significant Z-2 configuration features, and how these components evolved from proposal concepts to final designs.

Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

2014-01-01

60

Space suit extravehicular hazards protection development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is an overview of the development of the integral thermal/micrometeoroid garment (ITMG) used for protection of a space-suited crewmember from hazards of various extravehicular environments. These hazard conditions can range from thermal extremes, meteoroid and debris particles, and radiation conditions in near-earth orbits and free space to sand and dust environments encountered on lunar or planetary surfaces. Representative ITMG materials cross-section layups are identified and described for various space-suit configurations ranging from the Gemini Program to planned protective requirements and considerations for anticipated Space Station EV operations.

Kosmo, Joseph J.

1987-01-01

61

A methodology for controlling the size of a test suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique to select a representative set of test cases from a test suite that provides the same coverage as the entire test suite. This selection is performed by identifying, and then eliminating, the redundant and obsolete test cases in the test suite. The representative set replaces the original test suite and thus, potentially produces a smaller

Mary Jean Harrold; Rajiv Gupta; Mary Lou Soffa

1993-01-01

62

The ISPD98 circuit benchmark suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1985-1993, the MCNC regularly introduced and maintained circuit benchmarks for use by the Design Automation community. However, during the last five years, no new circuits have been introduced that can be used for developing fundamental physical design applications, such as partitioning and placement. The largest circuit in the existing set of benchmark suites has over 100,000 modules, but the

Charles J. Alpert

1998-01-01

63

Collaboration Suite Advanced Web Client User Guide  

E-print Network

ZimbraTM Collaboration Suite Advanced Web Client User Guide Version 5.0 #12;Zimbra Web Client User Guide Copyright Notice Copyright © 2008 Zimbra, Inc. All rights reserved materials, onscreen publication, or Web documentation--is expressly forbidden. Zimbra and the Zimbra logo

Shepp, Larry

64

DPF: A Data Parallel Fortran Benchmark Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the Data Parallel Fortran (DPF) benchmark suite, a set of data parallel Fortran codes for evaluating data parallel compilers appropriate for any target parallel archi- tecture, with shared or distributed memory. The codes are provided in basic, optimized and several library versions. The functionality of the benchmarks cover collective commu- nication functions, scientific software library functions, and application

Y. Charlie Hu; S. Lennart Johnsson; Dimitris Kehagias; Nadia Shalaby

1997-01-01

65

DPF: A Data Parallel Fortran Benchmark Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Data Parallel Fortran (DPF) benchmark suite is designed for evaluating data parallelcompilers and scalable architectures. Many of the DPF codes are provided in three versions:basic, optimized and with library calls for performance critical operations typically foundin software libraries. The functionality of the benchmarks cover collective communicationfunctions, scientific software library functions, and application kernels that reflect the computationalstructure and...

Nadia Shalaby; Dimitris Kehagias; S. Lennart Johnsson; Yu Hu

1995-01-01

66

Brief Announcement: The Problem Based Benchmark Suite  

E-print Network

). PBBS is a set of benchmarks designed for comparing par- allel algorithmic approaches, parallel [Analysis of Algorithms and Problem Complexity]: General Keywords: Parallel Algorithms, BenchmarkingBrief Announcement: The Problem Based Benchmark Suite Julian Shun Guy E. Blelloch Jeremy T. Fineman

67

Prioritisation of test suites containing precedence constraints  

E-print Network

1 Prioritisation of test suites containing precedence constraints Tim Miller Department@unimelb.edu.au Abstract--Test case prioritisation is the process of ordering the exe- cution of test cases to achieve a certain goal, such as increasing the rate of fault detection. Many existing test case prioritisation

Miller, Tim

68

Cave Biosignature Suites: Microbes, Minerals, and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's subsurface offers one of the best possible sites to search for microbial life and the characteristic lithologies that life leaves behind. The subterrain may be equally valuable for astrobiology. Where surface conditions are particularly hostile, like on Mars, the subsurface may offer the only habitat for extant lifeforms and access to recognizable biosignatures. We have identified numerous unequivocally biogenic macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical/geochemical cave biosignatures. However, to be especially useful for astrobiology, we are looking for suites of characteristics. Ideally, "biosignature suites" should be both macroscopically and microscopically detectable, independently verifiable by nonmorphological means, and as independent as possible of specific details of life chemistries - demanding (and sometimes conflicting) criteria. Working in fragile, legally protected environments, we developed noninvasive and minimal impact techniques for life and biosignature detection/characterization analogous to Planetary Protection Protocols. Our difficult field conditions have shared limitations common to extraterrestrial robotic and human missions. Thus, the cave/subsurface astrobiology model addresses the most important goals from both scientific and operational points of view. We present details of cave biosignature suites involving manganese and iron oxides, calcite, and sulfur minerals. Suites include morphological fossils, mineral-coated filaments, living microbial mats and preserved biofabrics, 13C and 34S values consistent with microbial metabolism, genetic data, unusual elemental abundances and ratios, and crystallographic mineral forms.

Boston, P. J.; Spilde, M. N.; Northup, D. E.; Melim, L. A.; Soroka, D. S.; Kleina, L. G.; Lavoie, K. H.; Hose, L. D.; Mallory, L. M.; Dahm, C. N.; Crossey, L. J.; Schelble, R. T.

2001-03-01

69

977 Garfield, Suite 6 Eugene, OR 97402  

E-print Network

977 Garfield, Suite 6 Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-0001 EugeneOR@expresspros.com As a full · Professional Search and Contract · Flexible Staffing EUGENE EXPRESS OFFICE OVERVIEW Pat Murphy began with the first franchise in Lewiston, Idaho in 1974. Seeking new opportunities the Eugene office

Oregon, University of

70

Imagining Chivalry: Charles V's Suits of Steel  

E-print Network

history, and himself possessed of the courage and loyalty of the chivalric codes intrinsically embedded into the suits of steel.Steel A Thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Art History

Machado, Erin Jeannine

2012-01-01

71

What's New with MS Office Suites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If one buys a new PC, laptop, or netbook computer today, it probably comes preloaded with Microsoft Office 2010 Starter Edition. This is a significantly limited, advertising-laden version of Microsoft's suite of productivity programs, Microsoft Office. This continues the trend of PC makers providing ever more crippled versions of Microsoft's…

Goldsborough, Reid

2012-01-01

72

In Outer Space without a Space Suit?  

E-print Network

The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen is lacking. In this case the main problem is how to satiate human blood with oxygen and delete carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide). The proposed system would enable a person to function in outer space without a space suit and, for a long time, without food. That is useful also in the Earth for sustaining working men in an otherwise deadly atmosphere laden with lethal particulates (in case of nuclear, chemical or biological war), in underground confined spaces without fresh air, under water or a top high mountains above a height that can sustain respiration.

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-06-24

73

AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.

Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

1990-01-01

74

XTCE GOVSAT Tool Suite 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XTCE GOVSAT software suite contains three tools: validation, search, and reporting. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) Telemetric and Command Exchange (XTCE) GOVSAT Tool Suite is written in Java for manipulating XTCE XML files. XTCE is a Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and Object Management Group (OMG) specification for describing the format and information in telemetry and command packet streams. These descriptions are files that are used to configure real-time telemetry and command systems for mission operations. XTCE s purpose is to exchange database information between different systems. XTCE GOVSAT consists of rules for narrowing the use of XTCE for missions. The Validation Tool is used to syntax check GOVSAT XML files. The Search Tool is used to search (i.e. command and telemetry mnemonics) the GOVSAT XML files and view the results. Finally, the Reporting Tool is used to create command and telemetry reports. These reports can be displayed or printed for use by the operations team.

Rice, J. Kevin

2013-01-01

75

An MBSE Approach to Space Suit Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA/Space Suit Development Office (ESSD) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) team has utilized MBSE in multiple programs. After developing operational and architectural models, the MBSE framework was expanded to link the requirements space to the system models through functional analysis and interfaces definitions. By documenting all the connections within the technical baseline, ESSD experienced significant efficiency improvements in analysis and identification of change impacts. One of the biggest challenges presented to the MBSE structure was a program transition and restructuring effort, which was completed successfully in 4 months culminating in the approval of a new EVA Technical Baseline. During this time three requirements sets spanning multiple DRMs were streamlined into one NASA-owned Systems Requirement Document (SRD) that successfully identified requirements relevant to the current hardware development effort while remaining extensible to support future hardware developments. A capability-based hierarchy was established to provide a more flexible framework for future space suit development that can support multiple programs with minimal rework of basic EVA/Space Suit requirements. This MBSE approach was most recently applied for generation of an EMU Demonstrator technical baseline being developed for an ISS DTO. The relatively quick turnaround of operational concepts, architecture definition, and requirements for this new suit development has allowed us to test and evolve the MBSE process and framework in an extremely different setting while still offering extensibility and traceability throughout ESSD projects. The ESSD MBSE framework continues to be evolved in order to support integration of all products associated with the SE&I engine.

Cordova, Lauren; Kovich, Christine; Sargusingh, Miriam

2012-01-01

76

The bioenergetics of walking and running in space suits  

E-print Network

Space-suited activity is critical for human spaceflight, and is synonymous with human planetary exploration. Space suits impose kinematic and kinetic boundary conditions that affect movement and locomotion, and in doing ...

Carr, Christopher E. (Christopher Edward), 1976-

2005-01-01

77

18. NBS SUIT LAB. OVERALL VIEW. ALL WORK TABLES WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. NBS SUIT LAB. OVERALL VIEW. ALL WORK TABLES WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT COMPONENTS AND SUPPLIES. TERRY WEST TO LEFT, AND PAUL DUMBACHER TO RIGHT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

78

UC DAVIS FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER 1909 Galileo Court, Suite B  

E-print Network

UC DAVIS FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER 1909 Galileo Court, Suite B Davis, CA 95618 Directions to the UC Davis Forensic Science Center: Exit I80 south on Richards Blvd. Richards Blvd. changes its name at the end of the court. Our office is on the right, Suite B. FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER SUITE B Key Contact

Peisert, Sean

79

Hormone-mediated suites as adaptations and evolutionary constraints  

E-print Network

Review Hormone-mediated suites as adaptations and evolutionary constraints Joel W. McGlothlin1, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA Hormones mediate the expression of suites of correlated within a hormone-mediated suite may, for example, lead to a change in the strength of the hormone signal

80

Concept of Space Suit Enclosure for Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present advanced projects of the early XXI century are beginning to develop. These projects include lunar base development and manned missions to Mars. The space suit is one of the basic requirements for successful implementation of future programs. The space suit enclosure enables mobility of crewmembers wearing pressurized space suits which will be required to complete these missions. Requirements

I. Abramov; N. Moiseyev; A. Stoklitsky

81

Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at low pressures that simulate a PLSS environment. We obtained head/flow performance curves over a range of operating speeds, identified the maximum efficiency point for the blower, and used these results to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We designed a compact motor that can drive the blower under all anticipated operating requirements and operate with high efficiency during normal operation. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment. We produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSS ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm and consuming only 9 W of electric power and using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power blower can meet the performance requirements for future PLSSs.

Paul, Heather; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

2008-01-01

82

DASCAR sensor suite and video data system  

SciTech Connect

A research program oriented toward the development of a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research has been conducted. This paper discusses the background to the project and the requirements for the data acquisition system. it also provides a brief system overview and describes two of the system`s five major elements, the sensor suite and the video data system, in detail. Components, functions, and specifications are covered Finally the paper addresses the central data collection/analysis facility which was assembled to manage the sensor and video data, and presents the potential uses of the data acquisition system.

Carter, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barickman, F.S. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, East Liberty, OH (United States). Vehicle Research and Test Center; Goodman, M.J. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Crash Avoidance Research

1996-12-31

83

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Rotational Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on rotational motion, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative question (usually multiple choice) that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include centrifugal force, angular speed, torque, rotational energy, and rotational friction. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

84

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on dynamics, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative (usually multiple choice) question that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include force, acceleration, normal force, friction, tension, and motion in two dimensions. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

85

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Heat & Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on heat and temperature, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative question (usually multiple choice) that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include heat lost to friction, mixing liquids of different temperatures, and thermal energy. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

86

LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 48 UN MINITEL -UN MODEM 1 (SUITE) UN MINITEL -UN MODEM 1 (SUITE)  

E-print Network

205 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N° 48 UN MINITEL - UN MODEM 1 (SUITE) UN MINITEL - UN MODEM 1 (SUITE;207 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI UN MINITEL - UN MODEM 1 (SUITE) Et le logiciel ? Il serait intéressant que ceux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

GenePattern flow cytometry suite  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional flow cytometry data analysis is largely based on interactive and time consuming analysis of series two dimensional representations of up to 20 dimensional data. Recent technological advances have increased the amount of data generated by the technology and outpaced the development of data analysis approaches. While there are advanced tools available, including many R/BioConductor packages, these are only accessible programmatically and therefore out of reach for most experimentalists. GenePattern is a powerful genomic analysis platform with over 200 tools for analysis of gene expression, proteomics, and other data. A web-based interface provides easy access to these tools and allows the creation of automated analysis pipelines enabling reproducible research. Results In order to bring advanced flow cytometry data analysis tools to experimentalists without programmatic skills, we developed the GenePattern Flow Cytometry Suite. It contains 34 open source GenePattern flow cytometry modules covering methods from basic processing of flow cytometry standard (i.e., FCS) files to advanced algorithms for automated identification of cell populations, normalization and quality assessment. Internally, these modules leverage from functionality developed in R/BioConductor. Using the GenePattern web-based interface, they can be connected to build analytical pipelines. Conclusions GenePattern Flow Cytometry Suite brings advanced flow cytometry data analysis capabilities to users with minimal computer skills. Functionality previously available only to skilled bioinformaticians is now easily accessible from a web browser. PMID:23822732

2013-01-01

88

Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

2000-01-01

89

Supreme Court Rejects Federal Suits against HMOs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Supreme Court ruled yesterday that patients cannot sue HMOs in Federal court for giving doctors financial incentives to hold down treatment costs. Reversing a Federal Appeals Court decision that argued such suits could be allowed, Justice Souter, writing for a unanimous Court, concluded that Congress's intent in passing a 1973 law paving the way for HMOs was to affirm the entire concept of managed care, including its emphasis on creating profitability by keeping costs down. The court ruled that an Illinois woman could not sue her HMO under federal law for putting in place incentives that encouraged her doctor to delay diagnostic treatment of what would eventually become a ruptured appendix. The High Court was not swayed by the Court of Appeals's argument that one could distinguish between financial incentives that resulted in inappropriate or inadequate care and those that did not.

Charbonneau, David D.

90

Suited Occupant Injury Potential During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Constellation Space Suit Element [CSSE], a new space-suit architecture will be created for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Microgravity Extra- Vehicular Activity [EVA], and post-landing crew operations, safety and, under emergency conditions, survival. The space suit is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort [LEA] suit architectures in that it utilizes rigid mobility elements in the scye (i.e., shoulder) and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also utilizes rigid thigh disconnect elements to create a quick disconnect approximately located above the knee. This feature allows commonality of the lower portion of the suit (from the thigh disconnect down), making the lower legs common across two suit configurations. This suit must interface with the Orion vehicle seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to the unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic vehicle events, risks have been identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series has been developed in coordination with the Injury Biomechanics Research Laboratory [IBRL] to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing includes use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices [ATDs; vernacularly referred to as "crash test dummies"], Post Mortem Human Subjects [PMHS], and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on test purpose and objectives; test hardware, facility, and setup; and preliminary results.

Dub, Mark O.; McFarland, Shane M.

2010-01-01

91

Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

Newman, Dava

2003-01-01

92

Innovative technology summary report: Sealed-seam sack suits  

SciTech Connect

Sealed-seam sack suits are an improved/innovative safety and industrial hygiene technology designed to protect workers from dermal exposure to contamination. Most of these disposable, synthetic-fabric suits are more protective than cotton suits, and are also water-resistant and gas permeable. Some fabrics provide a filter to aerosols, which is important to protection against contamination, while allowing air to pass, increasing comfort level of workers. It is easier to detect body-moisture breakthrough with the disposable suits than with cotton, which is also important to protecting workers from contamination. These suits present a safe and cost-effective (6% to 17% less expensive than the baseline) alternative to traditional protective clothing. This report covers the period from October 1996 to August 1997. During that time, sealed-seam sack suits were demonstrated during daily activities under normal working conditions at the C Reactor and under environmentally controlled conditions at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

NONE

1998-09-01

93

A CAD Suite for High-Performance FPGA Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the current status of a suite of CADtools designed specifically for use by designers who aredeveloping high-performance configurable-computing applications.The basis of this tool suite is JHDL [1], a designtool originally conceived as a way to experiment withRun-Time Reconfigured (RTR) designs. However, whatbegan as a limited experiment to model RTR designs withJava has evolved into a comprehensive suite

Brad L. Hutchings; Peter Bellows; Joseph Hawkins; K. Scott Hemmert; Brent E. Nelson; Mike Rytting

1999-01-01

94

Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space suit's mobility is critical to an astronaut's ability to perform work efficiently. As mobility increases, the astronaut can perform tasks for longer durations with less fatigue. Mobility can be broken down into two parts: range of motion (ROM) and torque. These two measurements describe how the suit moves and how much force it takes to move. Two methods were chosen to define mobility requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). One method focuses on range of motion and the second method centers on joint torque. A joint torque test was conducted to determine a baseline for current advanced space suit joint torques. This test utilized the following space suits: Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), I-Suit, D-Suit, Enhanced Mobility (EM)- ACES, and Mark III (MK-III). Data was collected data from 16 different joint movements of each suit. The results were then reviewed and CSSE joint torque requirement values were selected. The focus of this paper is to discuss trends observed during data analysis.

Matty, Jennifer

2010-01-01

95

Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

2009-01-01

96

Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

2009-01-01

97

An advanced missile warning processing suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective missile warning and countermeasures remain an unfulfilled goal for the Air Force and others in the DOD community. To make the expectations a reality, newer sensors exhibiting the required sensitivity, field of regard, and spatial resolution are being developed and transitioned. The largest concern is in the first stage of a missile warning system: detection, in which all targets need to be detected with a high confidence and with very few false alarms. Typical fielded sensors are limited in their detection capability by either lack of sensitivity or by the presence of heavy background clutter, sun glints, and inherent sensor noise. Many threat environments include false alarm sources like burning fuels, flares, exploding ordinance, arc welders, and industrial emitters. Multicolor discrimination has been shown as one of the effective ways to improve the performance of missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. Its utility has been demonstrated in multiple demonstration and fielded systems. New exploitations of background and clutter spectral contents, coupled with advanced spatial and temporal filtering techniques, have resulted in a need to have a new baseline algorithm on which future processing advances may be judged against. This paper describes the AFRL Suite IIIc algorithm chain and its performance against long-range dim targets in clutter.

Montgomery, Joel B.; Sanderson, Richard B.; McCalmont, John F.; Johnson, R. S.; McDermott, D. J.; Taylor, M. J.

2008-04-01

98

Engineering Software Suite Validates System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EDAptive Computing Inc.'s (ECI) EDAstar engineering software tool suite, created to capture and validate system design requirements, was significantly funded by NASA's Ames Research Center through five Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. These programs specifically developed Syscape, used to capture executable specifications of multi-disciplinary systems, and VectorGen, used to automatically generate tests to ensure system implementations meet specifications. According to the company, the VectorGen tests considerably reduce the time and effort required to validate implementation of components, thereby ensuring their safe and reliable operation. EDASHIELD, an additional product offering from ECI, can be used to diagnose, predict, and correct errors after a system has been deployed using EDASTAR -created models. Initial commercialization for EDASTAR included application by a large prime contractor in a military setting, and customers include various branches within the U.S. Department of Defense, industry giants like the Lockheed Martin Corporation, Science Applications International Corporation, and Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, as well as NASA's Langley and Glenn Research Centers

2007-01-01

99

Resource Discovery Network (RDN) Virtual Training Suite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaboration between 30 universities, this Virtual Training Suite provides 40 tutorials designed to help students, lecturers, and researchers improve their Internet information skills. Based on a United Kingdom initiative to offer free online training, these tutorials cover specific web skills for those in disciplines such as math, the history and philosophy of science, geography, bioresearch, earth science, and others. Each tutorial provides expert "tour guides" developed by universities, libraries, museums, and research institutes across the UK. Representative web-based resources are showcased, but the main objective is to teach users how to find the resources that match their particular needs and interests. The tutorials also focus on the critical and evaluative skills required to judge the merits of specific web resources. There is a glossary, a section for teacher resources, downloadable workbooks, and a discussion on how to cite Internet resources. Each tutorial includes quizzes and interactive exercises. Five hubs for tutorial development include: SOSIG (The Social Science Information Gateway), EEVL (The Internet Guide for Engineering, Mathematics and Computing), BIOME (Internet Resources in Health and Life Sciences), PSIgate (The Physical Sciences Information Gateway) and HUMBUL (The Humanities Hub).

2000-01-01

100

Automated structure solution with the PHENIX suite  

SciTech Connect

Significant time and effort are often required to solve and complete a macromolecular crystal structure. The development of automated computational methods for the analysis, solution, and completion of crystallographic structures has the potential to produce minimally biased models in a short time without the need for manual intervention. The PHENIX software suite is a highly automated system for macromolecular structure determination that can rapidly arrive at an initial partial model of a structure without significant human intervention, given moderate resolution, and good quality data. This achievement has been made possible by the development of new algorithms for structure determination, maximum-likelihood molecular replacement (PHASER), heavy-atom search (HySS), template- and pattern-based automated model-building (RESOLVE, TEXTAL), automated macromolecular refinement (phenix. refine), and iterative model-building, density modification and refinement that can operate at moderate resolution (RESOLVE, AutoBuild). These algorithms are based on a highly integrated and comprehensive set of crystallographic libraries that have been built and made available to the community. The algorithms are tightly linked and made easily accessible to users through the PHENIX Wizards and the PHENIX GUI.

Terwilliger, Thomas C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zwart, Peter H [LBNL; Afonine, Pavel V [LBNL; Grosse - Kunstleve, Ralf W [LBNL

2008-01-01

101

Automated Structure Solution with the PHENIX Suite  

SciTech Connect

Significant time and effort are often required to solve and complete a macromolecular crystal structure. The development of automated computational methods for the analysis, solution and completion of crystallographic structures has the potential to produce minimally biased models in a short time without the need for manual intervention. The PHENIX software suite is a highly automated system for macromolecular structure determination that can rapidly arrive at an initial partial model of a structure without significant human intervention, given moderate resolution and good quality data. This achievement has been made possible by the development of new algorithms for structure determination, maximum-likelihood molecular replacement (PHASER), heavy-atom search (HySS), template and pattern-based automated model-building (RESOLVE, TEXTAL), automated macromolecular refinement (phenix.refine), and iterative model-building, density modification and refinement that can operate at moderate resolution (RESOLVE, AutoBuild). These algorithms are based on a highly integrated and comprehensive set of crystallographic libraries that have been built and made available to the community. The algorithms are tightly linked and made easily accessible to users through the PHENIX Wizards and the PHENIX GUI.

Zwart, Peter H.; Zwart, Peter H.; Afonine, Pavel; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Hung, Li-Wei; Ioerger, Tom R.; McCoy, A.J.; McKee, Eric; Moriarty, Nigel; Read, Randy J.; Sacchettini, James C.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Storoni, L.C.; Terwilliger, Tomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

2008-06-09

102

Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

Watson, Richard D.

2014-01-01

103

Morphing: A Novel Approach to Astronaut Suit Sizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fitting of a spacesuit to an astronaut is an iterative process consisting of two parts. The first uses anthropometric data to provide an approximation of the suit components that will fit the astronaut. The second part is the subjective fitting, where small adjustments are made based on the astronaut s preference. By providing a better approximation of the correct suit components, the entire fit process time can be reduced significantly. The goals of this project are twofold: (1) To evaluate the effectiveness of the existing sizing algorithm for the Mark III Hybrid suit and (2) to determine what additional components are needed in order to provide adequate sizing for the existing astronaut population. A single subject was scanned using a 3D whole-body scanner (VITUS 3D) in the Mark III suit in eight different poses and four subjects in minimal clothing were also scanned in similar poses. The 3D external body scans of the suit and the subject are overlaid and visually aligned in a customized MATLAB program. The suit components were contracted or expanded linearly along the subjects limbs to match the subjects segmental lengths. Two independent measures were obtained from the morphing program on four subjects and compared with the existing sizing information. Two of the four subjects were in correspondence with the sizing algorithm and morphing results. The morphing outcome for a third subject, incompatible with the suit, suggested that an additional arm element at least 6 inches smaller than the existing smallest suit component would need to be acquired. The morphing result of the fourth subject, deemed incompatible with the suit using the sizing algorithm, indicated a different suit configuration which would be compatible. This configuration matched with the existing suit fit check data.

Margerum, Sarah; Clowers, Kurt; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2006-01-01

104

Towards a Common TCP Evaluation Suite Cisco Systems  

E-print Network

Towards a Common TCP Evaluation Suite Lachlan Andrew Caltech Cesar Marcondes UCLA Sally Floyd ICSI Injong Rhee NCSU Abstract--This document presents an evaluation test suite for the initial evaluation to evaluate their proposed TCP extensions in simulators and testbeds using a common set of well

Andrew, Lachlan

105

The RAW benchmark suite: computation structures for general purpose computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RAW benchmark suite consists of twelve programs designed to facilitate comparing, validating, and improv- ing reconfigur able computing systems. These benchmarks run the gamut of algorithmsfound in general purposecom- puting, including sorting, matrix operations, and graph al- gorithms. The suite includes an architecture-independent compilation framework, Raw Computation Structures (RawCS), to express each algorithm's dependencies and to support ...

Jonathan Babb; Matthew Frank; Victor Lee; Elliot Waingold; Rajeev Barua; Michael Bedford Taylor; Jang Kim; Devabhaktuni Srikrishna; Anant Agarwal

1997-01-01

106

Knowledge-based interactive design for men's suit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, The design knowledge and sensory knowledge related to men's suit were elicited and acquired from designers by interviewing, laddering and card sorting etc.. The former included design elements and design rules, and the latter referred to the sensory image and semantic space. Design elements of Men's suit were discussed and divided into nine parts: silhouette, style line

Hong Lu; Yan Chen

2010-01-01

107

33 CFR 144.20-5 - Exposure suits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exposure suits. This section applies to each MODU except those operating south of 32 degrees North latitude in the Atlantic Ocean or south of 35 degrees North latitude in all other waters. (a) Each MODU must carry an exposure suit for...

2010-07-01

108

Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics  

E-print Network

Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics Kevin Jalbert, Jeremy S, Canada {kevin.jalbert, jeremy.bradbury}@uoit.ca Abstract--Mutation testing has traditionally been used to evaluate the effectiveness of test suites and provide confidence in the testing process. Mutation testing

Bradbury, Jeremy S.

109

Automated Test Suites for Modern Aircraft Controllers Jan Peleska  

E-print Network

Automated Test Suites for Modern Aircraft Controllers Jan Peleska Technologie-Zentrum Informatik;guration of aircraft control systems. Controllers developed according to this concept are tested in two as integrated in the IMA controller is checked. In this article, aspects of automated test suite generation

Peleska, Jan - Fachbereich 3

110

A New Ablative Heat Shield Sensor Suite Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new sensor suite is developed to measure performance of ablative thermal protection systems used in planetary entry vehicles for robotic and human exploration. The new sensor suite measures ablation of the thermal protection system under extreme heating encountered during planetary entry. The sensor technology is compatible with a variety of thermal protection materials, and is applicable over a wide range of entry conditions.

Bose, Deepak

2014-01-01

111

Wireless hydrotherapy smart suit for monitoring handicapped people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a smart suit, water impermeable, containing sensors and electronics for monitoring handicapped people at hydrotherapy sessions in swimming-pools. For integration into textiles, electronic components should be designed in a functional, robust and inexpensive way. Therefore, small-size electronics microsystems are a promising approach. The smart suit allows the monitoring of individual biometric data, such as heart rate, temperature

J. H. Correia; P. M. Mendes

112

Wireless hydrotherapy smart suit for monitoring handicapped people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a smart suit, water impermeable, containing sensors and electronics for monitoring handicapped people at hydrotherapy sessions in swimming-pools. For integration into textiles, electronic components should be designed in a functional, robust and inexpensive way. Therefore, small-size electronics microsystems are a promising approach. The smart suit allows the monitoring of individual biometric data, such as heart rate, temperature

Jose H. Correia; Paulo M. Mendes

2005-01-01

113

Vehicle-network defensive aids suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defensive Aids Suites (DAS) developed for vehicles can be extended to the vehicle network level. The vehicle network, typically comprising four platoon vehicles, will benefit from improved communications and automation based on low latency response to threats from a flexible, dynamic, self-healing network environment. Improved DAS performance and reliability relies on four complementary sensor technologies including: acoustics, visible and infrared optics, laser detection and radar. Long-range passive threat detection and avoidance is based on dual-purpose optics, primarily designed for manoeuvring, targeting and surveillance, combined with dazzling, obscuration and countermanoeuvres. Short-range active armour is based on search and track radar and intercepting grenades to defeat the threat. Acoustic threat detection increases the overall robustness of the DAS and extends the detection range to include small calibers. Finally, detection of active targeting systems is carried out with laser and radar warning receivers. Synthetic scene generation will provide the integrated environment needed to investigate, develop and validate these new capabilities. Computer generated imagery, based on validated models and an acceptable set of benchmark vignettes, can be used to investigate and develop fieldable sensors driven by real-time algorithms and countermeasure strategies. The synthetic scene environment will be suitable for sensor and countermeasure development in hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The research effort focuses on two key technical areas: a) computing aspects of the synthetic scene generation and b) and development of adapted models and databases. OneSAF is being developed for research and development, in addition to the original requirement of Simulation and Modelling for Acquisition, Rehearsal, Requirements and Training (SMARRT), and is becoming useful as a means for transferring technology to other users, researchers and contractors. This procedure eliminates the need to construct ad hoc models and databases. The vehicle network can be modelled phenomenologically until more information is available. These concepts and approach will be discussed in the paper.

