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Sample records for geodynamics

  1. Geodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, Edward A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends, research activities, and conferences in geodynamics. These include topics on the lithosphere and lower continental crust formation discussed at a U.S. Geodynamics Committee workshop (Austin, Texas 1982) and symposia (each dealing with specific topics) sponsored by the Inter-Union Commission on Dynamics and Evolution of the

  2. Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The status of space geodynamics is examined, major scientific questions that need to be addressed are identified, and program activities are recommended for the next decade. Progress made in measuring tectonic plates, polar motion, and coupling of fluid motion of the Earth's core to the mantle is reviewed.

  3. Geodynamics Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Charles L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes activities of Geodynamics Project of the Federal Council on Science and Technology, such as the application of multichannel seismic-reflection techniques to study the nature of the deep crust and upper mantle. (MLH)

  4. NASA Geodynamics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Activities and achievements for the period of May 1983 to May 1984 for the NASA geodynamics program are summarized. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference are inlcuded. Current publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program are listed.

  5. NASA geodynamics program: Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Seventh Geodynamics Program report summarizes program activities and achievements during 1988 and 1989. Included is a 115 page bibliography of the publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program since its initiation in 1979.

  6. Fundamentals studies in geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Research in geodynamics, seismology, and planetary quakes is presented. Terradynamics and plate tectonics are described using dynamic models. The early evolution of the Earth's mantle is also discussed.

  7. NASA geodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The history and development of the geodynamics program are described, in addition to accomplishments and plans for the future years activities. Extramural grant titles are listed for general research, Lageos investigations, and Magsat investigations.

  8. Earth rotation and geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Kosek, Wieslaw; Nastula, Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals with monitoring of geodynamic phenomena. It contains analysis of geodynamic networks of local, and regional scale using space (GNSS and SLR) techniques, Earth tides monitoring with gravimeters and water-tube hydrostatic clinometer, and the determination of secular variation of the Earth' magnetic field.

  9. Fundamental studies in geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Hager, B. H.; Kanamori, H.

    1981-01-01

    Research in fundamental studies in geodynamics continued in a number of fields including seismic observations and analysis, synthesis of geochemical data, theoretical investigation of geoid anomalies, extensive numerical experiments in a number of geodynamical contexts, and a new field seismic volcanology. Summaries of work in progress or completed during this report period are given. Abstracts of publications submitted from work in progress during this report period are attached as an appendix.

  10. Geodynamic basin classification

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.

    1987-05-01

    Four criteria (continental margin type, basin position within a plate, crustal type, geodynamic models and processes of basin formation) are used to classify sedimentary basins. Within plate interiors, cratonic margin basins and interior cratonic basins are distinguished by position on a tectonic plate. In passive margins, rift basins, aulacogens, and flexure basins are distinguished by orientation with respect to margins (rifts parallel and aulacogens normal to margins) and geodynamic process (rifts and aulacogens form by stretching, flexure basins by elastic or viscoelastic flexure). Basins associated with active continental margins are distinguished by position with respect to margin, crustal type, and stress regimen. Trench-slope basins involve compressional-extensional regimens, whereas trench basins, forearc basins and retroarc basins form in compressional regimes (retroarc basins on continental crust; forearc and trench basins occupy different positions on margin boundaries). Extensional intra-arc basins form on continental crust whereas backarc basins form by rifting oceanic crust and rapid thermal subsidence. Both pull-apart and transform basins form in transform margins by rifting and thermal subsidence with different translational stress regimens. In collision margins, foreland basins occur within continental plates, and superposed (or collage) basins occur along suture zones. Polyhistory basins include successor basins involving changing tectonic styles, and resurgent basins involving repeated tectonic styles. Many mapped basins show polyhistory. Thus the cratonic Illinois basin evolved through stages of a rift basin, followed by thermal subsidence akin to passive margins, followed by viscoelastic basin formation akin to a foreland basin.

  11. Geodynamics Branch research report, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The research program of the Geodynamics Branch is summarized. The research activities cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) and Geopotential Research Mission. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  12. The NASA Geodynamics Program: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This NASA Geodynamics Program overview collectively examines the history, scientific basis, status, and results of the NASA Program and outlines plans for the next five to eight years. It is intended as an informative nontechnical discussion of geodynamics research.

  13. From Geodynamics to Simplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Mantle convection and plate tectonics are often thought as synonymous. Convection is sometimes treated as the driver or plate tectonics is viewed as simply a manifestation of mantle convection. Mantle plumes are regarded as supplying some of the elements missing in the plate tectonic and mantle convection paradigms, such as island chains, swells and large igneous provinces. An alternate view is motivated by Prigogine's concept of far-from-equilibrium self-organization ( SOFFE), not to be confused with Bak's self-organized criticality ( SOC) . In a SOFFE system the components interact, and the system is small compared to the outside world to which it is open. There must be multiple possible states and dissipation is important. Such a system is sensitive to small changes. Rayleigh-Benard convection in a container with isothermal walls is such a self-organizing system ; the driving bouyancy and the dissipation ( viscosity ) are in the fluid. In Marangoni convection the driving forces ( surface tension ) and dissipation are in the surface film and this organizes the surface and the underlying fluid. The mantle provides energy and matter to the interacting plate system but forces in the plates drive and dissipate the energy. Thus, plate tectonics may be a SOFFEE system that drives convection,as are systems cooled from above, in general. If so, plates will reorganize as boundary conditions change ; incipient plate boundaries will emerge as volcanic chains at tensile regions. Plates are defined as regions of lateral compression ( force chains ), rather than strength, and they are ephemeral. The plate system, rather than mantle viscosity, will modulate mantle cooling. The supercontinent cycle, with episodes of reorganization and massive magmatism, may be a manifestation of this far-from-equilibrium, driven from above, system. Geodynamics may be simpler than we think. Plate tectonics is certainly a more powerful concept once the concepts of rididity, elasticity, homogeneity, steady-state, equilibrium and uniformity are dropped or modified, as qualifiers of the system,as recommended in Occam's philosophy.

  14. Exochemical Geodynamics and Potamochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgre, C. J.; Dupr, B.; Gaillardet, J.

    2001-05-01

    The processes which operate at the surface of the earth to weather the rocks and to erode the relief can be studied with the same methodology as we have used to study the geodynamics of internal processes (isotope tracers, trace element systematics, budget modeling by inverse approach). The rivers are like the basalts. They are messengers of erosion processes integrating a large number of microphenomena in all. We have applied to the river materials (both soluble and particulate) the same approach as we have done for basalts. What are the results? 1) We can determine accurately what are the contributors to the river chemistry. Case by case, but also at the whole earth level we can obtain the proportions of rain, carbonates, evaporites, silicates, and granitoids, which determine the composition of river water. 2) The complementary study of the particulates as well as the dissolved load permit us to measure the degree of weathering case by case, as well as the proportion of shales/granitoids. 3) Isotopic ratios of Sr, Pb, Nd, Os measured as particulates, and Sr, Os, Nd in the dissolved load permit us to obtain a reliable average continental crust for today. 4) For the "insoluble" elements, we can also obtain average reliable ratios representative of the bulk continental crust. 5) Systematic relationships can be established between chemical/physical erosion rates, chemical/physical erosion rates with temperature, with runoff, with pH. These scaling laws permit one to describe quantitatively the erosion process and a model can be built on such relationships. 6) The uses of various complementary techniques, including Pb isotopes, tracer element ratios, uranium disequilibrium series, permits one to establish the different regime of erosion: equilibrium, soil development, soil destruction. These cases can be quantitatively described. 7) With reference to the ocean, these results permit one to propose a new scale of residence time and a test of the Whitfield global equilibrium theory of the hydrosphere-lithosphere systems.

  15. Basic research for the geodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.

    1985-01-01

    The current technical objectives for the geodynamics program consist of (1) optimal utilization of laser and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations for reference frames for geodynamics; (2) utilization of range difference observations in geodynamics; and (3) estimation techniques in crustal deformation analysis.

  16. Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnis, M.; Kellogg, L. H.; Bloxham, J.; Hager, B. H.; Spiegelman, M.; Willett, S.; Wysession, M. E.; Aivazis, M.

    2004-12-01

    Solid earth geophysicists have a long tradition of writing scientific software to address a wide range of problems. In particular, computer simulations came into wide use in geophysics during the decade after the plate tectonic revolution. Solution schemes and numerical algorithms that developed in other areas of science, most notably engineering, fluid mechanics, and physics, were adapted with considerable success to geophysics. This software has largely been the product of individual efforts and although this approach has proven successful, its strength for solving problems of interest is now starting to show its limitations as we try to share codes and algorithms or when we want to recombine codes in novel ways to produce new science. With funding from the NSF, the US community has embarked on a Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) that will develop, support, and disseminate community-accessible software for the greater geodynamics community from model developers to end-users. The software is being developed for problems involving mantle and core dynamics, crustal and earthquake dynamics, magma migration, seismology, and other related topics. With a high level of community participation, CIG is leveraging state-of-the-art scientific computing into a suite of open-source tools and codes. The infrastructure that we are now starting to develop will consist of: (a) a coordinated effort to develop reusable, well-documented and open-source geodynamics software; (b) the basic building blocks - an infrastructure layer - of software by which state-of-the-art modeling codes can be quickly assembled; (c) extension of existing software frameworks to interlink multiple codes and data through a superstructure layer; (d) strategic partnerships with the larger world of computational science and geoinformatics; and (e) specialized training and workshops for both the geodynamics and broader Earth science communities. The CIG initiative has already started to leverage and develop long-term strategic partnerships with open source development efforts within the larger thrusts of scientific computing and geoinformatics. These strategic partnerships are essential as the frontier has moved into multi-scale and multi-physics problems in which many investigators now want to use simulation software for data interpretation, data assimilation, and hypothesis testing.

  17. Laser geodynamic satellite (LAGEOS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portelli, C.; Ousley, G. W., Sr.

    1991-01-01

    The Laser Geodynamic Satellite 2 (LAGEOS 2) is nearly identical to the LAGEOS 1 satellite, which was launched by NASA in 1976. However, LAGEOS 2 is completely passive, and is equipped with fused silian corner reflectors for ranging with ground-based lasers. The addition of LAGEOS 2 will provide the GSFC laser network with significantly increased satellite tracking opportunities, because LAGEOS 1 is at a 110-degree inclination and LAGEOS 2 will be at a 52-degree inclination. The flight profile is given, and information is presented in tabular form on the following topics: Deep Space Network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, tracking, and tracking support responsibility.

  18. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M., (compiler); Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  19. Basic research for the geodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.

    1982-01-01

    Work performed and data obtained in geodynamic research is reported. The purpose was to obtain utilization of: (1) laser and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI); (2) range difference observation in geodynamics; (3) development of models for ice sheet and crustal deformations. The effects of adopting new precession, nutation and equinox corrections on the terrestrial reference frame are investigated.

  20. Basic research for the geodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Some objectives of this geodynamic program are: (1) optimal utilization of laser and VLBI observations as reference frames for geodynamics, (2) utilization of range difference observations in geodynamics, and (3) estimation techniques in crustal deformation analysis. The determination of Earth rotation parameters from different space geodetic systems is studied. Also reported on is the utilization of simultaneous laser range differences for the determination of baseline variation. An algorithm for the analysis of regional or local crustal deformation measurements is proposed along with other techniques and testing procedures. Some results of the reference from comparisons in terms of the pole coordinates from different techniques are presented.

  1. International GPS Service for Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J. F. (Editor); Urban, M. P. (Editor); Liu, R. (Editor); Neilan, R. E. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This 1995 annual report of the IGS International GPS (Global Positioning System) Service for Geodynamics - describes the second operational year of the service. It provides the many IGS contributing agencies and the rapidly growing user community with essential information on current organizational and technical matters promoting the IGS standards and products (including organizational framework, data processing strategies, and statistics showing the remarkable expansion of the GPS monitoring network, the improvement of IGS performance, and product quality). It also introduces important practical concepts for network densification by integration of regional stations and the combination of station coordinate solutions. There are groups of articles describing general aspects of the IGS, the Associate Analysis Centers (AACs), Data Centers, and IGS stations.

  2. GLOBAL DISASTERS: Geodynamics and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulina, Marina; Vikulin, Alexander; Semenets, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    The problem of reducing the damage caused by geodynamic and social disasters is a high priority and urgent task facing the humanity. The vivid examples of the earthquake in Japan in March 2011 that generated a new kind of threat - the radiation pollution, and the events in the Arabic world that began in the same year, are dramatic evidences. By the middle of this century, the damage from such disastrous events is supposed to exceed the combined GDP of all countries of the world. The database of 287 large-scale natural and social disasters and global social phenomena that have occurred in the period of II B.C.E. - XXI A.D. was compiled by the authors for the first time. We have proposed the following phenomenological model: the scale of disasters over the time does not decrease, there is a minimum of accidents in the XV century; the numbers of accidents have cycles lasting until the first thousand years, natural and social disasters in the aggregate are uniformly distributed in time, but separately natural and social disasters are nonuniform. Thus, due to the evaluation, a 500-year cycle of catastrophes and 200-300 and 700-800-year periodicities are identified. It is shown that catastrophes are grouped into natural and social types by forming clusters. The hypothesis of the united geo-bio-social planetary process is founded. A fundamentally new feature of this research is the assumptions about the statistical significance of the biosphere and the impact of society on the geodynamic processes. The results allow to formulate a new understanding of global disaster as an event the damage from which the humanity will be unable to liquidate even by means of the total resource potential and the consequence of which may turn into the irreversible destruction of civilization. The correlation between the natural and social phenomena and the possible action mechanism is suggested.

  3. The NASA Geodynamics Program report, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The activities of the NASA Geodynamics Program in 1981 both in achieving improved measurement precision and in establishing the foundation for the acquisition and analysis of scientific data are discussed.

  4. Geodynamic monitoring in real times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outkin, V.; Yurkov, A.; Klimshin, A.; Kozlova, I.

    2011-12-01

    For the decision of problems of the short-term and intermediate term forecast of tectonic earthquakes the technique conditionally named - geodynamic monitoring which does not use the data of seismic monitoring for the operative decision of problems of the forecast is offered. Geodynamic monitoring (GDM) is to studying tensely - deformed conditions of the separate block of rock on change of activity natural radioactive gas is carried out by accommodation in the chosen file of specially designed monitors of radon - devices fixing change in time (VAR). The monitor of radon, (the detector of radon) as the basic measuring device located in the block of rocks, possesses enormous tensosensitivity to relative strain condition of a file. Depending on the enclosed pressure choose three characteristic points: 1) 30-35 % of "background" size VAR - the beginning of accumulation of inelastic energy; 2) 50 % of background VAR - the process of stabilization of an elastic condition of a file; 3) 70-75 % "background" VAR - a critical pressure in the mountain block, an opportunity as spontaneous dump of elastic energy, and under action external "triggerring" forces. If the size of the saved up energy is close to critical dump needs energy at a level of energy of variations of rotation of the Earth. Such significant energy causes "plenty" of earthquakes on all planet simultaneously. This fact confirms an opportunity of the short-term forecast of strong (destructive) earthquakes: dump of elastic pressure of the Earth in this case occurs in 25-30 hours after passage of variations of rotation of the Earth. It is for the notification of the population about coming nearer earthquake. External power functions (mechanical, electromagnetic, etc.), preparations influencing system and occurrence of tectonic earthquakes, are divided on two big classes: 1) "forecasting " functions - processes functionally connected to accumulation of elastic pressure and to dump by its rather small dozes; 2) external mechanical actions which initiate dump of the saved up elastic pressure - "triggirring functions", promoting dump of the elastic pressure resulting in earthquake. The short-term forecast of especially large earthquakes is entirely based on use of monitoring of rotation of the Earth: essential "triggerring functions" (variations of rotation of the Earth) dump(reset) the saved up pressure on all surface of the Earth, causing thus large earthquakes. Therefore the prevention(warning) of large earthquakes should be formed on the basis of monitoring variations of heterogeneity of rotation of the Earth, that usually precedes dump of elastic pressure(voltage) at 25-30 o'clock.

  5. Research program of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor); Boccucci, B. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the Fourth Annual Summary of the Research Program of the Geodynamics Branch. The branch is located within the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics of the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The research activities of the branch staff cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including: tectonophysics, space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described in this document include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project and the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX). The reports highlight the investigations conducted by the Geodynamics Branch staff during calendar year 1985. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements and Solid Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Modeling and Sensing Techniques, and Sea Surface Topography. Further information on the activities of the branch or the particular research efforts described herein can be obtained through the branch office or from individual staff members.

  6. Geodynamics - Tracking satellites to monitor global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutler, Gerhard; Morgan, Peter; Neilan, Ruth E.

    1993-01-01

    The major goals and organizational structure of the International GPS Geodynamics Service (IGS), a new Navstar satellite tracking service, are described. IGS activities are aimed at providing the scientific community with data on GPS orbits accurate enough for performing regional and local GPS analysis and daily earth rotation information.

  7. Geodynamic laser ranging system laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallas, J. L.; Czechanski, J. P.; Coyle, D. B.; Zukowski, B. J.; Seery, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the requirements and design options in the development of a spaceborne laser transmitter for NASA's Geodynamic Laser Ranging System. Three different oscillators are considered. The first is an injection-seeded ring oscillator yielding 1 mJ of energy within a 120-ps pulse. The second is a frequency-modulated mode-locked oscillator emitting 0.30 nJ in a 20-ps pulse. The third is a self-starting, additive pulse mode-locked laser. Detailed design considerations and preliminary results of these lasers are reported as well as the design of a unique multipass amplifier.

  8. Basic research for the geodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Further development of utility program software for analyzing final results of Earth rotation parameter determination from different space geodetic systems was completed. Main simulation experiments were performed. Results and conclusions were compiled. The utilization of range-difference observations in geodynamics is also examined. A method based on the Bayesian philosophy and entropy measure of information is given for the elucidation of time-dependent models of crustal motions as part of a proposed algorithm. The strategy of model discrimination and design of measurements is illustrated in an example for the case of crustal deformation models.

  9. Geodynamic environments of ultra-slow spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhan, Andrey; Dubinin, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-slow spreading is clearly distinguished as an outstanding type of crustal accretion by recent studies. Spreading ridges with ultra-slow velocities of extension are studied rather well. But ultra-slow spreading is characteristic feature of not only spreading ridges, it can be observed also on convergent and transform plate boundaries. Ultra-slow spreading is observed now or could have been observed in the past in the following geodynamic environments on divergent plate boundaries: 1. On spreading ridges with ultra-slow spreading, both modern (f.e. Gakkel, South-West Indian, Aden spreading center) and ceased (Labrador spreading center, Aegir ridge); 2. During transition from continental rifting to early stages of oceanic spreading (all spreading ridges during incipient stages of their formation); 3. During incipient stages of formation of spreading ridges on oceanic crust as a result of ridge jumps and reorganization of plate boundaries (f.e. Mathematicians rise and East Pacific rise); 4. During propagation of spreading ridge into the continental crust under influence of hotspot (Aden spreading center and Afar triple junction), under presence of strike-slip faults preceding propagation (possibly, rift zone of California Bay). Ultra-slow spreading is observed now or could have been observed in the past in the following geodynamic environments on transform plate boundaries: 1. In transit zones between two "typical" spreading ridges (f.e. Knipovich ridge); 2. In semi strike-slip/extension zones on the oceanic crust (f.e. American-Antarctic ridge); 3. In the zones of local extension in regional strike-slip areas in pull-apart basins along transform boundaries (Cayman trough, pull-apart basins of the southern border of Scotia plate). Ultra-slow spreading is observed now or could have been observed in the past in the following geodynamic environments on convergent plate boundaries: 1. During back-arc rifting on the stage of transition into back-arc spreading (central part of Bransfield rift); 2. During back-arc inter-subduction spreading (Ayu trough, northern Fiji basin), 3. During diffuse back-arc spreading (area on the south-eastern border of Scotia sea), 4. During back-arc spreading under splitting of island arc (northern extremity of Mariana trough). Each of the geodynamic environments is characterized by peculiar topographic, geological and geophysical features forming under the same spreading velocities. Development of ultra-slow spreading in each of these environments results in formation of peculiar extension sedimentary basins.

  10. Geodynamical Evolution and Tectonic Framework of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Guangding

    In this paper, we show that the tectonic framework of mainland China consists of "three latitudinal strips", namely, Tianshan-Yinshan-Yanshan, Qinling-Dabie, and Nanling; "two longitudinal strips" namely, Daxing'anling Taihangshan Wulingshan, Helanshan-Longmenshan; and "two triangles", Songpan-Ganzi, and Chaidamu. The geodynamic evolution of China can be considered in five-stages, which can be summarised as a kind of "teeterboard-like" process. The evolutionary process is that in the Palaeozoic era, the China mainland had lower elevation in the west and higher in the east, with OrdosSichuan as an axis. After the Mesozoic era, because the blocks of Qiangtang, Gangdese, and India collided and sutured with the Tarim block. During this time closure of the Tethys ocean occurred, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau formed. In the Cenozoic subduction of the Pacific plate northwestwards under the Philippine Sea began, and the Philippine Sea block converged towards the Eurasian plate. This was associated with extension and thinning of the crust in East China, which resulted in the uplift of the land in the west and subsidence in the east of China. Finally, we point out that research on the geodynamic evolution of the terranes is of practical significance in prospecting for mineral deposits and hydrocarbon resources.

  11. The evolution of Hadean-Eoarchaean geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, C.; Debaille, V.

    2014-11-01

    Geodynamic modelling of Hadean/Eoarchaean tectonics typically requires higher rates of internal heat production, and higher mantle temperatures, in models that possess temperature-dependent viscosity and a yield criterion. In such models under Hadean conditions, for a wide range of geodynamic configurations and modelling approaches, subduction has a propensity to fail. This has led to the suggestion that the predominant tectonic regime in the Hadean was stagnant-lid convection, with intermittent recycling events. Various lines of evidence support this suggestion, from i) the long mixing time of mantle isotopic anomalies or compositional heterogeneities, such as 142Nd, 182W, and platinum group elements, to ii) the long residence time of the Hadean protolith to the Jack Hills zircons, and iii) thermal evolution models, which typically require lower heat flux in the past to avoid the "Archaean thermal catastrophe". The framework provided by stagnant lid, or episodic overturn, convection, iv) provides an explanation for the formation of early Archaean TTGs and greenstones, and v) explains the interleaving arc-plume sequence observed in many Archaean terranes, suggesting subduction initiation events may have been common, increasing their preservation potential. Implications include a low magnetic field strength in the Hadean, which is consistent with emerging paleointensity data from these times.

  12. Geodynamics applications of spaceborne laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Degnan, John J.

    1989-01-01

    The Geodynamics Laser Ranging System (GLRS) is a spaceborne laser ranging instrument being developoed by NASA as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (EOS). GLRS is to be used to study regional and local crustal movements. It is designed to make highly precise range measurements to retroreflector targets located in geophysically interesting sites. Using a two-color ranging scheme, absolute range accuracies of several mm are expected. Simulations based on this accuracy and the EOS orbital parameters show that length of the intersite baseline between retroreflectors can be determined to several mm accuracy at distances from a few km to several hundred km with several passes of GLRS range data collected over a few-day interval. Short-arc techniques are used to minimize the effects of gravity field and other force model uncertainties. Relative heights can be determined to sub-cm accuracy over comparable distances.

  13. Scientific Data Analysis and Software Support: Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klosko, Steven; Sanchez, B. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The support on this contract centers on development of data analysis strategies, geodynamic models, and software codes to study four-dimensional geodynamic and oceanographic processes, as well as studies and mission support for near-Earth and interplanetary satellite missions. SRE had a subcontract to maintain the optical laboratory for the LTP, where instruments such as MOLA and GLAS are developed. NVI performed work on a Raytheon laser altimetry task through a subcontract, providing data analysis and final data production for distribution to users. HBG had a subcontract for specialized digital topography analysis and map generation. Over the course of this contract, Raytheon ITSS staff have supported over 60 individual tasks. Some tasks have remained in place during this entire interval whereas others have been completed and were of shorter duration. Over the course of events, task numbers were changed to reflect changes in the character of the work or new funding sources. The description presented below will detail the technical accomplishments that have been achieved according to their science and technology areas. What will be shown is a brief overview of the progress that has been made in each of these investigative and software development areas. Raytheon ITSS staff members have received many awards for their work on this contract, including GSFC Group Achievement Awards for TOPEX Precision Orbit Determination and the Joint Gravity Model One Team. NASA JPL gave the TOPEX/POSEIDON team a medal commemorating the completion of the primary mission and a Certificate of Appreciation. Raytheon ITSS has also received a Certificate of Appreciation from GSFC for its extensive support of the Shuttle Laser Altimeter Experiment.

  14. Experimental, Numerical and Observational Models in Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    Geodynamics, the study of the forces that drives all Earth's processes is a rich field that deeply connects all aspects of geological and geophysical studies, from surface observations of the sedimentary record to knowledge of deep Earth structure from mineral physics and seismology. In the context of the solid Earth geodynamics primarily focuses on lithosphere and mantle dynamics, while core dynamics is the purview of geomagnetism. I will focus this talk on the former, its historical context and future developments. We have known the equations of motion and mechanics for ~200 years, but only relatively recently can they be solved with enough accuracy and resolution to do geology. We have made great strides since Arthur Holmes conceptual models of mantle flow, thanks to computational and experimental advances. We can know model plate boundaries globally with resolutions in the order of a few kms and image temperature and velocity simultaneously in the laboratory in 3D and non-intrusively. We have also learned a great deal about the physics of the Earth, from composition to rheology. New theories on plate boundary rheology are paving the way for self-consistent generation of plates from mantle flow. New computational methods allow for adaptive meshing, fabric development and history, so we can study deformation and compare directly to geological observations in mountain ranges and continental rifts. We can use ever more sophisticated images of mantle structure from seismic and other geophysical data to probe the relationship between melting, flow and dynamical processes. We can reconstruct landscapes and relief, plate motions and sedimentation and ask how much the mantle has contributed to drainage reversal, sedimentation and climate change. The future of the field is ever brighter.

  15. Geodynamic contributions to global climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital and rotational variations perturb the latitudinal and seasonal pattern of incident solar radiation, producing major climatic change on time scales of 10(exp 4)-10(exp 6) years. The orbital variations are oblivious to internal structure and processes, but the rotational variations are not. A program of investigation whose objective would be to explore and quantify three aspects of orbital, rotational, and climatic interactions is described. An important premise of this investigation is the synergism between geodynamics and paleoclimate. Better geophysical models of precessional dynamics are needed in order to accurately reconstruct the radiative input to climate models. Some of the paleoclimate proxy records contain information relevant to solid Earth processes, on time scales which are difficult to constrain otherwise. Specific mechanisms which will be addressed include: (1) climatic consequences of deglacial polar motion; and (2) precessional and climatic consequences of glacially induced perturbations in the gravitational oblateness and partial decoupling of the mantle and core. The approach entails constructing theoretical models of the rotational, deformational, radiative, and climatic response of the Earth to known orbital perturbations, and comparing these with extensive records of paleoclimate proxy data. Several of the mechanisms of interest may participate in previously unrecognized feed-back loops in the climate dynamics system. A new algorithm for estimating climatically diagnostic locations and seasons from the paleoclimate time series is proposed.

  16. 2D Geodynamic models of Microcontinent Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetreault, Joya; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Continental fragments (microcontinents and continental ribbons) are rifted-off blocks of relatively unthinned continental crust situated among the severely thinned crust of passive margins. The existence of these large crustal blocks would suggest that the passive margin containing them either underwent simultaneous differential rifting or multi-stage rifting in order to produce continental breakup and seafloor spreading in more than one location in the span of approximately 100 km. Also, because continental fragments do not occur on every passive margin, there must be something particular about the crust and/or lithosphere that led to the production of these features. Some proposed mechanisms for microcontinent and continental ribbon formation include (1) structural inheritance, (2) strain localization by serpentinized mantle or magmatic underplating, and (3) plume interaction with an active rift. Pre-existing weakness and inherited structural fabrics in typical continental crust from past tectonic events, such as varying rheology of accreted terranes and collisional suture zones, could be reactivated and serve as foci for deformation. The second theory is that strain is localized in certain regions by large amounts of weakened material that are either serpentinized mantle or mafic bodies underplating the thinned crust. Another possible process that could lead to continental fragment formation is magmatic influence of hot plume material that focuses in various regions, producing rifts in separate areas. The Jan Mayen and Seychelles microcontinents both have geological and plate reconstruction evidence to support the plume interaction theory. We use 2-D geodynamic experiments to assess the importance of structural inheritance, strain localization by regions of weakened mantle material, and contributions to rifting from plume material on producing crustal blocks surrounded by seafloor or thinned/hyperextended crust. Our preliminary results suggest that each of these three mechanisms, working alone, cannot produce concurrent or multi-stage differential thinning and continental break-up. We infer that multistage extension produced by a combination of these mechanisms could be necessary to produce microcontinents and continental ribbons.

  17. Predictive geodynamical modeling of large-scale mantle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, A. K.; Bull, A. L.; Lassak, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    One of the longstanding challenges of solid-Earth geophysics is to discover the large-scale dynamical and chemical structure of Earth's mantle. Geophysical and geochemical observations, and geodynamical modeling have led to several dynamically-different conceptual mantle models which are currently being debated in the community. Key to distinguishing between these models is understanding the cause of the large, low-velocity seismic anomalies observed beneath Africa and the Pacific. Candidate mantle models to explain thse anomalies include isochemical convection with large clusters of thermal plumes, thermochemical piles, and thermochemical superplumes. We perform predictive geodynamical modeling combined with comparison to observations of seismic tomography and CMB topography to test the feasibility these conceptual models. Given the uncertainty in model parameters, particularly the initial condition, we also investigate the predictive ability of geodynamical models to differentiate between these models. Furthermore, we investigate the possible genesis of more-dense material in the thermochemical models.

  18. Geodynamic and metabolic cycles in the Hadean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, M. J.; Arndt, N. T.

    2005-04-01

    High-degree melting of hot dry Hadean mantle at ocean ridges and plumes resulted in a crust about 30km thick, overlain in places by extensive and thick mafic volcanic plateaus. Continental crust, by contrast, was relatively thin and mostly submarine. At constructive and destructive plate boundaries, and above the many mantle plumes, acidic hydrothermal springs at ~400C contributed Fe and other transition elements as well as P and H2 to the deep ocean made acidulous by dissolved CO2 and minor HCl derived from volcanoes. Away from ocean ridges, submarine hydrothermal fluids were cool (?100C), alkaline (pH ~10), highly reduced and also H2-rich. Reaction of solvents in this fluid with those in ocean water was catalyzed in a hydrothermal mound, a natural self-restoring flow reactor and fractionation column developed above the alkaline spring. The mound consisted of brucite, Mg-rich clays, ephemeral carbonates, Fe-Ni sulfide and green rust. Acetate and glycine were the main products, some of which were eluted to the ocean. The rest, along with other organic byproducts were retained and concentrated within Fe-Ni sulfide compartments. These compartments, comprising the natural hydrothermal reactor, consisted partly of greigite (Fe5NiS8). It was from reactions between organic modules confined within these inorganic compartments that the first prokaryotic organism evolved. These acetogenic precursors to the bacteria diversified and migrated down the mound and into the ocean floor to inaugurate the "deep biosphere". Once there they were protected from cataclysmic heating events caused by large meteoritic impacts. Geodynamic forces led to the eventual obduction of the deep biosphere into the photic zone where, initially protected by a thin veneer of sediment, the use of solar energy was mastered and photosynthesis emerged. The further evolution to oxygenic photosynthesis was effected as catalytic [Mn,Ca]-bearing molecules that otherwise would have been interred in minerals such as ranciite and hollandite in shallow marine manganiferous sediments, were sequestered and invaginated within the cyanobacterial precursor where, energized by light, they could oxidize water. Thus, a chemical sedimentary environment was required both for the emergence of chemosynthesis and of oxygenic photosynthesis, the two innovations that did most to change the nature of our planet.

  19. Geodynamic and metabolic cycles in the Hadean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, M. J.; Arndt, N. T.

    2004-09-01

    High-degree melting of hot dry Hadean mantle at ocean ridges and plumes resulted in a crust about 30km thick, overlain in places by extensive and thick mafic volcanic plateaus. Continental crust, by contrast, was relatively thin and mostly submarine. At constructive and destructive plate boundaries, and above the many mantle plumes, acidic hydrothermal springs at ~400C contributed Fe and other transition elements as well as P and H2 to the deep ocean made acidulous by dissolved CO2 and minor HCl derived from volcanoes. Away from ocean ridges, submarine hydrothermal fluids were cool (?100C), alkaline (pH ~10), highly reduced and also H2-rich. Reaction of solvents in this fluid with those in ocean water was catalyzed in a hydrothermal mound, a natural self-restoring flow reactor and fractionation column made up of carbonates and freshly precipitated Fe-Ni sulfide and greenrust pores and bubbles, developed above the alkaline spring. Acetate and the amino acetate glycine were the main products, much of which was eluted to the ocean. Other organic byproducts were retained, concentrated and reacted within the compartments. These compartments comprising the natural hydrothermal reactor consisted partly of greigite (Fe5NiS8). It was from reactions between organic modules confined within these inorganic compartments that the first prokaryotic organism evolved. These acetogenic precursors to the Bacteria diversified and migrated down the mound and into the ocean floor to inaugurate the "deep biosphere". Once there the Bacteria, and the recently differentiated Archaea, were protected from cataclysmic heating events caused by large bolide impacts. Geodynamic forces led to the eventual obduction of the deep biosphere into the photic zone where, initially protected by a thin veneer of sediment, the use of solar energy was mastered and photosynthesis emerged. The further evolution to oxygenic photosynthesis was effected as catalytic [CaMn4+] bearing molecules that otherwise would have been interred in the mineral ranciéite in the shallow marine manganiferous sediments, were sequestered and invaginated within the cyanobacterial precursor where, energized by light, they could oxidize water with greater efficiency. Thus, chemical sediments were required both for the emergence of chemosynthesis and of oxygenic photosynthesis, the two innovations that did most to change the nature of our planet.

