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Sample records for geodesic acoustic mode

  1. On the dispersion of geodesic acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyakov, A. I.; Bashir, M. F.; Elfimov, A. G.; Yagi, M.; Miyato, N.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of dispersion of geodesic acoustic modes is revisited with two different methods for the solution of the kinetic equation. The dispersive corrections to the mode frequency are calculated by including the m = 2 poloidal harmonics. Our obtained results agree with some earlier results but differ in various ways with other previous works. Limitations and advantages of different approaches are discussed.

  2. Energetic Particle-induced Geodesic Acoustic Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.

    2008-09-12

    A new energetic particle-induced Geodesic Acoustic Mode (EGAM) is shown to exist. The mode frequency, mode structure, and mode destabilization are determined non-perturbatively by energetic particle kinetic effects. In particular the EGAM frequency is found to be substantially lower than the standard GAM frequency. The radial mode width is determined by the energetic particle drift orbit width and can be fairly large for high energetic particle pressure and large safety factor. These results are consistent with the recent experimental observation of the beam- driven n=0 mode in DIII-D. The new mode is important since it can degrade energetic particle confinement as shown in the DIII-D experiments. The new mode may also affect the thermal plasma confinement via its interaction with plasma micro-turbulence.

  3. Electromagnetic effects on geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, M. F.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Elfimov, A. G.; Melnikov, A. V.; Murtaza, G.

    2014-08-15

    By using the full electromagnetic drift kinetic equations for electrons and ions, the general dispersion relation for geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) is derived incorporating the electromagnetic effects. It is shown that m = 1 harmonic of the GAM mode has a finite electromagnetic component. The electromagnetic corrections appear for finite values of the radial wave numbers and modify the GAM frequency. The effects of plasma pressure β{sub e}, the safety factor q, and the temperature ratio τ on GAM dispersion are analyzed.

  4. Geodesic Acoustic Modes Induced by Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianchun; Berk, Herbert

    2009-11-01

    A global geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic particles (EGAM) has been observed in JET[1, 2] and DIII D[3, 4]. The mode is to be treated fully kinetically. The descriptions of the background electrons and ions are based on standard high and low bounce frequency expansion respectively with respect to the mode frequency. However, the energetic ions must be treated without any expansion of ratio between their bounce frequency and the mode frequency since they are comparable. Under electrostatic perturbation, we construct a quadratic form for the wave amplitude, from which an integro-differential equation is derived. In the limit where the drift orbit width is small comparison with the mode width, a differential equation for perturbed electrostatic field is obtained. Solution is obtained both analytically and numerically. We find that beam counterinjection enhances the instability of the mode. Landau damping due to thermal species is investigated.

  5. Geodesic Acoustic Modes Induced by Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianchun; Berk, Herbert

    2009-05-01

    A global geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic particles (EGAM) has been observed in JET[1, 2] and DIII D[3, 4]. The mode is to be treated fully kinetically. The descriptions of the background electrons and ions are based on standard high and low bounce frequency expansion respectively with respect to the mode frequency. However, the energetic ions must be treated without any expansion of ratio between their bounce frequency and the mode frequency since they are comparable. Under electrostatic perturbation, we construct a quadratic form for the wave amplitude, from which an integro-differential equation is derived. In the limit where the drift orbit width is small comparison with the mode width, a differential equation for perturbed electrostatic field is obtained. Solution is obtained both analytically and numerically. We find that beam counterinjection enhances the instability of the mode

  6. Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Sgalla, R. J. F.

    2015-02-15

    A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ∼ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λ{sub r} ∼ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs)

  7. Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgalla, R. J. F.

    2015-02-01

    A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ˜ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λr ˜ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs).

  8. Perturbation analysis of electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-06-15

    Lagrangian displacement and magnetic field perturbation response to the geodesic acoustic mode is analyzed by using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak. δB{sub θ}, the poloidal component of magnetic field perturbation, has poloidal wave number m = 2 created by the poloidal displacement ξ{sub θ}. The parallel perturbation of magnetic field, δB{sub ∥}, has a poloidally asymmetric structure with m = 1 and is on the same order of magnitude with δB{sub θ} to the leading order. The radial displacement ξ{sub r} is of order O(βϵξ{sub θ}) but plays a significant role in determining δB{sub ∥}, where β is the plasma/magnetic pressure ratio and ϵ is the inverse aspect ratio.

  9. Kinetic effect of toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W. Ye, L.; Zhou, D.; Xiao, X.; Wang, S.

    2015-01-15

    Kinetic effects of the toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode are theoretically investigated. It is found that when the toroidal rotation increases, the damping rate increases in the weak rotation regime due to the rotation enhancement of wave-particle interaction, and it decreases in the strong rotation regime due to the reduction of the number of resonant particles. Theoretical results are consistent with the behaviors of the geodesic acoustic mode recently observed in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade. The kinetic damping effect of the rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode may shed light on the regulation of turbulence through the controlling the toroidal rotation.

  10. Collisional damping of the geodesic acoustic mode with toroidal rotation. I. Viscous damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xueyu; Xie, Baoyi; Guo, Wenfeng; Chen, You; Yu, Jiangmei; Yu, Jun

    2016-03-01

    With the dispersion relation derived for the geodesic acoustic mode in toroidally rotating tokamak plasmas using the fluid model, the effect of the toroidal rotation on the collisional viscous damping of the geodesic acoustic mode is investigated. It is found that the collisional viscous damping of the geodesic acoustic mode has weak increase with respect to the toroidal Mach number.

  11. Phase mixing and nonlinearity in geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B.

    2013-09-15

    Phase mixing and nonlinear resonance detuning of geodesic acoustic modes in a tokamak plasma are examined. Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are tokamak normal modes with oscillations in poloidal flow constrained to lie within flux surfaces. The mode frequency is sonic, dependent on the local flux surface temperature. Consequently, mode oscillations between flux surfaces get rapidly out of phase, resulting in enhanced damping from the phase mixing. Damping rates are shown to scale as the negative 1/3 power of the large viscous Reynolds number. The effect of convective nonlinearities on the normal modes is also studied. The system of nonlinear GAM equations is shown to resemble the Duffing oscillator, which predicts resonance detuning of the oscillator. Resonant amplification is shown to be suppressed nonlinearly. All analyses are verified by numerical simulation. The findings are applied to a recently proposed GAM excitation experiment on the DIII-D tokamak.

  12. Landau damping of geodesic acoustic mode in toroidally rotating tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao

    2015-06-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is analyzed by using modified gyro-kinetic (MGK) equation applicable to low-frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. Dispersion relation of GAM in the presence of arbitrary toroidal Mach number is analytically derived. The effects of toroidal rotation on the GAM frequency and damping rate do not depend on the orientation of equilibrium flow. It is shown that the toroidal Mach number M increases the GAM frequency and dramatically decreases the Landau damping rate.

  13. Geodesic Acoustic Mode Induced by Toroidal Rotation in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlberg, C.

    2008-09-12

    The effect of toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in a tokamak is studied. It is shown that, in addition to a small frequency upshift of the ordinary GAM, another GAM, with much lower frequency, is induced by the rotation. The new GAM appears as a consequence of the nonuniform plasma density and pressure created by the centrifugal force on the magnetic surfaces. Both GAMs in a rotating plasma are shown to exist both as continuum modes with finite mode numbers m and n at the rational surfaces q=m/n as well as in the form of axisymmetric modes with m=n=0.

  14. Onset condition of the subcritical geodesic acoustic mode instability in the presence of energetic-particle-driven geodesic acoustic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Lesur, M.; Ido, T.

    2016-05-01

    An analytic model is developed for understanding the abrupt onset of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in the presence of chirping energetic-particle-driven GAM (EGAM). This abrupt excitation phenomenon has been observed on LHD plasma. Threshold conditions for the onset of abrupt growth of GAM are derived, and the period doubling phenomenon is explained. The phase relation between the mother mode (EGAM) and the daughter mode (GAM) is also discussed. This result contributes to the understanding of "trigger problems" of laboratory and nature plasmas.

  15. On fast radial propagation of parametrically excited geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.

    2015-04-15

    The spatial and temporal evolution of parametrically excited geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) initial pulse is investigated both analytically and numerically. Our results show that the nonlinearly excited GAM propagates at a group velocity which is, typically, much larger than that due to finite ion Larmor radius as predicted by the linear theory. The nonlinear dispersion relation of GAM driven by a finite amplitude drift wave pump is also derived, showing a nonlinear frequency increment of GAM. Further implications of these findings for interpreting experimental observations are also discussed.

  16. Fast excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by energetic particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jintao; Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-12-15

    A new mechanism for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excitation by a not fully slowed down energetic particle (EP) beam is analyzed to explain experimental observations in Large Helical Device. It is shown that the positive velocity space gradient near the lower-energy end of the EP distribution function can strongly drive the GAM unstable. The new features of this EP-induced GAM (EGAM) are: (1) no instability threshold in the pitch angle; (2) the EGAM frequency can be higher than the local GAM frequency; and (3) the instability growth rate is much larger than that driven by a fully slowed down EP beam.

  17. Geodesic acoustic mode in toroidally rotating anisotropic tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2015-07-15

    Effects of anisotropy on the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) are analyzed by using gyro-kinetic equations applicable to low-frequency microinstabilities in a toroidally rotating tokamak plasma. Dispersion relation in the presence of arbitrary Mach number M, anisotropy strength σ, and the temperature ration τ is analytically derived. It is shown that when σ is less than 3 + 2τ, the increased electron temperature with fixed ion parallel temperature increases the normalized GAM frequency. When σ is larger than 3 + 2τ, the increasing of electron temperature decreases the GAM frequency. The anisotropy σ always tends to enlarge the GAM frequency. The Landau damping rate is dramatically decreased by the increasing τ or σ.

  18. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2015-10-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q{sup 2}, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.

  19. Relation between energetic and standard geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Girardo, Jean-Baptiste; Dumont, Rémi; Garbet, Xavier; Sarazin, Yanick; Zarzoso, David; Sharapov, Sergei

    2014-09-15

    Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs) are electrostatic, axisymmetric modes which are non-linearly excited by turbulence. They can also be excited linearly by fast-particles; they are then called Energetic-particle-driven GAMs (EGAMs). Do GAMs and EGAMs belong to the same mode branch? Through a linear, analytical model, in which the fast particles are represented by a Maxwellian bump-on-tail distribution function, we find that the answer depends on several parameters. For low values of the safety factor q and for high values of the fast ion energy, the EGAM originates from the GAM. On the contrary, for high values of q and for low values of the fast ion energy, the GAM is not the mode which becomes unstable when fast particles are added: the EGAM then originates from a distinct mode, which is strongly damped in the absence of fast particles. The impact of other parameters is further explored: ratio of the ion temperature to the electron temperature, width of the fast particle distribution, mass and charge of the fast ions. The ratio between the EGAM and the GAM frequencies was found in experiments (DIII-D) and in non-linear numerical simulations (code GYSELA) to be close to 1/2: the present analytical study allows one to recover this ratio.

  20. Comparison of collision operators for the geodesic acoustic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Gao, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    The collisional damping rate and real frequency of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) are solved from a drift kinetic model with different collision operators. As the ion collision rate increases, the damping rate increases at low collision rate but decays at high ion collision rate. Different collision operators do not change the overall trend but influence the magnitude of the damping rate. The collision damping is much overestimated with the number-conserving-only Krook operator; on the other hand, using the Lorentz operator with a constant collision rate, the damping is overestimated at low collision rate but underestimated at high collision rate. The results from the Krook operator with both number and energy conservation terms, the Lorentz operator with an energy-dependent collision rate and the full Hirshman-Sigmar-Clarke collision operator are very close. Meanwhile, as the ion collision rate increases, the GAM frequency decreases from the collisionless value, \\sqrt {7/4+τ} {vti}/R , to \\sqrt {1+τ} {vti}/R for the number-conserving-only Krook operator, but to \\sqrt {5/3+τ} {vti}/R for the other four operators, which conserve both number and energy, where τ, vti and R are the ratio of electron temperature to ion temperature, the ion thermal velocity and the major radius, respectively. The results imply that the property of energy conservation of the collision operator is important to the dynamics of the GAM as well as that of number conservation, which may provide guidance in choosing collision operators in further study of the zonal flow (ZF) dynamics, such as the nonlinear simulation of the ZF-turbulence system.

  1. Geodesic acoustic modes in tokamak plasmas with a radial equilibrium electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Deng

    2015-09-15

    The dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic modes in the tokamak plasma with an equilibrium radial electric field is derived and analyzed. Multiple branches of eigenmodes have been found, similar to the result given by the fluid model with a poloidal mass flow. Frequencies and damping rates of both the geodesic acoustic mode and the sound wave increase with respect to the strength of radial electric field, while the frequency and the damping rate of the lower frequency branch slightly decrease. Possible connection to the experimental observation is discussed.

  2. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasmas using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao

    2014-12-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic tokamak plasmas is theoretically analyzed by using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation. The bi-Maxwellian distribution function for guiding-center ions is assumed to obtain a self-consistent form, yielding pressures satisfying the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) anisotropic equilibrium condition. The double adiabatic model gives the dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), which agrees well with the one derived from gyro-kinetic equation. The GAM frequency increases with the ratio of pressures, p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}, and the Landau damping rate is dramatically decreased by p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}. MHD result shows a low-frequency zonal flow existing for all p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}, while according to the kinetic dispersion relation, no low-frequency branch exists for p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}≳ 2.

  3. Collisionless damping of geodesic acoustic mode in plasma with nonextensive distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Hui-Bin; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, Shi-Bing

    2014-06-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in collisionless toroidal plasmas with a constant electrostatic potential around a magnetic surface is investigated based on the linear gyrokinetic theory in context of nonextensive statistics mechanics. The damping rate of GAM is shown to be dependent on the nonextensive parameters of ions, and in the extensive limit, the result in Maxwellian distribution plasma is recovered. The damping rate is found to be enhanced as the nonextensive parameter of ion decreases.

  4. Global Geodesic Acoustic Modes Driven by Energetic Particles in the DIII-D Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazikian, R.; Fu, G. Y.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Kramer, G. J.; Austin, M. E.; Berk, H. L.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.; Strait, E. J.; van Zeeland, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    Intense axisymmetric oscillations driven by suprathermal passing ions injected in the direction counter to the toroidal plasma current are observed in the DIII-D tokamak. Strong bursting and frequency chirping coincide with large (10-15%) drops in the neutron emission, suggesting that the mode is very effective in displacing beam ions from the plasma core. BES measurements of density fluctuations indicate an outward propagating mode of large radial extent. The large density to temperature ratio of the mode confirms a dominant compressional contribution to the pressure perturbation, indicative of the Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM).

  5. Two-fluid Analysis of the Geodesic Acoustic Mode in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Akira; Weiland, Jan

    2011-10-03

    In most analysis reported so far on the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in tokamaks, the current along the magnetic field has been assumed to vanish, J{sub ||} = 0. The parallel electron current associated with low frequency modes in tokamaks is large even in electrostatic limit and tends to short-circuit the cross-field electric field. The collisionless electrostatic GAM as predicted in the original work (Winsor, et al.) does not exist. The GAM only modifies the Alfven frequency. The finding in this study suggests that electrostatic GAM should be confined at the edge where the electron collision frequency is high.

  6. Multi-diagnostic approach to geodesic acoustic mode study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashin, A. Y.; Bulanin, V. V.; Petrov, A. V.; Petrov, M. A.; Gusev, V. K.; Khromov, N. A.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Patrov, M. I.; Petrov, Y. V.; Tolstyakov, S. Y.; Prisyazhnyuk, D. V.

    2015-10-01

    Multi-diagnostic approach developed for the GAM research in the spherical tokamak Globus M is described. Doppler backscattering (DBS) method as the tool for the GAM study, together with the diagnostics of plasma density and magnetic field GAM oscillations, were simultaneously used in experiments. The version of the DBS diagnostics with two cut-offs positioned at different poloidal angles of the minor cross-section was employed in Globus-M. For the GAM plasma density oscillation study, the Dα emission was observed at different angles to restore the spatial mode structure of the GAM plasma density oscillations. At the same time, the array of Mirnov coils was used for the GAM-like magnetic oscillation study, and that made it possible to restore the magnetic field perturbation spatial structure. The coherent and cross-bicoherence analyzes were employed to identify the interaction between the GAM velocity oscillation and plasma turbulent fluctuations. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  7. Numerical simulation of geodesic acoustic modes in a multi-ion system

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Lei; Guo, Wenfeng; Xiao, Xiaotao; Wang, Shaojie

    2013-07-15

    Based on the semi-Lagrangian method, a δf drift kinetic continuum code incorporating magnetic flux coordinate was developed and applied to investigate the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) oscillation in a multi-ion plasma system. This work proves clearly that the effective ion mass number affects the GAM in a multi-ion system. In this simulation, GAM frequency and damping rate are seen to vary with the proportion of impurity ions. The numerical result is consistent with the theoretical prediction in terms of both frequency and damping rate.

  8. TEMPEST Simulations of Collisionless Damping of Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge Plasma Pedestal

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X; Xiong, Z; Nevins, W; McKee, G

    2007-05-31

    The fully nonlinear 4D TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code produces frequency, collisionless damping of geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) and zonal flow with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio {epsilon}-scan and the tokamak safety factor q-scan in homogeneous plasmas. The TEMPEST simulation shows that GAM exists in edge plasma pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients, and an initial GAM relaxes to the standard neoclassical residual, rather than Rosenbluth-Hinton residual due to the presence of ion-ion collisions. The enhanced GAM damping explains experimental BES measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.

  9. Tempest Simulations of Collisionless Damping of the Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge-Plasma Pedestals

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. Q.; Xiong, Z.; Nevins, W. M.; Gao, Z.; McKee, G. R.

    2008-05-30

    The fully nonlinear (full-f) four-dimensional TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code correctly produces the frequency and collisionless damping of geodesic-acoustic modes (GAMs) and zonal flow, with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio {epsilon} scan and the tokamak safety factor q scan in homogeneous plasmas. TEMPEST simulations show that the GAMs exist in the edge pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves. The enhanced GAM damping may explain experimental beam emission spectroscopy measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.

  10. Tempest Simulations of Collisionless Damping of the Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge-Plasma Pedestals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Xiong, Z.; Gao, Z.; Nevins, W. M.; McKee, G. R.

    2008-05-01

    The fully nonlinear (full-f) four-dimensional TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code correctly produces the frequency and collisionless damping of geodesic-acoustic modes (GAMs) and zonal flow, with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio γ scan and the tokamak safety factor q scan in homogeneous plasmas. TEMPEST simulations show that the GAMs exist in the edge pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves. The enhanced GAM damping may explain experimental beam emission spectroscopy measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.

  11. Simulation study of high-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao Ido, Takeshi; Osakabe, Masaki; Todo, Yasushi

    2015-09-15

    High-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) observed in the large helical device plasmas are investigated using a hybrid simulation code for energetic particles and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Energetic particle inertia is incorporated in the MHD momentum equation for the simulation where the beam ion density is comparable to the bulk plasma density. Bump-on-tail type beam ion velocity distribution created by slowing down and charge exchange is considered. It is demonstrated that EGAMs have frequencies higher than the geodesic acoustic modes and the dependence on bulk plasma temperature is weak if (1) energetic particle density is comparable to the bulk plasma density and (2) charge exchange time (τ{sub cx}) is sufficiently shorter than the slowing down time (τ{sub s}) to create a bump-on-tail type distribution. The frequency of high-frequency EGAM rises as the energetic particle pressure increases under the condition of high energetic particle pressure. The frequency also increases as the energetic particle pitch angle distribution shifts to higher transit frequency. It is found that there are two kinds of particles resonant with EGAM: (1) trapped particles and (2) passing particles with transit frequency close to the mode frequency. The EGAMs investigated in this work are destabilized primarily by the passing particles whose transit frequencies are close to the EGAM frequency.

  12. Energetic Geodesic Acoustic Modes Associated with Two-Stream-like Instabilities in Tokamak Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Qu, Z S; Hole, M J; Fitzgerald, M

    2016-03-01

    An unstable branch of the energetic geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) is found using fluid theory with fast ions characterized by their narrow width in energy distribution and collective transit along field lines. This mode, with a frequency much lower than the thermal GAM frequency ω_{GAM}, is now confirmed as a new type of unstable EGAM: a reactive instability similar to the two-stream instability. The mode can have a very small fast ion density threshold when the fast ion transit frequency is smaller than ω_{GAM}, consistent with the onset of the mode right after the turn-on of the beam in DIII-D experiments. The transition of this reactive EGAM to the velocity gradient driven EGAM is also discussed. PMID:26991183

  13. Strong Destabilization of Stable Modes with a Half-Frequency Associated with Chirping Geodesic Acoustic Modes in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ido, T.; Itoh, K.; Osakabe, M.; Lesur, M.; Shimizu, A.; Ogawa, K.; Toi, K.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Sasaki, M.; Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt and strong excitation of a mode has been observed when the frequency of a chirping energetic-particle driven geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) reaches twice the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) frequency. The frequency of the secondary mode is the GAM frequency, which is a half-frequency of the primary EGAM. Based on the analysis of spatial structures, the secondary mode is identified as a GAM. The phase relation between the secondary mode and the primary EGAM is locked, and the evolution of the growth rate of the secondary mode indicates nonlinear excitation. The results suggest that the primary mode (EGAM) contributes to nonlinear destabilization of a subcritical mode.

  14. Spontaneous excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhiyong; Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio

    2013-02-01

    Spontaneous nonlinear excitation of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) by toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) is studied within the framework of gyrokinetic theory. The dispersion relation for the parametric decays of a pump TAE mode into a TAE lower sideband and a GAM is derived. It is shown that, in the ideal MHD first stability region, the condition for spontaneous excitation of GAM by TAEs is ω20 > V2A/(4q2R20), in which, ω0 is the pump TAE real frequency, V A is the Alfvén speed, q is the safety factor and R0 is the torus major radius. The corresponding threshold condition is also derived and suggests the decay process as an effective saturation mechanism for TAE.

  15. Comprehensive comparisons of geodesic acoustic mode characteristics and dynamics between Tore Supra experiments and gyrokinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Storelli, A. Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Singh, Rameswar; Morel, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, P.; Görler, T.

    2015-06-15

    In a dedicated collisionality scan in Tore Supra, the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is detected and identified with the Doppler backscattering technique. Observations are compared to the results of a simulation with the gyrokinetic code GYSELA. We found that the GAM frequency in experiments is lower than predicted by simulation and theory. Moreover, the disagreement is higher in the low collisionality scenario. Bursts of non harmonic GAM oscillations have been characterized with filtering techniques, such as the Hilbert-Huang transform. When comparing this dynamical behaviour between experiments and simulation, the probability density function of GAM amplitude and the burst autocorrelation time are found to be remarkably similar. In the simulation, where the radial profile of GAM frequency is continuous, we observed a phenomenon of radial phase mixing of the GAM oscillations, which could influence the burst autocorrelation time.

  16. Kinetic effects on geodesic acoustic mode from combined collisions and impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shangchuan; Xie, Jinlin Liu, Wandong

    2015-04-15

    The dispersion relation for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is derived by applying a gyrokinetic model that accounts for the effects from both collisions and impurities. Based on the dispersion relation, an analysis is performed for the non-monotonic behavior of GAM damping versus the characteristic collision rate at various impurity levels. As the effective charge increases, the maximum damping rate is found to shift towards lower collision rates, nearer to the parameter range of a typical tokamak edge plasma. The relative strengths of ion-ion and impurity-induced collision effects, which are illustrated by numerical calculations, are found to be comparable. Impurity-induced collisions help decrease the frequency of GAM, while their effects on the damping rate are non-monotonic, resulting in a weaker total damping in the high collision regime. The results presented suggest considering collision effects as well as impurity effects in GAM analysis.

  17. On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven by Energetic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    G. Y. Fu

    2010-06-04

    It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low uctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.

  18. On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven By Energetic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    G.Y. Fu

    2010-10-01

    It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low fluctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.

  19. Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves in nonuniform plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.

    2014-02-15

    Effects of system nonuniformities and kinetic dispersiveness on the spontaneous excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) by Drift Wave (DW) turbulence are investigated based on nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. The coupled nonlinear equations describing parametric decay of DW into GAM and DW lower sideband are derived and then solved both analytically and numerically to investigate the effects on the parametric decay process due to system nonuniformities, such as nonuniform diamagnetic frequency, finite radial envelope of DW pump, and kinetic dispersiveness. It is found that the parametric decay process is a convective instability for typical tokamak parameters when finite group velocities of DW and GAM associated with kinetic dispersiveness and finite radial envelope are taken into account. When, however, nonuniformity of diamagnetic frequency is taken into account, the parametric decay process becomes, time asymptotically, a quasi-exponentially growing absolute instability.

  20. Combined action of phase-mixing and Landau damping causing strong decay of geodesic acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, F.; Biancalani, A.; Angioni, C.; Zonca, F.; Bottino, A.

    2016-07-01

    We report evidence of a new mechanism able to damp very efficiently geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in the presence of a nonuniform temperature profile in a toroidally confined plasma. This represents a particular case of a general mechanism that we have found and that can be observed whenever the phase-mixing acts in the presence of a damping effect that depends on the wave number k r . Here, in particular, the combined effect of the Landau and continuum damping is found to quickly redistribute the GAM energy in phase-space, due to the synergy of the finite orbit width of the passing ions and the cascade in wave number given by the phase-mixing. This damping mechanism is investigated analytically and numerically by means of global gyrokinetic simulations. When realistic parameter values of plasmas at the edge of a tokamak are used, damping rates up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the Landau damping alone are obtained. We find in particular that, for temperature and density profiles characteristic of the high confinement mode, the so-called H-mode, the GAM decay time becomes comparable to or lower than the nonlinear drive time, consistently with experimental observations (Conway G. D. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 065001).

  1. Numerical modelling of geodesic acoustic mode relaxation in a tokamak edge

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dorf, M. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M.; Rognlien, T.; Hittinger, J.; Compton, J.; Colella, P.; Martin, D.; McCorquodale, P.

    2013-05-08

    Here, the edge of a tokamak in a high confinement (H mode) regime is characterized by steep density gradients and a large radial electric field. Recent analytical studies demonstrated that the presence of a strong radial electric field consistent with a subsonic pedestal equilibrium modifies the conventional results of the neoclassical formalism developed for the core region. In the present work we make use of the recently developed gyrokinetic code COGENT to numerically investigate neoclassical transport in a tokamak edge including the effects of a strong radial electric field. The results of numerical simulations are found to be in goodmore » qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions and the quantitative discrepancy is discussed. In addition, the present work investigates the effects of a strong radial electric field on the relaxation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak edge. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the presence of a strong radial electric field characteristic of a tokamak pedestal can enhance the GAM decay rate, and heuristic arguments elucidating this finding are provided.« less

  2. Numerical modelling of geodesic acoustic mode relaxation in a tokamak edge

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, M. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M.; Rognlien, T.; Hittinger, J.; Compton, J.; Colella, P.; Martin, D.; McCorquodale, P.

    2013-05-08

    Here, the edge of a tokamak in a high confinement (H mode) regime is characterized by steep density gradients and a large radial electric field. Recent analytical studies demonstrated that the presence of a strong radial electric field consistent with a subsonic pedestal equilibrium modifies the conventional results of the neoclassical formalism developed for the core region. In the present work we make use of the recently developed gyrokinetic code COGENT to numerically investigate neoclassical transport in a tokamak edge including the effects of a strong radial electric field. The results of numerical simulations are found to be in good qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions and the quantitative discrepancy is discussed. In addition, the present work investigates the effects of a strong radial electric field on the relaxation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak edge. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the presence of a strong radial electric field characteristic of a tokamak pedestal can enhance the GAM decay rate, and heuristic arguments elucidating this finding are provided.

  3. Energetic-particle-induced electromagnetic geodesic acoustic mode in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingfeng He, Zhixiong; He, Hongda; Shen, Y.; Dong, J. Q.

    2014-07-15

    Energetic-particle-induced kinetic electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (EKEGAMs) are numerically studied in low β (=plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) tokamak plasmas. The parallel component of the perturbed vector potential is considered along with the electrostatic potential perturbation. The effects of finite Larmor radius and finite orbit width of the bulk and energetic ions as well as electron parallel dynamics are all taken into account in the dispersion relation. Systematic harmonic and ordering analysis are performed for frequency and growth rate spectra of the EKEGAMs, assuming (kρ{sub i})∼q{sup −3}∼β≪1, where q, k, and ρ{sub i} are the safety factor, radial component of the EKEGAMs wave vector, and the Larmor radius of the ions, respectively. It is found that there exist critical β{sub h}/β{sub i} values, which depend, in particular, on pitch angle of energetic ions and safety factor, for the mode to be driven unstable. The EKEGAMs may also be unstable for pitch angle λ{sub 0}B<0.4 in certain parameter regions. Finite β effect of the bulk ions is shown to have damping effect on the EKEGAMs. Modes with higher radial wave vectors have higher growth rates. The damping from electron dynamics is found decreasing with decrease of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i}. The modes are easily to be driven unstable in low safety factor q region and high temperature ratio T{sub h}/T{sub i} region. The harmonic features of the EKEGAMs are discussed as well.

  4. Manifestations of the geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic ions in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Yakovenko, Yu V.; Lepiavko, B. S.; Grierson, B.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Nazikian, R.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of the energetic-ion-driven Geodesic Acoustic modes (GAM and E-GAM) on the toroidally passing energetic ions and the concomitant change of the neutron yield of beam-plasma fusion reactions in tokamaks are considered. It is shown that due to large perturbations of the plasma density, the resonant energetic ions driving the instability can be considerably slowed down for a few tens of the particle transit periods, which is much less than the collisional slowing down time. The time of the collisionless slowing down is actually determined by the period of the particle motion within the resonance island arising because of the GAM / E-GAM. Being trapped in the island, the resonant particles can not only lose their energy but also gain it. One more effect of GAMs is the flattening on the distribution function of the resonant particles. Due to conservation of the canonical angular momentum during a GAM / E-GAM instability, the change of the particle energy is accompanied by a radial displacement of the resonant particle for a distance up to the poloidal Larmor radius of energetic ions. The particles are displaced inwards or outwards, depending on the direction of their motion along the magnetic field. Expressions describing the change of the neutron yield due to GAM modes are derived. It is found that the distortion of the velocity distribution of the resonant particles can lead to a considerable drop of the neutron emission even when effects of the particle radial displacement are small. The developed theory is applied to an E-GAM experiment on the DIII-D tokamak. Relations for the period of the motion within the resonance island of passing (both well passing and marginally passing) particles and the width of the resonance of the energetic particles with GAM modes and low-frequency Alfvén modes are derived.

  5. Geodesic acoustic modes in toroidally rotating tokamaks with an arbitrary β

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun; Li, Ding; Chu, Paul K

    2013-07-15

    Theoretical research on the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) induced by the equilibrium toroidal rotation flow (ETRF) in the tokamak plasmas with an arbitrary β is performed by using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic model, where β is the ratio of the plasma pressure and magnetic field pressure. Two equations determining the poloidal displacement ξ{sub θ} and the divergence of the Lagrangian perturbation are obtained and suitable for arbitrary cross-section tokamaks with large-aspect-ratios. The dispersion relations are then derived for two different coupling patterns by assuming ξ{sub ±2}=0 and ξ{sub ±4}=0, respectively, where ξ{sub m}=(1/2π)∫ξ{sub θ}e{sup imθ}dθ with θ being the poloidal angle under the circular cross-section condition. In both patterns, the ETRF will increase the frequencies of the GAMs but β can decrease them. The GAM for ξ{sub ±2}=0 has a larger frequency than GAM for ξ{sub ±4}=0.

  6. Fully Nonlinear Edge Gyrokinetic Simulations of Kinetic Geodesic-Acoustic Modes and Boundary Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X Q; Belli, E; Bodi, K; Candy, J; Chang, C S; Cohen, B I; Cohen, R H; Colella, P; Dimits, A M; Dorr, M R; Gao, Z; Hittinger, J A; Ko, S; Krasheninnikov, S; McKee, G R; Nevins, W M; Rognlien, T D; Snyder, P B; Suh, J; Umansky, M V

    2008-09-18

    We present edge gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations of tokamak plasmas using the fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST. A nonlinear Boltzmann model is used for the electrons. The electric field is obtained by solving the 2D gyrokinetic Poisson Equation. We demonstrate the following: (1) High harmonic resonances (n > 2) significantly enhance geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) damping at high-q (tokamak safety factor), and are necessary to explain both the damping observed in our TEMPEST q-scans and experimental measurements of the scaling of the GAM amplitude with edge q{sub 95} in the absence of obvious evidence that there is a strong q dependence of the turbulent drive and damping of the GAM. (2) The kinetic GAM exists in the edge for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves, its radial scale is set by the ion temperature profile, and ion temperature inhomogeneity is necessary for GAM radial propagation. (3) The development of the neoclassical electric field evolves through different phases of relaxation, including GAMs, their radial propagation, and their long-time collisional decay. (4) Natural consequences of orbits in the pedestal and scrape-off layer region in divertor geometry are substantial non-Maxwellian ion distributions and flow characteristics qualitatively like those observed in experiments.

  7. Dynamics of turbulent transport dominated by the geodesic acoustic mode near the critical gradient regime

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Kazuhiro; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li, Jiquan; Miyato, Naoaki

    2008-05-15

    The effects of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) on the toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence and associated transport near the critical gradient regime in tokamak plasma are investigated based on global Landau-fluid simulations and extended predator-prey modeling analyses. A new type of intermittent dynamics of transport accompanied with the emission and propagation of the GAMs, i.e., GAM intermittency [K. Miki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 145003 (2007)], has been found. The intermittent bursts are triggered by the onset of spatially propagating GAMs when the turbulent energy exceeds a critical value. The GAMs suffer collisionless damping during the propagation and nonlocally transfer local turbulence energy to wide radial region. The stationary zonal flows gradually increase due to the accumulation of non-damped residual part over many periods of quasi-periodic intermittent bursts and eventually quench the turbulence, leading to a nonlinear upshift of the linear critical gradient; namely, the Dimits shift. This process is categorized as a new class of transient dynamics, referred to as growing intermittency. The Dimits shift is found to be established through this dynamical process. An extended minimal predator-prey model with collisionless damping of the GAMs is proposed, which qualitatively reproduce the main features of the growing intermittency and approximately predict its various time scales observed in the simulations.

  8. Dynamics of kinetic geodesic-acoustic modes and the radial electric field in tokamak neoclassical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Belli, E.; Bodi, K.; Candy, J.; Chang, C. S.; Cohen, R. H.; Colella, P.; Dimits, A. M.; Dorr, M. R.; Gao, Z.; Hittinger, J. A.; Ko, S.; Krasheninnikov, S.; McKee, G. R.; Nevins, W. M.; Rognlien, T. D.; Snyder, P. B.; Suh, J.; Umansky, M. V.

    2009-06-01

    We present edge gyrokinetic simulations of tokamak plasmas using the fully non-linear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST. A non-linear Boltzmann model is used for the electrons. The electric field is obtained by solving the 2D gyrokinetic Poisson equation. We demonstrate the following. (1) High harmonic resonances (n > 2) significantly enhance geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) damping at high q (tokamak safety factor), and are necessary to explain the damping observed in our TEMPEST q-scans and consistent with the experimental measurements of the scaling of the GAM amplitude with edge q95 in the absence of obvious evidence that there is a strong q-dependence of the turbulent drive and damping of the GAM. (2) The kinetic GAM exists in the edge for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves, its radial scale is set by the ion temperature profile, and ion temperature inhomogeneity is necessary for GAM radial propagation. (3) The development of the neoclassical electric field evolves through different phases of relaxation, including GAMs, their radial propagation and their long-time collisional decay. (4) Natural consequences of orbits in the pedestal and scrape-off layer region in divertor geometry are substantial non-Maxwellian ion distributions and parallel flow characteristics qualitatively like those observed in experiments.

  9. Three dimensional measurements of Geodesic Acoustic Mode with correlation Doppler reflectometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, W. L.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Zou, X. L.; Duan, X. R.; Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Yang, Z. C.; Zhang, B. Y.; Shi, P. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Xu, M.; Song, X. M.; Cheng, J.; Ke, R.; Nie, L.; Cui, Z. Y.; Fu, B. Z.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Liu, Yi.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Yong; the HL-2A Team

    2015-10-01

    Correlation Doppler reflectometers have been newly developed in the HL-2A Tokamak. Owing to the flexibility of the diagnostic arrangements, the multi-channel systems allow us to study, simultaneously, the radial properties of edge turbulence and its long-range correlation in both the poloidal and toroidal direction. With these reflectometers, three-dimensional spatial structure of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) is surveyed, including the symmetric feature of Er fluctuations in both poloidal and toroidal directions, and the radial propagation of GAMs. The bi-coherence analysis for the Er fluctuations suggests that the three-wave nonlinear interaction could be the mechanism for the generation of GAM. The temporal evolution of GAM during the plasma density modulation experiments has been studied. The results show that the collisional damping plays a role in suppressing the GAM magnitudes, and hence, weakening the regulating effects of GAM on ambient turbulence. Three dimensional correlation Doppler measurements of GAM activity demonstrate that the newly developed correlation Doppler reflectometers in HL-2A are powerful tools for edge turbulence studies with high reliability. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: ``1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics''.

  10. Frequencies of the geodesic acoustic mode and Alfvén gap modes in high-q{sup 2}β plasmas with non-circular cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Fesenyuk, O. P.; Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.; National University of Kyiv Mohyla Academy, Vul. Skovorody 2, Kyiv 04070

    2013-12-15

    This work generalizes recent results [O. P. Fesenyuk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085014 (2012)] to plasmas with elongated cross section. It suggests new expressions for the frequencies of the geodesic acoustic mode and Alfvén gap modes in tokamaks, with a large ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure and a large safety factor (q≫1, which takes place in discharges with reversed-shear configuration and, especially, in hollow-current discharges)

  11. Multi-field characteristics and eigenmode spatial structure of geodesic acoustic modes in DIII-D L-mode plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Peebles, W. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Zeng, L.; Austin, M. E.; Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; La Haye, R. J.; Burrell, K. H.; Lanctot, M. J.; Petty, C. C.; Smith, S.; Strait, E. J.; Van Zeeland, M.; Nazikian, R.

    2013-09-15

    The geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), a coherent form of the zonal flow, plays a critical role in turbulence regulation and cross-magnetic-field transport. In the DIII-D tokamak, unique information on multi-field characteristics and radial structure of eigenmode GAMs has been measured. Two simultaneous and distinct, radially overlapping eigenmode GAMs (i.e., constant frequency vs. radius) have been observed in the poloidal E×B flow in L-mode plasmas. As the plasma transitions from an L-mode to an Ohmic regime, one of these eigenmode GAMs becomes a continuum GAM (frequency responds to local parameters), while the second decays below the noise level. The eigenmode GAMs occupy a radial range of ρ = 0.6–0.8 and 0.75–0.95, respectively. In addition, oscillations at the GAM frequency are observed for the first time in multiple plasma parameters, including n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and B{sub θ}. The magnitude of T(tilde sign){sub e}/T{sub e} at the GAM frequency (the magnitude is similar to that of ñ{sub e}/n{sub e}) and measured n{sub e}–T{sub e} cross-phase (∼140° at the GAM frequency) together indicate that the GAM pressure perturbation is not determined solely by ñ{sub e}. The magnetic GAM behavior, a feature only rarely reported, is significantly stronger (×18) on the high-field side of the tokamak, suggesting an anti-ballooning nature. Finally, the GAM is also observed to directly modify intermediate-wavenumber ñ{sub e} levels (kρ{sub s} ∼ 1.1). The simultaneous temperature, density, flow fluctuations, density-temperature cross-phase, and magnetic behavior present a new perspective on the underlying physics of the GAM.

  12. Global two-fluid simulations of geodesic acoustic modes in strongly shaped tight aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J. R.; Hnat, B.; Thyagaraja, A.; McClements, K. G.; Knight, P. J.; Kirk, A. [EURATOM Collaboration: MAST Team

    2013-05-15

    Following recent observations suggesting the presence of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in ohmically heated discharges in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [J. R. Robinson et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 105007 (2012)], the behaviour of the GAM is studied numerically using the two fluid, global code CENTORI [P. J. Knight et al. Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 2346 (2012)]. We examine mode localisation and effects of magnetic geometry, given by aspect ratio, elongation, and safety factor, on the observed frequency of the mode. An excellent agreement between simulations and experimental data is found for simulation plasma parameters matched to those of MAST. Increasing aspect ratio yields good agreement between the GAM frequency found in the simulations and an analytical result obtained for elongated large aspect ratio plasmas.

  13. Detection of geodesic acoustic mode oscillations, using multiple signal classification analysis of Doppler backscattering signal on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; the Tore Supra Team

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the first observation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) on Tore Supra plasmas. Using the Doppler backscattering system, the oscillations of the plasma flow velocity, localized between r/a = 0.85 and r/a = 0.95, and with a frequency, typically around 10 kHz, have been observed at the plasma edge in numerous discharges. When the additional heating power is varied, the frequency is found to scale with Cs/R. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm is employed to access the temporal evolution of the perpendicular velocity of density fluctuations. The method is presented in some detail, and is validated and compared against standard methods, such as the conventional fast Fourier transform method, using a synthetic signal. It stands out as a powerful data analysis method to follow the Doppler frequency with a high temporal resolution, which is important in order to extract the dynamics of GAMs.

  14. MHD-model for low-frequency waves in a tokamak with toroidal plasma rotation and problem of existence of global geodesic acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Konovaltseva, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.

  15. MHD-model for low-frequency waves in a tokamak with toroidal plasma rotation and problem of existence of global geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A. E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Konovaltseva, L. V.

    2015-12-15

    A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.

  16. Comparison of experiment and models of geodesic acoustic mode frequency and amplitude geometric scaling in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, P.; Conway, G. D.; Stroth, U.; Biancalani, A.; Palermo, F.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-04-01

    In a set of dedicated ASDEX Upgrade shape-scan experiments, the influence of plasma geometry on the frequency and amplitude behaviour of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), measured by Doppler reflectometry, is studied. In both limiter and divertor configurations, the plasma elongation was varied between circular and highly elongated states (1.1<κ <1.8 ). Also, the edge safety factor was scanned between 3  <  q  <  5. The GAM frequency {ω\\text{GAM}} and amplitude are used to test several models (heuristic, fluid and gyrokinetic based), which incorporate various plasma geometry effects. The experimentally observed effect of decreasing {ω\\text{GAM}} with increasing κ is predicted by most models. Other geometric factors, such as inverse aspect ratio ε and Shafranov shift gradient {Δ\\prime} are also seen to be influential in determining a reliable lower {ω\\text{GAM}} boundary. The GAM amplitude is found to vary with boundary elongation {κ\\text{b}} and safety factor q. The collisional damping is compared to multiple models for the collisionless damping. Collisional damping appears to play a stronger role in the divertor configuration, while collisional and collisionless damping both may contribute to the GAM amplitude in the limiter configuration.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic theory of the global structure and magnetic components of the geodesic acoustic continuum modes in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg, C.; Graves, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is used to investigate some of the fundamental properties of the geodesic acoustic continuum modes (GAMs) in tokamaks, including their global structure, their associated magnetic components both inside and outside the plasma, and effects of a non-circular cross section of the plasma. In addition to the well-known m=1 side-bands in the perturbed density and pressure of the (electrostatic) GAM, the MHD continuum GAM also includes a m=1 side-band in the perturbed toroidal magnetic field as well as m=2 side-bands in the perturbed density, pressure, poloidal flow and in the magnetic components δ {{B}r} and δ {{B}θ} (m is the poloidal mode number). These m=2 side-bands exist within the whole plasma and the magnetic components also outside the plasma, and the magnitudes of these components in the vacuum region are calculated in the paper. It is shown that, for plasmas with a conducting wall not too far from the plasma surface, the perturbed magnetic field in the vacuum region is dominated by its poloidal component δ {{B}θ} , with poloidal dependence \\sin 2θ , in agreement with experiments. Aspects of the plasma equilibrium that affect the magnitude of the perturbed magnetic field in the vacuum region are discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the influence of a non-circular plasma cross section on the GAM frequency and on the spectrum of the global, perturbed magnetic field is analysed. It is found that the only significant effect of a non-circular cross section on the GAM frequency comes from elongation and its variation across the plasma radius. However, higher-order shaping effects, as well as finite aspect ratio, induce other Fourier components than m=2 in the magnetic halo that surrounds the GAM surface.

  18. Gyrokinetic simulation studies on the energetic-particle-induced geodesic acoustic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Kazuhiro; Idomura, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Understanding of the energetic particles physics is of great interest in the future burning plasmas. Particularly, particle loss in the presence of EGAM may be critical for ITER. We thus need to know how EGAM is excited and interacts with turbulence. We here introduce energetic particles in a full-f gyrokinetic code (GT5D). (i) We find linear dynamics of the EGAM driven by bump-on-tail particle distributions. We examine flat-q, homogeneous, axisymmetric, electrostatic gyrokinetic simulations. Above a certain level of the beam intensity, an oscillatory mode grows with about a half of the standard GAM. The observed frequencies are consistent with the eigenmode analyses derived from the perturbed gyrokinetic equations. The theoretical analyses also indicate a bifurcation of the excited modes depending on q-value. Estimation of the finite-orbit-width effects can provide a size dependency of the EGAM growth rate. (ii) We find linear and nonlinear dynamics of the EGAM driven by slowing-down distributions. We examine the axisymmetric gyrokinetic simulations with DIII-D-like parameters. The observed growth rates and frequencies are consistent with results of other hybrid code. Furthermore, we will focus on nonlinear phase space dynamics, namely chirping mode. This work is supported by HPCI Strategic Program Field No.4: Next-Generation Industrial Innovations, funded by the MEXT, Japan.

  19. Geodesic mode instability driven by electron and ion fluxes in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Elfimov, A. G. Camilo de Souza, F.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2015-11-15

    The effect of the parallel electron current and plasma flux on Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAM) in a tokamak is analyzed by kinetic theory taking into the account the ion Landau damping and diamagnetic drifts. It is shown that the electron current and plasma flow, modeled by shifted Maxwell distributions of electrons and ions, may overcome the ion Landau damping generating the GAM instability when the parallel electron current velocity is larger than the effective parallel GAM phase velocity of sidebands, Rqω. The instability is driven by the electron current and the parallel ion flux cross term. Possible applications to tokamak experiments are discussed. The existence of the geodesic ion sound mode due to plasma flow is shown.

  20. Radial propagation of geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Robert; Hallatschek, Klaus

    2009-07-15

    The GAM group velocity is estimated from the ratio of the radial free energy flux to the total free energy applying gyrokinetic and two-fluid theory. This method is much more robust than approaches that calculate the group velocity directly and can be generalized to include additional physics, e.g., magnetic geometry. The results are verified with the gyrokinetic code GYRO[J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the two-fluid code NLET[K. Hallatschek and A. Zeiler, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2554 (2000)], and analytical calculations. GAM propagation must be kept in mind when discussing the windows of GAM activity observed experimentally and the match between linear theory and experimental GAM frequencies.

  1. Localized acoustic surface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  2. Heat flux effects on the dispersion relation for geodesic modes in rotating plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, V. N.; Sgalla, R. J. F.; Elfimov, A. G.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2015-03-01

    The MHD theory of the effect of toroidal and poloidal rotations on the dynamics of Zonal Flows - ZFs and Geodesic Acoustic Modes - GAMs in axisymmetric magnetic confinement configurations is revisited. The MHD model has an arbitrariness regarding the energy conservation equation and previous works on the effect of rotation on ZFs and GAMs adopted an adiabatic law, or other simplifying assumptions, to treat this problem. However, in fusion grade plasmas, the heat transport along the magnetic field lines is rather fast and, therefore, a somewhat more appropriate model is to assume isothermal flux surfaces. This implies to take into account the heat transport equation in the model and, in the presence of rotation, this leads to an increase in the degree of the dispersion relation for these modes, giving rise to a low-frequency third branch of these modes. This has been previously obtained by Elfimov, Galvão and Sgalla [1] employing a model of circular flux surfaces from the outset. In this paper, the theoretical development is generalized by using flux coordinates, following the method of Ilgisonis et al [2]. This allows a better assessment of the applicability of the results and to investigate the relevance of the low frequency mode in non-circular tokamaks. Specific results for the TCABR tokamak are presented.