Rapanotti, John

2005-05-01

114

Planetary Suit Hip Bearing Model for Predicting Design vs. Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. In order to verifying that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must eventually be built and tested with human subjects. Using computer models early in the design phase of new hardware development can be advantageous, allowing virtual prototyping to take place. Having easily modifiable models of the suit hard sections may reduce the time it takes to make changes to the hardware designs and then to understand their impact on suit and human performance. A virtual design environment gives designers the ability to think outside the box and exhaust design possibilities before building and testing physical prototypes with human subjects. Reductions in prototyping and testing may eventually reduce development costs. This study is an attempt to develop computer models of the hard components of the suit with known physical characteristics, supplemented with human subject performance data. Objectives: The primary objective was to develop an articulating solid model of the Mark III hip bearings to be used for evaluating suit design performance of the hip joint. Methods: Solid models of a planetary prototype (Mark III) suit s hip bearings and brief section were reverse-engineered from the prototype. The performance of the models was then compared by evaluating the mobility performance differences between the nominal hardware configuration and hardware modifications. This was accomplished by gathering data from specific suited tasks. Subjects performed maximum flexion and abduction tasks while in a nominal suit bearing configuration and in three off-nominal configurations. Performance data for the hip were recorded using state-of-the-art motion capture technology. Results: The results demonstrate that solid models of planetary suit hard segments for use as a performance design tool is feasible. From a general trend perspective, the suited performance trends were comparable between the model and the suited subjects. With the three off-nominal bearing configurations compared to the nominal bearing configurations, human subjects showed decreases in hip flexion of 64%, 6%, and 13% and in hip abduction of 59%, 2%, and 20%. Likewise the solid model showed decreases in hip flexion of 58%, 1%, and 25% and in hip abduction of 56%, 0%, and 30%, under the same condition changes from the nominal configuration. Differences seen between the model predictions and the human subject performance data could be attributed to the model lacking dynamic elements and performing kinematic analysis only, the level of fit of the subjects with the suit, the levels of the subject s suit experience.

Cowley, Matthew S.; Margerum, Sarah; Harvil, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

115

Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

2007-01-01

116

A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead. PMID:23202204

Dini, Gianluca; Duca, Angelica Lo

2012-01-01

117

Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step was to certify the equipment for manned used, which included generating a Hazard Analysis and giving a presentation to the Test Readiness Review Board. Both of these test support systems will perform critical roles in the development of next-generation space suits. They will used on a regular basis to test the NASA's new Z-2 Space Suit. The Space Suit Cooling System is now the primary cooling system for all advanced suit tests.

Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

2013-01-01

118

The physiology of spacecraft and space suit atmosphere selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors which are considered in arriving at control values and control ranges of the parameters established for spacecraft and space suit environments include physiological, engineering, operational cost, and safety considerations. A number of physiological considerations are discussed, including hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia, temperature regulation, and decompression sickness. The impact of these considerations on space craft and space suit atmosphere selection is considered. The past experience in controlling these parameters in the U.S. and Soviet spacecraft and space suits and the associated physical responses are also reviewed. Physiological factors currently under investigation are discussed, including decompression sickness.

Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J.; Nicogossian, A.

1991-01-01

119

30/03/08 1:36 PMFact Sheet NSA Suite B Cryptography Page 1 of 3http://www.nsa.gov/ia/industry/crypto_suite_b.cfm  

E-print Network

30/03/08 1:36 PMFact Sheet NSA Suite B Cryptography Page 1 of 3http://www.nsa.gov/ia/industry/crypto_suite_b.cfm >>Fact Sheet NSA Suite B Cryptography Background: The sustained and rapid advance of information and National Security Information (CNSSP-15), the National Security Agency (NSA) announced Suite B Cryptography

Soltys, Michael

120

Overview of the CCP4 suite and current developments  

PubMed Central

The CCP4 (Collaborative Computational Project, Number 4) software suite is a collection of programs and associated data and software libraries which can be used for macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography. The suite is designed to be flexible, allowing users a number of methods of achieving their aims. The programs are from a wide variety of sources but are connected by a common infrastructure provided by standard file formats, data objects and graphical interfaces. Structure solution by macromolecular crystallo­graphy is becoming increasingly automated and the CCP4 suite includes several automation pipelines. After giving a brief description of the evolution of CCP4 over the last 30 years, an overview of the current suite is given. While detailed descriptions are given in the accompanying articles, here it is shown how the individual programs contribute to a complete software package. PMID:21460441

Winn, Martyn D.; Ballard, Charles C.; Cowtan, Kevin D.; Dodson, Eleanor J.; Emsley, Paul; Evans, Phil R.; Keegan, Ronan M.; Krissinel, Eugene B.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; McCoy, Airlie; McNicholas, Stuart J.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Pannu, Navraj S.; Potterton, Elizabeth A.; Powell, Harold R.; Read, Randy J.; Vagin, Alexei; Wilson, Keith S.

2011-01-01

121

Microsatellite Evolution: Markov Transition Functions for a Suite of Models  

E-print Network

Microsatellite Evolution: Markov Transition Functions for a Suite of Models Joseph C. Watkins an overview, see the book edited by Goldstein and Schotterer, 1999. For a popular account, see Moxon and Wills

Watkins, Joseph C.

122

19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, background north & east facades of Forest Hall. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

123

Engineering a robotic exoskeleton for space suit simulation  

E-print Network

Novel methods for assessing space suit designs and human performance capabilities are needed as NASA prepares for manned missions beyond low Earth orbit. Current human performance tests and training are conducted in space ...

Meyen, Forrest Edward

2013-01-01

124

NASA Research Announcement for Space Suit Survivability Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the research activities for space suit survivability material enhancements. Self-sealing mechanisms for the pressure envelope were addressed, as were improvements in materials for cut, puncture, and hypervelocity impact resistance.

Fredrickson, Thad H.; Ware, Joanne S.; Lin, John K.; Pastore, Christopher M.

1998-01-01

125

Potential techniques and development activities in diver suit heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype compact reactor suitable for combustion of propane with oxygen under shallow as well as submerged deep submergence diving conditions is reported. The device is used to heat the circulating water in a water tube-type diving suit.

Shlosinger, A. P.

1972-01-01

126

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN  

E-print Network

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE and Construction Key words: Preventive conservation, traditional conservation practices, risk reduction, heritage management Abstract The concept of "preventive conservation" is relatively old as it has already been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

Mechanical counter-pressure space suit design using active materials  

E-print Network

Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) space suits have the potential to greatly improve the mobility of astronauts as they conduct planetary exploration activities; however, the underlying technologies required to provide ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2014-01-01

128

Global Energy Partners, LLC 500 Ygnacio Valley Road, Suite 450  

E-print Network

Global Energy Partners, LLC 500 Ygnacio Valley Road, Suite 450 Walnut Creek, CA 94596 P: 925 Construction Model Calculation Methodology......................... 2-6 2.5 New Construction Model Calculation

129

Fighting Back: What Redress Media have against Frivolous Libel Suits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that while mechanisms exist to enable news media defendants to file countersuits in nuisance and trivial suits, recent cases in the medical field indicate that the likelihood of success is slight. (FL)

Riley, Sam G.

1982-01-01

130

136. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6600 EAST, SUITE 6616, DETAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6600 EAST, SUITE 6616, DETAIL OF DOOR SURROUND AND CORNER BLOCK - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

131

The use of underwater dynamometry to evaluate two space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four Astronauts were instrumented and donned one of three extravehicular activity (EVA) suits: the currently in use shuttle suit (STS), the Mark III (MK3), and the AX5. The STS was used as the comparison suit because of approved status. Each subject performed ten different exercises in each suit in three different manners (static, dynamic and fatigue) in two different environments, WETF and KC-135 (KC-135 not completed as of this report). Data were recorded from a flight qualified underwater dynamometer (Cybex power head) with a TEAC multichannel recorder/tape and downloaded into the VAX computer system for analysis. Also direct hard copy strip chart recordings were made for backup comparisons. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA procedure and results were graphed and reported without interpretation to the NASA/JSC ABL manager.

Squires, W. G.

1989-01-01

132

124. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6154, SUPPORT STAFF ROOM (FORMERLY STUDY) (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

133

Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space suit s mobility is critical to an astronaut s ability to perform work efficiently. As mobility increases, the astronaut can perform tasks for longer durations with less fatigue. The term mobility, with respect to space suits, is defined in terms of two key components: joint range of motion and joint torque. Individually these measures describe the path which in which a joint travels and the force required to move it through that path. Previous space suits mobility requirements were defined as the collective result of these two measures and verified by the completion of discrete functional tasks. While a valid way to impose mobility requirements, such a method does necessitate a solid understanding of the operational scenarios in which the final suit will be performing. Because the Constellation space suit system requirements are being finalized with a relatively immature concept of operations, the Space Suit Element team elected to define mobility in terms of its constituent parts to increase the likelihood that the future pressure garment will be mobile enough to enable a broad scope of undefined exploration activities. The range of motion requirements were defined by measuring the ranges of motion test subjects achieved while performing a series of joint maximizing tasks in a variety of flight and prototype space suits. The definition of joint torque requirements has proved more elusive. NASA evaluated several different approaches to the problem before deciding to generate requirements based on unmanned joint torque evaluations of six different space suit configurations being articulated through 16 separate joint movements. This paper discusses the experiment design, data analysis and results, and the process used to determine the final values for the Constellation pressure garment joint torque requirements.

Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

2009-01-01

134

MDO TEST SUITE AT NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Langley Research Center supports a wide variety of multidisciplinary designoptimization (MDO) research and requires a set of standard MDO test problems forevaluating and comparing the products of this research. This paper proposes a WorldWide-Web-based test suite for collecting, distributing, and maintaining the standard testproblems. A prototype suite of 10 test problems, including written problem descriptions,benchmark solution methods, sample

Sharon L. Padula; Natalia Alexandrov; Lawrence L. Green

1996-01-01

135

FACTEURS DES SUITES DE RUDIN-SHAPIRO GENERALISEES  

E-print Network

also study the powers occurring in these sequences, and we show that the language consisting of all`ere in´egalit´e jointe `a la minoration pr´ec´edente indique qu'une suite "prise au hasard" a une moyenne'appellent suites de Rudin-Shapiro g´en´eralis´ees, et ont ´et´e introduites par Mend`es France et Tenenbaum dans

Chapman, Robin

136

NetBench: a benchmarking suite for network processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we introduce NetBench, a benchmarking suite for network processors. NetBench contains a total of 9 applications that are representative of commercial applications for network processors. These applications are from all levels of packet processing; Small, low-level code fragments as well as large application level programs are included in the suite.Using SimpleScalar simulator we study the NetBench programs

Gokhan Memik; William H. Mangione-Smith; Wendong Hu

2001-01-01

137

Ambulatory infusion suite: pre- and post-occupancy evaluation  

E-print Network

, London W1T 3JH, UK Building Research & Information Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rbri20 Ambulatory infusion suite: pre- and post-occupancy evaluation Mardelle Mc... published: 08 Aug 2012. To cite this article: Mardelle McCuskey Shepley , Zofia Rybkowski , Jennifer Aliber & Cathleen Lange (2012): Ambulatory infusion suite: pre- and post-occupancy evaluation, Building Research & Information, 40:6, 700-712 To link...

Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Rybkowski, Zofia; Aliber, Jennifer; Lange, Cathleen

2015-02-08

138

STS-84 M.S. Carlos Noriega suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-84 Mission Specialist Carlos I. Noriega gets assistance from a suit technician as he dons his launch and entry suit during final prelaunch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building. This will be Noriegas first space flight. Noriega and six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff on a mission to dock with the Russian Space Station Mir.

1997-01-01

139

New Look SAGE Suite &" SAGE Budget Phase II  

E-print Network

ORIS New Look SAGE Suite &" SAGE Budget Phase II Ciara Nic Mhathúna and Paul Prestin Office to throughout life-cycle. #12;ORIS March 17th SAGE Release · New Look SAGE Suite ­ Usability changes for SAGE ­ Fabrication budgets · New ASTRA Global Edit Role (March MRAM) ­ Ability to edit all routed eGC1s for a unit

Kaminsky, Werner

140

Water Vapor Permeability of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) crewmembers are expected to return to earth wearing a suit similar to the current Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). To ensure optimum cognitive performance, suited crewmembers must maintain their core body temperature within acceptable limits. There are currently several options for thermal maintenance in the post-landing phase. These include the current baseline, which uses an ammonia boiler, purge flow using oxygen in the suit, accessing sea water for liquid cooling garment (LCG) cooling and/or relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit. These options vary significantly in mass, power, engineering and safety factors, with relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit being the least difficult to implement. Data from previous studies indicates that the evaporative cooling capacity of the ACES was much higher than previously expected, but subsequent tests were performed for longer duration and higher metabolic rates to better define the water vapor permeability of the ACES. In these tests five subjects completed a series of tests performing low to moderate level exercise in order to control for a target metabolic rate while wearing the ACES in an environmentally controlled thermal chamber. Four different metabolic profiles at a constant temperature of 95 F and relative humidity of 50% were evaluated. These tests showed subjects were able to reject about twice as much heat in the permeable ACES as they were in an impermeable suit that had less thermal insulation. All of the heat rejection differential is attributed to the increased evaporation capability through the Gortex bladder of the suit.

Bue, Grant; Kuzneth, Larry; Gillis, David; Jones, Jeffery; Daniel, Brian; Gernhardt, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas

2009-01-01

141

EVA Suit R and D for Performance Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must be built and tested with human subjects. However, numerous design iterations will occur before the hardware meets those requirements. Traditional draw-prototype-test paradigms for R&D are prohibitively expensive with today's shrinking Government budgets. Personnel at NASA are developing modern simulation techniques which focus on human-centric designs by creating virtual prototype simulations and fully adjustable physical prototypes of suit hardware. During the R&D design phase, these easily modifiable representations of an EVA suit's hard components will allow designers to think creatively and exhaust design possibilities before they build and test working prototypes with human subjects. It allows scientists to comprehensively benchmark current suit capabilities and limitations for existing suit sizes and sizes that do not exist. This is extremely advantageous and enables comprehensive design down-selections to be made early in the design process, enables the use of human performance as design criteria, and enables designs to target specific populations

Cowley, Matthew S.; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

142

Pilot Fullerton dons EES anti-gravity suit lower torso on middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot Fullerton dons ejection escape suit (EES) anti-gravity (anti-g) suit lower torso on forward port side middeck above potable water tank. Anti-g suit is an olive drab inner garment that complements EES.

1982-01-01

143

Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

2014-11-01

144

Preliminary Shuttle Space Suit Shielding Model. Chapter 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two space suits in current usage within the space program: EMU [2] and Orlan-M Space Suit . The Shuttle space suit components are discussed elsewhere [2,5,6] and serve as a guide to development of the current model. The present model is somewhat simplified in details which are considered to be second order in their effects on exposures. A more systematic approach is ongoing on a part-by-part basis with the most important ones in terms of exposure contributions being addressed first with detailed studies of the relatively thin space suit fabric as the first example . Additional studies to validate the model of the head coverings (bubble, helmet, visors.. .) will be undertaken in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the model as it is now and to examine its impact on estimates of astronaut health risks. In this respect, the nonuniform distribution of mass of the space suit provides increased shielding in some directions and some organs. These effects can be most important in terms of health risks and especially critical to evaluation of potential early radiation effects .

Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, J. E.; Qualls, G. D.; Staritz, P. J.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Ware, J.; Persans, A. E.

2003-01-01

145

Multifunctional Cooling Garment for Space Suit Environmental Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these future space suits face daunting challenges, since they must maintain healthy and comfortable conditions inside the suit for longduration missions while minimizing weight and water venting. We have demonstrated the feasibility of an innovative, multipurpose garment for thermal and humidity control inside a space suit pressure garment that is simple, rugged, compact, and lightweight. The garment is a based on a conventional liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that has been modified to directly absorb latent heat as well as sensible heat. This hybrid garment will prevent buildup of condensation inside the pressure garment, prevent loss of water by absorption in regenerable CO2 removal beds, and conserve water through use of advanced lithium chloride absorber/radiator (LCAR) technology for nonventing heat rejection. We have shown the feasibility of this approach by sizing the critical components for the hybrid garment, developing fabrication methods, building and testing a proof-of-concept system, and demonstrating by test that its performance is suitable for use in space suit life support systems.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Ferl, Janet

2014-01-01

146

Web-based Tool Suite for Plasmasphere Information Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of tools that enable discovery of terrestrial plasmasphere characteristics from NASA IMAGE Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) images is described. The tool suite is web-accessible, allowing easy remote access without the need for any software installation on the user's computer. The features supported by the tool include reconstruction of the plasmasphere plasma density distribution from a short sequence of EUV images, semi-automated selection of the plasmapause boundary in an EUV image, and mapping of the selected boundary to the geomagnetic equatorial plane. EUV image upload and result download is also supported. The tool suite's plasmapause mapping feature is achieved via the Roelof and Skinner (2000) Edge Algorithm. The plasma density reconstruction is achieved through a tomographic technique that exploits physical constraints to allow for a moderate resolution result. The tool suite's software architecture uses Java Server Pages (JSP) and Java Applets on the front side for user-software interaction and Java Servlets on the server side for task execution. The compute-intensive components of the tool suite are implemented in C++ and invoked by the server via Java Native Interface (JNI).

Newman, T. S.; Wang, C.; Gallagher, D. L.

2005-12-01

147

A Suite of Criticality Benchmarks for Validating Nuclear Data  

SciTech Connect

The continuous-energy neutron data library ENDF60 for use with MCNP{trademark} was released in the fall of 1994, and was based on ENDF/B-Vl evaluations through Release 2. As part of the data validation process for this library, a number of criticality benchmark calculations were performed. The original suite of nine criticality benchmarks used to test ENDF60 has now been expanded to 86 benchmarks. This report documents the specifications for the suite of 86 criticality benchmarks that have been developed for validating nuclear data.

Stephanie C. Frankle

1999-04-01

148

Benefits of advanced space suits for supporting routine extravehicular activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology is available to produce space suits providing a quick-reaction, safe, much more mobile extravehicular activity (EVA) capability than before. Such a capability may be needed during the shuttle era because the great variety of missions and payloads complicates the development of totally automated methods of conducting operations and maintenance and resolving contingencies. Routine EVA now promises to become a cost-effective tool as less complex, serviceable, lower-cost payload designs utilizing this capability become feasible. Adoption of certain advanced space suit technologies is encouraged for reasons of economics as well as performance.

Alton, L. R.; Bauer, E. H.; Patrick, J. W.

1975-01-01

149

STS-72 Mission Specialist Dr. Daniel T. Barry suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Looking elated at the prospect of his upcoming spaceflight, STS- 72 Mission Specialist Dr. Daniel T. Barry dons his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. The trip into space will be the first for Barry, a medical doctor who also has a Ph.D. in electrical engineering. He and five fellow crew members will soon depart for Launch Pad 39, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during an approximately 49-minute window opening at about 4:18 am EST, January 11.

1996-01-01

150

Exploration Spacecraft and Space Suit Internal Atmosphere Pressure and Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of habitat atmospheres for future space missions is heavily driven by physiological and safety requirements. Lower EVA prebreathe time and reduced risk of decompression sickness must be balanced against the increased risk of fire and higher cost and mass of materials associated with higher oxygen concentrations. Any proposed increase in space suit pressure must consider impacts on space suit mass and mobility. Future spacecraft designs will likely incorporate more composite and polymeric materials both to reduce structural mass and to optimize crew radiation protection. Narrowed atmosphere design spaces have been identified that can be used as starting points for more detailed design studies and risk assessments.

Lange, Kevin; Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Campbell, Paul

2005-01-01

151

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith Suit Up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-82 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith gives a ''';thumbs up'''; while donning his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A suit technician stands ready to assist with final adjustments. This is Smith''';s second space flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Discovery awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission to service the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This will be the second HST servicing mission. Four back-to-back spacewalks are planned.

1997-01-01

152

STS-77 MS Mario Runco Jr. suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-77 Mission Specialist Mario Runco Jr. finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. The two-time space flyer joins a crew of five on the fourth Shuttle flight of 1996. The astronauts will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour launch window opening at 6:30 a.m. EDT, May 19.

1996-01-01

153

Skylab 2 prime crew suit up during prelaunch training activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, prime crew pilot of the first manned Skylab mission, is suited up in bldg 5 at JSC during prelaunch training activity. He is assisted by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., prime crew commander. The man in the left background is wearing a face mask to insure that Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Weitz are not exposed to disease prior to launch (25399); Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (on left), and Weitz assist each other in suiting up in bldg 5 at JSC during pre-launch training activity (25400).

1973-01-01

154

STS-75 ission Specialist Jeffrey A. Hoffman suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-75 Mission Specialist Jeffrey A. Hoffman finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building as a suit technician assists him. Hoffman became an astronaut in 1979 and has flown in space four times, logging more than 834 hours on-orbit. He and six fellow crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half-hour launch window opening at 3:18 p.m. EST.

1996-01-01

155

Suitport Feasibility: Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a space suit prototype on the second generation MMSEV cabin, and testing is planned using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. Pressurized testing will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, a suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents the design of a human rated second generation suitport, the design of a suit capable of supporting pressurized human donning through a suitport, ambient pressure testing of the suit with the suitport, and modifications to the JSC human rated chamber B to accept a suitport. Design challenges and solutions, as well as compromises required to develop the system, are presented. Initial human testing results are presented.

Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

2012-01-01

156

Research Ethics Hicks Academic and Administration Building, Suite 231  

E-print Network

Research Ethics Hicks Academic and Administration Building, Suite 231 6299 South Street Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 Updated: August 2012 Dalhousie Research Ethics Boards Guidance for Submitting an Application for Research Ethics Review ­ Undergraduate Students #12;Guidance - Undergraduate 2 Table of Contents SUBMISSION

Brownstone, Rob

157

Development of Power Assisting Suit for Assisting Nurse Labor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize a power assisting suit for assisting a nurse caring a patient in her arm, a hardness sensor of muscle using load cell and a pneumatic rotary actuator utilizing pressure cuffs have been developed. The power assisting suit consists of shoulders, arms, waist and legs made of aluminum, and is fitted on the nurse body. The power assisting suit is originated with the concept of a master and slave system in one body. The arms, waist and legs have the pneumatic rotary actuators. The pneumatic rotary actuators are constructed with pressure cuffs sandwiched between thin plates. The action of the arms, waist and legs of the nurse are sensed with the muscle hardness sensor utilizing load cell with diaphragm mounted on a sensing tip. The dent of the sensing tip corresponds to the hardness of the muscle so that exerting muscle force produces electric signal. This paper gives the design and characteristics of the power assisting suit using the cuff type pneumatic rotary actuators and the muscle hardness sensor verifying its practicability.

Yamamoto, Keijiro; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Ishii, Mineo; Matsuo, Takashi

158

The physiology of spacecraft and space suit atmosphere selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of the environmental factors which comprise the spacecraft and space suit environments can be controlled at "Earth normal" values, at optimum values, or at other values decided upon by spacecraft designers. Factors which are considered in arriving at control values and control ranges of these parameters include physiological, engineering, operational cost, and safety considerations. Several of the physiologic considerations, including hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia, temperature regulation, and decompression sickness are identified and their impact on space craft and space suit atmosphere selection are considered. The past experience in controlling these parameters in U.S. and Soviet spacecraft and space suits and the associated physiological responses are reviewed. Current areas of physiological investigation relating to environmental factors in spacecraft are discussed, particularly decompression sickness which can occur as a result of change in pressure from Earth to spacecraft or spacecraft to space suit. Physiological considerations for long-term lunar or Martian missions will have different impacts on atmosphere selection and may result in the selection of atmospheres different than those currently in use.

Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J.; Nicogossian, A.

159

The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…

Chiodo, John J.

2013-01-01

160

Human Resource Services 555 S Howes Street, Suite 213  

E-print Network

Human Resource Services 555 S Howes Street, Suite 213 Campus Delivery 6004 Page | 1 www.hrs.colostate.edu 5/2008 Human Resource Services Verification of Student Status at Other Institution DATE: TO: Registrar, Institution FROM: Human Resource Services ­ Records RE: SSN: Name: Department Number & Name

161

Safety Tips: Avoiding Negligence Suits in Chemistry Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various aspects related to negligence on the part of chemistry teachers. Areas addressed include negligence in tort law, avoiding negligence suits, proper instructions, proper supervision, equipment maintenance, and other considerations such as sovereign immunity, and contributory versus comparative negligence. (JN)

Gerlovich, Jack A.

1983-01-01

162

SUNDIALS: Suite of Nonlinear and Differential/Algebraic Equation Solvers  

E-print Network

Differential Equations--Differential-algebraic equations; multistep and multivalue methods; stiff equations; GSUNDIALS: Suite of Nonlinear and Differential/Algebraic Equation Solvers ALAN C. HINDMARSH, PETER N in ordi- nary differential or differential-algebraic equations. The basic versions of these codes

163

The Global Health Group 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200  

E-print Network

The Global Health Group 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200 San Francisco, CA 94105, USA tel: 415.597.4660 fax: 415.597.8299 UCSF Global Health Group Research Assistant (limited hire) The UCSF Global Health Group (http://globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/global-health-group) seeks a candidate with experience

Derisi, Joseph

164

The Global Health Group 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200  

E-print Network

The Global Health Group 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200 San Francisco, CA 94105, USA tel: 415.597.4660 fax: 415.597.8299 UCSF Global Health Group Research Assistant (limited hire) The UCSF Global Health Group (http://globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/global-health-group) seeks

Klein, Ophir

165

Situational awareness and its application in the delivery suite.  

PubMed

The delivery suite is a high-risk environment. Transitions between low-risk and high-risk can be swift, and sentinel events can occur without warning. The prevention of accidents in this environment rests on the vigilance of the individual practitioner at the frontline. It is, therefore, important that the individual practitioner should develop and maintain the cognitive skills to anticipate, recognize, and intercept unfolding error chains. This commentary gives an overview of a nontechnical skill that is essential for safe practice in a delivery suite: situational awareness. A basic description of situational awareness is provided, using examples of loss of situational awareness in the delivery suite and examples of simple interventions that could promote situational awareness. Involuntary automaticity readily creeps in during performance of routine tasks, and cognitive overload could deplete attentional resources that are, by nature, limited. Strategies and tactics for maintaining situational awareness include proactively seeking and managing information on unfolding events, continually updating individual and team mental models, mindful use of checklists and scoreboards, and avoidance of attentional blindness. These simple interventions require minimal financial resources but could immensely enhance clinical performance and patient safety. Situational awareness should be included in the training of obstetrician-gynecologists and other staff working in a delivery suite. PMID:25560106

Edozien, Leroy C

2015-01-01

166

TAMPA BAY TECHNOLOGY INCUBATOR 3802 SPECTRUM BOULEVARD, SUITE 100  

E-print Network

TAMPA BAY TECHNOLOGY INCUBATOR 3802 SPECTRUM BOULEVARD, SUITE 100 TAMPA, FLORIDA 33612 WWW.USFCONNECT.ORG Approved for use until 6/30/14 TAMPA BAY TECHNOLOGY INCUBATOR SELECTION & ELIGBILITY CRITERIA The following are criteria that the Tampa Bay Technology Incubator evaluates before admitting a company. A forprofit

Arslan, Hüseyin

167

The Embedded Java Benchmark Suite JemBench Martin Schoeberl  

E-print Network

, application, parallel, and streaming benchmarks. 1. INTRODUCTION Benchmarks are important for the developmentThe Embedded Java Benchmark Suite JemBench Martin Schoeberl Department of Informatics to embedded systems increase steadily. In parallel, also the performance of the processors used

Schoeberl, Martin

168

Apollo 13 crewmembers in suiting room prior to launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot, appears to be relaxing in the suiting room at Kennedy Space Center prior to launch. Swigert replaced Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II when it was discovered that Mattingly had been exposed to the measles (34847); Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., commander for Apollo 13 mission, undergoes spacesuit checks a few hours before launch (34848).

1970-01-01

169

COMB: A Portable Benchmark Suite for Assessing MPI Overlap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a portable benchmark suite that as- sesses the ability of cluster networking hardware and soft- ware to overlap MPI communication and computation. The Communication Offload MPI-based Benchmark, or COMB, uses two methods to characterize the ability of messages to make progress concurrently with computational process- ing on the host processor(s). COMB measures the relation- ship between MPI

William Lawry; Christopher Wilson; Arthur B. Maccabe; Ron Brightwell

2002-01-01

170

Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard

2015-01-01

171

Implementing a Visualization System suited to Localized Documents  

E-print Network

Implementing a Visualization System suited to Localized Documents Christophe Marquesuzaà DESI Team documents to be retrieved and visualized according to geographic criteria. The paper presents an approach) to index the documentary base, to interpret the user requests and to visualize the resulting documents. Our

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Using Dependency Structures for Prioritisation of Functional Test Suites  

E-print Network

1 Using Dependency Structures for Prioritisation of Functional Test Suites Shifa-e-Zehra Haidry, Australia. 3 Abstract--Test case prioritisation is the process of ordering the exe- cution of test cases software delivery. Many existing test case prioritisation techniques consider that tests can be run in any

Miller, Tim

173

INDEPENDENT SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY BOARD Avenue, Suite 1100, Portland, OR 97204  

E-print Network

INDEPENDENT SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY BOARD 851 SW 6th Avenue, Suite 1100, Portland, OR 97204 9 June 1998 Service Re: The Scientific Basis for Juvenile Fish Passage Improvements In the Federal Columbia River .........................................................................................................4 Council Questions on John Day Extended Length Screens

174

Astronauts Weitz and Conrad suit up during prelaunch activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, prime crew pilot of the first manned Skylab mission, is suited up in bldg 5 at JSC during prelaunch training activity. He is assisted by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., prime crew commander. The man in the left background is wearing a face mask to insure that Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Weitz are not exposed to disease prior to launch.

1973-01-01

175

Aggregate Litigation Goes Public: Representative Suits by State Attorneys General  

Microsoft Academic Search

State attorneys general represent their citizens in aggregate litigation that bears a striking resemblance to the much-maligned damages class action. Yet, while class actions are subject to a raft of procedural rules designed to protect absent class members, equivalent suits in the public sphere are largely free from constraint. The procedural disconnect between the two categories of aggregate litigation reflects

Margaret H. Lemos

2012-01-01

176

CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011  

E-print Network

CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011 Please note that fees can be changed: Fermenter user must harvest but CBR can provide bottles for the use of CBR centrifuge 7-L Fermenters (Working volume: 5.0 - 5.5 L) Harvest: Fermenter user must harvest but CBR can provide bottles for the use

Strynadka, Natalie

177

Extravehicular Mobility Unit Training Suit Symptom Study Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to characterize the symptoms and injuries experienced by NASA astronauts during extravehicular activity (space walk) spacesuit training at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory at Ellington Field, Houston, Texas. We identified the frequency and incidence rates of symptoms by each general body location and characterized mechanisms of injury and effective countermeasures. Based on these findings a comprehensive list of recommendations was made to improve training, test preparation, and current spacesuit components, and to design the next -generation spacesuit. At completion of each test event a comprehensive questionnaire was produced that documented suit symptom comments, identified mechanisms of injury, and recommended countermeasures. As we completed our study we found that most extravehicular mobility unit suit symptoms were mild, self-limited, and controlled by available countermeasures. Some symptoms represented the potential for significant injury with short- and long-term consequences regarding astronaut health and interference with mission objectives. The location of symptoms and injuries that were most clinically significant was in the hands, shoulders, and feet. Correction of suit symptoms issues will require a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, early medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

Strauss, Samuel

2004-01-01

178

Design suite for deeply embedded cyber physical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many emerging applications are deployed in harsh environments and must operate dependably, efficiently and in real-time. This makes it essential to develop robust system designs before deployment. Thus, there is a tremendous need for a complete design suite for deeply embedded cyber physical systems that will enable the designers to model these systems to the desired level of abstraction, analyze

Vibha Prasad; Sang H. Son

2008-01-01

179

Surgical suite environmental control system. [using halothane absorbing filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and experimental work for a systems analysis approach to the problem of surgical suit exhaust systems centered on evaluation of halothane absorbing filters. An activated charcoal-alumina-charcoal combination proved to be the best filter for eliminating halothane through multilayer absorption of gas molecules.