  20. Contributions to the geodynamics of western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluck, Paul

    Western Canada exhibits a large variation in continental lithosphere from very old rocks in the Canadian Shield across the younger Cordillera to the current accretion of the Yakutat Terrane in the Gulf of Alaska. The geodynamics are driven by the Pacific-North America plate motion resulting in deformation, seismicity, and mountain building across the Canadian Cordillera. The way the lithosphere reacts to deformation or loading depends on its thickness and strength. The effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere, Te , has been estimated in this thesis study using a coherence analysis of Bouguer gravity and topography. There is very thick and strong lithosphere in the old Canadian Shield (Te > 100 km) and thin and weak lithosphere in the Cordillera (Te = 20--30 km). Lithospheric temperature, derived from surface heat flow and upper crust radioactive heat generation, is the most important control on the strength of the lithosphere. Calculated temperatures at the base of the crust are high in the young and hot Cordillera (900--1000C) and very low in the old and cold Craton (400--450C). The depths to the thermally controlled brittle-ductile transition are in general agreement with the Te estimates. The high temperatures in the lower crust and upper mantle of the Cordillera reduce the density by thermal expansion. This thermal isostasy explains the surprising observation of high topography over thin crust. The estimated lithospheric temperatures are used to calculate lithospheric strength profiles. In agreement with the Te estimates, the Cordillera has a weak zone in the lower crust facilitating detachment of the upper crust. Analysis of GPS continuous and campaign data show that the Northern Cordillera is moving at 5--10 mm/y in a northward direction driven by the collision of the Yakutat Block in the Gulf of Alaska and is overthrusting the strong lithosphere of the Canadian Shield.* *This dissertation is multimedia (contains text and other applications not available in printed format). The CD requires the following system applications: Internet Browser; Adobe Acrobat; Microsoft Office.

  1. Modeling petrological geodynamics in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirone, M.; Ganguly, J.; Morgan, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    We have developed an approach that combines principles of fluid dynamics and chemical thermodynamics into a fully coupled scheme to model geodynamic and petrological evolution of the Earth's mantle. Transport equations involving pressure, temperature, velocities, and bulk chemical composition are solved for one or more dynamic phases and interfaced with the thermodynamic solutions for equilibrium mineralogical assemblages and compositions. The mineralogical assemblage and composition are computed on a space-time grid, assuming that local thermodynamic equilibrium is effectively achieved. This approach allows us to simultaneously compute geophysical, geochemical, and petrological properties that can be compared with a large mass of observational data to gain insights into a variety of solid Earth problems and melting phenomena. We describe the salient features of our numerical scheme and the underlying mathematical principles and discuss a few selected applications to petrological and geophysical problems. First, it is shown that during the initial stage of passive spreading of plates, the composition of the melt near Earth's surface is in reasonable agreement with the average major element composition of worldwide flood basalts. Only the silica content from our model is slightly higher that in observational data. The amount of melt produced is somewhat lower than the estimated volumes for extrusive and upper crustal intrusive igneous rocks from large igneous provinces suggesting that an active upwelling of a larger mantle region should be considered in the process. Second, we have modeled a plume upwelling under a moving plate incorporating the effects of mineralogy on the density structure and viscous dissipation on the heat transport equation. The results show how these effects promote mantle instability at the base of the lithosphere. Third, we have considered a mantle convection model with viscosity and density directly related to the local equilibrium mineralogical assemblage. Interesting lateral variations and significant differences in the viscosity structure of the upper and lower mantle are revealed from our model results. The averaged viscosity variations with depth retrieved from our numerical simulations seem to reproduce the main features of the mantle viscosity structure under the Pacific ocean obtained from recent studies based on inversion of seismic data.

  2. Overview and Observational Constraints on Venus' Geodynamics and Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrekar, S. E.

    2015-05-01

    Today Venus is a single plate, uninhabitable planet. Why doesn’t it have plate tectonics? Did it ever have plate tectonics or a more mobile lid? This paper reviews what is known about Venus’ tectonics and geodynamics, as well as what is debated.

  3. Geodynamic Evolution of the Banda Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaymakci, N.; Decker, J.; Orange, D.; Teas, P.; Van Heiningen, P.

    2013-12-01

    We've carried out a large on- and offshore study in Eastern Indonesia to characterize the major structures and to provide constraints on the Neogene geodynamic evolution of the Banda Sea region. The onshore portion utilized remote sensing data and published geology. We tied the onshore to the offshore using recently acquired high resolution bathymetric data (16m and 25m bin size) and 2D seismic profiles that extend from Sulawesi in the west to Irian Jaya in the east across the northern part of the Banda Arc. We interpret the northern boundary of the 'Birds Head' (BH) of Papua, the Sorong Fault, to be a sinistral strike-slip fault zone with a minimum of 48 km displacement over the last few million years. The western boundary fault of Cendrawasih Basin defines the eastern boundary of BH and corresponds to the Wandamen Peninsula which comprises high pressure metamorphic rocks, including eclogite and granulite facies rocks, with exhumation ages from 4 to 1 Ma. Earthquake focal mechanism solutions indicate that the eastern boundary of BH is linked with a large scale offshore normal fault which we suggest may be related to the exhumation of the Wandamen Peninsula. The eastern boundary of Cendrawasih Basin is defined by a large transpressive belt along which BH is decoupled from the rest of Papua / Irian Jaya. This interpretation is supported by recent GPS studies. We propose that the BH and the Pacific plate are coupled, and therefore the Birds Head is therefore completely detached from Irian Jaya. Furthermore, Aru Basin, located at the NE corner of Banda Arc, is a Fault-Fault-Transform (FFT) type triple junction. According to available literature information the Banda Sea includes three distinct basins with different geologic histories; the North Banda Sea Basin (NBSB) was opened during 12-7 Ma, Wetar-Damar Basin (WDB) during 7-3.5 Ma and Weber Basin (WB) 3-0 Ma. Our bathymetric and seismic data indicated that the NBSB and Weber Basin lack normal oceanic crust and are probably floored by exhumed mantle, while WDB seems to have normal oceanic crust. These basins thought to be developed sequentially from north to south, possibly due to back arc extension resulting from trench retreat and roll-back of the northwards subducting Indo-Australian oceanic plate below the SE Eurasian margin along the Sunda-Banda subduction zone. We suggest that a trench-perpendicular tear in the subducting slab extends from the southwestern corner of Celebes Sea to the northeastern corner of Seram Island. It defines the southern boundary of the Banggai-Sula and Bird's Head (BH) blocks and northern boundary of Banda Sea micro-plate. The dominant character of this structure is sinistral strike-slip fault zone that eastward gradually become transpressional to ultimately thrusting at the tip of the tear east of Seram Island. Here, deformation results in a large accretionary wedge, the Seram Accretionary Belt (SAB) that is partitioned by intensely sheared strike-slip faults. The deformation mechanisms within the SAB is difficult to interpret due to poor seismic imaging below a shallow (Pliocene?) unconformity and the inferred complexity of the deformation within the belt. However, geometries of faults and fault blocks are very well pronounced on bathymetric data which provide hints for the deformation style of the belt.

  4. Study of a close-grid geodynamic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Clogeos (Close-Grid Geodynamic Measurement System) concept, a complete range or range-rate measurement terminal installed in a satellite in a near-polar orbit with a network of relatively simple transponders or retro-reflectors on the ground at intervals of 0.1 to 10 km was reviewed. The distortion of the grid was measured in three dimensions to accuracies of + or - 1 cm with important applications to geodynamics, glaciology, and geodesy. User requirements are considered, and a typical grid, designed for earthquake prediction, was laid out along the San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaceras faults in southern California. The sensitivity of both range and range-rate measurements to small grid motions was determined by a simplified model. Variables in the model are satellite altitude and elevation angle plus grid displacements in latitude, and height.

  5. Paleozoic geodynamic evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, I. V.

    Geodynamic reconstructions of the Mongol-Okhotsk belt for different Paleozoic eras have been made on the basis of studies of ophiolite, island-arc, innerplate and other geological complexes. Paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic data for continents and microcontinents have been used for palinspastic analysis. It has been found that the Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt occurred in the Late Proterozoic (Riphean-Vend). The further development of the belt in the Paleozoic is related to the opening and partial closing of the Paleooceanic basin. At present the Mongol-Okhotsk belt is a typical collision nappe-fold structure, complicated by innercontinental rifts. It includes geological complexes of different geodynamic nature (oceanic, transitional, continental).

  6. Applications of Geodesy to Geodynamics, an International Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Geodetic techniques in detecting and monitoring geodynamic phenomena are reviewed. Specific areas covered include: rotation of the earth and polar motion; tectonic plate movements and crustal deformations (space techniques); horizontal crustal movements (terrestrial techniques); vertical crustal movements (terrestrial techniques); gravity field, geoid, and ocean surface by space techniques; surface gravity and new techniques for the geophysical interpretation of gravity and geoid undulation; and earth tides and geodesy.

  7. Drilling the solid earth: global geodynamic cycles and earth evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, John W.; Arndt, Nicholas; Goodenough, Kathryn M.

    2015-09-01

    The physical and chemical evolution of the Earth is driven by geodynamic cycles that are global in scale, operating over 4.57 Ga of Earth's history. Some processes are truly cyclic, e.g., the Wilson Cycle, while others are irreversible (e.g., core formation). Heat and mass transfer between the lowermost mantle (e.g., core-mantle boundary) and the surface drives these global geodynamic processes. Subduction of lithospheric plates transfers cool fractionated material into the lower mantle and leads indirectly to the formation of new oceanic lithosphere, while the rise of thermochemical plumes recycles the remnants of these plates back to the surface, driven by heat transfer across the core-mantle boundary. These global geodynamic cycles are responsible for hotspot volcanism, the formation of continental crust, collisional orogenies, continental rifting, subduction zone processes (arcs, accretionary prisms), and ore deposits. Each of these presents opportunities for investigation by continental scientific drilling. In addition, these cycles affect other processes that are targets of continental scientific drilling: the origin and evolution of life and an oxygenated atmosphere, the impact of large volcanic eruptions on climate, and geological hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In this paper, we present the scientific rationale for continental scientific drilling to study global geodynamic processes, review past successes in this realm that were sponsored in part by ICDP, and suggest potential new targets for drilling campaigns that focus on solid earth evolution. This paper builds on discussions at the 2013 ICDP Science Meeting on the future of continental scientific drilling, held in Potsdam in November 2013.

  8. Cultural and Technological Issues and Solutions for Geodynamics Software Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heien, E. M.; Hwang, L.; Fish, A. E.; Smith, M.; Dumit, J.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    Computational software and custom-written codes play a key role in scientific research and teaching, providing tools to perform data analysis and forward modeling through numerical computation. However, development of these codes is often hampered by the fact that there is no well-defined way for the authors to receive credit or professional recognition for their work through the standard methods of scientific publication and subsequent citation of the work. This in turn may discourage researchers from publishing their codes or making them easier for other scientists to use. We investigate the issues involved in citing software in a scientific context, and introduce features that should be components of a citation infrastructure, particularly oriented towards the codes and scientific culture in the area of geodynamics research. The codes used in geodynamics are primarily specialized numerical modeling codes for continuum mechanics problems; they may be developed by individual researchers, teams of researchers, geophysicists in collaboration with computational scientists and applied mathematicians, or by coordinated community efforts such as the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics. Some but not all geodynamics codes are open-source. These characteristics are common to many areas of geophysical software development and use. We provide background on the problem of software citation and discuss some of the barriers preventing adoption of such citations, including social/cultural barriers, insufficient technological support infrastructure, and an overall lack of agreement about what a software citation should consist of. We suggest solutions in an initial effort to create a system to support citation of software and promotion of scientific software development.

  9. Monitoring of global geodynamic processes using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatevian, S. K.; Attia, G. F.; Abou-Aly, N.; Ghoneim, R.; Hegazy, M.

    2014-06-01

    To study mechanisms of destructive geodynamic phenomena including determination of places of possible severe earthquakes, volcano eruptions and some other natural hazards, it is important to have means to evolve areas where maximum changes of the displacement velocities and the terrestrial crust vertical movements are possible. The previous experience has shown that the satellite geodesy techniques including global navigation systems and satellite laser ranging are the most effective for research activities in this field. Permanent control of secular movement of GPS-stations of the international geodynamic network, located in Russia, has allowed improving the reference coordinate frame for North Eurasia since Russian network stations provide representative covering of the largest stable areas (the Siberian and the East European) of the Eurasian plate. Along its southern border, there is a zone consisting of a great number of microplates surrounding the South-Eurasian stable plate. Interaction of these small plates and blocks influences distribution of seismic stresses in internal parts of the continent that is confirmed by the highest seismic activity of the triangle bordered by thrusts of the Himalayas and faults of the Pamirs, the Tien-Shan, the Baikal and the North-Eastern China. One of the active tectonic zones of Egypt located in Aswan, is characterized by regional basement rock uplift and regional faulting. In 1997, the African Regional Geodynamic Network was developed around the northern part of Lake Nasser, consists of 11 points, on both sides of the Lake. Its main goal is to study the geodynamical behavior around the northern part of the lake. The collected data were processed using the Bernese software version 5.0. From the velocity results, including also the African plate motion, it can be noticed that all stations of this network are moved to the northeast direction and it is typically the direction of the African plate motion.

  10. Automated Testing Infrastructure and Result Comparison for Geodynamics Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The geodynamics community uses a wide variety of codes on a wide variety of both software and hardware platforms to simulate geophysical phenomenon. These codes are generally variants of finite difference or finite element calculations involving Stokes flow or wave propagation. A significant problem is that codes of even low complexity will return different results depending on the platform due to slight differences in hardware, software, compiler, and libraries. Furthermore, changes to the codes during development may affect solutions in unexpected ways such that previously validated results are altered. The Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) is funded by the NSF to enhance the capabilities of the geodynamics community through software development. CIG has recently done extensive work in setting up an automated testing and result validation system based on the BaTLab system developed at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. This system uses 16 variants of Linux and Mac platforms on both 32 and 64-bit processors to test several CIG codes, and has also recently been extended to support testing on the XSEDE TACC (Texas Advanced Computing Center) Stampede cluster. In this work we overview the system design and demonstrate how automated testing and validation occurs and results are reported. We also examine several results from the system from different codes and discuss how changes in compilers and libraries affect the results. Finally we detail some result comparison tools for different types of output (scalar fields, velocity fields, seismogram data), and discuss within what margins different results can be considered equivalent.

  11. Time-dependent, irreversible entropy production and geodynamics.

    PubMed

    Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Karrech, Ali; Chua, Hui Tong; Horowitz, Franklin G; Yuen, Dave

    2010-01-13

    We present an application of entropy production as an abstraction tool for complex processes in geodynamics. Geodynamic theories are generally based on the principle of maximum dissipation being equivalent to the maximum entropy production. This represents a restriction of the second law of thermodynamics to its upper bound. In this paper, starting from the equation of motion, the first law of thermodynamics and decomposition of the entropy into reversible and irreversible terms,(1) we come up with an entropy balance equation in an integral form. We propose that the extrema of this equation give upper and lower bounds that can be used to constrain geodynamics solutions. This procedure represents an extension of the classical limit analysis theory of continuum mechanics, which considers only stress and strain rates. The new approach, however, extends the analysis to temperature-dependent problems where thermal feedbacks can play a significant role. We apply the proposed procedure to a simple convective/conductive heat transfer problem such as in a planetary system. The results show that it is not necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the material parameters inside the planet to derive upper and lower bounds for self-driven heat transfer processes. The analysis can be refined by considering precise dissipation processes such as plasticity and viscous creep. PMID:19948557

  12. Concept of Spatial Information System for Pieniny geodynamic polygon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasnikowski, M.; Chmiel, J.; Choromanski, M.; Pillich, A.; Szynal, P.; Galecka, M.; Jarmuz, D.

    2009-04-01

    The poster presents the conception of Spatial Information System (SIS) for geodynamic polygon of Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). Geodynamic research of the region, conducted by the staff of Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography of Warsaw University of Technology since the sixties of twentieth century, concern the vertical and horizontal movements and changes of Earth gravity parameters. The collected material all this time, very rich in observations and documentations, as well as further research planned in the region were an inspiration to establish the SIS. The designed system is concerned to be useful basically for collection of the results received so far and planned observation epochs as well. Its target functionality will allow to support the data presentations, analyses of the obtained results and planning process for next research in the future. The proposed conception of the database is described in the poster. The database of the considered SIS contains the following elements: information about geological structures of PKB, localizations of control points of geodynamic polygon and collected observations like: measurements of angles and distances, GNSS, precise and trigonometric levelling, gravimetric. The selected pilot layers of the SIS are based on: DTM, topographic maps, administrative and geologic maps. The data in the project are used to cover and characterize the three tectonic units distinguished in the study area. The ESRI software was used for main part of the work in the project.

  13. Fluidity: A New Adaptive, Unstructured Mesh Geodynamics Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D. R.; Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Piggott, M. D.; Le Voci, G.; Collins, G. S.

    2010-05-01

    Fluidity is a sophisticated fluid dynamics package, which has been developed by the Applied Modelling and Computation Group (AMCG) at Imperial College London. It has many environmental applications, from nuclear reactor safety to simulations of ocean circulation. Fluidity has state-of-the-art features that place it at the forefront of computational fluid dynamics. The code: Dynamically optimizes the mesh, providing increased resolution in areas of dynamic importance, thus allowing for accurate simulations across a range of length scales, within a single model. Uses an unstructured mesh, which enables the representation of complex geometries. It also enhances mesh optimization using anisotropic elements, which are particularly useful for resolving one-dimensional flow features and material interfaces. Uses implicit solvers thus allowing for large time-steps with minimal loss of accuracy. PETSc provides some of these, though multigrid preconditioning methods have been developed in-house. Is optimized to run on parallel processors and has the ability to perform parallel mesh adaptivity - the subdomains used in parallel computing automatically adjust themselves to balance the computational load on each processor, as the mesh evolves. Has a novel interface-preserving advection scheme for maintaining sharp interfaces between multiple materials / components. Has an automated test-bed for verification of model developments. Such attributes provide an extremely powerful base on which to build a new geodynamical model. Incorporating into Fluidity the necessary physics and numerical technology for geodynamical flows is an ongoing task, though progress, to date, includes: Development and implementation of parallel, scalable solvers for Stokes flow, which can handle sharp, orders of magnitude variations in viscosity and, significantly, an anisotropic viscosity tensor. Modification of the multi-material interface-preserving scheme to allow for tracking of chemical heterogeneities in mantle convection models. Incorporation of a suite of geodynamic benchmarks into the automated test-bed. These recent advances, which all work in combination with the parallel mesh-optimization technology, enable Fluidity to simulate geodynamical flows accurately and efficiently. Initial results will be presented from: (i) a range of 2-D and 3-D thermal convection benchmarks; kinematic and dynamic subduction zone simulations; (iii) Comparisons between model predictions and laboratory experiments of plume dynamics. These results all clearly demonstrate the benefits of adaptive, unstructured meshes for geodynamical flows.

  14. Numerical Modeling in Geodynamics: Success, Failure and Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2005-12-01

    A real success in numerical modeling of dynamics of the Earth can be achieved only by multidisciplinary research teams of experts in geodynamics, applied and pure mathematics, and computer science. The success in numerical modeling is based on the following basic, but simple, rules. (i) People need simplicity most, but they understand intricacies best (B. Pasternak, writer). Start from a simple numerical model, which describes basic physical laws by a set of mathematical equations, and move then to a complex model. Never start from a complex model, because you cannot understand the contribution of each term of the equations to the modeled geophysical phenomenon. (ii) Study the numerical methods behind your computer code. Otherwise it becomes difficult to distinguish true and erroneous solutions to the geodynamic problem, especially when your problem is complex enough. (iii) Test your model versus analytical and asymptotic solutions, simple 2D and 3D model examples. Develop benchmark analysis of different numerical codes and compare numerical results with laboratory experiments. Remember that the numerical tool you employ is not perfect, and there are small bugs in every computer code. Therefore the testing is the most important part of your numerical modeling. (iv) Prove (if possible) or learn relevant statements concerning the existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution to the mathematical and discrete problems. Otherwise you can solve an improperly-posed problem, and the results of the modeling will be far from the true solution of your model problem. (v) Try to analyze numerical models of a geological phenomenon using as less as possible tuning model variables. Already two tuning variables give enough possibilities to constrain your model well enough with respect to observations. The data fitting sometimes is quite attractive and can take you far from a principal aim of your numerical modeling: to understand geophysical phenomena. (vi) If the number of tuning model variables are greater than two, test carefully the effect of each of the variables on the modeled phenomenon. Remember: With four exponents I can fit an elephant (E. Fermi, physicist). (vii) Make your numerical model as accurate as possible, but never put the aim to reach a great accuracy: Undue precision of computations is the first symptom of mathematical illiteracy (N. Krylov, mathematician). How complex should be a numerical model? A model which images any detail of the reality is as useful as a map of scale 1:1 (J. Robinson, economist). This message is quite important for geoscientists, who study numerical models of complex geodynamical processes. I believe that geoscientists will never create a model of the real Earth dynamics, but we should try to model the dynamics such a way to simulate basic geophysical processes and phenomena. Does a particular model have a predictive power? Each numerical model has a predictive power, otherwise the model is useless. The predictability of the model varies with its complexity. Remember that a solution to the numerical model is an approximate solution to the equations, which have been chosen in believe that they describe dynamic processes of the Earth. Hence a numerical model predicts dynamics of the Earth as well as the mathematical equations describe this dynamics. What methodological advances are still needed for testable geodynamic modeling? Inverse (time-reverse) numerical modeling and data assimilation are new methodologies in geodynamics. The inverse modeling can allow to test geodynamic models forward in time using restored (from present-day observations) initial conditions instead of unknown conditions.

  15. Geodynamics of oroclinal bending: Insights from the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Orogen in the Mediterranean region exhibits a series of orogenic curvatures (oroclines). The evolution of these oroclines is relatively well constrained by a plethora of geophysical and geological data, and therefore, their origin can inform us on the fundamental processes controlling oroclinal bending. Here, a synthesis of the geometry of Mediterranean oroclines, followed by a discussion on their geodynamic origin is presented. The geometrical synthesis is based on a new classification of Mediterranean oroclines, which defines a first-order orocline (Adriatic Orocline) by the general northward-convex shape of the Alpine Orogen from Cyprus to Gibraltar. Superimposed on the limbs of this orocline, are second-, third- and fourth-order oroclines. The major process that led to the formation of the Adriatic Orocline is the indentation of Adria into Europe, whereas second- and third-order oroclines (e.g., Western Mediterranean and Gibraltar oroclines, respectively) were primarily controlled by a combination of trench retreat and slab tearing. It appears, therefore, that the geodynamics of Mediterranean oroclines has been entirely dependent on plate boundary migration and segmentation, as expressed in the interlinked processes of indentation, trench retreat and slab tearing. The relative contribution of specific geodynamic processes, and their maturity, could be inferred from geometrical characteristics, such as the amplitude-to-width ratio, the orientation of the curvature (convex or concave) relative to the convergence vector, and their geometrical relationship with backarc extensional basins (e.g., in the concave side of the orocline). Based on the information from the Mediterranean oroclines, it is concluded that oroclinal bending commonly involves lithospheric-scale processes, and is not restricted to thin-skinned deformation. However, contrary to previous suggestions that assume that the whole lithosphere can buckle, there is no clear evidence that such processes occur in modern tectonic environments.

  16. International GPS (Global Positioning System) Service for Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J. F. (Editor); Liu, R. (Editor); Neilan, R. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The International GPS (Global Positioning System) Service for Geodynamics (IGS) began formal operation on January 1, 1994. This first annual report is divided into sections, which mirror different aspects of the service. Section (1) contains general information, including the history of the IGS, its organization, and the global network of GPS tracking sites; (2) contains information on the Central Bureau Information System; (3) describes the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS); (4) details collecting and distributing IGS data in Data Center reports; (6) describes how the IGS Analysis Centers generate their products; (7) contains miscellaneous contributions from other organizations that share common interests with the IGS.

  17. Geodynamic evidence for a chemically depleted continental tectosphere.

    PubMed

    Forte, A M; Perry, H K

    2000-12-01

    The tectosphere, namely the portions of Earth's mantle lying below cratons, has a thermochemical structure that differs from average suboceanic mantle. The tectosphere is thought to be depleted in its basaltic components and to have an intrinsic buoyancy that balances the mass increase associated with its colder temperature relative to suboceanic mantle. Inversions of a large set of geodynamic data related to mantle convection, using tomography-based mantle flow models, indicate that the tectosphere is chemically depleted and relatively cold to 250 kilometers depth below Earth's surface. The approximate equilibrium between thermal and chemical buoyancy contributes to cratonic stability over geological time. PMID:11110656

  18. Structure and geodynamics of the Verkhoyansk Fold-Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinovsky, A. A.

    2007-09-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the Verkhoyansk Fold-Thrust Belt and its eastern and southeastern frameworks are considered on the basis of original field observations and a survey of the literature data and more than 150 published sheets of the State Geological Map on a scale of 1 : 200 000. The important role of large-scale and long-lived strike-slip faults and associated pull-apart structures and the role of postcollision superimposed fault zones related to the reactivation of the buried Devonian Vilyui Rift and the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic rifting are shown. The metallogenic implications of these tectonic elements are considered.

  19. Geodynamic evolution of early Mesozoic sedimentary basins in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Babaahmadi, A.; Esterle, J.

    2014-12-01

    Eastern Australia is covered by a series of continental sedimentary basins deposited during the Triassic and Jurassic, but the geodynamic context of these basins is not fully understood. Using gridded aeromagnetic data, seismic reflection data, geological maps, digital elevation models, and field observations, we conducted a structural synthesis aimed at characterizing major structures and deformation style in the Triassic-Jurassic sedimentary basins of eastern Australia. Our results show evidence for four alternating episodes of rifting and contractional events during the Triassic. Two major episodes of rifting, characterized by syn-sedimentary steep normal faults and bimodal volcanism, resulted in the development of the Early-Middle Triassic Esk-Nymboida Rift System and the early Late Triassic Ipswich Basin. Faults in the Esk-Nymboida Rift System have been controlled by a pre-existing oroclinal structure. Each phase of rifting was followed by a contractional event, which produced folds, reverse faults and unconformities in the basins. Since the latest Late Triassic, thermal subsidence led to the deposition of continental sediments in the Clarence-Moreton Basin, which continued until the Early Cretaceous. We suggest that the geodynamic control on the alternating episodes of rifting and contraction during the Triassic in eastern Australia was ultimately related to plate boundary migration and switches between trench retreat and advance.

  20. On the Coupling of Geodynamic and Resistivity Models: A Progress Report and the Way Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, Wiebke; Ellis, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) studies represent the structure of crust and mantle in terms of conductivity anomalies, while geodynamic modelling predicts the deformation and evolution of crust and mantle subject to plate tectonic processes. Here, we review the first attempts to link MT models with geodynamic models. An integration of MT with geodynamic modelling requires the use of relationships between conductivity and rheological parameters such as viscosity and melt fraction, which are provided by laboratory measurements of rock properties. Owing to present limitations in our understanding of these relationships, and in interpreting the trade-off between scale and magnitude of conductivity anomalies from MT inversions, most studies linking MT and geodynamic models are qualitative rather than providing hard constraints. Some recent examples attempt a more quantitative comparison, such as a study from the Himalayan continental collision zone, where rheological parameters have been calculated from a resistivity model and compared to predictions from geodynamic modelling. We conclude by demonstrating the potential in combining MT results and geodynamic modelling with examples that directly use MT results as constraints within geodynamic models of ore bodies and studies of an active volcano-tectonic rift.

  1. On the Coupling of Geodynamic and Resistivity Models: A Progress Report and the Way Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, Wiebke; Ellis, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) studies represent the structure of crust and mantle in terms of conductivity anomalies, while geodynamic modelling predicts the deformation and evolution of crust and mantle subject to plate tectonic processes. Here, we review the first attempts to link MT models with geodynamic models. An integration of MT with geodynamic modelling requires the use of relationships between conductivity and rheological parameters such as viscosity and melt fraction, which are provided by laboratory measurements of rock properties. Owing to present limitations in our understanding of these relationships, and in interpreting the trade-off between scale and magnitude of conductivity anomalies from MT inversions, most studies linking MT and geodynamic models are qualitative rather than providing hard constraints. Some recent examples attempt a more quantitative comparison, such as a study from the Himalayan continental collision zone, where rheological parameters have been calculated from a resistivity model and compared to predictions from geodynamic modelling. We conclude by demonstrating the potential in combining MT results and geodynamic modelling with examples that directly use MT results as constraints within geodynamic models of ore bodies and studies of an active volcano-tectonic rift.

  2. Geodynamic reconstructions of the South America-Antarctica plate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrard, Christian; Flores, Kennet; Stampfli, Grard

    2012-01-01

    The South America-Antarctica plate system shows many oceanic accretionary systems and subduction zones that initiated and then stopped. To better apprehend the evolution of the system, geodynamic reconstructions (global) have been created from Jurassic (165 Ma) to present, following the techniques used at the University of Lausanne. However, additional synthetic magnetic anomalies were used to refine the geodynamics between 33 Ma and present. The reconstructions show the break up of Gondwana with oceanisation between South America (SAM) and Antarctica (ANT), together with the break off of 'Andean' geodynamical units (GDUs). We propose that oceanisation occurs also east and south of the Scotian GDUs. Andean GDUs collide with other GDUs crossing the Pacific. The west coast of SAM and ANT undergo a subsequent collision with all those GDUs between 103 Ma and 84 Ma, and the Antarctic Peninsula also collides with Tierra del Fuego. The SAM-ANT plate boundary experienced a series of extension and shortening with large strike-slip component, culminating with intra-oceanic subduction leading to the presence of the 'V-' and 'T-' anomalies in the Weddell Sea. From 84 Ma, a transpressive collision takes place in the Scotia region, with active margin to the east. As subduction propagates northwards into an old and dense oceanic crust, slab roll-back initiates, giving rise to the western Scotia Sea and the Powell Basin opening. The Drake Passage opens. As the Scotian GDUs migrate eastwards, there is enough space for them to spread and allow a north-south divergence with a spreading axis acting simultaneously with the western Scotia ridge. Discovery Bank stops the migration of South Orkney and 'collides with' the SAM-ANT spreading axis, while the northern Scotian GDUs are blocked against the Falkland Plateau and the North-East Georgia Rise. The western and central Scotia and the Powell Basin spreading axes must cease, and the ridge jumps to create the South Sandwich Islands Sea. The Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia region has always experienced mid-oceanic ridge subduction since 84 Ma. Slab window location is also presented (57-0 Ma), because of its important implication for heat flux and magmatism.

  3. Geodynamics branch data base for main magnetic field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, Robert A.; Baldwin, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    The data sets used in geomagnetic field modeling at GSFC are described. Data are measured and obtained from a variety of information and sources. For clarity, data sets from different sources are categorized and processed separately. The data base is composed of magnetic observatory data, surface data, high quality aeromagnetic, high quality total intensity marine data, satellite data, and repeat data. These individual data categories are described in detail in a series of notebooks in the Geodynamics Branch, GSFC. This catalog reviews the original data sets, the processing history, and the final data sets available for each individual category of the data base and is to be used as a reference manual for the notebooks. Each data type used in geomagnetic field modeling has varying levels of complexity requiring specialized processing routines for satellite and observatory data and two general routines for processing aeromagnetic, marine, land survey, and repeat data.

  4. Geomorphology and Geodynamics at Crustal Boundaries within Asia and Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The release of SRTM images by NASA over the past two years year has been greeted by foreign Earth scientist's as "NASA's gift to the World". The goodwill that this has engendered in parts of Africa. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, as scientists in those countries contemplated what many of them considered an unprovoked and unjustifiable US invasion of Iraq, cannot be underestimated. We have used SRTM images from Africa and India and elsewhere to examine aspects of tectonism, geodynamics and tsunami and earthquake hazards. Highlights of this research are itemized in this final report. One difficulty that has arisen is , of course, that the funding for the science lead the availability of the data by more than a year. and as a result many of the findings are as yet unpublished.

  5. Geodynamics of the Gibraltar Arc and the Alboran Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M.; Chalouan, A.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.

    2014-07-01

    Located at the Westernmost tip of the Mediterranean sea, the Gibraltar Arc is a very complex zone. The Betics in Spain and the Rif belt in Morocco surround the Alboran sea characterized by a thinned continental crust. The geodynamic evolution of this region results from the convergence of African and Iberian margins since the Late Cretaceous. It is controlled both by plate convergence and mantle dynamics, which significantly impact on morphology, sedimentary environments, tectonics, metamorphism and magmatism. We present here the contents of the special issue on the Gibraltar Arc and nearby regions, following the workshop organized at the University Abdelmalek Essaadi of Tetouan in Morocco from 27 to 28 October, 2011. The goal of this international workshop was to have an overview of the actual advance in research concerning the Rif and Betics chains, the Alboran basin, and their influence on the Iberian and African forelands.