  3. Single mode acoustic fiber waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. S.; May, R. G.; Claus, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    The single mode operation of a clad rod acoustic waveguide is described. Unlike conventional clad optical and acoustic waveguiding structures which use modes confined to a central core surrounded by a cladding, this guide supports neither core nor cladding modes but a single interface wave field on the core-cladding boundary. The propagation of this bound field and the potential improved freedom from spurious responses is discussed.

  4. Acoustic emission source location and damage detection in a metallic structure using a graph-theory-based geodesic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadharan, R.; Prasanna, G.; Bhat, M. R.; Murthy, C. R. L.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2009-11-01

    A geodesic-based approach using Lamb waves is proposed to locate the acoustic emission (AE) source and damage in an isotropic metallic structure. In the case of the AE (passive) technique, the elastic waves take the shortest path from the source to the sensor array distributed in the structure. The geodesics are computed on the meshed surface of the structure using graph theory based on Dijkstra's algorithm. By propagating the waves in reverse virtually from these sensors along the geodesic path and by locating the first intersection point of these waves, one can get the AE source location. The same approach is extended for detection of damage in a structure. The wave response matrix of the given sensor configuration for the healthy and the damaged structure is obtained experimentally. The healthy and damage response matrix is compared and their difference gives the information about the reflection of waves from the damage. These waves are backpropagated from the sensors and the above method is used to locate the damage by finding the point where intersection of geodesics occurs. In this work, the geodesic approach is shown to be suitable to obtain a practicable source location solution in a more general set-up on any arbitrary surface containing finite discontinuities. Experiments were conducted on aluminum specimens of simple and complex geometry to validate this new method.

  5. Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.

  6. Rotating Microphone Rake Measures Spinning Acoustic Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konno, Kevin E.; Hausmann, Clifford R.

    1996-01-01

    Rotating rake of pressure transducers developed for use in experimental studies of sources and propagation of noise generated by subsonic fan engines. Pressure transducers used as microphones to measure acoustic modes generated by, and spin with, fans. Versatility of control software used in rake-drive system enables measurements of acoustic modes on wide range of test-engine configurations. Rake-drive hardware easily adapted to different engines because not mechanically coupled to engine under test.

  7. Drift and geodesic effects on the ion sound eigenmode in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfimov, A. G.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Melnikov, A. V.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2016-05-01

    A kinetic treatment of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), taking into account ion parallel dynamics, drift and the second poloidal harmonic effects is presented. It is shown that first and second harmonics of the ion sound modes, which have respectively positive and negative radial dispersion, can be coupled due to the geodesic and drift effects. This coupling results in the drift geodesic ion sound eigenmode with a frequency below the standard GAM continuum frequency. Such eigenmode may be able to explain the split modes observed in some experiments.

  8. Dual-mode acoustic wave biosensors microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auner, Gregory W.; Shreve, Gina; Ying, Hao; Newaz, Golam; Hughes, Chantelle; Xu, Jianzeng

    2003-04-01

    We have develop highly sensitive and selective acoustic wave biosensor arrays with signal analysis systems to provide a fingerprint for the real-time identification and quantification of a wide array of bacterial pathogens and environmental health hazards. We have developed an unique highly sensitive dual mode acoustic wave platform prototype that, when combined with phage based selective detection elements, form a durable bacteria sensor. Arrays of these new real-time biosensors are integrated to form a biosensor array on a chip. This research and development program optimizes advanced piezoelectric aluminum nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, novel micromachining processes, advanced device structures, selective phage displays development and immobilization techniques, and system integration and signal analysis technology to develop the biosensor arrays. The dual sensor platform can be programmed to sense in a gas, vapor or liquid environment by switching between acoustic wave resonate modes. Such a dual mode sensor has tremendous implications for applications involving monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in the clinical setting due to their ability to detect airborne pathogens. This provides a number of applications including hospital settings such as intensive care or other in-patient wards for the reduction of nosocomial infections and maintenance of sterile environments in surgical suites. Monitoring for airborn pathogen transmission in public transportation areas such as airplanes may be useful for implementation of strategies for redution of airborn transmission routes. The ability to use the same sensor in the liquid sensing mode is important for tracing the source of airborn pathogens to local liquid sources. Sensing of pathogens in saliva will be useful for sensing oral pathogens and support of decision-making strategies regarding prevention of transmission and support of treatment strategies.

  9. Oscillational instabilities in single mode acoustics levitators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, J.; Barmatz, Martin

    1990-01-01

    An extention of standard results for the acoustic force on an object in a single-mode resonant chamber yields predictions for the onset of oscillational instabilities when objects are levitated or positioned in these chambers. The authors' results are consistent with those of experimental investigators. The present approach accounts for the effects of time delays in the response of a cavity to the motion of an object inside of it. Quantitative features of the instabilities are investigated. The experimental conditions required for sample stability, saturation of sample oscillations, hysteretic effects, and the loss of ability to levitate are discussed.

  10. Acoustic microscopy with mixed-mode transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.H.; Parent, P.; Khuri-Yakub, B.T.

    1988-12-31

    The new amplitude-phase acoustic microscope is versatile; it operates in a wide frequency range 1--200 MHz, with selection of longitudinal, shear, and mixed modes. This enables it to be used in many NDE applications for different kinds of materials. Besides the application examples presented in this paper (bulk defect imaging of lossy materials or at deep locations; leads of IC chip in epoxy package; amplitude images of surface crack on Si nitride ball bearing; thin Au film on quartz), this system can also be applied for residual stress and anisotropy mapping with high accuracy and good spatial resolution. 7 refs, 6 figs.

  11. General properties of the acoustic plate modes at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Anisimkin, V I; Anisimkin, I V; Voronova, N V; Puсhkov, Yu V

    2015-09-01

    Using acoustic plate modes with SH-polarization and quartz crystal with Euler angles 0°, 132.75°, 90°, as an example, general properties of the acoustic plate modes at different temperatures are studied theoretically and experimentally in the range from -40 to +80°C. It is shown that in addition to well-known parameters responsible for temperature characteristics of acoustic waves the temperature coefficients of the acoustic plate modes depend on the mode order n, plate thickness h/λ, and expansion of the plate in direction of its thickness (h - thickness, λ - acoustic wavelength). These properties permit the mode sensitivity to be increased or decreased without replacing plate material and orientation. PMID:26002698

  12. Selective optical generation of a coherent acoustic nanocavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual Winter, M. F.; Rozas, G.; Jusserand, B.; Perrin, B.; Fainstein, A.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Saravanan, S.

    2007-04-01

    We report the first experimental evidence of selective generation of a confined acoustic mode in a Ga0.85In0.15As nanocavity enclosed by two Ga0.85In0.15As/AlAs phonon Bragg mirrors. Femtosecond pump-probe experiments reveal the generation of a cavity mode within the acoustic mini-gap of the mirrors, in addition to their folded acoustic modes. Selective generation of the confined mode alone is achievable for certain energies below the absorption of the quantum wells in the phonon mirrors. These energies are experimentally identified with the cavity spacer electronic transitions. The amplitude of the acoustic nanocavity mode can be controlled by detuning the excitation from the spacer transitions. The present work finds a direct interest in the seek of monochromatic MHz-THz acoustic sources.

  13. Contour mode resonators with acoustic reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; Fleming, James G.; Tuck, Melanie R.

    2008-06-10

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator is disclosed which has a linear or ring-shaped acoustic resonator suspended above a substrate by an acoustic reflector. The acoustic resonator can be formed with a piezoelectric material (e.g. aluminum nitride, zinc oxide or PZT), or using an electrostatically-actuated material. The acoustic reflector (also termed an acoustic mirror) uses alternating sections of a relatively low acoustic impedance Z.sub.L material and a relatively high acoustic impedance Z.sub.H material to isolate the acoustic resonator from the substrate. The MEM resonator, which can be formed on a silicon substrate with conventional CMOS circuitry, has applications for forming oscillators, rf filters, and acoustic sensors.

  14. Acoustic mode vibrational anharmonicity of hexahelometallate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sanjeev Kumar; Goyal, R. P.; Gupta, B. R. K.

    1992-11-01

    The vibrational anharmonicity and Grüneisen parameters of hexahelometallate A 2MX 6 single crystals have been determined theoretically by making use of phonon lattice theory. The potential model employed to calculate these properties consists of long range coulomb, three body interactions, short range overlap repulsion effective upto the nearest neighbour ions and phonon-lattice interactions. These antifluorite structure compounds contain large MX 2-6- ions and as the interionic spacings are much greater than those of the alkaline-earth fluorite structure halides, their elastic constants are correspondingly smaller. The hydrostatic pressure derivatives of the second order elastic constants (SOEC) calculated for K 2SnCl 6, K 2ReCl 6, (NH 4) 2SnCl 6, (NH 4) 2TeCl 6, (NH 4) 2SnBr 6, and (NH 4) 2TeBr 6, are found to be positive and close to the experimental values. The vibrational anharmonicities of the long-wavelength modes are explained in terms of the acoustic mode Grüneisen parameters.

  15. Propagation of spinning acoustic modes in partially choked converging ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kelly, J. J.; Watson, L. T.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study the propagation of spinning acoustic modes in converging hard-walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The results show that with increasing spinning mode number the intensification of the acoustic signal at the throat decreases for upstream propagation. The influence of the throat Mach number, frequency, boundary-layer thickness, and liner admittance on the propagation of spinning modes is considered.

  16. Laser Acoustic Imaging of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) Lateral Mode Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-07-01

    A laser acoustic imaging microscope has been developed that measures acoustic motion with high spatial resolution without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates and heterodyne principles are used to allow operation at any frequency from Hz to GHz. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a direct quantitative determination of excited mode wavenumbers at any frequency. Results are presented at frequencies near the first longitudinal thickness mode (~ 900 MHz) demonstrating simultaneous excitation of lateral modes with nonzero wavenumbers in an electrically driven AlN thin film acoustic resonator. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode dispersion relations for the device under test allowing mode identification and a direct measure of specific lateral mode properties. Discussion and analysis of the results are presented in comparison with plate wave modeling of these devices taking account for material anisotropy and multilayer films.

  17. Dust Acoustic Mode Manifestations in Earth's Dusty Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S.I.; Popel, S.I.

    2005-10-31

    Dust acoustic mode manifestations in the dusty ionosphere are studied. The reason for an appearance of the low-frequency radio noises associated with such meteor fluxes as Perseids, Orionids, Leonids, and Gemenids is determined.

  18. Microwave-Field Driven Acoustic Modes in Selected DNA Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Glenn Steven

    The direct coupling of a microwave field to selected DNA molecules is demonstrated using standard dielectrometry. The absorption is resonant with a typical lifetime of 300 picoseconds. Such a long lifetime is unexpected for DNA in aqueous solution at room temperature and has interesting implications for microscopic considerations in future models of solvent damping. Resonant absorption at fundamental and harmonic frequencies for both supercoiled circular and linear DNA agrees with an acoustic mode model. Our associated acoustic velocities for linear DNA are very close to the acoustic velocity of the longitudinal acoustic mode independently observed on DNA fibers using Brillouin Spectroscopy. The difference in acoustic velocities for supercoiled circular and linear DNA is discussed in terms of a conformation dependent model. *This research has been funded by the Office of Naval Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the National Science Foundation.

  19. TEMPEST Simulations of Collisionless Damping of Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge Plasma Pedestal

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X Q; Xiong, Z; Nevins, W M; McKee, G R

    2007-05-30

    The fully nonlinear (full-f) 4D TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code produces frequency, collisionless damping of GAM and zonal flow with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio {epsilon}-scan and the tokamak safety factor q-scan in homogeneous plasmas. The TEMPEST simulation shows that GAM exists in edge plasma pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients, and an initial GAM relaxes to the standard neoclassical residual, rather than Rosenbluth-Hinton residual due to the presence of ion-ion collisions. The enhanced GAM damping explains experimental BES measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.

  20. Perturbations From Ducts on the Modes of Acoustic Thermometers

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, K. A.; Lin, H.; Moldover, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the perturbations of the modes of an acoustic thermometer caused by circular ducts used either for gas flow or as acoustic waveguides coupled to remote transducers. We calculate the acoustic admittance of circular ducts using a model based on transmission line theory. The admittance is used to calculate the perturbations to the resonance frequencies and half-widths of the modes of spherical and cylindrical acoustic resonators as functions of the duct’s radius, length, and the locations of the transducers along the duct's length. To verify the model, we measured the complex acoustic admittances of a series of circular tubes as a function of length between 200 Hz and 10 kHz using a three-port acoustic coupler. The absolute magnitude of the specific acoustic admittance is approximately one. For a 1.4 mm inside-diameter, 1.4 m long tube, the root mean square difference between the measured and modeled specific admittances (both real and imaginary parts) over this frequency range was 0.018. We conclude by presenting design considerations for ducts connected to acoustic thermometers.

  1. Acoustic mode in numerical calculations of subsonic combustion

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the methods for treating the acoustic mode in numerical calculations of subsonic combustion. In numerical calculations of subsonic combustion, treatment of the acoustic mode has been a problem for many researchers. It is widely believed that Mach number and acoustic wave effects are negligible in many subsonic combustion problems. Yet, the equations that are often solved contain the acoustic mode, and many numerical techniques for solving these equations are inefficient when the Mach number is much smaller than one. This paper reviews two general approaches to ameliorating this problem. In the first approach, equations are solved that ignore acoustic waves and Mach number effects. Section II of this paper gives two such formulations which are called the Elliptic Primitive and the Stream and Potential Function formulations. We tell how these formulations are obtained and give some advantages and disadvantages of solving them numerically. In the second approach to the problem of calculating subsonic combustion, the fully compressible equations are solved by numerical methods that are efficient, but treat the acoustic mode inaccurately, in low Mach number calculations. Section III of this paper introduces two of these numerical methods in the context of an analysis of their stability properties when applied to the acoustic wave equations. These are called the ICE and acoustic subcycling methods. It is shown that even though these methods are more efficient than traditional methods for solving subsonic combustion problems, they still can be inefficient when the Mach number is very small. Finally, a method called Pressure Gradient Scaling is described that, when used in conjunction with either the ICE or acoustic subcycling methods, allows for very efficient numerical solution of subsonic combustion problems. 11 refs.

  2. Optomechanical characterization of acoustic modes in a mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Briant, T.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Heidmann, A.; Pinard, M.

    2003-09-01

    We present an experimental study of the internal mechanical vibration modes of a mirror. We determine the frequency repartition of acoustic resonances via a spectral analysis of the Brownian motion of the mirror, and the spatial profile of the acoustic modes by monitoring their mechanical response to a resonant radiation pressure force swept across the mirror surface. We have applied this technique to mirrors with cylindrical and plano-convex geometries, and compared the experimental results to theoretical predictions. We have in particular observed the Gaussian modes predicted for plano-convex mirrors.

  3. Quantitative Determination of Lateral Mode Dispersion in Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators through Laser Acoustic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Telschow; John D. Larson III

    2006-10-01

    Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators are useful for many signal processing applications. Detailed knowledge of their operation properties are needed to optimize their design for specific applications. The finite size of these resonators precludes their use in single acoustic modes; rather, multiple wave modes, such as, lateral wave modes are always excited concurrently. In order to determine the contributions of these modes, we have been using a newly developed full-field laser acoustic imaging approach to directly measure their amplitude and phase throughout the resonator. This paper describes new results comparing modeling of both elastic and piezoelectric effects in the active material with imaging measurement of all excited modes. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a quantitative determination of excited mode amplitude and wavenumber at any frequency. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode excitation and dispersion for the device under test allowing mode identification and comparison with predicted operational properties. Discussion and analysis are presented for modes near the first longitudinal thickness resonance (~900 MHz) in an AlN thin film resonator. Plate wave modeling, taking account of material crystalline orientation, elastic and piezoelectric properties and overlayer metallic films, will be discussed in relation to direct image measurements.

  4. Localization of acoustic modes in periodic porous silicon structures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of longitudinal acoustic waves in multilayer structures based on porous silicon and the experimental measurement of acoustic transmission for the structures in the gigahertz range are reported and studied theoretically. The considered structures exhibit band gaps in the transmission spectrum and these are localized modes inside the band gap, coming from defect layers introduced in periodic systems. The frequency at which the acoustic resonances appear can be tuned by changing the porosity and/or thickness of the defect layer. PMID:25206317

  5. Spinning mode acoustic radiation from the flight inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for spinning mode acoustic radiation from a thick wall duct without flow. This model is based on a series of experiments (with and without flow). A nearly pure azimuthal spinning mode was isolated and then reflection coefficients and far field pressure (amplitude and phase) were measured. In our model the governing boundary value problem for the Helmholtz equation is first converted into an integral equation for the unknown acoustic pressure over a disk, S1, near the mouth of the duct and over the exterior surface, S2, of the duct. Assuming a pure azimuthal mode excitation, the azimuthal dependence is integrated out which yields an integral equation over the generator C1 of S1 and the generator C2 of S2. The sound pressure on C1 was approximated by a truncated modal expansion of the interior acoustic pressure. Piecewise linear spline approximation on C2 was used.

  6. Refraction of acoustic duct waveguide modes by exhaust jets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mani, R.

    1973-01-01

    The refraction of acoustic duct waveguide modes emitted from the open end of a semiinfinite rectangular duct by a jet-like exhaust flow is studied theoretically. The problem is formulated as a Wiener-Hopf problem and is ultimately solved by an approximate method due to Carrier and Koiter. Continuity of transverse acoustic particle displacement and of acoustic pressure is assumed at the jet/still-air interface. The solution exhibits several features of the acoustics of moving media such as a source convection effect, zones of relative silence, and simple refraction. Plots of far-field directivity patterns are presented for several cases and show refraction effects to be important even at modest exhaust Mach numbers of order 0.3. Only subsonic exhaust Mach numbers are considered.

  7. Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2015-11-01

    We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.

  8. Acoustic emission signatures of damage modes in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggelis, D. G.; Mpalaskas, A. C.; Matikas, T. E.; Van Hemelrijck, D.

    2014-03-01

    The characterization of the dominant fracture mode may assist in the prediction of the remaining life of a concrete structure due to the sequence between successive tensile and shear mechanisms. Acoustic emission sensors record the elastic responses after any fracture event converting them into electric waveforms. The characteristics of the waveforms vary according to the movement of the crack tips, enabling characterization of the original mode. In this study fracture experiments on concrete beams are conducted. The aim is to examine the typical acoustic signals emitted by different fracture modes (namely tension due to bending and shear) in a concrete matrix. This is an advancement of a recent study focusing on smaller scale mortar and marble specimens. The dominant stress field and ultimate fracture mode is controlled by modification of the four-point bending setup while acoustic emission is monitored by six sensors at fixed locations. Conclusions about how to distinguish the sources based on waveform parameters of time domain (duration, rise time) and frequency are drawn. Specifically, emissions during the shear loading exhibit lower frequencies and longer duration than tensile. Results show that, combination of AE features may help to characterize the shift between dominant fracture modes and contribute to the structural health monitoring of concrete. This offers the basis for in-situ application provided that the distortion of the signal due to heterogeneous wave path is accounted for.

  9. Dispersion correction and identification of ocean acoustic normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, James Edward

    1998-08-01

    The average temperature of the ocean can be determined by measuring the traveltimes of acoustic signals from a source to a receiver. In the temperate deep ocean, a narrow acoustic pulse transmitted from a source results in a reception at long ranges consisting of many (possibly overlapping) arrivals. One of the mathematical structures used to describe and interpret acoustic propagation in the ocean is normal mode theory. The identification of individual normal mode arrivals in a reception is difficult because modal arrivals are spread in time by geometric dispersion causing them to overlap and interfere with each other. Current signal processing methods aimed at identifying individual normal mode arrivals require the use of vertical arrays of receivers which are rare because they are very expensive to build and deploy. A new signal processing method using phase-only filters to compensate for the geometric dispersion of normal mode arrivals is presented. This compensation increases the peak signal to noise ratio of the individual modal arrivals while simultaneously compressing them in time, helping to isolate them and their arrival times from overlapping neighbors. The properties of the phase-only filters and their ability to help isolate and identify modal arrivals is investigated through the processing of computer simulated receptions. By processing a reception with a bank of phase-only filters characterized by different amounts of dispersion compensation, a plot dubbed the Dispersion Diagnostic (DD) Display is generated. The use of phase-only filters does not require vertical arrays of receivers because modal phase is constant across depth. DD Displays generated for a reception from a receiver at a single depth show compressed modes which are isolated from their neighbors and for which traveltimes can be determined. Thus, the dispersion processing opens up the use of horizontal arrays or single hydrophones in mode identification, broadening the capabilities of

  10. A violin shell model: vibrational modes and acoustics.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin E

    2015-03-01

    A generic physical model for the vibro-acoustic modes of the violin is described treating the body shell as a shallow, thin-walled, guitar-shaped, box structure with doubly arched top and back plates. comsol finite element, shell structure, software is used to identify and understand the vibrational modes of a simply modeled violin. This identifies the relationship between the freely supported plate modes when coupled together by the ribs and the modes of the assembled body shell. Such coupling results in a relatively small number of eigenmodes or component shell modes, of which a single volume-changing breathing mode is shown to be responsible for almost all the sound radiated in the monopole signature mode regime below ∼1 kHz for the violin, whether directly or by excitation of the Helmholtz f-hole resonance. The computations describe the influence on such modes of material properties, arching, plate thickness, elastic anisotropy, f-holes cut into the top plate, the bass-bar, coupling to internal air modes, the rigid neck-fingerboard assembly, and, most importantly, the soundpost. Because the shell modes are largely determined by the symmetry of the guitar-shaped body, the model is applicable to all instruments of the violin family. PMID:25786935

  11. Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong

    2014-09-01

    In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.

  12. Reciprocity in the scattering coefficients of acoustic waveguide modes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuhui; Pan, Jie

    2013-09-01

    In this Letter, a proof is provided for the reciprocity between modal scattering coefficients of the acoustic waveguides connected by a junction enclosure. The result holds for all waveguide modes and for junction enclosures with locally reactive boundary conditions away from the interfaces between the junction and waveguides. Also provided is a physical interpretation of the reciprocity of the modal scattering coefficients. The scattering of two-dimensional waveguide modes by a right-angled bend in a rectangular duct is used as an illustrating example. PMID:23967907

  13. Optimal Masks for Low-Degree Solar Acoustic Modes.

    PubMed

    Toutain; Kosovichev

    2000-05-10

    We suggest a solution to an important problem in observational helioseismology of the separation of lines of solar acoustic (p) modes of low angular degree in oscillation power spectra by constructing optimal masks for Doppler images of the Sun. Accurate measurements of oscillation frequencies of low-degree modes are essential for the determination of the structure and rotation of the solar core. However, these measurements for a particular mode are often affected by leakage of other p-modes arising when the Doppler images are projected on to spherical harmonic masks. The leakage results in overlapping peaks corresponding to different oscillation modes in the power spectra. In this Letter, we present a method for calculating optimal masks for a given (target) mode by minimizing the signals of other modes appearing in its vicinity. We apply this method to time series of 2 yr obtained from the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory space mission and demonstrate its ability to reduce efficiently the mode leakage. PMID:10813685

  14. Mode-locking of acoustic resonators and its application to vibration cancellation in acoustic heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Spoor, P.S.; Swift, G.W. )

    1999-09-01

    Vibration induced in engine hardware by a working fluid can be very significant in high-power, high-amplitude acoustic heat engines, and is a serious impediment to their practical use. This vibration can cause fatigue and destruction of engine components as well as fuel lines, cooling lines, and sensor wires. The forces involved make anchoring such an engine to an [open quotes]immovable[close quotes] object impractical. Rigidly attaching two such engines together, and acoustically coupling them with a duct of such a length and diameter that the two engines mode-lock in antiphase (thus canceling the longitudinal vibration) appears to be an inexpensive, viable solution. This paper describes in detail experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this idea, and the underlying theory. [copyright] [ital 1999 Acoustical Society of America.] < --[HEB] -->

  15. Effect of multiperforated plates on the acoustic modes in combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullaud, Elsa; Mendez, Simon; Sensiau, Claude; Nicoud, Franck; Poinsot, Thierry

    2009-06-01

    The analytical model derived by Howe assessing the acoustic effect of perforated plates has been implemented in a 3D Helmholtz solver. This solver allows one to compute the acoustic modes of industrial chambers taking into account the multiperforated plates present for the cooling of the walls. An academic test case consisting of two coaxial cylinders, with the inner one being perforated is used to validate the implementation in the general purpose AVSP code. This case is also used to show the effects of the presence of the plates. In particular, the sensitivity of the acoustic damping to the bias flow speed will be studied. A maximum absorption speed is shown, and the behaviour towards an infinite speed will be illustrated by the academic case. Computations are also conducted in the case of an industrial helicopter chamber. The value of the maximum absorption speed is discussed to explain why the modes are in fact not much absorbed by the perforated plates, and that the frequencies are the same as for walls. To cite this article: E. Gullaud et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  16. Prufer Transformations for the Normal Modes in Ocean Acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Baggeroer, Arthur B.

    2010-09-06

    In 1926 Prufer introduced a method of transforming the second order Sturm-Liouville (SL) equation into two nonlinear first order differential equations for the phase oe and ''magnitude'', |oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}| for a Poincare phase space representation, (oe,oe). The useful property is the phase equation decouples from the magnitude one which leads to a nonlinear, two point boundary value problem for the eigenvalues, or SL numbers. The transformation has been used both theoretically, e.g. Atkinson, [1960] to prove certain properties of SL equations as well as numerically e.g Bailey [1978]. This paper examines the utility of the Prufer transformation in the context of numerical solutions for modes of the ocean acoustic wave equation. (Its use is certainly not well known in the ocean acoustics community.) Equations for the phase, oe, and natural logarithm of the ''magnitude'', ln(|oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}|) lead to same decoupling and a fast and efficient numerical solution with the SL eigenvalues mapping to the horizontal wavenubers. The Prufer transformation has stabilty problems for low order modes at high frequecies, so a numerically stable method of integrating the phase equation is derived. This seems to be the first time the these stability issues have been highlighted to provide a robust algorthim for the modes.

  17. Prufer Transformations for the Normal Modes in Ocean Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggeroer, Arthur B.

    2010-09-01

    In 1926 Prufer introduced a method of transforming the second order Sturm-Liouville (SL) equation into two nonlinear first order differential equations for the phase o/ and "magnitude", |o/2+o/2| for a Poincare phase space representation, (o/,o/). The useful property is the phase equation decouples from the magnitude one which leads to a nonlinear, two point boundary value problem for the eigenvalues, or SL numbers. The transformation has been used both theoretically, e.g. Atkinson, [1960] to prove certain properties of SL equations as well as numerically e.g Bailey [1978]. This paper examines the utility of the Prufer transformation in the context of numerical solutions for modes of the ocean acoustic wave equation. (Its use is certainly not well known in the ocean acoustics community.) Equations for the phase, o/, and natural logarithm of the "magnitude", ln(|o/2+o/2|) lead to same decoupling and a fast and efficient numerical solution with the SL eigenvalues mapping to the horizontal wavenubers. The Prufer transformation has stabilty problems for low order modes at high frequecies, so a numerically stable method of integrating the phase equation is derived. This seems to be the first time the these stability issues have been highlighted to provide a robust algorthim for the modes.

  18. Oscillational instabilities in single-mode acoustic levitators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, Joseph; Barmatz, M.

    1990-01-01

    An extension of standard results for the acoustic force on an object in a single-mode resonant chamber yields predictions for the onset of oscillational instabilities when objects are levitated or positioned in these chambers. The results are consistent with experimental investigations. The present approach accounts for the effect of time delays on the response of a cavity to the motion of an object inside it. Quantitative features of the instabilities are investigated. The experimental conditions required for sample stability, saturation of sample oscillations, hysteretic effects, and the loss of the ability to levitate are discussed.

  19. Acoustic wave flow sensor using quartz thickness shear mode resonator.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lifeng; Zeng, Zijing; Cheng, Hongbin; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2009-09-01

    A quartz thickness shear mode (TSM) bulk acoustic wave resonator was used for in situ and real-time detection of liquid flow rate in this study. A special flow chamber made of 2 parallel acrylic plates was designed for flow measurement. The flow chamber has a rectangular flow channel, 2 flow reservoirs for stabilizing the fluid flow, a sensor mounting port for resonator holding, one inlet port, and one outlet port for pipe connection. A 5-MHz TSM quartz resonator was edge-bonded to the sensor mounting port with one side exposed to the flowing liquid and other side exposed to air. The electrical impedance spectra of the quartz resonator at different volumetric flow rate conditions were measured by an impedance analyzer for the extraction of the resonant frequency through a data-fitting method. The fundamental, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th resonant frequency shifts were found to be around 920, 3572, 5947, 8228, and 10,300 Hz for flow rate variation from 0 to 3000 mL/min, which had a corresponding Reynolds number change from 0 to 822. The resonant frequency shifts of different modes are found to be quadratic with flow rate, which is attributed to the nonlinear effect of quartz resonator due to the effective normal pressure imposing on the resonator sensor by the flowing fluid. The results indicate that quartz TSM resonators can be used for flow sensors with characteristics of simplicity, fast response, and good repeatability. PMID:19811997

  20. Experimental determination of the particle motions associated with the low order acoustic modes in enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, K. P.; Marshall, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for experimentally determining, in terms of the particle motions, the shapes of the low order acoustic modes in enclosures is described. The procedure is based on finding differentiable functions which approximate the shape functions of the low order acoustic modes when these modes are defined in terms of the acoustic pressure. The differentiable approximating functions are formed from polynomials which are fitted by a least squares procedure to experimentally determined values which define the shapes of the low order acoustic modes in terms of the acoustic pressure. These experimentally determined values are found by a conventional technique in which the transfer functions, which relate the acoustic pressures at an array of points in the enclosure to the volume velocity of a fixed point source, are measured. The gradient of the function which approximates the shape of a particular mode in terms of the acoustic pressure is evaluated to give the mode shape in terms of the particle motion. The procedure was tested by using it to experimentally determine the shapes of the low order acoustic modes in a small rectangular enclosure.

  1. Tapered acoustical directional couplers for integrated acousto-optical mode converters with weighted coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Harald; Rust, Ulrich; Schafer, Klaus

    1995-03-01

    Weighted coupling for strong sidelobe suppression of integrated acoustooptical mode converters in LiNbO3 using acoustical directional couplers has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A parameter free model for the propagation of surface acoustic waves in guiding structures has been developed based on a step-like variation of the acoustic velocity. Comparisons of theoretical results with experimental ones for acoustic waveguides and directional coupler structures confirm the applicability of the model. A coupled mode description of the acousto-optical polarization conversion in converters with acoustical directional couplers has been developed and applied to several tapered acoustical directional couplers. The model reveals that the conversion characteristics are usually strongly asymmetric. If the directional coupler is appropriately designed, a sidelobe suppression of about 30 dB can be achieved. First experimental results with tapered directional couplers confirm within some limits the theoretical predictions.

  2. Spherical geodesic mesh generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Jimmy; Kenamond, Mark Andrew; Burton, Donald E.; Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich

    2015-02-27

    In ALE simulations with moving meshes, mesh topology has a direct influence on feature representation and code robustness. In three-dimensional simulations, modeling spherical volumes and features is particularly challenging for a hydrodynamics code. Calculations on traditional spherical meshes (such as spin meshes) often lead to errors and symmetry breaking. Although the underlying differencing scheme may be modified to rectify this, the differencing scheme may not be accessible. This work documents the use of spherical geodesic meshes to mitigate solution-mesh coupling. These meshes are generated notionally by connecting geodesic surface meshes to produce triangular-prismatic volume meshes. This mesh topology is fundamentally different from traditional mesh topologies and displays superior qualities such as topological symmetry. This work describes the geodesic mesh topology as well as motivating demonstrations with the FLAG hydrocode.

  3. Kinetic instability of ion acoustic mode in permeating plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Poedts, S.; Ehsan, Zahida

    2009-07-15

    In plasmas with electron drift (current) relative to static ions, the ion acoustic wave is subject to the kinetic instability which takes place if the directed electron speed exceeds the ion acoustic speed. The instability threshold becomes different in the case of one quasineutral electron-ion plasma propagating through another static quasineutral (target) plasma. The threshold velocity of the propagating plasma may be well below the ion acoustic speed of the static plasma. Such a currentless instability may frequently be expected in space and astrophysical plasmas.

  4. Geodesic Domes in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Some practical, hands-on ways in which ideas about geodesic domes can be used in secondary school mathematics are described. Instructions for constructing a one-frequency geodesic sphere are given. (MP)

  5. Acoustic Eigenvalues of a Quasispherical Resonator: Second Order Shape Perturbation Theory for Arbitrary Modes

    PubMed Central

    Mehl, James B.

    2007-01-01

    The boundary-shape formalism of Morse and Ingard is applied to the acoustic modes of a deformed spherical resonator (quasisphere) with rigid boundaries. For boundary shapes described by r = a [1 − ε ℱ(θ, ϕ)], where ε is a small scale parameter and ℱ is a function of order unity, the frequency perturbation is calculated to order ε2. The formal results apply to acoustic modes whose angular dependence is designated by the indices ℓ and m. Specific examples are worked out for the radial (ℓ = 0) and triplet (ℓ = 1) modes, for prolate and oblate spheroids, and for triaxial ellipsoids. The exact eigenvalues for the spheroids, and eigenvalue determined with finite-element calculations, are shown to agree with perturbation theory through terms of order ε2. This work is an extension of the author’s previous papers on the acoustic eigenfrequencies of deformed spherical resonators, which were limited to the second-order perturbation for radial modes [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1109-1113 (1982)] and the first order-perturbation for arbitrary modes [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79, 278–285 (1986)]. PMID:27110463

  6. The source of solar high-frequency acoustic modes - Theoretical expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    1991-01-01

    The source exciting the solar p-modes is likely to be acoustic noise generated in the top part of the sun's convection zone. If so, then simple arguments suggest that most of the emitted energy may come from rare localized events that are well separated from one another in space and time. This note describes the acoustic emission that would be expected from such events, based on a ray-theory analysis. Most of the acoustic energy is found to emerge very close to the source, so that observations to identify emission events will require high spatial resolution.

  7. Coupling of dust acoustic and shear mode through velocity shear in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Garai, S. Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2015-07-15

    In the strongly coupled limit, the generalized hydrodynamic model shows that a dusty plasma, acquiring significant rigidity, is able to support a “shear” like mode. It is being demonstrated here that in presence of velocity shear gradient, this shear like mode gets coupled with the dust acoustic mode which is generated by the compressibility effect of the dust fluid due to the finite temperatures of the dust, electron, and ion fluids. In the local analysis, the dispersion relation shows that velocity shear gradient not only couples the two modes but is also responsible for the instabilities of that coupled mode which is confirmed by nonlocal analysis with numerical techniques.

  8. Geodesic Curvature Effects in the WCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianchun

    2015-11-01

    The favorable features of the steady state I-Regime discovered on Alcator C-Mod recently make this regime a hopeful working regime for future burning plasma experiments. Accompanying the I-regime are the weakly coherent modes (WCMs) with frequency around 200 kHz that propagate poloidally in the electron diamagnetic drift direction in the lab frame. The WCMs were interpreted as certain type of heavy impurity modes in the 3-fluid framework in a 1-D plane magnetic field geometry. Once considering in a simplified toroidal magnetic field geometry, the geodesic curvature will play important roles in that the contribution of the geodesic compression may catch up with or outweighs that of the parallel compression in the plasma edge region where the fluctuations are highly localized. This geodesic coupling to the neighboring bands modifies the marginal stability condition and mode profiles in Refs.. In the same framework, attempts will be made to interpret the concomitant low frequency (~ 20kHz) fluctuations as a type of impurity drift wave-like modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction. Supported by China National MCFE Research Program under Grant No. 2015GB11000.

  9. Mode tomography using signals from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K.

    Ocean acoustic tomography uses acoustic signals to infer the environmental properties of the ocean. The procedure for tomography consists of low frequency acoustic transmissions at mid-water depths to receivers located at hundreds of kilometer ranges. The arrival times of the signal at the receiver are then inverted for the sound speed of the background environment. Using this principle, experiments such as the 2004 Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment have used acoustic signals recorded across Vertical Line Arrays (VLAs) to infer the Sound Speed Profile (SSP) across depth. The acoustic signals across the VLAs can be represented in terms of orthonormal basis functions called modes. The lower modes of the basis set concentrated around mid-water propagate longer distances and can be inverted for mesoscale effects such as currents and eddies. In spite of these advantages, mode tomography has received less attention. One of the important reasons for this is that internal waves in the ocean cause significant amplitude and travel time fluctuations in the modes. The amplitude and travel time fluctuations cause errors in travel time estimates. The absence of a statistical model and the lack of signal processing techniques for internal wave effects have precluded the modes from being used in tomographic inversions. This thesis estimates a statistical model for modes affected by internal waves and then uses the estimated model to design appropriate signal processing methods to obtain tomographic observables for the low modes. In order to estimate a statistical model, this thesis uses both the LOAPEX signals and also numerical simulations. The statistical model describes the amplitude and phase coherence across different frequencies for modes at different ranges. The model suggests that Matched Subspace Detectors (MSDs) based on the amplitude statistics of the modes are the optimum detectors to make travel time estimates for modes up to 250 km. The mean of the

  10. Influence of exit impedance on finite difference solutions of transient acoustic mode propagation in ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The time-dependent governing acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed and solved for sound propagation in an axisymmetric (cylindrical) hard-wall duct without flow and with spinning acoustic modes. The analysis begins with a harmonic sound source radiating into a quiescent duct. This explicit iteration method then calculates stepwise in real time to obtain the steady solutions of the acoustic field. The transient method did not converge to the steady-state solution for cutoff acoustic duct modes. This has implications as to its use in a variable-area duct, where modes may become cutoff in the smal-area portion of the duct. For single cutoff mode propagation the steady-state impedance boundary condition produced acoustic reflections during the initial transient that caused finite instabilities in the numerical calculations. The stability problem is resolved by reformulating the exit boundary condition. Example calculations show good agreement with exact analytical and numerical results for forcing frequencies above, below, and nearly at the cutoff frequency.

  11. Anisotropy-induced coupling in borehole acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Andrew N.; Sinha, Bikash K.

    1996-07-01

    The guided wave modes of a circular borehole in a weakly anisotropic formation are composed of linear superpositions of the associated modes for an isotropic formation. At moderate frequencies the major modes of concern are the quasi-Stoneley and quasi-flexural modes. These guided modes in anisotropic formations can be estimated from a perturbation analysis in terms of the unperturbed solutions for an isotropic formation. When the formation anisotropy is of monoclinic or lower symmetry, the normal and shear stresses become functions of both normal and shear strains through some additional anisotropic constants that are not present in materials with orthorhombic or higher symmetry. These additional elastic constants cause a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Under these circumstances, an on-axis monopole or dipole source excites both modes. Coupling coefficients account for the excitation of quasi-flexural motion by a monopole source, and of the quasi-Stoneley mode by a dipole. A transversely isotropic (TI) formation with its symmetry axis obliquely inclined with the borehole exhibits monoclinic symmetry in its rotated constants referred to the borehole axis. The monoclinic symmetry of the surrounding formation in such cases causes a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Computational results show that a borehole inclined at an angle of 60° from the symmetry axis of Austin chalk, a slow TI medium, exhibits coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural mode acceleration amplitudes of the order of 20 dB or less in the frequency range of interest. A similar obliquely inclined borehole in Bakken shale, a fast TI formation, exhibits a far weaker coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural modes. The stronger coupling in the case of Austin chalk is a result of relatively large anisotropic constants together with close proximity of the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural dispersions. On the other hand, weaker coupling in

  12. An improved method for the calculation of Near-Field Acoustic Radiation Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zu-Bin; Maury, Cédric

    2016-02-01

    Sensing and controlling Acoustic Radiation Modes (ARMs) in the near-field of vibrating structures is of great interest for broadband noise reduction or enhancement, as ARMs are velocity distributions defined over a vibrating surface, that independently and optimally contribute to the acoustic power in the acoustic field. But present methods only provide far-field ARMs (FFARMs) that are inadequate for the acoustic near-field problem. The Near-Field Acoustic Radiation Modes (NFARMs) are firstly studied with an improved numerical method, the Pressure-Velocity method, which rely on the eigen decomposition of the acoustic transfers between the vibrating source and a conformal observation surface, including sound pressure and velocity transfer matrices. The active and reactive parts of the sound power are separated and lead to the active and reactive ARMs. NFARMs are studied for a 2D baffled beam and for a 3D baffled plate, and so as differences between the NFARMS and the classical FFARMs. Comparisons of the NFARMs are analyzed when varying frequency and observation distance to the source. It is found that the efficiencies and shapes of the optimal active ARMs are independent on the distance while that of the reactive ones are distinctly related on.

  13. Computational Simulation of Acoustic Modes in Rocket Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Merkle, C. L.; Sankaran, V.; Ellis, M.

    2004-01-01

    A combination of computational fluid dynamic analysis and analytical solutions is being used to characterize the dominant modes in liquid rocket engines in conjunction with laboratory experiments. The analytical solutions are based on simplified geometries and flow conditions and are used for careful validation of the numerical formulation. The validated computational model is then extended to realistic geometries and flow conditions to test the effects of various parameters on chamber modes, to guide and interpret companion laboratory experiments in simplified combustors, and to scale the measurements to engine operating conditions. In turn, the experiments are used to validate and improve the model. The present paper gives an overview of the numerical and analytical techniques along with comparisons illustrating the accuracy of the computations as a function of grid resolution. A representative parametric study of the effect of combustor mean flow Mach number and combustor aspect ratio on the chamber modes is then presented for both transverse and longitudinal modes. The results show that higher mean flow Mach numbers drive the modes to lower frequencies. Estimates of transverse wave mechanics in a high aspect ratio combustor are then contrasted with longitudinal modes in a long and narrow combustor to provide understanding of potential experimental simulations.

  14. Acoustic mode coupling due to subaqueous sand dunes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Linus Y S; Reeder, D Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    The large subaqueous sand dunes on the upper continental slope of the South China Sea are expected to couple acoustic propagating normal modes. In this letter, the criterion of adiabatic invariance is extended to the case of a waveguide possessing bedforms. Using the extended criterion to examine mode propagation over the bedforms observed in the sand dune field in 2012, results demonstrate that bedforms increase mode coupling strength such that the criterion for adiabatic propagation is exceeded for waveguides with small bedform amplitude to water depth ratios; increasing bedform amplitude enhances mode coupling. Numerical simulations confirm the extended criterion parameterization. PMID:23927225

  15. Three-dimensional coupled mode analysis of internal-wave acoustic ducts.

    PubMed

    Shmelev, Alexey A; Lynch, James F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Schmidt, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    A fully three-dimensional coupled mode approach is used in this paper to describe the physics of low frequency acoustic signals propagating through a train of internal waves at an arbitrary azimuth. A three layer model of the shallow water waveguide is employed for studying the properties of normal modes and their coupled interaction due to the presence of nonlinear internal waves. Using a robust wave number integration technique for Fourier transform computation and a direct global matrix approach, an accurate three-dimensional coupled mode full field solution is obtained for the tonal signal propagation through straight and parallel internal waves. This approach provides accurate results for arbitrary azimuth and includes the effects of backscattering. This enables one to provide an azimuthal analysis of acoustic propagation and separate the effects of mode coupled transparent resonance, horizontal reflection and refraction, the horizontal Lloyd's mirror, horizontal ducting and anti-ducting, and horizontal tunneling and secondary ducting. PMID:24815234

  16. The Derivation and Quasinormal Mode Spectrum of Acoustic Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babb, James Patrick

    Dumb holes (also known as acoustic black holes) are fluid flows which include an "acoustic horizon": a surface, analogous to a gravitational horizon, beyond which sound may pass but never classically return. Soundwaves in these flows will therefore experience "effective geometries" which are identical to black hole spacetimes up to a conformal factor. By adjusting the parameters of the fluid flow, it is possible to create an effective geometry which is conformal to the Anti-de Sitter black hole spacetime---a geometry which has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to its conjectured holographic duality to Conformal Field Theories. While we would not expect an acoustic analogue of the AdS-CFT correspondence to exist, this dumb hole provides a means, at least in principle, of experimentally testing the theoretical properties of the AdS spacetime. In particular, I have calculated the quasinormal mode spectrum of this acoustic geometry.

  17. Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1992-01-01

    Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them.

  18. Method and apparatus for acoustic plate mode liquid-solid phase transition detection

    DOEpatents

    Blair, Dianna S.; Freye, Gregory C.; Hughes, Robert C.; Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing a liquid-solid phase transition event is provided which comprises an acoustic plate mode detecting element placed in contact with a liquid or solid material which generates a high-frequency acoustic wave that is attenuated to an extent based on the physical state of the material is contact with the detecting element. The attenuation caused by the material in contact with the acoustic plate mode detecting element is used to determine the physical state of the material being detected. The method and device are particularly suited for detecting conditions such as the icing and deicing of wings of an aircraft. In another aspect of the present invention, a method is provided wherein the adhesion of a solid material to the detecting element can be measured using the apparatus of the invention.

  19. Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1988-04-29

    Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.

  20. Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1992-05-26

    Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes there between. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.

  1. Opto-acoustic phenomena in whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoping; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Optical whispering gallery mode resonators are important platforms to enhance and study various nonlinear frequency conversion processes. Stimulated Brillouin scattering is one of the strongest nonlinear effects, and can be successfully investigated using these platforms. In this article, we study the phenomenon of stimulated Brillouin scattering using a crystalline disk resonator. A fast scanning ringdown spectroscopy technique is used to characterize the optical modes featuring quality factors of the order of one billion at telecom wavelengths. The mW scale threshold power in a centimeter disk resonator is observed and found to be strongly dependent on the gap between the resonator and the prism coupler.

  2. Zonal Flow Velocimetry using Acoustic Modes in Experimental Models of a Planetary Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. M.; Mautino, A. R.; Stone, D.; Triana, S. A.; Lekic, V.; Lathrop, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Rotating hydromagnetic experiments can serve as models of planetary cores, matching some of the dimensionless parameters relevant to planets. One challenge with such experiments is determining the flows present. The opacity of the fluids used in these experiments (e.g. liquid sodium) prevents direct flow visualization techniques from being employed. One method allowing determination of zonal flows in such experiments is acoustic mode velocimetry. In this technique, the rotational splittings of acoustic mode spectra are used to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of the flow. Here we present the use of this technique to study flows in experimental models of the Earth's core. Most of these results were obtained in a 60 cm diameter spherical Couette device, with a 20 cm diameter inner sphere, and using nitrogen gas as the working fluid. Turbulent flow is driven in the system via differential rotation of the outer shell and inner sphere. Acoustic modes are excited in the fluid volume using a speaker, and microphones are used to measure the frequencies and rotational splittings of the modes. We compare the observed splittings with those predicted by theory as a way of validating the method, and infer mean flows from these observations. We also present some preliminary results of acoustic studies in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Finally, we discuss future prospects for this experimental technique.

  3. Deployable geodesic truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Simonton, J. Wayne (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A deployable geodesic truss structure which can be deployed from a stowed state to an erected state is described. The truss structure includes a series of bays, each bay having sets of battens connected by longitudinal cross members which give the bay its axial and torsional stiffness. The cross members are hinged at their mid point by a joint so that the cross members are foldable for deployment or collapsing. The bays are deployed and stabilized by actuator means connected between the mid point joints of the cross members. Hinged longerons may be provided to also connect the sets of battens and to collapse for stowing with the rest of the truss structure.

  4. Geodesics: a Tool in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zantout, Rached Nabil

    In manufacturing nowadays, many applications await the development of computationally efficient, on-line, robotic systems that are able to mimic human capabilities. Robotic systems that are able to recognize or differentiate between a small number of objects have been developed over the past few years. The tools of choice for enabling a robot to recognize an object are almost always vision and touch. In this dissertation we re-introduce the concept of geodesics as useful curves to recognize a surface. We start by defining a geodesic and listing some of its properties. Then we introduce a new method to calculate geodesics using only digitized points on a surface. Geodesics are then proven to be useful in manufacturing by applying them to two areas. Geodesics are used to recognize the type and parameters of a surface based on its digitized points. Moreover, geodesics are used to calculate the material properties of a surface undergoing deformation. Many other applications are possible areas where geodesics can prove useful. We conclude this dissertation by talking about such applications and suggesting possible ways where geodesics can be used to improve those applications.