Higginbotham, E. J.; Jacobs, M. L.

1974-01-01

180

Reflections in the Creation of a Real-Time Parallel Benchmark Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard benchmark suites are a popular way to measure and compare computers performance. The Honeywell Technology Center\\u000a has developed two benchmarking suites for parallel computers, the C3I Parallel Benchmark Suite (C3IPBS) and more recently,\\u000a the Real Time Parallel Benchmark Suite (RTPBS). The C3IPB suite was similar to other benchmarks but focused on a new domain.\\u000a The development of the real-time

Brian Van Voorst; Rakesh Jha; Subburajan Ponnuswamy; Luiz Pires; Chirag Nanavati; David A. Castañon

1999-01-01

181

FRHAM-TEX{trademark} cool suit - OST reference No. 1854. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a demonstration project for the FRHAM-TEX Cool Suit{trademark} manufactured by FRHAM Safety Products. It is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall designed to permit moisture generated by the wearer to be transmitted outside the suit. The performance of this suit was compared to a Tyvek{reg_sign} suit as a baseline. The suit is proposed as safety ware for workers at decontamination and decommissioning projects.

NONE

1998-02-01

182

Comparison of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suited and unsuited isolated joint strength measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study the strength of subjects suited in extravehicular mobility units (EMU's) - or Space Shuttle suits - was compared to the strength of unsuited subjects. The authors devised a systematic and complete data set that characterizes isolated joint torques for all major joints of EMU-suited subjects. Six joint motions were included in the data set. The joint conditions of six subjects were compared to increase our understanding of the strength capabilities of suited subjects. Data were gathered on suited and unsuited subjects. Suited subjects wore Class 3 or Class 1 suits, with and without thermal micrometeoroid garments (TMG's). Suited and unsuited conditions for each joint motion were compared. From this the authors found, for example, that shoulder abduction suited conditions differ from each other and from the unsuited condition. A second-order polynomial regression model was also provided. This model, which allows the prediction of suited strength when given unsuited strength information, relates the torques of unsuited conditions to the torques of all suited conditions. Data obtained will enable computer modeling of EMU strength, conversion from unsuited to suited data, and isolated joint strength comparisons between suited and unsuited conditions at any measured angle. From these data mission planners and human factors engineers may gain a better understanding of crew posture, and mobility and strength capabilities. This study also may help suit designers optimize suit strength, and provide a foundation for EMU strength modeling systems.

Maida, James C.; Demel, Kenneth J.; Morgan, David A.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Pandya, Abhilash K.

1996-01-01

183

Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment that was selected, for both functions, is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The proposed architecture was found to meet the mission constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the required suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the rest of the tools and equipment required to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations have been completed in the NBL and interfacing options have been prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. For NBL EVA simulations, in 2013, components were procured to allow in-house build up for four new suits with mobility enhancements built into the arms. Boots outfitted with clips that fit into foot restraints have also been added to the suit and analyzed for possible loads. Major suit objectives accomplished this year in testing include: evaluation of mobility enhancements, ingress/egress of foot restraint, use of foot restraint for worksite stability, ingress/egress of Orion hatch with PLSS mockup, and testing with two crew members in the water at one time to evaluate the crew's ability to help one another. Major tool objectives accomplished this year include using various other methods for worksite stability, testing new methods for asteroid geologic sampling and improving the fidelity of the mockups and crew equipment. These tests were completed on a medium fidelity capsule mockup, asteroid vehicle mockup, and asteroid mockups that were more accurate for an asteroid type EVA than previous tests. Another focus was the design and fabrication of the interface between the MACES and the PLSS. The MACES was not designed to interface with a PLSS, hence an interface kit must accommodate the unique design qualities of the MACES and provide the necessary life support function connections to the PLSS. A prototype interface kit for MACES to PLSS has been designed and fabricated. Unmanned and manned testing of the interface will show the usability of the kit while wearing a MACES. The testing shows viability of the kit approach as well as the operations concept. The design will be vetted through suit and PLSS experts and, with the findings from the testing, the best path forward will be determined. As the Asteroid Redirect Mission matures, the suit/life support portion of the mission will mature along with it and EVA Tools & Equipment can be iterated to accommodate the overall mission objectives and compromises inherent in EVA Suit optimization. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is to continue to build on the previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and accomplish the ARCM EVAs while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations.

Bowie, Jonathan T.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Watson, Richard D.

2015-01-01

184

Complexity of Fit, with Application to Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although fitting a garment is often considered more of an art than a science, experts suggest that a subjectively poor fit is a symptom of inappropriate ease, the space between the wearer and the garment. The condition of poor suit fit is a unique problem for the space program and it can be attributed primarily to: a) NASA s policy to accommodate a wide variety of people (males and females from 1st to 99th percentile range and with various shapes and sizes) and b) its requirement to deploy a minimum number of suit sizes for logistical reasons. These factors make the space suit fit difficult to assess, where a wide range of people must be fit by the minimum possible number of suits, and yet, fit is crucial for operability and safety. Existing simplistic sizing scheme do not account for wide variations in shape within a diverse population with very limited sizing options. The complex issue of fit has been addressed by a variety of methods, many of which have been developed by the military, which has always had a keen interest in fitting its diverse population but with a multitude of sizing options. The space program has significantly less sizing options, so a combination of these advanced methods should be used to optimize space suit size and assess space suit fit. Multivariate methods can be used to develop sizing schemes that better reflect the wearer population, and integrated sizing systems can form a compromise between fitting men and women. Range of motion and operability testing can be combined with subjective feedback to provide a comprehensive evaluation of fit. The amount of ease can be tailored using these methods, to provide enough extra room where it is needed, without compromising mobility and comfort. This paper discusses the problem of fit in one of its most challenging applications: providing a safe and comfortable spacesuit that will protect its wearer from the extreme environment of space. It will discuss the challenges and necessity of closely fitting its potential wearers, a group of people from a broad spectrum of the population, and will detail some of the methods that can be employed to ensure and validate a good fit.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

185

Biomechanical comparison of the current army chemical, biological and radiological protection suit and two prototype suits. Technical report, October 1984-September 1985  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the biomechanical characteristics of the current U. S. Army CBR suit, Overgarment 84, and two prototypes, C and D, developed by the Naval Surface Warfare Center and the Marine Corps Research and Development Command. This study assessed the range of motion in the three CBR suits using a biomechanical analysis. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were used representing gross body movement. Measurements on each of the CBR suits and on a swim suit baseline were compared using a repeated measure ANOVA to determine which CBR suit was least restrictive as measured by the fourteen movements assessed. While the three CBR suits demonstrated a restriction in movement when compared to baseline measures, neither of the CBR suits differ significantly for each other. Implication of the data are discussed.

Styer, D.J.; Tamura, L.; Pepper, S.; Bachrach, A.J.

1986-12-01

186

STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency, is helped with his flight suit by suit tech Tommy McDonald in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

187

STS-84 Pilot Eileen Marie Collins suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the assistance of a suit technician, STS-84 Pilot Eileen Marie Collins finishes donning her launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building in preparation for her second Space Shuttle flight. She was the first woman Shuttle pilot on STS-63 in 1995, which was the first approach and flyaround of the Russian Space Station Mir by the Space Shuttle. Collins and six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff during an approximate 7-minute launch window which opens at about 4:08 a.m. This will be the sixth docking of the Space Shuttle with the Mir. The exact liftoff time will be determined about 90 minutes prior to launch, based on the most current location of Mir.

1997-01-01

188

Mission Specialist Foale gets help suiting up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.) smiles as his launch and entry suit is checked by a suit techician during final launch preparations. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

189

Mission Specialist Nicollier gets help suiting up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist Claude Nicollier of Switzerland waves while having his launch and entry suit checked by a suit techician during final launch preparations. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

190

Mission Specialist Grunsfeld gets help suiting up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) is assisted by a suit technician in donning his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

191

STS-86 Mission Specialist David Wolf suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf gets assistance from a suit technician while donning his orange launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. This will be Wolfs second flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission slated to be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Wolf will transfer to the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the rest of the STS-86 crew. Wolf is expected to live and work aboard the Russian space station for about four months.

1997-01-01

192

Anesthesia and the pediatric cardiac catheterization suite: a review.  

PubMed

Advances in technology over the last couple of decades have caused a shift in pediatric cardiac catheterization from a primary focus on diagnostics to innovative therapeutic interventions. These improvements allow patients a wider range of nonsurgical options for treatment of congenital heart disease. However, these therapeutic modalities can entail higher risk in an already complex patient population, compounded by the added challenges inherent to the environment of the cardiac catheterization suite. Anesthesiologists caring for children with congenital heart disease must understand not only the pathophysiology of the disease but also the effects the anesthetics and interventions have on the patient in order to provide a safe perioperative course. It is the aim of this article to review the latest catheterization modalities offered to patients with congenital heart disease, describe the unique challenges presented in the cardiac catheterization suite, list the most common complications encountered during catheterization and finally, to review the literature regarding different anesthetic drugs used in the catheterization lab. PMID:25331288

Lam, Jennifer E; Lin, Erica P; Alexy, Ryan; Aronson, Lori A

2015-02-01

193

Feasibility of Suited 10-km Ambulation "Walkback" on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews a study that examined the feasibility of having astronauts walk about 10 kilometers to the base in the event of a breakdown of the lunar rover. This was done in part to examine the possibility of having a single rover on the lunar exploration missions. Other objectives of the study are to: (1) Understand specific biomedical and human performance limitations of the suit compared to matched shirt-sleeve controls; (2) Collect metabolic and ground-reaction force data to develop an EVA simulator for use on future prebr eathe protocol verification tests (3) Provide data to estimate consum ables usage for input to suit and portable life support system (PLSS) design (4) Assess the cardiovascular and resistance exercise associa ted with partialgravity EVA for planning appropriate exploration exer cise countermeasures

Norcross, Jason; Lee, Lesley; DeWitt, John K.; Klein, Jill; Wessell, James; Gernhardt, Michael L.

2008-01-01

194

Enhanced verification test suite for physics simulation codes  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations.

Kamm, James R.; Brock, Jerry S.; Brandon, Scott T.; Cotrell, David L.; Johnson, Bryan; Knupp, Patrick; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy G.; Weirs, V. Gregory

2008-09-01

195

LAPACK Working Note 9: A test matrix generation suite  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the design and implementation of a suite of test matrix generators for testing linear algebra software. These routines generate random matrices with certain properties which are useful for testing linear equation solving, least squares, and eigendecomposition software. These properites include the spectrum, symmetry, bandwidth, norm, sparsity, conditioning (with respect to inversion or for the eigenproblem), type (real or complex), and storage scheme (dense, packed or banded).

Demmel, J.; McKenney, A. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Courant Institute

1989-02-28

196

STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker signals he's ready to fly as he finishes donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Walker, who is embarking on his fourth trip into space, will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A along with four fellow crew members. Awaiting the crew and liftoff at 11:09 a.m. EDT is the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

1995-01-01

197

The PARSEC benchmark suite: characterization and architectural implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and characterizes the Princeton Ap- plication Repository for Shared-Memory Computers (PAR- SEC), a benchmark suite for studies of Chip-Multiprocessors (CMPs). Previous available benchmarks for multiproces- sors have focused on high-performance computing applica- tions and used a limited number of synchronization meth- ods. PARSEC includes emerging applications in recogni- tion, mining and synthesis (RMS) as well as systems

Christian Bienia; Sanjeev Kumar; Jaswinder Pal Singh; Kai Li

2008-01-01

198

Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong prepares to put on his helmet with the assistance of a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

1969-01-01

199

Theory and Design of Microwave-Tube Simulator Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of microwave-tube simulator suite (MTSS) is reported. MTSS is an integrated full-featured software package for microwave-tube analysis and design. It includes a friendly user-interface module and three physics simulators. Microwave-tube design environment is the user-interface module, which provides a powerful solid-modeling front end and graphical and computational postprocessing functionality. Electron optics simulator (EOS) is a fully 3-D finite-element

Bin Li; Zhong Hai Yang; Jian Qing Li; Xiao Fang Zhu; Tao Huang; Quan Hu; Yu Lu Hu; Li Xu; Jun Jian Ma; Li Liao; Li Xiao; Guo Xian He

2009-01-01

200

Dedicated minimally invasive surgery suites increase operating room efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: The rapid adoption of laparoscopic surgery since the late 1980s added tremendous complexity into the operating\\u000a room (OR) environment. For each case, a plethora of additional equipment-including monitors, video equipment, wiring, tubing,\\u000a and cords-had to be set up, prolonging OR turnover time and decreasing OR efficiency. In 1993, the concept of designated minimally\\u000a invasive surgery (MIS) suites was introduced.

T. A. G. Kenyon; D. R. Urbach; J. B. Speer; B. Waterman-Hukari; G. F. Foraker; P. D. Hansen; L. L. Swanström

2001-01-01

201

The C31 parallel benchmark suite - introduction and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current parallel benchmarks, while appropriate for scientific applications, lack the defense relevance and representativeness for developers who are considering parallel computers for their Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems. We present a new set of compact application benchmarks which are specific to the C3I application domain. The C3I Parallel Benchmark Suite (C3IPBS) program is addressing the evaluation of not

Rakesh Jha; Richard C. Metzger; Brian VanVoorst; Luiz S. Pires; Wing Au; Minesh Amin; David A. Castanon; Vipin Kumar

1996-01-01

202

Non-Venting Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future EVA suits need processes and systems to control internal temperature and humidity without venting water to the environment. This paper describes an absorption-based cooling and dehumidification system as well as laboratory demonstrations of the key processes. There are two main components in the system: an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) that removes both sensible heat and latent heat from the pressure garment, and an absorber radiator that absorbs moisture and rejects heat to space by thermal radiation. This paper discusses the overall design of both components, and presents recent data demonstrating their operation. We developed a design and fabrication approach to produce prototypical heat/water absorbing elements for the ECDG, and demonstrated by test that these elements could absorb heat and moisture at a high flux. Proof-of-concept tests showed that an ECDG prototype absorbs heat and moisture at a rate of 85 W/ft under conditions that simulate operation in an EVA suit. The heat absorption was primarily due to direct absorption of water vapor. It is possible to construct large, flexible, durable cooling patches that can be incorporated into a cooling garment with this system. The proof-of-concept test data was scaled to calculate area needed for full metabolic loads, thus showing that it is feasible to use this technology in an EVA suit. Full-scale, lightweight absorber/radiator modules have also been built and tested. They can reject heat at a flux of 33 W/ft while maintaining ECDG operation at conditions that will provide a cool and dry environment inside the EVA suit.

Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

2011-01-01

203

SUNDIALS: Suite of nonlinear and differential\\/algebraic equation solvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUNDIALS is a suite of advanced computational codes for solving large-scale problems that can be modeled as a system of nonlinear algebraic equations, or as initial-value problems in ordinary differential or differential-algebraic equations. The basic versions of these codes are called KINSOL, CVODE, and IDA, respectively. The codes are written in ANSI standard C and are suitable for either serial

Alan C. Hindmarsh; Peter N. Brown; Keith E. Grant; Steven L. Lee; Radu Serban; Dan E. Shumaker; Carol S. Woodward

2005-01-01

204

Astronaut Ronald Evans is suited up for EVA training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, is assisted by technicians in suiting up for extravehicular activity (EVA) training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (49970); Evans participates in EVA training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The structure in the picture simulates the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) bay of the Apollo 17 Service Module (49971).

1972-01-01

205

The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory(MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatilesextracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantiallyto the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essentialstep in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite locatedin the interior of MSLs Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole massspectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupledthrough solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on thesame samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyzevolatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In additionto measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conducta sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction fromsieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rovers roboticarm.

Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Chris R.; Cabane, M.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, L.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Carignan, Daniel; Cascia, Mark; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Everson, Paula; Franz, Heather; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.

2012-01-01

206

The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantially to the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essential step in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite located in the interior of MSL's Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupled through solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on the same samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyze volatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In addition to measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conduct a sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction from sieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rover's robotic arm,

Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Christopher R.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Arvey, Robert; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.; Jordan, Partick; Kellogg, James; Lewis, Jesse; Martin, David K.; Maurer, John; McAdam, Amy C.; McLennan, Douglas; Pavlov, Alexander A.; Raaen, Eric; Schinman, Oren

2012-01-01

207

An Ultrafast X-ray Diagnostic Suite for Burning Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ignition designs on the National Ignition Facility predict ˜ 10^19 neutrons in a time of 15 -- 20 ps. The very short burn time and small size of the burning plasma will require x-ray diagnostics with time resolutions of a few ps and high spatial resolution which can function in extremely large neutron fluxes. One promising solution to this challenge is to perform an ultrafast conversion of the x-ray signals into the optical regime, <100 fs, and to relay image the signal out of the chamber and into a shielded bunker. A diagnostic suite, Grating Actuated Transient Optical Recorder (GATOR), has been developed which uses the ultrafast near-band-edge change in the optical index of refraction of semiconductors caused by x-ray generated free carriers to achieve this goal. The GATOR diagnostic suite has been tested on a laser-produced x-ray source at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the performance of this diagnostic suite, which includes a multi-temporal frame 2-D imager, a continuous-time 1-D imager and a single channel continuous-time recorder, is presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Baker, Kevin; Stewart, Richard; Steele, Paul; Vernon, Steve; Hsing, Warren; Haynes, Susan

2011-11-01

208

Audit method suited for DSS in clinical environment.  

PubMed

This chapter presents a novel online method to audit predictive models using a Bayesian perspective. The auditing model has been specifically designed for Decision Support Systems (DSSs) suited for clinical or research environments. Taking as starting point the working diagnosis supplied by the clinician, this method compares and evaluates the predictive skills of those models able to answer to that diagnosis. The approach consists in calculating the posterior odds of a model through the composition of a prior odds, a static odds, and a dynamic odds. To do so, this method estimates the posterior odds from the cases that the comparing models had in common during the design stage and from the cases already viewed by the DSS after deployment in the clinical site. In addition, if an ontology of the classes is available, this method can audit models answering related questions, which offers a reinforcement to the decisions the user already took and gives orientation on further diagnostic steps.The main technical novelty of this approach lies in the design of an audit model adapted to suit the decision workflow of a clinical environment. The audit model allows deciding what is the classifier that best suits each particular case under evaluation and allows the detection of possible misbehaviours due to population differences or data shifts in the clinical site. We show the efficacy of our method for the problem of brain tumor diagnosis with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). PMID:25417078

Vicente, Javier

2015-01-01

209

Individual life-support systems outside a spacecraft cabin, space suits and capsules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space suit systems, physiological and operational requirements, and the technologic advances incorporated in the more advanced suits are described. Free space extravehicular activity (EVA), lunar surface EVA, and various EVA aids are considered.

Jones, W. L.

1975-01-01

210

Astronaut Neil Armstrong in Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot of the Gemini 8 space flight, sits in the Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up operations for the Gemini 8 mission. Suit technician Jim Garrepy assists.

1966-01-01

211

The use of anti-gravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemmorhage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history and use as well as the physiology of the use of antigravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemorrhages is reviewed. The use of this suit is highly recommended, especially for first aid.

Kravik, S.; Landmark, K.

1980-01-01

212

Space suit simulator for partial gravity extravehicular activity experimentation and training  

E-print Network

During human space exploration, mobility is extremely limited when working inside a pressurized space suit. Astronauts perform extensive training on Earth to become accustomed to space suit-imposed high joint torques and ...

Gilkey, Andrea L. (Andrea Lynn)

2012-01-01

213

Suitport Feasibility - Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a spacesuit while the spacesuit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a spacesuit prototype using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. This test will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents design of a human rated second generation suitport, modifications to the JSC human rated chamber B to accept a suitport, and a compatible space suit to support pressurized human donning of the pressurized suit through a suitport. Design challenges and solutions and compromises required to develop the system are presented. Initial human testing results are presented.

Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

2011-01-01

214

Gemini 7 prime crew during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, talks with NASA space suit technician Clyde Teague during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16, Kennedy Space Center. Lovell wears the new lightweight space suit planned for use during the Gemini 7 mission (61756); Astronaut Frank Borman, comand pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, undergoes suiting up operations in Launch Complex 16 during prelaunch countdown. Medical biosensors are attached to his scalp (61757).

1965-01-01

215

Physiological responses to wearing the space shuttle launch and entry suit and the prototype advanced crew escape suit compared to the unsuited condition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch and entry suit (LES) is a life support suit worn during Orbiter ascent and descent. The impact of suit weight and restricted mobility on egress from the Orbiter during an emergency is unknown. An alternate suit - the advanced crew escape suite (ACES) - is being evaluated. The physiological responses to ambulatory exercise of six subjects wearing the LES and ACES were measured and compared to those measurements taken while unsuited. Dependent variables included heart rate and metabolic response to treadmill walking at 5.6 km/h (3.5 mph), and also bilateral concentric muscle strength about the knee, shoulder, and elbow. No significant (p greater than 0.06) differences in heart rate or metabolic variables were measured in either suit while walking at 5.6 km/h. Significant (p less than 0.05) decreases in all metabolic variables were remarked when both suits were compared to the unsuited condition. There were no significant (p greater than 0.05) differences among the three suit conditions at 30 or 180 deg/s for muscles about the elbow and knee; however, about the shoulder, a significant (p = 0.0215) difference between the ACES and the unsuited condition was noted. Therefore, wearing a life support suit while performing Orbiter egress imposes a significant metabolic demand on crewmembers. Selective upper body strength movements may be compromised.

Barrows, Linda H.; Mcbrine, John J.; Hayes, Judith C.; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Greenisen, Michael C.

1993-01-01

216

The Tenet real-time protocol suite: design, implementation, and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many future applications will require guarantees on network performance, such as bounds on throughput, delay, delay jitter, and reliability. To address this need, we have designed, simu- lated, and implemented a suite of network protocols to support real-time channels (network con- nections with mathematically provable performance guarantees). The protocols, which constitute the prototype Tenet Real-Time Protocol Suite ( Suite 1),

Anindo Banerjea; Domenico Ferrari; Bruce A. Mah; Mark Moran; Dinesh C. Verma; Hui Zhang

1996-01-01

217

A Multithreaded Java Grande Benchmark Suite L. A. Smith and J. M. Bull  

E-print Network

parallel benchmarks has been developed from the serial Java Grande benchmark suite, using Java nativeA Multithreaded Java Grande Benchmark Suite L. A. Smith and J. M. Bull EPCC, The King's Buildings execution environments that can be tested using the Java Grande benchmark suite [5], [6], [7]. The large

Bull, Mark

218

Using Hybrid Algorithm For Pareto Efficient Multi-Objective Test Suite Minimisation  

E-print Network

Using Hybrid Algorithm For Pareto Efficient Multi-Objective Test Suite Minimisation Shin Yoo & Mark Harman King's College London, Strand, London, WC2R 2LS, UK Abstract Test suite minimisation techniques seek to reduce the effort required for regression testing by selecting a subset of test suites

Singer, Jeremy

219

Measuring and Improving Latency to Avoid Test Suite Wear Out Shin Yoo & Mark Harman  

E-print Network

Measuring and Improving Latency to Avoid Test Suite Wear Out Shin Yoo & Mark Harman King's College London Centre for Research on Evolution, Search & Testing (CREST) London, UK {shin.yoo, mark introduces the concept of test suite latency. The more latent a test suite, the more it is possible

Singer, Jeremy

220

Alan Shepard in Space Suit before Mercury Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Profile of astronaut Alan Shepard in his silver pressure suit with the helmet visor closed as he prepares for his upcoming Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) launch. On May 5th 1961, Alan B. Shepard Jr. became the first American to fly into space. His Freedom 7 Mercury capsule flew a suborbital trajectory lasting 15 minutes 22 seconds. His spacecraft splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean where he and Freedom 7 were recovered by helicopter and transported to the awaiting aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain.

1961-01-01

221

Advanced Crew Escape Suits (ACES): Particle Impact Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility to assist in determining the effects of impaired anodization on aluminum parts in advanced crew escape suits (ACES). Initial investigation indicated poor anodization could lead to an increased risk of particle impact ignition, and a lack of data was prevalent for particle impact of bare (unanodized) aluminum; therefore, particle impact tests were performed. A total of 179 subsonic and 60 supersonic tests were performed with no ignition of the aluminum targets. Based on the resulting test data, WSTF found no increased particle impact hazard was present in the ACES equipment.

Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

2009-01-01

222

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Properties of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on properties of matter, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative question (usually multiple choice) that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include pressure, fluid flux, fluid speed, and Bernoulli's equations. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

223

STS-100 MS Phillips is fully suited up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - STS-100 Mission Specialist John L. Phillips is fully suited for launch. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

2001-01-01

224

STS-104 MS Gernhardt has suit check during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt has suit and fit check during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in Space Shuttle Atlantiss payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members participating are Commander Steven W. Lindsey, Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Janet Lynn Kavandi and James F. Reilly. The launch of Atlantis on mission STS-104 is scheduled no earlier than July 12 from Launch Pad 39B. The mission is the 10th flight to the International Space Station and carries the Joint Airlock Module.

2001-01-01

225

STS-104 MS Reilly suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-104 Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh gets help donning his launch and entry suit before heading to the launch pad. This launch will be his first space flight. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-104 is targeted for 5:04 a.m., July 12, from Launch Pad 39B. The primary payload on the mission is the joint airlock module, which will be added to the International Space Station. The airlock will be the primary path for Space Station spacewalk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, and will also support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for EVA activity.

2001-01-01

226

STS-104 MS Kavandi suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi adjusts her helmet as she dons her launch and entry suit before heading to the launch pad. This launch will be her third space flight. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-104 is targeted for 5:04 a.m., July 12, from Launch Pad 39B. The primary payload on the mission is the joint airlock module, which will be added to the International Space Station. The airlock will be the primary path for Space Station spacewalk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, and will also support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for EVA activity.

2001-01-01

227

STS-112 M.S. Wolf suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Mission Specialist David Wolf suits up for launch, just hours away. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss to the Station. Launch is scheduled for 3:46 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. .

2002-01-01

228

Space Suit Technologies Protect Deep-Sea Divers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working on NASA missions allows engineers and scientists to hone their skills. Creating devices for the high-stress rigors of space travel pushes designers to their limits, and the results often far exceed the original concepts. The technologies developed for the extreme environment of space are often applicable here on Earth. Some of these NASA technologies, for example, have been applied to the breathing apparatuses worn by firefighters, the fire-resistant suits worn by racecar crews, and, most recently, the deep-sea gear worn by U.S. Navy divers.

2008-01-01

229

Determining a bends-preventing pressure for a space suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research conducted to determine the proper pressure for preventing bends during EVA without preoxygenation is examined. Male and female subjects with different breathing gas mixtures and pressures are studied in order to define the pressure. Visual and auditory Doppler ultrasonic signals are utilized to monitor intravascular gas bubbles. The workload, which simulates EVA, consists of a handturned bicycle ergometer, a torque wrench operation, and a rope pull. The experimental data reveal that the minimum space suit pressure needed to prevent decompression sickness is 9.5 psi.

Krutz, R. W., Jr.; Webb, J. T.; Dixon, G. A.

1989-01-01

230

Physics Suite Peer Instruction Problems: Momentum and Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a series of peer instruction problems on momentum and energy, designed to be solved in a classroom setting. The problems are presented with a qualitative question (usually multiple choice) that is carefully constructed to engage student difficulties with fundamental concepts. Students consider the problem individually and contribute their answers using personal response systems (clickers). Students then confer with their cooperative groups and vote again on the correct response. Topics covered include elastic collisions, inelastic collisions, impulse, momentum, work-energy theorem, and conservation of energy. This problem set is part of the Physics Suite collection, containing sample problems, peer instruction problems, and alternative homework sets.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-08-11

231

The SECO suite of codes for site Performance Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Modeling for Performance Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP ) has led to development of the SECO suite of codes for groundwater flow, particle tracking, and transport. Algorithm and code developments include the following areas: facilitation of grid convergence tests in multiple domains; correct treatment of transmissivity factors for unconfined aquifers; efficient multigrid algorithms; a formulation of brine Darcy flow equations that uses freshwater head as the dependent able; boundary-fitted coordinates; temporal high order particle tracking; an efficient and accurate implicit Finite Volume TVD algorithm for radionuclide transport in (possibly) fractured porous media; accurate calculation of advection via a flux-based modified method of characteristics; and Quality Assurance procedures.

Roache, P.J. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-03-01

232

STS-110 M.S. Smith suits up for TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Steven Smith relaxes during suit fit, which is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight to provide flight crews an opportunity to participate in simulated launch countdown activities. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

2002-01-01

233

STS-93 Commander Collins suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves while a suit tech adjusts her boot, part of the launch and entry suit, during final launch preparations. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission. STS-93 is scheduled to lift off at 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. The target landing date is July 24 at 11:30 p.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

234

Analysis of a Radiation Model of the Shuttle Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extravehicular activity (EVA) required to assemble the International Space Station (ISS) will take approximately 1500 hours with 400 hours of EVA per year in operations and maintenance. With the Space Station at an inclination of 51.6 deg the radiation environment is highly variable with solar activity being of great concern. Thus, it is important to study the dose gradients about the body during an EVA to help determine the cancer risk associated with the different environments the ISS will encounter. In this paper we are concerned only with the trapped radiation (electrons and protons). Two different scenarios are looked at: the first is the quiet geomagnetic periods in low Earth orbit (LEO) and the second is during a large solar particle event in the deep space environment. This study includes a description of how the space suit's computer aided design (CAD) model was developed along with a description of the human model. Also included is a brief description of the transport codes used to determine the total integrated dose at several locations within the body. Finally, the results of the transport codes when applied to the space suit and human model and a brief description of the results are presented.

Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Qualls, Garry D.; Wilson, John W.