  6. Effects of turbulence on the geodynamic laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churnside, James H.

    1993-01-01

    The Geodynamic Laser Ranging System (GLRS) is one of several instruments being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for implementation as part of the Earth Observing System in the mid-1990s (Cohen et al., 1987; Bruno et al., 1988). It consists of a laser transmitter and receiver in space and an array of retroreflectors on the ground. The transmitter produces short (100 ps) pulses of light at two harmonics (0.532 and 0.355 microns) of the Nd:YAG laser. These propagate to a retroreflector on the ground and return. The receiver collects the reflected light and measures the round-trip transit time. Ranging from several angles accurately determines the position of the retroreflector, and changes in position caused by geophysical processes can be monitored.

  7. Geodynamics--where are we and what lies ahead?

    PubMed

    Drake, C L; Maxwell, J C

    1981-07-01

    The introduction and evolution of the plate tectonics hypothesis during the past two decades has sparked the current renaissance of research in the earth sciences. An outgrowth of active geophysical and geological exploration of the oceans, the plate tectonics model has come under intense scrutiny by geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists who have attempted to apply the model to the origin and growth of continents, the generation of oceanic and continental crust, and the nature of the lithosphere, asthenosphere, and underlying mantle with respect to their evolution through time and to the driving mechanism or mechanisms for plate tectonics. The study of other terrestrial planets and moons has been helpful in understanding the earth model. The unequal distribution of geological features, both in the continents and oceans, emphasizes the need for ongoing studies of international scope such as the recently completed International Geodynamics Project and its successor, the International Lithosphere Program, both stressing studies related to the dynamics of the lithosphere. PMID:17741165

  8. Coupling a geodynamic seismic cycling model to rupture dynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Alice; van Dinther, Ylona

    2014-05-01

    The relevance and results of dynamic rupture scenarios are implicitly linked to the geometry and pre-existing stress and strength state on a fault. The absolute stresses stored along faults during interseismic periods, are largely unquantifiable. They are, however, pivotal in defining coseismic rupture styles, near-field ground motion, and macroscopic source properties (Gabriel et al., 2012). Obtaining these in a physically consistent manner requires seismic cycling models, which directly couple long-term deformation processes (over 1000 year periods), the self-consistent development of faults, and the resulting dynamic ruptures. One promising approach to study seismic cycling enables both the generation of spontaneous fault geometries and the development of thermo-mechanically consistent fault stresses. This seismo-thermo-mechanical model has been developed using a methodology similar to that employed to study long-term lithospheric deformation (van Dinther et al., 2013a,b, using I2ELVIS of Gerya and Yuen, 2007). We will innovatively include the absolute stress and strength values along physically consistent evolving non-finite fault zones (regions of strain accumulation) from the geodynamic model into dynamic rupture simulations as an initial condition. The dynamic rupture simulations will be performed using SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme (Pelties et al., 2012). The dynamic rupture models are able to incorporate the large degree of fault geometry complexity arising in naturally evolving geodynamic models. We focus on subduction zone settings with and without a splay fault. Due to the novelty of the coupling, we first focus on methodological challenges, e.g. the synchronization of both methods regarding the nucleation of events, the localization of fault planes, and the incorporation of similar frictional constitutive relations. We then study the importance of physically consistent fault stress, strength, and geometry input for dynamic rupture propagation in terms of rupture path and dynamics. On the other hand, it will provide the opportunity to compare slow earthquake akin events developing in quasi-static geodynamic model to fully dynamic ruptures in terms of coseismic displacements and stress changes. Gabriel, A.-A. (2012), J.-P. Ampuero, L. A. Dalguer, and P. M. Mai, The transition of dynamic rupture modes in elastic media, J. Geophys. Res., 117(B9), 01480227. Gerya, T., and D. Yuen (2007), Robust characteristics method for modelling multiphase visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical problems, Phys. Earth Planet In., 163(1-4), 83-105. Pelties, C. (2012), J. De la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. B. Brietzke, and M. Käser Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture, Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, J. Geophys. Res., 117(B2), B02309. van Dinther, Y. (2013a), T.V. Gerya, L.A. Dalguer, F. Corbi, F. Funiciello, and P.M. Mai, The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models, J. Geophys. Res., 118(4), 1502-1525. van Dinther, Y. (2013b), T.V. Gerya, L.A. Dalguer, P.M. Mai, G. Morra, and D. Giardini, The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: insights from seismo-thermo-mechanical models, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6183-6202.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Convection in the Outer Core and its Geodynamic Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Fang, Ming

    2004-01-01

    The Earth's fluid outer core is in vigorous convection through much of the Earth's history. In addition to generating and maintaining Earth s time-varying magnetic field (geodynamo), the core convection also generates mass redistribution in the core and a dynamical pressure field on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). All these shall result in various core-mantle interactions, and contribute to surface geodynamic observables. For example, electromagnetic core-mantle coupling arises from finite electrically conducting lower mantle; gravitational interaction occurs between the cores and the heterogeneous mantle; mechanical coupling may also occur when the CMB topography is aspherical. Besides changing the mantle rotation via the coupling torques, the mass-redistribution in the core shall produce a spatial-temporal gravity anomaly. Numerical modeling of the core dynamical processes contributes in several geophysical disciplines. It helps explain the physical causes of surface geodynamic observables via space geodetic techniques and other means, e.g. Earth's rotation variation on decadal time scales, and secular time-variable gravity. Conversely, identification of the sources of the observables can provide additional insights on the dynamics of the fluid core, leading to better constraints on the physics in the numerical modeling. In the past few years, our core dynamics modeling efforts, with respect to our MoSST model, have made significant progress in understanding individual geophysical consequences. However, integrated studies are desirable, not only because of more mature numerical core dynamics models, but also because of inter-correlation among the geophysical phenomena, e.g. mass redistribution in the outer core produces not only time-variable gravity, but also gravitational core-mantle coupling and thus the Earth's rotation variation. They are expected to further facilitate multidisciplinary studies of core dynamics and interactions of the core with other components of the Earth.

  10. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of geodynamic events in the Eastern Alpine Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholger, R.; Stingl, K.

    2003-04-01

    A new, comprehensive paleomagnetic database from the Eastern Alpine Neogene basins was developed in order to construct a paleogeographic model of the geodynamic development of the Eastern Alps. The origin of the basins is explained largely through Miocene kinematics (late collision stage) in the Eastern Alps. In the last decade, the combination between the new tectonic models "tectonic escape" and "extensional collapse" (Platt 1987, Dewey 1988) provided the basis for interpretations of the development of the Carpathian Arc and the Pannonian Basin. Earlier studies gave evidence for paleomagnetically detectable tectonic movements during the Miocene. For instance, Mauritsch (1972, 1975) and Pohl &Soffel (1982) observed large rotations of the Neogene volcanics in the Styrian Basin. Sediments of Ottnangian to Sarmatian age from several intramontane basins of the Eastern Alps yielded a tendency of larger rotations in the older rocks indicating essentially Middle Miocene rotation (Marton et al., 1997). In Slovenia, Marton &Jelen (1997) found moderate rotations that matched those of the Lavant Valley Basin and the Styrian Basin of Austria as well as the Transdanubian Central Range of Hungary. Results from the Molasse zone showed indications for counterclockwise rotations, which are consistent with our paleomagnetic data from the Korneuburg Basin, as well as with new results from the foredeep of the West Carpathians (Marton et al., 2002). The new results from basins located North, East and South of the Eastern Alps show a general trend for synsedimentary counterclockwise rotations of 20 degrees with respect to the Eurasian paleopoles during the Karpatian and Badenian stages. A second period of counterclockwise rotation occurs during the Pannonian stage, while the uppermost Miocene results are in accordance with the Eurasion geodynamic reconstructions. Such a pattern of rotations cannot be explained be individual movements of the subbasins. At the same time, rotations in a clockwise sense are observed in the Eastern and South-Eastern parts of the study area.

  11. Geodynamic Evolution of the Eurekan Orogen of Ellesmere Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, P. J.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Stephenson, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Eurekan Orogeny, which created much of the high topography of Ellesmere Island and adjacent Greenland, occurred as a result of mountain-building processes the dynamics of which are not well understood. It is generally considered that the rotation of Greenland in the Eocene (related to sedimentary basin formation in Baffin Bay) produced compressional tectonics between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. As part of this process, the Eurekan Orogeny formed away from a traditional convergent ocean-closure plate boundary, and represents a style of "intraplate" deformation. In this work, the geodynamic evolution of the Eurekan Orogeny and its relationship to the tectonics of the Canadian polar margin and northern Baffin Basin is explored using high-resolution thermal-mechanical numerical experiments with the modelling code SOPALE. The modelling of the High Arctic is constrained by the first-order crustal structure of the region (deduced by local gravity field and passive seismological data). Presented are suites of numerical experiments that investigate how the pre-existing lithospheric structures (both crustal and sub-crustal) control the evolution of the resulting intraplate orogen. The influence of other primary modelling parameters, such as plate convergence velocity and assumed rheology, are also explored. To highlight the role of surface processes on plate and lithosphere deformation, the importance of climate-controlled erosion and deposition in influencing the tectonics of High Arctic orogenesis is considered. As the tectonic evolution of the region is poorly resolved, we present some of the first interpretations of the development of Ellesmerian and northern Baffin lithosphere from the Earth's surface down to the base of the lithosphere. The numerical experiments evaluate and refine the geodynamical interpretations for enigmatic intraplate tectonicsapplicable to this Arctic region and other instances globally.

  12. Solar System Processes Underlying Planetary Formation, Geodynamics, and the Georeactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2006-12-01

    Only three processes, operant during the formation of the Solar System, are responsible for the diversity of matter in the Solar System and are directly responsible for planetary internal-structures, including planetocentric nuclear fission reactors, and for dynamical processes, including and especially, geodynamics. These processes are: (i) Low-pressure, low-temperature condensation from solar matter in the remote reaches of the Solar System or in the interstellar medium; (ii) High-pressure, high-temperature condensation from solar matter associated with planetary-formation by raining out from the interiors of giant-gaseous protoplanets, and; (iii) Stripping of the primordial volatile components from the inner portion of the Solar System by super-intense solar wind associated with T-Tauri phase mass-ejections, presumably during the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun. As described herein, these processes lead logically, in a causally related manner, to a coherent vision of planetary formation with profound implications including, but not limited to, (a) Earth formation as a giant gaseous Jupiter-like planet with vast amounts of stored energy of protoplanetary compression in its rock-plus-alloy kernel; (b) Removal of approximately 300 Earth-masses of primordial volatile gases from the Earth, which began Earth’s decompression process, making available the stored energy of protoplanetary compression for driving geodynamic processes, which I have described by the new whole-Earth decompression dynamics and which is responsible for emplacing heat at the mantle-crust-interface at the base of the crust through the process I have described, called mantle decompression thermal-tsunami; and, (c) Uranium accumulations at the planetary centers capable of self-sustained nuclear fission chain reactions.

  13. Present-day geodynamics of the northern North American Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzel, Emily S.; Flesch, Lucy M.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.

    2014-10-01

    Diffuse continental deformation results from interactions at plate boundaries, buoyancy forces generated by gradients in gravitational potential energy, and loads applied to the base of the lithosphere. Using finite element models, we calculate a deviatoric stress field associated with buoyancy forces, and then perform an iterative inversion to calculate deviatoric stress fields associated with boundary forces in the northern North American Cordillera. Our results reveal the presence of two distinct geodynamic domains. In the outboard domain, approximately equal magnitudes of boundary and buoyancy forces can account for the observed deformation along the Aleutian megathrust. In contrast, large boundary forces related to subduction of the Pacific and Yakutat slabs dominate the force-balance in south-central Alaska and combine with relatively small buoyancy forces to reproduce the observed kinematic indicators. In the inboard domain, encompassed by interior and northern Alaska and western Canada, boundary and buoyancy forces alone cannot reproduce the observed deformation. Therefore, we infer that deviatoric stresses due to basal tractions from a deeper mantle convection cell contribute to surface deformation in the inboard domain. Low effective lithospheric viscosity in south-central Alaska and the balancing effect of an independent geodynamic system driven by basal tractions in northern Alaska combine to confine the anomalously large Yakutat-related boundary deviatoric stresses to south-central Alaska. Deviatoric stresses associated with flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate are a factor of two greater than boundary force estimates for the Andean and Indian-Eurasian convergent margins, where buoyancy and boundary forces are roughly equal in magnitude and dominate the force-balance.

  14. Geodynamics of the Eastern Pacific Region, Caribbean and Scotia Arcs. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Cabre, R.

    1983-01-01

    This book analyze the geodynamic phenomena related to the interaction of the eastern Pacific with the Americas between Canada and the Antarctic peninsula. Studies include the Cordilleran arcs and Juan de Fuca plate.

  15. Applying multi-resolution numerical methods to geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, David Rhodri

    Computational models yield inaccurate results if the underlying numerical grid fails to provide the necessary resolution to capture a simulation's important features. For the large-scale problems regularly encountered in geodynamics, inadequate grid resolution is a major concern. The majority of models involve multi-scale dynamics, being characterized by fine-scale upwelling and downwelling activity in a more passive, large-scale background flow. Such configurations, when coupled to the complex geometries involved, present a serious challenge for computational methods. Current techniques are unable to resolve localized features and, hence, such models cannot be solved efficiently. This thesis demonstrates, through a series of papers and closely-coupled appendices, how multi-resolution finite-element methods from the forefront of computational engineering can provide a means to address these issues. The problems examined achieve multi-resolution through one of two methods. In two-dimensions (2-D), automatic, unstructured mesh refinement procedures are utilized. Such methods improve the solution quality of convection dominated problems by adapting the grid automatically around regions of high solution gradient, yielding enhanced resolution of the associated flow features. Thermal and thermo-chemical validation tests illustrate that the technique is robust and highly successful, improving solution accuracy whilst increasing computational efficiency. These points are reinforced when the technique is applied to geophysical simulations of mid-ocean ridge and subduction zone magmatism. To date, successful goal-orientated/error-guided grid adaptation techniques have not been utilized within the field of geodynamics. The work included herein is therefore the first geodynamical application of such methods. In view of the existing three-dimensional (3-D) spherical mantle dynamics codes, which are built upon a quasi-uniform discretization of the sphere and closely coupled structured grid solution strategies, the unstructured techniques utilized in 2-D would throw away the regular grid and, with it, the major benefits of the current solution algorithms. Alternative avenues towards multi-resolution must therefore be sought. A non-uniform structured method that produces similar advantages to unstructured grids is introduced here, in the context of the pre-existing 3-D spherical mantle dynamics code, TERRA. The method, based upon the multigrid refinement techniques employed in the field of computational engineering, is used to refine and solve on a radially non-uniform grid. It maintains the key benefits of TERRA's current configuration, whilst also overcoming many of its limitations. Highly efficient solutions to non-uniform problems are obtained. The scheme is highly resourceful in terms RAM, meaning that one can attempt calculations that would otherwise be impractical. In addition, the solution algorithm reduces the CPU-time needed to solve a given problem. Validation tests illustrate that the approach is accurate and robust. Furthermore, by being conceptually simple and straightforward to implement, the method negates the need to reformulate large sections of code. The technique is applied to highly advanced 3-D spherical mantle convection models. Due to its resourcefulness in terms of RAM, the modified code allows one to efficiently resolve thermal boundary layers at the dynamical regime of Earth's mantle. The simulations presented are therefore at superior vigor to the highest attained, to date, in 3-D spherical geometry, achieving Rayleigh numbers of order 109. Upwelling structures are examined, focussing upon the nature of deep mantle plumes. Previous studies have shown long-lived, anchored, coherent upwelling plumes to be a feature of low to moderate vigor convection. Since more vigorous convection traditionally shows greater time-dependence, the fixity of upwellings would not logically be expected for non-layered convection at higher vigors. However, such configurations have recently been observed. With hot-spots widely-regard

  16. The geodynamic equation of state: What and how

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, J. A. D.

    2009-10-01

    Geodynamic models commonly assume equations of state as a function of pressure and temperature. This form is legitimate for homogenous materials, but it is impossible to formulate a general equation of state for a polyphase aggregate, e.g., a rock, as a function of pressure and temperature because these variables cannot distinguish all possible states of the aggregate. In consequence, the governing equations of a geodynamic model based on a pressure-temperature equation of state are singular at the conditions of low-order phase transformations. An equation of state as a function of specific entropy, specific volume, and chemical composition eliminates this difficulty and, additionally, leads to a robust formulation of the energy and mass conservation equations. In this formulation, energy and mass conservation furnish evolution equations for entropy and volume and the equation of state serves as an update rule for temperature and pressure. Although this formulation is straightforward, the computation of phase equilibria as a function of entropy and volume is challenging because the equations of state for individual phases are usually expressed as a function of temperature and pressure. This challenge can be met by an algorithm in which continuous equations of state are approximated by a series of discrete states: a representation that reduces the phase equilibrium problem to a linear optimization problem that is independent of the functional form used for the equations of state of individual phases. Because the efficiency of the optimization decays as an exponential function of the dimension of the function to be optimized, direct solution of the linearized optimization problem is impractical. Successive linear programming alleviates this difficulty. A pragmatic alternative to optimization as an explicit function of entropy and volume is to calculate phase relations over the range of pressure-temperature conditions of interest. Numerical interpolation can then be used to generate tables for any thermodynamic property as a function of any choice of independent variables. Regardless of the independent variables of the governing equations, a consistent definition of pressure, and the coupling of equilibrium kinetics to deformation, is only possible if the continuity equation accounts for dilational strain.

  17. Structural Analysis and Geodynamic Implications of Tessera Terrain, Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, V. L.; Willis, J. J.

    1996-03-01

    Understanding processes of tessera formation is fundamental to Venus tectonic and geodynamic models. We examined tessera terrain in Ishtar Terra, crustal plateaus, and as inliers within the plains using high-resolution Magellan SAR imagery. We describe several major types of tesseraeeach found in specific geologic or geomorphic regions. Fold and S-C tessera terrain are found only in Ishtar Terra; lava flow and basin-and-dome terrains reside within the interior of crustal plateaus, whereas folded ribbon terrain and extended folded terrain comprise margins of crustal plateaus; and star terrain lies within central Phoebe. Inliers are divisible into fracture-dominated and graben-dominated tesserae, which may represent ancient flooded coronae-chasmata and crustal plateaus, respectively. Thus tesserae might form in several tectonic environments, including as a result of (1) subsurface flow in Ishtar Terra, (2) as sequences of surface-layer extension and contraction in crustal plateaus, (3) as highly-extended, previously-deformed crustal plateaus which have deflated or sunken, and become flooded and thus preserved as large plains inliers, and (4) as densely-fractured surface layersfractured as a result of corona and chasma formationwhich have since sunken and become flooded, and thus preserved as isolated, scattered, highly-fractured inliers. If these models of formation are correct, tesserae would not form a global onion skin; they would not represent a globally synchronous unit; they would not record a single period of deformation; and it would not infer a single mechanism for tesserae formation.

  18. Application of VLBI and satellite laser ranging to geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Crustal Dynamics Project has developed very-long baseline interferometer (VLBI) systems and satellite laser ranging (SLR) systems for geodynamics measurements. In VLBI, a radio noise signal from a distant quasar is received by two or more radio antennas and coherently recorded. These recordings are cross-correlated to determine the relative signal delays between stations which are used to derive the vector baselines between the stations. The SLR systems accurately determine the range to a retroreflector satellite as a function of time with short laser pulses. These range measurements from several stations to the same satellite are used in orbit analysis programs to determine the position of the stations and the vector baselines between the stations. Measurements with these systems have achieved precisions of a few centimeters in length for distances of several thousand km. These systems are now operating in a global network for measuring the relative motion of the N. American, Pacific, S. American, Nazca, Eurasian and Australian tectonic plates. Highly mobile VLBI and SLR systems are being operated at many sites in the active earthquake areas in western N. America in order to determine the crustal deformation and strain accumulation.

  19. High Speed Networking and Large-scale Simulation in Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Gary, Patrick; Seablom, Michael; Truszkowski, Walt; Odubiyi, Jide; Jiang, Weiyuan; Liu, Dong

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale numerical simulation has been one of the most important approaches for understanding global geodynamical processes. In this approach, peta-scale floating point operations (pflops) are often required to carry out a single physically-meaningful numerical experiment. For example, to model convective flow in the Earth's core and generation of the geomagnetic field (geodynamo), simulation for one magnetic free-decay time (approximately 15000 years) with a modest resolution of 150 in three spatial dimensions would require approximately 0.2 pflops. If such a numerical model is used to predict geomagnetic secular variation over decades and longer, with e.g. an ensemble Kalman filter assimilation approach, approximately 30 (and perhaps more) independent simulations of similar scales would be needed for one data assimilation analysis. Obviously, such a simulation would require an enormous computing resource that exceeds the capacity of a single facility currently available at our disposal. One solution is to utilize a very fast network (e.g. 10Gb optical networks) and available middleware (e.g. Globus Toolkit) to allocate available but often heterogeneous resources for such large-scale computing efforts. At NASA GSFC, we are experimenting with such an approach by networking several clusters for geomagnetic data assimilation research. We shall present our initial testing results in the meeting.

  20. Chronological constraints on the Permian geodynamic evolution of eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Vasconcelos, Paulo

    2014-03-01

    The New England Orogen in eastern Australia developed as a subduction-related orogen in the Late Devonian to Carboniferous, and was modified in the Permian by deformation, magmatism and oroclinal bending. The geodynamics associated with the development of the New England oroclines and the exact timing of major tectonic events is still enigmatic. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar results from metasedimentary and volcanic rocks from the southern New England Orogen. Eight grains from four metasedimentary samples (Texas beds) that originated in the Late Devonian to Carboniferous accretionary wedge yielded reproducible plateau ages of ~ 293, ~ 280, ~ 270 and ~ 260 Ma. These results suggest a complex thermal history associated with multiple thermal events, possibly due to the proximity to Permian intrusions. Two samples from mafic volcanic rocks in the southernmost New England Orogen (Alum Mountain Volcanics and Werrie Basalt) yielded eruption ages of 271.8 ± 1.8 and 266.4 ± 3.0 Ma. The origin of these rocks was previously attributed to slab breakoff, following a period of widespread extension in the early Permian. We suggest that this phase of volcanism marked the transition from backarc extension assisted by trench retreat to overriding-plate contraction. The main phase of oroclinal bending has likely occurred during backarc extension in the early Permian, and terminated at 271-266 Ma with the processes of slab segmentation and breakoff.

  1. Geodynamic Effects of Ocean Tides: Progress and Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Ray

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry, particularly Topex/Poseidon, has markedly improved our knowledge of global tides, thereby allowing significant progress on some longstanding problems in geodynamics. This paper reviews some of that progress. Emphasis is given to global-scale problems, particularly those falling within the mandate of the new IERS Special Bureau for Tides: angular momentum, gravitational field, geocenter motion. For this discussion I use primarily the new ocean tide solutions GOT99.2, CSR4.0, and TPXO.4 (for which G. Egbert has computed inverse-theoretic error estimates), and I concentrate on new results in angular momentum and gravity and their solid-earth implications. One example is a new estimate of the effective tidal Q at the M_2 frequency, based on combining these ocean models with tidal estimates from satellite laser ranging. Three especially intractable problems are also addressed: (1) determining long-period tides in the Arctic [large unknown effect on the inertia tensor, particularly for Mf]; (2) determining the global psi_l tide [large unknown effect on interpretations of gravimetry for the near-diurnal free wobble]; and (3) determining radiational tides [large unknown temporal variations at important frequencies]. Problems (2) and (3) are related.

  2. Geodynamically Consistent Interpretation of Seismic Tomography under the Hawaiian Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, D.; Samuel, H.

    2006-12-01

    Recent theoretical developments as well as increased data quality and coverage have allowed seismic tomographic imaging to better resolve narrower structures at both shallow and deep mantle depths. However, despite these improvements, the interpretation of tomographic images remains problematic mainly because of: (1) the trade off between temperature and composition and their different influence on mantle flow; (2) the difficulty in determining the extent and continuity of structures revealed by seismic tomography. We present a study on mantle thermal plumes, which illustrate the need to consider both geodynamic and mineral physics for a consistent interpretation of tomographic images in terms of temperature composition and flow. We focus on the identification of thermal plume by seismic tomography beneath the Hawaiian hot spot: a set of 3D numerical experiments is performed in a spherical shell to model a rising plume beneath a moving plate. The thermal structure obtained is converted into body waves seismic velocities using mineral physics considerations. We then build synthetic travel time data by propagating front waves in the obtained seismic structure. This synthetic data will be used to construct a travel time tomographic model, which is compared with actual tomographic models based on data from the ongoing PLUME seismic experiment. This comparison will allow a more consistent and quantitative interpretation of seismic tomography and plume structure under Hawaii.

  3. Rheology and geodynamic modelling: the next step forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, M.; Braun, J.; Brown, M.; Kukowski, N.; Paterson, M.; Schmid, S.; Stckhert, B.; Stwe, K.; Thompson, A.; Wosnitza, E.

    2001-05-01

    The application of continuum mechanics and microstructural analysis to geological studies over the past 30 years has spurred earth scientists to reassess fundamental tectonic processes such as subduction, collision and rifting in terms of dynamics. Armed with new analytical methods, geologists have returned to the field to look at rock structures with more mechanistic eyes. The advent of sophisticated computers, programs, and laboratory deformation equipment has facilitated the simulation of geodynamic processes that range in scale from the grain to the lithosphere. The result has been specialization, with the concomitant opening of communication gaps between geodynamicists, field geologists and rock mechanicists. Partly, these gaps reflect differences of perception and approach. In order to bridge these gaps, a workshop was organized after the DRM conference to debate how field and laboratory studies of deformed rocks can improve our understanding of lithospheric rheology, and in turn, how this understanding can be used to refine dynamic models of orogenesis. The workshop hosted participants with backgrounds in structural geology, experimental rock mechanics, metamorphic petrology and both numerical and analogue modelling. This paper summarizes the main controversies and conclusions reached during the workshop. For the sake of brevity, referencing in this summary is restricted to literature referred to during the oral presentations and to comments made by speakers themselves (names italicized).

  4. Successes and failures in geodynamics. from past to future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Wolfgang R.

    2001-09-01

    The evolution of Earth models is reviewed and the open questions and problems are highlighted. Generally, evolution of science was not linear, but proceeded in "steps" of paradigms; where old ones remained within useful limits. "Geodynamic hypotheses", while embedded into the general concepts of space and time, were often mutually exclusive and competing until the 1900s. Wegener's concept of continental drift was the first successful globally unifying view, but it was discarded by most Earth scientists. The "real" change of paradigms did not come before mid-century through geophysical observations in paleomagnetism, seismology, bathymetry, seafloor geology and dating, leading to the "New Global Tectonics" of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics. Although real-time plate kinematics is now firmly established through direct geodetic observations from radio-astronomy and with the aid of artificial satellites, knowledge is incomplete and must be continually "updated". Quite a number of problems are not yet solved. These may, some day, lead to another change of paradigms, but certainly not back to "fixism". Problems are related to scale, frame of reference, and especially dynamics. However, plate tectonics is presently the most successful theory in the history of geology. Further developments will be driven by discoveries of apparent dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes.

  5. Global Biomass Variation and its Geodynamic Effects, 1982-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, M.; Chao, B. F.; Au, A. Y.; Kimball, J. S.; McDonald, K. C.

    2005-01-01

    Redistribution of mass near Earth's surface alters its rotation, gravity field, and geocenter location. Advanced techniques for measuring these geodetic variations now exist, but the ability to attribute the observed modes to individual Earth system processes has been hampered by a shortage of reliable global data on such processes, especially hydrospheric processes. To address one aspect of this deficiency, 17 yrs of monthly, global maps of vegetation biomass were produced by applying field-based relationships to satellite-derived vegetation type and leaf area index. The seasonal variability of biomass was estimated to be as large as 5 kg m(exp -2). Of this amount, approximately 4 kg m(exp -2) is due to vegetation water storage variations. The time series of maps was used to compute geodetic anomalies, which were then compared with existing geodetic observations as well as the estimated measurement sensitivity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). For gravity, the seasonal amplitude of biomass variations may be just within GRACE'S limits of detectability, but it is still an order of magnitude smaller than current observation uncertainty using the satellite-laser-ranging technique. The contribution of total biomass variations to seasonal polar motion amplitude is detectable in today's measurement, but it is obscured by contributions from various other sources, some of which are two orders of magnitude larger. The influence on the length of day is below current limits of detectability. Although the nonseasonal geodynamic signals show clear interannual variability, they are too small to be detected.

  6. Geodynamics and temporal variations in the gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, D. C.; Wagner, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    Just as the Earth's surface deforms tectonically, so too does the gravity field evolve with time. Now that precise geodesy is yielding observations of these deformations it is important that concomitant, temporal changes in the gravity field be monitored. Although these temporal changes are minute they are observable: changes in the J2 component of the gravity field were inferred from satellite (LAGEOS) tracking data; changes in other components of the gravity field would likely be detected by Geopotential Research Mission (GRM), a proposed but unapproved NASA gravity field mission. Satellite gradiometers were also proposed for high-precision gravity field mapping. Using simple models of geodynamic processes such as viscous postglacial rebound of the solid Earth, great subduction zone earthquakes and seasonal glacial mass fluctuations, we predict temporal changes in gravity gradients at spacecraft altitudes. It was found that these proposed gravity gradient satellite missions should have sensitivities equal to or better than 10(exp -4) E in order to reliably detect these changes. It was also found that satellite altimetry yields little promise of useful detection of time variations in gravity.

  7. Geodynamics of Venice tidal marshes observed by radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, L.; Teatini, P.; Strozzi, T.

    2010-12-01

    Inter-tidal environments, such as lagoons and deltas, are naturally dynamic coastal systems that are unique in their close links to both land-based fluvial and coastal sea processes. These landscapes are generally experiencing a destructing phase over the last decades primarily caused by river sediment trapping in the upland drainage basins, sea level rise due to climate changes, and land subsidence. Accurate monitoring of the geodynamics of tidal environments is very difficult because of various concurrent causes: i) the logistical difficulties (or inaccessibility) to reach the areas precluding the use of traditional leveling and differential GPS surveys; b) the limited effectiveness of permanents GPS stations due to the significant small-scale variability of the litho-stratigraphy and the soil hydro-geomechanical properties because of the recent development of these environments, usually occurred over the late Holocene; and c) the lack of permanent natural/anthropogenic structures that reduces the capability of SAR interferometry. Because land subsidence is expected to give an important contribution to the cumulative sediment budget of the Venice Lagoon, Italy, the Venice Water Authority has supported a research aimed at improving the quantification of the present land subsidence by exploring the use of radar interferometry on a number of artificial corner reflectors. A network of 58 trihedral corner reflectors (TCR) was installed in the salt marshes of the Venice Lagoon before the summer 2007. The TCR are characterized by 60 cm long edge, made of aluminium to reduce their weight, placed in areas without any other strong scatterer, and oriented to be visible with ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X acquisitions of descending orbits. Salt marshes are constantly visible, except when the tide rises. The TCR, usually installed at a height of 1 m above the mean sea level, are therefore constantly outside the water. In order to mitigate atmospheric artifacts and to properly resolve the radar phase ambiguity, the TCR network has been planned to keep to a value of about 1.0-1.5 km the maximum distance between the TCR or between an "artificial" and the adjacent "natural" reflector. Persistent scatterer interferometry has been applied on a number of 65 ENVISAT scenes spanning the time interval form February 2003 to December 2009. Specific procedures have been implemented to improve the accuracy of the interferometric solution on the TCR and to include it into the global interferometric point target analysis on natural targets. For the first time we have so proved the possibility of precisely quantifying the geodynamic evolution of large-scale tidal environments. As expected, a significant variability of the displacement rates has been recorded, ranging between a general stability to subsidence up to 5 mm/yr. Very interesting general and site-specific results have been obtained relating the observed displacements with the morphological evolution of the tidal marshes.

  8. Dynamical approach to study and interpret geodynamical and geophysical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferronsky, V.