  5. Normal mode solutions for seismo-acoustic propagation resulting from shear and combined wave point sources.

    PubMed

    Nealy, Jennifer L; Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D

    2016-04-01

    Normal mode solutions to range-independent seismo-acoustic problems are benchmarked against elastic parabolic equation solutions and then used to benchmark the shear elastic parabolic equation self-starter [Frank, Odom, and Collis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 1358-1367 (2013)]. The Pekeris waveguide with an elastic seafloor is considered for a point source located in the ocean emitting compressional waves, or in the seafloor, emitting both compressional and shear waves. Accurate solutions are obtained when the source is in the seafloor, and when the source is at the interface between the fluid and elastic layers. PMID:27106346

  6. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E.; Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R.

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  7. Damage Modes Recognition and Hilbert-Huang Transform Analyses of CFRP Laminates Utilizing Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-04-01

    Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.

  8. Vibration modes and acoustic noise in a 4-phase switched reluctance motor

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, R.S.; Mottier, F.; Miller, T.J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Acoustic noise in the switched reluctance motor is caused primarily by the deformation of the stator lamination stack. Acoustic noise is most severe when the periodic excitation of the SRM phases excites a natural vibration mode of the stack. The natural vibration modes and frequencies of a 4-phase, 8/6 switched reluctance motor are examined. Structural finite element analysis is used to compute the natural modes and frequencies. Impulse tests on the stator stack verify the calculations and show which modes are excited. Heuristic arguments are developed to predict the operating conditions that will excite the natural modes. Measurement of vibration while the machine is under load shows which operating conditions excite the natural modes and verifies the predictions. An approximate formula is derived to predict the frequency of the fundamental vibration mode in terms of lamination dimensions and material properties. The formula is validated by comparison with finite element calculations for several laminations, and hence is shown to be useful in design trade-off studies.

  9. Geodesic IO Library

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-15

    GIO is an application programmer interface (API) or library for high performance IO that is designed for climate models that operate on a geodesic grid. GIO uses a combination of configuration files and API calls to define the mapping of internal model data to output variables in standard climate data formats. The mapping from model data to model output includes method of data slicing, aggregation, and linearization using a morton ordering approach. The data is then persisted through a standard interface that can be implemented using several different high level parallel libraries. Both Parallel NetCDF and NetCDF4 interfaces are provided. GIO is designed to run on supercomputing systems or multi-processor clusters with parallel file systems.

  10. Geodesic IO Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-03-15

    GIO is an application programmer interface (API) or library for high performance IO that is designed for climate models that operate on a geodesic grid. GIO uses a combination of configuration files and API calls to define the mapping of internal model data to output variables in standard climate data formats. The mapping from model data to model output includes method of data slicing, aggregation, and linearization using a morton ordering approach. The data ismore » then persisted through a standard interface that can be implemented using several different high level parallel libraries. Both Parallel NetCDF and NetCDF4 interfaces are provided. GIO is designed to run on supercomputing systems or multi-processor clusters with parallel file systems.« less

  11. The first radial-mode Lorentzian Landau damping of dust acoustic space-charge waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-05-01

    The dispersion properties and the first radial-mode Lorentzian Landau damping of a dust acoustic space-charge wave propagating in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma which contains nonthermal electrons and ions are investigated by employing the normal mode analysis and the method of separation of variables. It is found that the frequency of dust acoustic space-charge wave increases as the wave number increases as well as the radius of cylindrical plasma does. However, the nonthermal property of the Lorentzian plasma is found to suppress the wave frequency of the dust acoustic space-charge wave. The Landau damping rate of the dust acoustic space-charge wave is derived in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma. The damping of the space-charge wave is found to be enhanced as the radius of cylindrical plasma and the nonthermal property increase. The maximum Lorentzian Landau damping rate is also found in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma. The variation of the wave frequency and the Landau damping rate due to the nonthermal character and geometric effects are also discussed.

  12. Influence of acoustic dominant mode propagation in a trifurcated lined duct with different impedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, M.; Tiwana, M. H.; Mann, A. B.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed the diffraction of the acoustic dominant mode in a parallel-plate trifurcated waveguide with normal impedance boundary conditions in the case where surface impedances of the upper and lower infinite plates are different from each other. The acoustic dominant mode is incident in a soft/hard semi-infinite duct located symmetrically in the infinite lined duct. The solution of the boundary value problem using Fourier transform leads to two simultaneous modified Wiener-Hopf equations that are uncoupled using the pole removal technique. Two infinite sets of unknown coefficients are involved in the solution, which satisfy two infinite systems of linear algebraic equations. These systems are solved numerically. The new kernel functions are factorized. Some graphical results showing the influence of sundry parameters of interest on the reflection coefficient are presented.

  13. Resonant transmission and mode modulation of acoustic waves in H-shaped metallic gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yu-Qiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Ru-Wen E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com; Qi, Dong-Xiang E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com

    2015-04-15

    In this work, we demonstrate that resonant full transmission of acoustic waves exists in subwavelength H-shaped metallic gratings, and transmission peaks can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the grating geometry. We investigate this phenomenon through both numerical simulations and theoretical calculations based on rigorous-coupled wave analysis. The transmission peaks are originated from Fabry-Perot resonances together with the couplings between the diffractive wave on the surface and the multiple guided modes in the slits. Moreover, the transmission modes can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the cavity geometry, without changing the grating thickness. The mechanism is analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model and verified by both the theoretical calculations and the numerical simulations. This research has potential application in acoustic-device miniaturization over a wide range of wavelengths.

  14. Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.

  15. Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, D. H.; Fleeter, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes, which have detrimental effects on the experimental results. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.

  16. Anharmonic effects in the optical and acoustic bending modes of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, R.; Chacón, E.; Herrero, C. P.

    2016-06-01

    The out-of-plane fluctuations of carbon atoms in a graphene sheet have been studied by means of classical molecular dynamic simulations with an empirical force field as a function of temperature. The Fourier analysis of the out-of-plane fluctuations often applied to characterize the acoustic bending mode of graphene is extended to the optical branch, whose polarization vector is perpendicular to the graphene layer. This observable is inaccessible in a continuous elastic model of graphene but it is readily obtained by the atomistic treatment. Our results suggest that the long-wavelength limit of the acoustic out-of-plane fluctuations of a free layer without stress is qualitatively similar to that predicted by a harmonic model under a tensile stress. This conclusion is a consequence of the anharmonicity of both in-plane and out-of-plane vibrational modes of the lattice. The most striking anharmonic effect is the presence of a linear term, ωA=vAk , in the dispersion relation of the acoustic bending band of graphene at long wavelengths (k →0 ). This term implies a strong reduction of the amplitude of out-of-plane oscillations in comparison to a flexural mode with a k2 dependence in the long-wavelength limit. Our simulations show an increase of the sound velocity associated to the bending mode, as well as an increase of its bending constant, κ , as the temperature increases. Moreover, the frequency of the optical bending mode, ωO(Γ ), also increases with the temperature. Our results are in agreement with recent analytical studies of the bending modes of graphene using either perturbation theory or an adiabatic approximation in the framework of continuous layer models.

  17. A generalized hydrodynamic model for acoustic mode stability in viscoelastic plasma fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, B.; Haloi, A.; Karmakar, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model to investigate acoustic-mode excitation and stability in simplified strongly coupled bi-component plasma is proposed. The goal is centered in seeing the viscoelasticity-influences on the instability properties. The dispersive and nondispersive features are methodologically explored followed by numerical illustrations. It is seen that, unlike usual plasma acoustic mode, here the mode stability is drastically modified due to the considered viscoelastic effects contributed from both the electronic and ionic fluids. For example, it is found that there exists an excitation threshold value on angular wavenumber, K ≈3 in the K-space on the Debye scale, beyond which only dispersive characteristic features prevail. Further, it is demonstrated that the viscoelastic relaxation time plays a stabilizing influential role on the wave dynamics. In contrast, it is just opposite for the effective viscoelastic relaxation effect. Consistency with the usual viscoelasticity-free situations, with and without plasma approximation taken into account, is also established and explained. It is identified and conjectured that the plasma fluid viscoelasticity acts as unavoidable dispersive agency in attributing several new characteristics to acoustic wave excitation and propagation. The analysis is also exploited to derive a quantitative glimpse on the various basic properties and dimensionless numbers of the viscoelastic plasma. Finally, extended implications of our results tentative to different cosmic, space and astrophysical situations, amid the entailed facts and faults, are highlighted together with indicated future directions.

  18. Acoustic signatures of different damage modes in plain and repaired granite specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mpalaskas, A. C.; Matikas, T. E.; Van Hemelrijck, D.; Iliopoulos, S.; Papakitsos, G. S.; Aggelis, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    In construction sector marble and granite are widespread because of their unique properties through the centuries. The issue of repair in these materials is crucial in structural integrity and maintenance of the monuments through the world, as well as in modern buildings. In this study fracture experiments on granite specimens are conducted. The goal is to compare the typical acoustic emission (AE) signals from different modes (namely bending and shear) in plain granite and marble specimens as well as repaired in the crack surface with polyester adhesive. The distinct signature of the cracking modes is reflected on acoustic waveform parameters like the amplitude, rise time and frequency. Conclusions about how the repair affects the mechanical properties as well as the acoustic waveform parameters are drawn. Results show that AE helps to characterize the shift between dominant fracture modes using a simple analysis of AE descriptors as well as the integrity of the specimen (plain or repaired). This offers the potential for in-situ application mainly in the maintenance of the monuments where the need for continuous and nondestructive monitoring is imperative, but always care should be taken for the distortion of the signal, which increases with the propagation distance and can seriously mask the results in an actual case.

  19. Parametrized mode decomposition for bifurcation analysis applied to a thermo-acoustically oscillating flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayadi, Taraneh; Schmid, Peter; Richecoeur, Franck; Durox, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Thermo-acoustic systems belong to a class of dynamical systems that are governed by multiple parameters. Changing these parameters alters the response of the dynamical system and causes it to bifurcate. Due to their many applications and potential impact on a variety of combustion systems, there is great interest in devising control strategies to weaken or suppress thermo-acoustic instabilities. However, the system dynamics have to be available in reduced-order form to allow the design of such controllers and their operation in real-time. As the dominant modes and their respective frequencies change with varying the system parameters, the dynamical system needs to be analyzed separately for a set of fixed parameter values, before the dynamics can be linked in parameter-space. This two-step process is not only cumbersome, but also ambiguous when applied to systems operating close to a bifurcation point. Here we propose a parametrized decomposition algorithm which is capable of analyzing dynamical systems as they go through a bifurcation, extracting the dominant modes of the pre- and post-bifurcation regime. The algorithm is applied to a thermo-acoustically oscillating flame and to pressure signals from experiments. A few selected mode are capable of reproducing the dynamics.

  20. Rotating rake design for unique measurement of fan-generated spinning acoustic modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konno, Kevin E.; Hausmann, Clifford R.

    1993-01-01

    In light of the current emphasis on noise reduction in subsonic aircraft design, NASA has been actively studying the source of and propagation of noise generated by subsonic fan engines. NASA/LeRC has developed and tested a unique method of accurately measuring these spinning acoustic modes generated by an experimental fan. This mode measuring method is based on the use of a rotating microphone rake. Testing was conducted in the 9 x 15 Low-speed Wind Tunnel. The rotating rake was tested with the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) model. This memorandum discusses the design and performance of the motor/drive system for the fan-synchronized rotating acoustic rake. This novel motor/drive design approach is now being adapted for additional acoustic mode studies in new test rigs as baseline data for the future design of active noise control for subsonic fan engines. Included in this memorandum are the research requirements, motor/drive specifications, test performance results, and a description of the controls and software involved.

  1. Influence of exit impedance on finite difference solutions of transient acoustic mode propagation in ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cutoff mode instability problem associated with a transient finite difference solution to the wave equation is explained. The steady-state impedance boundary condition is found to produce acoustic reflections during the initial transient, which cause finite instabilities in the cutoff modes. The stability problem is resolved by extending the duct length to prevent transient reflections. Numerical calculations are presented at forcing frequencies above, below, and nearly at the cutoff frequency, and exit impedance models are presented for use in the practical design of turbofan inlets.

  2. Decay of electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron waves into ion acoustic modes in auroral field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, R.; Hudson, M. K.

    1987-03-01

    The coherent three-wave decay of a linearly unstable electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron (EHC) wave into stable EHC and ion acoustic modes is considered. The general problem of the three weakly interacting electrostatic normal modes in a Maxwellian plasma is discussed. EHC is examined in a fluid description, and the results are used to guide a similar study in a Vlasov plasma system intended to model the aurora acceleration region parameters. The time dependence of the decay in a simple three-wave interaction is presented in order to show how wave saturation can arise.

  3. ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT AND VARIABILITY IN BOUNDARY LAYERS OF ACCRETION DISKS DRIVEN BY GLOBAL ACOUSTIC MODES

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2012-11-20

    Disk accretion onto a weakly magnetized central object, e.g., a star, is inevitably accompanied by the formation of a boundary layer near the surface, in which matter slows down from the highly supersonic orbital velocity of the disk to the rotational velocity of the star. We perform high-resolution two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations in the equatorial plane of an astrophysical boundary layer with the goal of exploring the dynamics of non-axisymmetric structures that form there. We generically find that the supersonic shear in the boundary layer excites non-axisymmetric quasi-stationary acoustic modes that are trapped between the surface of the star and a Lindblad resonance in the disk. These modes rotate in a prograde fashion, are stable for hundreds of orbital periods, and have a pattern speed that is less than and of the order of the rotational velocity at the inner edge of the disk. The origin of these intrinsically global modes is intimately related to the operation of a corotation amplifier in the system. Dissipation of acoustic modes in weak shocks provides a universal mechanism for angular momentum and mass transport even in purely hydrodynamic (i.e., non-magnetized) boundary layers. We discuss the possible implications of these trapped modes for explaining the variability seen in accreting compact objects.

  4. Deformation pathways and breakup modes in acoustically levitated bicomponent droplets under external heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi

    2016-03-01

    Controlled breakup of droplets using heat or acoustics is pivotal in applications such as pharmaceutics, nanoparticle production, and combustion. In the current work we have identified distinct thermal acoustics-induced deformation regimes (ligaments and bubbles) and breakup dynamics in externally heated acoustically levitated bicomponent (benzene-dodecane) droplets with a wide variation in volatility of the two components (benzene is significantly more volatile than dodecane). We showcase the physical mechanism and universal behavior of droplet surface caving in leading to the inception and growth of ligaments. The caving of the top surface is governed by a balance between the acoustic pressure field and the restrictive surface tension of the droplet. The universal collapse of caving profiles for different benzene concentration (<70 % by volume) is shown by using an appropriate time scale obtained from force balance. Continuous caving leads to the formation of a liquid membrane-type structure which undergoes radial extension due to inertia gained during the precursor phase. The membrane subsequently closes at the rim and the kinetic energy leads to ligament formation and growth. Subsequent ligament breakup is primarily Rayleigh-Plateau type. The breakup mode shifts to diffusional entrapment-induced boiling with an increase in concentration of the volatile component (benzene >70 % by volume). The findings are portable to any similar bicomponent systems with differential volatility.

  5. Thin plate model for transverse mode analysis of surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Benfeng; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a physical model for the analysis of transverse modes in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. It is mostly equivalent to the scalar potential (SP) theory, but sufficiently flexible to include various effects such as anisotropy, coupling between multiple modes, etc. First, fundamentals of the proposed model are established and procedures for determining the model parameters are given in detailed. Then the model is implemented in the partial differential equation mode of the commercial finite element analysis software COMSOL. The analysis is carried out for an infinitely long interdigital transducer on the 128°YX-LiNbO3 substrate. As a demonstration, it is shown how the energy leakage changes with the frequency and the device design.

  6. The dependence of acoustic properties of a crack on the resonance mode and geometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the dependence of the acoustic properties of a crack containing magmatic or hydrothermal fluids on the resonance mode and geometry to quantify the source properties of long-period (LP) events observed in volcanic areas. Our results, based on spectral analyses of synthetic waveforms generated with a fluid-driven crack model, indicate that the basic features of the dimensionless frequency (??) and quality factor (Qr) for a crack containing various types of fluids are not strongly affected by the choice of mode, although the actual ranges of Q?? and ?? both depend on the mode. The dimensionless complex frequency systematically varies with changes in the crack geometry, showing increases in both Qr and ?? as the crack length to aperture ratio decreases. The present results may be useful for the interpretation of spatial and temporal variations in the observed complex frequencies of LP events.

  7. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope.

    PubMed

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Bai, Xiaolong; Chen, Jian

    2012-03-01

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope. PMID:22462966

  8. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Ju Bingfeng; Bai Xiaolong; Chen Jian

    2012-03-15

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.

  9. ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT BY ACOUSTIC MODES GENERATED IN THE BOUNDARY LAYER. I. HYDRODYNAMICAL THEORY AND SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.

    2013-06-10

    The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.

  10. Particle velocity gradient based acoustic mode beamforming for short linear vector sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Gur, Berke

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a subtractive beamforming algorithm for short linear arrays of two-dimensional particle velocity sensors is described. The proposed method extracts the highly directional acoustic modes from the spatial gradients of the particle velocity field measured at closely spaced sensors along the array. The number of sensors in the array limits the highest order of modes that can be extracted. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations indicate that the acoustic mode beamformer achieves directivity comparable to the maximum directivity that can be obtained with differential microphone arrays of equivalent aperture. When compared to conventional delay-and-sum beamformers for pressure sensor arrays, the proposed method achieves comparable directivity with 70%-85% shorter apertures. Moreover, the proposed method has additional capabilities such as high front-back (port-starboard) discrimination, frequency and steer direction independent response, and robustness to correlated ambient noise. Small inter-sensor spacing that results in very compact apertures makes the proposed beamformer suitable for space constrained applications such as hearing aids and short towed arrays for autonomous underwater platforms. PMID:24907810

  11. Geodesic self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingxin; Takatsuka, Masahiro

    2005-03-01

    Self-Organizing map (SOM) is a widely used tool to find clustering and also to visualize high dimensional data. Several spherical SOMs have been proposed to create a more accurate representation of the data by removing the "border effect". In this paper, we compare several spherical lattices for the purpose of implementation of a SOM. We then introduce a 2D rectangular grid data structure for representing the geodesic dome. This new approach improves the neighborhood searching process in the spherical gird. The new Geodesic SOM and its data structure are tested using socio-demographic data. In the experiments, we try to create a notion of direction in the Geodesic SOM. The direction facilitates more consistent visual comparison of different datasets as well as to assist viewers building their mental maps.

  12. Time-Warped Geodesic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yi; Singh, Nikhil; Kwitt, Roland; Niethammer, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We consider geodesic regression with parametric time-warps. This allows, for example, to capture saturation effects as typically observed during brain development or degeneration. While highly-flexible models to analyze time-varying image and shape data based on generalizations of splines and polynomials have been proposed recently, they come at the cost of substantially more complex inference. Our focus in this paper is therefore to keep the model and its inference as simple as possible while allowing to capture expected biological variation. We demonstrate that by augmenting geodesic regression with parametric time-warp functions, we can achieve comparable flexibility to more complex models while retaining model simplicity. In addition, the time-warp parameters provide useful information of underlying anatomical changes as demonstrated for the analysis of corpora callosa and rat calvariae. We exemplify our strategy for shape regression on the Grassmann manifold, but note that the method is generally applicable for time-warped geodesic regression. PMID:25485368

  13. Heterodyne signal-to-noise ratios in acoustic mode scattering experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the signal to noise ratio (SNR) obtained in heterodyne detection of radiation scattered from acoustic modes in crystalline solids and the scattered spectral density function is studied. It is shown that in addition to the information provided by the measured frequency shifts and line widths, measurement of the SNR provides a determination of the absolute elasto-optical (Pockel's) constants. Examples are given for cubic crystals, and acceptable SNR values are obtained for scattering from thermally excited phonons at 10.6 microns, with no external perturbation of the sample necessary. The results indicate the special advantages of the method for the study of semiconductors.

  14. Investigation of a mercurous chloride acousto-optic cell based on longitudinal acoustic mode.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neelam

    2009-03-01

    A number of spectral imagers using acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) operating from the UV to the longwave infrared (LWIR) using KDP, MgF(2), TeO(2), and Tl(3)AsSe(3) crystals to cover different spectral regions have been developed. In the LWIR there is a lack of high quality acousto-optic (AO) materials. Mercurous halide (Hg(2)Cl(2) and Hg(2)Br(2)) crystals are highly anisotropic with a high AO figure of merit due to slow acoustic velocities and high photoelastic constants and are transparent over a wide spectral region from 0.35 to 20 mum for Hg(2)Cl(2) and from 0.4 to 30 mum for Hg(2)Br(2). AO modulators, deflectors, and AOTFs based on these crystals can operate over a wide spectral range. Single crystals of these materials are being grown and some prototype devices have been fabricated. Results are presented from device characterization for an AO cell fabricated in Hg(2)Cl(2) based on longitudinal acoustic mode propagation. This device was very useful in demonstrating the AO interaction as well as soundness of the transducer bonding technique. Acoustic phase velocity is calculated and measured, diffraction efficiency is obtained from experiments, and the AO figure of merit of the sample is evaluated. PMID:19252608

  15. Protein-modified shear mode film bulk acoustic resonator for bio-sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Weihui; Xu, Yan; Chen, Da; Li, Dehua; Zhang, Luyin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a shear mode film bulk acoustic biosensor based on micro-electromechanical technology. The film bulk acoustic biosensor is a diaphragmatic structure consisting of a lateral field excited ZnO piezoelectric film piezoelectric stack built on an Si3N4 membrane. The device works at near 1.6 GHz with Q factors of 579 in water and 428 in glycerol. A frequency shift of 5.4 MHz and a small decline in the amplitude are found for the measurements in glycerol compared with those in water because of the viscous damping derived from the adjacent glycerol. For bio-sensing demonstration, the resonator was modified with biotin molecule to detect protein-ligand interactions in real-time and in situ. The resonant frequency of the biotin-modified device drops rapidly and gradually reaches equilibrium when exposed to the streptavidin solution due to the biotin-streptavidin interaction. The proposed film bulk acoustic biosensor shows promising applications for disease diagnostics, prognosis, and drug discovery.

  16. On the contribution of sunspots to the observed frequency shifts of solar acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. R. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; Chaplin, W. J.; Campante, T. L.

    2016-06-01

    Activity-related variations in the solar oscillation properties have been known for 30 years. However, the relative importance of the different contributions to the observed variations is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to estimate the relative contribution from sunspots to the observed activity-related variations in the frequencies of the acoustic modes. We use a variational principle to relate the phase differences induced by sunspots on the acoustic waves to the corresponding changes in the frequencies of the global acoustic oscillations. From the sunspot properties (area and latitude as a function of time), we are able to estimate the spot-induced frequency shifts. These are then combined with a smooth frequency shift component, associated with long-term solar-cycle variations, and the results compared with the frequency shifts derived from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) data. The result of this comparison is consistent with a sunspot contribution to the observed frequency shifts of roughly 30%, with the remaining 70% resulting mostly from a global, non-stochastic variation, possibly related to the changes in the overall magnetic field. Moreover, analysis of the residuals obtained after the subtraction of the model frequency shifts from the observations indicates the presence of a 1.5-yr periodicity in the data in phase with the quasi-biennial variations reported in the literature.

  17. On the contribution of sunspots to the observed frequency shifts of solar acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. R. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; Chaplin, W. J.; Campante, T. L.

    2016-09-01

    Activity-related variations in the solar oscillation properties have been known for 30 years. However, the relative importance of the different contributions to the observed variations is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to estimate the relative contribution from sunspots to the observed activity-related variations in the frequencies of the acoustic modes. We use a variational principle to relate the phase differences induced by sunspots on the acoustic waves to the corresponding changes in the frequencies of the global acoustic oscillations. From the sunspot properties (area and latitude as a function of time), we are able to estimate the spot-induced frequency shifts. These are then combined with a smooth frequency shift component, associated with long-term solar-cycle variations, and the results compared with the frequency shifts derived from the Global Oscillation Network Group data. The result of this comparison is consistent with a sunspot contribution to the observed frequency shifts of roughly 30 per cent, with the remaining 70 per cent resulting mostly from a global, non-stochastic variation, possibly related to the changes in the overall magnetic field. Moreover, analysis of the residuals obtained after the subtraction of the model frequency shifts from the observations indicates the presence of a 1.5-yr periodicity in the data in phase with the quasi-biennial variations reported in the literature.

  18. Acoustic performance of inlet suppressors on an engine generating a single mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Rice, E. J.; Homyak, L.

    1981-01-01

    Three single degree of freedom liners with different open area ratio face sheets were designed for a single spinning mode in order to evaluate an inlet suppressor design method based on mode cutoff ratio. This mode was generated by placing 41 rods in front of the 28 blade fan of a JT15D turbofan engine. At the liner design this near cutoff mode has a theoretical maximum attenuation of nearly 200 dB per L/D. The data show even higher attenuations at the design condition than predicted by the theory for dissipation of a single mode within the liner. This additional attenuation is large for high open area ratios and should be accounted for in the theory. The data show the additional attenuation to be inversely proportional to acoustic resistance. It was thought that the additional attenuation could be caused by reflection and modal scattering at the hard to soft wall interface. A reflection model was developed, and then modified to fit the data. This model was checked against independent (multiple pure tone) data with good agreement.

  19. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Qian; Qian, Meng-Lu

    2010-05-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions.

  20. Spinning mode sound propagation in ducts with acoustic treatment and sheared flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The propagation of spinning mode sound was considered for a cylindrical duct with sheared steady flow. Calculations concentrated on the determination of the wall optimum acoustic impedance and the maximum possible attenuation. Both the least attenuated and higher radial modes for spinning lobe patterns were considered. A parametric study was conducted over a wide range of Mach numbers, spinning lobe numbers, sound frequency, and boundary layer thickness. A correlation equation was developed from theoretical considerations starting with the thin boundary layer approximation of Eversman. This correlation agrees well with the more exact calculations for inlets and provides a single boundary layer refraction parameter which determines the change in optimum wall impedance due to refraction effects.

  1. Acoustic properties of multiple cavity resonance liner for absorbing higher-order duct modes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Wang, Xiaoyu; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes analytical and experimental studies conducted to investigate the acoustic properties of axially non-uniform multiple cavity resonance liner for absorbing higher-order duct modes. A three-dimensional analytical model is proposed based upon transfer element method. The model is assessed by making a comparison with results of a liner performance experiment concerning higher-order modes propagation, and the agreement is good. According to the present results, it is found that the performance of multiple cavity resonance liner is related to the incident sound waves. Moreover, an analysis of the corresponding response of liner perforated panel-cavity system is performed, in which the features of resonance frequency and dissipation of the system under grazing or oblique incidence condition are revealed. The conclusions can be extended to typical non-locally reacting liners with single large back-cavity, and it would be beneficial for future non-locally reacting liner design to some extent. PMID:27586753

  2. Multiple-mode large deflection random response of beams with nonlinear damping subjected to acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, C. B.; Mei, Chuh

    1987-01-01

    Multiple-mode nonlinear analysis is carried out for beams subjected to acoustic excitation. Effects of both nonlinear damping and large-deflection are included in the analysis in an attempt to explain the experimental phenomena of aircraft panels excited at high sound pressure levels; that is the broadening of the strain response peaks and the increase of modal frequency. An amplitude dependent nonlinear damping model is used in the anlaysis to study the effects and interactions of multiple modes, nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping on the random response of beams. Mean square maximum deflection, mean square maximum strain, and spectral density function of maximum strain for simple supported and clamped beams are obtained. It is shown analytically that nonlinear damping contributes significantly to the broadening of the response peak and to the mean square deflection and strain.

  3. Integrated high-temperature piezoelectric plate acoustic wave transducers using mode conversion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuo-Ting; Kobayashi, Makiko; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    2009-06-01

    Piezoelectric thick (>66 microm) films have been directly coated onto aluminum (Al) substrates using a sol-gel spray technique. With top electrode, these films serve as integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUT), which normally operate as thickness longitudinal wave transducers. When such IUT are located at the edges of the metallic plates, they can excite and detect symmetrical, antisymmetric and shear horizontal types of plate acoustic waves (PAW) using mode conversion methods. In 2 mm thick Al plates, 2 line defects of 1 mm width and 1 mm depth were clearly detected at temperatures up to 150 degrees C in pulse-echo mode. Results indicated that, for 2 mm thick aluminum plates, shear horizontal PAW were the best for the line defect detection. Also, the experimental results agree well with those obtained by a finite-difference-based method. PMID:19574129

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Solar acoustic modes in period 1996-2014 (Salabert+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; Garcia, R. A.; Turck-Chieze, S.

    2015-03-01

    The central frequencies of the l = 0, 1, 2, and 3 acoustic modes of oscillations of the Sun between 1500{micro}Hz and 4000{micro}Hz and their associated formal 1σ uncertainties extracted from 365-day subseries of 18 years of the space-based, Sun-as-a-star GOLF/SoHO observations between 1996 April 11, and 2014 March 5 are presented. As a four-time overlap of 91.25 days was used, a total of 69 frequency tables are provided. We note that one of every four frequency tables contains frequencies extracted from independent subseries. Quality criteria were defined based on the fitted mode parameters and their associated uncertainties in order to remove outliers. An info file containing the associated starting date and duty cycle of each 365-day subseries is also provided. The corresponding mean 10.7cm radio flux is also given in the info file. (2 data files).

  5. Geodesic matching of triangulated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamza, A; Krim, Hamid

    2006-08-01

    Recognition of images and shapes has long been the central theme of computer vision. Its importance is increasing rapidly in the field of computer graphics and multimedia communication because it is difficult to process information efficiently without its recognition. In this paper, we propose a new approach for object matching based on a global geodesic measure. The key idea behind our methodology is to represent an object by a probabilistic shape descriptor that measures the global geodesic distance between two arbitrary points on the surface of an object. In contrast to the Euclidean distance which is more suitable for linear spaces, the geodesic distance has the advantage to be able to capture the intrinsic geometric structure of the data. The matching task therefore becomes a one-dimensional comparison problem between probability distributions which is clearly much simpler than comparing three-dimensional structures. Object matching can then be carried out by an information-theoretic dissimilarity measure calculations between geodesic shape distributions, and is additionally computationally efficient and inexpensive. PMID:16900680

  6. Energy trapping of thickness-extensional modes in thin film bulk acoustic wave filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zinan; Qian, Zhenghua; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the thickness-extensional vibration of a rectangular piezoelectric thin film bulk acoustic wave filter with two pairs of electrodes symmetrically deposited on the center of the zinc oxide film. The two-dimensional scalar differential equations which were first derived to describe in-plane vibration distribution by Tiersten and Stevens are employed. The Ritz method with trigonometric functions as basis functions is used based on a variational formulation developed in our previous paper. Free vibration resonant frequencies and corresponding modes are obtained. The modes may separate into symmetric and antisymmetric ones for such a structurally symmetric filter. Trapped modes with vibrations mainly under the driving electrodes are exhibited. The six corner-type regions of the filter neglected by Tiersten and Stevens for an approximation are taken into account in our analysis. Results show that their approximation can lead to an inaccuracy on the order of dozens of ppm for the fundamental mode, which is quite significant in filter operation and application.

  7. Cryogenic oxygen jet response to transverse acoustic excitation with the first transverse and the first combined longitudinal-transverse modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardi, J. S.; Oschwald, M.

    2016-07-01

    The intact length of the dense oxygen core from an oxygen-hydrogen shear coaxial rocket injector was measured. The measurements were made in a rectangular rocket combustor with optical access and acoustic forcing. The combustor was operated at chamber pressures of 40 and 60 bar, with either ambient temperature or cryogenic hydrogen. The multielement injection spray is subjected to forced transverse gas oscillations of two different acoustic resonance modes; the first transverse (1T) mode at 4200 Hz and the first combined longitudinal-transverse (1L1T) at 5500 Hz. Intact core length is measured from high-speed shadowgraph imaging. The dependence of intact core length with increasing acoustic amplitude is compared for the two modes of excitation.

  8. The ionization instability and resonant acoustic modes suppression by charge space effects in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, L.

    2006-03-15

    The large wavenumber suppression of unstable modes by space charge effects of the ionization instability in a weakly ionized and unmagnetized dusty plasma is investigated. The charge losses in the initial equilibrium state are balanced by electron impact ionizations originated by both the thermal electron populations and an additional monoenergetic electron beam. The multifluid dimensionless equations are deduced by using the time and length scales for elastic collisions between ions and neutral atoms and the Poisson equation relates the plasma potential fluctuations with charged particle densities instead of the quasineutral approximation. A general dimensionless dispersion relation is obtained from the linearized transport equations, where the ratios between the characteristic velocities, as the dust ion acoustic (IA), dust acoustic (DA), ion sound, and thermal speeds permits us to evaluate the weight of the different terms. In the long wavelength limit the results obtained using the quasineutral approximation are recovered. The differences found between roots of both dispersion equations are discussed, as well as those of previous models. The unstable mode of the linear ionization instability is originated by the imbalance between ion and electron densities in the rest state caused by the negative charging of dust grains. Contrary to dust free plasmas, the unstable mode exists, even in the absence of the ionizing electron beam. The numerical calculations of the roots of the full dispersion equation present a maximum unstable wavenumber not predicted by the quasineutral approximation, which is related with the minimum allowed length for space charge fluctuations within a fluid model. This upper limit of unstable wave numbers hinders the predicted resonant coupling in the long wavenumber regime between the DA and DIA waves.

  9. Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The acoustics research activities of the DLR fluid-mechanics department (Forschungsbereich Stroemungsmechanik) during 1988 are surveyed and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Particular attention is given to studies of helicopter rotor noise (high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex interaction noise, and main/tail-rotor interaction noise), propeller noise (temperature, angle-of-attack, and nonuniform-flow effects), noise certification, and industrial acoustics (road-vehicle flow noise and airport noise-control installations).

  10. Cylindrical vector beam generation in fiber with mode selectivity and wavelength tunability over broadband by acoustic flexural wave.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wending; Huang, Ligang; Wei, Keyan; Li, Peng; Jiang, Biqiang; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Mei, Ting; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-05-16

    Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration are presented for the generation of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) via mode conversion in fiber from HE11 mode to TM01 and TE01 modes, which have radial and azimuthal polarizations, respectively. Intermodal coupling is caused by an acoustic flexural wave applied on the fiber, whereas polarization control is necessary for the mode conversion, i.e. HE11x→TM01 and HE11y→TE01 for acoustic vibration along the x-axis. The frequency of the RF driving signal for actuating the acoustic wave is determined by the phase matching condition that the period of acoustic wave equals the beatlength of two coupled modes. With phase matching condition tunability, this approach can be used to generate different types of CVBs at the same wavelength over a broadband. Experimental demonstration was done in the visible and communication bands. PMID:27409861

  11. MODE CONVERSION BETWEEN DIFFERENT RADIAL ORDERS FOR SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES SCATTERED BY SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hui; Chou, Dean-Yi

    2013-11-20

    We study the mode conversion between different radial orders for solar acoustic waves interacting with sunspots. Solar acoustic waves are modified in the presence of sunspots. The modification in the wave can be viewed as that the sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave, and the scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave inside and around the sunspot. The wavefunction of the acoustic wave on the solar surface is computed from the cross-correlation function. The wavefunction of the scattered wave is obtained by subtracting the wavefunction of the incident wave from that of the total wave. We use the incident waves of radial order n = 0-5 to measure the scattered wavefunctions from n to another radial order n' for NOAAs 11084 and 11092. The strength of scattered waves decreases rapidly with |Δn|, where Δn ≡ n' – n. The scattered waves of Δn = ±1 are visible for n ≤ 1, and significant for n ≥ 2. For the scattered wave of Δn = ±2, only few cases are visible. None of the scattered waves of Δn = ±3 are visible. The properties of scattered waves for Δn = 0 and Δn ≠ 0 are different. The scattered wave amplitude relative to the incident wave amplitude decreases with n for Δn = 0, while it increases with n for Δn ≠ 0. The scattered wave amplitudes of Δn = 0 are greater for the larger sunspot, while those of Δn ≠ 0 are insensitive to the sunspot size.

  12. On the contribution of circumferential resonance modes in acoustic radiation force experienced by cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, Majid; Behzad, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    A body insonified by a constant (time-varying) intensity sound field is known to experience a steady (oscillatory) force that is called the steady-state (dynamic) acoustic radiation force. Using the classical resonance scattering theorem (RST) which suggests the scattered field as a superposition of a resonance field and a background (non-resonance) component, we show that the radiation force acting on a cylindrical shell may be synthesized as a composition of three components: background part, resonance part and their interaction. The background component reveals the pure geometrical reflection effects and illustrates a regular behavior with respect to frequency, while the others demonstrate a singular behavior near the resonance frequencies. The results illustrate that the resonance effects associated to partial waves can be isolated by the subtraction of the background component from the total (steady-state or dynamic) radiation force function (i.e., residue component). In the case of steady-state radiation force, the components are exerted on the body as static forces. For the case of oscillatory amplitude excitation, the components are exerted at the modulation frequency with frequency-dependant phase shifts. The results demonstrate the dominant contribution of the non-resonance component of dynamic radiation force at high frequencies with respect to the residue component, which offers the potential application of ultrasound stimulated vibro-acoustic spectroscopy technique in low frequency resonance spectroscopy purposes. Furthermore, the proposed formulation may be useful essentially due to its intrinsic value in physical acoustics. In addition, it may unveil the contribution of resonance modes in the dynamic radiation force experienced by the cylindrical objects and its underlying physics.

  13. The leaking mode problem in atmospheric acoustic-gravity wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, W. A.; Pierce, A. D.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of predicting the transient acoustic pressure pulse at long horizontal distances from large explosions in the atmosphere is examined. Account is taken of poles off the real axis and of branch line integrals in the general integral governing the transient waveform. Perturbation techniques are described for the computation of the imaginary ordinate of the poles and numerical studies are described for a model atmosphere terminated by a halfspace with c = 478 m/sec above 125 km. For frequencies less than 0.0125 rad/sec, the GR sub 1 mode, for example, is found to have a frequency dependent amplitude decay of the order of 0.0001 nepers/km. Examples of numerically synthesized transient waveforms are exhibited with and without the inclusion of leaking modes. The inclusion of leaking modes results in waveforms with a more marked beginning rather than a low frequency oscillating precursor of gradually increasing amplitude. Also, the revised computations indicate that waveforms invariably begin with a pressure rise, a result supported by other theoretical considerations and by experimental data.

  14. A Longitudinal Mode Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) Based on a Permanent Magnet Chain for Pipe Inspection

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Ming; Wu, Xinjun; Qian, Chunqiao

    2016-01-01

    A new electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) design, employing a special structure of the permanent magnet chain, is proposed to generate and receive longitudinal guided waves for pipe inspection based on the magnetostriction mechanism. Firstly, a quantitative analysis of the excitation forces shows the influence of the radial component can be ignored. Furthermore, as the axial component of the static magnetic field is dominant, a method of solenoid testing coils connected in series is adopted to increase the signal amplitude. Then, two EMAT configurations are developed to generate and receive the L(0,2) guided wave mode. The experimental results show the circumferential notch can be identified and located successfully. Finally, a detailed investigation of the performance of the proposed EMATs is given. Compared to the conventional EMAT configuration, the proposed configurations have the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy installation and portability, which is helpful to improve inspection efficiency. PMID:27213400

  15. A Longitudinal Mode Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) Based on a Permanent Magnet Chain for Pipe Inspection.

    PubMed

    Cong, Ming; Wu, Xinjun; Qian, Chunqiao

    2016-01-01

    A new electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) design, employing a special structure of the permanent magnet chain, is proposed to generate and receive longitudinal guided waves for pipe inspection based on the magnetostriction mechanism. Firstly, a quantitative analysis of the excitation forces shows the influence of the radial component can be ignored. Furthermore, as the axial component of the static magnetic field is dominant, a method of solenoid testing coils connected in series is adopted to increase the signal amplitude. Then, two EMAT configurations are developed to generate and receive the L(0,2) guided wave mode. The experimental results show the circumferential notch can be identified and located successfully. Finally, a detailed investigation of the performance of the proposed EMATs is given. Compared to the conventional EMAT configuration, the proposed configurations have the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy installation and portability, which is helpful to improve inspection efficiency. PMID:27213400

  16. Acoustic Plate Mode sensing in liquids based on free and electrically shorted plate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Anisimkin, V I; Caliendo, C; Verona, E

    2016-05-01

    The sensing behavior to liquids for Acoustic Plate Modes (APMs) propagating along 64°Y, 90°X LiNbO3 plate was investigated vs. two electric boundary conditions. The changes in the APMs phase velocity and attenuation were measured upon exposure to different liquids wetting one of the surfaces of the plate, either free or electrically shorted by a thin conductive Al layer. The experimental data confirm that the presence of a metallic layer covering one of the plate surfaces affects the viscosity and temperature sensitivity of the device. The differences between the sensor response for various liquids, with free or metalized faces, are interpreted in terms of the APM polarization. PMID:26901669

  17. Modeling and experimental study on near-field acoustic levitation by flexural mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pinkuan; Li, Jin; Ding, Han; Cao, Wenwu

    2009-12-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) has been used in noncontact handling and transportation of small objects to avoid contamination. We have performed a theoretical analysis based on nonuniform vibrating surface to quantify the levitation force produced by the air film and also conducted experimental tests to verify our model. Modal analysis was performed using ANSYS on the flexural plate radiator to obtain its natural frequency of desired mode, which is used to design the measurement system. Then, the levitation force was calculated as a function of levitation distance based on squeeze gas film theory using measured amplitude and phase distributions on the vibrator surface. Compared with previous fluid-structural analyses using a uniform piston motion, our model based on the nonuniform radiating surface of the vibrator is more realistic and fits better with experimentally measured levitation force. PMID:20040404

  18. Focusing of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode behind a gradient-index acoustic metalens with local resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinfeng; Bonello, Bernard; Boyko, Olga

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the focusing of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode (A0) behind a positive gradient-index (GRIN) acoustic metalens consisting of air holes drilled in a silicon plate with silicon pillars erected on one face of the lens. We have analyzed the focusing in the near field as the result of the coupling between the flexural resonant mode of the pillars and the vibration mode of the air/silicon phononic crystal. We highlight the role played by the polarization coherence between the resonant mode and the vibration of the plate. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally the focusing behind the lens over a spot less than half a wavelength, paving a way for performance of acoustic lenses beyond the diffraction limit. Our findings can be easily extended to other types of elastic wave.

  19. Geodesic detection of Agulhas rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beron-Vera, F. J.; Wang, Y.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Goni, G. J.; Haller, G.

    2012-12-01

    Mesoscale oceanic eddies are routinely detected from instantaneous velocities. While simple to implement, this Eulerian approach gives frame-dependent results and often hides true material transport by eddies. Building on the recent geodesic theory of transport barriers, we develop an objective (i.e., frame-independent) method for accurately locating coherent Lagrangian eddies. These eddies act as compact water bodies, with boundaries showing no leakage or filamentation over long periods of time. Applying the algorithm to altimetry-derived velocities in the South Atlantic, we detect, for the first time, Agulhas rings that preserve their material coherence for several months, while eddy candidates yielded by other approaches tend to disperse or leak within weeks. These findings suggest that current Eulerian estimates of the Agulhas leakage need significant revision.Temporal evolution of fluid patches identified as eddies by different methods. First column: eddies extracted using geodesic eddy identification [1,2]. Second column: eddies identified from sea surface height (SSH) using the methodology of Chelton et al. [2] with U/c > 1. Third column: eddies identified as elliptic regions by the Okubo-Weiss (OW) criterion [e.g., 3]. Fourth column: eddies identified as mesoelliptic (ME) regions by Mezic et al.'s [4] criterion. References: [1] Beron-Vera et al. (2012). Geodesic eddy detection suggests reassessment of Agulhas leakage. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, submitted. [2] Haller & Beron-Vera (2012). Geodesic theory of transport barriers in two-dimensional flows. Physica D, in press. [2] Chelton et al. (2011). Prog. Oceanog. 91, 167. [3] Chelton et al. (2007). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L5606. [4] Mezic et al. (2010). Science 330, 486.

  20. Quantization of black hole entropy from unstable circular null geodesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Fu, Chun-E.

    2016-04-01

    The quasinormal mode frequencies can be understood from the massless particles trapped at the unstable circular null geodesics and slowly leaking out to infinity. Based on this viewpoint, in this paper, we semiclassically construct the entropy spectrum of the static and stationary black holes from the null geodesics. The result shows that the spacing of the entropy spectrum only depends on the property of the black hole in the eikonal limit. Moreover, for a black hole far from the extremal case, the spacing is found to be smaller than 2πħ for any dimension, which is very different from the result of the previous work by using the usual quasinormal mode frequencies.

  1. Kinetic instability of the dust acoustic mode in inhomogeneous, partially magnetized plasma with both positively and negatively charged grains

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Poedts, S.

    2010-08-15

    A purely kinetic instability of the dust acoustic mode in inhomogeneous plasmas is discussed. In the presence of a magnetic field, electrons and ions may be magnetized while at the same time dust grains may remain unmagnetized. Although the dynamics of the light species is strongly affected by the magnetic field, the dust acoustic mode may still propagate in practically any direction. The inhomogeneity implies a source of free energy for an instability that develops through the diamagnetic drift effects of the magnetized species. It is shown that this may be a powerful mechanism for the excitation of dust acoustic waves. The analysis presented in the work is also directly applicable to plasmas containing both positive and negative ions and electrons, provided that at least one of the two ion species is unmagnetized.

  2. Geodesic Components Of Integrated Optics: Seeking For The Perfect Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochacki, Jacek

    1986-11-01

    The most recent formulation of the geodesic lens problem is briefly discussed and proved very useful in developing novel solutions. A new family of perfectly imaging lenses is presented, which lends itself extremely well to the integrated-optical circuits. These lenses possess smooth transition between the cyllindrically-symmetric depression profile and the flat guide. Moreover, the rounded section profile is characterized by non-vanishing local curvature radius. This should minimize radiation and scattering losses by the guided modes.

  3. Zonal flow modes in a tokamak plasma with dominantly poloidal mean flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Deng

    2010-10-15

    The zonal flow eigenmodes in a tokamak plasma with dominantly poloidal mean flows are theoretically investigated. It is found that the frequencies of both the geodesic acoustic mode and the sound wave increase with respect to the poloidal Mach number. In contrast to the pure standing wave form in static plasmas, the density perturbations consist of a standing wave superimposed with a small amplitude traveling wave in the poloidally rotating plasma.

  4. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  5. Noncontact excitation of guided waves (A0 mode) using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue damage can develop in aircraft structures at locations of stress concentration, such as fasteners, and has to be detected before reaching a critical size to ensure safe aircraft operation. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of such defects in large aerospace structures. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) for the noncontact excitation of guided ultrasonic waves were developed. The transducer development for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode with an out-of-plane Lorentz force is explained. The achieved radial and angular dependency of the excited guided wave pulses were measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a theoretical model was developed. The application of the developed transducers for defect detection in aluminum components using fully noncontact guided wave measurements was demonstrated. Excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode was achieved using the developed EMAT transducer and the guided wave propagation and scattering was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer.