2003-01-01

235

Wireless hydrotherapy smart suit for monitoring handicapped people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a smart suit, water impermeable, containing sensors and electronics for monitoring handicapped people at hydrotherapy sessions in swimming-pools. For integration into textiles, electronic components should be designed in a functional, robust and inexpensive way. Therefore, small-size electronics microsystems are a promising approach. The smart suit allows the monitoring of individual biometric data, such as heart rate, temperature and movement of the body. Two solutions for transmitting the data wirelessly are presented: through a low-voltage (3.0 V), low-power, CMOS RF IC (1.6 mm x 1.5 mm size dimensions) operating at 433 MHz, with ASK modulation and a patch antenna built on lossy substrates compatible with integrated circuits fabrication. Two different substrates were used for antenna implementation: high-resistivity silicon (HRS) and Corning Pyrex #7740 glass. The antenna prototypes were built to operate close to the 5 GHz ISM band. They operate at a center frequency of 5.705 GHz (HRS) and 5.995 GHz (Pyrex). The studied parameters were: substrate thickness, substrate losses, oxide thickness, metal conductivity and thickness. The antenna on HRS uses an area of 8 mm2, providing a 90 MHz bandwidth and ~0.3 dBi of gain. On a glass substrate, the antenna uses 12 mm2, provides 100 MHz bandwidth and ~3 dBi of gain.

Correia, Jose H.; Mendes, Paulo M.

2005-02-01

236

Intraoperative contamination and space suits: a potential mechanism.  

PubMed

The body exhaust suit (BES) of Charnley creates 'negative pressure' inside the gown using intake/outtake tubing. Modern 'space suit' (SS) systems incorporate helmet-based intake fans, which use the hood material as a filter and create 'positive pressure' inside the gown. While early studies of BES demonstrate a clear reduction in infection rates following arthroplasty, recent clinical data on SS use has paradoxically reported a marked increase. We hypothesized that the positive pressure inside the gown could carry air and particles via the unsealed area around the surgeon's cuff into the operative field. We performed 12 simulated operations with the surgeons hands covered in fluorescent 0.5 micron powder that approximates the size of shedded skin squames. Photographs under UV light and air particle counts were used to compare potential contamination rates between SS and conventional gowns using a standardised scoring system. The highest powder migration was seen in the SS group with a score of 15.3 out of 28. No powder migration was seen in the standard gown group (p = 0.028). This study provides a plausible explanation for the increase in infection rates seen with SS use. We recommend SS be considered for personal protection only and supplemented with sealant tape around the inner glove. PMID:23412319

Young, Simon W; Chisholm, Carl; Zhu, Mark

2014-04-01

237

Integration of APECS and VE-Suite for Data Overlay  

SciTech Connect

In the design of advanced power generation facilities, process simulation tools are being utilized to model plant behavior and quickly analyze results. While such tools enable investigation of crucial aspects of plant design, typical commercial process simulators still do not explore some plant design information, including high-fidelity data from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena, economics data used for policy decisions, operational data after the plant is constructed, and as-built information for use in as-designed models. Software tools must be created that allow disparate sources of information to be integrated for facilitating accurate and effective plant design. At the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) has been developed as an integrated software suite that combines process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus®) and high-fidelity equipment simulation (e.g., FLUENT®). In this paper, the integration of the high-fidelity CFD data with overall process data in a virtual power simulation environment will be described. More specifically, we will highlight VE-Suite, an open-source virtual engineering (VE) software toolkit, and its support of Aspen Plus® Hierarchy blocks via the VE-AspenUnit.

McCorkel, Doug (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Bivins, Gerrick (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Jordan, Terry; Bryden, Mark (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Zitney, S.E.; Widmann, John (ANSYS, Lebanon, NH); Osawe, Maxwell

2008-06-01

238

for AltitudeU.S. Aviation Pressure SuitsWiley Post to Space Shuttle Dennis R. Jenkins  

E-print Network

and COMBAT EDGE 116 ATAGS and the F-22 118 Rediscovering the Progressive Arterial Occlusion Suit 119 Summary 121 4: Partial-Pressure Suits 121 Pressure Breathing 125 S-1--Genesis of the Partial-Pressure Suit 135

239

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2012-04-01

240

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2011-04-01

241

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2013-04-01

242

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2010-04-01

243

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2014-04-01

244

Philosophies Applied in the Selection of Space Suit Joint Range of Motion Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space suits are the most important tool for astronauts working in harsh space and planetary environments; suits keep crewmembers alive and allow them to perform exploration, construction, and scientific tasks on a routine basis over a period of several months. The efficiency with which the tasks are performed is largely dictated by the mobility features of the space suit. For previous space suit development programs, the mobility requirements were written as pure functional mobility requirements that did not separate joint ranges of motion from the joint torques. The Constellation Space Suit Element has the goal to make more quantitative mobility requirements that focused on the individual components of mobility to enable future suit designers to build and test systems more effectively. This paper details the test planning and selection process for the Constellation space suit pressure garment range of motion requirements.

Aitchison, Lindsway; Ross, Amy; Matty, Jennifer

2009-01-01

245

Chapter 4 Suite of programs for diffusion simulation This chapters documents the suite of programs for analysis and visualization of the free  

E-print Network

IV - 1 Chapter 4 Suite of programs for diffusion simulation This chapters documents the suite of programs for analysis and visualization of the free volume in a polymer as well as performing Monte Carlo to labels the points, which file can be visualized later. An exa

Goddard III, William A.

246

Enhanced Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations. The key points of this document are: (1) Verification deals with mathematical correctness of the numerical algorithms in a code, while validation deals with physical correctness of a simulation in a regime of interest. This document is about verification. (2) The current seven-problem Tri-Laboratory Verification Test Suite, which has been used for approximately five years at the DOE WP laboratories, is limited. (3) Both the methodology for and technology used in verification analysis have evolved and been improved since the original test suite was proposed. (4) The proposed test problems are in three basic areas: (a) Hydrodynamics; (b) Transport processes; and (c) Dynamic strength-of-materials. (5) For several of the proposed problems we provide a 'strong sense verification benchmark', consisting of (i) a clear mathematical statement of the problem with sufficient information to run a computer simulation, (ii) an explanation of how the code result and benchmark solution are to be evaluated, and (iii) a description of the acceptance criterion for simulation code results. (6) It is proposed that the set of verification test problems with which any particular code be evaluated include some of the problems described in this document. Analysis of the proposed verification test problems constitutes part of a necessary--but not sufficient--step that builds confidence in physics and engineering simulation codes. More complicated test cases, including physics models of greater sophistication or other physics regimes (e.g., energetic material response, magneto-hydrodynamics), would represent a scientifically desirable complement to the fundamental test cases discussed in this report. The authors believe that this document can be used to enhance the verification analyses undertaken at the DOE WP Laboratories and, thus, to improve the quality, credibility, and usefulness of the simulation codes that are analyzed with these problems.

Kamm, J R; Brock, J S; Brandon, S T; Cotrell, D L; Johnson, B; Knupp, P; Rider, W; Trucano, T; Weirs, V G

2008-10-10

247

Department of Urology 333 City Blvd. West, Suite 2100  

E-print Network

image-guided needle ablative cryotherapy of renal tumors; laparoscopic and robotic renal surgery renal surgery; and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and certification on the da Vinci® robot CENTER Minimally Invasive Urologic Surgery Training Program We welcome your participation. MINI

Cramer, Karina

248

STS-99 Mission Specialist Voss dons suit for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, a smiling STS-99 Mission Specialist Janice Voss holds an inflated map globe of the stars after donning her launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. The globe is being signed by the entire crew as a gift for Delores Abraham, with Crew Quarters. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled for liftoff at 12:30 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. The mission is expected to last 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Tuesday, Feb. 22, at 4:36 p.m. EST. This is the 97th Shuttle flight and 14th for Shuttle Endeavour.

2000-01-01

249

STS-100 MS Hadfield suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - STS-100 Mission Specialist Chris A. Hadfield is ready for launch after suiting up in the Operations and Checkout Building. Hadfield is with the Canadian Space Agency. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

2001-01-01

250

STS-104 MS Reilly has suit check during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist James F. Reilly is happy to be going through suit and fit check during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in Space Shuttle Atlantiss payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members participating are Commander Steven W. Lindsey, Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Janet Lynn Kavandi and Michael L. Gernhardt. The launch of Atlantis on mission STS-104 is scheduled no earlier than July 12 from Launch Pad 39B. The mission is the 10th flight to the International Space Station and carries the Joint Airlock Module.

2001-01-01

251

STS-104 MS Kavandi has suit check during TCDT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi looks at nearby crew members during suit and fit check during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in Space Shuttle Atlantiss payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members participating are Commander Steven W. Lindsey, Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Michael L. Gernhardt and James F. Reilly. The launch of Atlantis on mission STS-104 is scheduled no earlier than July 12 from Launch Pad 39B. The mission is the 10th flight to the International Space Station and carries the Joint Airlock Module.

2001-01-01

252

STS-100 MS Parazynski suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Smiling, STS-100 Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski gives thumbs up for launch as he suits up in the Operations and Checkout Building. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS, which will be performed by Parazynski and Mission Specialist Chris A. Hadfield. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

2001-01-01

253

STS-100 MS Lonchakov suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Smiling, STS-100 Mission Specialist Yuri V. Lonchakov waves as he suits up for launch in the Operations and Checkout Building. Lonchakov is with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

2001-01-01

254

STS-100 MS Guidoni suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Happy to be suiting up for launch, STS-100 Mission Specialist Umberto Guidoni gives thumbs up. Guidoni is with the European Space Agency. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

2001-01-01

255

STS-93 Commander Collins suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the third launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves while having her launch and entry suit checked. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

256

STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the third time, in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS- 93 Commander Eileen M. Collins tries on her helmet with her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

257

Fully EMU suited MS Peterson and MS Musgrave in airlock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fully extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited Mission Specialist (MS) Peterson (wearing glasses) and MS Musgrave with service and cooling umbilical (SCU) connected to their displays and control modules (DCMs) participate in airlock prebreathe procedures. Three-fourths of the STS-6 astronaut crew appear in this unusual 35mm frame exposed in the airlock of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099. Musgrave's helmet visor encompasses all the action in the frame. Peterson is reflected on the right side of Musgrave's visor with Pilot Bobko, wearing conventional onboard clothing and photographing, the activity appearing at the center of the frame. The reversed numbers (1 and 2) in the mirrored image represents the extravehicular activity (EVA) designations for the two mission specialists.

1983-01-01

258

Physics Suite Thinking Problems: Heat, Temperature, and Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a series of problems on the topic of heat and thermodynamics developed for use with The Physics Suite, an activity-based learning project. Each problem was designed to help build qualitative understanding of physics and was built around student acquisition of knowledge as observed in recent studies. The problems vary in format and include estimation, context-based reasoning, multiple choice, short answer, qualitative questions, and essay questions. The topics include specific heat, intensive and extensive variables, energy and heat, and the relationship between kinetic energy and temperature. This item is part of a larger collection of problems, in-class questions, and interactive resources developed by the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group.

Redish, Edward F.

2008-07-22

259

User Guide for the STAYSL PNNL Suite of Software Tools  

SciTech Connect

The STAYSL PNNL software suite provides a set of tools for working with neutron activation rates measured in a nuclear fission reactor, an accelerator-based neutron source, or any neutron field to determine the neutron flux spectrum through a generalized least-squares approach. This process is referred to as neutron spectral adjustment since the preferred approach is to use measured data to adjust neutron spectra provided by neutron physics calculations. The input data consist of the reaction rates based on measured activities, an initial estimate of the neutron flux spectrum, neutron activation cross sections and their associated uncertainties (covariances), and relevant correction factors. The output consists of the adjusted neutron flux spectrum and associated covariance matrix, which is useful for neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations.

Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Johnson, Christian D.

2013-02-27

260

Advanced Design Heat PumpRadiator for EVA Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption cooling using a LiCl/water heat pump can enable lightweight and effective thermal control for EVA suits without venting water to the environment. The key components in the system are an absorber/radiator that rejects heat to space and a flexible evaporation cooling garment that absorbs heat from the crew member. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of the absorber/radiator and evaporation cooling garment. New design concepts and fabrication approaches will significantly reduce the mass of the absorber/radiator. We have also identified materials and demonstrated fabrication approaches for production of a flexible evaporation cooling garment. Data from tests of the absorber/radiator s modular components have validated the design models and allowed predictions of the size and weight of a complete system.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Passow, Christian; Phillips, Scott; Trevino, Luis

2009-01-01

261

Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments  

PubMed Central

An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical progression of research-inspired laboratory modules serves to “tour” the macroscopic characteristics of the fruit and the submicroscopic properties of its constituent cuticular biopolymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–visible, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods at increasingly detailed molecular levels. The modular curriculum can be tailored for specialty undergraduate courses or summer high school workshops. By applying analytical tools to investigate biopolymers, making connections between molecular and microscale structure, and linking both structural regimes to the functional properties of natural polymers, groundwork is established for further student investigations at the interface of chemistry with biology or chemical engineering. PMID:23526490

Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

2013-01-01

262

An air bearing fan for EVA suit ventilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The portable life-support system (PLSS) ventilation requirements are outlined, along with the application of a high-speed axial fan technology for extravehicular-activity (EVA) space-suit ventilation. Focus is placed on a mechanical design employing high-speed gas bearings, permanent magnet rotor, and current-fed chopper/inverter electronics. The operational characteristics of the fan unit and its applicability for use in a pure-oxygen environment are discussed. It delivers a nominal 0.17 cu m/min at 1.24 kPa pressure rise using 13.8 w of input power. It is shown that the overall selection of materials for all major component meets the NASA requirements.

Murry, Roger P.

1990-01-01

263

STS-78 Payload Specialist Robert Brent Thirsk suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-78 Payload Specialist Robert Brent Thirsk is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. A representative of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Thirsk is one of four spaceflight rookies flying on STS-78. He is a physician who also has a master's degree in mechanical engineering. In a short while, Thirsk and his six fellow crew members will depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff during a two-and-a-half hour launch window opening at 10:49 a.m. EDT, June 20. STS-78 will be an extended duration flight during which extensive research will be conducted in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) located in the payload bay.

1996-01-01

264

STS-85 Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-85 Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam, Jr. looks down at his glove as a suit technician helps him with the other as he undergoes suitup in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He is a lieutenant commander in the Navy and is a former radar intercept officer. Curbeam holds a masters degree in aeronautical engineering and was selected as an astronaut in 1994. On TS-85, Curbeam will serve as the expert for the operation of the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (CRISTA-SPAS-2) free-flyer, Technology Applications and Science-1 (TAS-1) and science, and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker-2 payloads. He will also serve as the flight engineer during ascent and reentry operations.

1997-01-01

265

STS-88 Commander Robert Cabana suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-88 Commander Robert D. Cabana gives a thumbs up during suit check before launch. Mission STS-88 is expected to lift off at 3:56 a.m. EST with the six-member crew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Dec. 3. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module, which the crew will be mating with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. The mission is expected to last 11 days, 19 hours and 49 minutes, landing at 10:17 p.m. EST on Dec. 14.

1998-01-01

266

STS-102 MS Voss suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - -- While suiting up in the Operations and Checkout Building, Mission Specialist James Voss shows his support of International Women'''s Day, March 8, with a sign in both Cyrillic and English. Voss is also part of a crew, known as Expedition One, who will be replacing Expedition One on the International Space Station. STS-102 is the eighth construction flight to the Space Station, carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. The primary delivery system used to resupply and return Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment, Leonardo will deliver up to 10 tons of laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments and supplies for outfitting the newly installed U.S. Laboratory Destiny. Discovery is set to launch March 8 at 6:42 a.m. EST. The 12-day mission is expected to end with a landing at KSC on March 20.

2001-01-01

267

The Iterative Protein Redesign and Optimization (IPRO) suite of programs.  

PubMed

Proteins are an important class of biomolecules with applications spanning across biotechnology and medicine. In many cases, native proteins must be redesigned to improve various performance metrics by changing their amino acid sequences. Algorithms can help sharpen protein library design by focusing the library on sequences that optimize computationally accessible proxies. The Iterative Protein Redesign and Optimization (IPRO) suite of programs offers an integrated environment for (1) altering protein binding affinity and specificity, (2) grafting a binding pocket into an existing protein scaffold, (3) predicting an antibody's tertiary structure based on its sequence, (4) enhancing enzymatic activity, and (5) assessing the structure and binding energetics for a specific mutant. This manuscript provides an overview of the methods involved in IPRO, input language terminology, algorithmic details, software implementation specifics and application highlights. IPRO can be downloaded at http://maranas.che.psu.edu. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25448866

Pantazes, Robert J; Grisewood, Matthew J; Li, Tong; Gifford, Nathanael P; Maranas, Costas D

2015-02-01

268

Court rules against failed viatical firm in investor suit.  

PubMed

A Federal appeals court has revived a claim against Dignity Partners Inc., a viatical business, and offshoot of a financial-services firm. Dignity Partners operated by buying the life insurance policies of terminally ill people. The company was charged with making false and misleading statements in its prospectus for an initial public stock offering. Five months later, the company announced that it would not accept new customers with AIDS, a group which represented 95 percent of its accounts at that time. The company had information from researchers and clinicians that the introduction of protease inhibitors would greatly increase life expectancy for its customers and would reduce company profits. This information was not generally available to potential investors. The suit against the company alleges violations of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Exchange Act of 1934, both which govern stock trading. PMID:11367028

1999-10-01

269

Mission Specialist Smith is suited and ready for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith signals he is suited up and ready for launch. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michel Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 8-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:30 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

270

Impact verification of space suit design for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ballistic limits of single sheet and double sheet structures made of 6061 T6 Aluminum of 1.8 mm and larger nominal thickness were investigated for projectiles of 1.5 mm diameter fired in the Vertical Gun Range Test Facility and NASA Ames Research Center. The hole diameters and sheet deformation behavior were studied for various ratios of sheet spacing to projectile diameter. The results indicate that for projectiles of less than 1.5 mm diameter the ballistic limit exceeds the nominal 10 km/sec orbital debris encounter velocity, if a single-sheet suit of 1.8 mm thickness is behind a single bumper sheet of 1 mm thickness spaced 12.5 mm apart.

Fish, Richard H.

1987-01-01

271

STS-89 M.S. Salizhan Shakirovich Sharipov suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-89 Mission Specialist Salizhan Sharipov of the Russian Space Agency, at left, waves as he and his flight surgeon, Alexander Kulev, complete the donning of Sharipov's launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. In 1994, Sharipov graduated from Moscow State University with a degree in cartography. He and six fellow crew members will soon depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Endeavour will lift off during a launch window that opens at 9:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22. STS-89 is the eighth of nine planned missions to dock the Space Shuttle with Russia's Mir space station.

1998-01-01

272

STS-81 Mission Specialist Peter Wisoff suits up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-81 Mission Specialist Peter J. K. 'Jeff' Wisoff prepares for the fifth Shuttle- Mir docking as he waits in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building for the operation to fit him into his launch/entry suit to be completed. He conducted a spacewalk on his on his first Shuttle mission, STS- 57 and holds a doctorate degree in applied physics with an emphasis on lasers and semiconductor materials. He and five crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis will lift off during a 7-minute window that opens at 4:27 a.m. EST, January 12.

1997-01-01

273

Is the Weibull distribution really suited for wind statistics modeling?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind speed statistics is generally modeled using the Weibull distribution. This distribution is convenient since it fully characterizes analytically with only two parameters (the shape and scale parameters) the shape of distribution and the different moments of the wind speed. However, the Weibull distribution is based on empirical rather than physical justification and might display strong limitations for its applications. In this article, we analyze wind speed distributions of meteorological stations and report that they deviate from the Weibull distribution. We further investigate wind components rather than the wind speed statistic. This approach provides more physical insights on the validity domain of the Weibull distribution as a possible relevant model for wind statistics and the quantification of the error made by using such a distribution. We thereby propose alternative expressions of more suited wind speed distribution by using super-statistical distributions.

Drobinski, Philippe; Coulais, Corentin; Jourdier, Bénédicte

2014-05-01

274

An Integrated Suite of Tools to support Human Factors Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Human Factors Engineering (HFE) work for the nuclear industry imposes special demands on the practitioner in terms of the scope, complexity and safety requirements for humans in nuclear installations. Unfortunately HFE lags behind other engineering disciplines in the development and use of modern, powerful tools for the full range of analysis and design processes. HFE does not appear to be an attractive market for software and hardware developers and as a result, HFE practitioners usually have to rely on inefficient general-purpose tools like standard office software, or they have to use expensive special-purpose tools that offer only part of the solution they require and which also do not easily integrate with other tools. There have been attempts to develop generic software tools to support the HFE analyst and also to achieve some order and consistency in format and presentation. However, in spite of many years of development, very few tools have emerged that have achieved these goals. This would suggest the need for special tools, but existing commercial products have been found inadequate and to date not a single tool has been developed that adequately supports the special requirements of HFE work for the nuclear industry. This paper describes an integrated suite of generic as well as purpose-built tools that facilitate information solicitation, issues tracking, work domain analysis, functional requirements analysis, function allocation, operational sequence analysis, task analysis and development of HSI design requirements. In combination, this suite of tools supports the analytical as well as the representational aspects of key HFE activities primarily for new NPPs, including capturing information from subject matter experts and various source documents directly into the appropriate tool and then linking, analyzing and extending that information further to represent detailed functional and task information, and ultimately HSI design requirements. The paper also describes a tool developed especially for functional requirements analysis, function allocation, and task analysis.

Jacques V Hugo

2001-08-01

275

Mafic rocks of the Adirondack Highlands: One suite or many  

SciTech Connect

Mafic rocks in the granulite facies terrane of the Adirondack Highlands form at least 3 and possibly as many as 6 groups, based on field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria. Most abundant is the olivine metagabbro-amphibolite group (OMA), equivalent to the mafic suite'' of Olson (J. Petrol. 33:471, 1992). OMA occurs in irregular to tabular bodies, locally with intrusive relations, in all major rock types in the E and central Highlands. OMA is strongly olivine normative and forms a continuous differentiation series (Olson, 1992). Plagioclase-two pyroxene-garnet granulites (PGG) form dikes up to several m wide, in anorthositic host rocks. PGG are ferrogabbroic or ferrodioritic and approximately silica saturated. Two subgroups differ sharply in Mg, P, and trace elements. Ferrodiorite and monzodiorite gneisses (FMG), quartz normative and commonly migmatitic, occur in several large bodies in the NE Highlands and as extensive thin sheets in the W and SE Highlands, in association with anorthositic rocks. Three subgroups are distinguishable using Mg/Fe ratios and trace elements. Major element least-squares modeling suggests that both PGG and FMG could be derived by fractionation of gabbroic anorthosite liquids. A differentiation series is not evident, however, and both trace element (Ba, Rb, Sr, Zr and REE) data and normative plagioclase (An [>=] plag. in anorthosite) indicate a more complex origin. One subgroup of FMG may be early cumulates of the mangerite-charnockite suite. The chemistry of OMA, PGG, and FMG reflects their evolved nature and cannot be readily interpreted in terms of magma sources.

Whitney, P.R. (Geological Survey, Albany, NY (United States). New York State Museum)

1993-03-01

276

Heat stress of helicopter aircrew wearing immersion suit.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to define the lowest ambient air and cabin temperatures at which aircrews wearing immersion protection are starting to experience thermal discomfort and heat stress during flight operations, and to characterize during a flight simulation in laboratory, the severity of the heat stress during exposure to a typical northern summer ambient condition (25 degrees C, 40% RH). Twenty male helicopter aircrews wearing immersion suits (insulation of 2.2 Clo in air) performed 26 flights within an 8-month period at ambient temperatures ranging between -15 and 25 degrees C, and cabin temperatures ranging between 3 and 28 degrees C. It was observed based on thermal comfort ratings that the aircrews were starting to experience thermal discomfort and heat stress at ambient and cabin air conditions above 18 degrees C and at a WBGT index of 16 degrees C. In a subsequent study, seven aircrews dressed with the same clothing were exposed for 140 min to 25 degrees C and 40% RH in a climatic chamber. During the exposure, the aircrews simulated pilot flight maneuvers for 80 min followed with backender/flight engineer activities for 60 min. By the end of the 140 min exposure, the skin temperature, rectal temperature and heart rate had increased significantly to 35.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C, 38.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C and between 110 and 160 beats/min depending on the level of physical activity. The body sweat rate averaged 0.58 kg/h and the relative humidity inside the clothing was at saturation by the end of the exposure. It was concluded that aircrews wearing immersion suits during the summer months in northern climates might experience thermal discomfort and heat stress at ambient or cabin air temperature as low as 18 degrees C. PMID:16922187

Ducharme, Michel B

2006-07-01

277

Active Learning Suite: Simulation-Based E-learning Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Active Learning Suite (ALSuite) is a highly interactive simulation-based online learning system for SMET education and corporate training. It uses real-life situations and objects, such as those related to the home, automobiles, sports, and telecommunications as the context for science and technology investigations. ALSuite is comprised of Simulations, Virtual Experiments, Interactive Lessons, a scriptable and animated Instructor's Assistant, assessment, authoring and ancillary tools, and more. The current version of Active Learning Suite includes the following modules: Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Mobile Telephony Wired Telephony Golf Mechanics Fiber Optics Fundamentals of Wireless Communications The problems and virtual experiments in ALSuite are designed to challenge learners to develop effective problem-solving and critical thinking skills. This enables the learner to discover the connections between scientific theory and concepts and their practical applications in technology. ALSuite helps teachers meld advanced emerging technologies with science and inquiry content, processes, and skills to meet the National and State Science Education Standards, and the Benchmarks for Science Literacy.The ALSuite software implements technologies that can provide instructional opportunities in many ways, whether at a campus/school (traditional teaching), at home (warm-ups, post-class tasks, or self-learning), or through distance learning. ALSuite is intended for problem-based learning and "learning-by-doing," however, it can facilitate more traditional learning and teaching strategies as well.Educational software resources for thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, telecommunications, fiber optics, cellular/mobile phone, and wireless fundamentals curricula. As well as for introductory physics and principles of technology.

278

Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: For every one hour spent performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, astronauts in the US space program spend approximately six to ten hours training in the EVA spacesuit at NASA-Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL). In 1997, NASA introduced the planar hard upper torso (HUT) EVA spacesuit which subsequently replaced the existing pivoted HUT. An extra joint in the pivoted shoulder allows increased mobility but also increased complexity. Over the next decade a number of astronauts developed shoulder problems requiring surgical intervention, many of whom performed EVA training in the NBL. This study investigated whether changing HUT designs led to shoulder injuries requiring surgical repair. Methods: US astronaut EVA training data and spacesuit design employed were analyzed from the NBL data. Shoulder surgery data was acquired from the medical record database, and causal mechanisms were obtained from personal interviews Analysis of the individual HUT designs was performed as it related to normal shoulder biomechanics. Results: To date, 23 US astronauts have required 25 shoulder surgeries. Approximately 48% (11/23) directly attributed their injury to training in the planar HUT, whereas none attributed their injury to training in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT design limits shoulder abduction to 90 degrees compared to approximately 120 degrees in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT also forces the shoulder into a forward flexed position requiring active retraction and extension to increase abduction beyond 90 degrees. Discussion: Multiple factors are associated with mechanisms leading to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Limitations to normal shoulder mechanics, suit fit, donning/doffing, body position, pre-existing injury, tool weight and configuration, age, in-suit activity, and HUT design have all been identified as potential sources of injury. Conclusion: Crewmembers with pre-existing or current shoulder injuries or certain anthropometric body types should conduct NBL EVA training in the pivoted HUT.

Scheuring, R. A.; McCulloch, P.; Van Baalen, Mary; Minard, Charles; Watson, Richard; Blatt, T.

2011-01-01

279

Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

2010-01-01

280

Interaction of Space Suits with Windblown Soil: Preliminary Mars Wind Tunnel Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments in the Mars Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center show that under Mars conditions, spacesuit materials are highly susceptible to dust contamination when exposed to windblown soil. This effect was suspected from knowledge of the interaction of electrostatically adhesive dust with solid surfaces in general. However, it is important to evaluate the respective roles of materials, meteorological and radiation effects, and the character of the soil. The tunnel permits evaluation of dust contamination and sand abrasion of space suits by simulating both pressure and wind conditions on Mars. The long-term function of space suits on Mars will be primarily threatened by dust contamination. Lunar EVA activities caused heavy contamination of space suits, but the problem was never seriously manifest because of the brief utilization of the suits, and the suits were never reused. Electrostatically adhering dust grains have various detrimental effects: (1) penetration and subsequent wear of suit fabrics, (2) viewing obscuration through visors and scratching/pitting of visor surfaces, (3) penetration, wear, and subsequent seizing-up of mechanical suit joints, (4) changes in albedo and therefore of radiation properties of external heat-exchanger systems, (5) changes in electrical conductivity of suit surfaces which may affect tribocharging of suits and create spurious discharge effects detrimental to suit electronics/radio systems. Additional information is contained in the original.

Marshall, J.; Bratton, C.; Kosmo, J.; Trevino, R.

1999-01-01

281

Don/Doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits is disclosed. The support stand is designed for use in one-g environments; however, certain features of the stand can be used on future space-craft, lunar or planetary bases. The present invention has a retainer which receives a protruding lug fixed on the torso section of the space suit. When the lug is locked in the retainer, the space suit is held in a generally upright position. In a one-g environment a portable ladder is positioned adjacent to the rear entry of the space suit supported by the stand. The astronaut climbs up the ladder and grasps a hand bar assembly positioned above the rear entry. The astronaut then slips his legs through the open rear entry and down into the abdominal portion of the suit. The astronaut then lowers himself fully into the suit. The portable ladder is then removed and the astronaut can close the rear entry door. The lug is then disengaged from the retainer and the astronaut is free to engage in training exercises in the suit. When suit use is over, the astronaut returns to the stand and inserts the lug into the retainer. A technician repositions the ladder. The astronaut opens the rear entry door, grasps the hand bar assembly and does a chin-up to extricate himself from the suit. The astronaut climbs down the movable ladder while the suit is supported by the stand.

Kosmo, Joseph J. (Inventor); Tri, Terry O. (Inventor); Spenny, William E. (Inventor); West, Philip R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

282

Don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits is disclosed. The support stand is designed for use in one-g environments; however, certain features of the stand can be used on future spacecraft, lunar, or planetary bases. The present invention has a retainer which receives a protrucing lug fixed on the torso section of the space suit. When the lug is locked in the retainer, the space suit is held in a generally upright position. In a one-g environment a portable ladder is positioned adjacent to the rear entry of the space suit supported by the stand. The astronaut climbs up the ladder and grasps a hand bar assembly positioned above the rear entry. The astronaut then slips his legs through the open rear entry and down into the abdominal portion of the suite. The astronaut then lowers himself fully into the suit. The portable ladder is then removed and the astronaut can close the rear entry door. The lug is then disengaged from the retainer and the astronaut is free to engage in training exercises in the suit. When suit use is over, the astronaut returns to the stand and inserts the lug into the retainer. A technician repositions the ladder. The astronaut opens the rear entry door, grasps the hand bar assembly and does a chin-up to extricate himself from the suit. The astronaut climbs down the movable ladder while the suit is supported by the stand.