    2009-04-01

    It was proved by satellite and terrestrial observation that the hydrostatics, which operates by the outer forces, is not able to ensure correct description and interpretation of geodynamical and geophysical effects. In order to find solution of the problem, we applied to dynamics. For this purpose the outer force field of the Earth was replaced by its inner (volumetric) force pressure. Doing so we introduced new physical basis for study dynamics of the planet in its own force field. The analytics for that is as follows. The body is considered as a system of n elementary particles (n ? ?) of masses mi and many degrees of freedom. The volumetric moment of a particle pi is written as pi = midri/dt. Then the moment of momentum M of the system is found to be derivative from the moment of inertia I in the form: M = ?piri = ?miridri/dt = d/dt(? miri2) = dI/dt. Then derivative on time from M gives the energy of the system as second derivative from I: M' = ?pidri/dt + ?ridpi/dt = I" where ?pidri/dt = 2T is the kinetic energy and ?ridpi/dt = U is the potential energy of the oscillating moment of inertia (interacting particles). So, equation of dynamical equilibrium (equation of state) of a body, where the interacted particles are presented by nonlinear oscillators, is I" = 2T + U. We used this for study and interpretation of oscillation and rotation parameters of the Earth. Note that the center of mass of the Earth is presented here by a surface of asymmetric spheroid. For more information see our works: Ferronsky V.I. and S.V.Ferronsky (2007). Dynamics of the Earth, Scientific World, Moscow; Ferronsky V.I. (2008) Non-averaged virial theorem for natural systems: http://zhurnal.ape.relarn.ru/articles/2008/066e.pdf

  9. Geodynamic inversion to quantify the rheological parameters of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, T.; Kaus, B.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of the crust and lithosphere is to a large extent controlled by its effective viscosity. Typically, rheological parameters are estimated from laboratory experiments and extrapolated over ten orders of magnitude to geological conditions, which has significant uncertainties. In this study, we propose a method to constrain these parameters directly from geophysical observables. The method links lithosphere-dynamics models with geophysical observations (e.g. horizontal and vertical surface (GPS-) velocities, topography and gravity data). A Bayesian inversion strategy is employed to estimate probabilities of model parameters that affect the rheology of the lithosphere. As this requires many forward models (104 - 106), an efficient and parallel implementation is necessary, which we recently showed for 3D models with linear viscous rheologies (Baumann et al. 2014).Here, we examine how well this method is capable of resolving complex rheologies and address a few technical issues such as defining appropriate stopping criteria for models with a free surface. We use synthetic models of intra-oceanic subduction to demonstrate that the rheological parameters of the lithosphere can be recovered successfully even if rheologies are power-law viscous or plastic, provided that the temperature structure is known. A piece-wise linear lithospheric temperature parameterization as part of the inverse approach is shown to give reasonable results as well.Furthermore, we apply the method to cross-sections of the Himalaya where we consider different geological interpretations as end-member cases. For each end-member, we estimate the probabilities of their rheological structure and plasticity parameterisation and also obtain suitable temperature distributions. Our results indicate that the Indian mantle lithosphere has large effective viscosities whereas the Tibetan lower crust has small effective viscosities. This is consistent with many published modelling studies of the region. AcknowledgementsFunding was provided by ERC Grant agreement #258830ReferencesBaumann T.S., Kaus B.J.P., Popov A.A., 2014. Constraining effective rheology through parallel joint geodynamic inversion. Tectonophysics.

  10. Geodynamic setting of the mineral deposits of the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteev, V. A.; de Boorder, H.; Necheukhin, V. M.; Sazonov, V. N.

    1997-07-01

    The first-order geodynamic domains of the Uralide orogen constitute a relatively simple pattern across the orogenic belt. Continental rifting along the western margin is expressed by a system of Vendian-early Palaeozoic structures with shale-hosted siderite and magnesite and basalt-hosted base metals. It is superimposed on a Middle Riphean rift system with layered mafic-ultramafic complexes with chromite and ilmenite-titano-magnetite and subordinate ophiolite massifs with gold and magnetite. An oceanic spreading domain, immediately east of the Main Uralian Fault is associated with chromite, titano-magnetite and massive sulphide deposits (Dombarovsky or Cyprus type). Further east, bimodal volcanic associations in island arcs with oceanic crust have formed copper-zinc massive volcanic sulphide deposits (Uralian type). Subsequently, complex volcanic sulphide deposits are associated with belts of andesite-dacite and co-magmatic diorite (Baymak or Kuroko type). The eastern, destructive, margin of the orogen is characterized by magnetite and copper-magnetite skarns and porphyry systems. Relatively small plagiogranite to granodiorite complexes, related to oceanic crust, carry scheelite and gold. Calc-alkaline granitic massifs have formed associations of tungsten, tantalum and beryllium. This pattern was dissected by major thrusts and transcurrent shear zones. Increased fluid activity in the course of deformation, inferred to have been involved in complex multi-phase gold mineralization was most probably controlled by deep-reaching faults and shears. Although the recognition of the first-order domains represents a guideline for exploration, detailed structural geological studies of the kinematics of the major faults and shear zones are required in conjunction with radiometric dating of suitable fault- and ore-associated minerals, in association with on-going deep-reaching geophysical investigations.

  11. Geodynamics of the northern Andes: Subductions and intracontinental deformation (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Luis A.; Fuenzalida, AndréS.; Cisternas, Armando; Philip, Hervé; Bijwaard, Harmen; Olaya, José; Rivera, Clara

    2000-10-01

    New regional seismological data acquired in Colombia during 1993 to 1996 and tectonic field data from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) permit a reexamination of the complex geodynamics of northwestern South America. The effect of the accretion of the Baudó-Panama oceanic arc, which began 12 Myr ago, is highlighted in connection with mountain building in the EC. The Istmina and Ibagué faults in the south and the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga fault to the northeast limit an E-SE moving continental wedge. Progressive indentation of the wedge is absorbed along reverse faults located in the foothills of the Cordilleras (northward of 5°N) and transpressive deformation in the Santander Massif. Crustal seismicity in Colombia is accurately correlated with active faults showing neotectonic morphological evidences. Intermediate seismicity allows to identify a N-NE trending subduction segment beneath the EC, which plunges toward the E-SE. This subduction is interpreted as a remnant of the paleo-Caribbean plateau (PCP) as suggested by geological and tomographic profiles. The PCP shows a low-angle subduction northward of 5.2°N and is limited southward by a major E-W transpressive shear zone. Normal oceanic subduction of the Nazca plate (NP) ends abruptly at the southern limit of the Baudó Range. Northward, the NP subducts beneath the Chocó block, overlapping the southern part of the PCP. Cenozoic shortening in the EC estimated from a balanced section is ˜120 km. Stress analysis of fault slip data in the EC (northward of 4°N), indicates an ˜E-SE orientation of σ1 in agreement with the PCP subduction direction. Northward, near Bucaramanga, two stress solutions were observed: (1) a late Andean N80°E compression and (2) an early Andean NW-SE compression.

  12. Tectonics and geodynamics of the Eastern Venezuelan Ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Roure, F. ); Passalacqua, H. ); Gou, I. )

    1993-02-01

    The eastern Venezuelan Ranges result from oblique convergence along the South American-Caribbean plate boundary, whose main surface expression is the El Pilar dextral strike-slip fault. Crustal scale balanced cross-sections have been here completed from available surface and subsurface data across this major transfer zone which links the oceanic subduction of the Lesser Antilles with the continental subduction of the Andes. The present geometries of the sectons show a major discrepancy between the cover and basement lengths, which could be explained by tectonic inheritance from the Tethyan margin. A careful analysis of both the chronostratigraphy and the internal geometry of the foredeep and piggy-back syntectonic deposits are also used to establish the kinematics of each individual structure. Basement involved is postulated for the Pirital Thrust which cuts previously emplaced cover structures like the El Furrial structural unit. Reactivation of ancient thrust faults occurs also at the rear of the Pirital out-of-sequence thrust in the west. As in the Alps or the Pyrenees, a high density intracrustal wedge is required to fit the gravimetric high imaged north of the Serrania; the solutions require a deep crustal root beneath the belt and a north-dipping South American Moho. A consistent geodynamical model, involving the north-dipping subduction of at least 70 km of South American continental lithosphere is thus proposed. An important strain partitioning occurs along the El Pilar Fault and underneath the deep crustal indenter (backstop), which decouples the south-verging allochthon of the Serrania from the north-dipping subducted South American lithosphere and from the eastward-migrating metamorphic belt.

  13. Geodynamics of rapid voluminous felsic magmatism through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, M. J.; Schaefer, B. F.; Betts, P. G.

    2011-04-01

    Two end member geodynamic settings produce the observed examples of rapid voluminous felsic (rhyolitic) magmatism through time. The first is driven by mantle plume head arrival underneath a continent and has operated in an identifiable and regular manner since at least 2.45 Ga. This style produces high temperature (? 1100 C), low aspect ratio rheoignimbrites and lavas that exhibit high SiO 2/Al 2O 3 ratios, high K 2O/Na 2O ratios, and where available data exists, high Ga/Al 2O 3 ratios (> 1.5) with high F (in thousands of parts per million) and low water content. F concentration is significant as it depolymerizes the silicate melt, influencing the magmas' physical behavior during development and emplacement. These rhyolites are erupted as part of rapidly emplaced (10-15 Myr) mafic LIPs and are formed primarily by efficient assimilation-fractional crystallization processes from a mafic mantle parent. The second is driven by lithospheric extension during continental rifting or back arc evolution and is exclusive to the Phanerozoic. SLIPs (silicic large igneous provinces) develop over periods < 40 Myr and manifest in elongate zones of magmatism that extend up to 2500 km, contrasting with the mafic LIP style. Some of the voluminous felsic magmas within SLIPs appear to have a very similar geochemistry and petrogenesis to that of the rhyolites within mafic LIPs. Other voluminous felsic magmas within SLIPs are sourced from hydrous lower crust, and contrast with those sourced from the mantle. They exhibit lower temperatures (< 900 C), explosive ignimbrites with lower SiO 2/Al 2O 3 ratios, and lower K 2O/Na 2O ratios. Rapid voluminous felsic magmatism represents both extreme examples of continental growth since the Archean, and also dramatic periods of crustal recycling and maturation during the Phanerozoic.

  14. Software and Algorithms for Solving Computational Geodynamic Problems using Next Generation Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liang; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Numerical geodynamic modeling is typically based on solving a series of partial differential equations which describe the long-term behavior of the solid visco-elasto-brittle/plastic Earth as a highly viscous incompressible fluid with strongly variable non-Newtonian viscosity. Coding for solving geodynamic equations is catching up with the advance of modern high performance computing. In the past five years, newly developed many-core computing technology, including GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) and MIC (Many Integrated Core), has also been utilized for geodynamic modeling. However, the lack of easy-to-expand or easy-to-use geo-computing toolkits limits the high performance software catching up with the endless updating of high performance hardware. In this presentation, we will firstly show two examples of the implementation of solving geodynamic problems based on Stokes and continuity equations with strongly variable viscosity using many-core hardware, with a specific focus on the GPU. The first example is a geometric multi-grid (GMG) solver, which solves a synthetic sinking cube problem using a staggered grid finite difference discretization. The second example is a preconditioned minimal residual (MINRES) solver for incompressible Stokes flow problem with many viscous inclusions which is discretized using the finite element method. Through these two implementation examples, we will analyze the cost of coding and running advantages and disadvantages of the two kinds of coding methodologies, and in a hope to discuss a potential general coding flowchart for solving geodynamic equations using many-core devices. Finally, a software stack based many-core computing framework oriented to geodynamic modeling is proposed for the future.

  15. Error analysis for the proposed close grid geodynamic satellite measurement system (CLOGEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.; Vangelder, B. H. W.; Kumar, M.

    1975-01-01

    The close grid geodynamic measurement system experiment which envisages an active ranging satellite and a grid of retro-reflectors or transponders in the San Andreas fault area is a detailed simulated study for recovering the relative positions in the grid. The close grid geodynamic measurement system for determining the relative motion of two plates in the California region (if feasible) could be used in other areas of the world to delineate and complete the picture of crustal motions over the entire globe and serve as a geodetic survey system. In addition, with less stringent accuracy standards, the system would also find usage in allied geological and marine geodesy fields.

  16. Numerical Geodynamic Experiments of Continental Collision: Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Robert

    Research explores deep continental lithosphere (i.e., the continental lower crust and mantle lithosphere) deformation during continental collision. I found that depending on the composition/rheology of the crust and the amount of radiogenic heat production in the crust, three dominant modes of mantle lithosphere deformation evolve under Neoarchean-like conditions: (1) a pure-shear thickening style; (2) an imbrication style; (3) and a "flat-subduction" style. The imbrication and the flat-subduction styles result in the emplacement of "plate-like" mantle lithosphere at depths between 200 km and 325 km. The imbrication style behavior shifts to the "flat-subduction" style behavior after a crustal inversion event. I investigated mature Phanerozoic-style collision and found that it is sensitive to mantle lithosphere density, mantle lithosphere yield stress, lower-crustal strength and to the presence of phase change-related density changes in the lower crust. The early stages of collision are accommodated by subduction of lower crust and mantle lithosphere along a discrete shear zone beneath the overriding plate. Next, the subducting lower crust and mantle lithosphere retreat from the collision zone, permitting the sub-lithospheric mantle to upwell and intrude the overriding plate. Next, the lower crust and mantle lithosphere of the overriding plate delaminate from the overlying crust. This process produces plateau-like uplift. These modeling results are interpreted in the context of available geological and geophysical observables for the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. I quantitatively investigated the effects that sediment deposition may have on continental lithosphere deformation during collision. In the absence of sedimentation, the early stages of collision are accommodated by subduction of lower crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the overriding plate. Next, the subducting lower crust and mantle lithosphere retreat from the collision zone. This permits the sub-lithospheric mantle to upwell and come into contact with the thickened upper crust. When sedimentation is imposed subduction-like consumption of the subducting plate remains stable. Using numerical geodynamic models, I studied the influence of the pressure-dependence of viscosity on tectonic deformation during collision. At low activation volumes, high convergence rates, and low to moderate initial Moho temperatures the subduction style of mantle lithosphere deformation is dominant. At low activation volumes, high convergence rates, and high initial Moho temperatures distributed pure-shear style deformation occurs. At low activation volumes, low convergence rate, and moderate to high initial Moho temperatures the mantle lithosphere prefers a convective removal style of deformation. Increasing the activation volume of mantle material in either of these three cases changes the style of mantle lithosphere deformation because its viscosity increases non-linearly.

  17. A Geodynamical Perspective on the Subduction of Cocos and Rivera plates beneath Mexico and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Manea, Marina; Ferrari, Luca

    2013-04-01

    The Middle America subduction zone (MASZ) is one of the world most complex convergent margins as it involves the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos young oceanic plates beneath the North American and Caribbean plates and is bounded by the Gulf of California rift and the Panama slab window. Characterized by contorted and unusual slab geometry, irregularly distributed seismicity and volcanism, exceptionally large slow slip events (SSE) and non-volcanic tremors (NVT), this subduction system represents a great natural laboratory for better understanding geodynamic processes at a fundamental level. Based on a solid observational foundation, and incorporating the latest experimental results into a coherent geodynamical framework, we shed light on the main processes controlling the subduction system evolution in this region. The tectonics, volcanism, slab geometry and segmentation along the margin are reviewed from a geodynamical perspective. We proposed and discussed a series of evolutionary scenarios for the Mexican and Central American subduction zones, providing a coherent starting base for future geodynamical modeling studies tailored to this active margin. We discuss comparatively the recently discovered SSEs and NVTs along the MASZ, and try to differentiate among the proposed mechanisms responsible for these observations. Finally we discuss the recent seismic anisotropy observations in a geodynamic context, offering an integrated view of mantle flow pattern along the entire active margin. Although the MASZ as a whole may be considered a fairly complicated region with many unusual features and sometimes controversial interpretations, its complexity and unusual characteristics can improve our knowledge about the linkage between deep and surface processes associated with subduction zone dynamics.

  18. A Geodynamical Perspective on the Subduction of Cocos and Rivera plates beneath Mexico and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V.; Manea, M.; Ferrari, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Middle America subduction zone (MASZ) is one of the world most complex convergent margins as it involves the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos young oceanic plates beneath the North American and Caribbean plates and is bounded by the Gulf of California rift and the Panama slab window. Characterized by contorted and unusual slab geometry, irregularly distributed seismicity and volcanism, exceptionally large slow slip events (SSE) and non-volcanic tremors (NVT), this subduction system represents a great natural laboratory for better understanding geodynamic processes at a fundamental level. Based on a solid observational foundation, and incorporating the latest experimental results into a coherent geodynamical framework, we shed light on the main processes controlling the subduction system evolution in this region. The tectonics, volcanism, slab geometry and segmentation along the margin are reviewed from a geodynamical perspective. We proposed and discussed a series of evolutionary scenarios for the Mexican and Central American subduction zones, providing a coherent starting base for future geodynamical modeling studies tailored to this active margin. We discuss comparatively the recently discovered SSEs and NVTs along the MASZ, and try to differentiate among the proposed mechanisms responsible for these observations. Finally we discuss the recent seismic anisotropy observations in a geodynamic context, offering an integrated view of mantle flow pattern along the entire active margin. Although the MASZ as a whole may be considered a fairly complicated region with many unusual features and sometimes controversial interpretations, its complexity and unusual characteristics can improve our knowledge about the linkage between deep and surface processes associated with subduction zone dynamics.

  19. A geodynamical perspective on the subduction of Cocos and Rivera plates beneath Mexico and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V. C.; Manea, M.; Ferrari, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Middle America subduction zone (MASZ) is one of the world’ most complex convergent margins as it involves the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos young oceanic plates beneath the North American and Caribbean plates and is bounded by the Gulf of California rift and the Panama slab window. Characterized by contorted and unusual slab geometry, irregularly distributed seismicity and volcanism, exceptionally large slow slip events (SSE) and non-volcanic tremors (NVT), this subduction system represents a great natural laboratory for better understanding geodynamic processes at a fundamental level. Based on a solid observational foundation, and incorporating the latest experimental results into a coherent geodynamical framework, we shed light on the main processes controlling the subduction system evolution in this region. The tectonics, volcanism, slab geometry and segmentation along the margin are reviewed from a geodynamical perspective. We proposed and discussed a series of evolutionary scenarios for the Mexican and Central American subduction zones, providing a coherent starting base for future geodynamical modeling studies tailored to this active margin. We discuss comparatively the recently discovered SSEs and NVTs along the MASZ, and try to differentiate among the proposed mechanisms responsible for these observations. Finally we discuss the recent seismic anisotropy observations in a geodynamic context, offering an integrated view of mantle flow pattern along the entire active margin. Although the MASZ as a whole may be considered a fairly complicated region with many unusual features and sometimes controversial interpretations, its complexity and unusual characteristics can improve our knowledge about the linkage between deep and surface processes associated with subduction zone dynamics.

  20. Neogene stratigraphy and Andean geodynamics of southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungerbhler, Dominik; Steinmann, Michael; Winkler, Wilfried; Seward, Diane; Egez, Arturo; Peterson, Dawn E.; Helg, Urs; Hammer, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    The present paper reviews Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary formations in the Inter-Andean region of southern Ecuador (between 2S and 420'S) in order to develop a geodynamic model of the region. The formations occur in the southern shallow prolongation of the Inter-Andean Valley between the Cordillera Real to the east, and the Cordillera Occidental and Amotape-Tahu?n Provinces to the west. One hundred fifty zircon fission-track analyses has established a detailed chronostratigraphy for the sedimentary and volcanic formations and several small intrusions. The Paleogene to early Miocene formations are dominated by intermediate and acidic volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. In addition, relics of Eocene continental sedimentary series have been identified. The Neogene sedimentary series lie unconformably on deformed and eroded metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic formations. They were deposited in two stages, which are separated by a major unconformity dated at ?10-9 Ma. (1) During the middle and early late Miocene (?15-10 Ma) marginal marine deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine and fluvial environments prevailed, which we group under the heading "Pacific Coastal sequences". They presumably covered a greater surface area in southern Ecuador than their present occurrence in small topographic depressions. We suggest that they were deposited in the shallow marine Cuenca and Loja Embayments. Deposition in a marginal marine environment is also supported by the occurrence of brackish water ostracods and other fauna. (2) Above the regional (angular) unconformity, the coastal facies are overlain by late Miocene (?9-5 Ma) continental alluvial fan and fluvial facies which are in turn covered by mainly airborne volcanic material. They represent the "Intermontane sequences" of the basins of Cuenca, Girn-Santa Isabel, Nabn, Loja and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic results are used to discuss the tectonic setting of Neogene sedimentation in the forearc and arc domain of the Ecuadorian subduction system. During the Pacific Coastal stage, northward displacement of the coastal forearc block along the Calacali-Pallatanga fault zone has driven crustal collapse in the Inter-Andean region. As a result, extensional subsidence drove the eastward ingression of shallow seas into the Cuenca and Loja Embayments from the Manab? and Progreso Basins to the west. Tectonic inversion in the forearc area during the early late Miocene (at ?9.5 Ma) reflects the initiation of W-E oriented compression and uplift in the Inter-Andean region and the establishment of smaller Intermontane stage basins, which host the continental sequences. Coeval topographic rise of the Cordillera Occidental is indicated by the onset of clastic input from the west. The small Intermontane Basin of Nabn (?8.5-7.9 Ma) formed during the period of maximum compression. The present data prove that the Neogene Andean forearc and arc area in southern Ecuador was a site of important but variable tectonic activity, which was presumably driven by the collision and coupling of the Carnegie Ridge with the Ecuadorian margin since ?15-9 Ma.

  1. Role of the Earth's rotation in global geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenkova, N.

    2009-04-01

    Role of the Earth's rotation in the global geodynamics. Pavlenkova N.I., Institute of Physics of the Earth of Russian Academy of Science, B.Grusinskaja 10, 123995, Moscow, ninapav@ifz.ru Geophysical studies show several regularities in Earth's structures which are not explained by the traditional global tectonics conceptions. (1) The surface of the Earth, as well as a surface of other planets, precisely shares on two hemispheres with a different relief and structure of an earth's crust: on the Pacific (oceanic) hemisphere with the lowered relief and a thin oceanic crust, and a continental hemisphere with prevalence of the raised relief and a thick continental crust. (2) There is a regular system of global lineaments and ring structures which are stretched on thousand kilometers, covering continents and oceans. As one of examples it is possible to result system of rift zones (mid-oceanic ridges), forming a ring around of the Antarctica with rift branches from it through everyone of 90 degrees. (3) Asymmetry with a relief of a day time surface when to each raised structure there corresponds the lowered surface on the opposite side of globe is observed. (4) The continental and oceanic mantles have different compositions and deep roots (>300 km) beneath the continents are prominent as regions with relatively high seismic velocities. There are regular connections between geological structures and deep mantle roots. (5) The classical lithosphere-asthenosphere model is not confirmed by seismic data. The asthenosphere can not be traced as a continuous layer, there are disconnected lenses (asthenolenses) even beneath mid-oceanic ridges. Significant horizontal movements of the lithosphere, as proposed by the global plate tectonics, would destroy all these regularities and crust-mantle interaction. To make an agreement between all observed data, the fluids-rotation hypothesis is proposed. The hypothesis supposes two main energy sources of the global tectonics: the degasification of the Earth (the fluids advection) and changes in the Earth rotation. At formation of the core there was the Earth's expansion and was formed system of global lineaments and the Pacific ring. Bipolar convection in the core has created a magnetic field and the increased advection of deep fluids in the southern hemisphere. The last promoted formation of thick continental lithosphere in this hemisphere in Archean-Proterozoi. This thick lithosphere has led to asymmetry of the planet and to relative displacement of the mass centers of the Earth's spheres. It produced high pressure between the spheres (Barkin, 2002) and could have initiated their relative displacements. As a uniform asthenosphere does not exist and the continents have deep roots such displacements were most probable on a surface of a liquid outer core. The marked mass centre dislocation has caused the turning of the mantle around the core with movement of the continental hemisphere from South Pole to the equator. It corresponds to the data on movement of paleomagnetic and paleoclimate poles that took place in Paleozoic era. The rotation of the mantle around the core passed non-uniformly: the tidal forces connected to periodic change of Earth's rotation axis position in system the Earth-Lund-Sun (Avsyuk, 1996) were imposed on the basic moving forces restoring the mass center balance. The periodic displacements of the mantle created conditions for alternation of tectonic activity epochs. Rotation of the mantle around the core created a new nonequilibrium system. Therefore in Mesozoic era a new stage begins: an expansion of the southern hemisphere which radius is now bigger, than the northern one. Such expansion created the regular system of the mid-oceanic ridges forming a ring around Antarctica with the symmetric Mid-Atlantic, Indian and Pacific ridges. Supposedly at the last stage the formation of the continent on South Pole (Antarctica) and destruction of a continental crust on the northern hemisphere (formation of the Arctic ocean) took place to mount on the mass center balance.

  2. Miocene to Recent Magmatism and Geodynamics of Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, M.; Sharkov, E. V.; Lebedev, V. A.; Chugaev, A. V.; Oyan, V.; Genc, S. C.; Unal, E.; Aysal, N.

    2012-04-01

    Eastern Turkey has been an active continental collision zone for the last 15 My between the African and Eurasian continents. The collision started at around 15 Ma after the total consumption of oceanic lithosphere of the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean beneath E Anatolia and is still going on, as Africa still converges to E Anatolia with a velocity of ~2.5 cm/y. The overriding Anatolian plate, resided below the sea level till the collision, was subjected to a major block uplift event around 10 Ma, emerging as a widespread plateau ~2 km above the sea level, which has been roughened by later erosion and volcanic activities. The aforementioned plateau is considered as part of a regional dome structure with ~1000 km diameter extending from E Anatolia up to Azerbaijan. Immediately after the collision, a widespread volcanism emerged on the Eastern Anatolian Plateau, whose products covered almost over half of the region. Characteristically, all these products contain a distinct subduction component. The volcanism in the collision zone continued to the historical times and is considered to be still active. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Ararat, Nemrut, Tendrek and Sphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) around the circum-Mediterranean region. The collision-related volcanic province is not only confined into Anatolia but also continues into the neighboring countries through Georgia, Armenia, Iran and up to Russia, spanning ~1000 km. In contrast, the underthrusting Arabian platform was subjected to both crustal-scale east-west folding close to the thrust front and extensional deformations perpendicular to the suture zone. Along these extensional fractures, within-plate lavas with no subduction component erupted. This intraplate volcanism focused on the Karacada? volcanic complex, covering an area ~10,000 km2. Early Stage volcanism of Karacada? was dominated by magmas derived from a shallower (litospheric) mantle source, while magmas of the later stages were derived from deeper (asthenospheric) sources. Based on the results of seismic tomography, tectonics and geochemical/isotopic studies of the volcanic successions, it has now been well established that both uplift and widespread volcanism across the region have a common reason: a major "slab-steepening and breakoff event beneath a large accretionary complex". After the collision, being unsupported by the subduction, the slab started to be steepened beneath the region. This possibly resulted in widening, invasion and upwelling of the mantle wedge beneath E Anatolian accretionary complex, followed by a widespread decompressional melting, generating voluminous magmas with an inherited subduction signature. The subducted slab broke off beneath the Bitlis-Ptrge massif ~10 Ma, causing the enriched asthenospheric mantle with no subduction component beneath the Arabian continent to flow to the north through a slab-window. This resulted in mixing between the subduction-modified E Anatolian and the Arabian asthenospheres. On the basis of the results from our geochemical/ geochronologic/isotopic data and petrologic models, we argue that the temporal and spatial changes in the chemistry of volcanics across the region are the artifacts of these geodynamic events that controlled the movement and interaction of mantle domains with contrasting geochemical, isotopic and mineralogical identities. Compositions of some of the primitive magmas were further modified via interactions with the lithospheric mantle and/or crustal material coupled with fractionation en route to the surface.

  3. Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the western Mediterranean domain: A view from the Neogene peri-Tyrrhenian basins

    SciTech Connect

    Roure, F.; Montadert, L.; Mueller, C.

    1988-08-01

    Biostratigraphic and structural studies of synorogenic Neogene deposits in the southern Apennines, Calabria, and Cicily are compared to similar data from Sardinia and the Tyrrhenian Sea to trace the geodynamic evolution of the western Mediterranean domain.

  4. On the Utility of High-Resolution InSAR Data for Geodynamic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Amelung, F.

    2014-12-01

    High-spatial and high-temporal resolution InSAR data acquired by the TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-Skymed satellites is becoming increasingly available for geodynamic applications, including volcanic crises, the arctic ice sheets and land subsidence problems. The advantage of these second-generation SAR systems is that processes can be resolved that were not visible by the low-resolution first-generation systems, such as pre-eruptive deformation of a volcanic dome and uplift or subsidence of the bedrock in response to a glacial surge. The drawback is the limited temporal coherence because these satellites operate at X-Band, which makes them suitable only for particular environments. In this poster we present a variety of applications. Our purpose is to better define the potential of these systems for geodynamic applications.

  5. Is the geodynamic process in preparation of strong earthquakes reflected in the geomagnetic field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, M.; Price, C.; Eppelbaum, L.

    2012-10-01

    A methodology of detecting geomagnetic variations caused by dangerous geodynamic processes at depth has been developed. This methodology was tested using data from three Japanese observatories within the network of the International project Intermagnet (www.intermagnet.org 2011). Anomalous behaviour of the geomagnetic field was detected during the period of the great Tohoku-oki earthquake on 11 March 2011. Theoretical evaluation of the possible mechanisms of these anomalous geomagnetic variations (AGV) has been examined. The possibility of the emergence of an AGV in the vicinity of earthquake epicentres in Japan and their rapid monitoring (online or with a delay of one day) is demonstrated. The main tool of the developed methodology is delineation of the geodynamic magnetic effect by the use of a differential function.

  6. Geodynamic model for the development of the Cameroon Hot Line (Equatorial Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkono, Collin; Fmnias, Olivier; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This work proposes a new geodynamic model for the development of the Cameroon Hot Line (CHL) in Equatorial Africa. It is based on the analysis of the distribution of lineaments and of magmatic bodies (Paleogene anorogenic ring-complexes and Neogene volcanic centres). Two successive geodynamic models are proposed to explain the distribution of the Cainozoic to recent magmatic activity. They are both sinistral. The first one, during the Paleogene, developed around the N ? 70E direction while the second one (Neogene) is oriented around the N ? 130E direction. The two periods are separated by a short transition. The emplacement follows the local reactivation of pre-existing (Pan-African) faults in relation to the collision between the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates, during the Alpine history.

  7. Seismic imaging of the geodynamic activity at the western Eger rift in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullick, N.; Buske, S.; Hrubcova, P.; Ruzek, B.; Shapiro, S.; Wigger, P.; Fischer, T.

    2015-04-01

    The western Eger rift at the Czech-German border in central Europe is an important geodynamically active area within the European Cenzoic rift system (ECRS) in the forelands of the Alps. Along with two other active areas of the ECRS, the French Massif Central and the east and west Eifel volcanic fields, it is characterized by numerous CO2-rich fluid emission points and frequent micro-seismicity. Existence of a plume(s) is indicated in the upper mantle which may be responsible for these observations. Here we reprocess a pre-existing deep seismic reflection profile '9HR' and interpret the subsurface structures as mapped by seismic reflectivity with previous findings, mainly from seismological and geochemical studies, to investigate the geodynamic activity in the subsurface. We find prominent hints of pathways which may allow magmatic fluids originating in the upper mantle to rise through the crust and cause the observed fluid emanations and earthquake activity.

  8. Seismological and Geodynamic Monitoring Network in the "javakheti" Test Zone in the Southern Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakelyan, A.; Babayan, H.; Karakhanyan, A.; Durgaryan, R.; Basilaia, G.; Sokhadze, G.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Javakheti Highland located in the border region between Armenia and Georgia (sharing a border with Turkey) is an area in the Southern Caucasus of young Holocene-Quaternary volcanism and a region with convergence of a number of active faults. Issues related to the geometry, kinematics and slip-rate of these faults and assessment of their seismic hazard remain unclear in part due to the fragmentary nature of the studies carried out soley within the borders of each of the countries as opposed to region wide. In the frame of the ISTC A-1418 Project "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" the Javakheti Highland was selected as a trans-border test-zone. This designation allowed for the expansion and upgrading of the seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks under the auspices of several international projects (ISTC CSP-053 Project "Development of Communication System for seismic hazard situations in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia", NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response") as well as through joint research programs with the National Taiwan University and Institute of Earth Sciences (IES, Taiwan), Universite Montpellier II (France) and Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre-Universit de Strasbourg (France). Studies of geodynamic processes, and seismicity of the region and their interaction have been carried out utilizing the newly established seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks and have served as a basis for the study of the geologic and tectonic structure . Upgrading and expansion of seismological and geodynamic networks required urgent solutions to the following tasks: Introduction of efficient online systems for information acquisition, accumulation and transmission (including sattelite systems) from permanent and temporary installed stations, Adoption of international standards for organization and management of databases in GIS format, Utilization of data archiving system working in intrnationally adopted formats and data exchange systems for communication with other international and national centers.

  9. Geodynamics of Central Europe Based On Observations of The GPS Euref Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, V.

    When azimuths of the horizontal movement vectors processed from GPS data mon- itored during several campaigns on regional networks situated in the Central Europe (the East Sudeten, the West Alps, the Trans-Alpen area) were compared, they dis- played remarkable changed in their values evaluated from two sequential campaigns with respect to next ones. As adopted, the GPS data processed of one campaign are ordinarily linked to a close EUREF station (or stations) to be joined to an Interna- tional Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Even though the interconnection to the ITRF, the vector azimuths for one site evaluated from different campaigns can still show changes. To eliminate this effect, available movements of the Central European EUREF stations were analysed with respect to geological structural units in that rela- tively coincident character of geodynamic movements are expected. Several "geody- namic" units were identified and delineated for an area of the Central Europe. Then, directions of the horizontal vector azimuths of network sites were incorporated into the unit scheme above mentioned. The paper will present data analysis of the EU- REF stations, the geodynamic unit scheme for the Central Europe and comparisons of geodynamic horizontal movements of the EUREF stations and the network sites. Fur- ther, an assessment of interrelated movements among the individual structural units was estimated. The geodynamic pattern of Central European unit movements brings more transparent understanding of mutual relations between EUREF stations and the regional GPS networks observations. The data analyse of GPS observations were sup- ported by the program of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 'Research Centre', No. LN00A005, and by the project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, No. 205/01/0480.