  6. Acoustic Reflection and Transmission of 2-Dimensional Rotors and Stators, Including Mode and Frequency Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    A reduced order modeling scheme has been developed for the unsteady acoustic and vortical coupling between blade rows of a turbomachine. The essential behavior of the system is governed by modal scattering coefficients (i.e., reflection and transmission coefficients) of the rotor, stator, inlet and nozzle, which are calculated as if they were connected to non-reflecting ducts. The objective of this report is to identify fundamental behavior of these scattering coefficients for a better understanding of the role of blade row reflection and transmission in noise generation. A 2D flat plate unsteady cascade model is used for the analysis with the expectation that the general behavior presented herein will carry over to models that include more realistic flow and geometry. It is shown that stators scatter input waves into many modes at the same frequency whereas rotors scatter on frequency, or harmonic order. Important cases are shown here the rotor reflection coefficient is greater than unity; a mode at blade passing frequency (BPF) traveling from the stator with unit sound power is reflected by the rotor with more than unit power at 2xBPF and 3xBPE Analysis is presented to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Scattering curves are presented in a format chosen for design use and for physical interpretation. To aid in interpretation of the curves, formulas are derived for special condition where waveforms are parallel to perpendicular to the rotor.

  7. Acoustic Efficiency of Azimuthal Modes in Jet Noise Using Chevron Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.; Bridges, James

    2006-01-01

    The link between azimuthal modes in jet turbulence and in the acoustic sound field has been examined in cold, round jets. Chevron nozzles, however, impart an azimuthal structure on the jet with a shape dependent on the number, length and penetration angle of the chevrons. Two particular chevron nozzles, with 3 and 4 primary chevrons respectively, and a round baseline nozzle are compared at both cold and hot jet conditions to determine how chevrons impact the modal structure of the flow and how that change relates to the sound field. The results show that, although the chevrons have a large impact on the azimuthal shape of the mean axial velocity, the impact of chevrons on the azimuthal structure of the fluctuating axial velocity is small at the cold jet condition and smaller still at the hot jet condition. This is supported by results in the azimuthal structure of the sound field, which also shows little difference in between the two chevron nozzles and the baseline nozzle in the distribution of energy across the azimuthal modes measured.

  8. Rotational Splittings of Acoustic Modes in an Experimental Model of a Planetary Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. M.; Stone, D.; Lathrop, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Planetary zonal flows can be probed in principle using the tools of helioseismology. We explore this technique using laboratory experiments where the measurement of zonal flows is also of geophysical relevance. The experiments are carried out in a device with a geometry similar to that of Earth's core. It consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter inner sphere. Air between the inner sphere and outer shell is used as the working fluid. A turbulent shear flow is driven in the air by independently rotating the inner sphere and outer shell. Acoustic modes are excited in the vessel with a speaker, and microphones are used to measure the rotational splittings of these modes. The radial profile of azimuthal velocities is inferred from these splittings, in an approach analogous to that used in helioseismology to determine solar velocity profiles. By varying the inner and outer rotation rates, different turbulent states can be investigated. Comparison is made to previous experimental investigations of turbulent spherical Couette flow. These experiments also serve as a test of this diagnostic, which may be used in the future in liquid sodium experiments, providing information on zonal flows in hydromagnetic experiments.

  9. Ion wake field effects on the dust-ion-acoustic surface mode in a semi-bounded Lorentzian dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-03-01

    The dispersion relation for the dust ion-acoustic surface waves propagating at the interface of semi-bounded Lorentzian dusty plasma with supersonic ion flow has been kinetically derived to investigate the nonthermal property and the ion wake field effect. We found that the supersonic ion flow creates the upper and the lower modes. The increase in the nonthermal particles decreases the wave frequency for the upper mode whereas it increases the frequency for the lower mode. The increase in the supersonic ion flow velocity is found to enhance the wave frequency for both modes. We also found that the increase in nonthermal plasmas is found to enhance the group velocity of the upper mode. However, the nonthermal particles suppress the lower mode group velocity. The nonthermal effects on the group velocity will be reduced in the limit of small or large wavelength limit.

  10. Acoustic mode measurements in the inlet of a model turbofan using a continuously rotating rake: Data collection/analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David G.; Heidelberg, Laurence; Konno, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    The rotating microphone measurement technique and data analysis procedures are documented which are used to determine circumferential and radial acoustic mode content in the inlet of the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) model. Circumferential acoustic mode levels were measured at a series of radial locations using the Doppler frequency shift produced by a rotating inlet microphone probe. Radial mode content was then computed using a least squares curve fit with the measured radial distribution for each circumferential mode. The rotating microphone technique is superior to fixed-probe techniques because it results in minimal interference with the acoustic modes generated by rotor-stator interaction. This effort represents the first experimental implementation of a measuring technique developed by T. G. Sofrin. Testing was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. The design is included of the data analysis software and the performance of the rotating rake apparatus. The effect of experiment errors is also discussed.

  11. Analytical Study of the Propagation of Fast Longitudinal Modes along wz-BN/AlN Thin Acoustic Waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Caliendo, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode S0 along wz-BN/AlN thin composite plates suitable for telecommunication and sensing applications is studied. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate thickness revealed the presence of modes having longitudinal polarization, the Anisimkin Jr. plate modes (AMs), travelling at a phase velocity close to that of the wz-BN longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. The study of the S0 mode phase velocity and coupling coefficient (K2) dispersion curves, for different electrical boundary conditions, has shown that eight different coupling configurations are allowable that exhibit a K2 as high as about 4% and very high phase velocity (up to about 16,700 m/s). The effect of the thickness and material type of the metal floating electrode on the K2 dispersion curves has also been investigated, specifically addressing the design of an enhanced coupling device. The gravimetric sensitivity of the BN/AlN-based acoustic waveguides was then calculated for both the AMs and elliptically polarized S0 modes; the AM-based sensor velocity and attenuation shifts due to the viscosity of a surrounding liquid was theoretically predicted. The performed investigation suggests that wz-BN/AlN is a very promising substrate material suitable for developing GHz band devices with enhanced electroacoustic coupling efficiency and suitable for application in telecommunications and sensing fields. PMID:25625904

  12. Strain coupling, microstructure dynamics, and acoustic mode softening in germanium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Chatterji, T.; Schiemer, J. A.; Carpenter, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    GeTe is a material of intense topical interest due to its potential in the context of phase-change and nanowire memory devices, as a base for thermoelectric materials, and as a ferroelectric. The combination of a soft optic mode and a Peierls distortion contributes large strains at the cubic-rhombohedral phase transition near 625 K and the role of these has been investigated through their influence on elastic and anelastic properties by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The underlying physics is revealed by softening of the elastic constants by ˜30%-45%, due to strong coupling of shear and volume strains with the driving order parameter and consistent with an improper ferroelastic transition which is weakly first order. The magnitude of the softening is permissive of the transition mechanism involving a significant order/disorder component. A Debye loss peak in the vicinity of 180 K is attributed to freezing of the motion of ferroelastic twin walls and the activation energy of ˜0.07 eV is attributed to control by switching of the configuration of long and short Ge-Te bonds in the first coordination sphere around Ge. Precursor softening as the transition is approached from above can be described with a Vogel-Fulcher expression with a similar activation energy, which is attributed to coupling of acoustic modes with an unseen central mode that arises from dynamical clusters with local ordering of the Peierls distortion. The strain relaxation and ferroelastic behavior of GeTe depend on both displacive and order/disorder effects but the dynamics of switching will be determined by changes in the configuration of distorted GeT e6 octahedra, with a rather small activation energy barrier.

  13. Nonlinear acoustic experiments for landmine detection: the significance of the top-plate normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.; Alberts, W. C. K., II; Sabatier, James M.

    2004-09-01

    In nonlinear acoustic detection experiments involving a buried inert VS 2.2 anti-tank landmine, airborne sound at two closely spaced primary frequencies f1 and f2 couple into the ground and interact nonlinearly with the soil-top pressure plate interface. Scattering generates soil vibration at the surface at the combination frequencies | m f1 +- n f2 | , where m and n are integers. The normal component of the particle velocity at the soil surface has been measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and with a geophone by Sabatier et. al. [SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4742, (695-700), 2002; Vol. 5089, (476-486), 2003] at the gravel lane test site. Spatial profiles of the particle velocity measured for both primary components and for various combination frequencies indicate that the modal structure of the mine is playing an important role. Here, an experimental modal analysis is performed on a VS 1.6 inert anti-tank mine that is resting on sand but is not buried. Five top-plate mode shapes are described. The mine is then buried in dry finely sifted natural loess soil and excited at f1 = 120 Hz and f2 = 130 Hz. Spatial profiles at the primary components and the nonlinearly generated f1 - (f2 - f1) component are characterized by a single peak. For the 2f1+f2 and 2f2 + f1 components, the doubly peaked profiles can be attributed to the familiar mode shape of a timpani drum (that is shifted lower in frequency due to soil mass loading). Other nonlinear profiles appear to be due to a mixture of modes. This material is based upon work supported by the U. S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate under Contract DAAB15-02-C-0024.

  14. Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes III: nonaxisymmetric propagation and circumferential modes in lossless conditions.

    PubMed

    Baik, Kyungmin; Jiang, Jian; Leighton, Timothy G

    2013-03-01

    Equations for the nonaxisymmetric modes that are axially and circumferentially propagating in a liquid-filled tube with elastic walls surrounded by air/vacuum are presented using exact elasticity theory. Dispersion curves for the axially propagating modes are obtained and verified through comparison with measurements. The resulting theory is applied to the circumferential modes, and the pressures and the stresses in the liquid-filled pipe are calculated under external forced oscillation by an acoustic source. This provides the theoretical foundation for the narrow band acoustic bubble detector that was subsequently deployed at the Target Test Facility (TTF) of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN. PMID:23463995

  15. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    PubMed

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz. PMID:24116520

  16. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel. PMID:22352478

  17. Algebraic Geodesics on Three-Dimensional Quadrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Yue

    2015-12-01

    By Hamilton-Jacobi method, we study the problem of algebraic geodesics on the third-order surface. By the implicit function theorem, we proved the existences of the real geodesics which are the intersections of two algebraic surfaces, and we also give some numerical examples.

  18. Variations in High Degree Acoustic Mode Frequencies of the Sun during Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, S. C.; Jain, K.; Hill, F.

    2015-10-01

    We examine continuous measurements of the high-degree acoustic mode frequencies of the Sun covering the period from 2001 July to 2014 June. These are obtained through the ring-diagram technique applied to the full-disk Doppler observations made by the Global Oscillation Network Group. The frequency shifts in the degree range of 180 ≤slant {\\ell } ≤slant 1200 are correlated with different proxies of solar activity, e.g., 10.7 cm radio flux, the International Sunspot Number, and the strength of the local magnetic field. In general, a good agreement is found between the shifts and activity indices, and the correlation coefficients are found to be comparable with intermediate-degree mode frequencies. Analyzing the frequency shifts separately for the two cycles, we find that cycle 24 is weaker than cycle 23. Since the magnetic activity is known to be different in the two hemispheres, for the first time, we compute the frequency shifts over the two hemispheres separately and find that the shifts also display hemispheric asymmetry; the amplitude of shifts in the northern hemisphere peaked during late 2011, more than two years earlier than in the south. We further correlate the hemispheric frequency shifts with the hemispheric sunspot number and mean magnetic activity index (MAI). Since the frequency shifts and the hemispheric activity indices are found to be significantly correlated, we suggest that the shifts be used as an indicator of hemispheric activity since not many indices are measured over the two hemispheres separately. We also investigate the variation at different latitudinal bands and conclude that the shifts in active latitudes correlate well with the local MAI.

  19. On-chip temperature-compensated Love mode surface acoustic wave device for gravimetric sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors have been recognized as one of the most sensitive devices for gravimetric sensors in liquid environments such as bio sensors. Device operation is based upon measuring changes in the transmitted (S21) frequency and phase of the first-order Love wave resonance associated with the device upon on attachment of mass. However, temperature variations also cause a change in the first order S21 parameters. In this work, shallow grooved reflectors and a "dotted" single phase unidirectional interdigitated transducer (D-SPUDT) have been added to the basic SAW structure, which promote unidirectional Love wave propagation from the device's input interdigitated transducers. Not only does this enhance the first-order S21 signal but also it allows propagation of a third-order Love wave. The attenuation coefficient of the third-order wave is sufficiently great that, whilst there is a clear reflected S11 signal, the third-order wave does not propagate into the gravimetric sensing area of the device. As a result, whilst the third-order S11 signal is affected by temperature changes, it is unaffected by mass attachment in the sensing area. It is shown that this signal can be used to remove temperature effects from the first-order S21 signal in real time. This allows gravimetric sensing to take place in an environment without the need for any other temperature measurement or temperature control; this is a particular requirement of gravimetric biosensors.

  20. Acoustic streaming in simplified liquid rocket engines with transverse mode oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.; Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    This study considers a simplified model of a liquid rocket engine in which uniform injection is imposed at the faceplate. The corresponding cylindrical chamber has a small length-to-diameter ratio with respect to solid and hybrid rockets. Given their low chamber aspect ratios, liquid thrust engines are known to experience severe tangential and radial oscillation modes more often than longitudinal ones. In order to model this behavior, tangential and radial waves are superimposed onto a basic mean-flow model that consists of a steady, uniform axial velocity throughout the chamber. Using perturbation tools, both potential and viscous flow equations are then linearized in the pressure wave amplitude and solved to the second order. The effects of the headwall Mach number are leveraged as well. While the potential flow analysis does not predict any acoustic streaming effects, the viscous solution carried out to the second order gives rise to steady secondary flow patterns near the headwall. These axisymmetric, steady contributions to the tangential and radial traveling waves are induced by the convective flow motion through interactions with inertial and viscous forces. We find that suppressing either the convective terms or viscosity at the headwall leads to spurious solutions that are free from streaming. In our problem, streaming is initiated at the headwall, within the boundary layer, and then extends throughout the chamber. We find that nonlinear streaming effects of tangential and radial waves act to alter the outer solution inside a cylinder with headwall injection. As a result of streaming, the radial wave velocities are intensified in one-half of the domain and reduced in the opposite half at any instant of time. Similarly, the tangential waves are either enhanced or weakened in two opposing sectors that are at 90° angle to the radial velocity counterparts. The second-order viscous solution that we obtain clearly displays both an oscillating and a steady flow

  1. Quantum frictionless trajectories versus geodesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbado, Luis C.; Barceló, Carlos; Garay, Luis J.

    2015-10-01

    Moving particles outside a star will generally experience quantum friction caused by the Unruh radiation reaction. There exist however radial trajectories that lack this effect (in the outgoing radiation sector, and ignoring backscattering). Along these trajectories, observers perceive just stellar emission, without further contribution from the Unruh effect. They turn out to have the property that the variations of the Doppler and the gravitational shifts compensate each other. They are not geodesics, and their proper acceleration obeys an inverse square law, which means that it could in principle be generated by outgoing stellar radiation. In the case of a black hole emitting Hawking radiation, this may lead to a buoyancy scenario. The ingoing radiation sector has little effect and seems to slow down the fall even further.

  2. Variability of accretion disks surrounding black holes: The role of inertial-acoustic mode instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1995-01-01

    The global nonlinear time-dependent evolution of the inertial-acoustic mode instability in accretion disks surrounding black holes has been investigated. The viscous stress is assumed to be proportional to the gas pressure only, i.e., tau = alphap(sub g). It is found that an oscillatory nonsteady behavior exists in the inner regions of disks (r is less than 10r(sub g) where r(sub g) is the Schwarzschild radius) for sufficiently large alpha(greater than or approximately equal to 0.2) and for mass accretion rates less than about 0.3 times the Eddington value. The variations of the integrated bolometric luminosity from the disk, Delta L/L, are less than 3%. A power spectrum analysis of these variations reveals a power spectrum which can be fitted to a power-law function of the frequency Pis proportional to f(exp -gamma), with index gamma = 1.4-2.3 and a low-frequency feature at about 4 Hz in one case. In addition, a narrow peak centered at a frequency corresponding to the maximum epicyclic frequency of the disk at approximately 100-130 Hz and its first harmonic is also seen. The low-frequency modulations are remarkably similar to those observed in black hole candidate systems. The possible existence of a scattering corona in the inner region of the disk and/or other processes contributing to the power at high frequencies in the inner region of the accretion disk may make the detection of the high-frequency component difficult.

  3. Multichannel image regularization using anisotropic geodesic filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grazzini, Jacopo A

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends a recent image-dependent regularization approach introduced in aiming at edge-preserving smoothing. For that purpose, geodesic distances equipped with a Riemannian metric need to be estimated in local neighbourhoods. By deriving an appropriate metric from the gradient structure tensor, the associated geodesic paths are constrained to follow salient features in images. Following, we design a generalized anisotropic geodesic filter; incorporating not only a measure of the edge strength, like in the original method, but also further directional information about the image structures. The proposed filter is particularly efficient at smoothing heterogeneous areas while preserving relevant structures in multichannel images.

  4. Stability of perturbed geodesics in nD axisymmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra-Araújo, C. H.; Anjos, R. C.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of self-gravity of a disk matter is evaluated by the simplest modes of oscillation frequencies for perturbed circular geodesics. We plotted the radial profiles of free oscillations of an equatorial circular geodesic perturbed within the orbital plane or in the vertical direction. The calculation is carried out to geodesics of an axisymmetric n-dimensional spacetime. The profiles are computed by examples of disks embeded in five-dimensional or six-dimensional spacetime, where we studied the motion of free test particles for three axisymmetric cases: (i) the Newtonian limit of a general proposed 5D and 6D axisymmetric spacetime; (ii) a simple Randall–Sundrum (RS) 5D spacetime; (iii) general 5D and 6D RS spacetime. The equation of motion of such particles is derived and the stability study is computed for both horizontal and vertical directions, to see how extra dimensions could affect the system. In particular, we investigate a disk constructed from Miyamoto–Nagai and Chazy–Curzon with a cut parameter to generate a disk potential. Those solutions have a simple extension for extra dimensions in case (i), and by solving vacuum Einstein field equations for a kind of RS–Weyl metric in cases (ii) and (iii). We find that it is possible to compute a range of possible solutions where such perturbed geodesics are stable. Basically, the stable solutions appear, for the radial direction, in special cases when the system has 5D and in all cases when the system has 6D and, for the axial direction, in all cases when the system has both 5D or 6D.

  5. Multicomponent kinetic simulation of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes associated with ion acoustic and dust-ion acoustic excitations in electron-ion and dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini Jenab, S. M.; Kourakis, I.

    2014-04-01

    A series of numerical simulations based on a recurrence-free Vlasov kinetic algorithm presented earlier [Abbasi et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 036702 (2011)] are reported. Electron-ion plasmas and three-component (electron-ion-dust) dusty, or complex, plasmas are considered, via independent simulations. Considering all plasma components modeled through a kinetic approach, the nonlinear behavior of ionic scale acoustic excitations is investigated. The focus is on Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes generated during the simulations. In particular, we aim at investigating the parametric dependence of the characteristics of BGK structures, namely of their time periodicity (τtrap) and their amplitude, on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio and on the dust concentration. In electron-ion plasma, an exponential relation between τtrap and the amplitude of BGK modes and the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is observed. It is argued that both characteristics, namely, the periodicity τtrap and amplitude, are also related to the size of the phase-space vortex which is associated with BGK mode creation. In dusty plasmas, BGK modes characteristics appear to depend on the dust particle density linearly.

  6. Observations and transport theory analysis of low frequency, acoustic mode propagation in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K; Colosi, John A; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M

    2013-10-01

    Second order mode statistics as a function of range and source depth are presented from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX). During LOAPEX, low frequency broadband signals were transmitted from a ship-suspended source to a mode-resolving vertical line array. Over a one-month period, the ship occupied seven stations from 50 km to 3200 km distance from the receiver. At each station broadband transmissions were performed at a near-axial depth of 800 m and an off-axial depth of 350 m. Center frequencies at these two depths were 75 Hz and 68 Hz, respectively. Estimates of observed mean mode energy, cross mode coherence, and temporal coherence are compared with predictions from modal transport theory, utilizing the Garrett-Munk internal wave spectrum. In estimating the acoustic observables, there were challenges including low signal to noise ratio, corrections for source motion, and small sample sizes. The experimental observations agree with theoretical predictions within experimental uncertainty. PMID:24116512

  7. Numerical inverse method predicting acoustic spinning modes radiated by a ducted fan from free-field test data.

    PubMed

    Lewy, Serge

    2008-07-01

    Spinning modes generated by a ducted turbofan at a given frequency determine the acoustic free-field directivity. An inverse method starting from measured directivity patterns is interesting in providing information on the noise sources without requiring tedious spinning-mode experimental analyses. According to a previous article, equations are based on analytical modal splitting inside a cylindrical duct and on a Rayleigh or a Kirchhoff integral on the duct exit cross section to get far-field directivity. Equations are equal in number to free-field measurement locations and the unknowns are the propagating mode amplitudes (there are generally more unknowns than equations). A MATLAB procedure has been implemented by using either the pseudoinverse function or the backslash operator. A constraint comes from the fact that squared modal amplitudes must be positive which involves an iterative least squares fitting. Numerical simulations are discussed along with several examples based on tests performed by Rolls-Royce in the framework of a European project. It is assessed that computation is very fast and it well fits the measured directivities, but the solution depends on the method and is not unique. This means that the initial set of modes should be chosen according to any known physical property of the acoustic sources. PMID:18646973

  8. Acoustic imaging of a duct spinning mode by the use of an in-duct circular microphone array.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingkai; Huang, Xun; Peers, Edward

    2013-06-01

    An imaging method of acoustic spinning modes propagating within a circular duct simply with surface pressure information is introduced in this paper. The proposed method is developed in a theoretical way and is demonstrated by a numerical simulation case. Nowadays, the measurements within a duct have to be conducted using in-duct microphone array, which is unable to provide information of complete acoustic solutions across the test section. The proposed method can estimate immeasurable information by forming a so-called observer. The fundamental idea behind the testing method was originally developed in control theory for ordinary differential equations. Spinning mode propagation, however, is formulated in partial differential equations. A finite difference technique is used to reduce the associated partial differential equations to a classical form in control. The observer method can thereafter be applied straightforwardly. The algorithm is recursive and, thus, could be operated in real-time. A numerical simulation for a straight circular duct is conducted. The acoustic solutions on the test section can be reconstructed with good agreement to analytical solutions. The results suggest the potential and applications of the proposed method. PMID:23742352

  9. Dual-mode resonant instabilities of the surface dust-acoustic wave in a Lorentzian plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-08-15

    The dual-mode resonant instabilities of the dust-acoustic surface wave propagating at the plasma-vacuum interfaces of the generalized Lorentzian dusty plasma slab are kinetically investigated. The dispersion relation is derived for the two propagation modes: symmetric and anti-symmetric waves. We have found that the temporal growth rate of the resonant instability increases with an increase of the slab thickness for both modes. Especially, the nonthermality of plasmas enhances the growth rate of the anti-symmetric resonant wave, and the nonthermal effect is enhanced as the slab thickness is increased. It is also found that the growth rate increases with increasing angular frequency of the rotating dust grain due to the enhanced resonant energy exchange.

  10. Geodesics in the static Mallett spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    Mallett has exhibited a cylindrically symmetric spacetime containing closed timelike curves produced by a light beam circulating around a line singularity. I analyze the static version of this spacetime obtained by setting the intensity of the light to zero. Some null geodesics can escape to infinity, but all timelike geodesics in this spacetime originate and terminate at the singularity. Freely falling matter originally at rest quickly attains relativistic velocity inward and is destroyed at the singularity.

  11. Pulsed-laser excitation of acoustic modes in open high-Q photoacoustic resonators for trace gas monitoring: results for C2H4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Christian; Winkler, Andreas; Hess, Peter; Miklós, András; Bozóki, Zoltán; Sneider, János

    1995-06-01

    The pulsed excitation of acoustic resonances was studied with a continuously monitoring photoacoustic detector system. Acoustic waves were generated in C2H4/N 2 gas mixtures by light absorption of the pulses from a transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser. The photoacoustic part consisted of high-Q cylindrical resonators (Q factor 820 for the first radial mode in N2) and two adjoining variable acoustic filter systems. The time-resolved signal was Fourier transformed to a frequency spectrum of high resolution. For the first radial mode a Lorentzian profile was fitted to the measured data. The outside noise suppression and the signal-to-noise ratio were investigated in a normal laboratory environment in the flow-through mode. The acoustic and electric filter system combined with the

  12. Deformation and Brittle Failure of Folded Gneiss in Triaxial Compression: Failure Modes, Acoustic Signatures and Microfabric Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, F.; Vinciguerra, S.; Dobbs, M. R.; Zanchetta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fabric anisotropy is a key control of rock behavior in different geological settings and over different timescales. However, the effect of tectonically folded fabrics on the brittle strength and failure mode of metamorphic rocks is poorly understood. Recent data, obtained from uniaxial compression experiments on folded gneiss (Agliardi et al., 2014), demonstrated that their brittle failure modes depend upon the arrangement of two anisotropies (i.e. foliation and fold axial planes) and that rock strength correlates with failure mode. Since lithostatic pressure may significantly affect this rock behavior, we investigated its effect in triaxial compression experiments. We tested the Monte Canale Gneiss (Italian Alps), characterized by low phyllosilicate content and compositional layering folded at the cm-scale. We used a servo-controlled hydraulic loading system to test 19 air-dry cylindrical specimens (ø = 54 mm) that were characterized both in terms of fold geometry and orientation of foliation and fold axial planes to the axial load direction. The specimens were instrumented with direct contact axial and circumferential strain gauges. Acoustic emissions and P- and S-wave velocities were measured by piezoelectric transducers mounted in the compression platens. The tests were performed at confining pressures of 40 MPa and axial strain rates of 5*10-6 s-1. Post-failure study of fracture mechanisms and related microfabric controls was undertaken using X-ray CT, optical microscopy and SEM. Samples failed in three distinct brittle modes produced by different combinations of fractures parallel to foliation, fractures parallel to fold axial planes, or mm-scale shear bands. The failure modes, consistent with those described in uniaxial compression experiments, were found to be associated with distinct stress-strain and acoustic emission signatures. Failure modes involving quartz-dominated axial plane anisotropy correspond to higher peak strength and axial strain, less

  13. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS. GENERATION OF ULTRASHORT PULSES: Analysis of mode locking in a laser with a traveling-acoustic-wave modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskaya, T. V.; Klochan, E. L.; Lariontsev, E. G.

    1990-12-01

    A theoretical analysis is made of active mode locking in a solid-state laser with an acoustooptic modulator based on traveling acoustic waves. It is postulated that the acoustooptic modulator is placed in a V-shaped resonator so that diffraction feedback is established in the modulator. It is found that the transmission coefficient of the acoustooptic modulator is a function of time. The mode locking achieved in a V-shaped resonator is equivalent to that observed in lasers with intracavity frequency modulation of the radiation. An investigation is made of the stability of mode locking in a resonator with a traveling-acoustic-wave acoustooptic modulator.

  14. Analysis of Diffraction of Dominant Mode in an Acoustic Impedance Loaded Trifurcated Duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, Muhammad; Hussain Tiwana, Mazhar; Mann, Amer Bilad

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents the analytical description of diffraction phenomena of sound at the opening of a two dimensional semi-infinite acoustically soft duct. This soft duct is symmetrically located inside an infinite duct with normal impedance boundary conditions in the case where the surface acoustic impedances of the upper and lower infinite plates are different from each other. A matrix Wiener- Hopf equation associated with a new canonical scattering problem is solved explicitly. A new kernel function arose for the problem and has been factorized. The graphical results are also presented which show how effectively the unwanted noise can be reduced by proper selection of different parameters.

  15. Surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals: Dispersion relation and the eigenfield distribution of surface modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Degang; Liu Zhengyou; Qiu Chunyin; He Zhaojian; Cai Feiyan; Ke Manzhu

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated the existence of surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals with fluid matrix, which is composed of a square array of steel cylinders put in air background. By using the supercell method, we investigate the dispersion relation and the eigenfield distribution of surface modes. Surface waves can be easily excited at the surface of a finite size phononic crystal by line source or Gaussian beam placed in or launched from the background medium, and they propagate along the surface with the form of 'beat.' Taking advantage of these surface modes, we can obtain a highly directional emission wave beam by introducing an appropriate corrugation layer on the surface of a waveguide exit.

  16. Non-linear Alfvén wave interaction leading to resonant excitation of an acoustic mode in the laboratorya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S.; Carter, T. A.

    2015-05-01

    The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay process is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfvén waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Other properties of the interaction including the spatial profile of the beat mode and response amplitude are also consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a nonlinear ponderomotive force. A simple damped, driven oscillator model making use of the MHD equations well-predicts most of the observations, but the width of the resonance curve is still under investigation.

  17. Non-linear Alfvén wave interaction leading to resonant excitation of an acoustic mode in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, S.; Carter, T. A.

    2015-05-15

    The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay process is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfvén waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Other properties of the interaction including the spatial profile of the beat mode and response amplitude are also consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a nonlinear ponderomotive force. A simple damped, driven oscillator model making use of the MHD equations well-predicts most of the observations, but the width of the resonance curve is still under investigation.

  18. 183 WTEM00 mode acoustic-optic Q-switched MOPA laser at 850 kHz.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Yan, Xingpeng; Fu, Xing; Gong, Mali; Wang, Dongsheng

    2009-03-30

    We report a high-power, high-repetition-rate TEM00 mode MOPA laser using acoustic-optic Q-switching. Seed laser from the dual-end- pumped Nd:YVO4 oscillator was scaled up to 183.5 W average power at 850 kHz after behind amplified by the four-stage power amplifiers. The stable Q-switching operation worked at different pulse repetition rate from 60 kHz to 850 kHz while the pulse duration increased from 12.8 ns to 72 ns. The beam quality was near diffraction-limit with M2 factors measured as M2x = 1.28 and M2y = 1.21. In CW operation, 195 W TEM00 mode output was achieved corresponding to the total optical-optical efficiency of 44.7% and the absorbed pump power to output power efficiency of 53.3% respectively. PMID:19333332

  19. Surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals: Dispersion relation and the eigenfield distribution of surface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Degang; Liu, Zhengyou; Qiu, Chunyin; He, Zhaojian; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated the existence of surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals with fluid matrix, which is composed of a square array of steel cylinders put in air background. By using the supercell method, we investigate the dispersion relation and the eigenfield distribution of surface modes. Surface waves can be easily excited at the surface of a finite size phononic crystal by line source or Gaussian beam placed in or launched from the background medium, and they propagate along the surface with the form of “beat.” Taking advantage of these surface modes, we can obtain a highly directional emission wave beam by introducing an appropriate corrugation layer on the surface of a waveguide exit.

  20. A thickness mode acoustic wave sensor for measuring interface stiffness between two elastic materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiankang; Wang, Wencai; Wang, Ji; Yang, Zengtao; Yang, Jiashi

    2008-08-01

    We studied thickness vibration of 2 elastic layers with an elastic interface mounted on a plate piezoelectric resonator. The effect of the interface elasticity on resonant frequencies was examined. The result obtained suggests an acoustic wave sensor for measuring the elastic property of an interface between 2 materials. PMID:18986911

  1. Liquid density analysis of sucrose and alcoholic beverages using polyimide guided Love-mode acoustic wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turton, Andrew; Bhattacharyya, Debabrata; Wood, David

    2006-02-01

    A liquid density sensor using Love-mode acoustic waves has been developed which is suitable for use in the food and drinks industries. The sensor has an open flat surface allowing immersion into a sample and simple cleaning. A polyimide waveguide layer allows cheap and simple fabrication combined with a robust chemically resistant surface. The low shear modulus of polyimide allows thin guiding layers giving a high sensitivity. A dual structure with a smooth reference device exhibiting viscous coupling with the wave, and a patterned sense area to trap the liquid causing mass loading, allows discrimination of the liquid density from the square root of the density-viscosity product (ρη)0.5. Frequency shift and insertion loss change were proportional to (ρη)0.5 with a non-linear response due to the non-Newtonian nature of viscous liquids at high frequencies. Measurements were made with sucrose solutions up to 50% and different alcoholic drinks. A maximum sensitivity of 0.13 µg cm-3 Hz-1 was achieved, with a linear frequency response to density. This is the highest liquid density sensitivity obtained for acoustic mode sensors to the best of our knowledge.

  2. Collective acoustic modes as renormalized damped oscillators: Unified description of neutron and x-ray scattering data from classical fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora; Barocchi, Fabrizio

    2006-06-01

    In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q→0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q,ω) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q -dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra.

  3. Collective acoustic modes as renormalized damped oscillators: unified description of neutron and x-ray scattering data from classical fluids.

    PubMed

    Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora; Barocchi, Fabrizio

    2006-06-01

    In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q, omega) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q-->0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q, omega) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q-dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra. PMID:16906814

  4. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for acoustic analysis of 4-channel phonocardiograms using empirical mode decomposition.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Miguel A; Orrego, Diana A; Delgado-Trejos, Edilson

    2013-01-01

    The heart's mechanical activity can be appraised by auscultation recordings, taken from the 4-Standard Auscultation Areas (4-SAA), one for each cardiac valve, as there are invisible murmurs when a single area is examined. This paper presents an effective approach for cardiac murmur detection based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) over acoustic representations derived from Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of 4-channel phonocardiograms (4-PCG). The 4-PCG database belongs to the National University of Colombia. Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and statistical moments of HHT were estimated on the combination of different intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). A fuzzy-rough feature selection (FRFS) was applied in order to reduce complexity. An ANFIS network was implemented on the feature space, randomly initialized, adjusted using heuristic rules and trained using a hybrid learning algorithm made up by least squares and gradient descent. Global classification for 4-SAA was around 98.9% with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, using a 50-fold cross-validation procedure (70/30 split). The representation capability of the EMD technique applied to 4-PCG and the neuro-fuzzy inference of acoustic features offered a high performance to detect cardiac murmurs. PMID:24109851

  5. Collective acoustic modes as renormalized damped oscillators: Unified description of neutron and x-ray scattering data from classical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora

    2006-06-15

    In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,{omega}) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q{yields}0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q,{omega}) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q-dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra.

  6. Realization of cavitation fields based on the acoustic resonance modes in an immersion-type sonochemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chun; Yao, Ming-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Different modes of cavitation zones in an immersion-type sonochemical reactor have been realized based on the concept of acoustic resonance fields. The reactor contains three main components, namely a Langevin-type piezoelectric transducer (20 kHz), a metal horn, and a circular cylindrical sonicated cell filled with tap water. In order to diminish the generation of cavitation bubbles near the horn-tip, an enlarged cone-shaped horn is designed to reduce the ultrasonic intensity at the irradiating surface and to get better distribution of energy in the sonicated cell. It is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally that the cell geometry and the horn position have prominent effects on the pressure distribution of the ultrasound in the cell. With appropriate choices of these parameters, the whole reactor works at a resonant state. Several acoustic resonance modes observed in the simulation are realized experimentally to generate a large volume of cavitation zones using a very low ultrasonic power. PMID:22959558

  7. Elastic parabolic equation and normal mode solutions for seismo-acoustic propagation in underwater environments with ice covers.

    PubMed

    Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D; Metzler, Adam M; Preston, Kimberly S

    2016-05-01

    Sound propagation predictions for ice-covered ocean acoustic environments do not match observational data: received levels in nature are less than expected, suggesting that the effects of the ice are substantial. Effects due to elasticity in overlying ice can be significant enough that low-shear approximations, such as effective complex density treatments, may not be appropriate. Building on recent elastic seafloor modeling developments, a range-dependent parabolic equation solution that treats the ice as an elastic medium is presented. The solution is benchmarked against a derived elastic normal mode solution for range-independent underwater acoustic propagation. Results from both solutions accurately predict plate flexural modes that propagate in the ice layer, as well as Scholte interface waves that propagate at the boundary between the water and the seafloor. The parabolic equation solution is used to model a scenario with range-dependent ice thickness and a water sound speed profile similar to those observed during the 2009 Ice Exercise (ICEX) in the Beaufort Sea. PMID:27250161

  8. Bolt axial stress measurement based on a mode-converted ultrasound method using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xu; Wu, Xinjun; Wang, Yugang

    2014-03-01

    A method is proposed to measure the stress on a tightened bolt using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). A shear wave is generated by the EMAT, and a longitudinal wave is obtained from the reflection of the shear wave due to the mode conversion. The ray paths of the longitudinal and the shear wave are analyzed, and the relationship between the bolt axial stress and the ratio of time of flight between two mode waves is then formulated. Based on the above outcomes, an EMAT is developed to measure the bolt axial stress without loosening the bolt, which is required in the conventional EMAT test method. The experimental results from the measurement of the bolt tension show that the shear and the mode-converted longitudinal waves can be received successfully, and the ratio of the times of flight of the shear and the mode-converted longitudinal waves is linearly proportional to the bolt axial tension. The non-contact characteristic of EMAT eliminates the effect of the couplant and also makes the measurement more convenient than the measurement performed using the piezoelectric transducer. This method provides a promising way to measure the stress on tightened bolts. PMID:24289900

  9. Pipe Attrition Acoustic Locater (PAAL) from multi-mode dispersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Vogelaar, Bouko; Golombok, Michael; Campman, Xander

    2016-05-01

    Multi-mode dispersion imaging shows that pure dispersion-free torsional waves are reflected at a pipe end and flexural wave modes are suppressed. This effect can be used to locate and assess internal damage. The end reflection coefficient of this single propagating mode decreases with increasing wear. The pipe damage is located from the travel time of the torsional wave component reflected from the damage point. PMID:26922401

  10. A source array for generating higher order acoustic modes in circular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyerman, B. R.; Reethof, G.

    1976-01-01

    A unique source array has been developed for the generation of both spinning and non-spinning higher order modes in a circular duct. The array consists of two concentric rings of sources. Through individual control of the response of each element, the array provided phase and amplitude control in the radial as well as circumferential directions. Radial modes shapes were measured in a 12-inch diameter anechoically-terminated hollow duct. These modes could be generated at their cut-off frequency and throughout a frequency range extending to the cut-off frequency for the next higher order radial mode. Comparisons are given between theory and experiment for the generation of specific modes. The radial dependence of the measured mode shapes was enhanced considerably by the design of this array. The results indicate a significant improvement over previous mode generation mechanisms. The contamination of the generated mode by additional spurious modes is also considered for variations between individual elements within the source array.

  11. Anosov Geodesic Flows, Billiards and Linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourganoff, Mickaël

    2016-06-01

    Any smooth surface in {{mathbb R}3} may be flattened along the z-axis, and the flattened surface becomes close to a billiard table in {{mathbb R}2}. We show that, under some hypotheses, the geodesic flow of this surface converges locally uniformly to the billiard flow. Moreover, if the billiard is dispersive and has finite horizon, then the geodesic flow of the corresponding surface is Anosov. We apply this result to the theory of mechanical linkages and their dynamics: we provide a new example of a simple linkage whose physical behavior is Anosov. For the first time, the edge lengths of the mechanism are given explicitly.

  12. A Riemannian approach to Randers geodesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Dorje C.; Gibbons, Gary W.; Meier, David M.

    2016-08-01

    In certain circumstances tools of Riemannian geometry are sufficient to address questions arising in the more general Finslerian context. We show that one such instance presents itself in the characterisation of geodesics in Randers spaces of constant flag curvature. To achieve a simple, Riemannian derivation of this special family of curves, we exploit the connection between Randers spaces and the Zermelo problem of time-optimal navigation in the presence of background fields. The characterisation of geodesics is then proven by generalising an intuitive argument developed recently for the solution of the quantum Zermelo problem.

  13. Geodesics on path spaces and double category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Saikat

    2016-09-01

    Let M be a Riemannian manifold and 𝒫M be the space of all smooth paths on M. We describe geodesics on path space 𝒫M. Normal neighborhoods on 𝒫M have been discussed. We identify paths on M under “back-track” equivalence. Under this identification, we show that if M is complete, then geodesics on the path space yield a double category. This double category has a natural interpretation in terms of the worldsheets generated by freely moving (without any external force) strings.

  14. Geodesic Monte Carlo on Embedded Manifolds.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Simon; Girolami, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo methods explicitly defined on the manifold of probability distributions have recently been established. These methods are constructed from diffusions across the manifold and the solution of the equations describing geodesic flows in the Hamilton-Jacobi representation. This paper takes the differential geometric basis of Markov chain Monte Carlo further by considering methods to simulate from probability distributions that themselves are defined on a manifold, with common examples being classes of distributions describing directional statistics. Proposal mechanisms are developed based on the geodesic flows over the manifolds of support for the distributions, and illustrative examples are provided for the hypersphere and Stiefel manifold of orthonormal matrices. PMID:25309024

  15. A geodesic principle for strong coupling gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermaier, Max

    2015-11-01

    Strong coupling gravity arises from general relativity by a scaling limit that preserves the number of physical degrees of freedom as well as covariance under the group of spatio-temporal diffeomorphisms. An intrinsic geodesic principle for it is formulated and justified. Geodesic congruences and the test bodies following them are, according to the principle, unaffected by nonlinear gravitational waves and can be gauged-fixed so as to never depart from their initial values. Among other consequences this offers a new perspective on gravitational coarse graining.

  16. Geodesic Monte Carlo on Embedded Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Simon; Girolami, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo methods explicitly defined on the manifold of probability distributions have recently been established. These methods are constructed from diffusions across the manifold and the solution of the equations describing geodesic flows in the Hamilton–Jacobi representation. This paper takes the differential geometric basis of Markov chain Monte Carlo further by considering methods to simulate from probability distributions that themselves are defined on a manifold, with common examples being classes of distributions describing directional statistics. Proposal mechanisms are developed based on the geodesic flows over the manifolds of support for the distributions, and illustrative examples are provided for the hypersphere and Stiefel manifold of orthonormal matrices. PMID:25309024

  17. Isocurvature modes and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations II: gains from combining CMB and Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Mangilli, Anna; Verde, Licia E-mail: anna.mangilli@icc.ub.edu

    2011-09-01

    We consider cosmological parameters estimation in the presence of a non-zero isocurvature contribution in the primordial perturbations. A previous analysis showed that even a tiny amount of isocurvature perturbation, if not accounted for, could affect standard rulers calibration from Cosmic Microwave Background observations such as those provided by the Planck mission, affect Baryon Acoustic Oscillations interpretation, and introduce biases in the recovered dark energy properties that are larger than forecasted statistical errors from future surveys. Extending on this work, here we adopt a general fiducial cosmology which includes a varying dark energy equation of state parameter and curvature. Beside Baryon Acoustic Oscillations measurements, we include the information from the shape of the galaxy power spectrum and consider a joint analysis of a Planck-like Cosmic Microwave Background probe and a future, space-based, Large Scale Structure probe not too dissimilar from recently proposed surveys. We find that this allows one to break the degeneracies that affect the Cosmic Microwave Background and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations combination. As a result, most of the cosmological parameter systematic biases arising from an incorrect assumption on the isocurvature fraction parameter f{sub iso}, become negligible with respect to the statistical errors. We find that the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure combination gives a statistical error σ(f{sub iso}) ∼ 0.008, even when curvature and a varying dark energy equation of state are included, which is smaller that the error obtained from Cosmic Microwave Background alone when flatness and cosmological constant are assumed. These results confirm the synergy and complementarity between Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure, and the great potential of future and planned galaxy surveys.

  18. Stable Vortex Generation in Liquid Filled Wells by Mode Conversion of Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landskron, Johannes; Schmidt, Katrin; Kufner, Maria; Lindner, Gerhard

    The formation of stable vortex flow pattern has been observed at liquid filled aluminum wells of 15 to 30 mm diameter when Lamb waves are excited on the bottom of the wells by piezoelectric transducers operated at a frequency of 1 MHz. The shape of the vortex pattern changed with the position of the transducer. Strong differences in mixing times were observed between water and ethanol when the filling level was changed and a remarkable reduction of mixing time was achieved by the addition of a small amount of detergent to water at small filling levels. Besides mixing of liquids thermal equilibration within a liquid volume was accelerated by acoustic streaming.

  19. Geodesic Dome Activity Provides Serious Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    After the author's class completed last year's 44'-long timber-framed covered bridge project, he was pondering what other learning challenge he could pose to his students. He came across an article on geodesic dome construction in the September 2007 issue of "Tech Directions" and, he had his answer. In this article, the author and his students…

  20. On rational integrals of geodesic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valery V.

    2014-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of first integrals of the equations of geodesics on two-dimensional surfaces that are rational in the velocities (or momenta). The existence of nontrivial rational integrals with given values of the degrees of the numerator and the denominator is proved using the Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem.

  1. The Effect of Shape Mode Oscillations on the Particle Scavenging Efficiency of Water Droplets Using Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizzee, J.; Saylor, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of drop oscillations on the scavenging of solid particles is studied using an ultrasonic transducer to levitate a water droplet in an airflow of particles. Shape mode oscillations are induced in the drop by modulating the acoustic field used for levitation. The effect of oscillation frequency, the oscillation amplitude, and the drop diameter on the scavenging of particles is presented. The particle diameters are on the order of 1μm and the drop diameters are on the order of 1mm. Although single droplets are studied here, the application of interest is improved scavenging of particles by spray drops. Specifically, improving the elimination of coal dust particles from mines using waters sprays excited ultrasonically is of interest.

  2. Interaction between a low-frequency electrostatic mode and resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J. R.; Hnat, B.; Dura, P.; Kirk, A.; Tamain, P.; the MAST Team

    2012-10-01

    A strong ≈10 kHz mode is detected in both potential and density fluctuations of the edge plasma of the MAST tokamak using a reciprocating probe. The mode is radially localized, with outer limit ≈2 cm inside the separatrix, and is affected on application of resonant magnetic perturbations generated by external coils. A shift in frequency with plasma rotation is found, and a rapid suppression of the mode is observed when it can couple to the imposed n = 3 magnetic perturbations in the rotating frame. Non-linear coupling to high wave number turbulence is evident, and an increase in power of turbulence fluctuations is seen after suppression. These observations are then interpreted in the context of known low-frequency plasma modes present in the toroidal configuration. A possibility that the observed mode is a geodesic acoustic mode is considered and motivated by observations.

  3. Acoustic fatigue life prediction for nonlinear structures with multiple resonant modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents an effort to develop practical and accurate methods for estimating the fatigue lives of complex aerospace structures subjected to intense random excitations. The emphasis of the current program is to construct analytical schemes for performing fatigue life estimates for structures that exhibit nonlinear vibration behavior and that have numerous resonant modes contributing to the response.

  4. GeodesicViewer - A tool for exploring geodesics in the theory of relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Grave, Frank

    2010-02-01

    The GeodesicViewer realizes exocentric two- and three-dimensional illustrations of lightlike and timelike geodesics in the general theory of relativity. By means of an intuitive graphical user interface, all parameters of a spacetime as well as the initial conditions of the geodesics can be modified interactively. This makes the GeodesicViewer a useful instrument for the exploration of geodesics in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Program summaryProgram title: GeodesicViewer Catalogue identifier: AEFP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 168 868 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 076 202 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Qt, Qwt, OpenGL Computer: All platforms with a C++ compiler, Qt, Qwt, OpenGL Operating system: Linux, Mac OS X RAM: 24 Mbytes Classification: 1.5 External routines:Gnu Scientific Library (GSL) ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/) Motion4D (included in the package). The Motion4D library can also be downloaded from CPC. Catalogue identifier: AEEX Qt ( http://qt.nokia.com/downloads) Qwt ( http://qwt.sourceforge.net/) OpenGL ( http://www.opengl.org/) Nature of problem: Illustrate geodesics in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Solution method: Integration of ordinary differential equations. 3D-Rendering via OpenGL. Running time: Interactive. The examples given take milliseconds.

  5. Solar-cycle variations of large frequency separations of acoustic modes: implications for asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; New, R.

    2011-06-01

    We have studied solar-cycle changes in the large frequency separations that can be observed in Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) data. The large frequency separation is often one of the first outputs from asteroseismic studies because it can help constrain stellar properties like mass and radius. We have used three methods for estimating the large separations: use of individual p-mode frequencies, computation of the autocorrelation of frequency-power spectra, and computation of the power spectrum of the power spectrum. The values of the large separations obtained by the different methods are offset from each other and have differing sensitivities to the realization noise. A simple model was used to predict solar-cycle variations in the large separations, indicating that the variations are due to the well-known solar-cycle changes to mode frequency. However, this model is only valid over a restricted frequency range. We discuss the implications of these results for asteroseismology.