Kosmo, Joseph J. (inventor); Tri, Terry O. (inventor); Spenny, William E. (inventor); West, Philip R. (inventor)

1988-01-01

283

Model for Predicting the Performance of Planetary Suit Hip Bearing Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a space suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. During the development period of the suit numerous design iterations need to occur before the hardware meets human performance requirements. Using computer models early in the design phase of hardware development is advantageous, by allowing virtual prototyping to take place. A virtual design environment allows designers to think creatively, exhaust design possibilities, and study design impacts on suit and human performance. A model of the rigid components of the Mark III Technology Demonstrator Suit (planetary-type space suit) and a human manikin were created and tested in a virtual environment. The performance of the Mark III hip bearing model was first developed and evaluated virtually by comparing the differences in mobility performance between the nominal bearing configurations and modified bearing configurations. Suited human performance was then simulated with the model and compared to actual suited human performance data using the same bearing configurations. The Mark III hip bearing model was able to visually represent complex bearing rotations and the theoretical volumetric ranges of motion in three dimensions. The model was also able to predict suited human hip flexion and abduction maximums to within 10% of the actual suited human subject data, except for one modified bearing condition in hip flexion which was off by 24%. Differences between the model predictions and the human subject performance data were attributed to the lack of joint moment limits in the model, human subject fitting issues, and the limited suit experience of some of the subjects. The results demonstrate that modeling space suit rigid segments is a feasible design tool for evaluating and optimizing suited human performance. Keywords: space suit, design, modeling, performance

Cowley, Matthew S.; Margerum, Sarah; Hharvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2012-01-01

284

Comparisons of three anti-G suit configurations during long duration, low onset, +Gz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Little physiologic data exist on the effects of long duration, low onset, hypergravity (+G). Space shuttle crewmembers are subjected to low +G forces (less than +3G) for upwards of 30 minutes during reentry. A similar reentry profile is predicted for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The physiologic effects of this acceleration stress are compounded by the loss of body water experienced during microgravity. Currently, a standard 5 bladder anti-G suit is being used during shuttle reentry. There have been complaints of discomfort using this suit, mainly due to the abdominal bladder. This study compared the effectiveness of three anti-G suit configurations in volume depleted subjects during a simulated space shuttle reentry profile. Methods: Seven male subjects were given intravenous Lasix in a dose from 20-40 mg to induce a total body weight loss of 3 plus or minus 1.5 percent. Approximately six hours after the injection, the subjects donned one of three anti-G suits - a standard 5 bladder anti-G suit, an extended coverage anti-G suit (the advanced technology anti-G suit or ATAGS), or an extended coverage anti-G suit without an abdominal bladder (the reentry anti-G suit or REAGS). All subjects were exposed to a simulated space shuttle reentry profile. Non-invasive eye-level blood pressure (ELBP) was monitored throughout the +G exposure. When systolic ELBP dropped below 70 mmHg, the anti-G suit was inflated in 0.5 psig increments to the pressure required to maintain 70 mmHg ELBP. Each subject rode with all three suits. Comparisons were made between the final pressure required in each suit to maintain ELBP and subjective reports of comfort. Results: The mean final suit pressure required to maintain ELBP was 1.1 psi, in both the ATAGS and REAGS versus 1.8 psi in the standard suit. In addition, the subjects rated the REAGS suit highest on the comfort scale, citing the absence of the abdominal bladder as the main reason. Conclusions: Overall, the REAGS suit was the superior anti-G suit during long duration, low onset +G. This is based on its ability to maintain ELBP and still remain comfortable when inflated for prolonged periods of time.

Stegmann, B. J.; Krutz, R. W.; Burton, R. R.; Sawin, C. F.

1992-01-01

285

Improvement of the extravehicular activity suit for the MIR orbiting station program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1977, EVA suits of the semi-rigid type have been used to support sorties from Russian orbiting stations. Currently, within the MIR station program, the Orlan-DMA, the latest modification of the Orlan semi-rigid EVA suit is used by crewmembers. Quite some experience has been gained by Russia in operations of the Orlan type suits. It has proved the advantages of

G. Severin; I. Abramov; V. Svertshek; A. Stoklitsky

1996-01-01

286

NSA Suite B and its significance for non-USA organisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005 the US security authority NSA published a catalog of cryptographic methods to serve as the basis for the modernisation of the national cryptographic technology in the USA. The catalog is known by the name “Suite B” and has also generated great interest far beyond the borders of the USA. Suite B could exert appreciable influence on the application of cryptography for years to come. This paper covers the significance of Suite B for European organisations.

Schmeh, Klaus

287

Spherical Coordinate Systems for Streamlining Suited Mobility Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: When describing human motion, biomechanists generally report joint angles in terms of Euler angle rotation sequences. However, there are known limitations in using this method to describe complex motions such as the shoulder joint during a baseball pitch. Euler angle notation uses a series of three rotations about an axis where each rotation is dependent upon the preceding rotation. As such, the Euler angles need to be regarded as a set to get accurate angle information. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to visualize and understand these complex motion representations. It has been shown that using a spherical coordinate system allows Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) personnel to increase their ability to transmit important human mobility data to engineers, in a format that is readily understandable and directly translatable to their design efforts. Objectives: The goal of this project was to use innovative analysis and visualization techniques to aid in the examination and comprehension of complex motions. Methods: This project consisted of a series of small sub-projects, meant to validate and verify a new method before it was implemented in the ABF's data analysis practices. A mechanical test rig was built and tracked in 3D using an optical motion capture system. Its position and orientation were reported in both Euler and spherical reference systems. In the second phase of the project, the ABF estimated the error inherent in a spherical coordinate system, and evaluated how this error would vary within the reference frame. This stage also involved expanding a kinematic model of the shoulder to include the rest of the joints of the body. The third stage of the project involved creating visualization methods to assist in interpreting motion in a spherical frame. These visualization methods will be incorporated in a tool to evaluate a database of suited mobility data, which is currently in development. Results: Initial results demonstrated that a spherical coordinate system is helpful in describing and visualizing the motion of a space suit. The system is particularly useful in describing the motion of the shoulder, where multiple degrees of freedom can lead to very complex motion paths.

Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu. Sudhakar

2015-01-01

288

A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the design of a new space suit it is necessary to have requirements that define what mobility space suit joints should be capable of achieving in both a system and at the component level. NASA elected to divide mobility into its constituent parts-range of motion (ROM) and torque- in an effort to develop clean design requirements that limit subject performance bias and are easily verified. Unfortunately, the measurement of mobility can be difficult to obtain. Current technologies, such as the Vicon motion capture system, allow for the relatively easy benchmarking of range of motion (ROM) for a wide array of space suit systems. The ROM evaluations require subjects in the suit to accurately evaluate the ranges humans can achieve in the suit. However, when it comes to torque, there are significant challenges for both benchmarking current performance and writing requirements for future suits. This is reflected in the fact that torque definitions have been applied to very few types of space suits and with limited success in defining all the joints accurately. This paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages to historical joint torque evaluation methods, describes more recent efforts directed at benchmarking joint torques of prototype space suits, and provides an outline for how NASA intends to address joint torque in design requirements for the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS).

Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

2009-01-01

289

Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the NASA Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on detailed results of the testing that has been conducted under this test series thus far.

McFarland, Shane M.

2011-01-01

290

Interferometric diagnostic suite for ultrafast laser ablation of metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a suite of novel techniques to measure important characteristics in intense ultrashort laser solid target experiments such as critical surface displacement, ablation depth, and plasma characteristics. Measurement of these important characteristics on an ultrafast (~50 fs) time scale is important in understanding the primary event mechanisms in laser ablation of metal targets. Unlike traditional methods that infer these characteristics from spectral power shifts, phase shifts in frequency domain interferometry (FDI) or laser breakthrough studies of multiple shots on bulk materials, these techniques directly measure these characteristics from a single ultrafast heating pulse. These techniques are based on absolute displacement interferometry and nanotopographic applications of wavefront sensors. By applying all these femtosecond time-resolved techniques to a range of materials (Al, Au, and Au on plastic) over a range of pulse energies (1011 to 1016 W/cm2) and pulse durations (50 to 700 fs), greater insight into the ablation mechanism and its pulse parameter dependencies can be determined. Comparison of these results with hydrocode software programs also reveals the applicability of hydrocode models.

Clarke, Steven A.; Rodriguez, George; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Forsman, Andrew

2004-09-01

291

Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

2006-01-01

292

Torso sizing ring construction for hard space suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hard suit for use in space or diving applications having an adjustable length torso covering that will fit a large variety of wearers is described. The torso covering comprises an upper section and a lower section which interconnect so that the covering will fit wearers with short torsos. One or more sizing rings may be inserted between the upper and lower sections to accommodate larger torso sizes as required. Since access of the astronaut to the torso covering is preferably through an opening in the back of the upper section (which is closed off by the backpack), the rings slant upward-forward from the lower edge of the opening. The lower edge of the upper covering section has a coupler which slants upward-forward from the lower edge of the back opening. The lower torso section has a similarly slanted coupler which may interfit with the upper section coupler to accommodate the smallest torso size. One or more sizing rings may be inserted between the coupler sections of the upper and lower torso sections to accommodate larger torsos. Each ring has an upper coupler which may interfit with the upper section coupler and a lower coupler which may interfit with the lower section coupler.

Vykukal, H. C.

1986-01-01

293

STS-93 Commander Collins suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins gets help donning her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

294

STS-93 Commander Collins waves after suiting up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves after donning her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

1999-01-01

295

Calibration of the Solar Orbiter Energetic Particle Detector Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the current status and plans for the calibration of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite on ESA's Solar Orbiter mission. Solar Orbiter is scheduled to launch in January 2017, instrument delivery in January 2015. EPD consists of four sensors: the SupraThermal Electron and Proton (STEP) sensor covers electrons (protons) from 2 (3) keV up to 100 keV, the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) from 20 to 300 (7000) keV, the Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS) determines the ionic composition from ~0.05 to ~10 MeV/nuc (species dependent), and the High Energy Telescope (HET) measures electrons and protons (ions) from 0.3 to 30 and 10 to >100 MeV/nuc (20 - 200 MeV/nuc species dependent). EPT, HET, and SIS have two approximately opposite-facing fields of view, EPT, and HET share a common electronics box, two EPT/HET sensors allow the determination of second-order anisotropies (a total of 4 FoVs). Apart from the use of radioactive sources, STEP will be calibrated at the Kiel calibration facilities, EPT both at Kiel (electrons and low-energy protons) as well as at PTB in Braunschweig. SIS will undergo calibration at the LBL 88' cyclotron, HET at HIMAC in Chiba, Japan. Tests of the electron/protons discrimination of EPT show the expected behavior, HET prototypes have already been calibrated and the results will be shown.

Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Panitzsch, L.; Boettcher, S.; Mason, G. M.; Kohler, J.; Ho, G. C.; Boden, S.; Grunau, J.; Steinhagen, J.; Terasa, C.; Yu, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Blanco, J.

2013-12-01

296

STS-97 MS Carlos Noriega suits up for launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-97 Mission Specialist Carlos Noriega appears relaxed as he dons his launch and entry suit. This is his second Shuttle flight. Mission STS-97 is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. It is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to be installed on the Space Station. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. The Station'''s electrical power system will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays, each 112 feet long by 39 feet wide, to convert sunlight to electricity. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 30 at 10:06 p.m. EST.

2000-01-01

297

STS-103 Mission Specialist Smith suits up before launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After donning his launch and entry suit, sts-103 Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith shows a positive attitude over the second launch attempt for Space Shuttle Discovery. The previous launch attempt on Dec. 17 was scrubbed about 8:52 p.m. due to numerous violations of weather launch commit criteria at KSC. Smith and other crew members Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Francois Clervoy of France are scheduled to lift off at 7:50 p.m. EST Dec. 19 on mission STS-103, servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Objectives for the nearly eight-day mission include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST.

1999-01-01

298

A modular suite of hardware enabling spaceflight cell culture research.  

PubMed

BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Research Partnership Center (RPC), has developed and operated various middeck payloads launched on 23 shuttle missions since 1991 in support of commercial space biotechnology projects. Modular cell culture systems are contained within the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) suite of flight-qualified hardware, compatible with Space Shuttle, SPACEHAB, Spacelab and International Space Station (ISS) EXPRESS Rack interfaces. As part of the CGBA family, the Isothermal Containment Module (ICM) incubator provides thermal control, data acquisition and experiment manipulation capabilities, including accelerometer launch detection for automated activation and thermal profiling for culture incubation and sample preservation. The ICM can accommodate up to 8 individually controlled temperature zones. Command and telemetry capabilities allow real-time downlink of data and video permitting remote payload operation and ground control synchronization. Individual cell culture experiments can be accommodated in a variety of devices ranging from 'microgravity test tubes' or standard 100 mm Petri dishes, to complex, fed-batch bioreactors with automated culture feeding, waste removal and multiple sample draws. Up to 3 levels of containment can be achieved for chemical fixative addition, and passive gas exchange can be provided through hydrophobic membranes. Many additional options exist for designing customized hardware depending on specific science requirements. PMID:16145798

Hoehn, Alexander; Klaus, David M; Stodieck, Louis S

2004-03-01

299

A modular suite of hardware enabling spaceflight cell culture research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Research Partnership Center (RPC), has developed and operated various middeck payloads launched on 23 shuttle missions since 1991 in support of commercial space biotechnology projects. Modular cell culture systems are contained within the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) suite of flight-qualified hardware, compatible with Space Shuttle, SPACEHAB, Spacelab and International Space Station (ISS) EXPRESS Rack interfaces. As part of the CGBA family, the Isothermal Containment Module (ICM) incubator provides thermal control, data acquisition and experiment manipulation capabilities, including accelerometer launch detection for automated activation and thermal profiling for culture incubation and sample preservation. The ICM can accommodate up to 8 individually controlled temperature zones. Command and telemetry capabilities allow real-time downlink of data and video permitting remote payload operation and ground control synchronization. Individual cell culture experiments can be accommodated in a variety of devices ranging from 'microgravity test tubes' or standard 100 mm Petri dishes, to complex, fed-batch bioreactors with automated culture feeding, waste removal and multiple sample draws. Up to 3 levels of containment can be achieved for chemical fixative addition, and passive gas exchange can be provided through hydrophobic membranes. Many additional options exist for designing customized hardware depending on specific science requirements.

Hoehn, Alexander; Klaus, David M.; Stodieck, Louis S.

2004-01-01

300

The Walkback Test: A Study to Evaluate Suit and Life Support System Performance Requirements for a 10 Kilometer Traverse in a Planetary Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As planetary suit and planetary life support systems develop, specific design inputs for each system relate to a presently unanswered question concerning operational concepts: What distance can be considered a safe walking distance for a suited EVA crew member exploring the surface of the Moon to "walk-back" to the habitat in the event of a rover breakdown, taking into consideration the planned EVA tasks as well as the possible traverse back to the habitat? It has been assumed, based on Apollo program experience, that 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) will be the maximum EVA excursion distance from the lander or habitat to ensure the crew member s safe return to the habitat in the event of a rover failure. To investigate the feasibility of performing a suited 10 km Walkback, NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to design and implement the Lunar Walkback Test . The test was designed not only to determine the feasibility of a 10 km excursion, but also to collect human performance, biomedical, and biomechanical data relevant to optimizing space suit design and life support system sizing. These data will also be used to develop follow-on studies to understand interrelationships of such key parameters as suit mass, inertia, suit pressure, and center of gravity (CG), and the respective influences of each on human performance.

Vos, Jessica R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lee, Lesley

2007-01-01

301

VOLCWORKS: A suite for optimization of hazards mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making hazards maps is a process linking basic science, applied science and engineering for the benefit of the society. The methodologies for hazards maps' construction have evolved enormously together with the tools that allow the forecasting of the behavior of the materials produced by different eruptive processes. However, in spite of the development of tools and evolution of methodologies, the utility of hazards maps has not changed: prevention and mitigation of volcanic disasters. Integration of different tools for simulation of different processes for a single volcano is a challenge to be solved using software tools including processing, simulation and visualization techniques, and data structures in order to build up a suit that helps in the construction process starting from the integration of the geological data, simulations and simplification of the output to design a hazards/scenario map. Scientific visualization is a powerful tool to explore and gain insight into complex data from instruments and simulations. The workflow from data collection, quality control and preparation for simulations, to achieve visual and appropriate presentation is a process that is usually disconnected, using in most of the cases different applications for each of the needed processes, because it requires many tools that are not built for the solution of a specific problem, or were developed by research groups to solve particular tasks, but disconnected. In volcanology, due to its complexity, groups typically examine only one aspect of the phenomenon: ash dispersal, laharic flows, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and ballistic projectile ejection, among others. However, when studying the hazards associated to the activity of a volcano, it is important to analyze all the processes comprehensively, especially for communication of results to the end users: decision makers and planners. In order to solve this problem and connect different parts of a workflow we are developing the suite VOLCWORKS, whose principle is to have a flexible-implementation architecture allowing rapid development of software to the extent specified by the needs including calculations, routines, or algorithms, both new and through redesign of available software in the volcanological community, but especially allowing to include new knowledge, models or software transferring them to software modules. The design is component-oriented platform, which allows incorporating particular solutions (routines, simulations, etc.), which can be concatenated for integration or highlighting information. The platform includes a graphical interface with capabilities for working in different visual environments that can be focused to the particular work of different types of users (researchers, lecturers, students, etc.). This platform aims to integrate simulation and visualization phases, incorporating proven tools (now isolated). VOLCWORKS can be used under different operating systems (Windows, Linux and Mac OS) and fit the context of use automatically and at runtime: in both tasks and their sequence, such as utilization of hardware resources (CPU, GPU, special monitors, etc.). The application has the ability to run on a laptop or even in a virtual reality room with access to supercomputers.

Delgado Granados, H.; Ramírez Guzmán, R.; Villareal Benítez, J. L.; García Sánchez, T.

2012-04-01

302

Architecture and Information Technology as Factors in Surgical Suite Information Sharing and Coordination  

E-print Network

of the surgery schedule. To generalize beyond the sites studied, we conducted a survey of 135 surgical suiteArchitecture and Information Technology as Factors in Surgical Suite Information Sharing for surgical staff. Schedule changes occur as often as every few moments, affecting necessary coordination

Mankoff, Jennifer

303

Evaluation of the operator protection factors offered by positive pressure air suits against airborne microbiological challenge.  

PubMed

Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories. PMID:23012620

Steward, Jackie A; Lever, Mark S

2012-08-01

304

46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214 Section...Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger...section, each passenger vessel must carry a thermal protective aid approved under...

2010-10-01

305

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2011-10-01

306

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2012-10-01

307

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2013-10-01

308

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2014-10-01

309

46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following...c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be...

2010-10-01

310

Some problems of selection and evaluation of the Martian suit enclosure concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important tasks for preparation of a future manned mission to Mars is to create a space suit, which ensures efficient and safe operation of the man on the planet surface.The concept of space suit (SS) utilisation on the Mars surface will be determined mainly by the Mars mission scenario. Currently the preference is given to utilisation

Isaak Abramov; Nikolay Moiseyev; Anatoly Stoklitsky

2005-01-01

311

Introduction to the HPCChallenge Benchmark Suite Jack J. Dongarra Piotr Luszczek  

E-print Network

.g. programming lan- guage, parallel model, memory model, communi- cation model), · Scalable benchmarks designedIntroduction to the HPCChallenge Benchmark Suite Jack J. Dongarra Piotr Luszczek December 13, 2004 Abstract The HPCChallenge suite of benchmarks will examine the performance of HPC architectures using

Dongarra, Jack

312

Introduction to the HPC Challenge Benchmark Suite Jack J. Dongarra Piotr Luszczek  

E-print Network

.g. programming lan- guage, parallel model, memory model, communi- cation model), · Scalable benchmarks designedIntroduction to the HPC Challenge Benchmark Suite Jack J. Dongarra Piotr Luszczek December 13, 2004 Abstract The HPC Challenge suite of benchmarks will exam- ine the performance of HPC architectures using

Luszczek, Piotr

313

Evaluation of the Operator Protection Factors Offered by Positive Pressure Air Suits against Airborne Microbiological Challenge  

PubMed Central

Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories. PMID:23012620

Steward, Jackie A.; Lever, Mark S.

2012-01-01

314

Student Perceptions of the Social and Academic Climates of Suite Living Arrangements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the perceptions of resident hall occupants living in suites. Information was gathered using interviews and a structured survey. Results indicated that residents found the suites to be involving and supportive, providing opportunities to meet and interact with nine other suitemates. (RC)

Null, Roberta L.

1981-01-01

315

FRACTAL Systems & Project suite: engineering tools for improving development and operation of the systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the FRACTAL Systems & Projects suite. This suite is composed by several tools (GECO, DOCMA and SUMO) that provide the capabilities that all organizations need to store and manage the system information generated along the project's lifetime, from the design phase to the operation phase. The amount of information that is generated in a project keeps growing

A. Pérez-Calpena; E. Mujica-Alvarez; J. Osinde-Lopez; M. García-Vargas

2008-01-01

316

Nalicnal fusoriation of Sihools af 11250 ROGER BACON DRIVE, SUITE 21  

E-print Network

Nalicnal fusoriation of Sihools af 'lheatre 11250 ROGER BACON DRIVE, SUITE 21 RESION. VIRGINIA Association of Schools of Theatre 11250 Roger Bacon Drive, Suite 2l Reston, Virginia 20190-5248 COMMISSION and for the dye vat in tlte costume shop (see Visitors' Report, Section F , NAST llazdboak 20i2-13, item II.F.1.g

Hemmers, Oliver

317

Physiological and engineering study of advanced thermoregulatory systems for extravehicular space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations of thermal control for extravehicular space suits are reported. The characteristics of independent cooling of temperature and removal of excess heat from separate regions of the body, and the applications of heat pipes in protective suits are discussed along with modeling of the human thermal system.

Chato, J. C.; Hertig, B. A.

1972-01-01

318

Investigation of equilibria in solution. Determination of equilibrium constants with the HYPERQUAD suite of programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new suite of 10 programs concerned with equilibrium constants and solution equilibria is described. The suite includes data preparation programs, pretreatment programs, equilibrium constant refinement and post-run analysis. Data preparation is facilitated by a customized data editor. The pretreatment programs include manual trial and error data fitting, speciation diagrams, end-point determination, absorbance error determination, spectral baseline corrections, factor analysis

Peter Gans; Antonio Sabatini; Alberto Vacca

1996-01-01

319

A Freezable Heat Exchanger for Space Suit Radiator Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut s metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to space, thus becoming the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the astronaut during an EVA can reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator. Radiators have no moving parts and are thus highly reliable. Past freezable radiators have been too heavy, but the weight can be greatly reduced by placing a small and freeze tolerant heat exchanger between the astronaut and radiator, instead of making the very large radiator freeze tolerant. Therefore, the key technological innovation to improve space suit radiator performance was the development of a lightweight and freezable heat exchanger that accommodates the variable heat load generated by the astronaut. Herein, we present the heat transfer performance of a newly designed heat exchanger that endured several freeze / thaw cycles without any apparent damage. The heat exchanger was also able to continuously turn down or turn up the heat rejection to follow the variable load.

Nabity, James A.; Mason, Georgia R.; Copeland, Robert J.; Trevino, Luis a.

2008-01-01

320

CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with the EM-ACES demonstrating slightly better CO2 washout than the REI suit, but not statistically significant. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future ground testing in the REI and EM-ACES.

Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

2011-01-01

321

Three S-type volcanic suites from the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeast Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept that granitoids of the Lachlan Fold Belt in southeast Australia, are derived from either igneous or sedimentary source rocks (I- or S-type), can be extended to volcanic rocks of the same age. Three suites of late Silurian S-type volcanics are described, two of which can be matched quite closely with plutonic equivalents. A large part of the Paleozoic continental margin volcanic activity in southeast Australia consisted of the magmatic recycling of old metasedimentary crust, probably of late Proterozoic age. The three volcanic suites are moderately to strongly peraluminous, with the corresponding presence of Al-rich minerals. Variation within the volcanic suites is ascribed chiefly to progressive removal of restite, or source material residual from partial melting. The most mafic suite, the Hawkins Suite, contains plagioclase, cordierite, orthopyroxene, biotite and quartz as restite components, with less abundant almandine. These rocks are chemically equivalent to mafic biotite-rich and cordierite-bearing granitoids from parts of the Berridale and Murrumbidgee Batholiths. Garnet is absent from the Goobarragandra Suite volcanics, which are a little more felsic and close in compositon to granitoids of the Young and Maragle Batholiths. The S-type character of the Laidlaw Suite is less pronounced although a sedimentary source seems to be established. Such a source would be less mature than those for the other two volcanic suites. The Laidlaw Suite resembles, but cannot be closely identified with, felsic S-type granitoids of the Murrumbidgee and Berridale Batholiths. Low-grade regional metamorphism in most of the volcanic rocks has resulted in much mineralogical alteration and mobility of alkali and alkaline earth elements. Despite this alteration, unaltered rocks are present in all three suites. Compositional data for the phenocryst phases within the unaltered rocks has allowed estimation of some intensive parameters. Hawkins Suite volcanics were extruded directly from their source region and preserve phenocryst equilibria established at 5-6 kbar at 800°C. The Laidlaw and Goobarragandra Suites reequilibrated at lower pressures than their source before extrusion. The Laidlaw Suite reequilibrated at estimated temperatures of 725°-730°C, ƒO2 of 10-15.5 to 10-14 bars, and ƒ(H2O) of 2 to 2.5 kbar. Differing mineral compositions in the three suites are related to differing source rock compositons and oxygen fugacities. Relative biotite and orthopyroxene mg is possibly pressure dependent.

Wyborn, D.; Chappell, B. W.; Johnston, R. M.

1981-11-01

322

Checkout and Standard Use Procedures for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational pressure range is the range to which the suit can be nominally operated for manned testing. The top end of the nominal operational pressure range is equivalent to 1/2 the proof pressure. Structural pressure is 1.5 times the specified test pressure for any given test. Proof pressure is the maximum unmanned pressure to which the suit was tested by the vendor prior to delivery. The maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 90% of the proof pressure. The pressure systems RVs are set to keep components below their MAWPs. If the suit is pressurized over its MAWP, the suit will be taken out of service and an in-depth inspection/review of the suit will be performed before the suit is put back in service. The procedures outlined in this document should be followed as written. However, the suit test engineer (STE) may make redline changes real-time, provided those changes are recorded in the anomaly section of the test data sheet. If technicians supporting suit build-up, check-out, and/or test execution believe that a procedure can be improved, they should notify their lead. If procedures are incorrect to the point of potentially causing hardware damage or affecting safety, bring the problem to the technician lead and/or STE s attention and stop work until a solution (temporary or permanent) is authorized. Certain steps in the procedure are marked with a DV , for Designated Verifier. The Designated Verifier for this procedure is an Advanced Space Suit Technology Development Laboratory technician, not directly involved in performing the procedural steps, who will verify that the step was performed as stated. The steps to be verified by the DV were selected based on one or more of the following criteria: the step was deemed significant in ensuring the safe performance of the test, the data recorded in the step is of specific interest in monitoring the suit system operation, or the step has a strong influence on the successful completion of test objectives. Prior to all manned test activities, Advanced Suit Test Data Sheet (TDS) Parts A-E shall be completed to verify system and team are ready for test. Advanced Suit TDS Parts F-G shall be completed at the end of the suited activity. Appendix B identifies tha appropriate Mark III suit emergency event procedures.

Valish, Dana J.

2012-01-01

323

Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

1977-01-01

324

Space Suit Performance: Methods for Changing the Quality of Quantitative Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suits will enable astronauts to perform to their maximum capacity, prototype suits must be built and tested with human subjects. However, engineers and flight surgeons often have difficulty understanding and applying traditional representations of human data without training. To overcome these challenges, NASA is developing modern simulation and analysis techniques that focus on 3D visualization. Early understanding of actual performance early on in the design cycle is extremely advantageous to increase performance capabilities, reduce the risk of injury, and reduce costs. The primary objective of this project was to test modern simulation and analysis techniques for evaluating the performance of a human operating in extra-vehicular space suits.

Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

325

The First Results of the Russian EVA Space Suits Operation in the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The year of 2001 saw the first EVAs of the International Space Station (ISS) crews using the Russian "Orlan-M" space suits. This marked the beginning of a new stage of activities on putting into operation of the next ISS modules. The paper reviews the results of the Russian space suits' operation in the course of extravehicular activity (EVA) by the crews of the first ISS expeditions. The paper also reviews differences in operation of the "Orlan-M" in the ISS and "Mir" orbiting station resulting from space suit (SS) systems design, peculiarities of the station airlocks and EVA performance methods. The paper presents data on EVA results and comments on space suit systems' operation. The paper gives diagrams for main parameters of the space suits' life support systems (LSS) and comments about them. In conclusion the paper reviews the "Orlan-M" improvements being performed and prospects of "Orlan-M" usage in the ISS.

Abramov, I. P.; Albats, E. A.; Glazov, G. M.

326

Skin Temperatures During Unaided Egress: Unsuited and While Wearing the NASA Launch and Entry or Advanced Crew Escape Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two flight suits currently worn by crew members during Shuttle launch and landing, the Launch and Entry Suit (LES) and the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), are designed to protect crew members in the case of emergency. Although the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) worn under the flight suits was designed to counteract the heat storage of the suits, the suits may increase thermal stress and limit the astronaut's egress capabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess the thermal loads experienced by crew members during a simulated emergency egress before and after spaceflight. Comparisons of skin temperatures were made between the preflight unsuited and suited conditions. between the pre- and postflight suited conditions, and between the two flight suits.

Woodruff, Kristin K.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.