  10. Using Zircon Chemistry as a Discriminating Tool for Geodynamical Context of Magma Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussien Grosjean, D.; Chazot, G.; Bollinger, C.; Langlade, J.; Vonlanthen, P.; Guillong, M.; Bachmann, O.; Rouget, M. L.; Liorzou, C.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon, a widespread accessory mineral in rocks of felsic composition, is frequently used in various disciplines of geosciences as a petrogenetic, geochronologic and geothermometric tool. It can survive metamorphism and partial melting, and it is chemically and physically very resistant to erosion. As a consequence, zircon is very common in sedimentary rocks of terrigenous origin. Over the last decades, several studies have focused on detrital zircon grains to track the eroded source of sedimentary rocks. However, despite the fact that zircon chemistry allows its source rock to be dated and characterized in terms of crystallization temperature and composition, the detailed geodynamical context of the source rock is still very difficult to reconstruct. The goal of this study is to infer the geodynamical crystallization environment of zircon from its geochemical signature. Differentiated igneous rocks from several geodynamic environments, including intraplate, active margin, ocean rift, and pre-, syn-, and post-collisional settings, were sampled, and zircon grains were separated, mounted in epoxy, and imaged by cathodoluminescence. The trace element signature of zircon was determined using (in-situ) laser ablation-high-resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS). Zircons non representative of original magmatic values (LaN(ormalised) > 1, PrN > 10 and SmN/LaN < 10) had been disregarded. Y and Yb seem to behave similarly if we compare zircons from all our samples. But preliminary observation of trace elements such as Nb, Ta, and Th plotted against rare earth elements allows us to characterise and discriminate several geodynamic environments. More particularly, Y/Th ratio and Eu anomaly seem to be significant to distinguish ocean rift and intraplate settings, thus confirming the geochemical control of the zircon crystallisation.

  11. An efficient and general approach for implementing thermodynamic phase equilibria information in geophysical and geodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Juan Carlos; Zlotnik, Sergio; Díez, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    We present a flexible, general, and efficient approach for implementing thermodynamic phase equilibria information (in the form of sets of physical parameters) into geophysical and geodynamic studies. The approach is based on Tensor Rank Decomposition methods, which transform the original multidimensional discrete information into a separated representation that contains significantly fewer terms, thus drastically reducing the amount of information to be stored in memory during a numerical simulation or geophysical inversion. Accordingly, the amount and resolution of the thermodynamic information that can be used in a simulation or inversion increases substantially. In addition, the method is independent of the actual software used to obtain the primary thermodynamic information, and therefore, it can be used in conjunction with any thermodynamic modeling program and/or database. Also, the errors associated with the decomposition procedure are readily controlled by the user, depending on her/his actual needs (e.g., preliminary runs versus full resolution runs). We illustrate the benefits, generality, and applicability of our approach with several examples of practical interest for both geodynamic modeling and geophysical inversion/modeling. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is a competitive and attractive candidate for implementing thermodynamic constraints into a broad range of geophysical and geodynamic studies. MATLAB implementations of the method and examples are provided as supporting information and can be downloaded from the journal's website.

  12. Multi-disciplinary contributions of HartRAO to global geodesy and geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combrinck, Ludwig

    2015-04-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (South Africa) supports global initiatives in both geodesy and geodynamics through an active programme of science platform provision in Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Antarctica. Our involvement ranges from the installation of tide gauges, Global Navigation Satellite Systems stations, seismometers and accelerometers on remote islands to the installation of radar reflectors in Antarctica which enable accurate, geo-referenced maps of the Antarctic coast line to be made. Currently we also participate in the African VLBI Network (AVN), with the aim to densify not only astronomical observatories in Africa, but to improve the geometry and distribution of advanced geodetic and geophysical equipment to facilitate development of research platforms in Africa, which can be used for geodynamics and related sciences, supporting international projects such as the WEGENER initiative. We present our multi-disciplinary activities during the last decade and sketch the way forward. Participation of Africa in the global arena of astronomy, geodesy, geodynamics and related fields will receive a major boost during the next decade. This is partially due to the development of a component of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) in Africa but also due to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) project and the international objectives of higher geodetic accuracies and more stable reference frames. Consequent spinoffs into many disciplines relying on global reference frames and sub-cm positional accuracies stand to benefit and Africa can play a major role in improving both science and network geometries.

  13. Ocean tide, Baltic Sea and atmospheric loading model tilt comparisons with interferometric geodynamic tilt observation - case study at Lohja2 geodynamic station, southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotsalainen, H.; Nordman, M.; Virtanen, J.; Virtanen, H.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean loading models, Baltic Sea loading and atmospheric loading tilt models are compared with the long interferometric water level tilt meter recordings at the Lohja2 geodynamics laboratory in southern Finland. The tilt meter shows a high response to different loading phenomena, and it can be used to study earth dynamics, earth structure modeling, and 2D surface mass loading model validation. Special attention is paid on the Baltic Sea and atmospheric loading tilt oscillations. The four ocean loading models used show deviating values compared to the measured earth tide tilt parameters. The CSR4.0 ocean loading model fits best to analyzed tidal tilt observations at the site. After reductions of earth tides, ocean, the Baltic Sea and atmospheric loading tilt, the largest residual tilt signals are located in frequency bands below 0.5 cycle/day.

  14. Mantle Flow Around the Iceland Plume: Preliminary Results From Geodynamic and Seismic Anisotropy Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgen, J.; Shen, Y.

    2002-12-01

    The nature of mantle flow around an oceanic hotspot is a long-standing question in ridge-hotspot interaction studies. Plume flow channeled along the ridge axis in the shallow mantle is one end-member possibility; the other is broad, radial dispersion away from the plume conduit at greater mantle depths, without any preferential direction imparted by the strike of the mid-ocean ridge. Insight into plume dispersion patterns can come from observations of mantle anisotropy, which reveal patterns in mantle fabric and the history of mantle deformation. Measurements of shear-wave splitting [Bjarnason et al., 2002; Li and Detrick, 2002] show that fast polarization directions are generally NNW-SSE in eastern Iceland, and N-S in western Iceland. The fast directions of azimuthal anisotropy of Rayleigh waves sensitive to the shallowest upper mantle and crust are parallel to the spreading center [Li and Detrick, 2002]. While the contribution to shear-wave splitting and azimuthal anisotropy of non-plume factors (i.e., plate motion and N-S asthenospheric flow) vs plume-related factors (i.e., radial and along-axis flow) have been speculated on, geodynamic models have yet to incorporate these new observational constraints. This study uses a combination of geodynamical and seismic modeling to predict the contribution of non-plume factors to the observed mantle anisotropy beneath Iceland. We compute a series of simple, finite element flow models, using plate motions or inferred asthenospheric flow as boundary conditions. As a first approximation, we use finite strain to estimate the spatial distribution of lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine and resultant shear-wave splitting. A comparison of predictions to observations quantifies the relative importance of the contribution of various factors and isolates the classes of geodynamic models that satisfy the observed seismic anisotropy beneath Iceland. References Bjarnason, I. Th., P. G. Silver, G. Rumpker, S. Solomon, J. Geophys. Res., in press. Li, A., R. S. Detrick, submitted to Science.

  15. Geodynamics for Everyone: Robust Finite-Difference Heat Transfer Models using MS Excel 2007 Spreadsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, C. J.

    2008-05-01

    Numerical geodynamics models of heat transfer are typically thought of as specialized topics of research requiring knowledge of specialized modelling software, linux platforms, and state-of-the-art finite-element codes. I have implemented analytical and numerical finite-difference techniques with Microsoft Excel 2007 spreadsheets to solve for complex solid-earth heat transfer problems for use by students, teachers, and practicing scientists without specialty in geodynamics modelling techniques and applications. While implementation of equations for use in Excel spreadsheets is occasionally cumbersome, once case boundary structure and node equations are developed, spreadsheet manipulation becomes routine. Model experimentation by modifying parameter values, geometry, and grid resolution makes Excel a useful tool whether in the classroom at the undergraduate or graduate level or for more engaging student projects. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate complex geometries and heat-transfer characteristics makes it ideal for first and occasionally higher order geodynamics simulations to better understand and constrain the results of professional field research in a setting that does not require the constraints of state-of-the-art modelling codes. The straightforward expression and manipulation of model equations in excel can also serve as a medium to better understand the confusing notations of advanced mathematical problems. To illustrate the power and robustness of computation and visualization in spreadsheet models I focus primarily on one-dimensional analytical and two-dimensional numerical solutions to two case problems: (i) the cooling of oceanic lithosphere and (ii) temperatures within subducting slabs. Excel source documents will be made available.

  16. Journes 2008 "Systmes de Rfrence Spatio-Temporels & X. Lohrmann-Kolloquium": Astrometry, Geodynamics and Astronomical Reference Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, M.; Capitaine, N.

    2009-09-01

    The Journes 2008 "Systmes de rfrence spatio-temporels", with the sub-title "Astrometry, Geodynamics and Astronomical Reference Systems", were organized from 22 to 24 September 2008 at Lohrmann Observatory, Technical University in Dresden, Germany. These "Journes" have been associated with the Xth "Lohrmann colloquium" which is organized, since 1958 at the Lohrmann Observatory. The scientific programme was composed of five sessions with the following topics: Modern astrometry, time and theory of Earth's rotation; Relativity and numerical standards in fundamental astronomy, ephemerides; Global geodynamical modelling; Observations of global geodynamics; Developments in astronomical reference frames. In addition, there have been presentations and discussions related to the IAU Division 1 Commission 52 "Relativity in Fundamental astronomy" and Working Groups "Numerical standards in Fundamental astronomy" (NSFA) and "The second realization of the ICRF" (ICRF2), with WG meetings organized in association with the Journes.

  17. Convergent plate margin dynamics: New perspectives from structural geology, geophysics and geodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.

    2010-03-01

    Convergent plate margins occur when two adjoining tectonic plates come together to form either a subduction zone, where at least one of the converging plates is oceanic and plunges beneath the other into the mantle, or a collision zone, where two continents or a continent and a magmatic arc collide. Convergent plate margins are arguably the most complicated and dynamic plate boundaries on Earth and have been the subject of many investigations and discussions since the advent of plate tectonic theory. This paper provides a historical background and a review of the development of geological and geodynamic theories on convergent plate margins. Furthermore, it discusses some of the recent advances that have been made in the fields of structural geology, geophysics and geodynamics, which are fundamental to our understanding of this phenomenon. These include: (1) the finding that plates and plate boundaries move at comparable velocities across the globe; (2) the emerging consensus that subducted slabs are between two to three orders of magnitude stronger than the ambient upper mantle; (3) the importance of lateral slab edges, slab tearing and toroidal mantle flow patterns for the evolution of subduction zones; and (4) clear evidence from mantle tomography that slabs can penetrate into the lower mantle. Still, many first-order problems regarding the geodynamic processes that operate at convergent margins remain to be solved. These include subduction zone initiation and the time of inception of plate tectonics, and with it convergent plate margins, on Earth. Fundamental problems in orogenesis include the mechanism that initiated Andean mountain building at the South American subduction zone, the potential episodicity of mountain building with multiple cycles of shortening and extension, and the principal driving force behind the construction of massive mountain belts such as the Himalayas-Tibet and the Andes. Fundamental questions in subduction dynamics regard the partitioning of subduction into a trench and plate component, and the distribution of energy dissipation in the system. In seismic imaging, challenges include improving resolution at mid to lower mantle depth in order to properly understand the fate of slabs, and better constraining the 3-D flow-related anisotropic structure in the surrounding mantle. Future insights into such fundamental problems and into the regional and global dynamics of convergent plate margins will likely be obtained from integrating spatio-temporal data, structural geological data, geophysical data and plate kinematic data into plate tectonic reconstructions and three-dimensional geodynamic models of progressive deformation.

  18. Laboratory test results of the high speed optical tracking system for the Spaceborne Geodynamic Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    The high speed, high resolution optical tracking system for the Spaceborne Geodynamic Ranging System employs a two-axis gimbaled pointing device that can operate from a Space Shuttle platform and can track multiple retroreflector ground targets with arcsec accuracy. Laboratory tests of the stepping characteristics of the pointing system for various step sizes and directions has shown arcsec repeatability with little wasted motion, overshoot, or ringing. The worst rms tracking jitter was 1 and 2 arcsec in the roll and pitch axes, respectively, at the maximum tracking rate of 2 deg/sec.

  19. Spectrum monitoring of electromagnetic signals from rocks to control geodynamic processes under working mine conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombizov, A. A.; Bespalko, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The paper considers the techniques for continuous monitoring of samples and rocks destruction using the parameters of the measured electromagnetic signals which are generated in the destructive processes. The block diagram of the recorder is presented and the methods for processing of the measured electromagnetic signals to monitor and predict the geodynamic processes in rocks or the destruction of dielectric materials under electromagnetic interference. A phase modeling of the method to extract a useful signal from the background noise and electromagnetic interference has been implemented.

  20. Geodynamics laser ranging system: Performance simulations and development of the EOS facility. [Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Geodynamics Laser Ranging System is a spaceborne multicolor laser ranger to be used for studying regional and local scale crustal movements and will provide a capability for height profiling of ice-sheets, land terrains, cloud-tops, and other surfaces. Ranging measurements to retroreflector targets will produce intersite distances and relative heights with subcentimeter accuracy over baselines up to several hundred kilometers long. Arrays containing up to a few hundred targets can be surveyed nearly simultaneously. Altimetric profiling can be performed with spatial resolution of 80m and vertical accuracy of 10cm with the latter depending on the roughness and slope of the terrain.

  1. Constraining Mantle Heterogeneities with Joint Inversions of Seismic, Geodynamic, and Mineral Physics Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Grand, S. P.; Forte, A. M.; Simmons, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Two outstanding goals of solid earth geophysics are to determine the chemical structure of the Earth and to understand the dynamics of its interior. The dynamics of the mantle are controlled by density variations and combined knowledge of density structure and seismic velocities provide the strongest constraints on chemical heterogeneity. Unfortunately, most of the traditional geophysical methods such as seismic tomography and geodynamic modeling alone cannot adequately resolve the density structure within the mantle. Thus, seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics joint inversion methods have been applied to better understand the dynamics of the mantle in recent years (e.g. Simmons et al. 2010). In these joint inversions, P wave and S wave travel times, as well as four convection-related geodynamic observations (free air gravity, tectonic plate motion, dynamic topography, and the excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary) can be used to produce 3-D models of density and seismic velocities simultaneously. The approach initially attempts to find a model that assuming temperature controls lateral variations in mantle properties and then to consider more complicated lateral variations that account for the presence of chemical heterogeneity to further fit data. Here we present new joint inversion results include 50% more new S wave travel time data than in previous work and geodynamic data that extend to larger spherical harmonic degrees. In addition, temperature derivatives of P and S velocity and density have been determined using an updated mineral physics dataset. For the first time we include non-linear anelastic temperature effects on velocities in the joint inversion. The anelastic effects decrease the required high density component within the lower mantle superplumes. The hypothesis that temperature variations explain most observed heterogeneity within the mantle is consistent with our data. Reference: Simmons, N. A., A. M. Forte, L. Boschi, and S. P. Grand (2010), GyPSuM: A joint tomographic model of mantle density and seismic wave speeds, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 115(B12), B12310, doi:10.1029/2010JB007631.

  2. Geological and geophysical evidences for mud diapirism in south-eastern Sicily (Italy) and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    A recent investigation on the northern margin of the Hyblean Plateau in south-eastern Sicily highlights the occurrence of a clayey diapiric intrusion into the foreland carbonate series. The piercing body, exposed along a ?270 long and ?30 m deep NE-SW elongated quarry, consists of serpentinite-bearing clayey material. As suggested by the internal contractional features and by its geometric relations with the adjacent rocks, the clayey body intruded in the foreland series producing on its flanks a set of domino-arranged normal faults which nucleated as a result of gravitative collapse. Taking into account previous petrological studies, which provided information about the origin of the mud, a deep geodynamic model for the northern part of the Hyblean Plateau is here presented. The mud diapirs originated from the uprising of pre-existing serpentinite bodies and others products of alteration probably developed along an ancient ridge-transform intersection where a hydrothermally altered mantle wedge occurred. This interpretation is supported by seismic, magnetic and gravimetric anomalies beneath the analyzed area and has implications on its geodynamic evolution.

  3. Geodetic implications on block formation and geodynamic domains in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; García, A.; Kraus, S.

    2016-01-01

    The South Shetland Islands archipelago is dynamically complex due to its tectonic surroundings. Most islands are part of a formerly active volcanic arc, although Deception, Penguin and Bridgeman Islands, as well as several submarine volcanoes, are characterized by active back-arc volcanism. Geodetic benchmarks were deployed and the movement of the lithosphere to which they were fixed measured to provide geodynamic insight for the South Shetland Islands, Bransfield Basin and Antarctic Peninsula area based on surface deformation. These benchmarks' data add spatial and temporal coverage to previous results. The results reveal two different geodynamic patterns, each confined to a distinct part of the South Shetland Islands archipelago. The inferred absolute horizontal velocity vectors for the benchmarks in the northeastern part of the archipelago are consistent with the opening of the Bransfield Basin, while benchmark vectors in the southwestern part of the archipelago are similar to those of the benchmarks on the Antarctic Peninsula. In between, Snow, Deception and Livingston Islands represent a transition zone. In this area, the horizontal velocity vectors relative to the Antarctic plate shift northeastwards from N to NW. Furthermore, the South Shetland Islands benchmarks, except for that at Gibbs (Elephant) Islands, indicate subsidence, which might be a consequence of the slab roll-back at the South Shetland Trench. In contrast, the uplift revealed by the Antarctic Peninsula benchmarks suggests glacial isostatic adjustment after the Larson B ice-shelf breakup.

  4. Monitoring deep geodynamic processes within Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic zone by geodetic means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita

    2015-04-01

    Background Located in the bending zone of East Carpathians, the so-called Vrancea zone is one of the most active seismic regions in Europe. Despite many years of international research, its intermediate-depth seismicity within full intra-continental environment still represents a challenge of the 21st century. Infrastructure In the attempt to join the above-mentioned efforts, the Solid Earth Dynamics Department (SEDD) in the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy has developed a special research infrastructure, mainly devoted to gravity and space geodesy observations. A geodetic network covering the epicentre area of the intermediate-depth earthquakes has been designed and implemented for monitoring deep geodynamic processes and their surface echoes. Within each base-station of the above-mentioned network, a still-reinforced concrete pillar allows for high accuracy repeated gravity and GPS determinations. Results Starting from some results of the previously run CERGOP and UNIGRACE European programmes, to which additional SEDD repeated field campaigns were added, an unusual geodynamic behaviour has been revealed in the area. 1) Crust deformation: unlike the overall uprising of East Carpathians, as a result of denudation followed by erosion, their SE bending zone, with Vrancea epicentre area exhibits a slight subsidence. 2) Gravity change: more than 200 microgals non-tidal gravity decrease over a 20 years time-span has been noticed within the subsiding area. Extended observations showed the gravity lowering as a nowadays continuing process. Interpretation This strange combination of topography subsidence and gravity lowering has been interpreted in terms of crust stretching in the Vrancea epicentre zone due to the gravity pull created by densification of the lower crust as a result of phase-transform processes taking place in the lithospheric compartment sunken into the upper mantle. The occurrence of crust earthquakes with vertical-extension focal mechanism exclusively in the Vrancea seismic zone support the assumption. Recent studies on the Vrancea echoes of 2013 Galati-Izvoarele quake swarm have also confirmed our hypotheses. Based on numerical modelling of the geodynamic process, an estimate of the stretching rate has been obtained, fully consistent with results inferred from studies on the seismic energy released by the Vrancea intermediate earthquakes. Concluding remarks Looking further, the sinking of the Vrancea lithosphere into the upper mantle (and consequent crust stretching, appropriately reflected in the non-tidal gravity change) appears as an ongoing geodynamic process, tightly connected to the intermediate-depth seismicity generated within the lithosphere penetrating the upper mantle by thermo-baric accommodation phenomena. Time series provided by repeated gravity observations conducted on the above-mentioned infrastructure for about ten years have clearly revealed: (i) the persistence of the gravity lowering, and (ii) some apparent connection between the rate of the gravity change, and the amount of seismic energy released by intermediate-depth earthquakes. Acknowledgements. The research has been partly performed through CYBERDYNE project, funded through the EU structural programme (contract #184/2010).

  5. Achievements and Planned Programmes of Activities of The Csg.5/6 "geodynamics of Northern Carpathians"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablotskyj, F.; Tretyak, K.

    Within the programme of the regional group CSG.5/6 "Geodynamics of Northern Carpathians", the following main lines are carried out. (1) Geodetic and geophysical investigations of the recent crustal movements and geophysical analysis of deep struc- ture on the Carpathian geodynamic test field. (2) Subsequent study of geological struc- tures in the region of Northern Carpathians. On the initiative of the Main Astronomical Observatory, the National Space Agency and the Aerogeodetic Enterprise of Ukraine two permanent GPS stations, UZHL and SULP, were being established during last 1.5 years. The first one is situated in the zone of Transcarpathian flexure (Uzhgorod, University) and the second one - in the west of East-European plate (the Precarpathi- ans, Lviv, Polytechnic University). In addition to the long-term project "Restoration of Ukrainian-Polish complex geophysical station at Pip Ivan Mount in Charnohora (Ukrainian Carpathians)", the following actions are planned for 2002-2004. (1) To carry out the complex geodetic, geophysical, geological and geomorphological in- vestigations in this region, which is less studied in comparison with other areas in Carpathians. The comparison of simultaneous appearance of geophysical processes in these regions will allow detect a degree of influence of endogenic, exogenic, and antro- pogenig factors on present day hydro-geological processes in the whole Carpathian region. (2) To create a network of permanent stations for the complex geophysical and geodynamic monitoring, which will include measurements of intensity of Earth's surface deformation field, remote photogrammetric measurements of intensity of de- structive and shift processes, the determination of parameters of gravity and mag- netic fields, seismic and electrometric measurements, spectral analysis of space im- ages for quality and quantity estimations of technogenic and antropogenic activity, generalization of data on evolution and dynamics of river systems and monitoring of hydro-geological phenomena. On the basis of results of the mentioned observations, a relation will be detected between phenomena and fields of various physical nature, antropogenic factors and hazard hydro-geological phenomena in Carpathian region.

  6. Putting Phase Equilibria into Geodynamic Models: An Equation of State Approach (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, J.

    2009-12-01

    The use of free energy minimization codes to calculate the proportions and properties of minerals and consequently bulk rock properties is now commonplace in geophysical modeling. In effect such applications imply the existence of an equation of state, which is the optimized free energy as a function of its independent variables, for the rocks of interest. The essential feature of the equation of state is that all thermodynamic properties can be derived from it, a feature that requires that its derivatives are continuous. The equation of state may be calculated dynamically within the larger framework of a geodynamic code or it may be implemented statically via tables that are calculated prior to the solution of the geodynamic application. The virtues of static implementation is its extreme simplicity, computational efficiency, and that the finite resolution of the table assures that the equation of state is numerically differentiable for any choice of independent state variables. However, the memory required to store the requisite multidimensional tables may necessitate dynamic implementations for problems involving multi-component mass transfer, e.g., as in reactive melt transport. Paradoxically, the unlimited accuracy of dynamic solutions creates a potential numerical instability, the Stefan problem, for geodynamic governing equations formulated in terms of pressure and temperature. This instability arises because the derivatives of an equation of state for a polyphase aggregate as a function of pressure and temperature are singular at the conditions of a low order phase transformation. An equation of state as a function of specific entropy, specific volume and chemical composition eliminates this difficulty and, additionally, leads to a robust formulation of the energy and mass conservation equations. In this formulation, energy and mass conservation furnish evolution equations for entropy and volume and the equation of state serves as an update rule for temperature and pressure. Although this formulation is straightforward, the computation of phase equilibria as a function of entropy and volume is challenging because the equations of state for individual phases are usually expressed as a function of temperature and pressure. This challenge can be met by an algorithm in which continuous equations of state are approximated by a series of discrete states; a representation that reduces the phase equilibrium problem to a linear optimization problem that is independent of the functional form used for the equations of state of individual phases and readily solved by successive linear programming. Regardless of the way free energy minimization is implemented and the choice of independent variables, a consistent definition of pressure, and the coupling of equilibrium kinetics to deformation, is only possible if the continuity equation accounts for dilational strain.

  7. Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.

    2013-05-01

    To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogotá IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations are located on the three major plates that interact within the Wide Plate Margin Deformation Zone including existing permanent installations on IGS Galapagos and Malpelo Islands on the Nazca Plate, and San Andres Island on the Caribbean plate. The velocity vectors confirm the oblique subduction of the Nazca Plate and Carnegie aseismic ridge collision processes at the Colombia-Ecuador trench which are assumed to be the mechanism for the transpressional deformation and the "escape" of the North Andes Block (NAB). The northernmost vectors in Colombia are indicative of the ongoing collision of the Panama Arc with northwestern Colombia. Planned for the year 2013 is the installation of 10 additional GNSS continuously operating stations, and construction of 20 GPS campaign sites.

  8. Fluidity: a fully-unstructured adaptive mesh computational framework for geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, S. C.; Davies, D.; Wilson, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Fluidity is a finite element, finite volume fluid dynamics model developed by the Applied Modelling and Computation Group at Imperial College London. Several features of the model make it attractive for use in geodynamics. A core finite element library enables the rapid implementation and investigation of new numerical schemes. For example, the function spaces used for each variable can be changed allowing properties of the discretisation, such as stability, conservation and balance, to be easily varied and investigated. Furthermore, unstructured, simplex meshes allow the underlying resolution to vary rapidly across the computational domain. Combined with dynamic mesh adaptivity, where the mesh is periodically optimised to the current conditions, this allows significant savings in computational cost over traditional chessboard-like structured mesh simulations [1]. In this study we extend Fluidity (using the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation [PETSc, 2]) to Stokes flow problems relevant to geodynamics. However, due to the assumptions inherent in all models, it is necessary to properly verify and validate the code before applying it to any large-scale problems. In recent years this has been made easier by the publication of a series of community benchmarks for geodynamic modelling. We discuss the use of several of these to help validate Fluidity [e.g. 3, 4]. The experimental results of Vatteville et al. [5] are then used to validate Fluidity against laboratory measurements. This test case is also used to highlight the computational advantages of using adaptive, unstructured meshes - significantly reducing the number of nodes and total CPU time required to match a fixed mesh simulation. References: 1. C. C. Pain et al. Comput. Meth. Appl. M, 190:3771-3796, 2001. doi:10.1016/S0045-7825(00)00294-2. 2. B. Satish et al. http://www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc/petsc-2/, 2001. 3. Blankenbach et al. Geophys. J. Int., 98:23-28, 1989. 4. Busse et al. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid 75:39-59, 1994. 5. J. Vatteville et al. Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 10, 2009. doi:200910.1029/2009GC002739. Numerical simulation of a thermal plume showing contours of temperature and the dynamically optimised unstructured mesh.

  9. Application of a long-range terrestrial laser scanner in research on lowland geodynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewska, Daria; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Tyszkowski, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Progress in the LIDAR technology allows collection of data over a longer range and with a higher precision than most of geodetic measurement methods. It is particularly useful in areas that are inaccessible, dangerous, or with a highly variable morphology. These include mountains, steep slopes of river valleys, and edges of water bodies. Because of a high variation in altitude, they are particularly prone to geodynamic processes. In recent years, such areas have been surveyed more and more often with the use of Airborne Laser Scanning, but the high costs and low frequency of surveys make it difficult to trace the dynamics of phenomena and recorded processes. A few years ago, a new method for imaging of land surfaces started to be used: Terrestrial Laser Scanning. The latest scanners make long-distance scanning possible, up to several kilometres), which until recently had been reserved exclusively for Airborne Laser Scanning. The ease and mobility of scanning allows recording of geodynamic processes immediately after their initiation and their constant monitoring, with a high frequency of data collection. The usefulness of long-distance Terrestrial Laser Scanning is presented here on the basis of mass movements on slopes of a large river valley (the lower Vistula valley) and edges of artificial water bodies. These areas were selected because of a high dynamics of geodynamic processes. The scanning was performed at a distance of 2-4 km from the objects, with a resolution of 0.002°. Such parameters of the equipment and the broad scope and long range enable researchers simultaneous scanning of wide belts of the marginal zone. They also allow precise imaging of slopes, including the microforms that cannot be recorded with any other method. Thanks to the characteristics of laser beam reflection, it is also possible to perform analyses that allow identification of landslide initiation, as well as initial stages of erosion of river banks and edges of water bodies. In this study, we used an innovative method, Multi Station Adjustment, enabling easy linking of scans and their georeferencing without the need to establish benchmarks in the field. In practice, this allows further processing of the scans with GIS software. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association

  10. Geodynamic Mechanisms of plateau uplift and strain distribution in Eastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caner Memi?, mer; Hakan G??, O?uz; Pysklywec, Russell N.; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Keskin, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Anatolia region (with an average ~2 km elevation) is dominated by N-S shortening and it represents one of the best examples for active/young continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Studies suggest that the entire plateau began to rise since the plate collision (about 13 Ma) along the Bitlis-Zagros suture zone and this collision follows the accretion of the units of the Neotethyan ocean where oceanic lithosphere fragments (e.g., ophiolites) underlies the younger units across most of the plateau at present. Seismic imaging of the deep lithosphere in the region suggests that most of the plateau is underlain by 65 km thick total lithosphere and 45 km thick crust. Corroborating the seismological work, petrological interpretations of younger volcanic rocks from the central part of the plateau (e.g., Erzurum-Kars plateau) suggest an asthenospheric source, therefore the mantle lithosphere most likely have been removed form beneath the plateau in the last 10-13 Myr. Proposed geodynamic models that accounts for the observed tectonic anomalies and inferred lithospheric removal in the east Anatolia include: (1) slab steepening/ and break off under the subduction-accretion complex in the south; and (2) mantle lithosphere delamination in the north. A series of numerical geodynamic experiments are carried out to explain the near-surface characteristics (crustal thickness, surface strain rate and heat flow) of the each hypothesis, including combined styles of break-off and delamination. We investigate the role of various controlling parameters in these experiments (e.g., plate convergence velocity, mantle lithosphere density, and crustal density) and relate the model predictions against observed geological, geophysical, and petrological anomalies for Eastern Anatolia. Model results are also considered in the context of the last 30 Myrs geodynamic evolution of the Tibetan plateau (with an elevation average of 5 km), where both Eastern Anatolia and Tibet share several common geologic histories. Our preliminary results suggest the large-scale mantle lithosphere removal under the plateaus can drive significant thermal and topographic perturpations which may be due to the delamination type rather than the localized break-off tectonics.

  11. Autonomous geodynamics of the Pamir-Tien Shan junction zone from seismology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Leonova, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    The geodynamics of the Tajik Depression, the junction zone of the Pamirs and Tien Shan, is typically considered in the context of plate tectonic concept, which implies intense subhorizontal compression of the zone resulting from the subduction of the Indian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. This convergence has been reliably confirmed by the GPS measurements. However, the joint analysis of the geological structure, seismicity, and geodimeter measurements conducted during a few years at the Garm geodynamical testing site of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a widening of the Tajik Depression instead of its shortening, as should be expected from the subhorizontal compression predominant in the present-day stress-state of this region. This conclusion, together with the data from the other regions, suggests that, along with the plate tectonic mechanisms, there are also other, local, autonomous drivers that contribute to the tectogenesis of this region. Besides, the probable existence of these autonomous sources within the Tajik Depression directly follows from the seismology data. Among them is the crustal spreading within the depression suggested by the seismotectonic displacements in the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. These displacements are directed in different azimuths off the axial's most subsided part of the depression at a depth of 20-30 km. Above this region the distribution of seismotectonic deformations (STD) is chaotic. This pattern of deformation is barely accounted for by a simple model of subhorizontal compression of the Earth's crust in the region. In our opinion, these features of the seismotectonic deformation in the crust within the studied part of the Tajik Depression is probably associated with the gain in the volume of the rocks due to the inflow of the additional material, which is supplied from the bottom crust or upper mantle by the deep fluids. This increase in the rock volume produces the state of horizontal compression (or, more exactly, outward all-round pressure). We suggest considering the subvertical pillar-like object, identified as a cluster of the earthquake hypocenters in the northern part of the region with chaotic STD, as one of the probable channels of fluid supply. This structure' plane is isometric and has a diameter of about 20 km. It stretches downwards to a depth of 40 km, where the seismicity ceases. The suggested scenario of generation of the outward all-round pressure (autonomous geodynamics) can be considered as an independent driver of tectogenesis along with the traditional mechanisms relating the emergence of the stressstate of subhorizontal compression to the plate-tectonic convergence of the Eurasian and Indian lithospheric plates.