  6. Phononic crystal surface mode coupling and its use in acoustic Doppler velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Kaya, Olgun Adem; Ulug, Bulent

    2016-02-01

    It is numerically shown that surface modes of two-dimensional phononic crystals, which are Bloch modes bound to the interface between the phononic crystal and the surrounding host, can couple back and forth between the surfaces in a length scale determined by the separation of two surfaces and frequency. Supercell band structure computations through the finite-element method reveal that the surface band of an isolated surface splits into two bands which support either symmetric or antisymmetric hybrid modes. When the surface separation is 3.5 times the lattice constant, a coupling length varying between 30 and 48 periods can be obtained which first increases linearly with frequency and, then, decreases rapidly. In the linear regime, variation of coupling length can be used as a means of measuring speeds of objects on the order of 0.1m/s by incorporating the Doppler shift. Speed sensitivity can be improved by increasing surface separation at the cost of larger device sizes. PMID:26565078

  7. Depth classification of underwater targets based on complex acoustic intensity of normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Jingwei; Yu, Yun; Shi, Zhenhua

    2016-04-01

    In order to solve the problem of depth classification of the underwater target in a very low frequency acoustic field, the active component of cross spectra of particle pressure and horizontal velocity (ACCSPPHV) is adopted to distinguish the surface vessel and the underwater target. According to the effective depth of a Pekeris waveguide, the placing depth forecasting equations of passive vertical double vector hydrophones are proposed. Numerical examples show that when the sum of depths of two hydrophones is the effective depth, the sign distribution of ACCSPPHV has nothing to do with horizontal distance; in addition, the sum of the first critical surface and the second critical surface is equal to the effective depth. By setting the first critical surface less than the difference between the effective water depth and the actual water depth, that is, the second critical surface is greater than the actual depth, the three positive and negative regions of the whole ocean volume are equivalent to two positive and negative regions and therefore the depth classification of the underwater target is obtained. Besides, when the 20 m water depth is taken as the first critical surface in the simulation of underwater targets (40 Hz, 50 Hz, and 60 Hz respectively), the effectiveness of the algorithm and the correctness of relevant conclusions are verified, and the analysis of the corresponding forecasting performance is conducted.

  8. Kerr geodesics following the axis of symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariel, J.; Santos, N. O.; Wang, Anzhong

    2016-05-01

    We present here the general expressions for the acceleration of massive test particles along the symmetry axis of the Kerr metric, and then study the main properties of this acceleration in different regions of the spacetime. In particular, we show that there exists a region near the black hole in which the gravitational field is repulsive. We provide possible physical interpretations about the role of this effect in terms of the different conserved parameters. The studies of these geodesics are important not only to understand better the structure of the Kerr spacetime but also to its use as a possible mechanism for the production of extragalactic jets. Our results are obtained with the help of expressing the geodesics of the Kerr spacetime in terms of the Weyl coordinates.

  9. Geodesic defect anchoring on nematic shells.

    PubMed

    Mirantsev, Leonid V; Sonnet, André M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2012-08-01

    Nematic shells are colloidal particles coated with nematic liquid crystal molecules, which may freely glide and rotate on the colloid's surface while keeping their long axis on the local tangent plane. Molecular dynamics simulations on a nanoscopic spherical shell indicate that under appropriate adhesion conditions for the molecules on the equator, the equilibrium nematic texture exhibits at each pole a pair of +1/2 defects so close to one another to be treated as one +1 defect. Spirals connect the polar defects, though the continuum limit of the interaction potential would not feature any elastic anisotropy. A molecular averaging justifies an anchoring defect energy that feels the geodesics emanating from the defect. All our observations are explained by such a geodesic anchoring, which vanishes on flat manifolds. PMID:23005713

  10. On the Geodesic Hypothesis in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shiwu

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we give a rigorous derivation of Einstein's geodesic hypothesis in general relativity. We use small material bodies governed by the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations to approximate the test particle. Given a vacuum spacetime , we consider the initial value problem for the Einstein-scalar field system. For all sufficiently small ɛ and δ ≤ ɛ q , q > 1, where δ, ɛ are the amplitude and size of the particle, we show the existence of the solution to the Einstein-scalar field system with the property that the energy of the particle is concentrated along a timelike geodesic. Moreover, the gravitational field produced by is negligibly small in C 1, that is, the spacetime metric g is C 1 close to the given vacuum metric h. These results generalize those obtained by Stuart in (Ann Sci École Norm Sup (4) 37(2):312-362, 2004, J Math Pures Appl (9) 83(5):541-587, 2004).

  11. Historical review: viruses, crystals and geodesic domes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2003-02-01

    In the mid 1950s, Francis Crick and James Watson attempted to explain the structure of spherical viruses. They hypothesized that spherical viruses consist of 60 identical equivalently situated subunits. Such an arrangement has icosahedral symmetry. Subsequent biophysical and electron micrographic data suggested that many viruses had >60 subunits. Drawing inspiration from architecture, Donald Caspar and Aaron Klug discovered a solution to the problem - they proposed that spherical viruses were structured like miniature geodesic domes. PMID:12575996

  12. Geodesic denoising for optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrian Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Wu, Jing; Gerendas, Bianca S.; Simader, Christian; Langs, Georg; Waldstein, Sebastian M.; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical signal acquisition method capturing micrometer resolution, cross-sectional three-dimensional images. OCT images are used widely in ophthalmology to diagnose and monitor retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Glaucoma. While OCT allows the visualization of retinal structures such as vessels and retinal layers, image quality and contrast is reduced by speckle noise, obfuscating small, low intensity structures and structural boundaries. Existing denoising methods for OCT images may remove clinically significant image features such as texture and boundaries of anomalies. In this paper, we propose a novel patch based denoising method, Geodesic Denoising. The method reduces noise in OCT images while preserving clinically significant, although small, pathological structures, such as fluid-filled cysts in diseased retinas. Our method selects optimal image patch distribution representations based on geodesic patch similarity to noisy samples. Patch distributions are then randomly sampled to build a set of best matching candidates for every noisy sample, and the denoised value is computed based on a geodesic weighted average of the best candidate samples. Our method is evaluated qualitatively on real pathological OCT scans and quantitatively on a proposed set of ground truth, noise free synthetic OCT scans with artificially added noise and pathologies. Experimental results show that performance of our method is comparable with state of the art denoising methods while outperforming them in preserving the critical clinically relevant structures.

  13. Geodesics in nonexpanding impulsive gravitational waves with Λ, part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland; Lecke, Alexander; Podolský, Jiřˇí

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the geodesics in the entire class of nonexpanding impulsive gravitational waves propagating in an (anti-)de Sitter universe using the distributional form of the metric. Employing a five-dimensional embedding formalism and a general regularisation technique, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the geodesics crossing the wave impulse, leading to a completeness result. We also derive the explicit form of the geodesics, thereby confirming previous results derived in a heuristic approach.

  14. Geodesics in information geometry: classical and quantum phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Mahapatra, Subhash; Phukon, Prabwal; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2012-11-01

    We study geodesics on the parameter manifold for systems exhibiting second order classical and quantum phase transitions. The coupled nonlinear geodesic equations are solved numerically for a variety of models which show such phase transitions in the thermodynamic limit. It is established that both in the classical as well as in the quantum cases, geodesics are confined to a single phase and exhibit turning behavior near critical points. Our results are indicative of a geometric universality in widely different physical systems. PMID:23214748

  15. Symmetries of geodesic motion in Gödel-type spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Camci, U.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we study Noether gauge symmetries of geodesic motion for geodesic Lagrangian of four classes of metrics of Gödel-type spacetimes for which we calculated the Noether gauge symmetries for all classes I-IV, and find the first integrals of corresponding classes to derive a complete characterization of the geodesic motion. Using the obtained expressions for t-dot , r-dot ,φ-dot and ż of each classes I-IV which depends essentially on two independent parameters m and w, we explicitly integrated the geodesic equations of motion for the corresponding Gödel-type spacetimes.

  16. Particle-area dependence of mineral dust in the immersion mode: investigations with freely suspended drops in an acoustic levitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, K.; Debertshäuser, M.; Eppers, O.; Schmithüsen, H.; Mitra, S. K.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of supercooled drops were measured by using an acoustic levitator. This technique allows to freely suspending single drops in air without electrical charges thereby avoiding any electrical influences which may affect the freezing process. Heterogeneous nucleation caused by several mineral dust particles (montmorillonite, two types of illite) was investigated in the immersion mode. Drops of 1 \\unit{mm} in radius were monitored by a video camera during cooling down to -28 °C to simulate the tropospheric temperature range. The surface temperature of the drops was remotely determined with an infra-red thermometer so that the onset of freezing was indicated. For comparisons, measurements with one particle type were additionally performed in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel with drops of 340 \\unit{{μ}m} radius freely suspended. The data were interpreted regarding the particle surfaces immersed in the drops. Immersion freezing was observed in a temperature range between -13 and -26 °C in dependence of particle type and surface area per drop. The results were evaluated by applying two descriptions of heterogeneous freezing, the stochastic and the singular model.

  17. Multiple-Component Crystal Fabric Measurements from Acoustically-Generated Normal Modes in Borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluskiewicz, D. J.; Waddington, E. D.; McCarthy, M.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Voigt, D.; Matsuoka, K.

    2014-12-01

    Sound wave velocities in ice are a proxy of crystal orientation fabric. Because p- and s-waves respectively travel faster and slower in the direction of an ice crystal c-axis, the velocities of these waves in a fabric are related to the clustering of ice crystal c-axes in the direction of wave propagation. Previous sonic logs at Dome C, NGRIP, WAIS, and NEEM have inferred a single component fabric description from the velocities of vertically-propagating p-waves around each ice core borehole. These records supplement thin-section measurements of crystal fabric by sampling larger numbers of crystals in a depth-continuous log. Observations of azimuthally anisotropic vertical-girdle fabrics at ice-core sites such as WAIS, NGRIP, and EDML underly a benefit for logging methods that are sensitive to such fabrics. We present a theoretical framework for using borehole flexural modes to measure azimuthal crystal-fabric anisotropy, and describe ongoing efforts to develop a sonic logging tool for this purpose. We also present data from p-wave logs and thin section measurements at the WAIS Divide, and describe how a flexural wave log could supplement the existing measurements.

  18. Geodesic least squares regression on information manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoolaege, Geert

    2014-12-05

    We present a novel regression method targeted at situations with significant uncertainty on both the dependent and independent variables or with non-Gaussian distribution models. Unlike the classic regression model, the conditional distribution of the response variable suggested by the data need not be the same as the modeled distribution. Instead they are matched by minimizing the Rao geodesic distance between them. This yields a more flexible regression method that is less constrained by the assumptions imposed through the regression model. As an example, we demonstrate the improved resistance of our method against some flawed model assumptions and we apply this to scaling laws in magnetic confinement fusion.

  19. Influence of SiO2/In2O3 film acoustical waveguide on the mode index of Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide in acousto-optical mode converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hang-you; Ning, Ji-ping; Geng, Fan

    2004-04-01

    TE/TM mode converter is a key element of integrated acoustooptical tunable filter (AOTF). Employing SiO2/In2O3 film as acoustical waveguide can suppress sidelobes effectively and simplify fabrication technique in integrated quasi-collinear AOTF. In this report, the eigenvalue equation and the field solution of such configuration has been obtained by using modified Wenzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method. The results are compared with those by using vector finite element method (VFEM). When the optical waveguides are covered by such oxide film, the difference of mode indices of both polarizations and the effective propagation velocity of surface acoustical wave (SAW) will decrease, and these decreases lead the shift of optical wavelength, which mainly results in the change of the former.

  20. Observation of acoustic-phonon-like mode driven by magnetic imbalance between neighboring Fe atoms in Fe1+yTe (y < 0 . 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fobes, David; Zaliznyak, Igor; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; He, Xu-Gang; Ku, Wei; Garlea, Ovidiu

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the evolution with temperature of the low-energy inelastic spectra of Fe1+yTe (y < 0 . 12), a parent compound of the iron-chalcogenide superconductor family, revealing an acoustic mode at an unexpected position. Recently, we found evidence for the formation of a bond-order wave leading to ferro-orbital order in the monoclinic phase, in part due to the observation of an elastic structural peak at (100) in the low-temperature monoclinic phase [D. Fobes, et al., arXiv:1307.7162]. In the inelastic spectra we observe a sharp acoustic-phonon-like mode dispersing out of the (100) position in the monoclinic phase. Surprisingly, the mode survives in the tetragonal phase, despite the absence of a Bragg peak at (100); such a peak is forbidden by symmetry. LDA calculations suggest this mode could involve significant magnetic scattering. By assuming in-phase virtual displacement of the Fe atoms from their equilibrium position in a frozen phonon calculation, we have found a small but significant imbalance in the magnetic moments between the two Fe atoms within the unit cell, suggesting magnetic contribution to the mode. Work at BNL supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Research conducted at ORNL Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.

  1. Goldfish Geodesics and Hamiltonian Reduction of Matrix Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Bordemann, Martin; Hoppe, Jens; Lee, Choonkyu

    2008-04-01

    We describe the Hamiltonian reduction of a time-dependent real-symmetric N× N matrix system to free vector dynamics, and also provide a geodesic interpretation of Ruijsenaars Schneider systems. The simplest of the latter, the goldfish equation, is found to represent a flat-space geodesic in curvilinear coordinates.

  2. Studying Null and Time-Like Geodesics in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    In a first course of general relativity, it is usually quite difficult for students to grasp the concept of a geodesic. It is supposed to be straight (auto-parallel) and yet it "looks" curved. In these situations, it is very useful to have some explicit examples available which show the different behaviour of geodesics. In this paper, we present…

  3. Comparisons of polymer/gas partition coefficients calculated from responses of thickness shear mode and surface acoustic wave vapor sensors.

    PubMed

    Grate, J W; Kaganove, S N; Bhethanabotla, V R

    1998-01-01

    Apparent partition coefficients, K, for the sorption of toluene by four different polymer thin films on thickness shear mode (TSM) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are compared. The polymers examined were poly(isobutylene) (PIB), poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH), poly(butadiene) (PBD), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Independent data on partition coefficients for toluene in these polymers were compiled for comparison, and TSM sensor measurements were made using both oscillator and impedance analysis methods. K values from SAW sensor measurements were about twice those calculated from TSM sensor measurements when the polymers were PIB and PECH, and they were also at least twice the values of the independent partition coefficient data, which is interpreted as indicating that the SAW sensor responds to polymer modulus changes as well as to mass changes. K values from SAW and TSM measurements were in agreement with each other and with independent data when the polymer was PBD. Similarly, K values from the PDMS-coated SAW sensor were not much larger than values from independent measurements. These results indicate that modulus effects were not contributing to the SAW sensor responses in the cases of PBD and PDMS. However, K values from the PDMS-coated TSM device were larger than the values from the SAW device or independent measurements, and the impedance analyzer results indicated that this sensor using our sample of PDMS at the applied thickness did not behave as a simple mass sensor. Differences in behavior among the test polymers on SAW devices are interpreted in terms of their differing viscoelastic properties. PMID:21644612

  4. Geodesic Structure of Janis-Newman-Winicour Space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Ruanjing; Chen, Juhua; Wang, Yongjiu

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper we study the geodesic structure of the Janis-Newman-Winicour(JNW) space-time which contains a strong curvature naked singularity. This metric is an extension of the Schwarzschild geometry included a massless scalar field. We find that the strength parameter μ of the scalar field takes affection on the geodesic structure of the JNW space-time. By solving the geodesic equation and analyzing the behavior of effective potential, we investigate all geodesic types of the test particle and the photon in the JNW space-time. At the same time we simulate all the geodesic orbits corresponding to the energy levels of the effective potential in the JNW space-time.

  5. GeodesicViewer - A tool for exploring geodesics in the theory of relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The GeodesicViewer realizes exocentric two- and three-dimensional illustrations of lightlike and timelike geodesics in the general theory of relativity. By means of an intuitive graphical user interface, all parameters of a spacetime as well as the initial conditions of the geodesics can be modified interactively. New version program summaryProgram title: GeodesicViewer Catalogue identifier: AEFP_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFP_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 76 202 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 722 290 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, OpenGL Computer: All platforms with a C++ compiler, Qt, OpenGL Operating system: Linux, Mac OS X, Windows RAM: 24 MBytes Classification: 1.5 External routines: Motion4D (included in the package) Gnu Scientific Library (GSL) ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/) Qt ( http://qt.nokia.com/downloads) OpenGL ( http://www.opengl.org/) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEFP_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 413 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Illustrate geodesics in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Solution method: Integration of ordinary differential equations. 3D-Rendering via OpenGL. Reasons for new version: The main reason for the new version was to visualize the parallel transport of the Sachs legs and to show the influence of curved spacetime on a bundle of light rays as is realized in the new version of the Motion4D library ( http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEX_v3_0.html). Summary of revisions: By choosing the new geodesic type "lightlike_sachs", the parallel transport of the Sachs basis and the integration of the Jacobi equation

  6. A regularized approach for geodesic-based semisupervised multimanifold learning.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingyu; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Zhongfei; Bao, Hujun

    2014-05-01

    Geodesic distance, as an essential measurement for data dissimilarity, has been successfully used in manifold learning. However, most geodesic distance-based manifold learning algorithms have two limitations when applied to classification: 1) class information is rarely used in computing the geodesic distances between data points on manifolds and 2) little attention has been paid to building an explicit dimension reduction mapping for extracting the discriminative information hidden in the geodesic distances. In this paper, we regard geodesic distance as a kind of kernel, which maps data from linearly inseparable space to linear separable distance space. In doing this, a new semisupervised manifold learning algorithm, namely regularized geodesic feature learning algorithm, is proposed. The method consists of three techniques: a semisupervised graph construction method, replacement of original data points with feature vectors which are built by geodesic distances, and a new semisupervised dimension reduction method for feature vectors. Experiments on the MNIST, USPS handwritten digit data sets, MIT CBCL face versus nonface data set, and an intelligent traffic data set show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24723575

  7. Geodesics In A Spinning String Spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Culetu, Hristu

    2006-11-28

    The geodesics equations for a rotating observer in a spinning string geometry are investigated using the Euler - Lagrange equations. For test particles with vanishing angular momentum, the radial equation of motion does not depend on the angular velocity {omega} but on the angular momentum of the string. A massless particle moves tachyonic but iteed tends asymptotically to unit velocity after a time of the order of few Planck time b. The spacetime has a horizon at r = 0, irrespective of the value of {omega} but its angular velocity is given by {omega} - 1/b. The Sagnac time delay is computed proving to depend both on {omega} and the radius of the circular orbit. The velocity of an ingoing massive test particle approaches zero very close to the spinning string, as if it were rejected by it.

  8. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 5; Numerical Computation of Acoustic Mode Reflection Coefficients for an Unflanged Cylindrical Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    A computational method to predict modal reflection coefficients in cylindrical ducts has been developed based on the work of Homicz, Lordi, and Rehm, which uses the Wiener-Hopf method to account for the boundary conditions at the termination of a thin cylindrical pipe. The purpose of this study is to develop a computational routine to predict the reflection coefficients of higher order acoustic modes impinging on the unflanged termination of a cylindrical duct. This effort was conducted wider Task Order 5 of the NASA Lewis LET Program, Active Noise Control of aircraft Engines: Feasibility Study, and will be used as part of the development of an integrated source noise, acoustic propagation, ANC actuator coupling, and control system algorithm simulation. The reflection coefficient prediction will be incorporated into an existing cylindrical duct modal analysis to account for the reflection of modes from the duct termination. This will provide a more accurate, rapid computation design tool for evaluating the effect of reflected waves on active noise control systems mounted in the duct, as well as providing a tool for the design of acoustic treatment in inlet ducts. As an active noise control system design tool, the method can be used preliminary to more accurate but more numerically intensive acoustic propagation models such as finite element methods. The resulting computer program has been shown to give reasonable results, some examples of which are presented. Reliable data to use for comparison is scarce, so complete checkout is difficult, and further checkout is needed over a wider range of system parameters. In future efforts the method will be adapted as a subroutine to the GEAE segmented cylindrical duct modal analysis program.

  9. The Geodesic Motion Near Hypersurfaces in the Warped Products Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaedong; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2013-09-01

    In the framework of Lorentzian multiply warped products we study the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (GMGHS) spacetime near hypersurfaces in the interior of the event horizon. We also investigate the geodesic motion in hypersurfaces.

  10. Spatial sampling of head electrical fields: the geodesic sensor net.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D M

    1993-09-01

    In studying brain electrical activity from scalp sensors (electrodes), the optimal measurement would sample the potential field over the entire surface of the braincase, with a sufficient density to avoid spatial aliasing of the surface electrical fields. The geodesic sensor net organizes an array of sensors, each enclosed in a saline sponge, in a geodesic tension structure comprised of elastic threads. By fixing a sensor pedestal at each geodesic vertex, the geometry of the tension structure insures insures that the sensor array is distributed evenly across the accessible head surface. Furthermore, the tension of the network is translated into compression that is divided equally among the sensor pedestals and directed along head-radial vectors. Various geodesic partitioning frequencies may be selected to provide an even surface distribution of the dense sensor arrays (e.g., 64, 128, or 256) that appear to be necessary to provide adequate spatial sampling of brain electrical events. PMID:7691542

  11. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Chou, Ching H.

    1990-01-01

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens.

  12. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.

    1990-03-20

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.

  13. Two elliptic closed geodesics on positively curved Finsler spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huagui

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we prove that for every Finsler n-dimensional sphere (Sn , F) with reversibility λ and flag curvature K satisfying (λ/1+λ) 2 < K ≤ 1, either there exist infinitely many closed geodesics, or there exist at least two elliptic closed geodesics and each linearized Poincaré map has at least one eigenvalue of the form e √{ - 1 } θ with θ being an irrational multiple of π.

  14. A two-way coupled mode formalism that satisfies energy conservation for impedance boundaries in underwater acoustics.

    PubMed

    Stotts, Steven A; Koch, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    This paper shows that energy conservation and the derivation of the two-way coupled mode range equations can be extended in three dimensions to complex mode functions and eigenvalues. Furthermore, the energy in the coupled mode formulation is conserved for finite thickness fluid ocean waveguides with a penetrable bottom boundary beneath any range dependence. The derivations rely on completeness and a modified orthonormality statement. The mode coupling coefficients are specified solely and explicitly by the waveguide range dependence. The statement of energy conservation is applied to a numerical coupled mode calculation. PMID:26627810

  15. Study of the influence of semiconductor material parameters on acoustic wave propagation modes in GaSb/AlSb bi-layered structures by Legendre polynomial method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of Rayleigh-Lamb waves in bi-layered structures is studied. For this purpose, an extension of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method is proposed to formulate the acoustic wave equation in the bi-layered structures induced by thin film Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) and with Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb) substrate in moderate thickness. Acoustic modes propagating along a bi-layer plate are shown to be quite different than classical Lamb modes, contrary to most of the multilayered structures. The validation of the LP method is illustrated by a comparison between the associated numerical results and those obtained using the ordinary differential equation (ODE) method. The convergency of the LP method is discussed through a numerical example. Moreover, the influences of thin film GaSb parameters on the characteristics Rayleigh-Lamb waves propagation has been studied in detail. Finally, the advantages of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method to analyze the multilayered structures are described. All the developments performed in this work were implemented in Matlab software.

  16. Multi-object geodesic active contours (MOGAC).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Blake C; Kazhdan, Michael; Taylor, Russell H

    2012-01-01

    An emerging topic is to build image segmentation systems that can segment hundreds to thousands of objects (i.e. cell segmentation\\tracking, full brain parcellation, full body segmentation, etc.). Multi-object Level Set Methods (MLSM) perform this task with the benefit of sub-pixel precision. However, current implementations of MLSM are not as computationally or memory efficient as their region growing and graph cut counterparts which lack sub-pixel precision. To address this performance gap, we present a novel parallel implementation of MLSM that leverages the sparse properties of the algorithm to minimize its memory footprint for multiple objects. The new method, Multi-Object Geodesic Active Contours (MOGAC), can represent N objects with just two functions: a label mask image and unsigned distance field. The time complexity of the algorithm is shown to be O((M (power)d)/P) for M (power)d pixels and P processing units in dimension d = {2,3}, independent of the number of objects. Results are presented for 2D and 3D image segmentation problems. PMID:23286074

  17. Geodesics and Acceleration in Influence Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, James; Knuth, Kevin

    Influence theory is concerned with a foundational approach where it is assumed that particles influence one another in a discrete one-to-one fashion. This results in a partially ordered set of influence events, called the influence network, where particles are represented by totally ordered chains of events. Information physics considers physical laws to result from consistent quantification of physical phenomena. Knuth and Bahreyni (2014) demonstrated that the mathematics of spacetime emerges from consistent quantification of influence events by embedded coordinated observers. Knuth (2014) showed that in 1 +1 dimensions observer-based predictions about a free (uninfluenced) particle result in the Dirac equation. Here, we show that when a particle in 1 +1 dimensions is influenced, it is uniquely and consistently described in terms of relativistic acceleration for constant rate of influence and in general obeys equations of the form of the geodesic equations of general relativity. This suggests that Influence Theory can also account for forces (like gravity), which give rise to well-known relativistic effects such as time dilation.

  18. Sagittal acoustic waves in finite solid-fluid superlattices: Band-gap structure, surface and confined modes, and omnidirectional reflection and selective transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hassouani, Y.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Aynaou, H.

    2008-11-01

    Using a Green’s function method, we present a comprehensive theoretical analysis of the propagation of sagittal acoustic waves in superlattices (SLs) made of alternating elastic solid and ideal fluid layers. This structure may exhibit very narrow pass bands separated by large stop bands. In comparison with solid-solid SLs, we show that the band gaps originate both from the periodicity of the system (Bragg-type gaps) and the transmission zeros induced by the presence of the solid layers immersed in the fluid. The width of the band gaps strongly depends on the thickness and the contrast between the elastic parameters of the two constituting layers. In addition to the usual crossing of subsequent bands, solid-fluid SLs may present a closing of the bands, giving rise to large gaps separated by flat bands for which the group velocity vanishes. Also, we give an analytical expression that relates the density of states and the transmission and reflection group delay times in finite-size systems embedded between two fluids. In particular, we show that the transmission zeros may give rise to a phase drop of π in the transmission phase, and therefore, a negative delta peak in the delay time when the absorption is taken into account in the system. A rule on the confined and surface modes in a finite SL made of N cells with free surfaces is demonstrated, namely, there are always N-1 modes in the allowed bands, whereas there is one and only one mode corresponding to each band gap. Finally, we present a theoretical analysis of the occurrence of omnidirectional reflection in a layered media made of alternating solid and fluid layers. We discuss the conditions for such a structure to exhibit total reflection of acoustic incident waves in a given frequency range for all incident angles. Also, we show how this structure can be used as an acoustic filter that may transmit selectively certain frequencies within the omnidirectional gaps. In particular, we show the possibility of

  19. The linear and non-linear characterization of dust ion acoustic mode in complex plasma in presence of dynamical charging of dust

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Saurav Das, Nilakshi

    2015-10-15

    A systematic theoretical investigation has been carried out on the role of dust charging dynamics on the nature and stability of DIA (Dust Ion Acoustic) mode in complex plasma. The study has been made for both linear and non-linear scale regime of DIA mode. The observed results have been characterized in terms of background plasma responses towards dust surface responsible for dust charge fluctuation, invoking important dusty plasma parameters, especially the ion flow speed and dust size. The linear analyses confirm the nature of instability in DIA mode in presence of dust charge fluctuation. The instability shows a damping of DIA mode in subsonic flow regime followed by a gradual growth in instability in supersonic limit of ion flow. The strength of non-linearity and their existence domain is found to be driven by different dusty plasma parameters. As dust is ubiquitous in interstellar medium with plasma background, the study also addresses the possible effect of dust charging dynamics in gravito-electrostatic characterization and the stability of dust molecular clouds especially in proto-planetary disc. The observations are influential and interesting towards the understanding of dust settling mechanism and formation of dust environments in different regions in space.

  20. The linear and non-linear characterization of dust ion acoustic mode in complex plasma in presence of dynamical charging of dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Saurav; Das, Nilakshi

    2015-10-01

    A systematic theoretical investigation has been carried out on the role of dust charging dynamics on the nature and stability of DIA (Dust Ion Acoustic) mode in complex plasma. The study has been made for both linear and non-linear scale regime of DIA mode. The observed results have been characterized in terms of background plasma responses towards dust surface responsible for dust charge fluctuation, invoking important dusty plasma parameters, especially the ion flow speed and dust size. The linear analyses confirm the nature of instability in DIA mode in presence of dust charge fluctuation. The instability shows a damping of DIA mode in subsonic flow regime followed by a gradual growth in instability in supersonic limit of ion flow. The strength of non-linearity and their existence domain is found to be driven by different dusty plasma parameters. As dust is ubiquitous in interstellar medium with plasma background, the study also addresses the possible effect of dust charging dynamics in gravito-electrostatic characterization and the stability of dust molecular clouds especially in proto-planetary disc. The observations are influential and interesting towards the understanding of dust settling mechanism and formation of dust environments in different regions in space.

  1. Acoustic Translation of an Acoustically Levitated Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Allen, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus uses only one acoustic mode to move sample from one region of chamber to another. Sample heated and cooled quickly by translation between hot and cold regions of levitation chamber. Levitated sample is raised into furnace region by raising plunger. Frequency of sound produced by transducers adjusted by feedback system to maintain (102) resonant mode, which levitates sample midway between transducers and plunger regardless of plunger position.

  2. Optical detection of folded mini-zone-edge coherent acoustic modes in a doped GaAs/AlAs superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, R.; Akimov, A. V.; Glavin, B. A.; Maryam, W.; Henini, M.; Kent, A. J.

    2010-07-01

    A coherent phonon mode with frequency corresponding to the first mini Brillouin-zone edge stop gap is observed in ultrafast pump-probe measurements on a doped semiconductor superlattice structure. It is proposed that the optical detection of the mode is facilitated by interactions with the free carriers present in the superlattice.

  3. Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Albareti, F.D.; Cembranos, J.A.R.; Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es

    2012-12-01

    We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from space-time geometry which is usually interpreted as the manifestation of the attractive character of gravity is restored in an accelerated expanding Robertson-Walker space-time at high speeds.

  4. Geodesics for the NUT metric and gravitational monopoles

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.L.; Shahir, B.Y. )

    1989-08-01

    In order to provide insight about the physical interpretation of the NUT parameter, the authors solve the geodesic equations for the NUT metric. They show that the properties of NUT geodesics are similar to the properties of trajectories for charged particles orbiting about a magnetic monopole. In summary, they show that (1) the orbits lie on the surface of a cone, (2) the conserved total angular momentum is the sum of the orbital angular momentum plus the angular momentum due to the monopole field, (3) the monopole field angular momentum is independent of the separation between the source of the gravitational field and the test particle, and (4) the geodesics are almost spherically symmetric. The strong similarities between the NUT geodesics and the electromagnetic monopole suggest that the NUT metric is an exact solution for a gravitational magnetic monopole. However, the subtle difference of being only almost spherically symmetric implies that the analogy is not perfect. The almost spherically symmetric nature of the NUT geodesics suggest that the energy of the Dirac string makes a contribution to the solution. They also construct exact solutions for special orbits, discuss a twin paradox, and speculate about the Dirac quantization condition for a gravitational magnetic monopole.

  5. Radial geodesics as a microscopic origin of black hole entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, V.V.

    2005-12-15

    Causal radial geodesics with a positive interval in the Schwarzschild metric include a subset of trajectories completely confined behind a horizon, which compose a thermal statistical ensemble with the Hawking-Gibbons temperature. The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is given by an action at corresponding geodesics of particles with a summed mass equal to that of the black hole in the limit of a large mass. The entropy of a charged black hole is calculated in this way by using the partition function evaluated at radial geodesics confined behind horizons. We establish two quantum phase states inside the black hole and a transition between them. For the Kerr-Newman black hole we specify an angular motion on geodesics to reduce the problem to the case of radial motion elaborated on in previous papers. An appropriate value of entropy for a charged and rotating black hole is obtained by calculating the partition function on thermal geodesics confined behind horizons. The quantum aggregation is classified in a similar way to the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole.

  6. Acoustic biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  7. Acoustic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  8. Paraconformal structures, ordinary differential equations and totally geodesic manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryński, Wojciech

    2016-05-01

    We construct point invariants of ordinary differential equations of arbitrary order that generalise the Tresse and Cartan invariants of equations of order two and three, respectively. The vanishing of the invariants is equivalent to the existence of a totally geodesic paraconformal structure which consists of a paraconformal structure, an adapted GL(2 , R) -connection and a two-parameter family of totally geodesic hypersurfaces on the solution space. The structures coincide with the projective structures in dimension 2 and with the Einstein-Weyl structures of Lorentzian signature in dimension 3. We show that the totally geodesic paraconformal structures in higher dimensions can be described by a natural analogue of the Hitchin twistor construction. We present a general example of Veronese webs that generalise the hyper-CR Einstein-Weyl structures in dimension 3. The Veronese webs are described by a hierarchy of integrable systems.

  9. Geodesic-dome tank roof cuts water contamination, vapor losses

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, A.E. )

    1989-07-10

    Colonial Pipeline Co. has established an ongoing program for using geodesic-dome roofs on tanks in liquid petroleum-product service. As its standard, Colonial adopted geodesicodone roofs, in conjunction with internal floating decks, to replace worn external floating roofs on existing tanks used in gasoline service and for use on new tanks in all types of product service. Geodesic domes are clear-span structures requiring no internal-support columns. This feature allows the associated use of a floating deck that is as vapor tight as is possible to construct. Further, geodesic domes can practically eliminate rainwater contamination, eliminate wind-generated vapor losses, and greatly reduce filling losses associated with conventional external floating roofs.

  10. Modifications of the Schwarzschild null geodesics in effective field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadi, N.

    2009-12-15

    In this paper the dynamics of Schwarzschild null geodesics in the context of low-energy effective field theories incorporating some interactions violating the equivalence principle is examined. Nonperturbed geodesics are expressed in terms of a convenient set of constants called orbital elements. The modifications introduced by the effective interactions are treated as small perturbations, then the method of variation of parameters is employed to find the evolution of the orbital elements for the true worldlines. We next focus our discussion on the geometry of nondispersive photon orbits and highlight the importance of different orbital elements in long-term change of the orbit. This calculation shows that nondispersive forces acting on null geodesics drive a secular growth of the positional elements. As an application of our results we examine the evolution of mean orbital elements in the semiclassical theory of quantum gravitational optics and show that the averaged correction terms are within the range of the uncertainty principle.

  11. Accurate Anisotropic Fast Marching for Diffusion-Based Geodesic Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Jbabdi, S.; Bellec, P.; Toro, R.; Daunizeau, J.; Pélégrini-Issac, M.; Benali, H.

    2008-01-01

    Using geodesics for inferring white matter fibre tracts from diffusion-weighted MR data is an attractive method for at least two reasons: (i) the method optimises a global criterion, and hence is less sensitive to local perturbations such as noise or partial volume effects, and (ii) the method is fast, allowing to infer on a large number of connexions in a reasonable computational time. Here, we propose an improved fast marching algorithm to infer on geodesic paths. Specifically, this procedure is designed to achieve accurate front propagation in an anisotropic elliptic medium, such as DTI data. We evaluate the numerical performance of this approach on simulated datasets, as well as its robustness to local perturbation induced by fiber crossing. On real data, we demonstrate the feasibility of extracting geodesics to connect an extended set of brain regions. PMID:18299703

  12. Acoustic emission data clustering for analyzing damage mechanisms in glass/polyester composites under mode I delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskouei, Amir Refahi; Khamedi, Ramin; Heidary, Hossein; Farajpur, Mehdi

    2012-05-01

    In using acoustic emissions (AE) for mechanical diagnostics, one major problem is the discrimination of events due to different types of damage occurring during loading of composite materials. In the present work, a procedure for the investigation of local damage in composite materials based on the analysis of the signals of Acoustic Emission (AE) is presented. One of the remaining problems is the analysis of the AE signals in order to identify the most critical damage mechanisms. In this work, unsupervised pattern recognition analyses (fuzzyc-means clustering) associated with a principal component analysis are the tools that are used for the classification of the monitored AE events. A cluster analysis of AE data is achieved and the resulting clusters are correlated to the damage mechanisms of the material under investigation. Time domain methods are used to determine new relevant descriptors to be introduced in the classification process in order to improve the characterization and the discrimination of the damage mechanisms. The results show that there is a good fitness between clustering groups and damage mechanisms. Also, AE with clustering procedure are as effective tools that provide a better discrimination of damage mechanisms in glass/polyester composite materials.

  13. Null geodesics in a magnetically charged stringy black hole spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuniyal, Ravi Shankar; Uniyal, Rashmi; Nandan, Hemwati; Purohit, K. D.

    2016-04-01

    We study the null geodesics of a four-dimensional magnetic charged black hole spacetime arising in string theory. The behaviour of effective potential in view of the different values of black hole parameters are analysed in the equatorial plane. The possible orbits for null geodesics are also discussed in view of the different values of the impact parameter. We have also calculated the frequency shift of photons in this spacetime. The results are compared to those obtained for the electrically charged stringy black hole spacetime and the Schwarzschild black hole spacetime in general relativity.

  14. Nonlinear coupling of acoustic and shear mode in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with a density dependent viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, S.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2016-09-01

    The nonlinear propagation of low frequency waves, in a collisionless, strongly coupled dusty plasma (SCDP) with a density dependent viscosity, has been studied with a proper Galilean invariant generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. The well known reductive perturbation technique (RPT) has been employed in obtaining the solutions of the longitudinal and transverse perturbations. It has been found that the nonlinear propagation of the acoustic perturbations govern with the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and are decoupled from the sheared fluctuations. In the regions, where transversal gradients of the flow exists, coupling between the longitudinal and transverse perturbations occurs due to convective nonlinearity which is true for the homogeneous case also. The results, obtained here, can have relative significance to astrophysical context as well as in laboratory plasmas.

  15. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... Acoustic neuromas have been linked with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Acoustic neuromas are uncommon.

  16. Geodesic flows with hyperbolic behaviour of the trajectories and objects connected with them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesin, Ya B.

    1981-08-01

    CONTENTS Introduction Part I. Geodesic flows § 1. Preliminary information from differential geometry, topology, and ergodic theory § 2. Local theory § 3. Hyperbolic properties of geodesic flows § 4. The axiom of visibility and the axiom of asymptoticity § 5. Limiting spheres § 6. Topological properties of geodesic flows § 7. Ergodic properties of geodesic flows § 8. Geodesic flows on manifolds of Anosov type Part II. Frame flows and horocycle flows § 9. Definition of a frame flow § 10. Topological and ergodic properties of a frame flow § 11. Definition of the horocycle flow § 12. Topological and ergodic properties of the horocycle flows References

  17. Amplitude modulation of quantum-ion-acoustic wavepackets in electron-positron-ion plasmas: Modulational instability, envelope modes, extreme waves

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Ata-ur-; Kerr, Michael Mc Kourakis, Ioannis; El-Taibany, Wael F.; Qamar, A.

    2015-02-15

    A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.

  18. Acoustic power absorption and enhancement generated by slow and fast MHD waves. Evidence of solar cycle velocity/intensity amplitude changes consistent with the mode conversion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, R.; Finsterle, W.; García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Jiménez, A.; Elsworth, Y.; Schunker, H.

    2010-06-01

    We used long duration, high quality, unresolved (Sun-as-a star) observations collected by the ground based network BiSON and by the instruments GOLF and VIRGO on board the ESA/NASA SOHO satellite to search for solar-cycle-related changes in mode characteristics in velocity and continuum intensity for the frequency range between 2.5 mHz <ν< 6.8 mHz. Over the ascending phase of solar cycle 23 we found a suppression in the p-mode amplitudes both in the velocity and intensity data between 2.5 mHz <ν< 4.5 mHz with a maximum suppression for frequencies in the range between 2.5 mHz <ν< 3.5 mHz. The size of the amplitude suppression is 13 ± 2 per cent for the velocity and 9 ± 2 per cent for the intensity observations. Over the range of 4.5 mHz <ν< 5.5 mHz the findings hint within the errors to a null change both in the velocity and intensity amplitudes. At still higher frequencies, in the so called High-frequency Interference Peaks (HIPs) between 5.8 mHz <ν< 6.8 mHz, we found an enhancement in the velocity amplitudes with the maximum 36 ± 7 per cent occurring for 6.3 mHz <ν< 6.8 mHz. However, in intensity observations we found a rather smaller enhancement of about 5 ± 2 per cent in the same interval. There is evidence that the frequency dependence of solar-cycle velocity amplitude changes is consistent with the theory behind the mode conversion of acoustic waves in a non-vertical magnetic field, but there are some problems with the intensity data, which may be due to the height in the solar atmosphere at which the VIRGO data are taken.

  19. Comparison of ultrasound B-mode, strain imaging, acoustic radiation force impulse displacement and shear wave velocity imaging using real time clinical breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Raghavan, Bagyam

    2016-04-01

    It has been observed that many pathological process increase the elastic modulus of soft tissue compared to normal. In order to image tissue stiffness using ultrasound, a mechanical compression is applied to tissues of interest and local tissue deformation is measured. Based on the mechanical excitation, ultrasound stiffness imaging methods are classified as compression or strain imaging which is based on external compression and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging which is based on force generated by focused ultrasound. When ultrasound is focused on tissue, shear wave is generated in lateral direction and shear wave velocity is proportional to stiffness of tissues. The work presented in this paper investigates strain elastography and ARFI imaging in clinical cancer diagnostics using real time patient data. Ultrasound B-mode imaging, strain imaging, ARFI displacement and ARFI shear wave velocity imaging were conducted on 50 patients (31 Benign and 23 malignant categories) using Siemens S2000 machine. True modulus contrast values were calculated from the measured shear wave velocities. For ultrasound B-mode, ARFI displacement imaging and strain imaging, observed image contrast and Contrast to Noise Ratio were calculated for benign and malignant cancers. Observed contrast values were compared based on the true modulus contrast values calculated from shear wave velocity imaging. In addition to that, student unpaired t-test was conducted for all the four techniques and box plots are presented. Results show that, strain imaging is better for malignant cancers whereas ARFI imaging is superior than strain imaging and B-mode for benign lesions representations.

  20. Low frequency acoustic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1986-11-04

    A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

  1. Wavefront modulation and subwavelength diffractive acoustics with an acoustic metasurface.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront-shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality to their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a design and realization of an acoustic metasurface based on tapered labyrinthine metamaterials. The demonstrated metasurface can not only steer an acoustic beam as expected from the generalized Snell's law, but also exhibits various unique properties such as conversion from propagating wave to surface mode, extraordinary beam-steering and apparent negative refraction through higher-order diffraction. Such designer acoustic metasurfaces provide a new design methodology for acoustic signal modulation devices and may be useful for applications such as acoustic imaging, beam steering, ultrasound lens design and acoustic surface wave-based applications. PMID:25418084

  2. A hybrid wave-mode formulation for the vibro-acoustic analysis of 2D periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droz, C.; Zhou, C.; Ichchou, M. N.; Lainé, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    In the framework of vibrational analysis of 2D periodic waveguides, Floquet-Bloch theorem is widely applied for the determination of wave dispersion characteristics. In this context, the Wave Finite Element Method (WFEM) combines Periodic Structure Theory (PST) with standard FE packages, enabling wave dispersion analysis of waveguides involving structurally realistic unit-cells. For such applications, the computational efficiency of the WFEM depends on the choice of the formulation and can lead to numerical issues, worsen by extensive computational cost. This paper presents a coupled wave-mode approach for the determination of wave dispersion characteristics in structurally advanced periodic structures. It combines two scales of model order reduction. At the unit-cell's scale, Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) provides the displacement field associated with local resonances of the periodic structure, while the free wave propagation is considered using a spectral problem projection on a reduced set of shape functions associated with propagating waves, thus providing considerable reduction of the computational cost. An application is provided for a bi-directionally stiffened panel and the influence of reduction parameters is discussed, as well as the robustness of the numerical results.

  3. B-Mode and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Imaging of Prostate Zonal Anatomy: Comparison with 3T T2-Weighted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Mark L.; Miller, Zachary A.; Glass, Tyler J.; Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Gupta, Rajan T.; Rosenzweig, Stephen J.; Kauffman, Christopher; Polascik, Thomas J.; Buck, Andrew; Kulbacki, Evan; Madden, John; Lipman, Samantha L.; Rouze, Ned C.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among men in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has gained recent popularity to characterize PCa. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging has the potential to aid PCa diagnosis and management by using tissue stiffness to evaluate prostate zonal anatomy and lesions. MR and B-mode/ARFI in vivo imaging datasets were compared with one another and with gross pathology measurements made immediately after radical prostatectomy. Images were manually segmented in 3D Slicer to delineate the central gland (CG) and prostate capsule, and 3D models were rendered to evaluate zonal anatomy dimensions and volumes. Both imaging modalities showed good correlation between estimated organ volume and gross pathologic weights. Ultrasound and MR total prostate volumes were well correlated (R2 = 0.77), but B-mode images yielded prostate volumes that were larger (16.82% ± 22.45%) than MR images, due to overestimation of the lateral dimension (18.4% ± 13.9%), with less significant differences in the other dimensions (7.4% ± 17.6%, anterior-to-posterior, and −10.8% ± 13.9%, apex-to-base). ARFI and MR CG volumes were also well correlated (R2 = 0.85). CG volume differences were attributed to ARFI underestimation of the apex-to-base axis (−28.8% ± 9.4%) and ARFI overestimation of the lateral dimension (21.5% ± 14.3%). B-mode/ARFI imaging yielded prostate volumes and dimensions that were well correlated with MR T2-weighted image (T2WI) estimates, with biases in the lateral dimension due to poor contrast caused by extraprostatic fat. B-mode combined with ARFI imaging is a promising low-cost, portable, real-time modality that can complement mpMRI for PCa diagnosis, treatment planning, and management. PMID:25060914

  4. B-mode and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging of prostate zonal anatomy: comparison with 3T T2-weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Mark L; Miller, Zachary A; Glass, Tyler J; Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Gupta, Rajan T; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Kauffman, Christopher; Polascik, Thomas J; Buck, Andrew; Kulbacki, Evan; Madden, John; Lipman, Samantha L; Rouze, Ned C; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among men in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has gained recent popularity to characterize PCa. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging has the potential to aid PCa diagnosis and management by using tissue stiffness to evaluate prostate zonal anatomy and lesions. MR and B-mode/ARFI in vivo imaging datasets were compared with one another and with gross pathology measurements made immediately after radical prostatectomy. Images were manually segmented in 3D Slicer to delineate the central gland (CG) and prostate capsule, and 3D models were rendered to evaluate zonal anatomy dimensions and volumes. Both imaging modalities showed good correlation between estimated organ volume and gross pathologic weights. Ultrasound and MR total prostate volumes were well correlated (R(2) = 0.77), but B-mode images yielded prostate volumes that were larger (16.82% ± 22.45%) than MR images, due to overestimation of the lateral dimension (18.4% ± 13.9%), with less significant differences in the other dimensions (7.4% ± 17.6%, anterior-to-posterior, and -10.8% ± 13.9%, apex-to-base). ARFI and MR CG volumes were also well correlated (R(2) = 0.85). CG volume differences were attributed to ARFI underestimation of the apex-to-base axis (-28.8% ± 9.4%) and ARFI overestimation of the lateral dimension (21.5% ± 14.3%). B-mode/ARFI imaging yielded prostate volumes and dimensions that were well correlated with MR T2-weighted image (T2WI) estimates, with biases in the lateral dimension due to poor contrast caused by extraprostatic fat. B-mode combined with ARFI imaging is a promising low-cost, portable, real-time modality that can complement mpMRI for PCa diagnosis, treatment planning, and management. PMID:25060914

  5. Acoustic metric of the compressible draining bathtub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2011-10-01

    The draining bathtub flow, a cornerstone in the theory of acoustic black holes, is here extended to the case of exact solutions for compressible nonviscous flows characterized by a polytropic equation of state. Investigating the analytical configurations obtained for selected values of the polytropic index, it is found that each of them becomes nonphysical at the so called limiting circle. By studying the null geodesics structure of the corresponding acoustic line elements, it is shown that such a geometrical locus coincides with the acoustic event horizon. This region is characterized also by an infinite value of space-time curvature, so the acoustic analogy breaks down there. Possible applications for artificial and natural vortices are finally discussed.