2000-01-01

327

The Apollo Number: Space Suits, Self-Support, and the Walk-Run Transition  

PubMed Central

Background How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (<0.5 g), running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. Methodology/Principal Findings The walk-run transition (denoted *) correlates with the Froude Number (Fr?=?v2/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L). Human unsuited Fr* is relatively constant (?0.5) with gravity but increases substantially with decreasing gravity below ?0.4 g, rising to 0.9 in 1/6 g; space suits appear to lower Fr*. Because of pressure forces, space suits partially (1 g) or completely (lunar-g) support their own weight. We define the Apollo Number (Ap?=?Fr/M) as an expected invariant of locomotion under manipulations of M, the ratio of human-supported to total transported mass. We hypothesize that for lunar suited conditions Ap* but not Fr* will be near 0.9, because the Apollo Number captures the effect of space suit self-support. We used the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal and other sources to identify 38 gait events during lunar exploration for which we could determine gait type (walk/lope/run) and calculate Ap. We estimated the binary transition between walk/lope (0) and run (1), yielding Fr* (0.36±0.11, mean±95% CI) and Ap* (0.68±0.20). Conclusions/Significance The Apollo Number explains 60% of the difference between suited and unsuited Fr*, appears to capture in large part the effects of space suits on the walk-run transition, and provides several testable predictions for space suit locomotion and, of increasing relevance here on Earth, exoskeleton locomotion. The knowledge of how space suits affect gait transitions can be used to optimize space suits for use on the Moon and Mars. PMID:19672305

Carr, Christopher E.; McGee, Jeremy

2009-01-01

328

Study of the suit inflation effect on crew safety during landing using a full-pressure IVA suit for new-generation reentry space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, manned space capsules have been recognized as beneficial and reasonable human space vehicles again. The Dragon capsule already achieved several significant successes. The Orion capsule is going to be sent to a high-apogee orbit without crews for experimental purposes in September 2014. For such human-rated space capsules, the study of acceleration impacts against the human body during splashdown is essential to ensure the safety of crews. Moreover, it is also known that wearing a full pressure rescue suit significantly increases safety of a crew, compared to wearing a partial pressure suit. This is mainly because it enables the use of a personal life support system independently in addition to that which installed in the space vehicle. However, it is unclear how the inflation of the full pressure suit due to pressurization affects the crew safety during splashdown, especially in the case of the new generation manned space vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of the suit inflation on crew safety against acceleration impact during splashdown. For this objective, the displacements of the safety harness in relation with the suit, a human surrogate, and the crew seats during pressurizing the suit in order to determine if the safety and survivability of a crew can be improved by wearing a full pressure suit. For these tests, the DL/H-1 full pressure IVA suit, developed by Pablo de Leon and Gary L. Harris, will be used. These tests use image analysis techniques to determine the displacements. It is expected, as a result of these tests, that wearing a full pressure suit will help to mitigate the impacts and will increase the safety and survivability of a crew during landing since it works as a buffer to mitigate impact forces during splashdown. This work also proposes a future plan for sled test experiments using a sled facility such as the one in use by the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for experimental validation of the work presented as part of this thesis.

Wataru, Suzuki

329

Spherical Coordinate Systems for Streamlining Suited Mobility Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When describing human motion, biomechanists generally report joint angles in terms of Euler angle rotation sequences. However, there are known limitations in using this method to describe complex motions such as the shoulder joint during a baseball pitch. Euler angle notation uses a series of three rotations about an axis where each rotation is dependent upon the preceding rotation. As such, the Euler angles need to be regarded as a set to get accurate angle information. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to visualize and understand these complex motion representations. One of our key functions is to help design engineers understand how a human will perform with new designs and all too often traditional use of Euler rotations becomes as much of a hindrance as a help. It is believed that using a spherical coordinate system will allow ABF personnel to more quickly and easily transmit important mobility data to engineers, in a format that is readily understandable and directly translatable to their design efforts. Objectives: The goal of this project is to establish new analysis and visualization techniques to aid in the examination and comprehension of complex motions. Methods: This project consisted of a series of small sub-projects, meant to validate and verify the method before it was implemented in the ABF's data analysis practices. The first stage was a proof of concept, where a mechanical test rig was built and instrumented with an inclinometer, so that its angle from horizontal was known. The test rig was tracked in 3D using an optical motion capture system, and its position and orientation were reported in both Euler and spherical reference systems. The rig was meant to simulate flexion/extension, transverse rotation and abduction/adduction of the human shoulder, but without the variability inherent in human motion. In the second phase of the project, the ABF estimated the error inherent in a spherical coordinate system, and evaluated how this error would vary within the reference frame. This stage also involved expanding a kinematic model of the shoulder, to include the torso, knees, ankle, elbows, wrists and neck. Part of this update included adding a representation of 'roll' about an axis, for upper arm and lower leg rotations. The third stage of the project involved creating visualization methods to assist in interpreting motion in a spherical frame. This visualization method will be incorporated in a tool to evaluate a database of suited mobility data, which is currently in development.

Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew S.; Harvill. Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

330

Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or approximately 1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comparable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Doerr, D. F.

2001-01-01

331

Argon used as dry suit insulation gas for cold-water diving  

PubMed Central

Background Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection should be based on physical activity, the temperature of the water, and the duration of exposure. A dry suit, a diving suit filled with gas, is the most common diving suit in cold water. Air is the traditional dry suit inflation gas, whereas the thermal conductivity of argon is approximately 32% lower compared to that of air. This study evaluates the benefits of argon, compared to air, as a thermal insulation gas for a dry suit during a 1-h cold-water dive by divers of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Methods Seven male Special Forces divers made (in total) 19 dives in a diving basin with water at 13°C at a depth of 3 m for 1 h in upright position. A rubber dry suit and woollen undergarment were used with either argon (n = 13) or air (n = 6) (blinded to the divers) as suit inflation gas. Core temperature was measured with a radio pill during the dive. Before, halfway, and after the dive, subjective thermal comfort was recorded using a thermal comfort score. Results No diver had to abort the test due to cold. No differences in core temperature and thermal comfort score were found between the two groups. Core temperature remained unchanged during the dives. Thermal comfort score showed a significant decrease in both groups after a 60-min dive compared to baseline. Conclusions In these tests the combination of the dry suit and undergarment was sufficient to maintain core temperature and thermal comfort for a dive of 1 h in water at 13°C. The use of argon as a suit inflation gas had no added value for thermal insulation compared to air for these dives. PMID:24438580

2013-01-01

332

Work and Fatigue Characteristics of Unsuited and Suited Humans During Isolated, Isokinetic Joint Motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of a pressurized suit on human performance were investigated. The suit is known as an Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) and is worn by astronauts while working outside of their space craft in low earth orbit. Isolated isokinetic joint torques of three female and three male subjects (all experienced users of the suit) were measured while working at 100% and 80% of their maximum voluntary torque (MVT). It was found that the average decrease in the total amount of work done when the subjects were wearing the EMU was 48% and 41% while working at 100% and 80% MVT, respectively. There is a clear relationship between the MVT and the time and amount of work done until fatigue. In general the stronger joints took longer to fatigue and did more work than the weaker joints. However, it is not clear which joints are most affected by the EMU suit in terms of the amount of work done. The average amount of total work done increased by 5.2% and 20.4% for the unsuited and suited cases, respectively, when the subject went from working at 100% to 80% MVT. Also, the average time to fatigue increased by 9.2% and 25.6% for the unsuited and suited cases, respectively, when the subjects went from working at 100% to 80% MVT. The EMU also decreased the joint range of motion. It was also found that the experimentally measured torque decay could be predicted by a logarithmic equation. The absolute average error in the predictions was found to be 18.3% and 18.9% for the unsuited and suited subject, respectively, working at 100% MVT, and 22.5% and 18.8% for the unsuited and suited subject, respectively, working at 80% MVT. These results could be very useful in the design of future EMU suits, and planning of Extra-Vehicular Activit). (EVA) for the upcoming International Space Station assembly operations.

Gonzalez, L. Javier; Maida, James C.; Miles, Erica H.; Rajulu, S. L.; Pandya, A. K.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

333

Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were severely abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub-layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, shares the results of the testing, and provides recommendations for future work.

Mitchell, Kathryn

2009-01-01

334

Remelting and Remobilization in a Magmatic Arc: the St Peter Suite, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermo-mechanical models of magmatic arcs suggest that intermittent intrusion of magma batches should lead to remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks as a result of fluctuations in temperature and water content. However, examples of remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks, formed during arc-building, are surprisingly rare. We investigate the evolution of magmatic rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic St Peter Suite, in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. This suite records multiple intrusions, magma hybridization, and the remelting and remobilization of these intrusions to form migmatites and newly-formed leucocratic magmas. In this paper we detail first how multiple magma batches interact with one another as liquids and mushes during syn-magmatic deformation phases, and then detail the nature of migmatites resulting from anatexis of these same magmatic rocks and the resulting channel ways that allowed for magma remobilization. LA-ICP/MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded crystallization ages of 1647±12 Ma for an early diorite-to-granite suite, and 1604±12 Ma for a later magmatic suite of broadly similar composition. Both these suites underwent anatectic events. Titanite from late-formed leucosomes found within D2 shear zones in the older suite, yielded SHRIMP U/Pb age of 1605±7 Ma, within error of the age of the younger suite. We therefore infer that intrusion, crystallization and remelting/remobilization of this younger suite of rocks occurred within 10-15 M.yr. Thus, the St Peter Suite exposures record many of the key processes expected in arcs, including the prediction that early intrusive arc rocks remelt to form younger more fractionated magmas.

Symington, Neil; Weinberg, Roberto; Hasalová, Pavlina

2014-05-01

335

CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Realtime metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future inlet vent designs and ground testing.

Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

2014-01-01

336

CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future inlet vent designs and ground testing.

Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

2014-01-01

337

Contact allergy to p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in a wet suit.  

PubMed

Rubber materials are common causes of contact dermatitis. Neoprene is a special synthetic rubber used in many products (eg, wet suits, elastic supports, gloves, shoes, and orthopedic devices). A 31-year-old man was admitted to our dermatoallergologic clinic with the development of a generalized itching erythematovesicular eruption. He reported that clinical manifestations occurred after he wore a neoprene wet suit that he was used to wearing for water sports. Although allergic contact dermatitis from a wet suit is not uncommon, it is usually due to thiourea derivatives whereas our patient presented with contact allergy to p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate. PMID:18413101

Martellotta, Donata; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Cafiero, Mariana; La Bella, Serena; Balato, Anna

2008-01-01

338

20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees...Section 423.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

2011-04-01

339

20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees...Section 423.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

2010-04-01

340

20 CFR 30.616 - What happens if this type of tort suit was filed prior to October 30, 2000?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AMENDED Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.616 What...covered Part B employee's employment-related exposure to beryllium or radiation that were included in the tort suit prior to...

2014-04-01

341

20 CFR 30.616 - What happens if this type of tort suit was filed prior to October 30, 2000?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AMENDED Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.616 What...covered Part B employee's employment-related exposure to beryllium or radiation that were included in the tort suit prior to...

2011-04-01

342

20 CFR 30.616 - What happens if this type of tort suit was filed prior to October 30, 2000?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AMENDED Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.616 What...covered Part B employee's employment-related exposure to beryllium or radiation that were included in the tort suit prior to...

2013-04-01

343

20 CFR 30.616 - What happens if this type of tort suit was filed prior to October 30, 2000?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AMENDED Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.616 What...covered Part B employee's employment-related exposure to beryllium or radiation that were included in the tort suit prior to...

2012-04-01

344

20 CFR 30.616 - What happens if this type of tort suit was filed prior to October 30, 2000?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AMENDED Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.616 What...covered Part B employee's employment-related exposure to beryllium or radiation that were included in the tort suit prior to...

2010-04-01

345

Results of the Particulate Contamination Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon and eventually to Mars, designing the most effective, efficient, and robust space suit life support system that will operate successfully in these dusty environments is vital. There is some knowledge of the contaminants and level of infiltration expected from the Lunar and Mars dust, however risk mitigation strategies and filtration designs to prevent contamination within the space suit life support system are still undefined. A trade study was initiated to identify and address these concerns, and to develop new requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS). This trade study investigates historical methods of particulate contamination control in space suits and vehicles, and evaluated the possibility of using commercial technologies for this application. In addition, the trade study examined potential filtration designs. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study.

Cognata, Thomas J.; Conger, Bruce; Paul, Heather L.

2009-01-01

346

Space exploration challenges : characterization and enhancement of space suit mobility and planetary protection policy analysis  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses two challenges associated with advanced space and planetary exploration: characterizing and improving the mobility of current and future gas pressurized space suits; and developing effective domestic ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2010-01-01

347

Requirements and Sizing Investigation for Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Trace Contaminant Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), located within the ventilation loop of the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS), is responsible for removing hazardous trace contaminants from the space suit ventilation flow. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that evaluated if trace contaminant control could be accomplished without a TCCS, relying on suit leakage, ullage loss from the carbon dioxide and humidity control system, and other factors. Trace contaminant generation rates were revisited to verify that values reflect the latest designs for Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS) pressure garment materials and PLSS hardware. Additionally, TCCS sizing calculations were performed and a literature survey was conducted to review the latest developments in trace contaminant technologies.

Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Waguespack, Glenn

2010-01-01

348

The CMU Task Parallel Program Suite Peter Dinda Thomas Gross David O'Hallaron  

E-print Network

The CMU Task Parallel Program Suite Peter Dinda Thomas Gross David O'Hallaron Edward Segall James.S. government. Contact author: David O'Hallaron, droh@cs.cmu.edu. #12; Keywords: Parallel programming, task

Shewchuk, Jonathan

349

Development of a mechanical counter pressure Bio-Suit System for planetary exploration  

E-print Network

Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is critical for human spaceflight and particularly for human planetary exploration. The MIT Man Vehicle Laboratory is developing a Bio-Suit EVA System, based on mechanical counterpressure ...

Sim, Zhe Liang

2006-01-01

350

78 FR 51186 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...suit filed by Air Alliance Houston, California Communities Against Toxics, Coalition For A Safe Environment, Community In-Power and Development Association, Del Amo Action Committee, Environmental Integrity Project, Louisiana Bucket...

2013-08-20

351

Labeled line drawing of launch and entry suit identifies various components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Line drawings illustrate how a crewmember would be seated during space shuttle launch and entry in the mission specialist seat wearing the launch and entry suit (LES), a partial pressure suit. Front and profile drawings are labeled with numbers. The legend for the views includes: 1) Mission Specialist seat; 2) crewman; 3) helmet; 4) anti-exposure / counter pressure garment; 5) boots; 6) parachute harness; 7) parachute pack; 8) life raft with sea dye marker; 9) suit mounted oxygen (O2) manifold; 10) anti-gravity (anti-g) suit controller; 11) emergency O2 supply; 12) seawars; 13) ventilation fan; 14) orbiter O2 line; 15) headset interface unit (HIU); 16) communication (COMM) line to HIU; 17) flotation device. Crew escape system (CES) and LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions.

1988-01-01

352

Designing a Suit to Protect Migrant Farm Workers in California from Pesticide Exposure  

E-print Network

4 Designing a Suit to Protect Migrant Farm Workers in California from Pesticide Exposure By Rupam ..................................................................................................8 1.2 HARMFUL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES.........................................................................................................19 4.1 PESTICIDE RESISTANCE PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Agogino, Alice M.

353

The MERG Suite: Tools for discovering competencies and associated learning resources  

PubMed Central

Background As the demands for competency-based education grow, the need for standards-based tools to allow for publishing and discovery of competency-based learning content is more pressing. This project focused on developing federated discovery services for competency-based medical e-learning content. Methods We built a tool suite for authoring and discovery of medical e-learning metadata. The end-user usability of the tool suite was evaluated through a web-based survey. Results The suite, implemented as an open-source system, was evaluated to identify areas for improvement. Conclusion The MERG suite is a starting point for organizations implementing competency-based e-learning resources. PMID:18479525

Bhupatiraju, Ravi Teja; Hersh, William R; Smothers, Valerie; Fordis, Michael; Greene, Peter S

2008-01-01

354

Even at a Board Meeting, Your Immunity to Defamation Suits Is Limited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common law grants immunity for defamatory statements to administrative bodies such as boards. The limitations under which board participants function in relation to immunity from defamation suits are outlined. Includes discussion of specific court cases. (MD)

Henderson, Donald H.

1986-01-01

355

THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Student Loan Office HEATLTH SCIENCE CENTER 62 South Dunlap, Suite 107  

E-print Network

THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Student Loan Office HEATLTH SCIENCE CENTER 62 South Dunlap, Suite 107: _________________________________ As attested to by my signature, I hereby request and authorize the University of Tennessee to stop payment

Cui, Yan

356

ltrfooterltrfooter851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161  

E-print Network

ltrfooterltrfooter851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204; Increase competitiveness by fostering a clean energy economy and jobs through business and workforce

357

Understanding human-space suit interaction to prevent injury during extravehicular activity  

E-print Network

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is a critical component of human spaceflight. Working in gas-pressurized space suits, however, causes fatigue, unnecessary energy expenditure, and injury. The problem of injury is particularly ...

Anderson, Allison P. (Allison Paige)

2014-01-01

358

An investigation of space suit mobility with applications to EVA operations  

E-print Network

The primary aim of this thesis is to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited extravehicular activity (EVA) by compiling a detailed database of the torques needed to ...

Schmidt, Patricia Barrett, 1974-

2001-01-01

359

Mission Specialists Mario Runco and Greg Harbaugh suiting up for EVA.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Candid view of EVA Mission Specialists Mario Runco and Greg Harbaugh suiting up for EVA in the middeck with the assistance of Mission Specialist Susan Helms (reviewing the operation with a procedural checklist).

1993-01-01

360

More on finding a Single Number to indicate Overall Performance of a Benchmark Suite  

E-print Network

are valid central tendency measures over the whole benchmark suite for speedup, CPI, IPC, MIPS, MFLOPS measure of central tendency for ratios or dimensionless quantities [3], however, it is also advised

John, Lizy Kurian

361

Designing criteria suites to identify discrete and networked sites of high value across manifestations of biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suites of criteria specifying ecological, biological, social, economic, and governance properties enable the systematic identification\\u000a of sites and networks of high biodiversity value, and can support balancing ecological and socioeconomic objectives of biodiversity\\u000a conservation in terrestrial and marine spatial planning. We describe designs of suites of ecological, governance and socioeconomic\\u000a criteria to comprehensively cover manifestations of biodiversity, from genotypes to

Eric Gilman; Daniel Dunn; Andrew Read; K. David Hyrenbach; Robin Warner

362

Ages and petrogenetic significance of igneous mangerite-charnockite suites associated with massif anorthosites, Grenville Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

U-Pb ages of zircon fractions of major anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) igneous suites imply that this magmatism inaugurated what is widely regarded as the Grenvillian event between about 1.16 and 1.12 Ga ago over about two-thirds of the Grenville Province east, northeast, and southeast of the Central Metasedimentary Belt. Pre-Grenvillian AMCG suites about 1.36 and 1.64 Ga old have much more restricted

Ronald F. Emslie; Patricia A. Hunt

1990-01-01

363

Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, R.J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

2010-01-01

364

A method of evaluating efficiency during space-suited work in a neutral buoyancy environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose was to investigate efficiency as related to the work transmission and the metabolic cost of various extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks during simulated microgravity (whole body water immersion) using three space suits. Two new prototype space station suits, AX-5 and MKIII, are pressurized at 57.2 kPa and were tested concurrently with the operationally used 29.6 kPa shuttle suit. Four male astronauts were asked to perform a fatigue trial on four upper extremity exercises during which metabolic rate and work output were measured and efficiency was calculated in each suit. The activities were selected to simulate actual EVA tasks. The test article was an underwater dynamometry system to which the astronauts were secured by foot restraints. All metabolic data was acquired, calculated, and stored using a computerized indirect calorimetry system connected to the suit ventilation/gas supply control console. During the efficiency testing, steady state metabolic rate could be evaluated as well as work transmitted to the dynamometer. Mechanical efficiency could then be calculated for each astronaut in each suit performing each movement.

Greenisen, Michael C.; West, Phillip; Newton, Frederick K.; Gilbert, John H.; Squires, William G.

1991-01-01

365

The geochemical nature of the Archean Ancient Gneiss Complex and Granodiorite Suite, Swaziland: a preliminary study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ancient Gneiss Complex (AGC) of Swaziland, an Archean gray gneiss complex, lies southeast and south of the Barberton greenstone belt and includes the most structurally complex and highly metamorphosed portions of the eastern Kaapvaal craton. The AGC is not precisely dated but apparently is older than 3.4 Ga. The AGC consists of three major units: (a) a bimodal suite of closely interlayered siliceous, low-K gneisses and metabasalt; (b) homogeneous tonalite gneiss; and (c) interlayered siliceous microcline gneiss, metabasalt, and minor metasedimentary rocks - termed the metamorphite suite. A geologically younger gabbro-diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite suite, the Granodiorite Suite, is spatially associated with the AGC and intrusive into it. The bimodal suite consists largely of two types of low-K siliceous gneiss: one has SiO2 14%, low Rb/Sr ratios, and depleted heavy rare earth elements (REE's); the other has SiO2 > 75%, Al2O3 < 13%, high Rb/Sr ratios, and relatively abundant REE's except for negative Eu anomalies. The interlayered metabasalt ranges from komatiitic to tholeiitic compositions. Lenses of quartz monzonitic gneiss of K2O/Na2O close to 1 form a minor part of the bimodal suite. Tonalitic to trondhjemitic migmatite locally is abundant and has major-element abundances similar to those of non-migmatitic varieties. The siliceous gneisses of the metamorphic suite show low Al2O, K2O/Na2O ratios of about 1, high Rb/Sr ratios, moderate REE abundances and negative Eu anomalies. K/Rb ratios of siliceous gneisses of the bimodal suite are very low (???130); of the tonalitic gneiss, low (???225); of the siliceous gneiss of the metamorphite suite, moderate (???300); and of the Granodiorite Suite, high (???400). Rocks of the AGC differ geochemically in several ways from the siliceous volcanic and hypabyssal rocks of the Upper Onverwacht Group and from the diapirs of tonalite and trondhjemite that intrude the Swaziland Group. ?? 1978.

Hunter, D.R.; Barker, F.; Millard, H.T., Jr.

1978-01-01

366

Dressing for Altitude: U.S. Aviation Pressure Suits--Wiley Post to Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its earliest days, flight has been about pushing the limits of technology and, in many cases, pushing the limits of human endurance. The human body can be the limiting factor in the design of aircraft and spacecraft. Humans cannot survive unaided at high altitudes. There have been a number of books written on the subject of spacesuits, but the literature on the high-altitude pressure suits is lacking. This volume provides a high-level summary of the technological development and operational use of partial- and full-pressure suits, from the earliest models to the current high altitude, full-pressure suits used for modern aviation, as well as those that were used for launch and entry on the Space Shuttle. The goal of this work is to provide a resource on the technology for suits designed to keep humans alive at the edge of space. Hopefully, future generations will learn from the hard-fought lessons of the past. NASA is committed to the future of aerospace, and a key component of that future is the workforce. Without these men and women, technological advancements would not be possible. Dressing for Altitude is designed to provide the history of the technology and to explore the lessons learned through years of research in creating, testing, and utilizing today s high-altitude suits. It is our hope that this information will prove helpful in the development of future suits. Even with the closeout of the Space Shuttle and the planned ending of the U-2 program, pressure suits will be needed for protection as long as humans seek to explore high frontiers. The NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate is committed to the training of the current and future aerospace workforce. This book and the other books published by the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are in support of this commitment. Hopefully, you will find this book a valuable resource for many years to come.

Jenkins, Dennis R.

2012-01-01

367

The Next Generation of Cold Immersion Dry Suit Design Evolution for Hypothermia Prevention  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This new utility patent is an active design that relies on the lung's role as an organic heat exchanger for providing deep body core heating of air. It is based on the fact that the greatest heat loss mechanism for an insulated human body immersed in a cold water environment is due to heat loss through respiration. This innovation successfully merges two existing technologies (cold immersion suit and existing valve technologies) to produce a new product that helps prevent against the onset of hypothermia at sea. During normal operations, a human maintains an approximate body temperature of [98.6 F (37 C)]. A mechanism was developed to recover the warm temperature from the body and reticulate it in a survival suit. The primary intention is to develop an encompassing systems design that can both easily and cost effectively be integrated in all existing currently manufactured cold water survival suits, and as such, it should be noted that the cold water immersion suit is only used as a framework or tool for laying out the required design elements. At the heart of the suit is the Warm Air Recovery (WAR) system, which relies on a single, large Main Purge Valve (MPV) and secondary Purge Valves (PV) to operate. The main purge valve has a thin membrane, which is normally closed, and acts as a one-way check valve. When warm air is expelled from the lungs, it causes the main purge valve to open. Air forced from the MPV is dumped directly into the suit, thereby providing warmth to the torso, legs, and arms. A slight positive over-pressure in the suit causes warm waste air (or water if the suit is punctured) to be safely vented into the sea through large PVs located at the bottom of each arm and leg. The secondary purge valves act to prevent the buildup of large concentrations of CO2 gas and help guard against asphyxia. It is noted that the MPV causes the inhalation and exhalation cycles to be completely isolated from one another in the current suit design.

Galofaro, Joel

2013-01-01

368

V-SUIT Model Validation Using PLSS 1.0 Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic portable life support system (PLSS) simulation software Virtual Space Suit (V-SUIT) has been under development at the Technische Universitat Munchen since 2011 as a spin-off from the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) project. The MATLAB(trademark)-based V-SUIT simulates space suit portable life support systems and their interaction with a detailed and also dynamic human model, as well as the dynamic external environment of a space suit moving on a planetary surface. To demonstrate the feasibility of a large, system level simulation like V-SUIT, a model of NASA's PLSS 1.0 prototype was created. This prototype was run through an extensive series of tests in 2011. Since the test setup was heavily instrumented, it produced a wealth of data making it ideal for model validation. The implemented model includes all components of the PLSS in both the ventilation and thermal loops. The major components are modeled in greater detail, while smaller and ancillary components are low fidelity black box models. The major components include the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) CO2 removal system, the Primary and Secondary Oxygen Assembly (POS/SOA), the Pressure Garment System Volume Simulator (PGSVS), the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS), the heat exchanger between the ventilation and thermal loops, the Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and finally the Liquid Cooling Garment Simulator (LCGS). Using the created model, dynamic simulations were performed using same test points also used during PLSS 1.0 testing. The results of the simulation were then compared to the test data with special focus on absolute values during the steady state phases and dynamic behavior during the transition between test points. Quantified simulation results are presented that demonstrate which areas of the V-SUIT model are in need of further refinement and those that are sufficiently close to the test results. Finally, lessons learned from the modelling and validation process are given in combination with implications for the future development of other PLSS models in V-SUIT.

Olthoff, Claas

2015-01-01

369

Improvement of the extravehicular activity suit for the MIR orbiting station program.  

PubMed

Since 1977, EVA suits of the semi-rigid type have been used to support sorties from Russian orbiting stations. Currently, within the MIR station program, the Orlan-DMA, the latest modification of the Orlan semi-rigid EVA suit is used by crewmembers. Quite some experience has been gained by Russia in operations of the Orlan type suits. It has proved the advantages of the EVA suit of a semi-rigid configuration, featuring donning/doffing through a hinged backpack door with a built-in life support system. Meanwhile there were some wishes and comments from the crewmembers addressed to the enclosure design and some LSS components. Currently a number of ways and methods are being developed to improve operational characteristics of the suit as well as to enhance its reliability and lifetime. The forthcoming EVAs to be performed by the STS-MIR crewmembers and future EVAs from the common airlock of the International Space Station Alpha make implementation of the planned improvements even more consistent. The paper analyzes the experience gained in the Orlan-DMA operation and discusses planned improvements in light of the forthcoming activities. In particular the Orlan enhancement program is aimed to make the donning/doffing easier, enhance enclosure mobility, improve the condensate removal unit, increase the CCC (Contamination Control Cartridge) operation time and simplify the onboard subsystem design concept. PMID:11540766

Severin, G; Abramov, I; Svertshek, V; Stoklitsky, A

1996-09-01

370

Improvement of the extravehicular activity suit for the MIR orbiting station program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1977, EVA suits of the semi-rigid type have been used to support sorties from Russian orbiting stations. Currently, within the MIR station program, the Orlan-DMA, the latest modification of the Orlan semi-rigid EVA suit is used by crewmembers. Quite some experience has been gained by Russia in operations of the Orlan type suits. It has proved the advantages of the EVA suit of a semi-rigid configuration, featuring donning/doffing through a hinged backpack door with a built-in life support system. Meanwhile there were some wishes and comments from the crewmembers addressed to the enclosure design and some LSS components. Currently a number of ways and methods are being developed to improve operational characteristics of the suit as well as to enhance its reliability and lifetime. The forthcoming EVAs to be performed by the STS-MIR crewmembers and future EVAs from the common airlock of the International Space Station Alpha make implementation of the planned improvements even more consistent. The paper analyzes the experience gained in the Orlan-DMA operation and discusses planned improvements in light of the forthcoming activities. In particular the Orlan enhancement program is aimed to make the donning/doffing easier, enhance enclosure mobility, improve the condensate removal unit, increase the CCC (Contamination Control Cartridge) operation time and simplify the onboard subsystem design concept.

Severin, G.; Abramov, I.; Svertshek, V.; Stoklitsky, A.

1996-09-01

371

Main problems of the Russian Orlan-M space suit utilization for EVAs on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years the Russian Orlan-M space suits have been improved as applied to their operational requirements for the ISS. A special attention is paid to enhancement of EVA crew efficiency and safety. The paper considers the main problems regarding specific features of the Russian space suit operation in the ISS, and analyses measures on their solution. In particular, the problems associated with the following are considered: enhancement of the anthropometric range for the EVA crewmembers; use of some US EMU elements and unified NASA equipment elements; Orlan-M operation support in the wide range of the ISS thermal conditions; use of Simplified Aid For Extravehicular activity Rescue (SAFER) designed as a self-rescue device, which will be used for an EVA crewmember return in the event that he (she) breaks away inadvertently from the ISS surface. The paper states the main space suit differences with reference to solution of the above problems. The paper presents briefly the design of space suit arms developed for crewmembers with small anthropometric parameters, as well as peculiarities and test results for the gloves with enhanced thermal protection. Measures on further space suit development with the purpose to improve its performances are considered.

Abramov, I. P.; Pozdnyakov, S. S.; Severin, G. I.; Stoklitsky, A. Yu.

2001-03-01

372

Thermal Performance Of Space Suit Elements With Aerogel Insulation For Moon And Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible fiber-reinforced aerogel composites were studied for use as insulation materials of a future space suit for Moon and Mars exploration. High flexibility and good thermal insulation properties of fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composites at both high and low vacuum conditions make it a promising insulation candidate for the space suit application. This paper first presents the results of a durability (mechanical cycling) study of these aerogels composites in the context of retaining their thermal performance. The study shows that some of these Aerogels materials retained most of their insulation performance after up to 250,000 cycles of mechanical flex cycling. This paper also examines the problem of integrating these flexible aerogel composites into the current space suit elements. Thermal conductivity evaluations are proposed for different types of aerogels space suit elements to identify the lay-up concept that may have the best overall thermal performance for both Moon and Mars environments. Potential solutions in mitigating the silica dusting issue related to the application of these aerogels materials for the space suit elements are also discussed.

Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Trevino, Luis A.