  12. Gravitational Influence of the Sun and Moon on the Earth and Possible Geodynamic Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, L. A.; Avsyuk, Y. N.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of current research is to reconsider the role of tidal stresses and deformations in a planets life and to show the mechanisms that transform tidal deformations into geodynamic and other processes. 1. Tidal stress and strain oscillations have been acting on the Earth, uniformly and monotonously, for hundreds of millions of years. As such, these small tidal effects accumulate during geological time and can result in the following tectonic and geodynamic phenomenae: dilatation of the Earths material and separation of its components: solid, liquid, and gas; transformation of low-amplitude tidal deformations into lateral differential motion of the Earths layers, internal heating, and magnetic field generation. The complex loading of a granular substance (Revuzhenko, 2003) was considered as a possible mechanism that transforms radial tidal deformations into lateral displacements of the Earths layers. The governing equations were written. The Figure below shows the trajectory of a particle in the liquid core. A and B represent the initial and final (when calculation was terminated) positions of a particle; the Coriolis force was taken into account. It was shown that similar trajectories can be obtained also by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for a low-viscosity liquid and tidal force (see section 2) acting on a liquid. 2. The barycenter of the Earth and Moon binary planet system is 4670 km from the center of the Earth. The center of the Earth is orbiting around the Sun on a non-Keplerian, perturbed orbit. This requires a more careful consideration of inertial and tidal forces acting on the Earth and its structures. The formula for a tidal force is Fn=?i=1,nf Mi/?i3 ?i - a0, a0 = aK + ap, aK is Keplerian, and ap is the non-Keplerian (of the same order as a Keplerian one) acceleration of the center of mass of the Earth. The formula for the tidal force acting on the Earth from the Sun and the Moon was first obtained and studied by Yu. Avsyuk (1996, 2001, 2007). The shortest period of the tidal force according to this formula is 13.6 (not 27.5!) days. This formula was used for interpreting different geodynamic phenomenae, from Moon seismisity through the Chandler wobble. This work was supported by RFBR grant No 09-05-00426-a

  13. Arctic geodynamics: Continental shelf and deep ocean geophysics. ERS-1 satellite altimetry: A first look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.; Marquart, Gabriele; Scherneck, Hans-Georg

    1993-01-01

    An overall review of the Arctic Geodynamics project is presented. A composite gravity field model of the region based upon altimetry data from ERS-1, Geosat, and Seasat is made. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 deg. Both areas contain large continental shelf areas, passive margins, as well as recently formed deep ocean areas. Until ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents sea, portions of the Arctic ocean, and the Norwegian sea north of Iceland are shown. The gravity anomalies around Svalbard (Spitsbergen) and Bear island are particularly large, indicating large isostatic anomalies which remain from the recent breakup of Greenland from Scandinavian. Recently released gravity data from the Armed Forces Topographic Service of Russia cover a portion of the Barents and Kara seas. A comparison of this data with the ERS-1 produced gravity field is shown.

  14. Nonlinearities and multigrid solvers for geodynamic applications using staggered grid finite differences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Anton; Kaus, Boris

    2014-05-01

    We report on the state of the development of the massively parallel staggered-grid finite difference version of the LaMEM code, parts of which have scaled to over 260'000 cores. In particular we present i) our matrix-free nonlinear solution strategy for visco-elasto-plasticity, ii) updated linear solver that includes a coupled velocity-pressure geometric multigrid preconditioner, and iii) an optimized treatment of the makers with approximate stress-rotation algorithm generalized from 2D to 3D formulation. The capabilities of the solver are demonstrated with a set of geodynamically-relevant benchmarks and example problems on the massively parallel computers. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on JUQUEEN of the Jülich high-performance computing center.

  15. Radioactivity measurements in volcano-tectonic area for geodynamic process study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, D.; Imm, G.; Cammisa, S.; Catalano, R.; Mangano, G.; La Delfa, S.; Patan, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the last ten years we carried out several radioactivity investigations in the aetnean area, a peculiar site characterized by both tectonicand volcanic features. In particular, continuous measurements in-soilradon gas carried out from 2001 until 2006 in the eastern flank of Mt. Etna, while several volcanic events occurred, showed a possible correlation between radon concentration and geodynamic activity, in particular magma uprising. We report in particular on the survey performedin order to determine vertical radon concentration profiles at differentdepths in sites near active faults in order to extract radon diffusion coefficients for the different sites. Moreover laboratory analysis alloweddetermining radionuclide contents (via ?-spectroscopy) and radon exhalation rate (via Can-technique) for different rock samples from themonitored sites. This study represents a contribution to better definethe radon transport process through fractured media, in particular in volcanic area.

  16. Geophysical Imprints of the Geodynamic Evolution of Moesia Following the Black Sea Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Genesis of the two types of the Moesia basement (the so called Walachian, and Dobrogean sectors) along with the complex fault system affecting its cover and basement are still debated issues. Besides, there are two other intriguing aspects raised by the seismicity map of Romania: the sub-crustal events in the bending zone of East Carpathians, and the crust seismicity of the eastern Moesian Plate (MoP). Both the intermediate-depth earthquakes within full intra-continental environment and the intense craton seismicity are unusual aspects, and their apparent association difficult to explain. The paper proposes an integrated geodynamic model of MoP able to justify its current tectonics and both the crustal events in front of Carpathians, and the intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Vrancea zone within the frame of a unique geodynamic process. It starts from the idea that tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the E MoP and the bending zone of East Carpathians has been strongly affected by the opening of the W Black Sea basin, and is currently maintained by active rifting in SW Arabian Plate. The model is supported by geophysical and geodetic evidence. Unlike some previous geology-based models assuming that Black Sea opened during a singular geodynamic event (northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean floor), the pattern of the gravity and geomagnetic field, along with off-shore seismics bring convincing evidence on the distinct timing of the W and E Black Sea basins opening. Fingerprints of the lithosphere expelled by the W Black Sea rifting in the NW inland may be seen in the distribution of compression (P) wave velocity. In-depth development of NW striking major faults (splitting MoP into numerous vertical compartments) is also well revealed by seismic tomography (e.g. Peceneaga-Camena Fault, as the limit between MoP and East European Plate (EEP), still separates two distinct P wave velocity domains at 150 km depth). A second major fault system was created by the downward bending of MoP pushed towards vertical edge of Intra-Alpine Plate. It seems that W Black Sea opening also created the necessary environment for a FFT unstable triple junction within the bending zone of East Carpathians (VTJ), to which intermediate-depth earthquakes should be associated through thermo-baric accommodation phenomena occurring within the lithosphere sunken into the upper mantle. The triangle-shape and in-depth increase of the lateral extension of the VTJ high velocity seismic body are revealed by the high accuracy P wave tomography performed within Vrancea zone. Current geodetic and geophysical monitoring in the area has suggested a close link between crust and intermediate-depth seismic events. The intensification in tectonic forces may firstly led to the intensification of crust seismicity in the Carpathians foreland (by provoking slips between the MoP vertical compartments), followed, after a time-span depending on the force intensity and upper mantle viscosity, by VTJ sinking and consequent intermediate-depth seismic events in the Vrancea zone.

  17. Determining crustal strain rates with a spaceborne geodynamics ranging system. 2: Station coordinate analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.; Cook, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of a spaceborne geodynamics ranging system for determining crustal strain rates is analyzed. The use of site coordinates rather than intersite baseline distances for the strain rate determinations is emphasized. After discussing the analytical techniques which are to be employed, numerical results are presented which suggest that the use of site coordinates would result in a 20-70% improvement in the precision of the deduced values of straining. Precision of a few parts in 10 to the 9th power would be achievable with simple geometrics and a decade or two of measurements; precisions of a few parts in 10 to the 8th power would be achievable in a few years. A consideration of possible correlations among the derived target site coordinates leads to the conclusion that, with the proper choice of coordinate systems, the correlations can be made small and non-detrimental to the strain rate determinations.

  18. Geodynamics of the Dead Sea Fault: Do active faulting and past earthquakes determine the seismic gaps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    The ~1000-km-long North-South trending Dead Sea transform fault (DSF) presents structural discontinuities and includes segments that experienced large earthquakes (Mw>7) in historical times. The Wadi Araba and Jordan Valley, the Lebanese restraining bend, the Missyaf and Ghab fault segments in Syria and the Ziyaret Fault segment in Turkey display geometrical complexities made of step overs, restraining and releasing bends that may constitute major obstacles to earthquake rupture propagation. Using active tectonics, GPS measurements and paleoseismology we investigate the kinematics and long-term/short term slip rates along the DSF. Tectonic geomorphology with paleoseismic trenching and archeoseismic investigations indicate repeated faulting events and left-lateral slip rate ranging from 4 mm/yr in the southern fault section to 6 mm/yr in the northern fault section. Except for the northernmost DSF section, these estimates of fault slip rate are consistent with GPS measurements that show 4 to 5 mm/yr deformation rate across the plate boundary. However, recent GPS results showing ~2.5 mm/yr velocity rate of the northern DSF appears to be quite different than the ~6 mm/yr paleoseismic slip rate. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and seismotectonic results implies a complex geodynamic pattern where the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction zone into transpressive tectonics on the East Anatolian fault. The timing of past earthquake ruptures shows the occurrence of seismic sequences and a southward migration of large earthquakes, with the existence of major seismic gaps along strike. In this paper, we discuss the role of the DSF in the regional geodynamics and its implication on the identification of seismic gaps.

  19. The geodynamics of the Gulf of Mexico and its topographic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, D. J.; Gurnis, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico formed by subsidence due to continental extension and seafloor spreading that accommodated the motion of the Yucatan block during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The Yucatan block rotated approximately 45 counterclockwise about an Euler Pole located offshore Florida. It has been proposed that mainly thermal cooling and sediment loading drove subsequent subsidence of the Gulf. However, back-stripping analysis reveals rapid tectonic subsidence (2.5 km) starting around 66 Ma and ending at 40 Ma that remains unexplained. We test the hypothesis that the rapid subsidence can be explained by dynamic topography associated with the Laramide Orogeny. We develop new kinematic theory to build deforming plate models using a continental stretching factor (or crustal thickness) map and the paleogeographic software GPlates. ``Deforming tectonic blocks'' are defined along small circles about the opening Euler Pole using neighboring stretching-factor contours. These deforming blocks are palinspastically reconstructed assuming constant true strain which means that deformation occurs more rapidly as the crust is increasingly thinned. The deforming plate model is incorporated in a global plate history model. We use the combined plate history model to constrain the thermal evolution of the lithosphere and slabs in the upper mantle and plate motions in geodynamic models. This ensures that our geodynamic models are consistent with geological and geophysical observations and thus enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of subsidence in the Gulf. We compare dynamic and total topography from the models with tectonic subsidence maps and subsidence curves. In addition, we predict mantle structure, notably the distribution of slabs, to compare with seismic tomography and waveform observations.

  20. A 3-D Geodynamic Model of Strain Partitioning in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J.; Liu, M.; Lin, F.

    2012-12-01

    In southern California, strain resulting from the relative motion between the Pacific and the North American plates is partitioned in a complex system of transcurrent, transcompressional, and transtensional faults. High-precision GPS measurements in this region have enabled kinematic modeling of the present-day strain partitioning between major faults in southern California. However, geodynamic models are needed to understand the cause of strain partitioning and to determine strain in regions where faults are blind or diffuse. We have developed a regional-scale geodynamic model of strain partitioning in southern California. This 3-D viscoelasto-plastic finite element model incorporates first-order fault geometry of the major active faults in the region. The model domain includes an elastoplastic upper crust on top of a viscoelastic lower lithospheric layer. Deformation is driven by the relative motion between the Pacific and the North American plates, imposed as a displacement boundary condition. Plastic deformation both within the fault zones and in the unfaulted surrounding crust is calculated. Our results show that the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault, and other geometric complexity of faults in southern California, plays a major role in strain partitioning. The observed variations of strain portioning in southern California can be explained by the geometric configuration of fault systems relative to the relative plate motion, without appealing to basal traction of a flowing lower lithosphere. The model predicts concentrated plastic strain under the reverse fault systems in the Transverse Ranges and the young and diffuse faults in the Eastern California Shear Zone across the Mojave Desert, where a number damaging earthquakes occurred in the past decades.

  1. Program of Geodynamic Investigation for the Site of a New Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trosits, D.; Horvath, F.; Katona, T.; Gerstenkorn, A.

    2014-12-01

    Preparation of a new nuclear power plant project is going on in Hungary at Paks site. Although there is an operating plant at the site, comprehensive geological, geophysical investigation has to be implemented in accordance with Hungarian nuclear safety regulation and international norms for confirming the site acceptability and providing a neotectonic basis for site seismic hazard assessment. The scope, techniques and methods of investigations have to be adapted to the geotectonic environment of the site and Pannonian Basin as a whole. The poster presents a brief summary of the program and provides a detailed description of the seismic survey focusing on the 3D subsurface imaging that is the most important task of planned geophysical investigations. The 3D geophysical imaging provides essential geodynamic information to assess the capability of near site faults and for the seismic hazard analysis, as well as for the hydrogeological modeling. The planned seismic survey gives a unique dataset for understanding the spatial relationship between individual fault segments. The 3D survey allows predicting and characterization of deformations induced by recent lithospheric stresses that is crucial for assessing the tectonic stability of the area. 3D seismic survey has to be combined with appropriate 2D and 3D shallow seismic profiling. The obtained 3D seismic data are also used for numerical geodynamic modeling. Rheology of rocks fundamentally influences the frequency of seismic activity, i.e. the accumulation and release of seismic energy. Regarding this the Pannonian Basin has specific features: the crust is thin and thermal gradients are high. This implies the whole lithosphere can be considered rheologically weak and its behavior is mostly plastic. It is suspected that most of the fault zones in the Pannonian basin are restricted to the sedimentary fill and the uppermost crust, and rest of the lithosphere experiences aseismic deformation.

  2. Large-scale Geodynamics Controls Secular Trend of the Total Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steblova, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    A steady tendency towards decrease in the observed total ozone cannot be attributed to space sources of energy such as the sun and cosmic galactic rays because the energy of these sources is stable for several decades. The north-south asymmetry of ozone in the global structure of ozonosphere rules out man-made sources as a significant factor of the ozone decrease. Most of the pollutants come to the northern hemisphere; however, there is about 30% more ozone in it than in the southern hemisphere. We jointly analyzed the global distribution of ozone from TOMS satellite data, the surface of the earth's core from seismic tomography, and lithospheric plate movements from GPS and concluded the following: (1) There are sources of energy in the solid earth which contribute to the atmospheric ozone; (2) The large-scale geodynamics should be considered among the mechanisms responsible for the global structure of ozonosphere and its evolution with time. We also note similarities in the pattern of ozone caused by sources in the solid earth ("terrestrial ozone") and the patterns of geomagnetic and gravity fields. The global morphology of terrestrial ozone suggests a "breakup" in the initial ozone distribution at about the same time as a breakup of Pangea and subsequent spreading of the area of higher ozone content. A restored initial breakup is located in the oceanic region and runs northwest to southeast across Africa. We propose a large-scale geodynamic process: a convective flow in the mantle from the earth's core surface provokes the breakup of Pangea and the breakup of ozone distribution

  3. Numerical modeling of seismicity and geodynamics of the Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobieva, Inessa; Mandal, Prantik; Gorshkov, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    The numerical block-and-fault model of lithosphere dynamics and seismicity (BAFD) is used to understand crustal motion and features of the observed seismicity in the Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, Western India. The block-model allows simulating seismicity and geodynamics simultaneously unlike other modeling approaches for studying seismicity or geodynamics. The model structure of Kachchh rift zone is composed of seven major crustal blocks separated by fault planes. Based on the orientation of boundary crustal block movements, we develop a set of numerical experiments to analyze the spatial distribution of earthquakes, frequency-to-magnitude relationships, earthquake focal mechanisms, velocity field, and fault slip rates in the model. The main results of our modeling suggest that an NNW-SSE trending compression is a principal driving force in the Kachchh rift zone that explains basic features of the regional seismicity, direction of block motions, and the presence of an extensional stress regime associated with the Cambay rift zone. Large synthetic events occur on the fault segments associated with the Allah-Bund fault, Katrol hill fault and north Wagad fault which have been causative faults for the 1819 Mw7.7 Allah-Bund, 1956 Mw6.0 Anjar and 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj earthquakes. The frequency-magnitude distribution for both synthetic seismicity and observed seismicity shows a similar slope. The focal mechanisms of the synthetic events are found to be consistent with those of earthquakes in the region. A special attention has been paid to study long-term and post-seismic deformations. Our results are in a qualitative agreement with the GPS post-seismic observations in the Kachchh rift zone. We infer that the observed seismicity and crustal block motions are a consequence of the dynamics of the entire regional fault and block system rather than that of a single causative fault only.

  4. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides: New geophysical evidence and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, C.; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.; Hejrani, B.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    The East Greenland and Scandinavian Caledonides once formed a major coherent mountain range, as a consequence of the collision of the continents of Laurentia and Baltica. The crustal and upper mantle structure was furthermore influenced by several geodynamic processes leading to the formation of the North Atlantic passive margins, including the gravitational collapse, extension, rifting and a possible influence by volcanism related to the Iceland hot spot. The landscape and topography were finally shaped by extensive erosion, finding its peak in the quaternary glaciations. Seismological data were acquired in the East Greenland Caledonides by the Ella--array for a period of two years (2009-2011). The array containing 11 broadband seismometers was situated at approximately 73 N covering a distance of 270 km from the Greenland Ice Sheet to the Atlantic coast, north of the Iceland Ridge. A Receiver Function study based on an average of 36 events per station reveals a clear eastward dipping high-velocity structure underneath the study area. The geophysical character, supported by synthetic modelling, is consistent with a 10 km thick subducted slab of eclogitized oceanic crust. This might be the key for unravelling of a complex geodynamic setting and development leading to the formation of the Caledonides. The distinct preservation of structures in the upper mantle to depths of 100 km or more, limits the impact of subsequent collision and extension related deformation. In support of this interpretation, we present selected results from on-going detailed studies of the crustal and upper mantle, including a Receiver Function inversion, seismic P-wave travel time tomography and gravity modelling.

  5. Atmospheric excitation of polar motion during the GIG '91 measurement campaign. [GPS International Earth Rotation Service and Geodynamics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard S.; Lindqwister, Ulf J.

    1992-01-01

    Daily determinations of the earth's pole position from GPS observations obtained during the first GPS IERS and Geodynamics (GIG) experiment are interpreted in terms of atmospheric wind and pressure fluctuations. Evidence is reported for atmospheric excitation of the rapid polar motions observed during the 23-day period from 22 January to 13 February, 1991. It is demonstrated that atmospheric wind and pressure fluctuations are mostly responsible for exciting the rapid polar motions observed during GIG '91.

  6. Impact of geodynamic development of the Barents Sea deep rift on evolving petroleum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.

    2009-04-01

    All the Barents Sea deposits are situated in the epicenter on active geodynamic development of the Barents Sea rift and, most important, over the zone of listric faults intersection, which consist a knot system over the mantle diapir. This is confirmed by prospecting seismology. Intrusion of hot mantle matter with further cooling down of abnormal lense might be a possible cause of appearance and evolution of ultradeep depressions. A high "seismic stratification" of the lower crust (nearly reaching the basement surface) at time scale about 8 sec. is typical for the inner, the deepest part of the depression. Supposing the "seismic stratified" lower crust correspond to "basalt" layer, this area is nearly upper crust ("granitic-gneiss") free. This fact confurmes conception on development of "granite free gaps" in the depression basement. Thick blocks of "seismically transparent" upper crust corresponding to the "granitic-gneiss" layer are marked out within Kolsk-Kanin monocline. An abrupt thickness decrease and appearance of "stratified" areas takes place at the southern edge of the depression. A filling of the over-rift sag with sediments, revival of the faults and their effect on the filtration processes and gas hydrates formation took place in the South Barents Sea depression. Repeating activation of the fault blocks in the basement, especially during late Jurassic - early Cretaceous period contributed to formation of the structures related to the greatest deposits of the South Barents Sea depression. An extended field acoustic data collected in the Barents Sea led to understanding of general fundamental problems for all Arctic Seas and, first of all, the problem of Quaternary glaciations. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed by an example of the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. The rift structures and the sediment cover are connected by the systems of transversal (or oblique) faults. A study of the regional geologic structure of basins affords believing in the very complicated inner riftogenic structure of the base and the lower part of the sediment cover, which is represented by a combination of grabens and horsts bound by the same tectonic border in the form of high amplitude fault zones, and have a very high density of fault-fractured tectonics. In the same time, a branching of the rift structures related to rounding of large solid blocks of the crust, represented by Archaean or Baikal base prominences, takes place. Their frequent structural connection with the continental paleo-rift structures is ascertained, but the shelf rift system are not their straight prolongation and separated by base thresholds concealed under the sediment cover or by bulkheads expressed even in the modern relief. Filling of over rift flexure by sediments, revival of faults and their impact on flow processes and gas hydrate formation in under sea bed sediments have occurred in the South Barents depression. Geodynamic development of the Barents sea rift not only played a substantial role in formation of as unique fields as Shtokman, Prirazlomnoe and others, but created prerequisites for possible gas outbursts into near-surface sediments of the Barents Sea that could result, in some cases, in gas hydrate formation. Periodic activation of basic fault blocks, especially in late Jurassic - early Cretaceous time significantly contributed to formation of the structures related to the greatest fields of South Barents depression. The information on geodynamic development of the region, thermal convection and modern sedimentation enable assessment of the real potentiality for underwater works in the region, potential gas hydrates resources, and will help to assign a strategy of prospecting work, to range the known fields, to carry out a regional survey for engineering work.

  7. Geodynamic evolution and sedimentary infill of the northern Levant Basin: A source to sink-perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawie, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nicolas Hawie a,b,c (nicolas.hawie@upmc.fr) Didier Granjeon c (didier.granjeon@ifpen.fr) Christian Gorini a,b (christian.gorini@upmc.fr) Remy Deschamps c (remy.deschamps@ifpen.fr) Fadi H. Nader c (fadi-henri.nader@ifpen.fr) Carla Mller Delphine Desmares f (delphine.desmares@upmc.fr) Lucien Montadert e (lucien.montadert@beicip.com) Franois Baudin a (francois.baudin@upmc.fr) a UMR 7193 Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie/ Univ. Paris 06, case 117. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France b iSTEP, UMR 7193, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France c IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4 avenue du Bois Prau 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France d UMR 7207, Centre de Recherche sur la Paleobiodiversit et les Paleoenvironnements. Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 46-56 5me. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France e Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napolon Bonaparte, 95502 Rueil-Malmaison, France Sedimentological and biostratigraphic investigations onshore Lebanon coupled with 2D offshore reflection seismic data allowed proposing a new Mesozoic-Present tectono-stratigraphic framework for the northern Levant Margin and Basin. The seismic interpretation supported by in-depth facies analysis permitted to depict the potential depositional environments offshore Lebanon as no well has yet been drilled. The Levant region has been affected by successive geodynamic events that modified the architecture of its margin and basin from a Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift into a Late Cretaceous subduction followed by collision and Miocene-Present strike slip motion. The interplay between major geodynamic events as well as sea level fluctuations impacted on the sedimentary infill of the basin. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Levant Margin is dominated by the aggradation of a carbonate platform while deepwater mixed-systems prevailed in the basin. During the Oligo-Miocene, three major sedimentary pathways are expected to drive important quantities of clastic material into the Levant Basin: (1) the marginal canyons along the Levant Margin, (2) the Latakia region and the Palmyrides Basin (Syria) and (3) the Red Sea area and Nile Delta. Regional drainage system analysis was performed to estimate the contribution to the infill of the basin of the different sediment sources, and in particular, to estimate erosion of Nubian siliciclastic material, granitic Red Sea rift shoulders and Arabian Shield. A numerical stratigraphic forward model, Dionisos, was used to test these source-to-sink assumptions; a sensitivity analysis was then performed to understand better the impact of the different geodynamic and stratigraphic scenarios on the architecture and sedimentary infill of the Levant Basin, and thus on the expected petroleum systems of this frontier basin

  8. Using Interactive Visualization to Analyze Solid Earth Data and Geodynamics Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; Billen, M. I.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M. A.; Rundle, J. B.; van Aalsburg, J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.

    2008-12-01

    The geological sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing volumes of data as observations and simulations increase in size and complexity. Major projects such as EarthScope and GeoEarthScope are producing the data needed to characterize the structure and kinematics of Earth's surface and interior at unprecedented resolution. At the same time, high-performance computing enables high-precision and fine- detail simulation of geodynamics processes, complementing the observational data. To facilitate interpretation and analysis of these datasets, to evaluate models, and to drive future calculations, we have developed methods of interactive visualization with a special focus on using immersive virtual reality (VR) environments to interact with models of Earth's surface and interior. VR has traditionally been used primarily as a presentation tool allowing active navigation through data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR as a tool for accelerated scientific analysis requires building on the method's strengths, that is, using both 3D perception and interaction with observed or simulated data. Our approach to VR takes advantage of the specialized skills of geoscientists who are trained to interpret geological and geophysical data generated from field observations. Interactive tools allow the scientist to explore and interpret geodynamic models, tomographic models, and topographic observations, while feature extraction tools support quantitative measurement of structures that emerge from numerical simulations or field observations. The use of VR technology enables us to improve our interpretation of crust and mantle structure and of geodynamical processes. Mapping tools based on computer visualization allow virtual "field studies" in inaccessible regions, and an interactive tool allows us to construct digital fault models for use in numerical models. Using the interactive tools on a high-end platform such as an immersive virtual reality room known as a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE), enables the scientist to stand in data three-dimensional dataset while taking measurements. The CAVE involves three or more projection surfaces arranged as walls in a room. Stereo projectors combined with a motion tracking system and immersion recreates the experience of carrying out research in the field. This high-end system provides significant advantages for scientists working with complex volumetric data. The interactive tools also work on low-cost platforms that provide stereo views and the potential for interactivity such as a Geowall or a 3D enabled TV. The Geowall is also a well-established tool for education, and in combination with the tools we have developed, enables the rapid transfer of research data and new knowledge to the classroom. The interactive visualization tools can also be used on a desktop or laptop with or without stereo capability. Further information about the Virtual Reality User Interface (VRUI), the 3DVisualizer, the Virtual mapping tools, and the LIDAR viewer, can be found on the KeckCAVES website, www.keckcaves.org.

  9. Investigations of gravity and plumb line variations in Geodynamic Laboratory of Space Research Center in Ksiaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczorowski, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Geodynamic Laboratory of Space Research Centre exists in Ksiaz since 1974 year. The Laboratory is placed in horizontal galleries built in slope of valley. Underground galleries are situated 340 meters above sea level and 50 meters below the Earth surface. Stability of bedrocks and good propagation of geodynamic signals by orogen were confirmed by long-standing seismic and tiltmeter measurements. In 1974 in laboratory there were begun measurements carried with help of two quartz horizontal pendulums equipped with photographic system of registration. Photographic system of registration was applied until 2002. In 2006 we resumed pendulums measurements with help of new system of electronic registration. Since 1974 the pendulums measurements are carried out at the fixed place in azimuths closed to fundamental directions NS and EW. In 2002 in geodynamic laboratory there appeared long water-tube tiltmeter. Instrument consists of two perpendicular tubes 65 and 83 meters-long, partially filled with water. The idea of measurements bases on phenomenon of hydrostatic equilibrium. Tilting of tubes in relation to gravity field produces variations of water level inside the hydrodynamic system of the instrument. Variations of water level are measured with the help of interference technique. This technique allowed us to achieve internal sensitivity of tiltmeter close to 1 microarcsecond. Furthermore, stability of length of the He-Ne lasers light and application of differential method for data elaboration caused elimination of the instrumental drift. In 2007 in laboratory we installed relative gravimeter LaCoste&Romberg G-648 of tidal resolution. Initiation of gravity measurements was possible after construction in underground gravimetric room equipped with thermostatic system and pillar for relative gravimetry. Long-standing series of plumb line variations obtained with help of horizontal pendulums allowed us to lead investigations of tidal signals. Permanent observations carried out using horizontal pendulums suggest also existence of strong, irregular non-tidal signal of plumb line variations. During tens of years of pendulums measurements several times we observed epochs of instability of pendulums equilibrium position. Almost every year the azimuths of equilibrium of the pendulums have been changing rapidly. Existence of strong non-tidal signals was also confirmed by plumb line measurements carried out with help of long water-tube tiltmeter. Special peculiarities of new tiltmeter such as high resolution and possibility of reduction of instrumental drift opened possibility of investigation of the long period or systematic plumb line variations. In 2004 property of water-tube tiltmeter allowed us to observe phenomenon of the Earth free oscillation caused by extremely strong seismic event which took place near the coast of Sumatra-Andaman Islands. Introduction to laboratory gravimetry opens for us perspective of investigation of Love'a numbers h and k for Sudeten Mountain area.

  10. Crustal Accretion and Mantle Geodynamics at Microplates: Constraints from Gravity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, K.; Georgen, J. E.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Oceanic crustal accretion occurs in a variety of locations, including mid-ocean ridges and back-arc spreading centers, and in unique settings within these systems, such as plate boundary triple junctions, intra-transform spreading centers, and microplates. This study focuses on crustal accretion and mantle geodynamics at microplates. The Easter and Juan Fernandez microplates are located in the South Pacific along the Pacific, Nazca and Antarctic plate boundaries. Both microplates formed 3-5 Ma and they are currently rotating clockwise at 15 deg/Ma and 9 deg/Ma respectively (e.g., Searle et al. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 1993). The study area also encompasses the Easter/Sala y Gomez mantle plume and the Foundation seamount chain, both of which are located close to spreading centers. We calculate mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) from satellite gravity measurements and shipboard soundings in order to gain a better understanding of the thermal structure of these two oceanic microplates and to quantify the effect that melting anomalies may have on their boundaries. We assume a crustal thickness of 6.0 km, a 1.7 g/cm^3 density difference at the water/crust interface, and a 0.6 g/cm^3 density difference at the crust/mantle interface. The west rift of the Easter microplate has an MBA low ranging from approximately -50 to -100 mGal, while the east rift has slightly higher MBA values ranging from roughly 10 to -50 mGal. The west rift of the Juan Fernandez microplate has a maximum MBA low of about -100 mGal with a sharp increase to -20 mGal at -35 deg S. The east rift of the Juan Fernandez microplate is characterized by more variable MBA, ranging from 0 to -140 mGal. The MBA low associated with the Easter/Sala y Gomez mantle plume has a maximum amplitude about 150 mGal. Likewise, the Foundation seamounts show a gravity low of -140 to -150 mGal. These spatial variations in gravity, as well as published isotopic data and exploratory numerical models, are used to constrain upper mantle geodynamics in the complex geological setting of the southern Pacific Ocean. Inferences are made about the three-dimensional distribution of melting anomalies.

  11. Research on absolute gravity variations in geodynamic laboratory in Ksi?? in the period of 2007- 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczorowski, Marek; Olszak, Tomasz; Walo, Janusz; Barlik, Marcin

    2012-12-01

    In 2006 a gravimetric pavilion was installed inside the Geodynamic Laboratory (LG) in Ksi??. The pavilion was equipped with two pillars intended to serve relative and absolute gravimetric measurements. Installation of measurement platform for absolute gravity measurements inside gravimetric pavilion of LG made it possible to perform four sessions of absolute gravity measurements: two of them in 2007 (June 10-12 and Nov. 21-22), one in 2008 (Apr. 21-22) and one in 2011 (June 19-21). In 2007 the absolute measurements were performed using two FG5 ballistic gravimeters. In April 2007 the measurements were performed by Dr Makinen from Geodetic Institute of Finnish Academy of Science with application of FG5 No. 221 absolute gravimeter. In June 2007 and in the years 2008 and 2011 such gravimetric measurements were performed by the team from Department of Geodesy and Astronomical Geodesy of Warsaw University of Technology using FG5 No. 230 absolute gravimeter. Elaboration of observation sessions from both gravimeters was performed in the Department of Higher Geodesy following the procedures used in constituting of uniform gravimetric system of geodynamic polygons reference. This constituting of gravimetric system comprised inter alia application of identical models of lithospheric tides (global model by Wenzel, 1997) and ocean tides (Schwiderski, 1980) (reduction of absolute measurements with tidal signals). Observations performed during summer of 2007, autumn of 2007, and spring of 2008 and 2011 indicated existence of small changes of absolute gravity of the order of 1 Gal. Maxima of accelerations appear in the spring period, and minima in the autumn period. This effect is connected with the influence of global hydrological factors the annual amplitude of which is ca 1,5 Gal and achieve extreme values in the spring-autumn interval. Very small value of observed amplitude of gravity changes in the period of extreme variability suggests that the observed gravity changes in LG are caused only by global phenomenon. This proves high degree of "independence" of gravimetric measurement base in LG from the local environmental factors such as ground water level variations, ground humidity, impact of snow cover, etc. At this moment the instrumental environment of absolute measurements obtains particular value, especially in the case of the tiltmeters and relative the gravimeter Lacoste& Romberg (LR-648). The relative gravity measurements as performed simultaneously with absolute gravity measurements enable us to determine the local tidal ephemeredes which makes it possible to replace the global tidal modal with ocean tidal model with the more realistic, locally determined tidal parameters (the local tidal ephemeredes).

  12. Geophysical Monitoring of Geodynamic Processes of Earth Crust of Central Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayan, R.

    2012-12-01

    At present methods of monitoring are widely used and implemented in the different fields of science to receive non stop information about the observed object in time. The method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust is developed in Garny Geophysical Observatory. It is based on the abilities of geophysical and hydrogeological indicators to react to the changes of stressedly deformative state of earth crust. The study of variations of magnetic observations connected with the deformation processes which took place during the preparation of earthquake source or of other tectonic movements will significantly increase the informational and effective character of monitoring. The changes of hydrogeological indicators depending on the deformation of water-bearing rocks are defined by the parameters of deformational fields and by the elastic and filtration characters of rocks. Methodological means of monitoring are brought to the signal appearing which reflects the deformation of rock massive. The methods of noise elimination and singling out 'deformational signals' allow to delete or mention the trend, to compensate the influence of variations on atmospheric pressure on time rows of geophysical rows and underground water level, to allocate earth tide induced fluctuations of level. But not all the noise may be deleted by calculation. The following is included in the group of non-controlled noise: the influence of infiltration on atmospheric precipitations, effects of certain technogenic influences. Deformation indicators may be not only the deflection of geophysical indicators from certain phone values but also the parametres of variations of these indicators. There exists data on the changes of parameters of barometric effectiveness and saw tooth fluctuations of underground water level before seismic events. In some cases the noise which hinders the appearance of deformational signal may itself carry useful information. Method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust was applied which allows with the help of hydrogeodynamic observations, observations of geochemistry of underground water, module of full vector of magnetic field and seismic regime of the region to carry out the monitoring of modern geodynamic processes of Armenia. The character of distribution of hydrogeodeformational processes in time and space was studied. The character of time-spatial distribution of geodynamic stress was defined. Key Words: Deformation , Geophysical Monitoring, Earthqukae Source

  13. Geodynamically Consistent Interpretation of Seismic Tomography for Thermal and Thermochemical Mantle Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, H.; Bercovici, D.