  6. On the failure mode in dry and hygrothermally aged short fiber-reinforced injection-molded polyarylamide composites by acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czigány, T.; Mohd Ishak, Z. A.; Karger-Kocsis, J.

    1995-09-01

    The failure mode in injection-molded short glass (GF) and carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyarylamide (PAR) composites was studied on compact tension (CT) specimens in as-received (AR), hygrothermally aged (HA) and re-dried (RD) states, respectively, using acoustic emission (AE) and fractography. A significant difference was revealed in the failure manner characterized by the cumulative run, amplitude and energy distribution of the AE events as a function of the water content of the composites. Furthermore, a correlation was found between the cumulative AE events up to the maximum load and the fracture toughness of the composites. It was shown that the fracture response and thus the failure behavior of the water-saturated PAR composites can be restored by drying. This fact indicates that the water absorption and desorption are of a purely physical nature, i.e. they are reversible processes. It was established that chopped fiber-reinforced PAR composites fail by matrix deformation along with fiber/matrix debonding in the crack initiation, whereas fiber pull-out becomes dominant in the crack propagation range. Water uptake shifts both the AE amplitude and energy curves toward lower values, a phenomenon attributed to plastification of the PAR matrix by water.

  7. Particle surface area dependence of mineral dust in immersion freezing mode: investigations with freely suspended drops in an acoustic levitator and a vertical wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, K.; Debertshäuser, M.; Eppers, O.; Schmithüsen, H.; Mitra, S. K.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-11-01

    The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of supercooled drops were measured using an acoustic levitator. This technique allows one to freely suspend single drops in the air without any wall contact. Heterogeneous nucleation by two types of illite (illite IMt1 and illite NX) and a montmorillonite sample was investigated in the immersion mode. Drops of 1 mm in radius were monitored by a video camera while cooled down to -28 °C to simulate freezing within the tropospheric temperature range. The surface temperature of the drops was contact-free, determined with an infrared thermometer; the onset of freezing was indicated by a sudden increase of the drop surface temperature. For comparison, measurements with one particle type (illite NX) were additionally performed in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel with drops of 340 μm radius freely suspended. Immersion freezing was observed in a temperature range between -13 and -26 °C as a function of particle type and particle surface area immersed in the drops. Isothermal experiments in the wind tunnel indicated that after the cooling stage freezing still proceeds, at least during the investigated time period of 30 s. The results were evaluated by applying two descriptions of heterogeneous freezing, the stochastic and the singular model. Although the wind tunnel results do not support the time-independence of the freezing process both models are applicable for comparing the results from the two experimental techniques.

  8. Time travel in transformation optics: Metamaterials with closed null geodesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, S. Reece

    2015-06-01

    We apply the methods of transformation optics to theoretical descriptions of spacetimes that support closed null geodesic curves. The metric used is based on frame dragging spacetimes, such as the van Stockum dust or the Kerr black hole. Through transformation optics, this metric is analogous to a material that in theory should allow for communication between past and future. Presented herein is a derivation and description of the spacetime and the resulting permeability, permittivity, and magnetoelectric couplings that a material would need in order for light in the material to follow closed null geodesics. We also address the paradoxical implications of such a material and demonstrate why such a material would not actually result in a violation of causality. A full derivation of the Plebanski equations is also included.

  9. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES ON GEODESIC GRIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Florinski, V.; Guo, X.; Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C.

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.

  10. The Jacobi metric for timelike geodesics in static spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the free motion of massive particles moving in static spacetimes is given by the geodesics of an energy-dependent Riemannian metric on the spatial sections analogous to Jacobi's metric in classical dynamics. In the massless limit Jacobi's metric coincides with the energy independent Fermat or optical metric. For stationary metrics, it is known that the motion of massless particles is given by the geodesics of an energy independent Finslerian metric of Randers type. The motion of massive particles is governed by neither a Riemannian nor a Finslerian metric. The properies of the Jacobi metric for massive particles moving outside the horizon of a Schwarschild black hole are described. By constrast with the massless case, the Gaussian curvature of the equatorial sections is not always negative.

  11. A Few Endpoint Geodesic Restriction Estimates for Eigenfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuehua; Sogge, Christopher D.

    2014-07-01

    We prove a couple of new endpoint geodesic restriction estimates for eigenfunctions. In the case of general 3-dimensional compact manifolds, after a TT* argument, simply by using the L 2-boundedness of the Hilbert transform on , we are able to improve the corresponding L 2-restriction bounds of Burq, Gérard and Tzvetkov (Duke Math J 138:445-486, 2007) and Hu (Forum Math 6:1021-1052, 2009). Also, in the case of 2-dimensional compact manifolds with nonpositive curvature, we obtain improved L 4-estimates for restrictions to geodesics, which, by Hölder's inequality and interpolation, implies improved L p -bounds for all exponents p ≥ 2. We do this by using oscillatory integral theorems of Hörmander (Ark Mat 11:1-11, 1973), Greenleaf and Seeger (J Reine Angew Math 455:35-56, 1994) and Phong and Stein (Int Math Res Notices 4:49-60, 1991), along with a simple geometric lemma (Lemma 3.2) about properties of the mixed-Hessian of the Riemannian distance function restricted to pairs of geodesics in Riemannian surfaces. We are also able to get further improvements beyond our new results in three dimensions under the assumption of constant nonpositive curvature by exploiting the fact that, in this case, there are many totally geodesic submanifolds.

  12. Geodesic completeness in a wormhole spacetime with horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Puente, A.

    2015-08-01

    The geometry of a spacetime containing a wormhole generated by a spherically symmetric electric field is investigated in detail. These solutions arise in high-energy extensions of general relativity formulated within the Palatini approach and coupled to Maxwell electrodynamics. Even though curvature divergences generically arise at the wormhole throat, we find that these spacetimes are geodesically complete. This provides an explicit example where curvature divergences do not imply spacetime singularities.

  13. Nonlinear excitation of subcritical fast ion-driven modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, M.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Inagaki, S.; Osakabe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shimizu, A.; Ida, K.; the LHD experiment group

    2016-05-01

    In collisionless plasma, it is known that linearly stable modes can be destabilized (subcritically) by the presence of structures in phase-space. The growth of such structures is a nonlinear, kinetic mechanism, which provides a channel for free-energy extraction, different from conventional inverse Landau damping. However, such nonlinear growth requires the presence of a seed structure with a relatively large threshold in amplitude. We demonstrate that, in the presence of another, linearly unstable (supercritical) mode, wave–wave coupling can provide a seed, which can lead to subcritical instability by either one of two mechanisms. Both mechanisms hinge on a collaboration between fluid nonlinearity and kinetic nonlinearity. If collisional velocity diffusion is low enough, the seed provided by the supercritical mode overcomes the threshold for nonlinear growth of phase-space structure. Then, the supercritical mode triggers the conventional subcritical instability. If collisional velocity diffusion is too large, the seed is significantly below the threshold, but can still grow by a sustained collaboration between fluid and kinetic nonlinearities. Both of these subcritical instabilities can be triggered, even when the frequency of the supercritical mode is rapidly sweeping. These results were obtained by modeling the subcritical mode kinetically, and the impact of the supercritical mode by simple wave–wave coupling equations. This model is applied to bursty onset of geodesic acoustic modes in an LHD experiment. The model recovers several key features such as relative amplitude, timescales, and phase relations. It suggests that the strongest bursts are subcritical instabilities, with sustained collaboration between fluid and kinetic nonlinearities.

  14. Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.

  15. Geodesic paths for quantum many-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomka, Michael; Souza, Tiago; Rosenberg, Steve; Kolodrubetz, Michael; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    The quantum length is a distance between parameter-dependent eigenstates of an adiabatically driven quantum system. Its associated metric has many intriguing properties, for example it is related to the fidelity susceptibility, an important quantity in the study of quantum phase transitions. The metric also appears as the leading adiabatic correction of the energy fluctuations of a quantum system and gives rise to a time-energy uncertainty principle and a geometric interpretation of time. The adiabatic response of an open quantum system can as well be expressed through this metric. Further, the quantum length introduces the notion of Riemannian geometry to the manifold of eigenstates and hence allows one to define geodesics in parameter space. We study the geodesics in parameter space of certain quantum many-body systems, emerging from this quantum distance. These geodesic paths provide a well-defined optimal control protocol on how to drive the system's parameters in time, to get from one eigenstate to another. Generating optimal evolution plays a central role in quantum information technology, adiabatic quantum computing and quantum metrology. Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).

  16. Geodesic estimation for large deformation anatomical shape averaging and interpolation.

    PubMed

    Avants, Brian; Gee, James C

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this research is to promote variational methods for anatomical averaging that operate within the space of the underlying image registration problem. This approach is effective when using the large deformation viscous framework, where linear averaging is not valid, or in the elastic case. The theory behind this novel atlas building algorithm is similar to the traditional pairwise registration problem, but with single image forces replaced by average forces. These group forces drive an average transport ordinary differential equation allowing one to estimate the geodesic that moves an image toward the mean shape configuration. This model gives large deformation atlases that are optimal with respect to the shape manifold as defined by the data and the image registration assumptions. We use the techniques in the large deformation context here, but they also pertain to small deformation atlas construction. Furthermore, a natural, inherently inverse consistent image registration is gained for free, as is a tool for constant arc length geodesic shape interpolation. The geodesic atlas creation algorithm is quantitatively compared to the Euclidean anatomical average to elucidate the need for optimized atlases. The procedures generate improved average representations of highly variable anatomy from distinct populations. PMID:15501083

  17. Semi-local inversion of the geodesic ray transform in the hyperbolic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courdurier, Matias; Saez, Mariel

    2013-06-01

    The inversion of the ray transform on the hyperbolic plane has applications in geophysical exploration and in medical imaging techniques (such as electrical impedance tomography). The geodesic ray transform has been studied in more general geometries and including attenuation, but all of the available inversion formulas require knowledge of the ray transform for all the geodesics. In this paper we present a different inversion formula for the ray transform on the hyperbolic plane, which has the advantage of only requiring knowledge of the ray transform in a reduced family of geodesics. The required family of geodesics is directly related to the set where the original function is to be recovered.

  18. Simulation of Alfv n frequency cascade modes in reversed shear discharges using a Landau-closure model

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of energetic particle destabilized Alfve n frequency sweeping modes in tokamak reversed-shear safety factor discharges are modelled using a new Landau-closure model that includes coupling to geodesic acoustic wave dynamics and closure relations optimized for energetic particle Alfve n mode resonances. Profiles and equilibria are based upon reconstructions of a DIII-D discharge (#142111) in which a long sequence of frequency sweeping modes were observed. This model (TAEFL) has recently been included in a verification and validation study of n = 3 frequency sweeping modes for this case along with two gyrokinetic codes, GTC and GYRO. This paper provides a more detailed documentation of the equations and methods used in the TAEFL model and extends the earlier calculation to a range of toroidal mode numbers: n = 2 to 6. By considering a range of toroidal mode numbers and scanning over a range of safety factor profiles with varying qmin, both up-sweeping frequency (reversed-shear Alfve n eigenmode) and down-sweeping frequency (toriodal Alfve n eigenmode) modes are present in the results and show qualitative similarity with the frequency variations observed in the experimental spectrograms.

  19. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  20. Ricci magnetic geodesic motion of vortices and lumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqahtani, L. S.; Speight, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ricci magnetic geodesic (RMG) motion in a Kähler manifold is the analogue of geodesic motion in the presence of a magnetic field proportional to the Ricci form. It has been conjectured to model low-energy dynamics of vortex solitons in the presence of a Chern-Simons term, the Kähler manifold in question being the n-vortex moduli space. This paper presents a detailed study of RMG motion in soliton moduli spaces, focusing on the cases of hyperbolic vortices and spherical CP1 lumps. It is shown that RMG flow localizes on fixed point sets of groups of holomorphic isometries, but that the flow on such submanifolds does not, in general, coincide with their intrinsic RMG flow. For planar vortices, it is shown that RMG flow differs from an earlier reduced dynamics proposed by Kim and Lee, and that the latter flow is ill-defined on the vortex coincidence set. An explicit formula for the metric on the whole moduli space of hyperbolic two-vortices is computed (extending an old result of Strachan's), and RMG motion of centred two-vortices is studied in detail. Turning to lumps, the moduli space of static n-lumps is Ratn, the space of degree n rational maps, which is known to be Kähler and geodesically incomplete. It is proved that Rat1 is, somewhat surprisingly, RMG complete (meaning that the initial value problem for RMG motion has a global solution for all initial data). It is also proved that the submanifold of rotationally equivariant n-lumps, Ratneq, a topologically cylindrical surface of revolution, is intrinsically RMG incomplete for n = 2 and all n ≥ 5, but that the extrinsic RMG flow on Rat2eq (defined by the inclusion Rat2eq ↪Rat2) is complete.

  1. On geodesics of the rotation group SO(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelia, Alyssa; O'Reilly, Oliver M.

    2015-11-01

    Geodesics on SO(3) are characterized by constant angular velocity motions and as great circles on a three-sphere. The former interpretation is widely used in optometry and the latter features in the interpolation of rotations in computer graphics. The simplicity of these two disparate interpretations belies the complexity of the corresponding rotations. Using a quaternion representation for a rotation, we present a simple proof of the equivalence of the aforementioned characterizations and a straightforward method to establish features of the corresponding rotations.

  2. Analyzing the radial geodesics of the Campanelli-Lousto solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formiga, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    When dealing with a spacetime, one usually searches for singularities, black holes, white holes and wormholes due to their importance to the motion of particles. There is a family of solution of the Brans-Dicke vacuum equations that has not been fully studied from this perspective. In this paper, I study some properties of this family and find the complete set of solutions that avoids singularity at the point where the metric diverges or degenerates. The possible changes in the metric signature when passing through this point is analyzed. In addition, I also study the radial geodesics and obtain the solutions of some particular cases.

  3. Mechanical and spatial determinants of cytoskeletal geodesic dome formation in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Entcheva, Emilia; Bien, Harold

    2009-02-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the cell cytoskeletal (CSK) network can rearrange from geodesic dome type structures to stress fibers in response to microenvironmental cues. The CSK geodesic domes are highly organized actin microarchitectures within the cell, consisting of ordered polygonal elements. We studied primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts. The cues used to trigger the interconversion between the two CSK architectures (geodesic domes and stress fibers) included factors affecting spatial order and the degree of CSK tension in the cells. Microfabricated three-dimensional substrates with micrometre sized grooves and peaks were used to alter the spatial order of cell growth in culture. CSK tension was modified by 2,3-butanedione 2-monoxime (BDM), cytochalasin D and the hyphae of Candida albicans. CSK geodesic domes occurred spontaneously in about 20% of the neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts used in this study. Microfabricated structured surfaces produced anisotropy in the cell CSK and effectively converted geodesic domes into stress fibers in a dose-dependent manner (dependence on the period of the features). Affectors of actin structure, inhibitors of CSK tension and cell motility, e.g. BDM, cytochalasin D and the hyphae of C. albicans, suppressed or eliminated the geodesic domes. Our data suggest that the geodesic domes, similar to actin stress fibers, require maintenance of CSK integrity and tension. However, microenvironments that promote structural anisotropy in tensed cells cause the transformation of the geodesic domes into stress fibers, consistent with topographic cell guidance and some previous CSK model predictions. PMID:20023805

  4. Mechanical and spatial determinants of cytoskeletal geodesic dome formation in cardiac fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Harold

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the cell cytoskeletal (CSK) network can rearrange from geodesic dome type structures to stress fibers in response to microenvironmental cues. The CSK geodesic domes are highly organized actin microarchitectures within the cell, consisting of ordered polygonal elements. We studied primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts. The cues used to trigger the interconversion between the two CSK architectures (geodesic domes and stress fibers) included factors affecting spatial order and the degree of CSK tension in the cells. Microfabricated three-dimensional substrates with micrometre sized grooves and peaks were used to alter the spatial order of cell growth in culture. CSK tension was modified by 2,3-butanedione 2-monoxime (BDM), cytochalasin D and the hyphae of Candida albicans. CSK geodesic domes occurred spontaneously in about 20% of the neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts used in this study. Microfabricated structured surfaces produced anisotropy in the cell CSK and effectively converted geodesic domes into stress fibers in a dose-dependent manner (dependence on the period of the features). Affectors of actin structure, inhibitors of CSK tension and cell motility, e.g. BDM, cytochalasin D and the hyphae of C. albicans, suppressed or eliminated the geodesic domes. Our data suggest that the geodesic domes, similar to actin stress fibers, require maintenance of CSK integrity and tension. However, microenvironments that promote structural anisotropy in tensed cells cause the transformation of the geodesic domes into stress fibers, consistent with topographic cell guidance and some previous CSK model predictions. PMID:20023805

  5. Dome, Sweet Dome--Geodesic Structures Teach Math, Science, and Technology Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Today, geodesic domes are found on playgrounds, homes, over radar installations, storage facilities, at Disney's Epcot Center, and at World's Fairs. The inventor of the design, Buckminster Fuller, thought that geodesic domes could be used to cover large areas and even designed one to cover all of New York's Manhattan Island. This article details…

  6. Robust Diffeomorphic Mapping via Geodesically Controlled Active Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Tward, Daniel J.; Ma, Jun; Miller, Michael I.; Younes, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents recent advances in the use of diffeomorphic active shapes which incorporate the conservation laws of large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. The equations of evolution satisfying the conservation law are geodesics under the diffeomorphism metric and therefore termed geodesically controlled diffeomorphic active shapes (GDAS). Our principal application in this paper is on robust diffeomorphic mapping methods based on parameterized surface representations of subcortical template structures. Our parametrization of the GDAS evolution is via the initial momentum representation in the tangent space of the template surface. The dimension of this representation is constrained using principal component analysis generated from training samples. In this work, we seek to use template surfaces to generate segmentations of the hippocampus with three data attachment terms: surface matching, landmark matching, and inside-outside modeling from grayscale T1 MR imaging data. This is formulated as an energy minimization problem, where energy describes shape variability and data attachment accuracy, and we derive a variational solution. A gradient descent strategy is employed in the numerical optimization. For the landmark matching case, we demonstrate the robustness of this algorithm as applied to the workflow of a large neuroanatomical study by comparing to an existing diffeomorphic landmark matching algorithm. PMID:23690757

  7. Geodesically complete analytic solutions for a cyclic universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Turok, Neil

    2011-10-15

    We present analytic solutions to a class of cosmological models described by a canonical scalar field minimally coupled to gravity and experiencing self interactions through a hyperbolic potential. Using models and methods inspired by 2T-physics, we show how analytic solutions can be obtained in flat/open/closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes. Among the analytic solutions, there are many interesting geodesically complete cyclic solutions in which the universe bounces at either zero or finite sizes. When geodesic completeness is imposed, it restricts models and their parameters to a certain parameter subspace, including some quantization conditions on initial conditions in the case of zero-size bounces, but no conditions on initial conditions for the case of finite-size bounces. We will explain the theoretical origin of our model from the point of view of 2T-gravity as well as from the point of view of the colliding branes scenario in the context of M-theory. We will indicate how to associate solutions of the quantum Wheeler-deWitt equation with our classical analytic solutions, mention some physical aspects of the cyclic solutions, and outline future directions.

  8. Buckling analysis of geodesically stiffened composite panels with discrete stiffeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdal, Zafer; Grall, Bruno

    1994-09-01

    A computationally efficient analysis is developed to predict the buckling loads of geodesically stiffened composite panels with discrete plate-like stiffeners under in-plane loads. The procedure accounts for the contribution of the in-plane extensional and out-of-plane bending stiffnesses of the stiffeners through the use of a Lagrange multipliers technique in an energy method solution. The analysis is capable of predicting the buckling loads of grid-stiffened panels for a variety of stiffener aspect ratios and stiffener laminate stacking sequences. It can also be used to design panels with variable density grid stiffeners across the panel width. Results of the proposed analysis showed that the buckling loads of geodesically stiffened panels are predicted more accurately, especially in the case of panels with shallow stiffeners, compared to an earlier analysis that assumes the stiffeners to be beam-like components. For plate-like stiffeners, laminate stacking sequence of the stiffeners is found to have a substantial effect on the critical load of a panel. It was demonstrated that the optimal stiffener is not always unidirectional, and tailoring the stiffener ply sequence can lead to improvement in panel stability. It was also shown that panels with a variable grid density can lead to designs with improved buckling performance compared to uniform density panels.

  9. Gravitational Self-Force: Orbital Mechanics Beyond Geodesic Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barack, Leor

    The question of motion in a gravitationally bound two-body system is a longstanding open problem of General Relativity. When the mass ratio η is small, the problem lends itself to a perturbative treatment, wherein corrections to the geodesic motion of the smaller object (due to radiation reaction, internal structure, etc.) are accounted for order by order in η, using the language of an effective gravitational self-force. The prospect for observing gravitational waves from compact objects inspiralling into massive black holes in the foreseeable future has in the past 15 years motivated a program to obtain a rigorous formulation of the self-force and compute it for astrophysically interesting systems. I will give a brief survey of this activity and its achievements so far, and will identify the challenges that lie ahead. As concrete examples, I will discuss recent calculations of certain conservative post-geodesic effects of the self-force, including the O(η ) correction to the precession rate of the periastron. I will highlight the way in which such calculations allow us to make a fruitful contact with other approaches to the two-body problem.

  10. Optimal design of geodesically stiffened composite cylindrical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendron, G.; Guerdal, Z.

    1992-01-01

    An optimization system based on the finite element code Computations Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed and the optimization program, Automated Design Synthesis (ADS), is described. The optimization system can be used to obtain minimum-weight designs of composite stiffened structures. Ply thickness, ply orientations, and stiffener heights can be used as design variables. Buckling, displacement, and material failure constraints can be imposed on the design. The system is used to conduct a design study of geodesically stiffened shells. For comparison purposes, optimal designs of unstiffened shells and shells stiffened by rings and stingers are also obtained. Trends in the design of geodesically stiffened shells are identified. An approach to include local stress concentrations during the design optimization process is then presented. The method is based on a global/local analysis technique. It employs spline interpolation functions to determine displacements and rotations from a global model which are used as 'boundary conditions' for the local model. The organization of the strategy in the context of an optimization process is described. The method is validated with an example.

  11. A thermodynamic study of zatrikean geodesics resulting from a discrete-geometry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geroyannis, V. S.; Dallas, T. G.

    We attempt a connection between thermodynamics and zatrikean pregeometry, i.e., a chess-like pregeometry (Geroyannis 1993, hereafter G93). In zatrikean pregeometry space is represented by the abacus, a discrete chessboard-like structure consisting of a sufficiently large number of plaquettes called geobits. The particles move on the abacus from one geobit to the next following certain rules that resemble the game of chess. The sets of rules imposed on the motions of particles on the abacus are called premetrics. There is a variety of paths (called subabaces) leading from one geobit to another, and there is a class consisting of subabaces with the minimum number of geobits. These are called alyssoids (respectively, class of alyssoids) for the particular premetric, while those alyssoids with minimum length are called geodesics (respectively, class of geodesics) for the particular premetric. The so-called zatrikean geodesic was originally defined in G93 (Section 2) as the geodesic most closely following the line segment joining the two geobits. It is also called algorithmic geodesic since it is drawn with the assistance of four simple algorithms. This is a rectifiable curve; and a connection between rectifiable curves and thermodynamics is already available (DuPain, Kamae and Mendes-France 1986). Consequently, the so-called thermodynamic geodesic is defined as the particular member of the class of geodesics with maximum entropy. Since it does not necessarily correspond to the algorithmic geodesic, a new algorithm is devised that draws the geodesic with maximum entropy. Furthermore, the probability of each member of the class of geodesics can be determined as the difference of its entropy from the entropy of the thermodynamicgeodesic.

  12. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOEpatents

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  13. Guided acoustic wave inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane J.

    2004-10-05

    A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.

  14. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Phase Effect on Mode Coupling in Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability for Two-Dimensional Incompressible Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Feng; Teng, Ai-Ping; Ye, Wen-Hua; Xue, Chuang; Fan, Zheng-Feng; Li, Ying-Jun

    2009-10-01

    This paper studies the phase effect in mode coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in two-dimensional incompressible fluid. It is found that there is an important growth phenomenon of every mode in the mode coupling process. The growth changes periodically with phase difference and in the condition of our simulation the period is about 0.7π. The period characteristic is apparent in all stage of the mode coupling process, especially in the relatively later stage.

  15. The LISA Pathfinder Mission. Tracing Einstein's Geodesics in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; McNamara, Paul W.

    2010-03-01

    LISA Pathfinder, formerly known as SMART-2, is the second of the European Space Agency’s Small Missions for Advance Research and Technology, and is designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, by testing the core assumption of gravitational wave detection and general relativity: that free particles follow geodesics. The new technologies to be demonstrated in a space environment include: inertial sensors, high precision laser interferometry to free floating mirrors, and micro-Newton proportional thrusters. LISA Pathfinder will be launched on a dedicated launch vehicle in late 2011 into a low Earth orbit. By a transfer trajectory, the sciencecraft will enter its final orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point. First science results are expected approximately 3 months thereafter. Here, we give an overview of the mission including the technologies being demonstrated.

  16. Geodesic-light-cone coordinates and the Bianchi I spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Pierre; Nugier, Fabien; Fanizza, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The geodesic-light-cone (GLC) coordinates are a useful tool to analyse light propagation and observations in cosmological models. In this article, we propose a detailed, pedagogical, and rigorous introduction to this coordinate system, explore its gauge degrees of freedom, and emphasize its interest when geometric optics is at stake. We then apply the GLC formalism to the homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi I cosmology. More than a simple illustration, this application (i) allows us to show that the Weinberg conjecture according to which gravitational lensing does not affect the proper area of constant-redshift surfaces is significantly violated in a globally anisotropic universe; and (ii) offers a glimpse into new ways to constrain cosmic isotropy from the Hubble diagram.

  17. Quasilocal contribution to the scalar self-force: Geodesic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Ottewill, Adrian C.; Wardell, Barry

    2008-05-15

    We consider a scalar charge travelling in a curved background space-time. We calculate the quasilocal contribution to the scalar self-force experienced by such a particle following a geodesic in a general space-time. We also show that if we assume a massless field and a vacuum background space-time, the expression for the self-force simplifies significantly. We consider some specific cases whose gravitational analogs are of immediate physical interest for the calculation of radiation-reaction corrected orbits of binary black hole systems. These systems are expected to be detectable by the LISA space based gravitational wave observatory. We also investigate how alternate techniques may be employed in some specific cases and use these as a check on our own results.

  18. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  19. Geodesic and Lense-Thirring precessions effects on the near earth artificial satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwan, M.; El-Salam, F. A. A.; El-Bar, S. E. A.

    2013-02-01

    The present work deals with the effect of the geodesic and Lense-Thirring precessions in a near Earth artificial satellite orbit. The effects of the geodesic and Lense-Thirring precessions on the orbit evolution are surveyed. The Picard method of successive approximation is described. The canonical equations of motion including forces non-derivable from a potential are presented. The acceleration components coming from the geodesic and Lense-Thirring precessions are first obtained, then, the images of these accelerations are evaluated. The integrations are effected using the method of Picard successive iteration.

  20. Optimized curve design for image analysis using localized geodesic distance transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Billy; Niska, Harri; Pöllänen, Irene; Ikonen, Tiia; Haataja, Keijo; Toivanen, Pekka; Tolonen, Teemu

    2015-03-01

    We consider geodesic distance transformations for digital images. Given a M × N digital image, a distance image is produced by evaluating local pixel distances. Distance Transformation on Curved Space (DTOCS) evaluates shortest geodesics of a given pixel neighborhood by evaluating the height displacements between pixels. In this paper, we propose an optimization framework for geodesic distance transformations in a pattern recognition scheme, yielding more accurate machine learning based image analysis, exemplifying initial experiments using complex breast cancer images. Furthermore, we will outline future research work, which will complete the research work done for this paper.

  1. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  2. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  3. iPGA: incremental principal geodesic analysis with applications to movement disorder classification.

    PubMed

    Salehian, Hesamoddin; Vaillancourt, David; Vemuri, Baba C

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear version of the well known PCA called the Prinicipal Geodesic Analysis (PGA) was introduced in the past decade for statistical analysis of shapes as well as diffusion tensors. PGA of diffusion tensor fields or any other manifold-valued fields can be a computationally demanding task due to the dimensionality of the problem and thus establishing motivation for an incremental PGA (iPGA) algorithm. In this paper, we present a novel iPGA algorithm that incrementally updates the current Karcher mean and the principal sub-manifolds with any newly introduced data into the pool without having to recompute the PGA from scratch. We demonstrate substantial computational and memory savings of iPGA over the batch mode PGA for diffusion tensor fields via synthetic and real data examples. Further, we use the iPGA derived representation in an NN classifier to automatically discriminate between controls, Parkinson's Disease and Essential Tremor patients, given their HARDI brain scans. PMID:25485449

  4. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  5. Single mode levitation and translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A single frequency resonance mode is applied by a transducer to acoustically levitate an object within a chamber. This process allows smooth movement of the object and suppression of unwanted levitation modes that would urge the object to a different levitation position. A plunger forms one end of the chamber, and the frequency changes as the plunger moves. Acoustic energy is applied to opposite sides of the chamber, with the acoustic energy on opposite sides being substantially 180 degrees out of phase.

  6. Transverse-Mode Spurious Suppression Technique for Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator with Zero Temperature Coefficient of Frequency on a SiO2/Al/LiNbO3 Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tsurunari, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Joji; Hamaoka, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a suppression technique of transverse-mode spurious responses for a surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator with a near zero temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) on a SiO2/Al/LiNbO3 structure. We investigated the thinning of SiO2 on the dummy electrode region and studied how the transverse-mode responses change with remaining SiO2 thickness h on the dummy electrode region. As the results, we clarified that the remaining SiO2 thickness h on the dummy electrode region has an optimum value and could suppress the transverse-mode spurious responses completely when H and h are set at 0.35 λ and 0.20 λ, respectively. It was demonstrated that the selective SiO2 removal technique is effective to suppress transverse-mode spurious responses for SAW resonators employing the SiO2/Al/LiNbO3 structure for a wide range of SiO2 thicknesses, provided that the SiO2 thickness at the dummy electrode region is adjusted properly.

  7. The propagation characteristics of the plate modes of acoustic emission waves in thin aluminum plates and thin graphite/epoxy composite plates and tubes. Ph.D. Thesis - Johns Hopkins Univ., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic emission was interpreted as modes of vibration in plates. Classical plate theory was used to predict dispersion curves for the two fundamental modes and to calculate the shapes of flexural waveforms produced by vertical step function loading. There was good agreement between theoretical and experimental results for aluminum. Composite materials required the use of a higher order plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) to get good agreement with the measured velocities. Four composite plates with different laminate stacking sequences were studied. The dispersion curves were determined from phase spectra of the time dependent waveforms. Plate modes were shown to be useful for determining the direction of source motion. Aluminum plates were loaded by breaking a pencil lead against their surface. By machining slots at angles to the plane of a plate, the direction in which the force acted was varied. Changing the source motion direction produced regular variations in the waveforms. To demonstrate applicability beyond simple plates, waveforms produced by lead breaks on a thin walled composite tube were also shown to be interpretable as plate modes. The tube design was based on the type of struts proposed for Space Station Freedom's trussed structures.

  8. Regularization of geodesics in static spherically symmetric Kerr-Schild spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, Pablo; Mars, Marc

    2015-04-01

    We describe a method to analyze causal geodesics in static and spherically symmetric spacetimes of Kerr-Schild form which, in particular, allows for a detailed study of the geodesics in the vicinity of the central singularity by means of a regularization procedure based on a generalization of the McGehee regularization for the motion of Newtonian point particles moving in a power-law potential. The McGehee regularization was used by Belbruno and Pretorius [1] to perform a dynamical system regularization of the central singularity of the motion of massless test particles in the Schwarzschild spacetime. Our generalization allows us to consider causal (timelike or null) geodesics in any static and spherically symmetric spacetime of Kerr-Schild form. As an example, we apply these results to causal geodesics in the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom spacetimes.

  9. YNOGKM: Time-like geodesics in the Kerr-Newmann Spacetime calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-lin; Wang, Jian-cheng

    2014-03-01

    YNOGKM (Yun-Nan observatories geodesic in a Kerr-Newman spacetime for massive particles) performs fast calculation of time-like geodesics in the Kerr-Newman (K-N) spacetime; it is a direct extension of YNOGK (Yun-Nan observatories geodesic Kerr) calculating null geodesics in a Kerr spacetime. The four Boyer-Lindquis coordinates and proper time are expressed as functions of a parameter p semi-analytically by using the Weierstrass' and Jacobi's elliptic functions and integrals. The elliptic integrals are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method, which guarantees the fast speed of the code. The source Fortran file ynogkm.f90 contains three modules: constants, rootfind, ellfunction, and blcoordinates.

  10. Why there was a useful plausible analogy between geodesic domes and spherical viruses.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2006-01-01

    In 1962, Donald Caspar and Aaron Klug published their classic theory of virus structure. They developed their theory with an explicit analogy between spherical viruses and Buckminster Fuller's geodesic domes. In this paper, I use the spherical virus-geodesic dome case to develop an account of analogy and deductive analogical inference based on the notion of an isomorphism. I also consider under what conditions there is a good reason to claim an experimentally untested analogy is plausible. PMID:17702504

  11. GEODIST: A C++ program for calculating geodesic distances with a shapefile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Jeong Chang; Choi, Jinmu

    2007-05-01

    In this project a GIS utility, GEODIST, was developed. It allows users to calculate geodesic distances with shapefiles. A C++ class for geodesic calculation was developed too. GEODIST supports 55 pre-defined ellipsoids and, in addition, users can use their own ellipsoids. The utility was tested with the US Interstate Highways dataset. Results showed that the utility is very effective in calculating accurate distances at regional and global scales.

  12. Study of geodesic motion in a (2 +1 )-dimensional charged BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soroushfar, Saheb; Saffari, Reza; Jafari, Afsaneh

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to derive the equation of motion for geodesics in the vicinity of the spacetime of a (2 +1 )-dimensional charged BTZ black hole. In this paper, we solve geodesics for both massive and massless particles in terms of Weierstrass elliptic and Kleinian sigma hyperelliptic functions. Then we determine different trajectories of motion for particles in terms of conserved energy and angular momentum and also with effective potential.

  13. Detailed study of null and timelike geodesics in the Alcubierre warp spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The geodesic equation of the Alcubierre warp spacetime is converted into its non-affinely parametrized form for a detailed discussion of the motion of particles and the visual effects as observed by a traveller inside the warp bubble or a person looking from outside. To include gravitational lensing for point-like light sources, we present a practical approach using the Jacobi equation and the Sachs bases. Additionally, we consider the dragging and geodesic precession of particles due to the warp bubble.

  14. Analytic solutions of the geodesic equation for Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flathmann, Kai; Grunau, Saskia

    2015-11-01

    In this article we study the geodesic motion of test particles and light in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion black hole spacetime. We derive the equations of motion and present their solutions in terms of the Weierstraß ℘, σ and ζ functions. With the help of parametric diagrams and effective potentials we analyze the geodesic motion and give a list of all possible orbit types.

  15. Geodesic active fields--a geometric framework for image registration.

    PubMed

    Zosso, Dominique; Bresson, Xavier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we present a novel geometric framework called geodesic active fields for general image registration. In image registration, one looks for the underlying deformation field that best maps one image onto another. This is a classic ill-posed inverse problem, which is usually solved by adding a regularization term. Here, we propose a multiplicative coupling between the registration term and the regularization term, which turns out to be equivalent to embed the deformation field in a weighted minimal surface problem. Then, the deformation field is driven by a minimization flow toward a harmonic map corresponding to the solution of the registration problem. This proposed approach for registration shares close similarities with the well-known geodesic active contours model in image segmentation, where the segmentation term (the edge detector function) is coupled with the regularization term (the length functional) via multiplication as well. As a matter of fact, our proposed geometric model is actually the exact mathematical generalization to vector fields of the weighted length problem for curves and surfaces introduced by Caselles-Kimmel-Sapiro. The energy of the deformation field is measured with the Polyakov energy weighted by a suitable image distance, borrowed from standard registration models. We investigate three different weighting functions, the squared error and the approximated absolute error for monomodal images, and the local joint entropy for multimodal images. As compared to specialized state-of-the-art methods tailored for specific applications, our geometric framework involves important contributions. Firstly, our general formulation for registration works on any parametrizable, smooth and differentiable surface, including nonflat and multiscale images. In the latter case, multiscale images are registered at all scales simultaneously, and the relations between space and scale are intrinsically being accounted for. Second, this method is, to

  16. Detection of cosmic superstrings by geodesic test particle motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Betti; Sirimachan, Parinya; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    2011-02-15

    (p,q)-strings are bound states of p F-strings and q D-strings and are predicted to form at the end of brane inflation. As such, these cosmic superstrings should be detectable in the Universe. In this paper we argue that they can be detected by the way that massive and massless test particles move in the space-time of these cosmic superstrings. In particular, we study solutions to the geodesic equation in the space-time of field theoretical (p,q)-strings. The geodesics can be classified according to the test particles' energy, angular momentum and momentum in the direction of the string axis. We discuss how the change of the magnetic fluxes, the ratio between the symmetry-breaking scale and the Planck mass, the Higgs-to-gauge-boson mass ratios and the binding between the F- and D-strings, respectively, influence the motion of the test particles. While massless test particles can move only on escape orbits, a new feature as compared to the infinitely thin string limit is the existence of bound orbits for massive test particles. In particular, we observe that--in contrast to the space-time of a single Abelian-Higgs string--bound orbits for massive test particles in (p,q)-string space-times are possible if the Higgs boson mass is larger than the gauge boson mass. We also compute the effect of the binding between the p- and the q-string on observables such as the light deflection and the perihelion shift. While light deflection can also be caused by other matter distributions, the possibility of a negative perihelion shift seems to be a feature of finite width cosmic strings that could lead to the unmistakable identification of such objects. In Melvin space-times, which are asymptotically nonconical, massive test particles have to move on bound orbits, while massless test particles can escape to infinity only if their angular momentum vanishes.

  17. Fluctuating zonal flows in the I-mode regime in Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziegler, I.; Diamond, P. H.; Fedorczak, N.; Manz, P.; Tynan, G. R.; Xu, M.; Churchill, R. M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Lipschultz, B.; Sierchio, J. M.; Terry, J. L.; Theiler, C.

    2013-05-01

    Velocity fields and density fluctuations of edge turbulence are studied in I-mode [F. Ryter et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 40, 725 (1998)] plasmas of the Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] tokamak, which are characterized by a strong thermal transport barrier in the edge while providing little or no barrier to the transport of both bulk and impurity particles. Although previous work showed no clear geodesic-acoustic modes (GAM) on C-Mod, using a newly implemented, gas-puff-imaging based time-delay-estimate velocity inference algorithm, GAM are now shown to be ubiquitous in all I-mode discharges examined to date, with the time histories of the GAM and the I-mode specific [D. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] Weakly Coherent Mode (WCM, f = 100-300 kHz, Δf/f≈0.5, and kθ≈1.3 cm-1) closely following each other through the entire duration of the regime. Thus, the I-mode presents an example of a plasma state in which zero frequency zonal flows and GAM continuously coexist. Using two-field (density-velocity and radial-poloidal velocity) bispectral methods, the GAM are shown to be coupled to the WCM and to be responsible for its broad frequency structure. The effective nonlinear growth rate of the GAM is estimated, and its comparison to the collisional damping rate seems to suggest a new view on I-mode threshold physics.

  18. Topological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-01

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  19. Topological acoustics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-20

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers. PMID:25839273

  20. Geodesic family of spherical instantons and cosmic quantum creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapiedra, Ramon; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2015-09-01

    The Einstein field equations for any spherically symmetric metric and a geodesic perfect fluid source are cast in a canonical simple form, both for Lorentzian metrics and for instantons. Both kinds of metrics are explicitly written for the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi family and for a general -Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. In the latter case (including of course the instanton version) we study whether the probability of quantum creation of our Universe vanishes or not. It is found, in accordance with previous results, that only the closed model can have a nonzero probability for quantum creation. To obtain this result, we resort to general assumptions, which are satisfied in the particular creation case considered by Vilenkin. On the other hand, Fomin and Tryon suggested that the energy of a quantically creatable universe should vanish. This is in accordance with the above result in which only the closed FLRW model is quantically creatable while the open and flat models are not. That is so since it can be seen that this closed model has vanishing energy while the open model and the limiting flat case (suitably perturbed) have both infinite energy.

  1. Absorption by dirty black holes: Null geodesics and scalar waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Caio F. B.; Leite, Luiz C. S.; Crispino, Luís C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are a paradigm in physics nowadays and are expected to be hosted at the centers of galaxies. Supermassive galactic black holes are not isolated, and their surroundings play crucial roles in many observational features. The absorption and scattering of fields by isolated black holes have been vastly studied, allowing the understanding of many phenomenological features. However, as far as we are aware, a study of the influence of the presence of matter surrounding black holes in their planar wave scattering and absorption spectrum is still lacking in the literature. This may be important in the analysis of, for instance, the accretion of dark matter by black holes. We consider planar massless scalar waves incident upon a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a thin spherical shell. We use the partial-wave method to determine the absorption cross section and present a selection of numerical results. In the low-frequency regime, we show that the absorption cross section is equal to the horizon area. At the high-frequency regime, we show that the absorption cross section approaches the geodesic capture cross section.

  2. Geodesic Binding for Degenerate Character Geometry Using Sparse Voxelization.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Olivier; de Lasa, Martin

    2014-10-01

    We propose a fully automatic method for specifying influence weights for closed-form skinning methods, such as linear blend or dual quaternion skinning. Our method is designed to work with production meshes that may contain non-manifold geometry, be non-watertight, have intersecting triangles, or be comprised of multiple connected components. Starting from a character rest pose mesh and skeleton hierarchy, we first voxelize the input geometry. The resulting sparse voxelization is then used to calculate binding weights, based on the geodesic distance between each voxel lying on a skeleton "bone" and all non-exterior voxels. This yields smooth weights at interactive rates, without time-constants, iteration parameters, or costly optimization at bind or pose time. By decoupling weight assignment from distance computation we make it possible to modify weights interactively, at pose time, without additional pre-processing or computation. This allows artists to assess impact of weight selection in the context in which they are used. PMID:26357384

  3. Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields and Geodesics in a Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Stephen

    Photons mediate electromagnetic radiation such that electric and magnetic particles obey the principle of least action from the applied fields. Elastic and inelastic collisions arise after summation of Lagrangian geodesics. In the case of reacting tritium and deuterium, energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and alpha particles. Within fusion tokamaks, alpha particle energies determine if a self sustaining reaction--or ignition--will proceed. If particle mean free path is confined by electric and magnetic fields, then fusion occurs at higher frequencies. If temperature is increased and particle velocity is increased, then collision frequency increases. Modeling the nucleons as polarizable quark dielectric liquid drops increases differentiation between scattering events and fusion. When the cross section of two reactant liquid drops is coincident, fusion occurs. If cross sections do not overlap sufficiently, Coulomb scattering occurs. One strives for understanding of geometric approaches to solving for reactants' cross sections and fusion collision frequency in order to determine power output per particle and critical density of reactants.

  4. Circular geodesics in the Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the equatorial causal (time-like and null) circular geodesics of the Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) black hole in four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. The special characteristics of this black hole are that it is of Petrov-Pirani type-D and the photon trajectories are doubly degenerate principal null congruence. We derive the conditions for the existence of the innermost stable circular orbit, marginally bound circular orbit and circular photon orbit in the background of Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT (KNTN) spacetime. The effective potential for both time-like and null cases have been studied. It is shown that the presence of the NUT parameter deforms the shape of the effective potential in contrast with the zero NUT parameter. We further investigate the energy extraction by the Penrose process for this spacetime. It is shown that the efficiency of this black hole depends on both the charge and NUT parameter. It is observed that the energy gain is maximum when the NUT parameter goes to zero value and for the maximum spin value. When the value of the NUT parameter is increasing, the energy gain is decreasing.

  5. Geodesic shape regression in the framework of currents.

    PubMed

    Fishbaugh, James; Prastawa, Marcel; Gerig, Guido; Durrleman, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Shape regression is emerging as an important tool for the statistical analysis of time dependent shapes. In this paper, we develop a new generative model which describes shape change over time, by extending simple linear regression to the space of shapes represented as currents in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) framework. By analogy with linear regression, we estimate a baseline shape (intercept) and initial momenta (slope) which fully parameterize the geodesic shape evolution. This is in contrast to previous shape regression methods which assume the baseline shape is fixed. We further leverage a control point formulation, which provides a discrete and low dimensional parameterization of large diffeomorphic transformations. This flexible system decouples the parameterization of deformations from the specific shape representation, allowing the user to define the dimensionality of the deformation parameters. We present an optimization scheme that estimates the baseline shape, location of the control points, and initial momenta simultaneously via a single gradient descent algorithm. Finally, we demonstrate our proposed method on synthetic data as well as real anatomical shape complexes. PMID:24684012

  6. Perfect imaging analysis of the spherical geodesic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan

    2012-12-01

    Negative Refractive Lens (NRL) has shown that an optical system can produce images with details below the classic Abbe diffraction limit. This optical system transmits the electromagnetic fields, emitted by an object plane, towards an image plane producing the same field distribution in both planes. In particular, a Dirac delta electric field in the object plane is focused without diffraction limit to the Dirac delta electric field in the image plane. Two devices with positive refraction, the Maxwell Fish Eye lens (MFE) and the Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW) have been claimed to break the diffraction limit using positive refraction with a different meaning. In these cases, it has been considered the power transmission from a point source to a point receptor, which falls drastically when the receptor is displaced from the focus by a distance much smaller than the wavelength. Although these systems can detect displacements up to λ/3000, they cannot be compared to the NRL, since the concept of image is different. The SGW deals only with point source and drain, while in the case of the NRL, there is an object and an image surface. Here, it is presented an analysis of the SGW with defined object and image surfaces (both are conical surfaces), similarly as in the case of the NRL. The results show that a Dirac delta electric field on the object surface produces an image below the diffraction limit on the image surface.

  7. Supersymmetric rotating black hole spacetime tested by geodesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemer, Valeria; Kunz, Jutta

    2014-04-01

    We present the complete analytical solution of the geodesics equations in the supersymmetric [Breckenridge-Myers-Peet-Vafa (BMPV)] spacetime J. C. Breckenridge et al. Phys. Lett. B 391, 93 (1997). We study systematically the properties of massive and massless test particle motion. We analyze the trajectories with analytical methods based on the theory of elliptic functions. Since the nature of the effective potential depends strongly on the rotation parameter ω, one has to distinguish between the under-rotating case, the critical case, and the over-rotating case, as discussed by Gibbons and Herdeiro in their pioneering study G. W. Gibbons and C. A. R. Herdeiro, Classical Quantum Gravity 16, 3619 (1999). We discuss various properties that distinguish this spacetime from the classical relativistic spacetimes like Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, Kerr, or Myers-Perry. The over-rotating BMPV spacetime allows, for instance, for planetary bound orbits for massive and massless particles. We also address causality violation, as analyzed in G. W. Gibbons and C. A. R. Herdeiro, Classical Quantum Gravity 16, 3619 (1999).

  8. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... 177. Battista RA. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am . 2009;42:635-654. ...

  9. Musical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.

  10. The Effect of Resistance on Rocket Injector Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability, where unsteady heat release couples with acoustic modes, has long been an area of concern in liquid rocket engines. Accurate modeling of the acoustic normal modes of the combustion chamber is important to understanding and preventing combustion instability. The injector resistance can have a significant influence on the chamber normal mode shape, and hence on the system stability.

  11. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Optical Operator Method in Two-Mode Case and Entangled Fresnel Operator's Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shan-Jun; Hu, Li-Yun; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2010-05-01

    Based on the entangled Fresnel operator (EFO) proposed in [Commun. Theor. Phys. 46 (2006) 559], the optical operator method studied by the IWOP technique (Ma et al., Commun. Theor. Phys. 49 (2008) 1295) is extended to the two-mode case, which gives the decomposition of the entangled Fresnel operator, corresponding to the decomposition of ray transfer matrix [A, B, C, D]. The EFO can unify those optical operators in two-mode case. Various decompositions of EFO into the exponential canonical operators are obtained. The entangled state representation is useful in the research.