2006-01-01

373

Flexible Packaging Concept for a Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neither the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the space suit currently used for space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) missions, nor the Apollo EMU, the space suit successfully used on previous lunar missions, will satisfy the requirements for the next generation Constellation Program (CxP) lunar suit. The CxP system or Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) must be able to tolerate more severe environmental and use conditions than any previous system. These conditions include missions to the severely cold lunar poles and up to 100 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) excursions without ground maintenance. Much effort is focused on decreasing the mass and volume of the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) over previous suit designs in order to accommodate the required increase in functionality. This paper documents the progress of a conceptual packaging effort of a flexible backpack for the CSSE PLSS. The flexible backpack concept relies on a foam protection system to absorb, distribute, and dissipate the energy from falls on the lunar surface. Testing and analysis of the foam protection system concept that was conducted during this effort indicates that this method of system packaging is a viable solution.

Thomas, Gretchen; Dillon, Paul; Oliver, Joe; Zapata, Felipe

2009-01-01

374

Irena : tool suite for modeling and analysis of small-angle scattering.  

SciTech Connect

Irena, a tool suite for analysis of both X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering (SAS) data within the commercial Igor Pro application, brings together a comprehensive suite of tools useful for investigations in materials science, physics, chemistry, polymer science and other fields. In addition to Guinier and Porod fits, the suite combines a variety of advanced SAS data evaluation tools for the modeling of size distribution in the dilute limit using maximum entropy and other methods, dilute limit small-angle scattering from multiple non-interacting populations of scatterers, the pair-distance distribution function, a unified fit, the Debye-Bueche model, the reflectivity (X-ray and neutron) using Parratt's formalism, and small-angle diffraction. There are also a number of support tools, such as a data import/export tool supporting a broad sampling of common data formats, a data modification tool, a presentation-quality graphics tool optimized for small-angle scattering data, and a neutron and X-ray scattering contrast calculator. These tools are brought together into one suite with consistent interfaces and functionality. The suite allows robust automated note recording and saving of parameters during export.

Ilavsky, J.; Jemian, P.

2009-04-01

375

Theoretical performance analysis of electrochromic radiators for space suit thermal control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable emissivity electrochromics have been proposed as an enabling technology for integrating a radiator capability into a space suit in order to augment or replace the traditional means of heat rejection achieved via water sublimation. Thermal analysis was performed to establish design trade spaces and to provide operational guidelines and performance specifications for electrochromic technology development. Based on using the available surface area of an entire space suit as a radiator and the projected infrared emissivity modulation capability of state-of-the-art electrochromic material, the proposed application for space suit heat rejection suggests the potential exists to reduce or eliminate reliance on water consumption for thermal control within a defined range of metabolic and environmental boundary conditions.

Metts, Jonathan G.; Nabity, James A.; Klaus, David M.

2011-04-01

376

Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember s health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, realtime EVA.

Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.

2008-01-01

377

Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember's health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, real-time EVA.

Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

2009-01-01

378

Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

2008-01-01

379

Results and applications of a space suit range-of-motion study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The range of motion of space suits has traditionally been described using limited 2-D mapping of limb, torso, or arm movements performed in front of an orthogonal grid. A new technique for recovering extra-vehicular (EVA) space suit range-of-motion data during underwater testing was described in a paper presented by the author at the 1988 conference. The new technique uses digitized data which is automatically acquired from video images of the subject. Three-dimensional trajectories are recovered from these data, and can be displayed using 2-D computer graphics. Results of using this technique for the current shuttle EVA suit during underwater simulated weightlessness testing are discussed. Application of the data for use in animating anthropometric computer models is highlighted.

Reinhardt, AL

1989-01-01

380

Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

McFarland, Shane

2009-01-01

381

A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Space Suit Joint Ranges of Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Advanced Exploration Systems Program, NASA is attempting to use the vast collection of space suit mobility data from 50 years worth of space suit testing to build predictive analysis tools to aid in early architecture decisions for future missions and exploration programs. However, the design engineers must first understand if and how data generated by different methodologies can be compared directly and used in an essentially interchangeable manner. To address this question, the isolated joint range of motion data from two different test series were compared. Both data sets were generated from participants wearing the Mark III Space Suit Technology Demonstrator (MK-III), Waist Entry I-suit (WEI), and minimal clothing. Additionally the two tests shared a common test subject that allowed for within subject comparisons of the methods that greatly reduced the number of variables in play. The tests varied in their methodologies: the Space Suit Comparative Technologies Evaluation used 2D photogrammetry to analyze isolated ranges of motion while the Constellation space suit benchmarking and requirements development used 3D motion capture to evaluate both isolated and functional joint ranges of motion. The isolated data from both test series were compared graphically, as percent differences, and by simple statistical analysis. The results indicated that while the methods generate results that are statistically the same (significance level p= 0.01), the differences are significant enough in the practical sense to make direct comparisons ill advised. The concluding recommendations propose direction for how to bridge the data gaps and address future mobility data collection to allow for backward compatibility.

Aitchison, Lindsay; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

382

A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Space Suit Joint Ranges of Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, NASA is attempting to use the vast collection of space suit mobility data from 50 years worth of space suit testing to build predictive analysis tools to aid in early architecture decisions for future missions and exploration programs. However, the design engineers must first understand if and how data generated by different methodologies can be compared directly and used in an essentially interchangeable manner. To address this question, the isolated joint range of motion data from two different test series were compared. Both data sets were generated from participants wearing the Mark III Space Suit Technology Demonstrator (MK-III), Waist Entry I-suit (WEI), and minimal clothing. Additionally the two tests shared a common test subject that allowed for within subject comparisons of the methods that greatly reduced the number of variables in play. The tests varied in their methodologies: the Space Suit Comparative Technologies Evaluation used 2-D photogrammetry to analyze isolated ranges of motion while the Constellation space suit benchmarking and requirements development used 3-D motion capture to evaluate both isolated and functional joint ranges of motion. The isolated data from both test series were compared graphically, as percent differences, and by simple statistical analysis. The results indicated that while the methods generate results that are statistically the same (significance level p= 0.01), the differences are significant enough in the practical sense to make direct comparisons ill advised. The concluding recommendations propose direction for how to bridge the data gaps and address future mobility data collection to allow for backward compatibility.

Aitchison, Lindsay T.

2012-01-01

383

Pink Moon: The petrogenesis of pink spinel anorthosites and implications concerning Mg-suite magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) has identified and characterized a new lunar rock type termed pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) (Pieters et al., 2011). Dominated by anorthitic feldspar and rich in MgAl2O4 spinel, PSA appears to have an unusually low modal abundance of mafic silicates, distinguishing it from known lunar spinel-bearing samples. The interaction between basaltic melts and the lunar crust and/or assimilation of anorthitic plagioclase have been proposed as a possible mechanism for PSA formation (Gross and Treiman, 2011; Prissel et al., 2012). To test these hypotheses, we have performed laboratory experiments exploring magma-wallrock interactions within the lunar crust. Lunar basaltic melts were reacted with anorthite at 1400 °C and pressures between 0.05-1.05 GPa. Results indicate that PSA spinel compositions are best explained via the interaction between Mg-suite parental melts and anorthositic crust. Mare basalts and picritic lunar glasses produce spinels too rich in Fe and Cr to be consistent with the M3 observations. The experiments suggest that PSA represents a new member of the plutonic Mg-suite. If true, PSA can be used as a proxy for spectrally identifying areas of Mg-suite magmatism on the Moon. Moreover, the presence of PSA on both the lunar nearside and farside (Pieters et al., in press) indicates Mg-suite magmatism may have occurred on a global scale. In turn, this implies that KREEP is not required for Mg-suite petrogenesis (as KREEP is constrained to the nearside of the Moon) and is only necessary to explain the chemical make-up of nearside Mg-suite samples.

Prissel, T. C.; Parman, S. W.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Head, J. W.; Cheek, L.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.

2014-10-01

384

The European space suit, a design for productivity and crew safety.  

PubMed

In order to fulfill the two major mission objectives, i.e. support planned and unplanned external servicing of the COLUMBUS FFL and support the HERMES vehicle for safety critical operations and emergencies, the European Space Suit System baseline configuration incorporates a number of design features, which shall enhance the productivity and the crew safety of EVA astronauts. The work in EVA is today--and will be for several years--a manual work. Consequently, to improve productivity, the first challenge is to design a suit enclosure which minimizes movement restrictions and crew fatigue. It is covered by the "ergonomic" aspect of the suit design. Furthermore, it is also necessary to help the EVA crewmember in his work, by giving him the right information at the right time. Many solutions exist in this field of Man-Machine Interface, from a very simple system, based on cuff check lists, up to advanced systems, including Head-Up Displays. The design concept for improved productivity encompasses following features: easy donning/doffing thru rear entry, suit ergonomy optimisation, display of operational information in alpha-numerical and graphical form, and voice processing for operations and safety critical information. Concerning crew safety the major design features are: a lower R-factor for emergency EVA operations thru increased suit pressure, zero prebreath conditions for normal operations, visual and voice processing of all safety critical functions, and an autonomous life support system to permit unrestricted operations around HERMES and the CFFL. The paper analyses crew safety and productivity criteria and describes how these features are being built into the design of the European Space Suit System. PMID:11537126

Skoog, A I; Berthier, S; Ollivier, Y

1991-01-01

385

Software Suite to Support In-Flight Characterization of Remote Sensing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characterization software suite was developed to facilitate NASA's in-flight characterization of commercial remote sensing systems. Characterization of aerial and satellite systems requires knowledge of ground characteristics, or ground truth. This information is typically obtained with instruments taking measurements prior to or during a remote sensing system overpass. Acquired ground-truth data, which can consist of hundreds of measurements with different data formats, must be processed before it can be used in the characterization. Accurate in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems relies on multiple field data acquisitions that are efficiently processed, with minimal error. To address the need for timely, reproducible ground-truth data, a characterization software suite was developed to automate the data processing methods. The characterization software suite is engineering code, requiring some prior knowledge and expertise to run. The suite consists of component scripts for each of the three main in-flight characterization types: radiometric, geometric, and spatial. The component scripts for the radiometric characterization operate primarily by reading the raw data acquired by the field instruments, combining it with other applicable information, and then reducing it to a format that is appropriate for input into MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission), an Air Force Research Laboratory-developed radiative transport code used to predict at-sensor measurements. The geometric scripts operate by comparing identified target locations from the remote sensing image to known target locations, producing circular error statistics defined by the Federal Geographic Data Committee Standards. The spatial scripts analyze a target edge within the image, and produce estimates of Relative Edge Response and the value of the Modulation Transfer Function at the Nyquist frequency. The software suite enables rapid, efficient, automated processing of ground truth data, which has been used to provide reproducible characterizations on a number of commercial remote sensing systems. Overall, this characterization software suite improves the reliability of ground-truth data processing techniques that are required for remote sensing system in-flight characterizations.

Stanley, Thomas; Holekamp, Kara; Gasser, Gerald; Tabor, Wes; Vaughan, Ronald; Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Kenton, Ross

2014-01-01

386

The Swansea Plutonic Suite: Synextensional magmatism in the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains, west-central Arizona  

SciTech Connect

About 200 km[sup 2] of the crystalline rocks exposed below the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment fault in west-central Arizona consists of gabbro to granite of the 20--30 Ma Swansea Plutonic Suite. Gabbro is only locally mylonitized and is intruded by more felsic rocks of the suite. The felsic rocks have a well-developed mylonitic texture and northeast-trending mineral lineation formed by ductily deformed quartz grains and aggregates. The felsic rocks are generally fine to medium grained except for a distinctive porphyritic phase, in which K-feldspar phenocrysts (now porphyroclasts) are as much as 3 cm in diameter. The suite is calcic to alkali calcic, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.7--1), and has average Th/U of 4.8 and Rb/Sr of 0.11. It shows a wide range in total rare-earth abundances (REE = 132--393 ppm), light to heavy REE enrichment (chondrite normalized [CN] La/Yb = 3--52), and heavy REE enrichment (CN Yb = 2.6--24.5). Intermediate and silicic members are depleted in HREE compared with mafic members, indicating magmatic control by clinopyroxene with or without amphibole or garnet. The porphyritic phase has the highest total REE and HREE abundances. Lead isotope ratios cluster in tight groups between reference lines for the Mohave and central Arizona crustal provinces. Lead in the porphyritic phase is distinctly less radiogenic than in the other phases. U-Pb zircon age of a granite in the suite is 21 [+-] 1.5 Ma. Upper intercept of the discordia line is 1,420 [+-] 54 Ma, indicating that 1,400-Ma rock dominates the source region for at least the felsic rocks of the suite. The suite was emplaced during the beginning and early phases of crustal extension and was probably pulled southwest out from beneath the Colorado Plateau transition zone as extension progressed. Thus the suite may represent roots of subaerial volcanic centers at the margin of the transition zone, which chemically resemble rocks of the suite in major-element chemistry.

Bryant, B.; Nealey, L.D. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center); Wooden, J.L. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1993-04-01

387

The recovery and utilization of space suit range-of-motion data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for recovering data for the range of motion of a subject wearing a space suit is described along with the validation of this technique on an EVA space suit. Digitized data are automatically acquired from video images of the subject; three-dimensional trajectories are recovered from these data, and can be displayed using three-dimensional computer graphics. Target locations are recovered using a unique video processor and close-range photogrammetry. It is concluded that such data can be used in such applications as the animation of anthropometric computer models.

Reinhardt, AL; Walton, James S.

1988-01-01

388

Work and fatigue characteristics of unsuited and suited humans during isolated isokinetic joint motions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of a pressurized suit on human performance were investigated. The suit is known as an Extra-Vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) and is worn by astronauts while working outside their spacecraft in a low earth orbit. Isolated isokinetic joint torques of three female and three male subjects (all experienced users of the suit in 1G gravity) were measured while working at 100% and 80% of their maximum voluntary torque (MVT, which is synonymous with maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)). It was found that the average decrease in the total amount of work (the sum of the work in each repetition until fatigue) done when the subjects were wearing the EMU were 48% and 41% while working at 100% and 80% MVT, respectively. There is a clear relationship between the MVT and the time and amount of work done until fatigue. Here, the time to fatigue is defined as the ending time of the repetition for which the computed work done during that repetition dropped below 50% of the work done during the first repetition. In general the stronger joints took longer to fatigue and did more work than the weaker joints. It was found that the EMU decreases the work output at the wrist and shoulder joints the most, due to the EMU joint geometry. The EMU also decreased the joint range of motion. The average total amount of work done by the test subjects increased by 5.2% (20.4%) for the unsuited (suited) case, when the test subjects decreased the level of effort from 100% to 80% MVT. Also, the average time to fatigue increased by 9.2% (25.6%) for the unsuited (suited) case, when the test subjects decreased the level of effort from 100% to 80% MVT. It was also found that the experimentally measured torque decay could be predicted by a logarithmic equation. The absolute average errors in the predictions were found to be 18.3% and 18.9% for the unsuited and suited subjects, respectively, when working at 100% MVT, and 22.5% and 18.8% for the unsuited and suited subjects, respectively, when working at 80% MVT. These results could be very useful in the design of future EMU suits and the planning of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the future International Space Station assembly operations.

Gonzalez, L. Javier; Maida, J. C.; Miles, E. H.; Rajulu, S. L.; Pandya, A. K.

2002-01-01

389

Apollo/Skylab suit program management systems study. Volume 2: Cost analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The business management methods employed in the performance of the Apollo-Skylab Suit Program are studied. The data accumulated over the span of the contract as well as the methods used to accumulate the data are examined. Management methods associated with the monitoring and control of resources applied towards the performance of the contract are also studied and recommended upon. The primary objective is the compilation, analysis, and presentation of historical cost performance criteria. Cost data are depicted for all phases of the Apollo-Skylab program in common, meaningful terms, whereby the data may be applicable to future suit program planning efforts.

1974-01-01

390

The origin of garnet in the anorthosite-charnockite suite of the Adirondacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed analysis of textural and chemical criteria in rocks of the anorthosite-charnockite suite of the Adirondack Highlands suggests that development of garnet in silica-saturated rocks of the suite occurs according to the reaction: \\u000a$$\\\\begin{gathered} {\\\\text{Anorthite}} {\\\\text{Orthopyroxene}} {\\\\text{Quartz}} \\\\hfill \\\\\\\\ {\\\\text{2CaAl}}_{\\\\text{2}} {\\\\text{Si}}_{\\\\text{2}} {\\\\text{O}}_{\\\\text{8}} + (6 - \\\\alpha )({\\\\text{Fe,Mg}}){\\\\text{SiO}}_{\\\\text{3}} + \\\\alpha {\\\\text{Fe - Oxide + (}}\\\\alpha {\\\\text{ - 2)SiO}}_{\\\\text{2}} \\\\hfill \\\\\\\\ {\\\\text{Garnet}}

James M. McLelland; Philip R. Whitney

1977-01-01

391

The ferroan-anorthositic suite and the extent of primordial lunar melting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo highlands rock collection includes more than 100 'pristine' fragments that survived the intense meteoritic bombardment of the ancient lunar crust with unmixed, endogenously igneous compositions. The geochemical anomaly manifested by the 'ferroan-anorthositic suite' (FAS) appears to reflect a geochemical, and probably also a genetic, bimodality among the ancient lunar cumulates. Early models that purported to account for this bimodality as a product of a single magma have been discredited. The model of the present paper implies that the Mg-suite rocks formed by a comparatively normal variety of basaltic fractional crystallization (FC) shortly after the era of magma ocean (MO) crystallization and FAS genesis.

Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

1992-01-01

392

Mandatory pre-suit mediation: local malpractice reform benefiting patients and healthcare providers.  

PubMed

The Florida Patient Safety and Pre-Suit Mediation Program (FLPSMP) was implemented as a pilot program to provide patients of healthcare providers and facilities associated with the University of Florida Health Science Center with timely and fair compensation when injured and to combat rising healthcare legal liability expenses. Prior to filing a formal lawsuit, participants of the FLPSMP join in a confidential and nonbinding pre-suit mediation conducted by a neutral third-party mediator. The process fosters confidential and candid communication between doctors and patients, saving thousands of dollars in legal expenses for both patients and providers. PMID:20979162

Jenkins, Randall C; Warren, Lindsay A; Gravenstein, Nikolaus

2010-01-01

393

Nickel, Cobalt and Chromium in early lunar magma ocean olivine: Constraints on the petrogenesis of the Mg-suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parental magmas of the lunar highlands Mg-suite cumulates had enigmatic chemical signatures. They co-crystallized Mg-rich olivine and Ca-rich plagioclase and had extremely evolved trace element signatures (KREEP). Most models of Mg-suite petrogenesis call upon early, Mg-rich, olivine dominated LMO cumulates as a source to explain the high Mg* of the parental magmas. The olivine in the Mg-suite, however, contains

S. M. Elardo; C. Shearer Jr.; D. S. Draper

2010-01-01

394

Model of the structure of and the effective thermal conductivity of a bazhenov suite  

SciTech Connect

In this work a model is proposed for the structure of a Bazhenov suite, the relationship between the structure (porosity or emptiness, oil content) and the thermophysical properties of the rock is found, and the characteristics obtained are checked under laboratory conditions and then extrapolated to reservoir conditions.

Dul'nev, G.N.; Dorofeeva, T.V.; Volkov, D.P.; Muratova, B.L.

1987-07-01

395

The Einstein Suite: A Web-Based Tool for Rapid and Collaborative Engineering Design and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taken together the components of the Einstein Suite provide two revolutionary capabilities - they have the potential to change the way engineering and financial engineering are performed by: (1) providing currently unavailable functionality, and (2) providing a 10-100 times improvement over currently available but impractical or costly functionality.

Palmer, Richard S.

1997-01-01

396

RTF 2012 Business Plan Page 1 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100  

E-print Network

for measure technical analysis, to include ProCost and #12;RTF 2012 Business Plan Page 2 SEEM improvementsRTF 2012 Business Plan Page 1 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 503-222-5161 fax 820-2370 www.nwcouncil.org/rtf 2012 Business Operating Plan and Funding December 6, 2011

397

PIGMENT SUITES AND TAXONOMIC GROUPS IN PRASINOPHYCEAE1 Mikel Latasa,2  

E-print Network

PIGMENT SUITES AND TAXONOMIC GROUPS IN PRASINOPHYCEAE1 Mikel Latasa,2 Renate Scharek3 Institut de 29682 Roscoff, France Pigment analysis performed on 30 Prasinophy- ceae strains revealed two main groups, and the pigment Uniden- tified M1 as characteristic pigments. Prasinococc- ales and Pseudoscourfieldiales

398

Multimedia Analytics Canopy is a visual analytic software suite, developed by researchers at Battelle's  

E-print Network

Multimedia Analytics Canopy is a visual analytic software suite, developed by researchers is a multimedia analytics software platform that combines cutting-edge extraction techniques, state and interactive visualizations. One of the strengths of the software is its ability to provide a high

399

Development of a Nutritional Delivery System to Feed Crew in a Pressurized Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

Glass, J. W.; Leonig, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

2014-01-01

400

PYROLYSIS-MASS SPECTROMETRY/PATTERN RECOGNITION ON A WELL-CHARACTERIZED SUITE OF HUMIC SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

A suite of well-characterized humic and fulvic acids of freshwater, soil and plant origin was subjected to pyrolysis-mass spectrometry and the resulting data were analyzed by pattern recognition and factor analysis. A factor analysis plot of the data shows that the humic acids an...

401

NASA OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL SUITE 8U37, 300 E ST SW  

E-print Network

NASA OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL SUITE 8U37, 300 E ST SW WASHINGTON, D.C. 20546-0001 November 14, 2014 TO: Charles F. Bolden, Jr. Administrator SUBJECT: 2014 Report on NASA's Top Management, this memorandum provides our views of the top management and performance challenges facing NASA for inclusion

Waliser, Duane E.

402

Concept of Mechanical Interfaces for Planetary Space Suit to Airlock and Rover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced projects envisage multiple EVAs on the planetary surface and great distances to be covered by EVA astronauts during manned Mars missions. Astronauts' egress with special Martian EVA space suits on can be provided only through the landing module\\/spacecraft airlock. To move over the planet, astronauts are expected both to walk and use a planetary rover (Martian rover). To make

I. Abramov; N. Moiseyev; A. Stoklitsky

403

Plastic toy shark drifts through airlock in front of EMU suited MS Lenoir  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plastic toy shark drifts through airlock and around fully extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited Mission Specialist (MS) Lenoir. Lenoir watches as shark drifts pass his left hand. Lenoir donned the EMU in preparation for a scheduled extravehicular activity (EVA) which was cancelled due to EMU problems.

1982-01-01

404

Project Summary LTER: Comparative Study of a Suite of Lakes in Wisconsin  

E-print Network

1 Project Summary LTER: Comparative Study of a Suite of Lakes in Wisconsin Freshwaters, biotic, and human social interactions. The North Temperate Lakes (NTL) Long-Term Ecological Research Program aims to understand change in lake districts in relation to relevant abiotic, biotic, and human

405

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF A SUITE OF LAKES IN WISCONSIN a proposal to the National Science Foundation  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF A SUITE OF LAKES IN WISCONSIN a proposal to the National Science Foundation Division of Experimental Biology Long-Term Studies Program from the North Temperate Lakes Long University of Wisconsin-Madison Period: November 1, 1996 - October 31, 2002 Section 1. Project Summary Lakes

406

Mass loss of shuttle space suit orthofabric under simulated ionospheric atomic oxygen bombardment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many polymeric materials used for thermal protection and insulation on spacecraft degrade significantly under prolonged bombardment by ionospheric atomic oxygen. The covering fabric of the multilayered shuttle space suit is composed of a loose weave of GORE-TEX fibers, Nomex and Kevlar-29, which are all polymeric materials. The complete evaluation of suit fabric degradation from ionospheric atomic oxygen is of importance in reevaluating suit lifetime and inspection procedures. The mass loss and visible physical changes of each test sample was determined. Kapton control samples and data from previous asher and flight tests were used to scale the results to reflect ionospheric conditions at about 220 km altitude. It is predicted that the orthofabric loses mass in the ionosphere at a rate of about 66% of the original orthofabric mass/yr. The outer layer of the two-layer orthofabric test samples shows few easily visible signs of degradation, even when observed at 440X. It is concluded that the orthofabric could suffer significant loss of performance after much less than a year of total exposure time, while the degradation might be undetectable in post flight visual examinations of space suits.

Miller, W. L.

1985-01-01

407

Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

1993-01-01

408

Formal Analysis of the EMV Protocol Suite Joeri de Ruiter and Erik Poll  

E-print Network

­ at least by some issuers. For example, SDA cards can be cloned, and these clones can be used for offline transactions. The DDA mechanism that prevents such cloning authenticates the card but not the subsequent presents a formal model of the EMV (Europay- MasterCard-Visa) protocol suite in F# and its analysis using

Poll, Erik

409

LAMP: A TOOL SUITE FOR FAMILIES OF FPGA-BASED COMPUTATIONAL ACCELERATORS  

E-print Network

LAMP: A TOOL SUITE FOR FAMILIES OF FPGA-BASED COMPUTATIONAL ACCELERATORS Tom VanCourt Martin C as application accelerators. In order for widespread use of FPGA-based accelerators to be practical, however applicability, stability of software invest- ment versus use of the most recent and powerful acceleration

Herbordt, Martin

410

Two members of Apollo 8 crew suited up for centrifuge training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two members of the Apollo 8 prime crew stand beside the gondola in bldg 29 after suiting up for centrifuge training in the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Flight Acceleration Facility. They are Astronauts William A. Anders (left), lunar module pilot; and James A. Lovell Jr., command module pilot.

1968-01-01

411

Northwest Power and Conservation Council 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100  

E-print Network

10/28/14 Northwest Power and Conservation Council 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Dear Mr. Crow: Thank you for providing Inland Power and Light the opportunity to comment on the metrics or high-level indicators (HLIs) the Power Council is considering as part of its

412

Implementation and Results of Hypothesis Testing from the C I Parallel Benchmark Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of the hypothe- sis testing benchmark, one of ten kernels from the C I( Com- mand, Control, Communications and Intelligence) Parallel Benchmark Suite (C IPBS) . The benchmark was imple- mented and executed on a variety of parallel environments. This paper details the run times obtained with these imple- mentations, and offers an analysis of

Brian VanVoorst; Rakesh Jha; Luiz Pires; Mustafa Muhammad

413

D-SAB: A Sparse Matrix Benchmark Suite Pyrrhos Stathis, Stamatis Vassiliadis, and Sorin Cotofana  

E-print Network

solvers. ­ The NAS Parallel Benchmarks [1] are a set of 8 programs designed to help evaluate the performance of parallel supercomputers. The benchmarks, which are derived from computational fluid dynamicsD-SAB: A Sparse Matrix Benchmark Suite Pyrrhos Stathis, Stamatis Vassiliadis, and Sorin Cotofana

Kuzmanov, Georgi

414

Implementation and Results of Hypothesis Testing from the C3I Parallel Benchmark Suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes the implementation,of the hypothesis testing benchmark, one of ten kernels from the C I( Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence) Parallel Benchmark,Suite (C IPBS) . The benchmark,was implemented,and executed on a variety of parallel environments. This paper details the run times obtained with these implementations, and offers an analysis of the results.

Brian Van Voorst; Luiz Pires; Rakesh Jha; Mustafa Muhammad

1997-01-01

415

Parboil: A Revised Benchmark Suite for Scientific and Commercial Throughput Computing  

E-print Network

with fine-grained parallel tasks. But useful benchmarks for this field cannot be "fully cooked", becauseParboil: A Revised Benchmark Suite for Scientific and Commercial Throughput Computing John A-Performance Computing March 2, 2012 Revision: March 19, 2012 Abstract The Parboil benchmarks are a set of throughput

Hwu, Wen-mei W.

416

Implementing Elements of the Physics Suite at a Large Metropolitan Research University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key question in physics education is the effectiveness of the teaching methods. A curriculum that has been investigated at the University of Central Florida (UCF) over the last two years is the use of particular elements of The Physics Suite. Select sections of the introductory physics classes at UCF have made use of Interactive Lecture…

Efthimiou, Costas; Maronde, Dan; McGreevy, Tim; del Barco, Enrique; McCole, Stefanie

2011-01-01

417

Suite102-6190 Agronomy Road Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z3  

E-print Network

Suite102- 6190 Agronomy Road Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z3 Phone: (604) 822-8595 Fax: (604) 822-5093 ADM this completed form to Dean Kuusela, Associate Director, Office of Research Services, #102-6190 Agronomy Road

Michelson, David G.

418

The American Organization of Nurse Executives 155 N. Wacker Drive, Suite 400  

E-print Network

Leading Nurse Leaders The American Organization of Nurse Executives 155 N. Wacker Drive, Suite 400 Business Skills Leading Nurse Leaders Copyright ©2005 by the American Organization of Nurse Executives in the five AONE leadership domains. © 2011, the AmericAn OrgAnizAtiOn Of nurse executives · AOne nurse

Eustice, Ryan

419

e-Phys: a suite of intracellular neurophysiology programs integrating COM (Component Object Model) technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current computer programs for intracellular recordings often lack advanced data management, are usually incompatible with other applications and are also difficult to adapt to new experiments. We have addressed these shortcomings in e-Phys, a suite of electrophysiology applications for intracellular recordings. The programs in e-Phys use Component Object Model (COM) technologies available in the Microsoft Windows operating system to provide

Quoc-Thang Nguyen; Ricardo Miledi

2003-01-01

420

A suit calorimeter for energy balance studies on humans during heavy exercise.  

PubMed

A modification of the suit calorimeter originally developed in 1972 was used in combination with indirect respiratory calorimetry. The modification included increased cooling capacity of the suit by means of an increased density of cooling tubes and a variable water flow pump which permitted higher flow rates. This has made the suit calorimeter a very effective heat exchanger that could be used for studies on high energy turnover during heavy exercise. Furthermore, specially designed absorption clothing made it possible to collect any sweat produced before it evaporated, thus minimizing potential error in measuring evaporative heat loss. The suit calorimeter would seem to offer a valuable tool in the analysis of the specific thermogenic responses to dietary changes and physical activity in studies on energy and protein metabolism and their interaction in humans. It also makes it possible to perform direct calorimetric measurements in metabolic balance studies using continuous parenteral infusion since the subjects do not need to be sealed in a calorimeter chamber. PMID:8162925

Hambraeus, L; Sjödin, A; Webb, P; Forslund, A; Hambraeus, K; Hambraeus, T

1994-01-01

421

Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars1 left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper addresses the space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations, and describes how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

2013-01-01

422

Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations will be discussed, and how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and nonenvironmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. The presentation of destination environmental data demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

2013-01-01

423

Analysis of a benchmark suite to evaluate mixed numeric and symbolic processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suite of programs that formed the benchmark for a proposed advanced computer is described and analyzed. The features of the processor and its operating system that are tested by the benchmark are discussed. The computer codes and the supporting data for the analysis are given as appendices.