    2006-05-01

    Recent theoretical developments as well as increased data quality and coverage have allowed seismic tomographic imaging to better resolve narrower structures at both shallow and deep mantle depths. However, despite these improvements, the interpretation of tomographic images remains problematic mainly because of: (1) the trade off between temperature and composition and their different influence on mantle flow; (2) the difficulty in determining the extent and continuity of structures revealed by seismic tomography. We present two geodynamic studies on mantle plumes which illustrate the need to consider both geodynamic and mineral physics for a consistent interpretation of tomographic images in terms of temperature composition and flow. The first study aims to investigate the coupled effect of pressure and composition on thermochemical plumes. Using both high resolution 2D numerical modeling and simple analytical theory we show that the coupled effect of composition and pressure have a first order impact on the dynamics of mantle thermochemical plumes in the lower mantle: (1) For low Si enrichment of the plume relative to a reference pyrolitic mantle, an oscillatory behavior of the plume head is observed; (2) For Si-enriched plume compositions, the chemical density excess of the plume increases with height, leading to stagnation of large plume heads at various depths in the lower mantle. As a consequence, these thermochemical plumes may display broad (~ 1200 km wide and more) negative seismic velocity anomalies at various lower mantle depths, which may not necessarily be associated with upwelling currents. The second study focuses on the identification of thermal mantle plumes by seismic tomography beneath the Hawaiian hot spot: we performed a set of 3D numerical experiments in a spherical shell to model a rising plume beneath a moving plate. The thermal structure obtained is converted into P and S wave seismic velocities using mineral physics considerations. We then build synthetic travel time data by propagating front waves in the obtained seismic structure. This synthetic data will be used to construct a travel time tomographic model which is compared with actual tomographic models based on data from the PLUME seismic experiment. This comparison will allow a more consistent and quantitative interpretation of seismic tomography and plume structure under Hawaii.

  14. Sink or swim? Geodynamic and petrological model constraints on the fate of Archaean primary crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, B.; Johnson, T.; Brown, M.; VanTongeren, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Ambient mantle potential temperatures in the Archaean were significantly higher than 1500 C, leading to a high percent of melting and generating thick MgO-rich primary crust underlain by highly residual mantle. However, the preserved volume of this crust is low suggesting much of it was recycled. Here we couple calculated phase equilibria for hydrated and anhydrous low to high MgO crust compositions and their complementary mantle residues with 2-D numerical geodynamic models to investigate lithosphere dynamics in the early Earth. We show that, with increasing ambient mantle potential temperature, the density of primary crust increases more dramatically than the density of residual mantle decreases and the base of MgO-rich primary crust becomes gravitationally unstable with respect to the underlying mantle even when fully hydrated. To study this process we use geodynamic models that include the effects of melt extraction, crust formation and depletion of the mantle in combination with laboratory-constrained dislocation and diffusion creep rheologies for the mantle. The models show that the base of the gravitationally unstable lithosphere delaminates through relatively small-scale Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, but only if the viscosity of the mantle lithosphere is sufficiently low. Thickening of the crust above upwelling mantle and heating at the base of the crust are the main mechanisms that trigger the delamination process. Scaling laws were developed that are in good agreement with the numerical simulations and show that the key parameters that control the instability are the density contrast between crust and underlying mantle lithosphere, the thickness of the unstable layer and the effective viscosity of the upper mantle. Depending on uncertainties in the melting relations and rheology (hydrous or anhydrous) of the mantle, this process is shown to efficiently recycle the crust above potential temperatures of 1550-1600 C. However, below these temperatures this process ceases to work, mainly because the percent of melting in the upper mantle is insufficient to generate locally thickened new crust. We further show that melting at the base of overthickened hydrated primary crust is also plausible at the predicted temperatures and would have led to intracrustal differentiation. The tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses that comprise exposed Archaean crust cannot have been generated directly from primary MgO-rich crust, but could have been derived from hydrated basaltic crust formed by crystal fractionation or intracrustal differentiation.

  15. From StGermain to Underworld: Enabling Community-based code Development in Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenette, S. M.; Moresi, L.; Sunter, P. D.; Hodkinson, L.; Lo, A.; Hassan, R.; Appelbe, B.; Turnbull, R.

    2005-12-01

    Each discipline of geophysics has traditionally focused on limited sets of closely related phenomena using methodologies and data sets optimized for its specific area of interest. Why is that? Single discipline, single scale, foundation physics problems are relatively easy to code in Fortran, and hence they eventually become optimized for best performance whilst simultaneously becoming difficult to adapt to new interests. Yet geodynamicists want to break these ``out-of-scope'' barriers, and incorporate signals of interests beyond their immediate phenomena of interest. In turn this often entails a multi physics, multi scale and multi discipline development model. Multi physics is potentially easy to code, but application limited by the choice of numerical technique of the code. Multi scale is a numerical and discretisation issue that is closely related to the fundamental data structures of the code. This is difficult to change, and the ideal is hybrids of optimized solutions at desired scales. Multi discipline is much more focused on people and how they form problem constraints, the language / ontology they use, and their expectation in usability. In summary: facilitating a multi scale, multi physics , multi disciplinary development environment is difficult, complicated and generally not of core interest to a geodynamicist. However, today, with more powerful CPU architectures, we can move away from Fortran style coding with little wall-time cost. We have more powerful numerical techniques and models for constitutive laws, where disciplines beyond those specific to geodynamics such as numerical science, material science and computational science have progressed. Furthermore, more well proven and established libraries are available, when chosen and applied appropriately, lead to less work and for better results. How can we capitalize on this? We propose a multi-level community development model that allows computational scientists, numerical scientists, material scientists and phenomena modelers to develop their core interests and leverage off each other's work. In turn, we aim to produce adaptable code bases where core technologies can be interchanged. That is to provide modelers with the tools to venture beyond their present scope, whilst proving infrastructure builders real problems to test against. Furthermore we aim to match the language to the expectations of the people at those levels. We facilitate this environment through a fundamental framework named StGermain. We demonstrate its application to a spectrum of (long time scale) geodynamics problems encapsulated in the Underworld package. In particular we show three phenomena models from Underworld: mantle convection, roll back, and basin extension modeling. These are all at different scales, incorporate different physics, different work flows and maintained by different people. The methodology and technology is being applied to solve multi scale, multi physics modeling of materials manufacturing problems.

  16. Brittle Solvers: Lessons and insights into effective solvers for visco-plasticity in geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; May, D.; Wilson, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Plasticity/Fracture and rock failure are essential ingredients in geodynamic models as terrestrial rocks do not possess an infinite yield strength. Numerous physical mechanisms have been proposed to limit the strength of rocks, including low temperature plasticity and brittle fracture. While ductile and creep behavior of rocks at depth is largely accepted, the constitutive relations associated with brittle failure, or shear localisation, are more controversial. Nevertheless, there are really only a few macroscopic constitutive laws for visco-plasticity that are regularly used in geodynamics models. Independent of derivation, all of these can be cast as simple effective viscosities which act as stress limiters with different choices for yield surfaces; the most common being a von Mises (constant yield stress) or Drucker-Prager (pressure dependent yield-stress) criterion. The choice of plasticity model, however, can have significant consequences for the degree of non-linearity in a problem and the choice and efficiency of non-linear solvers. Here we describe a series of simplified 2 and 3-D model problems to elucidate several issues associated with obtaining accurate description and solution of visco-plastic problems. We demonstrate that1) Picard/Successive substitution schemes for solution of the non-linear problems can often stall at large values of the non-linear residual, thus producing spurious solutions2) Combined Picard/Newton schemes can be effective for a range of plasticity models, however, they can produce serious convergence problems for strongly pressure dependent plasticity models such as Drucker-Prager.3) Nevertheless, full Drucker-Prager may not be the plasticity model of choice for strong materials as the dynamic pressures produced in these layers can develop pathological behavior with Drucker-Prager, leading to stress strengthening rather than stress weakening behavior.4) In general, for any incompressible Stoke's problem, it is highly advisable to look at the predicted dynamic pressure fields, particularly if they are being fed back into the rheology. Given a range of well described model problems, we discuss broader issues of what, if any, are appropriate plasticity models and under what circumstances we can expect to obtain accurate solutions from such formulations.

  17. The solution of fundamental problems of geodynamics, geophysics, geology and planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    On the base of geodynamic model of the forced gravitational swing and displacement of shells of a planet under action of a gravitational attraction of surrounding (external) celestial bodies [1], [2] the fundamental problems of geodynamics, geology, planetology, geophysics, etc. have been studied and solved. 1). The mechanism of cyclic variations of activity of natural processes in various time scales. 2). The nature of eccentric positions of the core and the mantle of the Earth. A role of the Moon, the Sun, Neptune and other celestial bodies in activization of the swing of core-mantle system of the Earth. 3). Power of endogenous activity of planetary natural processes on planets and satellites. 4). The nature of correlations of natural processes with features of motion of baricenter of the solar system. 5). An explanation of influence of bodies of solar system on excitation of variations of planetary processes with Milankovitch's periods (in tens and hundred thousand years). 6). A possible explanation of geological cycles as result of excitation of solar system at its motion in a gravitational field of the Galaxy. 7). The phenomenon of polar inversion of natural processes on the Earth, both other planets and satellites. 8). Spasmodic (step-by-step) and catastrophic changes of activity of natural processes. 9). Sawtooth (gear curve) variations of natural processes. 10). The phenomenon of twisting of hemispheres (latitude zones) of celestial bodies. 11). Formation of the pear-shaped form of celestial bodies and the mechanism of its change. 10). Ordered planetary structures in spatial distribution of geological formations. 12). The phenomena of bipolarity of celestial bodies and antipodality of formations. Many fundamental problems of natural sciences have been obtained an explanation on the basis of developed geodynamic model (Barkin, 2002, 2009). The fundamental problems of celestial mechanics and geodynamics, geophysics and the geology, excited of scintific community in current of last decades and even centuries have been solved. The fundamental phenomena in rotation of the Earth: secular drift of a pole of its axis of rotation and non-tidal acceleration of axial rotation of a planet have received an explanation. Observable secular variations of a gravity, variations of a geopotential coefficients, secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth, secular changes of a global level of ocean and change of average levels of ocean in northern and southern hemispheres of the Earth, secular geodetic changes of the Earth in present period have been explained, etc. It is shown, that there is a uniform mechanism for many bodies of solar system of excitation of natural processes in their polar areas. In particular it is shown, that polar regions of many celestial bodies, including their soil layers, are sated by fluids. The last position obtains the precise confirmation in researches of subsoil waters and a water ice on Mars, the Moon, Mercury, etc. bodies of solar system. A wide number of the natural phenomena has been predicted by the author and these predictions have already obtained and obtain confirmations and an explanations in the data of modern observations and space missions. An existence of the seas in polar regions of the Titan, concentration of water ice in polar regions of Mercury, the Moon, Mars and other bodies of solar system has been predicted. The conclusion about fluid consentrations at polar regions of celestial bodies is extremely important for revealing of carbon deposits on the Earth, first of all in regions of Arctic and Antarctic. Work is partially supported by RFBR grants: N 08-02-00367, N-09-02-92113-JF. References 1. Barkin Yu.V. (2002) An explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclisity. Isvestia sekcii nauk o Zemle Rossiiskoi akademii ectestvennykh nauk. Vyp. 9, M., VINITI, pp. 45-97. In Russian. 2. Barkin Yu.V. (2009) Moons and planets: mechanism of their life. Proceedings of International Conference 'Astronomy and World Heritage: across Time and Continents' (Kazan, 19-24 August 2009). KSU, 2009. pp. 142-161.

  18. A geodynamic model of plumes from the margins of Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, Bernhard; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2012-01-01

    We present geodynamic models featuring mantle plumes that are almost exclusively created at the margins of large thermo-chemical piles in the lowermost mantle. The models are based on subduction locations and fluxes inferred from global plate reconstructions and ocean floor paleo-ages. Sinking subducted slabs not only push a heavy chemical layer ahead, such that dome-shaped structures form, but also push the thermal boundary layer (TBL) toward the chemical domes. At the steep edges it is forced upwards and begins to rise — in the lower part of the mantle as sheets, which then split into individual plumes higher in the mantle. The models explain why Large Igneous Provinces - commonly assumed to be caused by plumes forming in the TBL above the core-mantle boundary (CMB)- and kimberlites during the last few hundred Myr erupted mostly above the margins of the African and Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) of the lowermost mantle, which are probably chemically distinct from and heavier than the overlying mantle. Our models support that mantle plumes are more intimately linked to plate tectonics than commonly believed. Not only can plumes cause continental break-up, but conversely subducted plates may trigger plumes at the margins of LLSVPs near the CMB.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Lushan Ms7.0 earthquake geodynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIAO, L.; Yang, J.; Zhang, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Lushan Ms7.0 earthquake happened in April 20, 2013 is another strong earthquake occurred on LongMenShan Faults after Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake. In this paper, We have built a finite model abased on previous geology and geophysics research results, and high resolution elevation data, heat flow data. By using GPS data, stress field data as constraint condition to study the geodynamic background of this strong earthquake and to search the relationship between Lushan earthquake and Wenchuan earthquake. The result of our simulation shows that when the deep material of Tibetan plateau flowing toward east is set as our boundary condition, the elevation and different rheological strength between the Sichuan basin and Tibetan plateau, the different friction strength between Longmenshan faults south segment and north segement after Wenchuan earthquake and fault geometry all actually influent the initial rupture position and the fault dislocation form of this earthquake. The Wenchuan earthquake may influent the epicenter position of Lushan earthquake.

  20. Orogenic curvatures in the New England Orogen (eastern Australia): structural constraints and geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Li, P.; Rubatto, D.

    2011-12-01

    The late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic New England Orogen in eastern Australia is characterized by a series of sharp bends (oroclines). New zircon U-Pb ages shed new light on the oroclinal structure, showing that the lateral continuation of Early Permian (296-288 Ma) granitoids follows the structural grain of the orogen, and together with other orogenic components, define four bends. The existence of these bends is supported by the curved geometry of sub-vertical structural fabrics, the rotations of forearc basin terranes and the curvature of a serpentinite belt around the oroclines. A subsequent phase of younger magmatism (<260 Ma) cuts across this structure thus providing a minimum age constraint for its formation. The geodynamic setting responsible for oroclinal bending remains speculative. However, we recognize a link between the timing of oroclinal bending and the formation of widespread back-arc extensional basins in eastern Australia, possibly during subduction rollback. We therefore believe that, similarly to modern examples from eastern Indonesia and the Mediterranean regions, subduction rollback played a major role in controlling the progressive curvature of the subduction zones, possibly in response to local along-strike heterogeneities within the subducting plate (e.g. aseismic ridge subduction or arc-continent collisions).

  1. Large-scale changes of the atmosphere (climate), geodynamics and biosphere due to the galactic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Solar system periodically passes through spiral arms of the Galaxy, which are stellar density waves. Processes due to the presence of galactic shocks (shock waves) may be responsible for the abrupt atmosphere changes (climate), geodynamics (supercontinental cycle, large tectonic processes, mantle convection, geomagnetic field and others) and biosphere. Galactic shocks (GS) are the narrow region of high gas compression along the inner edge of spiral wave. Shock wave leads to the interstellar dust compression and to the phase transition in the interstellar gas. GS are large-scale trigger mechanism of active star formation. GS ultimately changes temperature, pressure and the radiation balance. It is quite surprisingly that majority of the "data points" of the geochronological and stratigraphic scales are closely related to the time moments when the Solar system has passed through the galactic shocks. This extraterrestrial cause for the change of physical and chemical conditions on the Earth had profound effects on the biologic extinction and explosions. This hypothesis explains the biologic explosion in Cambrian, the Permian - Triassic and Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions, i.e., the beginning of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic. It is valid in the frame of galactic shock model that any discussion time estimates of these past events and their implications for the future must be quantitative. It will permit an evaluation of age of greater catastrophes and changes in the Earth history, of the future meets with the spiral arms of the Galaxy. It predicts the existence of chronological scales of other planets.

  2. THERIAK_D: An add-on to implement equilibrium computations in geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Capitani, Christian

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the theory, applicability, and merits of the new THERIAK_D add-on for the open source Theriak/Domino software package. The add-on works as an interface between Theriak and user-generated scripts, providing the opportunity to process phase equilibrium computation parameters in a programming environment (e.g., C or MATLAB). THERIAK_D supports a wide range of features such as calculating the solid rock density or testing the stability of mineral phases along any pressure-temperature (P-T) path and P-T grid. To demonstrate applicability, an example is given in which the solid rock density of a 2-D-temperature-pressure field is calculated, portraying a simplified subduction zone. Consequently, the add-on effectively combines thermodynamics and geodynamic modeling. The carefully documented examples could be easily adapted for a broad range of applications. THERIAK_D is free, and the program, user manual, and source codes may be downloaded from http://www.min.uni-kiel.de/ed/theriakd/.

  3. Geodynamic movements and deformations of the Sudetic structural unit of the Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, V.; Jechumtlov, Z.; Schenkov, Z.; Kottnauer, P.

    2003-04-01

    The African plate pushes to European orogenic Alpine structures that transfer the compression further to Variscan structural units, including the Bohemian Massif. Central parts of the Bohemian Massif are relatively deep-seated and, therefore, some of marginal parts of the Massif and its border geological structures should be affected intensively and moved distinctly with respect to the central parts. The geodynamical GPS network EAST SUDETEN is located just over the area mentioned above, i.e. it covers both kinetically quasi-effected and quasi-non-effected structural blocks. GPS data observed already for six annual campaigns (1997-2002) were processed and movement vectors of individual network sites were assessed. Applied data processing did not allow errors in the horizontal direction 2 mm and in the vertical direction 5-6 mm to be exceeded. Since time series of coordinate changes for several network sites gave rather pronounce movement trends, preliminary deformations among individual structural blocks were evaluated and compared to other geological, geophysical and geodetic materials. The investigation has been supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, projects 205/97/0679 and 205/01/0480, and by the research programme of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic, project LN00A005 "Dynamics of the Earth".

  4. Solution of geodynamical Problems from the Point of View of Synergeric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga

    2015-04-01

    It is considered the relation of solution geodynamic problems by geosynergetical approach. A new algorithm of seismological information processing of detailed mines catalogue with use kinematic and dynamical characteristics of deformation waves, which propagate with different velocities in the rock massif under heavy influence of single blasts and technological explosions had been developed. It is estimated that the waves, which propagate with the velocities from 10 to 1 m/hour are primary carrier of the energy in the massif and promote its releasing. Events, which occur in the massive with these waves with releasing energy less than 104 joules promote to the creep rebuilding of the massif. Events, which occur in the massive with these waves with releasing energy more, than 105 joules, can be used as rock burst precursory and it is recommend taking into account by changing of explosions in the indicated part of the massif. The whole absence of such events indicates the growing of the stress massif state in the mine as a whole. The received joined information from the seismic catalogue is very significant for forecasting of dangerous events in the rock mines. It is developed an algorithm for scenario of rock shocks treatment in the rock massif. It can be used for analyze massif natural state on seismological polygons. References 1. Hachay O.A. Geosynergetic: theory, method, experiment. Complex analyze of electromagnetic and other geophysical data. M.: KRASAND, 2011.

  5. Fluidity: A fully unstructured anisotropic adaptive mesh computational modeling framework for geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D. Rhodri; Wilson, Cian R.; Kramer, Stephan C.

    2011-06-01

    We present a new computational modeling framework, Fluidity, for application to a range of two- and three-dimensional geodynamic problems, with the focus here on mantle convection. The approach centers upon a finite element discretization on unstructured simplex meshes, which represent complex geometries in a straightforward manner. Throughout a simulation, the mesh is dynamically adapted to optimize the representation of evolving solution structures. The adaptive algorithm makes use of anisotropic measures of solution complexity, to vary resolution and allow long, thin elements to align with features such as boundary layers. The modeling framework presented differs from the majority of current mantle convection codes, which are typically based upon fixed structured grids. This necessitates a thorough and detailed validation, which is a focus of this paper. Benchmark comparisons are undertaken with a range of two- and three-dimensional, isoviscous and variable viscosity cases. In addition, model predictions are compared to experimental results. Such comparisons highlight not only the robustness and accuracy of Fluidity but also the advantages of anisotropic adaptive unstructured meshes, significantly reducing computational requirements when compared to a fixed mesh simulation.

  6. Low strength of the shallow mantle lithosphere: Data and geodynamical consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasi, A.; Demouchy, S. A.; Cordier, P.

    2014-12-01

    The shallow mantle is, except in extremely thin and hot plates, the stronger part of the lithosphere and hence a key layer for understanding plate tectonics. We will present mechanical and microstructural data (EBSD and TEM) from deformation experiments on olivine single crystals and polycrystals performed at low temperature (850-1100C) and moderate pressure (300 MPa) under dry conditions. These results indicate that the shallow lithospheric mantle may deform by dislocation-based processes at much lower stresses than those predicted from the extrapolation of high-temperature experimental data for olivine. Although the experiments show heterogeneous mechanical behaviors, with hardening, the microstructural observations highlight that, even at the high strain rate of the experimental conditions, recovery processes are at play, suggesting that in nature, at lower strain rates and higher pressure, hardening by dislocation entanglement might be counteracted. Consistently, mantle rocks deformed in natural shear zones active at temperatures 850-900C show microstructures characterized by coarse recrystallized grain sizes (?100m) and strong crystal preferred orientations, which are consistent with deformation dominantly by dislocation creep at rather low stresses (<100MPa). Based on our experimental results and on a compilation of previously published data on olivine deformation between 500 and 1000 C, we propose a new semi-empirical exponential flow law, which might represent an upper limit to the uppermost mantle strength. Such a low strength shallow mantle lithosphere suggests a higher equilibrium recrystallized grain sizes, and less shear heating; further geodynamic implications will then be discussed.

  7. Tracing the origin of Geodynamics: The Alfred Wegener Memorial Expedition 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    2012 marked the 100st anniversary of the seminal publications on Continental Drift Theory by Alfred Wegener. These publications (and Wegener's book "On the origin of the continents", published three years later) are widely accepted to be the fundamental breakthrough that opened the path to the Theory of Plate Tectoncis and ultimately the path to modern Geodynamics some 50 years later. In the same historic year of the 1912 publications, Alfred Wegener set off for what was to become the most dramatic of his three Greenland expeditions. On this expedition Wegener and Koch crossed the entire northern icecap of Greenland. In honour of the hundreds anniversary of Wegener's publications, the Austrian Academy of Sciences funded an expedition to trace the footsteps of the 1912 expedition in the spirit of Alfred Wegener, while also conducting modern Earth Science. This expedition that was conducted in summer 2014. For the expedition, a 1952 Cessna180 was acquired in Alaska, adapted with bush wheels, wing extensions and extra tanks and was flown by the author and one of the worlds most renown bush pilots from Alaska in a 10 day effort to Greenland. There, the entire NE Greenland Caledonides were covered and photographed. Field work for a masters projects was conducted and samples were collected from a series of some of the most remote locations in the Caledonides ever visited. Most spectacularly, the original sled of Wegeners 1912 expedition was found some 30 kilometers from its expected location in the Dove Bugt Region of northeastern Greenland.

  8. A New Set of Focal Mechanisms and a Geodynamic Model for the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, M. T.; Powell, C. A.; Choi, E.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new set of 26 focal mechanisms for the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) and discuss the implications for regional uplift. The mechanisms are for earthquakes with magnitudes 2.5 and greater occurring after 1999. The ETSZ is the second largest seismic zone in the central and eastern US and the seismicity is attributed to reactivation of a major Grenville-age shear zone. P- and S- wave velocity models, the distribution of hypocenters, focal mechanisms, and potential field anomalies suggest the presence of a basement shear zone. The new focal mechanism solutions supplement and are consistent with a previously calculated set of 26 focal mechanisms for the period 1983-1993. Focal mechanisms fall into two groups. The first group shows strike-slip motion on steeply dipping nodal planes striking N-S/E-W and NE-SW/NW-SE. Mechanisms in the second group display primarily dip-slip motion and are constrained geographically to the southern portion of the seismic zone. Events in the second group are among the shallowest in the dataset (8-12 km). We are developing a geodynamic model of the regional structure to examine the stress regime, which may be changing with depth. This model will be used to determine a possible relationship between the localized normal faulting and previously established recent regional uplift.

  9. Metamorphic history and geodynamic significance of the Early Cretaceous Sabzevar granulites (Sabzevar structural zone, NE Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabady, M.; Rossetti, F.; Theye, T.; Vignaroli, G.

    2011-11-01

    The Iranian ophiolites are part of the vast orogenic suture zones that mark the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone. Few petrological and geochronological data are available from these ophiolitic domains, hampering a full assessment of the timing and regimes of subduction zone metamorphism and orogenic construction in the region. This paper describes texture, geochemistry, and the pressure-temperature path of the Early Cretaceous mafic granulites that occur within the Tertiary Sabzevar ophiolitic suture zone of NE Iran. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the Sabzevar granulites are likely derived from a MORB-type precursor. They are thus considered as remnants of a dismembered dynamo-thermal sole formed during subduction of a back-arc basin (proto-Sabzevar Ocean) formed in the upper-plate of the Neotethyan slab. The metamorphic history of the granulites suggests an anticlockwise pressure-temperature loop compatible with burial in a hot subduction zone, followed by cooling during exhumation. Transition from a nascent to a mature stage of oceanic subduction is the geodynamic scenario proposed to accomplish for the reconstructed thermobaric evolution. When framed with the regional scenario, results of this study point to diachronous and independent tectonic evolutions of the different ophiolitic domains of central Iran, for which a growing disparity in the timing of metamorphic equilibration and of pressure-temperature paths can be expected to emerge with further investigations.

  10. Present state of geodynamic properties of Kalabsha area, nortwest of Aswan Lake, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysko?il, P.; Tealeb, A.; Kebeasy, R. M.; Mahmoud, S. M.

    Aswan Lake is the second largest man-made lake in the world. Its filling started 1964 and reached the maximum water level in 1978. An earthquake of magnitude 5.5 took place in 1981 along the most active fault near the lake (Kalabsha fault). This earthquake was follwed by a tremendous number of smaller events that continue till now. Seismicity and the underground water table around the lake are monitored continuously through a radio-telemetered network. A local geodetic network was established around parts of the active faults in the northwestern part of the High Dam Lake, for monitoring vertical and lateral movements. The Kalabsha local geodetic network (the first one) was established around an active part of the Kalabsha fault in 1983. Precise geodetic measurements have benn carried out twice a year since 1984. On the basis of the repeated geodetic measurements, seismicity of the area and geophysical as well as geological data, the present state of the geodynamical properties of the Kalabsha area is studied. Remarkable horizontal movements were detected; they are correlated with the seismicity of the area and are attributed to the differential loading by the lake. The Kalabsha fault is a right-lateral strike-slip motion on an E-W plane. The magnitude of the movements detected along the fault is variable for the different epochs of measurements and is correlated with both seismicity and water loading in the lake.

  11. Performance of Basic Geodynamic Solvers on BG/p and on Modern Mid-sized CPU Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omlin, S.; Keller, V.; Podladchikov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, most researchers have access to computer clusters. For the community developing numerical applications in geodynamics, this constitutes a very important potential: besides that current applications can be speeded up, much bigger problems can be solved. This is particularly relevant in 3D applications. However, current practical experiments in geodynamic high-performance applications normally end with the successful demonstration of the potential by exploring the performance of the simplest example (typically the Poisson solver); more advanced practical examples are rare. For this reason, we optimize algorithms for 3D scalar problems and 3D mechanics and design concise, educational Fortran 90 templates that allow other researchers to easily plug in their own geodynamic computations: in these templates, the geodynamic computations are entirely separated from the technical programming needed for the parallelized running on a computer cluster; additionally, we develop our code with minimal syntactical differences from the MATLAB language, such that prototypes of the desired geodynamic computations can be programmed in MATLAB and then copied into the template with only minimal syntactical changes. High-performance programming requires to a big extent taking into account the specificities of the available hardware. The hardware of the world's largest CPU clusters is very different from the one of a modern mid-sized CPU cluster. In this context, we investigate the performance of basic memory-bounded geodynamic solvers on the large-sized BlueGene/P cluster, having 13 Gb/s peak memory bandwidth, and compare it with the performance of a typical modern mid-sized CPU cluster, having 100 Gb/s peak memory bandwidth. A memory-bounded solver's performance depends only on the amount of data required for its computations and on the speed this data can be read from memory (or from the CPUs' cache). In consequence, we speed up the solvers by optimizing memory access and CPU cache use: we avoid random memory access and multiple read of the same data by rearranging mutually independent computations. More precisely, we group operations that act on the same small parts of data as much as possible together, assuring that these small data parts fit into the CPU cache. In fact, reading from CPU cache requires nearly no time compared to reading from memory. We also optimize the technical programming needed for a parallelized running of the solvers on a computer cluster. The parallelization of a solver requires a spatial decomposition of the computational domain; each processor solves then the problem for one sub-domain, synchronizing at every iteration the sub-domain's boundaries with the ones of its neighbours. We optimize boundary synchronization between processors by developing optimal methods based on the full range of advanced MPI-features (MPI is the standard interface for developing parallel applications on CPU clusters with distributed memory). A geodynamic solver solves at every iteration a system of equations. This can be solved implicitly - by using a direct solver - or explicitly - by updating all variables in the system of equations based on a update rule derived from the system. We compare the performance of implicit and explicit solving for our applications.

  12. GIS-project: geodynamic globe for global monitoring of geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryakhovsky, V.; Rundquist, D.; Gatinsky, Yu.; Chesalova, E.

    2003-04-01

    A multilayer geodynamic globe at the scale 1:10,000,000 was created at the end of the nineties in the GIS Center of the Vernadsky Museum. A special soft-and-hardware complex was elaborated for its visualization with a set of multitarget object directed databases. The globe includes separate thematic covers represented by digital sets of spatial geological, geochemical, and geophysical information (maps, schemes, profiles, stratigraphic columns, arranged databases etc.). At present the largest databases included in the globe program are connected with petrochemical and isotopic data on magmatic rocks of the World Ocean and with the large and supperlarge mineral deposits. Software by the Environmental Scientific Research Institute (ESRI), USA as well as ArcScan vectrorizator were used for covers digitizing and database adaptation (ARC/INFO 7.0, 8.0). All layers of the geoinformational project were obtained by scanning of separate objects and their transfer to the real geographic co-ordinates of an equiintermediate conic projection. Then the covers were projected on plane degree-system geographic co-ordinates. Some attributive databases were formed for each thematic layer, and in the last stage all covers were combined into the single information system. Separate digital covers represent mathematical descriptions of geological objects and relations between them, such as Earth's altimetry, active fault systems, seismicity etc. Some grounds of the cartographic generalization were taken into consideration in time of covers compilation with projection and co-ordinate systems precisely answered a given scale. The globe allows us to carry out in the interactive regime the formation of coordinated with each other object-oriented databases and thematic covers directly connected with them. They can be spread for all the Earth and the near-Earth space, and for the most well known parts of divergent and convergent boundaries of the lithosphere plates. Such covers and time series reflect in diagram form a total combination and dynamics of data on the geological structure, geophysical fields, seismicity, geomagnetism, composition of rock complexes, and metalloge-ny of different areas on the Earth's surface. They give us possibility to scale, detail, and develop 3D spatial visualization. Information filling the covers could be replenished as in the existing so in newly formed databases with new data. The integrated analyses of the data allows us more precisely to define our ideas on regularities in development of lithosphere and mantle unhomogeneities using some original technologies. It also enables us to work out 3D digital models for geodynamic development of tectonic zones in convergent and divergent plate boundaries with the purpose of integrated monitoring of mineral resources and establishing correlation between seismicity, magmatic activity, and metallogeny in time-spatial co-ordinates. The created multifold geoinformation system gives a chance to execute an integral analyses of geoinformation flows in the interactive regime and, in particular, to establish some regularities in the time-spatial distribution and dynamics of main structural units in the lithosphere, as well as illuminate the connection between stages of their development and epochs of large and supperlarge mineral deposit formation. Now we try to use the system for prediction of large oil and gas concentration in the main sedimentary basins. The work was supported by RFBR, (grants 93-07-14680, 96-07-89499, 99-07-90030, 00-15-98535, 02-07-90140) and MTC.