  12. Object injection in geodesic conditions: In-flight and on-ground testing issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoluzzi, D.; Foulon, B.; Marirrodriga, C. García; Lamarre, D.

    2010-06-01

    In absence of forces, any object moves along the straightest possible path in space-time, called geodesic. The presence of a gravity field generates a space-time distortion that reflects on a curvature of the geodesics. Outer space yields a privileged environment to achieve high levels of geodesic purity, thanks to the absence of many non-gravitational force disturbances typical of the Earth, mainly due to the atmosphere, micro-seismic activity, stray electro-magnetic fields, etc. Many experiments in the field of Fundamental Physics, General Relativity and Earth Observation are performed through space missions, in which objects are either set in geodesic conditions or their deviation from a geodesic is measured. In both cases, stray non-gravitational forces acting on them must be reduced to a negligible level. Such missions share the need to bring proof masses to a free-floating condition inside a reference sensor, starting from an Earth environment in which they are subjected to the constraining action against the gravity field and a launch phase characterized by high inertial loads. This results in the need to apply to the proof mass forces that are progressively reduced of several orders of magnitude, down to the lowest possible level associated to the geodesic status. The novel issues that concern the last step of this sequence, defined as "injection in geodesic conditions", make this phase object of study in the field of engineering, in which multiple disciplines are involved. Different approaches are followed in these missions to perform the injection in geodesic motion phase, depending on the proof mass mechanical boundary conditions. Being recognized as a mission critical phase, different on-ground testing approaches have been developed to verify and reduce its criticality. This paper deals with the design and on-ground testing approaches of the injection in geodesic conditions phase developed in the frame of some scientific space missions, chosen as

  13. Parallel-propagated frame along null geodesics in higher-dimensional black hole spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiznak, David; Frolov, Valeri P.; Connell, Patrick; Krtous, Pavel

    2009-01-15

    In [arXiv:0803.3259] the equations describing the parallel transport of orthonormal frames along timelike (spacelike) geodesics in a spacetime admitting a nondegenerate principal conformal Killing-Yano 2-form h were solved. The construction employed is based on studying the Darboux subspaces of the 2-form F obtained as a projection of h along the geodesic trajectory. In this paper we demonstrate that, although slightly modified, a similar construction is possible also in the case of null geodesics. In particular, we explicitly construct the parallel-transported frames along null geodesics in D=4, 5, 6 Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes. We further discuss the parallel transport along principal null directions in these spacetimes. Such directions coincide with the eigenvectors of the principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor. Finally, we show how to obtain a parallel-transported frame along null geodesics in the background of the 4D Plebanski-Demianski metric which admits only a conformal generalization of the Killing-Yano tensor.

  14. Influence of geometry variations on the gravitational focusing of timelike geodesic congruences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seriu, Masafumi

    2015-10-01

    We derive a set of equations describing the linear response of the convergence properties of a geodesic congruence to arbitrary geometry variations. It is a combination of equations describing the deviations from the standard Raychaudhuri-type equations due to the geodesic shifts and an equation describing the geodesic shifts due to the geometry variations. In this framework, the geometry variations, which can be chosen arbitrarily, serve as probes to investigate the gravitational contraction processes from various angles. We apply the obtained framework to the case of conformal geometry variations, characterized by an arbitrary function f (x ), and see that the formulas get simplified to a great extent. We investigate the response of the convergence properties of geodesics in the latest phase of gravitational contractions by restricting the class of conformal geometry variations to the one satisfying the strong energy condition. We then find out that in the final stage, f and D .D f control the overall contraction behavior and that the contraction rate gets larger when f is negative and |f | is so large as to overwhelm |D .D f |. (Here D .D is the Laplacian operator on the spatial hypersurfaces orthogonal to the geodesic congruence in concern.) To get more concrete insights, we also apply the framework to the time-reversed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model as the simplest case of the singularity formations.

  15. Geometric structure and geodesic in a solvable model of nonequilibrium process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Lee, UnJin; Heseltine, James; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the geometric structure of a nonequilibrium process and its geodesic solutions. By employing an exactly solvable model of a driven dissipative system (generalized nonautonomous Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process), we compute the time-dependent probability density functions (PDFs) and investigate the evolution of this system in a statistical metric space where the distance between two points (the so-called information length) quantifies the change in information along a trajectory of the PDFs. In this metric space, we find a geodesic for which the information propagates at constant speed, and demonstrate its utility as an optimal path to reduce the total time and total dissipated energy. In particular, through examples of physical realizations of such geodesic solutions satisfying boundary conditions, we present a resonance phenomenon in the geodesic solution and the discretization into cyclic geodesic solutions. Implications for controlling population growth are further discussed in a stochastic logistic model, where a periodic modulation of the diffusion coefficient and the deterministic force by a small amount is shown to have a significant controlling effect.

  16. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Beam Parameters for End Diffraction of TE0 Mode of Planar Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lian-Huang; Guo, Fu-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The relation between diffractive beam parameters and normalized frequency is analyzed that leads to two improved formulas for two kinds of mode-field half-widths and several formulas for divergence angle as well as beam propagation factor. The numerical calculation indicates that the maximal relative error is less than 0.5% within a reasonable parameter range.

  17. Acoustic Waves in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Sarvazyan, Armen P.; Urban, Matthew W.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term “ultrasonography,” or its abbreviated version “sonography” meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Since the 1990s numerous acoustic imaging modalities started to emerge based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. It was demonstrated that imaging with these waves can provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We will discuss physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities, and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications will be presented. We will discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications. PMID:23643056

  18. Analysis of Rayleigh-Mode Spurious Response Using Finite Element Method/Spectrum Domain Analysis for Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator on Nonflat SiO2/Al/LiNbO3 Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Hidekazu; Goto, Rei; Hashimoto, Ken-ya; Yamaguchi, Masatsune

    2010-07-01

    Because of their low insertion loss, high out-of-band rejection, and high power durability, miniature surface acoustic wave (SAW) duplexers are widely used in mobile phones. Substrate materials substantially limit and determine the performance of SAW duplexers; for their applications to Band I and Band IV systems with large pass-band widths and wide frequency separations between the transmitting and receiving frequency bands, a larger coupling coefficient (K2) is of primary importance. We have developed a shape-controlled SiO2 film/Al electrode/LiNbO3 substrate structure for their applications. It could lead to a large K2 and suppression of Rayleigh-mode spurious response. In this paper, we report the analysis using finite element method/spectrum domain analysis (FEM/SDA) for the SAW resonator on a nonflat SiO2 film/Al electrode/LiNbO3 structure. It was clarified that the shape-controlled SiO2 was effective in terms of achieving a large K2 for the SAW resonator with suppressed Rayleigh-mode spurious responses and bulk wave radiation. Furthermore, the experiment results showed a good agreement with the analysis results.

  19. Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangen, J.; Herrmann, H.; Ricken, R.; Seibert, H.; Sohler, W.

    1989-11-01

    A TM/TE convertor is combined with a TE-pass polarizer on a common LiNbO3 chip to obtain an integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter. Its tuning range is 1.45-1.57 micron wavelength with a filter half-width of 2.8 nm. Due to the combined acoustical/optical strip guide structure used in the mode convertor, a very low acoustic drive power of only 9 mW is required.

  20. Acoustical scale modeling of roadway traffic noise

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.S.

    1980-03-01

    During the planning and design of any federally assisted highway project, noise levels must be predicted for the highway in its operational mode. The use of an acoustical scale modeling technique to predict roadway traffic noise is described. Literature pertaining to acoustical scale modeling of outdoor noise propagation, particularly roadway noise, is reviewed. Field and laboratory measurements validated the predictions of the acoustical scale modeling technique. (1 photo)

  1. Resonant interaction of acoustic waves with subaqueous bedforms: Sand dunes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Linus Y S; Chang, Andrea Y Y; Reeder, D Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The large subaqueous sand dunes in the South China Sea are expected to produce the coupling of energy between acoustic normal modes. In this letter, resonant interaction between acoustic propagating modes and subaqueous bedforms are numerically investigated as a function of bedform wavelength, acoustic frequency and bedform packet length. The results demonstrate that bedform wavelength impacts acoustic mode coupling behavior, with the principal transfer of energy occurring between acoustic modes whose eigenvalue difference is equal to the peak value in the bedform wavenumber spectrum. The observed effect of wavelength is greater than that of acoustic frequency and bedform packet length. PMID:26723360

  2. Joint geodesic depth propagation for two-dimensional-to-three-dimensional video conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Cheolkon; Cai, Jiji

    2016-01-01

    We propose joint geodesic depth propagation (JGDP) for two-dimensional-to-three-dimensional video conversion. To save substantial human effort and produce high-quality depth maps, we adopt a key-frame depth propagation strategy based on a geodesic distance. First, we perform block matching between current and reference frames to estimate motion vectors (MVs). Second, we conduct depth compensation from the reference depth map for obtaining the current depth map based on MVs. Finally, we refine the depth map using joint geodesic filtering. Experimental results demonstrate that JGDP achieves an average 2.4-dB gain in peak-signal-to-noise ratio and 0.019 gain in structure similarity over state-of-the-art depth propagation methods.

  3. Geodesic Deviation Equation in ΛCDM f(T,T) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganiou, M. G.; Salako, Ines G.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Tossa, J.

    2016-04-01

    The geodesic deviation equation has been investigated in the framework of f(T,T) gravity, where T denotes the torsion and T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. The FRW metric is assumed and the geodesic deviation equation has been established following the General Relativity approach in the first hand and secondly, by a direct method using the modified Friedmann equations. Via fundamental observers and null vector fields with FRW background, we have generalized the Raychaudhuri equation and the Mattig relation in f(T,T) gravity. Furthermore, we have numerically solved the geodesic deviation equation for null vector fields by considering a particular form of f(T,T) which induces interesting results susceptible to be tested with observational data.

  4. Complete Integrability of Geodesic Motion in General Higher-Dimensional Rotating Black-Hole Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Don N.; Kubizňák, David; Vasudevan, Muraari; Krtouš, Pavel

    2007-02-01

    We explicitly exhibit n-1=[D/2]-1 constants of motion for geodesics in the general D-dimensional Kerr-NUT-AdS rotating black hole spacetime, arising from contractions of even powers of the 2-form obtained by contracting the geodesic velocity with the dual of the contraction of the velocity with the (D-2)-dimensional Killing-Yano tensor. These constants of motion are functionally independent of each other and of the D-n+1 constants of motion that arise from the metric and the D-n=[(D+1)/2] Killing vectors, making a total of D independent constants of motion in all dimensions D. The Poisson brackets of all pairs of these D constants are zero, so geodesic motion in these spacetimes is completely integrable.

  5. Geodesic Deviation Equation in ΛCDM f(T,{T}) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganiou, M. G.; Salako, Ines G.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Tossa, J.

    2016-09-01

    The geodesic deviation equation has been investigated in the framework of f(T,{T}) gravity, where T denotes the torsion and {T} is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. The FRW metric is assumed and the geodesic deviation equation has been established following the General Relativity approach in the first hand and secondly, by a direct method using the modified Friedmann equations. Via fundamental observers and null vector fields with FRW background, we have generalized the Raychaudhuri equation and the Mattig relation in f(T,{T}) gravity. Furthermore, we have numerically solved the geodesic deviation equation for null vector fields by considering a particular form of f(T,{T}) which induces interesting results susceptible to be tested with observational data.

  6. Importance of centrifugal effects for the internal kink mode stability in toroidally rotating tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlberg, C.

    2009-11-15

    Analytical theory and two different magnetohydrodynamical stability codes are used in a study of the effects of toroidal plasma rotation on the stability of the ideal, internal kink mode in tokamaks. The focus of the paper is on the role that the centrifugal effects on the plasma equilibrium play for the stability of this mode, and results from one code where centrifugal effects are self-consistently included (CASTOR-FLOW) [E. Strumberger et al., Nucl. Fusion 45, 1156 (2005)] are compared with the results from another code where such effects are not taken into account (MISHKA-F) [I. T. Chapman et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 062511 (2006)]. It is found that, even at rather modest flow speeds, the centrifugal effects are very important for the stability of the internal kink mode. While the results from the two codes can be quite similar for certain profiles in the plasma, completely opposite results are obtained for other profiles. A very good agreement between analytical theory and the numerical results are, both for inconsistent and consistent equilibria, found for plasmas with large aspect ratio. From the analytical theory, the distinctly different stability properties of equilibria with and without centrifugal effects included can be traced to the stabilizing effect of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) induced by the plasma rotation. This GAM exists solely as a consequence of the nonuniform plasma density and pressure created by the centrifugal force on the flux surfaces, and a stabilizing coupling of the internal kink instability to this mode cannot therefore take place if the centrifugal effects are not included in the equilibrium. In addition to the GAM stabilization, the effects of the radial profiles of the plasma density and rotation velocity are also found to be significant, and the importance of these effects increases with decreasing aspect ratio.

  7. Evaluating geodesic active contours in microcalcifications segmentation on mammograms.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marcelo A; Alvarenga, Andre V; Azevedo, Carolina M; Calas, Maria Julia G; Infantosi, Antonio F C; Pereira, Wagner C A

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring type of cancer among women, and it is the major cause of female cancer-related deaths worldwide. Its incidence is increasing in developed as well as developing countries. Efficient strategies to reduce the high death rates due to breast cancer include early detection and tumor removal in the initial stages of the disease. Clinical and mammographic examinations are considered the best methods for detecting the early signs of breast cancer; however, these techniques are highly dependent on breast characteristics, equipment quality, and physician experience. Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have been developed to improve the accuracy of mammographic diagnosis; usually such systems may involve three steps: (i) segmentation; (ii) parameter extraction and selection of the segmented lesions and (iii) lesions classification. Literature considers the first step as the most important of them, as it has a direct impact on the lesions characteristics that will be used in the further steps. In this study, the original contribution is a microcalcification segmentation method based on the geodesic active contours (GAC) technique associated with anisotropic texture filtering as well as the radiologists' knowledge. Radiologists actively participate on the final step of the method, selecting the final segmentation that allows elaborating an adequate diagnosis hypothesis with the segmented microcalcifications presented in a region of interest (ROI). The proposed method was assessed by employing 1000 ROIs extracted from images of the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). For the selected ROIs, the rate of adequately segmented microcalcifications to establish a diagnosis hypothesis was at least 86.9%, according to the radiologists. The quantitative test, based on the area overlap measure (AOM), yielded a mean of 0.52±0.20 for the segmented images, when all 2136 segmented microcalcifications were considered. Moreover, a

  8. A spectral element shallow water model on spherical geodesic grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Francis X.

    2001-04-01

    The spectral element method for the two-dimensional shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. The equations are written in conservation form and the domains are discretized using quadrilateral elements obtained from the generalized icosahedral grid introduced previously (Giraldo FX. Lagrange-Galerkin methods on spherical geodesic grids: the shallow water equations. Journal of Computational Physics 2000; 160: 336-368). The equations are written in Cartesian co-ordinates that introduce an additional momentum equation, but the pole singularities disappear. This paper represents a departure from previously published work on solving the shallow water equations on the sphere in that the equations are all written, discretized, and solved in three-dimensional Cartesian space. Because the equations are written in a three-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system, the algorithm simplifies into the integration of surface elements on the sphere from the fully three-dimensional equations. A mapping (Song Ch, Wolf JP. The scaled boundary finite element method - alias consistent infinitesimal finite element cell method - for diffusion. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1999; 45: 1403-1431) which simplifies these computations is described and is shown to contain the Eulerian version of the method introduced previously by Giraldo (Journal of Computational Physics 2000; 160: 336-368) for the special case of triangular elements. The significance of this mapping is that although the equations are written in Cartesian co-ordinates, the mapping takes into account the curvature of the high-order spectral elements, thereby allowing the elements to lie entirely on the surface of the sphere. In addition, using this mapping simplifies all of the three-dimensional spectral-type finite element surface integrals because any of the typical two-dimensional planar finite element or spectral element basis functions found in any textbook (for example, Huebner et al

  9. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  10. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow growing tumor which arise primarily from the vestibular portion of the VIII cranial nerve and lie ... you have a "brain tumor" called acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma). You think you are the only one ...

  11. Underwater Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

    It is well underwater established that sound waves, compared to electromagnetic waves, propagate long distances in the ocean. Hence, in the ocean as opposed to air or a vacuum, one uses sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) instead navigation and ranging (SONAR) of radar, acoustic communication instead of radio, and acoustic imaging and tomography instead of microwave or optical imaging or X-ray tomography. Underwater acoustics is the science of sound in water (most commonly in the ocean) and encompasses not only the study of sound propagation, but also the masking of sound signals by interfering phenomenon and signal processing for extracting these signals from interference. This chapter we will present the basics physics of ocean acoustics and then discuss applications.

  12. Conventional Gymnasium vs. Geodesic Field House. A Comparative Study of High School Physical Education and Assembly Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    A description is presented of the design features of a high school's geodesic dome field house. Following consideration of various design features and criteria for the physical education facility, a comprehensive analysis is given of comparative costs of a geodesic dome field house and conventional gymnasium. On the basis of the study it would…

  13. Geodesic equations in the static and rotating dilaton black holes: Analytical solutions and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soroushfar, Saheb; Saffari, Reza; Sahami, Ehsan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the timelike and null geodesics around the static (GMGHS, magnetically charged GMGHS, electrically charged GMGHS) and the rotating (Kerr-Sen dilaton-axion) dilaton black holes. The geodesic equations are solved in terms of Weierstrass elliptic functions. To classify the trajectories around the black holes, we use the analytical solution and effective potential techniques and then characterize the different types of the resulting orbits in terms of the conserved energy and angular momentum. Also, using the obtained results we study astrophysical applications.

  14. On geodesics with negative energies in the ergoregions of dirty black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2015-03-01

    We consider behavior of equatorial geodesics with the negative energy in the ergoregion of a generic rotating "dirty" (surrounded by matter) black hole. It is shown that under very simple and generic conditions on the metric coefficients, there are no such circular orbits. This entails that such geodesic must originate and terminate under the event horizon. These results generalize the observation made for the Kerr metric in A. A. Grib, Yu. V. Pavlov and V. D. Vertogradov, Mod. Phys. Lett.29, 1450110 (2014), arXiv:1304.7360.

  15. Experimental evaluation of a spinning-mode acoustic-treatment design concept for aircraft inlets. [suppression of YF-102 engine fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Rice, E. J.; Homyak, L.

    1980-01-01

    An aircraft-inlet noise suppressor method based on mode cutoff ratio was qualitatively checked by testing a series of liners on a YF-102 turbofan engine. Far-field directivity of the blade passing frequency was used extensively to evaluate the results. The trends and observations of the test data lend much qualitative support to the design method. The best of the BPF liners attained a suppression at design frequency of 19 dB per unit length-diameter ratio. The best multiple-pure-tone linear attained a remarkable suppression of 65.6 bB per unit length-diameter ratio.

  16. Scanning tomographic acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hua

    2002-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of the scanning tomographic acoustic microscopy (STAM). This research effort spans over a period of more than 12 years, which successfully elevated the acoustic microscopy from the traditional intensity-mapping mode to the level of holographic and tomographic imaging. The tomographic imaging capability of STAM was developed on the platform of the scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM), which operates in a coherent transmission mode with plane-wave illumination and scanning laser wavefield detection. The image formation techniques were based on the backward propagation method implemented in the plane-to-plane format. In this paper, the key elements of the design and development, including the modification of the data-acquisition hardware, implementation of image reconstruction algorithms for multiple-frequency and multiple-angle tomography, and the high-precision phase-correction and image registration techniques for the superposition of coherent sub-images, will be discussed. Results of full-scale experiments will also be included to demonstrate the capability of holographic and tomographic image formation in microscopic scale.

  17. Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

  18. Integrated Optical, Acoustically Tunable Wavelength Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangen, J.; Herrmann, Harald; Ricken, Raimund; Seibert, Holger; Sohler, Wolfgang; Strake, E.

    1989-12-01

    An integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter, consisting of a combination of TM-TE converter and integrated polarizer in LiNbO3, is demonstrated. The filter bandwidth is 2.8 nm; the center wavelength can be tuned from λ = 1.45 pm to λ = 1.57 pm by adjusting the driving acoustic frequency. Due to the combined acoustical/optical strip guide structure, used in the mode converter, a very low acoustic drive power of only 9 mW is required.

  19. The geodesic flow of a generic metric does not admit nontrivial integrals polynomial in momenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, Boris; Matveev, Vladimir S.

    2016-06-01

    Any smooth geodesic flow is locally Liouville integrable with smooth integrals. We show that generically this fails if we require, in addition, that the integrals are polynomial (or, more generally, analytic) in momenta. Consequently we obtain that a generic real-analytic metric does not admit, even locally, a real-analytic integral.

  20. A survey on sufficient conditions for geodesic completeness of nondegenerate hypersurfaces in Lorentzian geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkekog˜lu, Fazilet

    2016-02-01

    This is a survey of the principal results about the geodesic completeness of nondegenerate hypersurfaces in Lorentzian manifolds from a structural point of view. Some of these results retain their validity in the case of semi-Riemannian submanifolds in semi-Euclidean spaces, as well.

  1. Covariant Formulation of Fluid Dynamics and Estakhr's Material Geodesic Equation, far down the Rabbit hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estakhr, Ahmad Reza

    2013-11-01

    ``When i meet God, I am going to ask him two questions, why relativity and why turbulence. A. Einstein'' You probably will not need to ask these questions of God, I've already answered both of them. Uμ = γ (c , u (r --> , t)) denotes four-velocity field. Jμ = ρUμ denotes four-current mass density. Estakhr's Material-Geodesic equation is developed analogy of Navier Stokes equation and Einstein Geodesic equation. DJμ/Dτ =dJμ/Dτ +ΓαβμJαUβ =JνΩμν +∂νTμν +ΓαβμJαUβ Covariant formulation of fluid dynamics, describe the motion of fluid substances. The local existence and uniqueness theorem for geodesics states that geodesics on a smooth manifold with an affine connection exist, and are unique. EMG equation is also applicable in different branches of physics, it all depend on what you mean by 4-current density, if you mean 4-current electron number density then it is plasma physics, if you mean 4-current electron charge density then it is DJμ/Dτ =JνFμν +∂νTμν +ΓαβμJαUβ electromagnetism.

  2. Acoustic Faraday rotation in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Donghao; Shi, Junren

    We investigate the phonon problems in Weyl semimetals, from which both the phonon Berry curvature and the phonon Damping could be obtained. We show that even without a magnetic field, the degenerate transverse acoustic modes could also be split due to the adiabatic curvature. In three dimensional case, acoustic Faraday rotation shows up. And furthermore, since the attenuation procedure could distinguish the polarized mode, single circularly polarized acoustic wave could be realized. We study the mechanism in the novel time reversal symmetry broken Weyl semimetal. New effects rise because of the linear dispersion, which give enlightenment in the measurement of this new kind of three-dimensional material.

  3. B-mode ultrasound-detected carotid artery lesions with and without acoustic shadowing and their association with markers of inflammation and endothelial activation: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kelly J; Pankow, James S; Offenbacher, Steven; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Duncan, Bruce B; Shahar, Eyal; Sharrett, A Richey; Heiss, Gerardo

    2002-05-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 8695 men and women free of clinical CVD, aged 45-64 years at the 1987-1989 baseline Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study exam, we examined the relationship between carotid artery lesions (CALs), with and without acoustic shadowing (AS) as an index of plaque mineralization, to systemic markers of inflammation and markers of endothelial function, including endothelial adhesion molecules. A three-level variable, based on the presence of extracranial CALs and AS, identified by B-mode ultrasound of six 1 cm arterial segments, defined the outcome. Among subjects without evidence of AS, after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, study site, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking status, CALs were associated with systemic markers of inflammation, including higher levels of fibrinogen [OR=1.24 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.40)] and white blood cell count [OR=1.37 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.56)]. Among subjects with a CAL, after controlling for the above risk factors as well as mean far wall intima-media thickness, AS was associated with higher levels of von Willebrand factor [OR=1.38 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.74)], a marker of endothelial activation. Associations with endothelial adhesion molecules were inconsistent. Further studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms of arterial mineralization are warranted. PMID:11947908

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Geodesically Stiffened Cylindrical Composite Shells Using a Layerwise Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhard, Craig Steven; Gurdal, Zafer; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    1996-01-01

    Layerwise finite element analyses of geodesically stiffened cylindrical shells are presented. The layerwise laminate theory of Reddy (LWTR) is developed and adapted to circular cylindrical shells. The Ritz variational method is used to develop an analytical approach for studying the buckling of simply supported geodesically stiffened shells with discrete stiffeners. This method utilizes a Lagrange multiplier technique to attach the stiffeners to the shell. The development of the layerwise shells couples a one-dimensional finite element through the thickness with a Navier solution that satisfies the boundary conditions. The buckling results from the Ritz discrete analytical method are compared with smeared buckling results and with NASA Testbed finite element results. The development of layerwise shell and beam finite elements is presented and these elements are used to perform the displacement field, stress, and first-ply failure analyses. The layerwise shell elements are used to model the shell skin and the layerwise beam elements are used to model the stiffeners. This arrangement allows the beam stiffeners to be assembled directly into the global stiffness matrix. A series of analytical studies are made to compare the response of geodesically stiffened shells as a function of loading, shell geometry, shell radii, shell laminate thickness, stiffener height, and geometric nonlinearity. Comparisons of the structural response of geodesically stiffened shells, axial and ring stiffened shells, and unstiffened shells are provided. In addition, interlaminar stress results near the stiffener intersection are presented. First-ply failure analyses for geodesically stiffened shells utilizing the Tsai-Wu failure criterion are presented for a few selected cases.

  5. Comments on computational underwater acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom, G.

    1993-04-01

    Two fundamental facts control the choice of computational methods in underwater acoustics. One is that over most of the ocean the sound speed varies much more rapidly with depth than in the horizontal directions. The other is that upon going down from the surface, the sound speed usually decreases to a minimum and then increases from there to the bottom. These properties of the medium imply that the ocean often acts as a waveguide, with energy trapped in a depth-band about the sound-speed minimum. One consequence of these facts is that approximation by normal modes is valid over large regions of the ocean, particularly if correction is made for the slow variation of the modes caused by variation in bottom depth and horizontal variation in sound speed. In portions of the ocean where approximation by normal modes is not valid, we may still often use a paraxial approximation. Paraxial approximations may be used when the wave motion is primarily in a single direction, with slow variation of the signal in directions tangent to the wave front. They are often called ``parabolic`` equations in ocean acoustics, but the term ``paraxial`` is standard in other branches of physics, inducting optics and seismology. Finite-difference approximations are also sometimes used in underwater acoustics, but they are much more computationally intensive than normal modes or paraxial approximations. Finite differences are therefore ordinarily used only where these other methods are not valid, such as in shallow water with rapidly varying depth. One could also use finite elements in these instances, but for acoustics problems finite elements are a special class of finite-difference methods. We discuss finite differences only briefly in this report, because they are not generally used in long-range acoustics.

  6. Comments on computational underwater acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom, G.

    1993-04-01

    Two fundamental facts control the choice of computational methods in underwater acoustics. One is that over most of the ocean the sound speed varies much more rapidly with depth than in the horizontal directions. The other is that upon going down from the surface, the sound speed usually decreases to a minimum and then increases from there to the bottom. These properties of the medium imply that the ocean often acts as a waveguide, with energy trapped in a depth-band about the sound-speed minimum. One consequence of these facts is that approximation by normal modes is valid over large regions of the ocean, particularly if correction is made for the slow variation of the modes caused by variation in bottom depth and horizontal variation in sound speed. In portions of the ocean where approximation by normal modes is not valid, we may still often use a paraxial approximation. Paraxial approximations may be used when the wave motion is primarily in a single direction, with slow variation of the signal in directions tangent to the wave front. They are often called parabolic'' equations in ocean acoustics, but the term paraxial'' is standard in other branches of physics, inducting optics and seismology. Finite-difference approximations are also sometimes used in underwater acoustics, but they are much more computationally intensive than normal modes or paraxial approximations. Finite differences are therefore ordinarily used only where these other methods are not valid, such as in shallow water with rapidly varying depth. One could also use finite elements in these instances, but for acoustics problems finite elements are a special class of finite-difference methods. We discuss finite differences only briefly in this report, because they are not generally used in long-range acoustics.

  7. Acoustical-Levitation Chamber for Metallurgy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sample moved to different positions for heating and quenching. Acoustical levitation chamber selectively excited in fundamental and second-harmonic longitudinal modes to hold sample at one of three stable postions: A, B, or C. Levitated object quickly moved from one of these positions to another by changing modes. Object rapidly quenched at A or C after heating in furnace region at B.

  8. Extraordinary acoustic transmission through annuluses in air and its applications in acoustic beam splitter and concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yong; Sun, Hong-xiang; Liu, Shu-sen; Yuan, Shou-qi; Xia, Jian-ping; Guan, Yi-jun; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2016-08-01

    We report an extraordinary acoustic transmission through two layer annuluses made of metal cylinders in air both numerically and experimentally. The effect arises from the enhancement and reconstruction of the incident source induced by different Mie-resonance modes of the annuluses. The proposed system takes advantages of the consistency in the waveform between the input and output waves, the high amplitude amplification of output waves, and the easy adjustment of structure. More interestingly, we investigate the applications of the extraordinary acoustic transmission in the acoustic beam splitter and acoustic concentrator. Our finding should have an impact on ultrasonic applications.

  9. Extraordinary acoustic transmission through annuluses in air and its applications in acoustic beam splitter and concentrator.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yong; Sun, Hong-Xiang; Liu, Shu-Sen; Yuan, Shou-Qi; Xia, Jian-Ping; Guan, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Yi

    2016-08-01

    We report an extraordinary acoustic transmission through two layer annuluses made of metal cylinders in air both numerically and experimentally. The effect arises from the enhancement and reconstruction of the incident source induced by different Mie-resonance modes of the annuluses. The proposed system takes advantages of the consistency in the waveform between the input and output waves, the high amplitude amplification of output waves, and the easy adjustment of structure. More interestingly, we investigate the applications of the extraordinary acoustic transmission in the acoustic beam splitter and acoustic concentrator. Our finding should have an impact on ultrasonic applications. PMID:27587144

  10. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  11. Acoustic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Lauterborn, W.; Parlitz, U.; Holzfuss, J.; Billo, A.; Akhatov, I.

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic cavitation, a complex, spatio-temporal dynamical system, is investigated with respect to its chaotic properties. The sound output, the {open_quote}{open_quote}noise{close_quote}{close_quote}, is subjected to time series analysis. The spatial dynamics of the bubble filaments is captured by high speed holographic cinematography and subsequent digital picture processing from the holograms. Theoretical models are put forward for describing the pattern formation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Interactions between acoustics and vortex structures in a central dump combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, K.; Gardner, J.; Boris, J.; Oran, E.

    1986-06-01

    Results are presented of numerical simulations performed to isolate and study the interaction between acoustic waves and large scale vortex structures in a central-dump ramjet combustor. A strong coupling between the acoustic modes of the chamber and large scale vortex structures is observed. The results in the early part of the calculations indicate unforced natural vortex growth near the entrance to the combustor (dump plane) at a frequency close to the acoustic frequency. With time, the acoustic modes shift the frequency of the most amplified mode near the dump plane into resonance with the acoustic mode. The location in space where the modes grow can also be shifted by acoustic forcing. An interesting feature observed in the simulations is a low frequency mode corresponding to the arrival of the merged vortex structures at the choked exit. This mode causes major changes in the merging pattern of the vortices.

  13. Hidden symmetries, null geodesics, and photon capture in the Sen black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Hioki, Kenta; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2008-08-15

    Important classes of null geodesics and hidden symmetries in the Sen black hole are investigated. First, we obtain the principal null geodesics and circular photon orbits. Then, an irreducible rank-two Killing tensor and a conformal Killing tensor are derived, which represent the hidden symmetries. Analyzing the properties of Killing tensors, we clarify why the Hamilton-Jacobi and wave equations are separable in this spacetime. We also investigate the gravitational capture of photons by the Sen black hole and compare the result with those by the various charged/rotating black holes and naked singularities in the Kerr-Newman family. For these black holes and naked singularities, we show the capture regions in a two dimensional impact parameter space (or equivalently the 'shadows' observed at infinity) to form a variety of shapes such as the disk, circle, dot, arc, and their combinations.

  14. Injection of a Body into a Geodesic: Lessons Learnt from the LISA Pathfinder Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortoluzzi, Daniele; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Conklin, J.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Slutsky, J.; Thorpe, J.

    2016-01-01

    Launch lock and release mechanisms constitute a common space business, however, some science missions due to very challenging functional and performance requirements need the development and testing of dedicated systems. In the LISA Pathfinder mission, a gold-coated 2-kg test mass must be injected into a nearly pure geodesic trajectory with a minimal residual velocity with respect to the spacecraft. This task is performed by the Grabbing Positioning and Release Mechanism, which has been tested on-ground to provide the required qualification. In this paper, we describe the test method that analyzes the main contributions to the mechanism performance and focuses on the critical parameters affecting the residual test mass velocity at the injection into the geodesic trajectory. The test results are also presented and discussed.

  15. Infinity of geodesics in a homogeneous and isotropic expanding space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adda, Fayçal Ben; Porchon, Hélène

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we construct a discrete simulation of an expanding homogeneous and isotropic space-time that expands via expansion of its basic elements to figure out properties and characteristics of such a space-time and derive conclusions. We prove that in such an expanding space-time, the geodesics are curved and more precisely, they fluctuate on the boundaries of the expanding basic elements. The non-existence of privileged expansion direction leads to the existence of an infinity of fluctuating geodesics between any two locations in this space-time, that provides a prediction of polarization in geometric optics, and a prediction of an earlier acceleration of the expansion as for the cosmic inflation model. This simulation is a case study and an example of space-time with variable topology using the principle of variation of topology via a transformation that creates holes.

  16. Geodesic distances to landmarks for dense correspondence on ensembles of complex shapes.

    PubMed

    Datar, Manasi; Lyu, Ilwoo; Kim, SunHyung; Cates, Joshua; Styner, Martin A; Whitaker, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Establishing correspondence points across a set of biomedical shapes is an important technology for a variety of applications that rely on statistical analysis of individual subjects and populations. The inherent complexity (e.g. cortical surface shapes) and variability (e.g. cardiac chambers) evident in many biomedical shapes introduce significant challenges in finding a useful set of dense correspondences. Application specific strategies, such as registration of simplified (e.g. inflated or smoothed) surfaces or relying on manually placed landmarks, provide some improvement but suffer from limitations including increased computational complexity and ambiguity in landmark placement. This paper proposes a method for dense point correspondence on shape ensembles using geodesic distances to a priori landmarks as features. A novel set of numerical techniques for fast computation of geodesic distances to point sets is used to extract these features. The proposed method minimizes the ensemble entropy based on these features, resulting in isometry invariant correspondences in a very general, flexible framework. PMID:24579119

  17. AdS/CFT prescription for angle-deficit space and winding geodesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, Irina Ya.; Khramtsov, Mikhail A.

    2016-04-01

    We present the holographic computation of the boundary two-point correlator using the GKPW prescription for a scalar field in the AdS3 space with a conical defect. Generally speaking, a conical defect breaks conformal invariance in the dual theory, however we calculate the classical bulk-boundary propagator for a scalar field in the space with conical defect and use it to compute the two-point correlator in the boundary theory. We compare the obtained general expression with previous studies based on the geodesic approximation. They are in good agreement for short correlators, and main discrepancy comes in the region of long correlations. Meanwhile, in case of Z_r -orbifold, the GKPW result coincides with the one obtained via geodesic images prescription and with the general result for the boundary theory, which is conformal in this special case.

  18. Efficient molecular dynamics using geodesic integration and solvent–solute splitting

    PubMed Central

    Leimkuhler, Benedict

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to Langevin dynamics in the presence of holonomic constraints based on decomposition of the system into components representing geodesic flow, constrained impulse and constrained diffusion. We show that a particular ordering of the components results in an integrator that is an order of magnitude more accurate for configurational averages than existing alternatives. Moreover, by combining the geodesic integration method with a solvent–solute force splitting, we demonstrate that stepsizes of at least 8 fs can be used for solvated biomolecules with high sampling accuracy and without substantially altering diffusion rates, approximately increasing by a factor of two the efficiency of molecular dynamics sampling for such systems. The methods described in this article are easily implemented using the standard apparatus of modern simulation codes. PMID:27279779

  19. Shearing and geodesic axially symmetric perfect fluids that do not produce gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Ospino, J.; Carot, J.

    2015-01-01

    Using a framework based on the 1 +3 formalism we carry out a study on axially and reflection symmetric perfect and geodesic fluids, looking for possible models of sources radiating gravitational waves. Therefore, the fluid should be necessarily shearing, for otherwise the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor vanishes, leading to a vanishing of the super-Poynting vector. However, for the family of perfect, geodesic fluids considered here, it appears that all possible cases reduce to conformally flat, shear-free, vorticity-free fluids, i.e., Friedman-Robertson-Walker. The super-Poynting vector vanishes and therefore no gravitational radiation is expected to be produced. The physical meaning of the obtained result is discussed.

  20. Geodesic least squares regression for scaling studies in magnetic confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoolaege, Geert

    2015-01-13

    In regression analyses for deriving scaling laws that occur in various scientific disciplines, usually standard regression methods have been applied, of which ordinary least squares (OLS) is the most popular. However, concerns have been raised with respect to several assumptions underlying OLS in its application to scaling laws. We here discuss a new regression method that is robust in the presence of significant uncertainty on both the data and the regression model. The method, which we call geodesic least squares regression (GLS), is based on minimization of the Rao geodesic distance on a probabilistic manifold. We demonstrate the superiority of the method using synthetic data and we present an application to the scaling law for the power threshold for the transition to the high confinement regime in magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  1. Tubular Enhanced Geodesic Active Contours for Continuum Robot Detection using 3D Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongliang; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    Three dimensional ultrasound is a promising imaging modality for minimally invasive robotic surgery. As the robots are typically metallic, they interact strongly with the sound waves in ways that are not modeled by the ultrasound system’s signal processing algorithms. Consequently, they produce substantial imaging artifacts that can make image guidance difficult, even for experienced surgeons. This paper introduces a new approach for detecting curved continuum robots in 3D ultrasound images. The proposed approach combines geodesic active contours with a speed function that is based on enhancing the “tubularity” of the continuum robot. In particular, it takes advantage of the known robot diameter along its length. It also takes advantage of the fact that the robot surface facing the ultrasound probe provides the most accurate image. This method, termed Tubular Enhanced Geodesic Active Contours (TEGAC), is demonstrated through ex vivo intracardiac experiments to offer superior performance compared to conventional active contours. PMID:24231880

  2. Geodesics of McVittie spacetime with a phantom cosmological background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Ioannis; Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the geodesics of a Schwarzschild spacetime embedded in an isotropic expanding cosmological background (McVittie metric). We focus on bound particle geodesics in a background including matter and phantom dark energy with constant dark energy equation-of-state parameter w <-1 involving a future big rip singularity at a time t*. Such geodesics have been previously studied in the Newtonian approximation and found to lead to dissociation of bound systems at a time tripgeodesic equations. This result is due to an interplay between the repulsive phantom dark energy effects and the existence of the well-known innermost stable orbits of Schwarzschild spacetimes.

  3. Kerr metric, geodesic motion, and Flyby Anomaly in fourth-order Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we analyze the Kerr geometry in the context of Conformal Gravity, an alternative theory of gravitation, which is a direct extension of General Relativity (GR). Following previous studies in the literature, we introduce an explicit expression of the Kerr metric in Conformal Gravity, which naturally reduces to the standard GR Kerr geometry in the absence of Conformal Gravity effects. As in the standard case, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation governing geodesic motion in a space-time based on this geometry is indeed separable and that a fourth constant of motion—similar to Carter's constant—can also be introduced in Conformal Gravity. Consequently, we derive the fundamental equations of geodesic motion and show that the problem of solving these equations can be reduced to one of quadratures. In particular, we study the resulting time-like geodesics in Conformal Gravity Kerr geometry by numerically integrating the equations of motion for Earth flyby trajectories of spacecraft. We then compare our results with the existing data of the Flyby Anomaly in order to ascertain whether Conformal Gravity corrections are possibly the origin of this gravitational anomaly. Although Conformal Gravity slightly affects the trajectories of geodesic motion around a rotating spherical object, we show that these corrections are minimal and are not expected to be the origin of the Flyby Anomaly, unless conformal parameters are drastically different from current estimates. Therefore, our results confirm previous analyses, showing that modifications due to Conformal Gravity are not likely to be detected at the Solar System level, but might affect gravity at the galactic or cosmological scale.

  4. Tungsten Oxide Layers of High Acoustic Impedance for Fully Insulating Acoustic Reflectors.

    PubMed

    DeMiguel-Ramos, M; Diaz-Duran, Barbara; Munir, Junaid; Clement, Marta; Mirea, Teona; Olivares, Jimena; Iborra, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    Gravimetric sensors based on solidly mounted resonators require fully insulating acoustic reflectors to avoid parasitics when operating in liquid media. In this work, we propose a new high-acoustic impedance material, tungsten oxide ([Formula: see text]), for acoustic reflectors. We have optimized the sputtering conditions of [Formula: see text] to obtain nonconductive layers with mass density around [Formula: see text] and acoustic velocities for the shear and the longitudinal modes up to 2700 and 4500 m/s, respectively. Compared to other conventionally used high impedance layers, [Formula: see text] films display several manufacture advantages, such as high deposition rates, great reproducibility, and good adhesion to underlying substrates. We have demonstrated the applicability of [Formula: see text] in practical shear mode bulk acoustic wave resonators that display good performance in liquid environments. PMID:26571521

  5. Fast Wavefront Propagation (FWP) for Computing Exact Geodesic Distances on Meshes.

    PubMed

    Chunxu Xu; Wang, Tuanfeng Y; Yong-Jin Liu; Ligang Liu; Ying He

    2015-07-01

    Computing geodesic distances on triangle meshes is a fundamental problem in computational geometry and computer graphics. To date, two notable classes of algorithms, the Mitchell-Mount-Papadimitriou (MMP) algorithm and the Chen-Han (CH) algorithm, have been proposed. Although these algorithms can compute exact geodesic distances if numerical computation is exact, they are computationally expensive, which diminishes their usefulness for large-scale models and/or time-critical applications. In this paper, we propose the fast wavefront propagation (FWP) framework for improving the performance of both the MMP and CH algorithms. Unlike the original algorithms that propagate only a single window (a data structure locally encodes geodesic information) at each iteration, our method organizes windows with a bucket data structure so that it can process a large number of windows simultaneously without compromising wavefront quality. Thanks to its macro nature, the FWP method is less sensitive to mesh triangulation than the MMP and CH algorithms. We evaluate our FWP-based MMP and CH algorithms on a wide range of large-scale real-world models. Computational results show that our method can improve the speed by a factor of 3-10. PMID:26357244

  6. NVU dynamics. I. Geodesic motion on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Toxvaerd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole J.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2011-09-01

    An algorithm is derived for computer simulation of geodesics on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface of a system of N classical particles. First, a basic time-reversible geodesic algorithm is derived by discretizing the geodesic stationarity condition and implementing the constant-potential-energy constraint via standard Lagrangian multipliers. The basic NVU algorithm is tested by single-precision computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones liquid. Excellent numerical stability is obtained if the force cutoff is smoothed and the two initial configurations have identical potential energy within machine precision. Nevertheless, just as for NVE algorithms, stabilizers are needed for very long runs in order to compensate for the accumulation of numerical errors that eventually lead to "entropic drift" of the potential energy towards higher values. A modification of the basic NVU algorithm is introduced that ensures potential-energy and step-length conservation; center-of-mass drift is also eliminated. Analytical arguments confirmed by simulations demonstrate that the modified NVU algorithm is absolutely stable. Finally, we present simulations showing that the NVU algorithm and the standard leap-frog NVE algorithm have identical radial distribution functions for the Lennard-Jones liquid.

  7. Comparison of segmentation using fast marching and geodesic active contours methods for bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilqis, A.; Widita, R.

    2016-03-01

    Image processing is important in diagnosing diseases or damages of human organs. One of the important stages of image processing is segmentation process. Segmentation is a separation process of the image into regions of certain similar characteristics. It is used to simplify the image to make an analysis easier. The case raised in this study is image segmentation of bones. Bone's image segmentation is a way to get bone dimensions, which is needed in order to make prosthesis that is used to treat broken or cracked bones. Segmentation methods chosen in this study are fast marching and geodesic active contours. This study uses ITK (Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit) software. The success of the segmentation was then determined by calculating its accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Based on the results, the Active Contours method has slightly higher accuracy and sensitivity values than the fast marching method. As for the value of specificity, fast marching has produced three image results that have higher specificity values compared to those of geodesic active contour's. The result also indicates that both methods have succeeded in performing bone's image segmentation. Overall, geodesic active contours method is quite better than fast marching in segmenting bone images.

  8. A triangulation-invariant method for anisotropic geodesic map computation on surface meshes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang Wook; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Sung, Min-Hyuk; Shin, Sung Yo; Cohen, Elaine

    2012-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of computing the geodesic distance map from a given set of source vertices to all other vertices on a surface mesh using an anisotropic distance metric. Formulating this problem as an equivalent control theoretic problem with Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman partial differential equations, we present a framework for computing an anisotropic geodesic map using a curvature-based speed function. An ordered upwind method (OUM)-based solver for these equations is available for unstructured planar meshes. We adopt this OUM-based solver for surface meshes and present a triangulation-invariant method for the solver. Our basic idea is to explore proximity among the vertices on a surface while locally following the characteristic direction at each vertex. We also propose two speed functions based on classical curvature tensors and show that the resulting anisotropic geodesic maps reflect surface geometry well through several experiments, including isocontour generation, offset curve computation, medial axis extraction, and ridge/valley curve extraction. Our approach facilitates surface analysis and processing by defining speed functions in an application-dependent manner. PMID:22291150

  9. An exact Jacobi map in the geodesic light-cone gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanizza, G.; Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.

    2013-11-01

    The remarkable properties of the recently proposed geodesic light-cone (GLC) gauge allow to explicitly solve the geodesic-deviation equation, and thus to derive an exact expression for the Jacobi map JAB(s,o) connecting a generic source s to a geodesic observer o in a generic space time. In this gauge JAB factorizes into the product of a local quantity at s times one at o, implying similarly factorized expressions for the area and luminosity distance. In any other coordinate system JAB is simply given by expressing the GLC quantities in terms of the corresponding ones in the new coordinates. This is explicitly done, at first and second order, respectively, for the synchronous and Poisson gauge-fixing of a perturbed, spatially-flat cosmological background, and the consistency of the two outcomes is checked. Our results slightly amend previous calculations of the luminosity-redshift relation and suggest a possible non-perturbative way for computing the effects of inhomogeneities on observations based on light-like signals.

  10. Dimensional reduction of the 5D Kaluza-Klein geodesic deviation equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacquaniti, V.; Montani, Giovanni; Vietri, F.

    2010-02-01

    In the work of Kerner et al. (Phys Rev D 63:027502, 2001) the problem of the geodesic deviation in a 5D Kaluza-Klein background is faced. The 4D space-time projection of the resulting equation coincides with the usual geodesic deviation equation in the presence of the Lorenz force, provided that the fifth component of the deviation vector satisfies an extra constraint which takes into account the q/ m conservation along the path. The analysis was performed setting as a constant the scalar field which appears in Kaluza-Klein model. Here we focus on the extension of such a work to the model where the presence of the scalar field is considered. Our result coincides with that of Kerner et al. when the minimal case {φ=1} is considered, while it shows some departures in the general case. The novelty due to the presence of {φ} is that the variation of the q/ m between the two geodesic lines is not conserved during the motion; an exact law for such a behaviour has been derived.