Ragharan, Bharathi; Galant, David

1992-01-01

424

Recommendations concerning models and parameters best suited to breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments  

SciTech Connect

Recommendations are presented concerning the models and parameters best suited for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases to the environment by breeder reactor facilities. These recommendations are based on the model and parameter evaluations performed during this project to date. Seven different areas are covered in separate sections.

Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

1980-05-01

425

Evaluating Test Suites and Adequacy Criteria Using Simulation-Based Models of Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test adequacy criteria provide the engineer with guidance on how to populate test suites. While adequacy criteria have long been a focus of research, existing testing methods do not address many of the fundamental characteristics of distributed systems, such as distribution topology, communication failure, and timing. Furthermore, they do not provide the engineer with a means to evaluate the relative

Matthew J. Rutherford; Antonio Carzaniga; Alexander L. Wolf

2008-01-01

426

The Impact of Test Suite Granularity on the CostEffectiveness of Regression Testing  

E-print Network

The Impact of Test Suite Granularity on the Cost­Effectiveness of Regression Testing Gregg,pkallakug@cse.unl.edu ABSTRACT Regression testing is an expensive testing process used to validate software following modifications. The cost­effective­ ness of regression testing techniques varies with characteris­ tics of test

Rothermel, Gregg

427

The Impact of Test Suite Granularity on the CostEffectiveness of Regression Testing  

E-print Network

The Impact of Test Suite Granularity on the Cost­Effectiveness of Regression Testing Gregg,pkallakug@cse.unl.edu ABSTRACT Regression testing is an expensive testing process used to validate software following modi#12;cations. The cost-e#11;ective- ness of regression testing techniques varies with characteris- tics of test

Rothermel, Gregg

428

The Impact of Test Suite Granularity on the Cost-Effectiveness of Regression Testing  

E-print Network

The Impact of Test Suite Granularity on the Cost-Effectiveness of Regression Testing Gregg,pkallakug@cse.unl.edu ABSTRACT Regression testing is an expensive testing process used to validate software following modi cations. The cost-e ective- ness of regression testing techniques varies with characteris- tics of test

Rothermel, Gregg

429

Nickel and Cobalt Partitioning Between Spinel and Basaltic Melt: Applications to Planetary Basalt Suites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New experimental spinel/melt partition coefficients for Ni and Co have been measured in basalt samples with natural levels of Ni and Co, are lower than previous high doping experiments, and are applied to several planetary basalt suites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Righter, K.

2002-01-01

430

Approved Authority for Change Order Requests Texas A&M University GSC, Suite 2801  

E-print Network

Approved Authority for Change Order Requests Texas A&M University ­ GSC, Suite 2801 (Updated 4/04) APPROVAL AUTHORITY The signers below are authorized to sign on Change Order Request forms that those authorized above may sign and authorize change order requests for the department. Signature

Behmer, Spencer T.

431

22 CFR 93.2 - Notice of suit (or of default judgment).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Suit, a copy of the Foreign State Immunities Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-583; 90...including defenses relating to state immunity). 8. The failure to submit a...judgment. 9. Questions relating to state immunities and to the jurisdiction of United...

2011-04-01

432

22 CFR 93.2 - Notice of suit (or of default judgment).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Suit, a copy of the Foreign State Immunities Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-583; 90...including defenses relating to state immunity). 8. The failure to submit a...judgment. 9. Questions relating to state immunities and to the jurisdiction of United...

2010-04-01

433

22 CFR 93.2 - Notice of suit (or of default judgment).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Suit, a copy of the Foreign State Immunities Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-583; 90...including defenses relating to state immunity). 8. The failure to submit a...judgment. 9. Questions relating to state immunities and to the jurisdiction of United...

2013-04-01

434

22 CFR 93.2 - Notice of suit (or of default judgment).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of Suit, a copy of the Foreign State Immunities Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-583; 90...including defenses relating to state immunity). 8. The failure to submit a...judgment. 9. Questions relating to state immunities and to the jurisdiction of United...

2014-04-01

435

22 CFR 93.2 - Notice of suit (or of default judgment).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Suit, a copy of the Foreign State Immunities Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-583; 90...including defenses relating to state immunity). 8. The failure to submit a...judgment. 9. Questions relating to state immunities and to the jurisdiction of United...

2012-04-01

436

A Suite of Typesetting Tools for the Web-Enhanced Classroom  

E-print Network

A Suite of Typesetting Tools for the Web-Enhanced Classroom Peter G. Andrews, Duane M. Broline University Charleston, IL 61920, USA ABSTRACT In ever increasing numbers, schools and businesses are turning in our classrooms continues to grow. Along with such initiatives comes the challenge to find inexpensive

Van Cleave, Nancy K.

437

Human Resources Division Benefits Department 420 Wakara Way, Suite 105 Salt Lake City, Utah 84108  

E-print Network

Human Resources Division ­ Benefits Department 420 Wakara Way, Suite 105 Salt Lake City, Utah 84108 with the request for leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act submitted to the University of Utah authorizing to receive the health information is: a health care provider representing the University of Utah

Provancher, William

438

Using Regression Analysis to Capture Policy in a Gender Discrimination Suit. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regression formulations and related concerns involved in dealing with wage discrimination suits involving college faculty are considered. Several models based in hypothesis testing "policy capturing" uses of multiple linear regression are presented, and problems related to the court's view of statistical significance are examined. Multiple linear…

Rosenthal, William; And Others

439

The MARID (mica-amphibole-rutile-ilmenite-diopside) suite of xenoliths in kimberlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the `glimmerite' nodules occurring within kimberlite pipes we recognize the MARID suite consisting of varying proportions of mica, amphibole, rutile, ilmenite and diopside. Banding of some specimens is interpreted as cumulate layering. All specimens were deformed either before incorporation into the host kimberlite or during intrusion. Compared with minerals in peridotite xenoliths, the MARID ones are lower in Al

J. Barry Dawson; Joseph V. Smith

1977-01-01

440

What Whiteboards in a Trauma Center Operating Suite Can Teach Us About Emergency Department Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: We took photographs and observed staff's interaction with a whiteboard in a 6-bed surgical suite dedicated to trauma service. We analyzed the integral role of artifacts in cognitive activities as when workers configure and manage visual spaces to simplify their cognitive tasks. We further identified characteristics of the whiteboard as a communicative information artifact in supporting coordination in fast-paced

Yan Xiao; Stephen Schenkel; MPP Samer Faraj; Colin F. Mackenzie

441

PULSE: A Suite of R Functions for Detecting Pulsatile Hormone Secretions  

E-print Network

PULSE: A Suite of R Functions for Detecting Pulsatile Hormone Secretions Yu­Chieh Yang Department 93106. email: yuedong@pstat.ucsb.edu September 7, 2004 1 Introduction PULSE is a R package for hormone of observation time points. y a vector of hormone concentrations. data a data frame containing the variables

Wang, Yuedong

442

PULSE: A Suite of R Functions for Detecting Pulsatile Hormone Secretions  

E-print Network

PULSE: A Suite of R Functions for Detecting Pulsatile Hormone Secretions Yu-Chieh Yang Department 93106. email: yuedong@pstat.ucsb.edu September 7, 2004 1 Introduction PULSE is a R package for hormone time points. y a vector of hormone concentrations. data a data frame containing the variables occurring

Wang, Yuedong

443

A Parallel Java Grande Benchmark Suite L. A. Smith and J. M. Bull  

E-print Network

A Parallel Java Grande Benchmark Suite L. A. Smith and J. M. Bull EPCC, The King's Buildings Republic. email: xobdrzal@fi.muni.cz Abstract Increasing interest is being shown in the use of Java for large scale or Grande applications. This new use of Java places specific demands on the Java execution

Bull, Mark

444

Building Regulatory-Driven Automated Test Suites Patrick Morrison, Casper Holmgreen, Aaron Massey, Laurie Williams  

E-print Network

of this research is to demonstrate a test suite with which multiple organizations can compare their systems based on US government regulations for Electronic Health Record (EHR) system security. We then wrote system-specific test driver code to execute the scenarios on three EHR systems. The scenarios covered all

Young, R. Michael

445

A new methane control and prediction software suite for longwall mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents technical and application aspects of a new software suite, MCP (Methane Control and Prediction), developed for addressing some of the methane and methane control issues in longwall coal mines. The software suite consists of dynamic link library (DLL) extensions to MS-Access TM, written in C++. In order to create the DLLs, various statistical, mathematical approaches, prediction and classification artificial neural network (ANN) methods were used. The current version of MCP suite (version 1.3) discussed in this paper has four separate modules that (a) predict the dynamic elastic properties of coal-measure rocks, (b) predict ventilation emissions from longwall mines, (c) determine the type of degasification system that needs to be utilized for given situations and (d) assess the production performance of gob gas ventholes that are used to extract methane from longwall gobs. These modules can be used with the data from basic logs, mining, longwall panel, productivity, and coal bed characteristics. The applications of these modules separately or in combination for methane capture and control related problems will help improve the safety of mines. The software suite's version 1.3 is discussed in this paper. Currently, it's new version 2.0 is available and can be downloaded from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/products/product180.htm free of charge. The models discussed in this paper can be found under "ancillary models" and under "methane prediction models" for specific U.S. conditions in the new version.

Dougherty, Heather N.; Özgen Karacan, C.

2011-09-01

446

Data Analysis and Graphing in an Introductory Physics Laboratory: Spreadsheet versus Statistics Suite  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods of data analysis are compared: spreadsheet software and a statistics software suite. Their use is compared analysing data collected in three selected experiments taken from an introductory physics laboratory, which include a linear dependence, a nonlinear dependence and a histogram. The merits of each method are compared. (Contains 7…

Peterlin, Primoz

2010-01-01

447

VAMPIRE microarray suite: a web-based platform for the interpretation of gene expression data  

E-print Network

VAMPIRE microarray suite: a web-based platform for the interpretation of gene expression data of analysis, collectively known as variance-modeled posterior inference with regional exponentials (VAMPIRE, associate related samples and identify differentially expressed features using the VAMPIRE statistical

448

Apollo/Skylab suit program-management systems study, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A management systems study for future spacesuit programs was conducted to assess past suit program requirements and management systems in addition to new and modified systems in order to identify the most cost effective methods for use during future spacesuit programs. The effort and its findings concerned the development and production of all hardware ranging from crew protective gear to total launch vehicles.

Mcniff, M.

1974-01-01

449

Blood Flow At Arterial Branches: Complexities To Resolve For The Angioplasty Suite  

E-print Network

Blood Flow At Arterial Branches: Complexities To Resolve For The Angioplasty Suite P.D. Richardson1 the flows in a branched artery, to compare them with prior physical flow visualization, and to interpret them with further users in mind. The geometry was taken for a typical epicardial coronary artery

Laidlaw, David

450

Beamlet Pyramids: A New Form of Multiresolution Analysis, suited for Extracting Lines, Curves, and Objects  

E-print Network

Beamlet Pyramids: A New Form of Multiresolution Analysis, suited for Extracting Lines, Curves describe a multiscale pyramid of line segments and develop algorithms which exploit that pyramid to recover. The resulting information is stored in an beamlet pyramid. One can use this to rapidly calculate integrals of f

Huo, Xiaoming

451

ERO Caught in the Act (Again): Limiting Inclusion to Suit Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2010 the Education Review Office (ERO) was tasked with reporting on the progress of New Zealand schools in the inclusion of students with high needs. This paper will explore how ERO limited the concept of inclusion to suit Government policy and limit discussion of inclusion to the parameters set by the resource allocation scheme known as…

McMaster, Christopher

2013-01-01

452

Constructed Wetlands Research Group meeting Forth Suite, SEPA Riccarton Office, Edinburgh EH14 4AP  

E-print Network

1 Minutes of Constructed Wetlands Research Group meeting Forth Suite, SEPA Riccarton Office. It was set up several years ago, particularly to support the implementation of constructed farm wetlands be obtained on disk from Neil McLean. Aberdeen Council is applying for funding to implement a wetland

Heal, Kate

453

Development of a Compact Efficient Cooling Pump for Space Suit Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the increasing demands placed on extravehicular activity (EVA) for the International Space Station (ISS) assembly and maintenance, along with planned lunar and Martian missions, the need for increased human productivity and capability becomes ever more critical. This is most readily achieved by reduction in space suit weight and volume, and increased hardware reliability, durability, and operating lifetime. Considerable progress has been made with each successive generation of space suit design; from the Apollo A7L suit, to the current Shuttle Extravehicular Mobile Unit (EMU) suit, and the next generation Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). However, one area of space suit design which has continued to lag is the fluid pump used to drive the water cooling loop of the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The two main types of fluid pumps typically used in space applications are rotodynamic pumps (pumping is achieved through a rotary vaned impeller) and displacement pumps (which includes rotary and diaphragm pumps). The rotating and moving parts found in the pumps and electric motor add significantly to the susceptibility to wear and friction, thermal mismatch, and complexity of the pumps. Electric motor-driven pumps capable of achieving high operational reliability are necessarily large, heavy, and energy inefficient. This report describes a development effort conducted for NASA by Lynntech, Inc., who recently demonstrated the feasibility of an electrochemically-driven fluid cooling pump. With no electric motor and minimal lightweight components, an electrochemically-driven pump is expected to be significantly smaller, lighter and achieve a longer life time than conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps. By employing sulfonated polystyrene-based proton exchange membranes, rather than conventional Nafion membranes, a significant reduction in the actuator power consumption was demonstrated. It was also demonstrated that these membranes possess the necessary mechanical strength, durability, and temperature range for long life space operation. The preliminary design for a Phase II prototype pump compares very favorably to the fluid cooling pumps currently used in space suit portable life support systems (PLSS). Characteristics of the electrochemically-driven pump are described and the benefits of the technology as a replacement for electric motor pumps in mechanically pumped single-phase fluid loops (MPFLs) is discussed.

vanBoeyen, Roger W.; Reeh, Jonathan A.; Trevino, Luis

2008-01-01

454

Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars [1] left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will address the space suit system architecture and technologies required based upon human exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) destinations, and describe how they should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program.1, 2, 3 In looking forward to future US space exploration to a space suit architecture with maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, a series of exercises and analyses have provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program (CxP) space suit architecture is postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions4. The destination environmental analysis presented in this paper demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit (LEO). Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important the farther away from Earth humans venture. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, independent of any particular program, and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of need dates for any particular crewed flight program in the future. The approach to space suit design and interface definition discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with minimal redesign effort such that the modular architecture can be quickly and efficiently honed into a specific mission point solution if required. Additionally, the modular system will allow for specific technology incorporation and upgrade as required with minimal redesign of the system.

Hill, Terry R.; Korona, F. Adam; McFarland, Shane

2012-01-01

455

Field protection effectiveness of chemical protective suits and gloves evaluated by biomonitoring  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the effectiveness of protective suits and gloves by biomonitoring. Methods Fifteen male spray painters at a ship coating factory were studied for two weeks. Workers wore no protective clothing during the first week and wore protective suits and gloves during the second week. Sampling was conducted on four consecutive working days each week. Ethyl benzene and xylene in the air were collected by using 3M 3500 organic vapour monitors. Urine was collected before and after each work shift. Results Urinary mandelic acid (MA) and methyl hippuric acid (MHA) levels were divided by the personal exposure concentrations of ethyl benzene and xylene, respectively. Mean (SE) corrected MA and MHA concentrations in the first week were 1.07 (0.18) and 2.66 (0.68) (mg/g creatinine)/(mg/m3), and concentrations in the second week were 0.50 (0.12) and 1.76 (0.35) (mg/g creatinine)/(mg/m3) in the second week, respectively. Both MA and MHA concentrations in the second week (when spray painters wore protective suits and gloves) were lower than in the first week, respectively (p<0.001, p?=?0.011). Mean decrease in MA and MHA biomarkers were 69% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion This study successfully evaluated the effectiveness of chemical protective suits and gloves by using biomarkers as urinary MA and MHA. This method is feasible for determining the performance of workers wearing personal protective equipment. Moreover, the experimental results suggest that dermal exposure may be the major contributor to total body burden of solvents in spray painters without protective suits and gloves. PMID:17522137

Chang, F K; Chen, M L; Cheng, S F; Shih, T S; Mao, I F

2007-01-01

456

Cool Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acurex developed a heat stress alleviating, liquid cooled helmet liner for military pilots after a series of accidents in Vietnam suggested heat exhaustion as the cause. System pumped a cooled liquid through channels in the helmet liner proved effective in eliminating 40-60% of stored body heat.

1987-01-01

457

Following Suit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid growth of international fundraising by educational institutions is an outgrowth of an unprecedented, large-scale exchange of products, people, and cultures. Institutions that previously had taken a piecemeal approach to global education have embraced a global mission, and advancement is falling in sync. International fundraising also…

Pulley, John

2012-01-01

458

Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of U.S. and Russian Extravehicular Activity Suits. Chapter 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the JSC-sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of ISS. Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the U.S. EMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue-equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at LLUMC. During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6 MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue-equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13% to 27% reduction in total dose and a 0% to 25% reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2% to 14% greater than that measured in the bare phantom head.

Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

2003-01-01

459

Anorthosite, Gabbronorite, Peridotite of the De La Blache Plutonic Suite, Grenville Province, Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located 140 km north of Baie-Comeau, the >1000 km2 De La Blache Plutonic Suite is composed of a core of anorthosite, leucotroctolite and leuconorite, surrounded by an envelope of gabbronorite & norite, with subordinate peridotite, pyroxenite and Fe-Ti oxide bearing gabbroic rocks. Dated by U-Pb at 1327 Ma by a conformable syenite unit located within the mafic envelope, the plutonic suite is hosted by the 1434 Ma Hulot gneisso-plutonic complex, and is consequently 300 million years older than the nearby Labrieville or Lac Saint-Jean anorthosites. Contemporaneous mafic plutonic rocks include the Voisey's Bay intrusion, the west side of the Nain Plutonic suite, the Matamec Complex, the Pentecôte Anorthosite, and the Whitestone Anorthosite. The suite shows an overall dome structure and is bounded to the north and south by up to 2 km-wide mylonite zones. Except for these outer margins, rocks from the suite are mostly undeformed and show very well preserved magmatic textures and primary mineralogy in spite of weak local recrystallization. Metric macrolayers in the anorthosite are locally observed. Mottled leucotroctolite pockets are commonly found in coarse-grained anorthosite. Coronitic textures are developed in Ol- and Pl-bearing rocks. These textures are formed by a core of Ol, which is separated from Pl by an inner rim of Opx and an outer rim of amphibole-spinel symplectite. More than 300 plagioclase analyses reveal a very large range of compositions (An30 to An90) which correlate with lithological types (An30-56 in Fe-Ti oxide-bearing gabbronorites, An34-90 in gabbronorites devoid of Ol or Fe-Ti oxides, An66-86 in Ol-bearing gabbronorites and ultramafics). Preliminary results for the anorthosite suggest a bimodal Pl distribution, which is zoned at the scale of the massif : An48-51 in the central portion and An57-60 elsewhere. For the entire plutonic suite, Opx with Al2O3<3.5% (Mg#=58-85, Cr2O3<1.6%) suggests crystallization under low pressure. At least 4 massive Fe-Ti oxide lenses occur in the central portion of the anorthosite. These lenses, oriented along a general E-W trend, are several hundreds meters long by up to 50m-thick. Sulfide mineralisation is hosted in olivine-bearing rocks. Values of ? 34S vary between 1‰ (mantle values) and 30‰ , suggesting contamination of the mafic magma by sedimentary sulfur (possibly from an evaporitic source). The De La Blache Plutonic Suite was not formed during an orogenic period. Rather, by analogy with the tectonic setting for the Pentecôte and Whitestone anorthosites proposed by Rivers and Corrigan (2000), the suite may have developed in an incipient back-arc (or intra-arc) setting resulting from subduction under the continental margin. Alternatively, the De La Blache and Nain plutonic suites could be linked to the same magmatic event, inferred to be related to a plume event (Ryan, 1997), which occurred at a distal location from the continental-margin arc.

Constantin, M.; Giroux, F.; Clark, T.

2004-05-01

460

11th International Parallel Processing Symposium, Geneva, Switzerland, April 1997. DPF: A Data Parallel Fortran Benchmark Suite  

E-print Network

Parallel Fortran Benchmark Suite Yu Hu Div. Eng. and Applied Sc. Harvard University hu@deas.harvard.edu S University nadia@deas.harvard.edu Abstract We present the Data Parallel Fortran (DPF) benchmark suite, a set] compilers. At the time the benchmarks were developed, CMF was the only data parallel Fortran language

Hu, Y. Charlie

461

20 CFR 30.619 - Do all the parties to this type of tort suit have to take these actions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...a tort suit may be filed against a beryllium vendor by both a covered Part B employee...Part B employee claiming for chronic beryllium disease and the spouse claiming...

2012-04-01

462

20 CFR 30.619 - Do all the parties to this type of tort suit have to take these actions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...a tort suit may be filed against a beryllium vendor by both a covered Part B employee...Part B employee claiming for chronic beryllium disease and the spouse claiming...

2014-04-01

463

20 CFR 30.619 - Do all the parties to this type of tort suit have to take these actions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...a tort suit may be filed against a beryllium vendor by both a covered Part B employee...Part B employee claiming for chronic beryllium disease and the spouse claiming...

2013-04-01

464

20 CFR 30.619 - Do all the parties to this type of tort suit have to take these actions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...a tort suit may be filed against a beryllium vendor by both a covered Part B employee...Part B employee claiming for chronic beryllium disease and the spouse claiming...

2010-04-01

465

20 CFR 30.619 - Do all the parties to this type of tort suit have to take these actions?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...a tort suit may be filed against a beryllium vendor by both a covered Part B employee...Part B employee claiming for chronic beryllium disease and the spouse claiming...

2011-04-01

466

AN ANALYTICAL VERIFICATION TEST SUITE FOR MULTI-ZONE BUILDING FABRIC AND CONTROL MODELS IN WHOLE BUILDING ENERGY SIMULATION PROGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical verification test suite has recently been developed to test building fabric models for whole building energy simulation programs. (Rees, et al. 2002) The test suite covers a range of heat transfer mechanisms, including convection, conduction, thermal radiation, solar radiation, and infiltration in a single building zone. However, none of the existing tests cover inter-zone heat transfer or airflow.

Dongyi Xiao; Jeffrey D. Spitler; Simon J. Rees

467

[Probability of altitude decompression sickness during a suited exit from a space ship having a near-Earth atmosphere].  

PubMed

A large number (550) pressure chamber experiments in which 200 suited subjects simulated an egress from the spacecraft (decompression from 760 to 20--10 mm Hg) showed a relationship between decompression sickness frequency and severity, space suit absolute pressure (160--310 mm Hg), time of the exposure (1--10 hours) and desaturation (15--60 min), and exercise load (150--400 Cal/hr). Without desaturation there were no decompression sickness symptoms at a suit pressure of 270--310 mm Hg. An egress into space in a suit at a pressure of 160--230 mm Hg after 15--60 min desaturation induced bends of different severity. Less frequent cases of decompression sickness in our experiments as compared with the literature data (obtained on unsuited subjects) can be attributed to the peculiar kinematics of movements and excessive pressure in the suit. PMID:36501

Barer, A S; Golovkin, L G; Filipenkov, S N; Cherniakov, I N; She?kin, A A

1979-01-01

468

Preliminary Testing of a Pressurized Space Suit and Candidate Fabrics Under Simulated Mars Dust Storm and Dust Devil Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In August 2009 YAP Films (Toronto) received permission from all entities involved to create a documentary film illustrating what it might be like to be on the surface of Mars in a space suit during a dust storm or in a dust devil. The science consultants on this project utilized this opportunity to collect data which could be helpful to assess the durability of current space suit construction to the Martian environment. The NDX?1 prototype planetary space suit developed at the University of North Dakota was used in this study. The suit features a hard upper torso garment, and a soft lower torso and boots assembly. On top of that, a nylon-cotton outer layer is used to protect the suit from dust. Unmanned tests were carried out in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at the NASA Ames Research Center, with the suit pressurized to 10 kPa gauge. These tests blasted the space suit upper torso and helmet, and a collection of nine candidate outer layer fabrics, with wind-borne simulant for five different 10 minute tests under both terrestrial and Martian surface pressures. The infiltration of the dust through the outer fabric of the space suit was photographically documented. The nine fabric samples were analyzed under light and electron microscopes for abrasion damage. Manned tests were carried out at Showbiz Studios (Van Nuys, CA) with the pressure maintained at 20?2 kPa gauge. A large fan-created vortex lifted Martian dust simulant (Fullers Earth or JSC Mars?1) off of the floor, and one of the authors (Lee) wearing the NDX?1 space suit walked through it to judge both subjectively and objectively how the suit performed under these conditions. Both the procedures to scale the tests to Martian conditions and the results of the infiltration and abrasion studies will be discussed.

Gaier, James R.; deLeon, Pablo G.; Lee, Pascal; McCue, Terry R.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Thrasher, Jeff

2010-01-01

469

Preliminary Testing of a Pressurized Space Suit and Candidate Fabrics Under Simulated Mars Dust Storm and Dust Devil Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In August 2009 YAP Films (Toronto) received permission from all entities involved to create a documentary film illustrating what it might be like to be on the surface of Mars in a space suit during a dust storm or in a dust devil. The science consultants on this project utilized this opportunity to collect data which could be helpful to assess the durability of current space suit construction to the Martian environment. The NDX-1 prototype planetary space suit developed at the University of North Dakota was used in this study. The suit features a hard upper torso garment, and a soft lower torso and boots assembly. On top of that, a nylon-cotton outer layer is used to protect the suit from dust. Unmanned tests were carried out in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at the NASA Ames Research Center, with the suit pressurized to 10 kPa gauge. These tests blasted the space suit upper torso and helmet, and a collection of nine candidate outer layer fabrics, with wind-borne simulant for five different 10 min tests under both terrestrial and Martian surface pressures. The infiltration of the dust through the outer fabric of the space suit was photographically documented. The nine fabric samples were analyzed under light and electron microscopes for abrasion damage. Manned tests were carried out at Showbiz Studios (Van Nuys, California) with the pressure maintained at 20 2 kPa gauge. A large fan-created vortex lifted Martian dust simulant (Fullers Earth or JSC Mars-1) off of the floor, and one of the authors (Lee) wearing the NDX-1 space suit walked through it to judge both subjectively and objectively how the suit performed under these conditions. Both the procedures to scale the tests to Martian conditions and the results of the infiltration and abrasion studies will be discussed.

Gaier, James R.; deLeon, Pablo G.; Lee, Pascal; McCue, Terry R.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Thrasher, Jeff

2010-01-01

470

Space suits and life support systems for the exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements and technologies needed for a viable space suit, or Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), to be worn under conditions of Martian gravity field and environment are examined and alternative concepts for space suits and portable life support systems for the exploration of Mars are proposed. The challenge is illustrated by a comparison of the Martian surface with previous and current manned space environments, such as the low earth orbit, the lunar surface, and the surface of the earth. A summary of relevant data collected from Mariner and Viking probes is presented and it is pointed out that this information must be used to create an EMU which provides temperature regulation; humidity control; a regulated oxygen supply; pressure regulation; metabolic and toxic waste removal; contaminant control; thermal and cosmic radiation protection; biological isolation of the human and the Mars environment from each other; tear, dust, and puncture protection; water; and communication.

Kuznetz, Lawrence H.

1990-01-01

471

Modeling Active Region Evolution - A New LWS TR and T Strategic Capability Model Suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006 the LWS TR&T Program funded us to develop a strategic capability model of slowly evolving coronal active regions. In this poster we report on the overall design, and status of our new modeling suite. Our design features two coronal field models, a non-linear force free field model and a global 3D MHD code. The suite includes supporting tools and a user friendly GUI which will enable users to query the web for relevant magnetograms, download them, process them to synthesize a sequence of photospheric magnetograms and associated photospheric flow field which can then be applied to drive the coronal model innner boundary, run the coronal models and finally visualize the results.

MacNeice, Peter

2012-01-01

472

Platinum-group element geochemistry of zoned ultramafic intrusive suites, Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses for platinum-group elements of the varied rock suites of three Alaskan-type ultramafic to mafic multi-intrusive bodies are reported. Ir and Ru are less than analytical sensitivities of 100 and 20 ppb; Rh is less than or near 1 ppb. Average Pd assays vary among the rocks within intrusive complexes and between the three complexes (6.3, 13.7, 36.4 ppb); average Pt assays vary little among the same samples (27.9, 60.9, 34.0 ppb). Statistically adjusted Pt/(Pt + Pd) ratios increase in each suite from gabbro through clinopyroxenite to olivine-rich rocks, possibly owing to Pd fractionation.-G.J.N.

Gray, F.; Page, N.J.; Carlson, C.A.; Wilson, S.A.; Carlson, R.R.

1986-01-01

473

A fault-tolerant avionics suite for an entry research vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A highly-reliable avionics suite has been designed for an Entry Research Vehicle. The autonomous spacecraft would be deployed from the Space Shuttle Orbiter and perform a variety of aerodynamic and propulsive maneuvers which may be required for future space transportation system vehicles. The flight electronics consist of a central fault-tolerant processor, which is resilient to all first failures, reliably cross-strapped to redundant and distributed sets of sensors and effectors. This paper describes the preliminary design and analysis of the architecture which resulted from a fifteen month study by the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory for the NASA Langley Research Center. After a brief introduction to the design task, the architecture of the central flight computer and its interface to the vehicle are discussed. Following this, the method and results of the baseline reliability study for the avionic suite are presented.

Dzwonczyk, Mark; Stone, Howard

1988-01-01

474

Performance and Life Tests of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ventilation fans for future space suits must meet demanding performance specifications, satisfy stringent safety requirements for operation in an oxygen atmosphere, and be able to increase output to operate in buddy mode. A regenerative blower is an attractive choice due to its ability to meet these requirements at low operating speed. This paper describes progress in the development and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in a future space suit Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS). The blower assembly includes a custom-designed motor that has significantly improved in efficiency during this development effort. The blower was tested at both nominal and buddy mode operating points and head/flow performance and power consumption were measured. The blower was operated for over 1000 hours to demonstrate safe operation in an oxygen test loop at prototypical pressures. In addition, the blower demonstrated operation with the introduction of simulated lunar dust.

Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

2011-01-01

475

Performance and Life Tests of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ventilation fans for future space suits must meet demanding performance specifications, satisfy stringent safety requirements for operation in an oxygen atmosphere, and be able to increase output to operate in buddy mode. A regenerative blower is an attractive choice due to its ability to meet these requirements at low operating speed. This paper describes progress in the development and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in future space suits. The blower includes a custom-designed motor that has significantly improved its efficiency. We have measured the blower s head/flow performance and power consumption under conditions that simulate both the normal and buddy mode operating points. We have operated the blower for TBD hours and demonstrated safe operation in an oxygen test loop at prototypical pressures. We also demonstrated operation with simulated lunar dust.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; McCormick, John; Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

2012-01-01

476

Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all