  11. Acoustic tuning of gas liquid scheme injectors for acoustic damping in a combustion chamber of a liquid rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon; Park, I.-Sun; Kim, Seong-Ku; Jip Kim, Hong

    2007-07-01

    In a combustion chamber of a liquid rocket engine, acoustic fine-tuning of gas-liquid scheme injectors is studied numerically for acoustic stability by adopting a linear acoustic analysis. Injector length and blockage ratio at gas inlet are adjusted for fine-tuning. First, acoustic behavior in the combustor with a single injector is investigated and acoustic-damping effect of the injector is evaluated for cold condition by the quantitative parameter of damping factor as a function of injector length. From the numerical results, it is found that the injector can play a significant role in acoustic damping when it is tuned finely. The optimum tuning-length of the injector to maximize the damping capacity corresponds to half of a full wavelength of the first longitudinal overtone mode traveling in the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping in the chamber. In baffled chamber, the optimum lengths of the injector are calculated as a function of baffle length for both cold and hot conditions. Next, in the combustor with numerous resonators, peculiar acoustic coupling between a combustion chamber and injectors is observed. As the injector length approaches a half-wavelength, the new injector-coupled acoustic mode shows up and thereby, the acoustic-damping effect of the tuned injectors is appreciably degraded. And, damping factor maintains a near-constant value with blockage ratio and then, decreases rapidly. Blockage ratio affects also acoustic damping and should be considered for acoustic tuning.

  12. Effect of tidal internal wave fields on shallow water acoustic propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ju; Wang, Huan; Sun, Junping

    2010-09-01

    Internal waves are one of the most pronounced oceanic phenomenons to the oceanographer. During past decades much effort has been made to investigate the effect of internal waves on shallow water acoustic propagation. Even though many field observations, such as SWARM '95, have provided fruitful information about the relation between internal waves and acoustic propagation, it is necessary to conduct more numerical simulations due to their extensive feasibility. In this study, the shallow water internal wave environment is constructed by using a non-hydrostatic ocean model, the open boundary forcing is set by considering single or several internal wave modes at the M2 tidal frequency. In order to show the mode coupling caused by the internal wave field more clearly, the acoustic starting field with different single normal modes is adopted. The acoustic simulation can be used to check whether a specific combination of internal wave modes is related to the mode coupling, and which mode pair will be affected. The combination of internal wave modes can be separated into several groups. Even though the internal wave fields are different among every case in each group, the acoustic field structure and the mode coupling are similar. Different acoustic normal mode coupling occurs due to the different combinations of internal wave mode forcing. When the parameters of internal wave mode are modified gently, the acoustic mode coupling becomes quite different. It is interesting and important to investigate the sensitivity of acoustic fields to the variability of the internal mode combination.

  13. Three mode interaction noise in laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong; Ma, Yiqiu; Blair, David; Danilishin, Stefan L.; Gras, Slawek

    2014-07-01

    Triply resonant three mode interactions in long optical cavities have been shown to lead to enhanced scattering of carrier light by the ultrasonic acoustic modes of the test mass mirrors. At high optical power, this can lead to parametric instability (parametric gain R>1) for a few acoustic modes with strong spectral and spatial overlap. Numerous \\sim {{10}^{3}} acoustic modes of the test masses are predicted to have R>{{10}^{-2}}. Experimental studies have shown that such modes also strongly scatter the carrier light, enabling very sensitive readout of the acoustic modes. The three-mode scattering from the thermal fluctuation of large population of ultrasonic modes would causes random changes in occupation number of the carrier light and cavity transverse optical modes. Because the thermal fluctuation time scale (set by the acoustic mode relaxation times) is typically a few seconds, the noise spectrum from thermally induced photon number fluctuations is strongly peaked at low frequency. The noise level depends on the acoustic mode structure and acoustic losses of the test masses, the transverse optical mode spectrum of the optical cavities and on the test mass temperature. We theoretically investigate the possible effect of this noise and show that in advanced detectors under construction three mode interaction noise is below the standard quantum limit, but could set limits on future low frequency detectors that aim to exceed the free mass standard quantum limit.

  14. Acoustic Tooth Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustically-energized water jet aids in plaque breakdown. Acoustic Wand includes acoustic transducer 1/4 wave plate, and tapered cone. Together elements energize solution of water containing mild abrasive injected into mouth to help prevent calculous buildup.

  15. Acoustic levitation in the presence of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collas, P.; Barmatz, M.; Shipley, C.

    1989-01-01

    The method of Gor'kov (1961) has been applied to derive general expressions for the total potential and force on a small spherical object in a resonant chamber in the presence of both acoustic and gravitational force fields. The levitation position is also determined in rectangular resonators for the simultaneous excitation of up to three acoustic modes, and the results are applied to the triple-axis acoustic levitator. The analysis is applied to rectangular, spherical, and cylindrical single-mode levitators that are arbitrarily oriented relative to the gravitational force field. Criteria are determined for isotropic force fields in rectangular and cylindrical resonators. It is demonstrated that an object will be situated within a volume of possible levitation positions at a point determined by the relative strength of the acoustic and gravitational fields and the orientation of the chamber relative to gravity.

  16. Envelope Solitons in Acoustically Dispersive Vitreous Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic radiation-induced static strains, displacements, and stresses are manifested as rectified or dc waveforms linked to the energy density of an acoustic wave or vibrational mode via the mode nonlinearity parameter of the material. An analytical model is developed for acoustically dispersive media that predicts the evolution of the energy density of an initial waveform into a series of energy solitons that generates a corresponding series of radiation-induced static strains (envelope solitons). The evolutionary characteristics of the envelope solitons are confirmed experimentally in Suprasil W1 vitreous silica. The value (-11.9 plus or minus 1.43) for the nonlinearity parameter, determined from displacement measurements of the envelope solitons via a capacitive transducer, is in good agreement with the value (-11.6 plus or minus 1.16) obtained independently from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The agreement provides strong, quantitative evidence for the validity of the model.

  17. Acoustic lens-based swimmer's sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnenbrink, Thomas E.; Desilets, Charles S.; Folds, Donald L.; Quick, Marshall K.

    1999-07-01

    A new high resolution imaging sonar is begin developed for use by swimmers to identify objects in turbid water or under low light level conditions. Beam forming for both the transmit and receive functions is performed with acoustic lenses. The acoustic image is focused on an acoustic retina or focal pane. An acoustic video converter converts the acoustic image to an electronic from suitable for display with conventional electronics. The image will be presented to the swimmer as a heads-up display on the face of his or her mask. The system will provide 1 cm resolution in range and cross range from 1-5 meters from the object. A longer range search mode is being explored. Laboratory prototypes of key components have been fabricated and evaluated. Results to date are promising.

  18. ACOUSTIC LINERS FOR TURBOFAN ENGINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minner, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed to design acoustic liners for turbofan engines. This program combines results from theoretical models of wave alternation in acoustically treated passages with experimental data from full-scale fan noise suppressors. By including experimentally obtained information, the program accounts for real effects such as wall boundary layers, duct terminations, and sound modal structure. The program has its greatest use in generating a number of design specifications to be used for evaluation of trade-offs. The program combines theoretical and empirical data in designing annular acoustic liners. First an estimate of the noise output of the fan is made based on basic fan aerodynamic design variables. Then, using a target noise spectrum after alternation and the estimated fan noise spectrum, a design spectrum is calculated as their difference. Next, the design spectrum is combined with knowledge of acoustic liner performance and the liner design variables to specify the acoustic design. Details of the liner design are calculated by combining the required acoustic impedance with a mathematical model relating acoustic impedance to the physical structure of the liner. Input to the noise prediction part of the program consists of basic fan operating parameters, distance that the target spectrum is to be measured and the target spectrum. The liner design portion of the program requires the required alternation spectrum, desired values of length to height and several option selection parameters. Output from the noise prediction portion is a noise spectrum consisting of discrete tones and broadband noise. This may be used as input to the liner design portion of the program. The liner design portion of the program produces backing depths, open area ratios, and face plate thicknesses. This program is written in FORTRAN V and has been implemented in batch mode on a UNIVAC 1100 series computer with a central memory requirement of 12K (decimal) of 36 bit words.

  19. High Q Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated high Q measurements in a room temperature Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator (MSAR). Initial measurements of bulk acoustic modes in room temperature sapphire at 39 MHz have demonstrated a Q of 8.8 x 10(exp 6). The long term goal of this work is to integrate such a high Q resonator with small, low noise quartz oscillator electronics, providing a fractional frequency stability better than 1 x 10(exp -14) @ 1s.

  20. Acoustically driven arrayed waveguide grating.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Poveda, A; Hernández-Mínguez, A; Gargallo, B; Biermann, K; Tahraoui, A; Santos, P V; Muñoz, P; Cantarero, A; de Lima, M M

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate compact tunable phased-array wavelength-division multiplexers driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the low GHz range. The devices comprise two couplers, which respectively split and combine the optical signal, linked by an array of single-mode waveguides (WGs). Two different layouts are presented, in which multi-mode interference couplers or free propagating regions were separately employed as couplers. The multiplexers operate on five equally distributed wavelength channels, with a spectral separation of 2 nm. A standing SAW modulates the refractive index of the arrayed WGs. Each wavelength component periodically switches paths between the output channel previously asigned by the design and the adjacent channels, at a fixed applied acoustic power. The devices were monolithically fabricated on (Al,Ga)As. A good agreement between theory and experiment is achieved. PMID:26367971

  1. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2002-01-01

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  2. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1997-12-30

    An acoustic transducer is described comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2,000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers. 4 figs.

  3. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic transducer comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers.

  4. On the thermo-acoustic Fant equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, P. R.; Howe, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    A 'reduced complexity' equation is derived to investigate combustion instabilities of a Rijke burner. The equation is nonlinear and furnishes limit cycle solutions for finite amplitude burner modes. It is a generalisation to combustion flows of the Fant equation used to investigate the production of voiced speech by unsteady throttling of flow by the vocal folds [G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production. Mouton, The Hague, 1960]. In the thermo-acoustic problem the throttling occurs at the flame holder. The Fant equation governs the unsteady volume flow past the flame holder which, in turn, determines the acoustics of the entire system. The equation includes a fully determinate part that depends on the geometry of the flame holder and the thermo-acoustic system, and terms defined by integrals involving thermo-aerodynamic sources, such as a flame and vortex sound sources. These integrals provide a clear indication of what must be known about the flow to obtain a proper understanding of the dynamics of the thermo-acoustic system. Illustrative numerical results are presented for the linearised equation. This governs the growth rates of the natural acoustic modes, determined by system geometry, boundary conditions and mean temperature distribution, which are excited into instability by unsteady heat release from the flame and damped by large scale vorticity production and radiation losses into the environment. In addition, the equation supplies information about the 'combustion modes' excited by the local time-delay feedback dynamics of the flame.

  5. Acoustic waves in gases with strong pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, William E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of strong pressure gradients on the acoustic modes (standing waves) of a rectangular cavity is investigated analytically. When the cavity response is represented by a sum of modes, each mode is found to have two resonant frequencies. The lower frequency is near the Viaesaela-Brundt frequency, which characterizes the buoyant effect, and the higher frequency is above the ordinary acoustic resonance frequency. This finding shows that the propagation velocity of the acoustic waves is increased due to the pressure gradient effect.

  6. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao

    2016-03-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius. PMID:26558995

  7. Acoustic system for material transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An object within a chamber is acoustically moved by applying wavelengths of different modes to the chamber to move the object between pressure wells formed by the modes. In one system, the object is placed in one end of the chamber while a resonant mode, applied along the length of the chamber, produces a pressure well at the location. The frequency is then switched to a second mode that produces a pressure well at the center of the chamber, to draw the object. When the object reaches the second pressure well and is still traveling towards the second end of the chamber, the acoustic frequency is again shifted to a third mode (which may equal the first model) that has a pressure well in the second end portion of the chamber, to draw the object. A heat source may be located near the second end of the chamber to heat the sample, and after the sample is heated it can be cooled by moving it in a corresponding manner back to the first end of the chamber. The transducers for levitating and moving the object may be all located at the cool first end of the chamber.

  8. Acoustic cymbal performance under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenne, Kirk E.; Huang, Dehua; Howarth, Thomas R.

    2001-05-01

    Continual awareness about the need to develop light-weight, low-volume, broadband, underwater acoustic projector and receive arrays that perform consistently in diverse environments is evident in recent Navy acoustic system initiatives. Acoustic cymbals, so named for resemblance to the percussive musical instruments, are miniature flextensional transducers that may perhaps meet the performance criteria for consistent performance under hydrostatic pressure after modifications in the design. These acoustic cymbals consist of a piezoceramic disk (or ring) bonded to two opposing cymbal-shaped metal shells. Operating as mechanical transformers, the two metal shells convert the large generative force inherently within the disk's radial mode into increased volume displacement at the metal shell surface to obtain volume displacement that translates into usable source levels and/or sensitivities at sonar frequencies in a relatively broad band. The air-backed design for standard acoustic cymbal transducers presents a barrier to deepwater applications. A new acoustic cymbal design for high-pressure applications will be presented for the first time. This practical pressure compensation is designed to diminish the effects of hydrostatic pressure to maintain consistent acoustic cymbal performance. Transmit and receive performance data, determined at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center's (NUWC) Acoustic Pressure Tank Facility (APTF), is presented.

  9. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  10. Multimodal far-field acoustic radiation pattern: An approximate equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The far-field sound radiation theory for a circular duct was studied for both single mode and multimodal inputs. The investigation was intended to develop a method to determine the acoustic power produced by turbofans as a function of mode cut-off ratio. With reasonable simplifying assumptions the single mode radiation pattern was shown to be reducible to a function of mode cut-off ratio only. With modal cut-off ratio as the dominant variable, multimodal radiation patterns can be reduced to a simple explicit expression. This approximate expression provides excellent agreement with an exact calculation of the sound radiation pattern using equal acoustic power per mode.

  11. Acoustic cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  12. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    2000-01-01

    An active acoustic transducer tool for use down-hole applications. The tool includes a single cylindrical mandrel including a shoulder defining the boundary of a narrowed portion over which is placed a sandwich-style piezoelectric tranducer assembly. The piezoelectric transducer assembly is prestressed by being placed in a thermal interference fit between the shoulder of the mandrel and the base of an anvil which is likewise positioned over the narrower portion of the mandrel. In the preferred embodiment, assembly of the tool is accomplished using a hydraulic jack to stretch the mandrel prior to emplacement of the cylindrical sandwich-style piezoelectric transducer assembly and anvil. After those elements are positioned and secured, the stretched mandrel is allowed to return substantially to its original (pre-stretch) dimensions with the result that the piezoelectric transducer elements are compressed between the anvil and the shoulder of the mandrel.

  13. Acoustic hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, L.; Andrew, M.; Bailey, M.; Beach, K.; Brayman, A.; Curra, F.; Kaczkowski, P.; Kargl, S.; Martin, R.; Vaezy, S.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past several years, the Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound (CIMU) at the Applied Physics Laboratory in the University of Washington has undertaken a broad research program in the general area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Our principal emphasis has been on the use of HIFU to induce hemostasis; in particular, CIMU has sought to develop a small, lightweight, portable device that would use ultrasound for both imaging and therapy. Such a technology is needed because nearly 50% of combat casualty mortality results from exsanguinations, or uncontrolled bleeding. A similar percentage occurs for civilian death due to trauma. In this general review, a presentation of the general problem will be given, as well as our recent approaches to the development of an image-guided, transcutaneous, acoustic hemostasis device. [Work supported in part by the USAMRMC, ONR and the NIH.

  14. The role of POD modes in turbulent jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonius, Tim; Freund, Jonathan

    2001-11-01

    We examine the acoustic radiation and structure of the POD modes of a turbulent, Re=3600, M=0.9 jet. The POD modes were computed using the method of snapshots with 2333 samples from a three-dimensional DNS database. The jet mean flow, turbulence statistics, and acoustic radiation were previously validated against experiments. We compute vector-valued POD modes for using several different physically meaningful norms and analyze the extent to which the most energetic modes (for the given norm) contribute to the overall acoustic radiation. This enables a detailed characterization of the contribution of large-scale turbulent structures to the radiated acoustic field. We also quantify the interaction of different modes by correlations of their variation in time as well as correlations with acoustic signals in the far field. We also examine the connection between the POD modes and the linear instability eigenfunctions of a slowly spreading jet.

  15. Acoustic telemetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  16. The acoustic features of human laughter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Owren, Michael J.

    2002-05-01

    Remarkably little is known about the acoustic features of laughter, despite laughter's ubiquitous role in human vocal communication. Outcomes are described for 1024 naturally produced laugh bouts recorded from 97 young adults. Acoustic analysis focused on temporal characteristics, production modes, source- and filter-related effects, and indexical cues to laugher sex and individual identity. The results indicate that laughter is a remarkably complex vocal signal, with evident diversity in both production modes and fundamental frequency characteristics. Also of interest was finding a consistent lack of articulation effects in supralaryngeal filtering. Outcomes are compared to previously advanced hypotheses and conjectures about this species-typical vocal signal.

  17. Grid Cells, Place Cells, and Geodesic Generalization for Spatial Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Nicholas J.; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) provides an influential characterization of the brain's mechanisms for learning to make advantageous choices. An important problem, though, is how complex tasks can be represented in a way that enables efficient learning. We consider this problem through the lens of spatial navigation, examining how two of the brain's location representations—hippocampal place cells and entorhinal grid cells—are adapted to serve as basis functions for approximating value over space for RL. Although much previous work has focused on these systems' roles in combining upstream sensory cues to track location, revisiting these representations with a focus on how they support this downstream decision function offers complementary insights into their characteristics. Rather than localization, the key problem in learning is generalization between past and present situations, which may not match perfectly. Accordingly, although neural populations collectively offer a precise representation of position, our simulations of navigational tasks verify the suggestion that RL gains efficiency from the more diffuse tuning of individual neurons, which allows learning about rewards to generalize over longer distances given fewer training experiences. However, work on generalization in RL suggests the underlying representation should respect the environment's layout. In particular, although it is often assumed that neurons track location in Euclidean coordinates (that a place cell's activity declines “as the crow flies” away from its peak), the relevant metric for value is geodesic: the distance along a path, around any obstacles. We formalize this intuition and present simulations showing how Euclidean, but not geodesic, representations can interfere with RL by generalizing inappropriately across barriers. Our proposal that place and grid responses should be modulated by geodesic distances suggests novel predictions about how obstacles should affect spatial firing

  18. Dependence of the L- to H-mode Power Threshold on Toroidal Rotation and the Link to Edge Turbulence Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, G; Gohil, P; Schlossberg, D; Boedo, J; Burrell, K; deGrassie, J; Groebner, R; Makowski, M; Moyer, R; Petty, C; Rhodes, T; Schmitz, L; Shafer, M; Solomon, W; Umansky, M; Wang, G; White, A; Xu, X

    2008-10-13

    The injected power required to induce a transition from L-mode to H-mode plasmas is found to depend strongly on the injected neutral beam torque and consequent plasma toroidal rotation. Edge turbulence and flows, measured near the outboard midplane of the plasma (0.85 < r/a < 1.0) on DIII-D with the high-sensitivity 2D beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system, likewise vary with rotation and suggest a causative connection. The L-H power threshold in plasmas with the ion {del}B drift away from the X-point decreases from 4-6 MW with co-current beam injection, to 2-3 MW with near zero net injected torque, and to <2 MW with counter injection. Plasmas with the ion {del}B drift towards the X-point exhibit a qualitatively similar though less pronounced power threshold dependence on rotation. 2D edge turbulence measurements with BES show an increasing poloidal flow shear as the L-H transition is approached in all conditions. At low rotation, the poloidal flow of turbulent eddies near the edge reverses prior to the L-H transition, generating a significant poloidal flow shear that exceeds the measured turbulence decorrelation rate. This increased poloidal turbulence velocity shear may facilitate the L-H transition. No such reversal is observed in high rotation plasmas. The poloidal turbulence velocity spectrum exhibits a transition from a Geodesic Acoustic Mode zonal flow to a higher-power, lower frequency, zero-mean-frequency zonal flow as rotation varies from co-current to balanced during a torque scan at constant injected neutral beam power, perhaps also facilitating the L-H transition. This reduced power threshold at lower toroidal rotation may benefit inherently low-rotation plasmas such as ITER.

  19. Erratum: Erratum to: Geodesic deviation equation in f(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnizo, Alejandro; Castañeda, Leonardo; Tejeiro, Juan M.

    2015-10-01

    In the context of metric f( R) gravity, the geodesic deviation equation (GDE) was first studied in Guarnizo et al. (Gen Relativ Gravit 43:2713-2728, 2011), giving a general expression and studying a particular case, the FLRW universe. In the paper (De la Cruz-Dombris et al. Physical Review D 89:064029-2014) a similar analysis was made. However, there is a discrepancy in the expressions for the null vector field case due to an algebraic error in our original paper. Here, we make explicit the contribution of the different operators in the GDE, and we correct our previous results.

  20. On the possibility of non-geodesic motion of massless spinning tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaza, Cristóbal; Hojman, Sergio A.; Koch, Benjamin; Zalaquett, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    The motion of spinning massless particles in gravitationally curved backgrounds is revisited by considering new types of constraints. Those constraints guarantee zero mass ({P}μ {P}μ =0) and they allow for the possibility of trajectories which are not simply null geodesics. To exemplify this previously unknown possibility, the equations of motion are solved for radial motion in Schwarzschild background. It is found that the particle experiences a spin-induced energy shift, which is proportional to the Hawking temperature of the black hole background.

  1. UNBOUND GEODESICS FROM THE ERGOSPHERE AND THE MESSIER 87 JET PROFILE

    SciTech Connect

    Gariel, J.; Marcilhacy, G.; Santos, N. O. E-mail: gmarcilhacy@hotmail.com

    2013-09-10

    Assuming that the spin a of the black hole presumably located at the core of the active galactic nucleus Messier 87 takes the value which maximizes the ergospheric volume of the Kerr spacetime, we find the results compatible with the recent observations obtained by high-resolution interferometry on the origin of the jet, which would be located inside the innermost stable circular orbit diameter. Moreover, we find that a flow of unbound geodesics issued from the ergoregion is able to frame the best fits at large scales recently obtained for describing the observed profile of the relativistic jet launched from this central engine.

  2. Geodesics on Calabi-Yau manifolds and winding states in non-linear sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Douglas, Michael R.

    2013-12-01

    We conjecture that a non-flat D-real-dimensional compact Calabi-Yau manifold, such as a quintic hypersurface with D=6, or a K3 manifold with D=4, has locally length minimizing closed geodesics, and that the number of these with length less than L grows asymptotically as L^{D}. We also outline the physical arguments behind this conjecture, which involve the claim that all states in a nonlinear sigma model can be identified as 'momentum' and 'winding' states in the large volume limit.

  3. Broadband acoustic source processing in a noisy shallow ocean environment

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1996-07-18

    Acoustic sources found in the ocean environment are spatially complex and broadband, complicating the analysis of received acoustic data considerably. A model-based approach is developed for a broadband source in a shallow ocean environment characterized by a normal-mode propagation model. Here we develop the optimal Bayesian solution to the broadband pressure-field enhancement and modal function extraction problem.

  4. The Maupertuis principle and geodesic flows on the sphere arising from integrable cases in the dynamics of a rigid body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsinov, A. V.; Kozlov, V. V.; Fomenko, A. T.

    1995-06-01

    Contents Introduction §1. The general Maupertuis principle §2. The Maupertuis principle in the dynamics of a massive rigid body §3. The Maupertuis principle and the explicit form of the metric generated on the sphere by a quadratic Hamiltonian on the Lie algebra of the group of motions of R3 §4. Classical cases of integrability in rigid body dynamics and the corresponding geodesic flows on the sphere §5. Integrable metrics on the torus and on the sphere §6. Conjectures §7. The complexity of integrable geodesic flows of 1-2-metrics on the sphere and on the torus §8. A rougher conjecture: the complexities of non-singularly integrable metrics on the sphere or on the torus coincide with those of the known integrable 1-2-metrics §9. The geodesic flow on an ellipsoid is topologically orbitally equivalent to the Euler integral case in the dynamics of a rigid body Bibliography

  5. Geodesic curve-of-sight formulae for the cosmic microwave background: a unified treatment of redshift, time delay, and lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Ryo; Naruko, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: naruko@th.phys.titech.ac.jp E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to a treatment of the gravitational effects (redshift, time delay and lensing) on the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies based on the Boltzmann equation. From the Liouville's theorem in curved spacetime, the intensity of photons is conserved along a photon geodesic when non-gravitational scatterings are absent. Motivated by this fact, we derive a second-order line-of-sight formula by integrating the Boltzmann equation along a perturbed geodesic (curve) instead of a background geodesic (line). In this approach, the separation of the gravitational and intrinsic effects are manifest. This approach can be considered as a generalization of the remapping approach of CMB lensing, where all the gravitational effects can be treated on the same footing.

  6. High temperature acoustic and hybrid microwave/acoustic levitators for materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin

    1990-01-01

    The physical acoustics group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a single mode acoustic levitator technique for advanced containerless materials processing. The technique was successfully demonstrated in ground based studies to temperatures of about 1000 C in a uniform temperature furnace environment and to temperatures of about 1500 C using laser beams to locally heat the sample. Researchers are evaluating microwaves as a more efficient means than lasers for locally heating a positioned sample. Recent tests of a prototype single mode hybrid microwave/acoustic levitator successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using microwave power as a heating source. The potential advantages of combining acoustic positioning forces and microwave heating for containerless processing investigations are presented in outline form.

  7. Acoustic hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence; Beach, Kirk; Carter, Stephen; Chandler, Wayne; Curra, Francesco; Kaczkowski, Peter; Keilman, George; Khokhlova, Vera; Martin, Roy; Mourad, Pierre; Vaezy, Shahram

    2000-07-01

    In cases of severe injury, physicians speak of a "golden hour"—a brief grace period in which quickly applied, proper therapy can save the life of the patient. Much of this mortality results from exsanguination, i.e., bleeding to death—often from internal hemorrhage. The inability of a paramedic to treat breaches in the vascular system deep within the body or to stem the loss of blood from internal organs is a major reason for the high level of mortality associated with blunt trauma. We have undertaken an extensive research program to treat the problem of internal bleeding. Our approach is as follows: (a) We use scanning ultrasound to identify internal bleeding and hemorrhage, (b) we use ultrasound imaging to locate specific breaches in the vascular system, both from damaged vessels and gross damage to the capillary bed, and (c) we use High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to treat the damaged region and to induce hemostasis. We present a general review of this research with some emphasis on the role of nonlinear acoustics.

  8. The prediction of acoustical particle motion using an efficient polynomial curve fit procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, S. E.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure is examined whereby the acoustic model parameters, natural frequencies and mode shapes, in the cavities of transportation vehicles are determined experimentally. The acoustic model shapes are described in terms of the particle motion. The acoustic modal analysis procedure is tailored to existing minicomputer based spectral analysis systems.

  9. Geodesic motion in equal angular momenta Myers-Perry-AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2015-10-01

    We study the geodesic motion of massive and massless test particles in the background of equally spinning Myers-Perry-anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in five dimensions. By adopting a coordinate system that makes manifest the cohomogeneity-1 property of these spacetimes, the equations of motion simplify considerably. This allows us to easily separate the radial motion from the angular part and to obtain solutions for angular trajectories in a compact closed form. For the radial motion, we focus our attention on spherical orbits. In particular, we determine the timelike innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) for these asymptotically AdS spacetimes, as well as the location of null circular orbits. We find that the ISCO dives below the ergosurface for black holes rotating close to extremality and merges with the event horizon exactly at extremality, in analogy with the four-dimensional Kerr case. For sufficiently massive black holes in AdS, there exists a spin parameter range in which the background spacetime is stable against super-radiance and the ISCO lies inside the ergoregion. Our results for massless geodesics show that there are no stable circular null orbits outside the horizon, but there exist such orbits inside the horizon, as well as around overextremal spacetimes, i.e., naked singularities. We also discuss how these orbits deform from the static to the rotating case.

  10. YNOGK: A New Public Code for Calculating Null Geodesics in the Kerr Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Wang, Jiancheng

    2013-07-01

    Following the work of Dexter & Agol, we present a new public code for the fast calculation of null geodesics in the Kerr spacetime. Using Weierstrass's and Jacobi's elliptic functions, we express all coordinates and affine parameters as analytical and numerical functions of a parameter p, which is an integral value along the geodesic. This is the main difference between our code and previous similar ones. The advantage of this treatment is that the information about the turning points does not need to be specified in advance by the user, and many applications such as imaging, the calculation of line profiles, and the observer-emitter problem, become root-finding problems. All elliptic integrations are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method as in Dexter & Agol, which guarantees the fast computational speed of our code. The formulae to compute the constants of motion given by Cunningham & Bardeen have been extended, which allow one to readily handle situations in which the emitter or the observer has an arbitrary distance from, and motion state with respect to, the central compact object. The validation of the code has been extensively tested through applications to toy problems from the literature. The source FORTRAN code is freely available for download on our Web site http://www1.ynao.ac.cn/~yangxl/yxl.html.

  11. YNOGK: A NEW PUBLIC CODE FOR CALCULATING NULL GEODESICS IN THE KERR SPACETIME

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xiaolin; Wang Jiancheng

    2013-07-01

    Following the work of Dexter and Agol, we present a new public code for the fast calculation of null geodesics in the Kerr spacetime. Using Weierstrass's and Jacobi's elliptic functions, we express all coordinates and affine parameters as analytical and numerical functions of a parameter p, which is an integral value along the geodesic. This is the main difference between our code and previous similar ones. The advantage of this treatment is that the information about the turning points does not need to be specified in advance by the user, and many applications such as imaging, the calculation of line profiles, and the observer-emitter problem, become root-finding problems. All elliptic integrations are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method as in Dexter and Agol, which guarantees the fast computational speed of our code. The formulae to compute the constants of motion given by Cunningham and Bardeen have been extended, which allow one to readily handle situations in which the emitter or the observer has an arbitrary distance from, and motion state with respect to, the central compact object. The validation of the code has been extensively tested through applications to toy problems from the literature. The source FORTRAN code is freely available for download on our Web site http://www1.ynao.ac.cn/{approx}yangxl/yxl.html.

  12. Collision of two general geodesic particles around a Kerr black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Tomohiro; Kimura, Masashi

    2011-04-15

    We obtain an explicit expression for the center-of-mass (CM) energy of two colliding general geodesic massive and massless particles at any spacetime point around a Kerr black hole. Applying this, we show that the CM energy can be arbitrarily high only in the limit to the horizon and then derive a formula for the CM energy of two general geodesic particles colliding near the horizon in terms of the conserved quantities of each particle and the polar angle. We present the necessary and sufficient condition for the CM energy to be arbitrarily high in terms of the conserved quantities of each particle. To have an arbitrarily high CM energy, the angular momentum of either of the two particles must be fine-tuned to the critical value L{sub i}={Omega}{sub H}{sup -1}E{sub i}, where {Omega}{sub H} is the angular velocity of the horizon and E{sub i} and L{sub i} are the energy and angular momentum of particle i(=1,2), respectively. We show that, in the direct collision scenario, the collision with an arbitrarily high CM energy can occur near the horizon of maximally rotating black holes not only at the equator but also on a belt centered at the equator. This belt lies between latitudes {+-}acos({radical}(3)-1){approx_equal}{+-}42.94 deg. This is also true in the scenario through the collision of a last stable orbit particle.

  13. Rigorous characterization of acoustic-optical interactions in silicon slot waveguides by full-vectorial finite element method.

    PubMed

    Sriratanavaree, S; Rahman, B M A; Leung, D M H; Kejalakshmy, N; Grattan, K T V

    2014-04-21

    For the first time detailed interactions between optical and acoustic modes in a silicon slot waveguide are presented. A new computer code has been developed by using a full-vectorial formulation to study the acoustic modes in optical waveguides. The results have shown that the acoustic modes in an optical slot waveguide are not purely longitudinal or transverse but fully hybrid in nature. The model allows the effects of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and the associated frequency shift due to the interaction of these hybrid acoustic modes with the fully hybrid optical mode also to be presented. PMID:24787841

  14. F.W. Bessel (1825): The calculation of longitude and latitude from geodesic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karney, C. F. F.; Deakin, R. E.

    2010-08-01

    Issue No. 86 (1825 October) of the Astronomische Nachrichten was largely devoted to a single paper by F. W. Bessel on the solution of the direct geodesic problem (see the first sentences of the paper). For the most part, the paper stands on its own and needs little introduction. However, a few words are in order to place this paper in its historical context. First of all, it should be no surprise that a paper on this subject appeared in an astronomical journal. At the time, the disciplines of astronomy, navigation, and surveying were inextricably linked -- the methods and, in many cases, the practitioners (in particular, Bessel) were the same. Prior to Bessel's paper, the solution of the geodesic problem had been the subject of several studies by Clairaut, Euler, du Séjour, Legendre, Oriani, and others. The interest in the subject was twofold. It combined several new fields of mathematics: the calculus of variations, the theory of elliptic functions, and the differential geometry of curved surfaces. It also addressed very practical needs: the determination of the figure of the earth, the requirements of large scale surveys, and the construction of map projections. With the papers of Legendre and of Oriani in 1806, the framework for the mathematical solution for an ellipsoid of revolution had been established. However, Bessel was firmly in the practical camp; he carried out the East Prussian survey that connected the West European and Russian triangulation networks and later he made the first accurate estimate of the figure of the Earth, the ``Bessel ellipsoid''. He lays out his goal for this paper in its first section: to simplify the numerical solution of the geodesic problem. In Sects. \\ref{sec2}--\\ref{sec4}, Bessel gives a clear and concise summary of the previous work on the problem. In the remaining sections, he develops series for the distance and longitude integrals and constructs the tables which allow geodesics to be calculated to an accuracy of about 3

  15. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  16. Acoustic characteristics of twin jets.

    PubMed

    He, F; Zhang, X W

    2002-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the acoustic characteristics of underexpanded supersonic twin jets in different azimuthal measurement planes. Compared with two independent jets, the twin jets produced additional noise due to the enhanced mixing and entrainment. The larger pressure ratio for switching from the axisymmetric mode to the helical mode led to lower noise levels at 90 degrees than for two independent jets. For pressure ratios greater than 5.00, the noise reduction was due to cessation of screeching of the twin jets while screeching of a single jet was still detected. The apparent shielding phenomenon was measured for the screech helical mode. The screech tone intensities were attenuated largely due to the shielding effects. The noise reductions due to shielding were obtained over a wide range of pressure ratios relative to the sum of two independent jets. PMID:12243185

  17. Optimized multisectioned acoustic liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    A critical examination is presented of the use of optimized axially segmented acoustic liners to increase the attenuation of a liner. New calculations show that segmenting is most efficient at high frequencies with relatively long duct lengths where the attenuation is low for both uniform and segmented liners. Statistical considerations indicate little advantage in using optimized liners with more than two segments while the bandwidth of an optimized two-segment liner is shown to be nearly equal to that of a uniform liner. Multielement liner calculations show a large degradation in performance due to changes in assumed input modal structure. Finally, in order to substantiate previous and future analytical results, in-house (finite difference) and contractor (mode matching) programs are used to generate theoretical attenuations for a number of liner configurations for liners in a rectangular duct with no mean flow. Overall, the use of optimized multisectioned liners (sometimes called phased liners) fails to offer sufficient advantage over a uniform liner to warrant their use except in low frequency single mode application.

  18. Acoustic Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is the invisibility of noise or sound. A visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical (or numerical) means for visualizing the sound field have been attempted, and as a result, a great deal of progress has been made. However, most of these numerical methods are not quite ready for practical applications to noise control problems. In the meantime, rapid progress with instrumentation has made it possible to use multiple microphones and fast signal-processing systems. Although these systems are not perfect, they are useful. A state-of-the-art system has recently become available, but it still has many problematic issues; for example, how can one implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently, it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial distribution of the noise field. Section 26.2 of this chapter introduces a brief history, which is associated with sound visualization, acoustic source identification methods and what has been accomplished with a line or surface array. Section 26.2.3 introduces difficulties and recent studies, including de-Dopplerization and de-re verberation methods, both essential for visualizing a moving noise source, such as occurs for cars or trains. This section also addresses what produces ambiguity in realizing real sound sources in a room or closed space. Another major issue associated with sound/noise visualization is whether or not we can distinguish between mutual dependencies of noise in space (Sect. 26.2.4); for example, we are asked to answer the question, Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?

  19. Acoustic Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is the invisibility of noise or sound. A visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical (or numerical) means for visualizing the sound field have been attempted, and as a result, a great deal of progress has been made. However, most of these numerical methods are not quite ready for practical applications to noise control problems. In the meantime, rapid progress with instrumentation has made it possible to use multiple microphones and fast signal-processing systems. Although these systems are not perfect, they are useful. A state-of-the-art system has recently become available, but it still has many problematic issues; for example, how can one implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently, it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial distribution of the noise field. Section 26.2 of this chapter introduces a brief history, which is associated with "sound visualization," acoustic source identification methods and what has been accomplished with a line or surface array. Section 26.2.3 introduces difficulties and recent studies, including de-Dopplerization and de-reverberation methods, both essentialfor visualizing a moving noise source, such as occurs for cars or trains. This section also addresses what produces ambiguity in realizing real sound sources in a room or closed space. Another major issue associated with sound/noise visualization is whether or not we can distinguish between mutual dependencies of noise in space (Sect. 26.2.4); for example, we are asked to answer the question, "Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?"

  20. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acoustic Neuroma An acoustic neuroma, also called a vestibular schwannoma, is a rare benign tumor of the ... Acoustic Neuroma? An acoustic neuroma, known as a vestibular schwannoma, is a benign (non-cancerous) growth that ...

  1. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  2. Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…

  3. Theoretical and experimental verification of acoustic focusing in metal cylinder structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian-ping; Sun, Hong-xiang; Cheng, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi; Ge, Yong; Guan, Yi-jun

    2016-05-01

    We report the realization of a multifocal acoustic focusing lens using a simple metal cylinder structure immersed in water, as determined both experimentally and theoretically. The acoustic waves can be focused on one or more points, because the Mie-resonance modes are excited in the cylinder structure. The acoustic pressure fields measured in the Schlieren imaging system agree with the results calculated using the acoustic scattering theory. Interesting applications of multifocal focusing in the acoustic encryption communication are further discussed. Our work should be helpful in understanding the focusing mechanism and experimentally measuring the acoustic phenomena in cylinder structures.

  4. Turbofan aft duct suppressor study. Contractor's data report of mode probe signal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, G. H.; Motsinger, R. E.; Syed, A. A.; Joshi, M. C.; Kraft, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Acoustic modal distributions were measured in a fan test model having an annular exhaust duct for comparison with theoretically predicted acoustic suppression values. This report contains the amplitude and phase data of the acoustic signals sensed by the transducers of the two mode probes employed in the measurement. Each mode probe consisted of an array of 12 transducers sensing the acoustic field at three axial positions and four radial positions.

  5. Separation of acoustic waves in isentropic flow perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, Christian

    2015-04-15

    The present contribution investigates the mechanisms of sound generation and propagation in the case of highly-unsteady flows. Based on the linearisation of the isentropic Navier–Stokes equation around a new pathline-averaged base flow, it is demonstrated for the first time that flow perturbations of a non-uniform flow can be split into acoustic and vorticity modes, with the acoustic modes being independent of the vorticity modes. Therefore, we can propose this acoustic perturbation as a general definition of sound. As a consequence of the splitting result, we conclude that the present acoustic perturbation is propagated by the convective wave equation and fulfils Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. Moreover, we can define the deviations of the Navier–Stokes equation from the convective wave equation as “true” sound sources. In contrast to other authors, no assumptions on a slowly varying or irrotational flow are necessary. Using a symmetry argument for the conservation laws, an energy conservation result and a generalisation of the sound intensity are provided. - Highlights: • First splitting of non-uniform flows in acoustic and non-acoustic components. • These result leads to a generalisation of sound which is compatible with Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. • A closed equation for the generation and propagation of sound is given.

  6. Experimental study of coaxial nozzle exhaust noise. [acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodykoontz, J. H.; Stone, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for static acoustic model tests of various geometrical configurations of coaxial nozzles operating over a range of flow conditions. The geometrical configurations consisted of nozzles with coplanar and non-coplanar exit planes and various exhaust area ratios. Primary and secondary nozzle flows were varied independently over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.4 to 3.0 and gas temperatures from 280 to 1100 K. Acoustic data are presented for the conventional mode of coaxial nozzle operation as well as for the inverted velocity profile mode. Comparisons are presented to show the effect of configuration and flow changes on the acoustic characteristics of the nozzles.

  7. Acoustically induced transparency using Fano resonant periodic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, M.; Elayouch, A.; Farhat, M.; Addouche, M.; Khelif, A.; Baǧcı, H.

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional acoustic device, which supports Fano resonance and induced transparency in its response to an incident sound wave, is designed and fabricated. These effects are generated from the destructive interference of closely coupled one broad- and one narrow-band acoustic modes. The proposed design ensures excitation and interference of two spectrally close modes by locating a small pipe inside a wider and longer one. Indeed, numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate that this simple-to-fabricate structure can be used to generate Fano resonance as well as acoustically induced transparency with promising applications in sensing, cloaking, and imaging.

  8. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...

  9. Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

    2014-06-01

    Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

  10. The inherent dynamics of a molecular liquid: Geodesic pathways through the potential energy landscape of a liquid of linear molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Daniel; Stratt, Richard M.

    2014-05-01

    Because the geodesic pathways that a liquid follows through its potential energy landscape govern its slow, diffusive motion, we suggest that these pathways are logical candidates for the title of a liquid's "inherent dynamics." Like their namesake "inherent structures," these objects are simply features of the system's potential energy surface and thus provide views of the system's structural evolution unobstructed by thermal kinetic energy. This paper shows how these geodesic pathways can be computed for a liquid of linear molecules, allowing us to see precisely how such molecular liquids mix rotational and translational degrees of freedom into their dynamics. The ratio of translational to rotational components of the geodesic path lengths, for example, is significantly larger than would be expected on equipartition grounds, with a value that scales with the molecular aspect ratio. These and other features of the geodesics are consistent with a picture in which molecular reorientation adiabatically follows translation—molecules largely thread their way through narrow channels available in the potential energy landscape.

  11. Acoustic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Uwe J.

    2005-09-01

    A speaker, driven by an amplified audio signal is used to set up a standing wave in a 3b-ft-long, 4-in.-diam transparent tube. Initially the tube is oriented horizontally, and Styrofoam packing peanuts accumulate near the pressure nodes. When the tube is turned to a position with the axis oriented vertically, the peanuts drop slightly, until the gravitational force on the peanuts is balanced by the force due to the sound pressure, at which point levitation is observed. Sound-pressure level measurements are used to map the air column normal mode pattern. Similarly, standing waves are established between an ultrasonic horn and a metal reflector and millimeter size Styrofoam balls are levitated.

  12. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  13. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  14. Modal analysis and intensity of acoustic radiation of the kettledrum.

    PubMed

    Tronchin, Lamberto

    2005-02-01

    The acoustical features of kettledrums have been analyzed by means of modal analysis and acoustic radiation (p/v ratio) measurements. Modal analysis of two different kettledrums was undertaken, exciting the system both by a hammer and a shaker. Up to 15 vibrational modes were clearly identified. Acoustic radiation was studied using two ways. Based on previous experiments of other researchers, a new parameter, called intensity of acoustic radiation (IAR), has been defined and measured. Results show a strict relationship between IAR and the frequency response function (FRF, which is the v/F ratio), and IAR also strongly relates the modal pattern to acoustic radiation. Finally, IAR is proposed for vibro-acoustical characterization of kettledrums and other musical instruments such as strings, pianos, and harpsichords. PMID:15759711

  15. Observation of Marine Animals Using Underwater Acoustic Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Kohji; Takahashi, Rika; Tang, Yong; Mukai, Tohru; Sato, Masanori

    2006-05-01

    An underwater acoustic camera enclosed in a pressure-resistant case was constructed to observe underwater marine animals. This enabled the measurement of the size, shape, and behavior of living marine animals in the detection range up to 240 cm. The transducer array of the acoustic camera was driven by 3.5 MHz ultrasonic signals, and B-mode acoustic images were obtained. Observations were conducted for captive animals in a water tank and for natural animals in a field. The captive animals, including fish, squid and jellyfish, were observed, and a three-dimensional internal structure of animals was reconstructed using multiple acoustical images. The most important contributors of acoustic scattering were the swimbladder and vertebra of bladdered fish, and the liver and reproductive organs of invertebrate animals. In a field experiment, the shape, size, and swimming behavior of wild animals were observed. The possibilities and limitations of the underwater acoustic camera for fishery applications were discussed.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ynogkm: code for calculating time-like geodesics (Yang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.-L.; Wang, J.-C.

    2013-11-01

    Here we present the source file for a new public code named ynogkm, aim on calculating the time-like geodesics in a Kerr-Newmann spacetime fast. In the code the four Boyer-Lindquis coordinates and proper time are expressed as functions of a parameter p semi-analytically, i.e., r(p), μ(p), φ(p), t(p), and σ(p), by using the Weiers- trass' and Jacobi's elliptic functions and integrals. All of the ellip- tic integrals are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method, which guarantees the fast speed of the code.The source Fortran file ynogkm.f90 contains three modules: constants, rootfind, ellfunction, and blcoordinates. (3 data files).

  17. Geodesic Distance Algorithm for Extracting the Ascending Aorta from 3D CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeonggul; Jung, Ho Yub; Hong, Youngtaek; Cho, Iksung; Shim, Hackjoon; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the automatic 3D segmentation of the ascending aorta from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). The segmentation is performed in three steps. First, the initial seed points are selected by minimizing a newly proposed energy function across the Hough circles. Second, the ascending aorta is segmented by geodesic distance transformation. Third, the seed points are effectively transferred through the next axial slice by a novel transfer function. Experiments are performed using a database composed of 10 patients' CCTA images. For the experiment, the ground truths are annotated manually on the axial image slices by a medical expert. A comparative evaluation with state-of-the-art commercial aorta segmentation algorithms shows that our approach is computationally more efficient and accurate under the DSC (Dice Similarity Coefficient) measurements. PMID:26904151

  18. Einstein--Weyl space-times with geodesic and shear-free neutrino rays: asymptotic behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Kolassis, C.A.; Santos, N.O.

    1987-02-15

    We consider a neutrino field with geodesic and shear-free rays, in interaction with a gravitational field according to the Einstein--Weyl field equations. Furthermore we suppose that there exists a Killing vector r/sup ..mu../ whose magnitude is almost everywhere bounded at the future and past endpoints of the neutrino rays. The implications of the asymptotic behavior of r/sup ..mu../ on the structure of space-time are investigated and a useful set of reduced equations is obtained. It is found that under these hypothes the space-time cannot be asymptotically flat if the neutrino field is nonvanishing. All the Demianski--Kerr--NUT-like space-times as well as the space-times which admit a covariantly constant null vector are explicity obtained. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  19. Coordinate families for the Schwarzschild geometry based on radial timelike geodesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Tehani K.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the connections between various coordinate systems associated with observers moving inwardly along radial geodesics in the Schwarzschild geometry. Painlevé-Gullstrand (PG) time is adapted to freely falling observers dropped from rest from infinity; Lake-Martel-Poisson (LMP) time coordinates are adapted to observers who start at infinity with non-zero initial inward velocity; Gautreau-Hoffmann time coordinates are adapted to observers dropped from rest from a finite distance from the black hole horizon. We construct from these an LMP family and a proper-time family of time coordinates, the intersection of which is PG time. We demonstrate that these coordinate families are distinct, but related, one-parameter generalizations of PG time, and show linkage to Lemaître coordinates as well.

  20. Deflection of polarised radiation - Relative phase delay technique. [photon geodesic motion variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, B.; Melnick, G.; Harwit, M.; Sato, T.; Stelzried, C. T.; Jauncey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the geodesic motion of photons, considering particularly whether oppositely polarized photons fall at the same rate. It is assumed that orthogonally polarized photons would be equally deflected by the gravitational field of a nonrotating mass. Upon the introduction of rotation, the angular momentum of the deflecting source couples to the photon spin through gravitational field action. Thus there arise separate trajectories for orthogonal polarizations. Searching for changes in polarization in a deflected beam is accomplished by a relative phase delay technique. If the beam is split into orthogonal linear polarization, final polarization is elliptical. Experiments have been performed on searching for ellipticity developments in the linearly polarized carrier waves from Helios 1 and 2, and the results are presented.