  13. Progress in understanding the geodynamic and palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Tethys in the Lesser Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danelian, Taniel; Asatryan, Gayan; Zambetakis-Lekkas, Alexandra; Galoyan, Ghazar; Sosson, Marc; Seyler, Monique; Sahakyan, Lilit; Grigoryan, Araiyk

    2014-05-01

    The remnants of a Mesozoic oceanic realm exist in the Lesser Caucasus (mainly in Armenia and Karabagh); this realm was once part of the Tethyan oceanic branch positioned between Eurasia and the South-Armenian Block, a Gondwana-derived terrain that can be considered as part of the Tauride-Anatolide plate. The existing Tethyan rocks of Lesser Caucasus are part of an over 2,000 Km long suture zone, running through the northern part of Turkey towards Iran. Biostratigraphic studies of the aforementioned rocks contribute vastly to get a better understanding of the geodynamic, paleogeographic and paleoenvironmental evolution of this geologically complex area. When radiolarites are the sedimentary cover of submarine ophiolitic lavas their dating provides important time constraints for the evolution of the complex Mesozoic oceanic realm. In spite of extensive sampling during the last ten years across the Sevan-Hakari (Akera) suture zone and the Vedi ophiolite we found no Triassic or Lower Jurassic radiolarites. However, as testified by some previous studies, it is likely that oceanic floor spreading was initiated during the Late Triassic. Radiolarian biostratigraphic results we have obtained establish that radiolarian ooze accumulated, and it was occasionally interrupted by lava flows, during (at least) the Bajocian to Cenomanian time interval. The Bajocian is widely established (Vedi, Sevan and Hakari ophiolites), while we have recently obtained a Cenomanian radiolarian fauna from Amasia (NW Armenia). Two late Tithonian - Valanginian radiolarian assemblages, recovered from the NE of Lake Sevan (Dzknaged and Dali sections) are of particular significance, as radiolarites are intercalated with mafic rocks formed after episodes of submarine volcanic activity. The Dali basaltic sequence overlies (with a contact displaying cataclastic structures) layered dioritic cumulates with a few plagiogranites representing the crust of an intra-oceanic island arc. Both radiolarite sequences accumulated around the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition contain rounded blocks of oolitic grainstones with fragments of crinoids; they provide evidence for shallow water platform carbonates in the neighbourhood, fragments of which slid into a bathymetrically complex oceanic sea floor. New radiolarian ages obtained recently on numerous tuffites intercalated in siliceous sequences along the Amasia-Sevan zone (Amasia, Sarinar, Old Sodk pass sections) suggest that subaerial volcanic activity was underway for most of the Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous (Bajocian/Bathonian to Albian). The Vedi area (SE of Yerevan) is important in many ways, especially because it allows the detailed study of the obduction of ophiolites to the South-Armenian carbonate sequence; the latter is overlain stratigraphically by a flysch that ends with an olistostome containing a large variety of ophiolite-derived blocks. Microfacies observation of the last 150 m of the carbonate sequence suggests a back-reef inner platform depositional environment, with the presence of benthic foraminifera characteristic of a Cenomanian age. Results from the Amasia ophiolite and the Vedi carbonate sequence point to a major geodynamic change that took place during the Cenomanian, involving both the late stage of submarine oceanic magmatic activity and the obduction of ophiolites onto the South-Armenian Block.

  14. Continuously closing plates: A new Paleogeographic concept and application to geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnis, M.; Turner, M.; Spasojevic, S.; Bower, D.; Liu, L.; Manea, V.; Muller, R. D.; Boyden, J.; Sdrolias, M.; Dicaprio, L.

    2007-12-01

    Global plate tectonic reconstructions are inadequate for geodynamics, either as information to be assimilated into a model or as the basis to map a prediction into the geological record. Published reconstructions are often crudely spaced in time, have large swaths of the surface ambiguously defined, and/or have plate margin evolution inconsistent with plate motions. We have overcome these limitations with the formulation and implementation of a new method to represent plate tectonic reconstructions. Referred to as either "continuously closing" or "dynamically closing" plate polygons, the new method has been implemented using the new plate tectonic modeling package GPlates, global reconstruction have been developed with the method, and then reconstructions have been assimilated into forward and adjoint mantle convection models. Essentially, a plate is defined as a polygon that is made up of a finite set of plate boundaries. Each plate boundary is associated with its own set of finite rotations in an absolute reference system. These plate boundaries are continuously rotated and an algorithm finds the intersection of adjacent plate boundaries. Two adjacent plates always share a boundary. Using this method in GPlates, we have developed several global plate reconstructions from 140 Ma to the present. Since plate closure is continuous in time, reconstructions can exist at any granularity of time. Our present model has been output at 1 Myr time intervals. Subduction zones and their polarity are continuously tracked. The present plate reconstructions are self-consistent with a set of oceanic paleo age grids. We will illustrate the use of the new reconstructions in several applications drawn from our recent work: (1) regional subduction models; (2) global models of thermo-chemical convection in the lower mantle; (3) inverse and adjoint models of the descent of the Farallon slab; and (4) instantaneous models of global plate motions.

  15. Strike-slip faults on Mars: Observations and implications for global tectonics and geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Hauck, Steven A.

    2008-08-01

    The tectonic evolution of Mars has been driven primarily by the interaction of Tharsis-induced loading stresses with a uniform contractional stress field, leading to global assemblages of graben and wrinkle ridges. Until recently, strike-slip faults have appeared to be largely absent from the tectonic record. We here present evidence for a new set of Noachian to Early Hesperian strike-slip faults southwest of Tharsis. The best-preserved fault in the newly mapped set has a length of ~200 km and measured lateral offset of 5-9 km. We use the locations of both previously mapped and newly identified strike-slip faults to investigate the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of Mars. We model the tectonic evolution of the planet in response to the evolving balance between the loading and contractional stresses, finding widespread regions in which strike-slip faulting was favored. The observed tectonic history is consistent with a scenario in which loading-induced stresses peaked early in Mars history, followed by the growth of contractional stresses, leading to a shift in the preferred locus of strike-slip faulting from regions southwest of Tharsis in the Noachian to Early Hesperian, to northwest of Tharsis in the Early Amazonian. The contractional strain history inferred from the ages and locations of the strike-slip faults is consistent with the strains calculated from models of the thermal evolution of Mars in which the gradual secular cooling of the planet over time was augmented by plume-induced contraction during Tharsis formation in the Noachian.

  16. The Tertiary dike magmatism in the Southern Alps: geochronological data and geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergomi, Maria Aldina; Zanchetta, Stefano; Tunesi, Annalisa

    2015-03-01

    The relationships between tectonics and magmatic activity in the Alps are still debated. Despite an active subduction since the Late Cretaceous, no arc-related magmatism is recorded prior of the Middle Eocene. The emplacement of plutons along the Insubric Fault in a short time span (~34-28 Ma) has been generally interpreted in terms of the slab break-off model. The Tertiary magmatism, however, is also characterized by the occurrence of widespread calcalkaline dikes not necessarily intruded along the Insubric Fault. The geochemical features of dikes vary along the Alps belt and are interpreted in terms of mantle source heterogeneity and degree of crustal contamination. U-Pb zircon dating of studied dikes indicates intrusion ages in the 42- to 34-Ma time interval. These data provide evidence for a pre-Oligocene magmatic activity that was not solely limited to the Adamello batholith. Moreover, it appears that dikes rejuvenate from SE to NW, in an opposite direction with respect to the Alpine subduction polarity. Thus, a more complex geodynamic scenario than the slab break-off model must be envisaged. The absence of arc magmatism prior to the Middle Eocene can be explained by the low-angle subduction of the Tethyan slab that confined the mantle partial melting zone away from the orogenic wedge. The onset of the Apennines subduction at 55-50 Ma caused the Alpine slab to retreat. The partial melting zone progressively migrated beneath the orogenic wedge and finally reached the axial belt in the Late Eocene, when the Alpine collision was completed. Only at this stage, slab break-off occurred and promoted the intrusion of the Periadriatic plutons.

  17. Natural laboratory NW Bohemia: Comprehensive fluid studies between 1992 and 2005 used to trace geodynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BrUer, Karin; KMpf, Horst; Niedermann, Samuel; Strauch, Gerhard; Tesa?, Ji?I.

    2008-04-01

    Comprehensive studies of CO2-rich fluids close to the swarm earthquake region Nov Kostel at the Czech-German border have been started 15 years ago and have in particular included two extended chemical and isotope monitoring studies lasting for several years each. The regional surface distribution patterns of the fluid signatures including the identification of the origin of fluid components are the focus of the detailed studies. Three degassing centers (Cheb basin, Marinsk Lzn?, and Karlovy Vary) with high CO2 flux and the same level of ?13C values, but different levels of 3He/4He ratios, have been identified. The studies have located the CO2 source and have investigated seismically induced changes in fluid characteristics on the basis of unique weekly sampling campaigns at selected locations. A seismically triggered release of crustal helium was confirmed by both monitoring campaigns. Finally, indications for a presently active magmatic process beneath the Cheb basin have been found. In contrast to volcanically active regions, magma accumulation in the study area takes place at the crust-mantle boundary and is not yet accompanied by heat transfer to the surface. Likewise, reactive magma-derived components are absent in the degassing fluids. The area of investigation has the potential to be a natural laboratory for fundamental studies of active geodynamic processes. The results of our fluid monitoring, including the stunning observation of mantle-derived free fluids marked by 3He/4He ratios within the subcontinental mantle range, are supported by geophysical findings from seismic studies and geologic indications.

  18. 3D Geodynamic Modelling Reveals Stress and Strain Partitioning within Continental Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Mondy, L. S.; Duclaux, G.; Moresi, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    The relative movement between two divergent rigid plates on a sphere can be described using a Euler pole and an angular velocity. On Earth, this typically results in extensional velocities increasing linearly as a function of the distance from the pole (for example in the South Atlantic, North Atlantic, Woodlark Basin, Red Sea Basin, etc.). This property has strong implications for continental rifting and the formation of passive margins, given the role that extensional velocity plays on both rift style (wide or narrow), fault pattern, subsidence histories, and magmatism. Until now, this scissor-style opening has been approached via suites of 2D numerical models of contrasting extensional velocities, complimenting field geology and geophysics. New advances in numerical modelling tools and computational hardware have enabled us to investigate the geodynamics of this problem in a 3D self-consistent high-resolution context. Using Underworld at a grid resolution of 2 km over a domain of 500 km x 500 km x 180 km, we have explored the role of the velocity gradient on the strain pattern, style of rifting, and decompression melting, along the margin. We find that the three dimensionality of this problem is important. The rise of the asthenosphere is enhanced in 2D models compared to 3D numerical solutions, due to the limited volume of material available in 2D. This leads to oceanisation occurring significantly sooner in 2D models. The 3D model shows that there is a significant time and space dependent flows parallel to the rift-axis. A similar picture emerges from the stress field, showing time and space partitioning, including regions of compression separating areas dominated by extension. The strain pattern shows strong zonation along the rift axis, with increasingly localised deformation with extension velocity and though time.

  19. Flexural Rigidity Around Ross Island, Antarctica Based On Geodynamic Modeling And Seismic Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S.; Witt, D. R.; Harry, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying the flexural subsidence history around Mt. Erebus, located on Ross Island in the southern Ross Sea of West Antarctica, is essential to separating the tectonic, volcanic, and climatic signals in the stratigraphic record contained in regional seismic reflection and borehole data. Toward this end, we analyze both broken and continuous plate models of flexural subsidence due to volcanic loading around Mt. Erebus. Seismic reflection data from the IT90AR71, NBP0401-118m and NBP0401-126m seismic surveys are used to identify stratigraphic horizons associated with loading during different eruptive events. Based on results obtained by ANTOSTRAT, we have identified 5 seismic horizons RSb1 (early Oligocene), RSb2 (late Oligocene to early Miocene), RSb3 (early Miocene), RSb4(early to middle Miocene) and RSb5 (middle Miocene), which are correlated with the CIROS-1 drill hole, in the Eastern Ross Sea to identify 5 episodes of flexural subsidence related to Ross Island volcanic loading. The seismic data indicate that the flexural bulge associated with all 5 volcanic loading events is located at an average distance of 250 km from Mt. Erebus. We use the position of the flexural bulge and the dip of strata within the basin to constrain geodynamic models of flexural subsidence due to volcanic loading. We assume a mantle density of 3200 kg/m^3 and density of sedimentary basin infill of 2700 kg/m^3. Our preliminary results suggest that a broken plate, point load model is the most ideal case for Ross Island. The flexural rigidity is approximately 10^22.5 N-m, and the cumulative load of all volcanic episodes of Mt. Erebus is 9x10^11 N.

  20. Cross-sectional anatomy and geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogenic belt (northern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippolyte, J.-C.; Espurt, N.; Kaymakci, N.; Sangu, E.; Mller, C.

    2015-03-01

    Geophysical data allowed the construction of a ~250-km-long lithospheric-scale balanced cross section of the southern Black Sea margin (Espurt et al. in Lithosphere 6:26-34, 2014). In this paper, we combine structural field data, stratigraphic data, and fault kinematics analyses with the 70-km-long onshore part of the section to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogen. These data reveal new aspects of the structural evolution of the Pontides since the Early Cretaceous. The Central Pontides is a doubly vergent orogenic wedge that results from the inversion of normal faults. Extensional subsidence occurred with an ENE-trend from Aptian to Paleocene. We infer that the Black Sea back-arc basin also opened during this period, which was also the period of subduction of the Tethys Ocean below the Pontides. As in the Western Pontides, the Cretaceous-Paleocene subsidence was interrupted from Latest Albian to Coniacian time by uplift and erosion that was probably related to a block collision and accretion in the subduction zone. The restoration of the section to its pre-shortening state (Paleocene) shows that fault-related subsidence locally reached 3600 m within the forearc basin. Structural inversion occurred from Early Eocene to Mid-Miocene as a result of collision and indentation of the Pontides by the K?r?ehir continental block to the south, with 27.5 km (~28 %) shortening along the section studied. The inversion was characterized by NNE-trending shortening that predated the Late Neogene dextral escape of Anatolia along the North Anatolian Fault and the modern stress field characterized by NW-trending compression within the Eocene Boyabat basin.

  1. Grain size evolution in the mantle and its effect on geodynamics and seismic observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhill, R.; Dannberg, J.; Eilon, Z.; Gassmoeller, R.; Moulik, P.; Faul, U.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic models of Earth's convecting mantle usually implement flow laws with constant grain size, stress-independent viscosity and a limited treatment of variations associated with changes in mineral assemblage. These simplifications greatly reduce computational requirements but preclude effects such as shear localisation and transient changes in rheology associated with phase transitions, which have the potential to fundamentally change flow patterns in the mantle. Here we use the finite-element code ASPECT (Bangerth et al., 2013) to model grain size evolution and the interplay between grain size, stress and strain rate in the convecting mantle. We include the simultaneous and competing effects of dynamic recrystallisation resulting from work done by dislocation creep, grain growth and recrystallisation at phase transitions. Further expressions account for slow growth in multiphase assemblages resulting from pinning. Grain size variations also affect seismic properties of mantle materials. We use several formulations from the literature to relate intrinsic variables (P, T, and grain size) from our numerical models to seismic velocity (Vs) and attenuation (Q). Our calculations use thermodynamically self-consistent anharmonic elastic moduli determined for the mineral assemblages in the mantle using HeFESTo (Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2013). We investigate the effect of realistically heterogeneous grain sizes by computing seismic observables such as body wave travel times, ray paths, and attenuation (t*) as well as mode eigenfrequencies and quality factors at different frequencies. We highlight the frequency-dependent sensitivity of seismic waves to grain size, which is important when interpreting Vs and Q observations in terms of mineral assemblage and temperature. This work is based on a project started at the CIDER 2014 summer program. References: Bangerth, W. et al., 2014, ASPECT: Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion. Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics, 2014. Stixrude, L. and Lithgow-Bertelloni, C., HeFESTo: Thermodynamics and Elasticity of the Mantle, AGU Fall Meeting 2013.

  2. Geodynamic evolution of the central and western Mediterranean: Tectonics vs. igneous petrology constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Eugenio; Lustrino, Michele; Doglioni, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    We present a geodynamic reconstruction of the Central-Western Mediterranean and neighboring areas during the last 50 Myr, including magmatological and tectonic observations. This area was interested by different styles of evolution and polarity of subduction zones influenced by the fragmented Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic paleogeography between Africa and Eurasia. Both oceanic and continental lithospheric plates were diachronously consumed along plate boundaries. The hinge of subducting slabs converged toward the upper plate in the double-vergent thick-skinned Alps-Betics and Dinarides, characterized by two slowly-subsiding foredeeps. The hinge diverged from the upper plate in the single-vergent thin-skinned Apennines-Maghrebides and Carpathians orogens, characterized by a single fast-subsiding foredeep. The retreating lithosphere deficit was compensated by asthenosphere upwelling and by the opening of several back-arc basins (the Ligurian-Provençal, Valencia Trough, Northern Algerian, Tyrrhenian and Pannonian basins). In our reconstruction, the W-directed Apennines-Maghrebides and Carpathians subductions nucleated along the retro-belt of the Alps and the Dinarides, respectively. The wide chemical composition of the igneous rocks emplaced during this tectonic evolution confirms a strong heterogeneity of the Mediterranean upper mantle and of the subducting plates. In the Apennine-Maghrebide and Carpathian systems the subduction-related igneous activity (mostly medium- to high-K calcalkaline melts) is commonly followed in time by mildly sodic alkaline and tholeiitic melts. The magmatic evolution of the Mediterranean area cannot be easily reconciled with simple magmatological models proposed for the Pacific subductions. This is most probably due to synchronous occurrence of several subduction zones that strongly perturbed the chemical composition of the upper mantle in the Mediterranean region and, above all, to the presence of ancient modifications related to past orogeneses. The classical approach of using the geochemical composition of igneous rocks to infer the coeval tectonic setting characteristics cannot be used in geologically complex systems like the Mediterranean area.

  3. GNSS strain rate patterns and their application to investigate geodynamical credibility of the GNSS velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araszkiewicz, Andrzej; Figurski, Mariusz

    2015-04-01

    The potential that lies in the use of GNSS measurements for crustal deformation studies have already noticed in the beginning of the first of such a system (GPS). Today thanks to the development of satellite positioning techniques it is possible to detect displacement on the Earth surface with an accuracy less than 1 cm. With long-term observations we can determine the velocities even more accurately. Growing demand in the last years for GNSS applications, both for scientific and civil use, meant that new networks of the reference stations were created. Such a dense GNSS networks allow to conduct research in the field of crust deformation at a higher spatial resolution than before. In Europe most of the research focuses on Mediterranean regions, where we can monitor events resulting from the tectonic plates collision. But even in Central Europe we can see effect of Africa push. In our research we focused on Polish territory, where in the past 5 years a nearly 300 reference stations were established. With minimal movements that have been observed in Poland, a key issue in this type of research is to determine the geodynamic reliability of the estimated stations velocities. While the long-term observations enable us to determine the very accurate velocities, it hard to indicate how reliably they reflect actual tectonic movements is. In this paper we proposed a method for testing the reliability of stations velocities based on the strain rate field analysis. The method is based on the analysis of the distribution of the rate of deformation tensor components obtained for triangular elements built on the basis of assessed station. The paper presents the results of numerical simulations and initial use of the method for the Polish network of reference stations: ASG-EUPOS

  4. Simulation of late Cenozoic South American flat-slab subduction using geodynamic models with data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiashun; Liu, Lijun; Hermosillo, Armando; Zhou, Quan

    2016-03-01

    The formation mechanisms of flat slabs in South America remain unclear. To quantitatively evaluate the earlier proposed mechanisms, we simulate the post-100 Ma subduction history below South America using 4-D geodynamic models by progressively incorporating plate kinematics, seafloor ages and key tectonic features including the buoyant oceanic crust, continental cratons, oceanic plateaus (i.e. the inferred Inca plateau, subducting Nazca Ridge and Juan Fernandez Ridge), as well as deformable trench profiles according to recent geological reconstructions. We find that, in the absence of an overriding plate and subducting buoyancy features, the seafloor age affects slab dip angle by controlling the slab's mechanical strength (i.e., the resistance to bending) and negative buoyancy (integrated positive density anomaly that enhances bending). Our models show that slab strength dominates its buoyancy at age >30 Ma and the opposite for younger ages. The existence of a thick overriding plate reduces the slab dip by increasing dynamic suction, and individual cratonic roots further lead to along-trench variations of dip angle reduction. While dynamic suction from the overriding plate generates a permanent reduction of the long-wavelength slab dip angle, it is the final addition of subducting oceanic plateau and aseismic ridges that produces the transient and localized flat-slabs as observed. These results suggest that all mechanisms except the buoyancy features affect the slab dip only at large spatial scales. Our best-fit model with all the above tectonic features included provides a good match to both the upper mantle Benioff zones and the temporal evolution of volcanic arcs since the mid-Miocene. The imperfect match of the Peruvian flat-slab is likely associated with the uncertain 3-D configuration of the Amazonian craton.

  5. Differential Unroofing Across Southeastern Tibet: Geodynamic Links Between Plateau-Scale Tectonics and Landscape Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. L.; Zeitler, P. K.; Tremblay, M. M.; Shuster, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed documentation of the exhumation history of southeastern Tibet is important for understanding of the coupling of tectonic and geomorphic processes shaping this landscape. We present K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar multi-diffusion domain model analysis and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology along both horizontal and vertical traverses within Gangdese batholith to constrain the spatial and temporal pattern of exhumation in the region. In conjunction with thermokinematic modeling we use these data to interrogate patterns of regional erosion and test mechanical models of plateau evolution such as delamination, lithospheric-scale folding, and rifting. Previously reported zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data from a vertical transect west of the Nari Yun Chu Rift indicate a prolonged period of exhumation between ~20 Ma and 12 Ma. To the east, K-feldspar modeling of a sample on the Nyang River shows a period of rapid cooling between ~18-15 Ma that is consistent with an extended period of rapid exhumation. However, zircon (U-Th)/He data vary by ~30 Ma across an E-W transect through the region, which indicates that either the period of rapid erosion occurred much earlier in the west than in the east, or erosion was faster in the east, and removed significantly more material. These differences in exhumation between the E and W correlate with a documented increase in the depth of the Moho and general decrease in relief from E to W. These spatial correlations suggest linkages between deep geodynamic processes and the development of mountain topography. Variability in km-scale exhumation despite common mountain summit elevations throughout southeastern Tibet indicates that this region underwent a complex and protracted unroofing history. Additional data and modeling will test whether an erosional front propagated through the region or if pulses of erosion resulted from localized tectonic forcing, such as motion on the Nari Yun Chu Rift.

  6. Retrieving past geodynamic events by unlocking rock archives with ?-XRF and ?-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Andrade, V.; Ganne, J.; Dubacq, B.; Ryan, C. G.; Bourdelle, F.; Plunder, A.; Falkenberg, G.; Thieme, J.

    2014-04-01

    Rocks are commonly polycrystalline systems presenting multi-scale chemical and structural heterogeneities inherited from crystallization processes or successive metamorphic events. This work illustrates how spatially resolved analytical techniques coupled with thermodynamic approaches allow rock compositional variations to be related to large-scale geodynamic processes. Emphasis is placed on the contribution of quantitative chemical imaging to the study of 2.2-2.0 Gy old metamorphic rocks from the West African Craton. A thorough analysis of elemental chemical maps acquired on rock thin sections enabled high pressure relic minerals to be located and re-analyzed later with precise point analyses. The pressure-temperature conditions of crystallization calculated from these analyses are typical of modern subduction zones. These results push back the onset of modern-style plate tectonics to 2.15 Gy, i.e. more than one billion years earlier than was consensually accepted. The second part of the paper describes the imaging capabilities offered by the new ultra-bright diffraction limited synchrotron sources. Experimental data acquired with the Maia detector at beamline P06 at Petra III as well as simulations of ?-XRF spectra that will be generated at the SRX beamline at NSLS-II are presented. These results demonstrate that cm2 large chemical maps can be acquired with submicron spatial resolution and a precision suitable for thermobarometric estimates, with dwell time smaller than 1 millisecond. The last part of the paper discusses the relevance of utilizing recent X-ray fluorescence nanoprobes for diagenetic to low grade metamorphism applications.

  7. Cross-sectional anatomy and geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogenic belt (northern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippolyte, J.-C.; Espurt, N.; Kaymakci, N.; Sangu, E.; Müller, C.

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical data allowed the construction of a ~250-km-long lithospheric-scale balanced cross section of the southern Black Sea margin (Espurt et al. in Lithosphere 6:26-34, 2014). In this paper, we combine structural field data, stratigraphic data, and fault kinematics analyses with the 70-km-long onshore part of the section to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogen. These data reveal new aspects of the structural evolution of the Pontides since the Early Cretaceous. The Central Pontides is a doubly vergent orogenic wedge that results from the inversion of normal faults. Extensional subsidence occurred with an ENE-trend from Aptian to Paleocene. We infer that the Black Sea back-arc basin also opened during this period, which was also the period of subduction of the Tethys Ocean below the Pontides. As in the Western Pontides, the Cretaceous-Paleocene subsidence was interrupted from Latest Albian to Coniacian time by uplift and erosion that was probably related to a block collision and accretion in the subduction zone. The restoration of the section to its pre-shortening state (Paleocene) shows that fault-related subsidence locally reached 3600 m within the forearc basin. Structural inversion occurred from Early Eocene to Mid-Miocene as a result of collision and indentation of the Pontides by the Kırşehir continental block to the south, with 27.5 km (~28 %) shortening along the section studied. The inversion was characterized by NNE-trending shortening that predated the Late Neogene dextral escape of Anatolia along the North Anatolian Fault and the modern stress field characterized by NW-trending compression within the Eocene Boyabat basin.

  8. Geodynamic background of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake based on 3D visco-elastic numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Zhu, Bojing; Yang, Xiaolin; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-03-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw7.9) occurred in the Longmen Shan fault zone. The stress change and crustal deformation during the accumulation period is computed using 3D finite element modelling assuming visco-elastic rheology. Our results support that the eastward movement of the Tibetan Plateau resulting from the India-Eurasia collision is obstructed at the Longmen Shan fault zone by the strong Yangtze craton. In response, the Tibetan ductile crust thickens and accumulates at the contact between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. This process implies a strong uplift with the rate of about 1.8 mm/a of the upper crust and induces a stress concentration nearly at the bottom of the Longmen Shan fault zone. We believe that the stress concentration in the Longmen Shan fault zone provides a very important geodynamic background of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Using numerical experiments we find that the key factor controlling this stress concentration process is the large viscosity contrast in the middle and lower crusts between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. The results show that large viscosity contrast in the middle and lower crusts accelerates the stress concentration in the Longmen Shan fault zone. Fast moving lower crustal flow accelerates this stress accumulation process. During the inter-seismic period, spatially the maximum stress accumulation rate of the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is located nearly at the bottom of the brittle upper crust of the Longmen Shan fault zone. The spatial distribution of the stress accumulation along the strike of the Longmen Shan fault zone is as follows: the normal stress decreases while the shear stress increases from southwest to northeast along the Longmen Shan fault zone. This stress distribution explains the thrust motion in the SW and strike-slip motion in the NE during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

  9. On principles, methods and recent advances in studies towards a GPS-based control system for geodesy and geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delikaraoglou, Demitris

    1989-01-01

    Although Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) are becoming increasingly important tools for geodynamic studies, their future role may well be fulfilled by using alternative techniques such as those utilizing the signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS, without the full implementation of the system, already offers a favorable combination of cost and accuracy and has consistently demonstrated the capability to provide high precision densification control in the regional and local areas of the VLBI and SLR networks. This report reviews VLBI and SLR vis-a-vis GPS and outlines the capabilities and limitations of each technique and how their complementary application can be of benefit to geodetic and geodynamic operations. It demonstrates, albeit with a limited data set, that dual-frequency GPS observations and interferometric type analysis techniques make possible the modelling of the GPS orbits for several days with an accuracy of a few meters. The use of VLBI or SLR sites as fiducial stations together with refinements in the orbit determination procedures can greatly reduce the systematic errors in the GPS satellite orbits used to compute the positions of non-fiducial locations. In general, repeatability and comparison with VLBI of the GPS determined locations are of the order of between 2 parts in 10 to the 7th power and 5 parts in 10 to the 8th power for baseline lengths less than 2000 km. This report is mainly a synthesis of problems, assumptions, methods and recent advances in the studies towards the establishment of a GPS-based system for geodesy and geodynamics and is one phase in the continuing effort for the development of such a system. To some, including the author, it seems reasonable to expect within the next few years that more evidence will show GPS to be as a powerful and reliable a tool as mobile VLBI and SLR are today, but largely more economical.

  10. Late Permian to Late Triassic basin evolution of North Vietnam: geodynamic implications for the South China and Indochina blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Hallot, Erwan; Poujol, Marc; Roger, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The core of South East Asia is composed of a mosaic of continental blocks, among which the Indochina and the South China blocks (present day northern Vietnam), amalgamated during the Permian and/or the Triassic. Late Permian to Late Triassic geodynamic evolution of these two blocks remains controversial. The main discussion points concern the existence and the closure of an oceanic domain separating the Indochina and the South China blocks during this period. Especially, the polarity and the timing of the subduction zone that led to the collision between the blocks as well as the present location of the suture delimiting them are a matter of debate. Despite the valuable information they can provide, the sedimentary basins from northern Vietnam have been neglected in the previous studies dealing with the geodynamic evolution of South East Asia. To determine the geodynamic evolution of the area, the basins of Sam Nua and Song Da, presently located in North Vietnam, have been investigated using a combined approach involving sedimentology, geochronology (U-Pb/zircon) and geochemistry (whole-rock major and trace elements composition of both volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks). The palaeoenvironment evolution, the main unconformities, their age and the tectonic affinities of the interbedded volcanic and volcaniclastics series have been characterized for these two basins. Our results demonstrate (i) that the Song Da Basin exhibits a palaeogeographic affinity with the South China block, (ii) the occurrence of extensive calk-alkaline volcanism and associated volcaniclastic deposits in the Sam Nua Basin, related to the existence of an active magmatic arc during the Early and the lower Middle Triassic, (iii) a South dipping (present day coordinate) oceanic lithosphere beneath the Indochina block, deduced from the location of the magmatic arc south of the potential suture zones, (iv) that an angular unconformity postdates the lower Middle Triassic volcaniclastic deposits in the Sam Nua basin. This unconformity, crosscutting the subduction related deposits, is interpreted as the result of the collision between the Indochina and the South China blocks.

  11. The role of modern geodynamics in the transformation of the local erosion basis in the Arctic river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalova, Elizaveta

    2015-04-01

    To assess the impact of modern geodynamic processes in the erosion of river channels in the area of oil and gas field, located in the permafrost region the following studies were made: interpretation of satellite images to identify fault zones in the structure of the landscape oil and gas field, located in the subarctic zone; mathematical modeling of extensive and local subsidence in the found faults areas; field measurements within the territory of the field. These studies led to conclusions about influence of modern geodynamic processes on activization of erosive processes. Dimensions of the studied field is approximately 40*60 km. As a result of extensive sagging modeling on its territory for the period of the end of the development the sag depth of the Earth's surface equal to 90 cm was obtained. In this case, the slope of the Earth's surface with respect to the central part of the study area will be 4.5 * 10-5. This slope is comparable with the values of the average slope of lowland rivers. For example, for the Ob River it is 4 * 10-5. This case shows that the river flowing through the field, due to changes in the local erosion basis may be experiencing channel deformation in its central part. According to the observations and model calculations local subsidence of the Earth's surface in fault zones induced by mining, lead to the Earth's surface inclines order 7 * 10-5 - 1.2 * 10-3. Field observations in 2014 in areas where active faults identified revealed a number of factors of changes in the river channel. There were areas overdeepened channel, tear off and slipped down blocks of rocks, leading to the subsequent transformation of the channel, as well as additional thermal erosion gullies that increase the accumulation of sediments and alter the structure of the river network. The combination of modern geodynamics with thermokarst processes in perennial permafrost layer enhances erosion. This investigations have shown that the factor of modern geodynamics of natural or man-made influences on the transformation of the river system at the present stage of its development. This is a new factor. Previously, it was not taken into account, among other geomorphological factors in the analysis of structure changes of the Earth's surface.

  12. Geodynamic features along the Christianna-Santorini-Kolumbo tectonic line (South Aegean Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Carey, Steve; Bejelou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Kilias, Stefanos; Camilli, Rich; Escartin, Javier; Bell, Kathrine; Parks, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    Numerous oceanographic surveys have been conducted in Santorini Volcanic Group (South Aegean Sea) since 2001, revealing the spectacular morphology of the seafloor (multibeam data) and the sub-seafloor stratigraphic horizons (seismic profiles). Technological advancements in seafloor exploration such as ROVs and a submersible, enabled us to observe products of submarine volcanism that were previously inaccessible. In addition, gravity and box coring, geological and biological samples have been collected from selected areas for further analysis. The offshore geophysical survey in Santorini shows that recent volcanism occurred along a NE-SW tectonic zone named as Christianna-Santorini-Kolumbo (CSK) line. Christiana islets and three newly discovered submarine volcanic domes, with small colonies of yellow, presumably sulfur-reducing hydrothermal bacteria, occur in the southwestern part of the line. The presently active intra caldera volcanic domes of Palea and Nea Kameni islands and the low temperature (17-24°C) vent mounds covered by yellowish bacterial mat occupy the middle part of the line. The Santorini vent field is linked with the Kolumbo normal fault onshore which is likely controlling the pathways of hydrothermal circulation within the caldera. The most prominent feature at the NE part of this zone, is Kolumbo submarine volcanic chain which is extended 20Km with several volcanic domes aligned along this direction. The Kolumbo volcano had an explosive eruption in 1650 that killed 70 people on Santorini. The hydrothermal vent field in the crater floor of Kolumbo consists dominantly of active and inactive sulfide-sulfate structures in the form of vertical spires and pinnacles, mounds and flanges along a NE-SW trend, with temperatures up to 220°C and vigorous CO2 gas emission. For several years, the highest frequency of earthquakes was concentrated mainly in the vicinity of Kolumbo volcano. However, during 2011-2012 both seismic and geodetic unrest began abruptly inside Santorini caldera related to a shallow magmatic intrusion indicated by inflation. Recently, several earthquakes occurred in the region south of Christianna at the SW edge of the CSK line. This CSK line has possibly fed the post-caldera eruptions and is the main path for fluid circulation. In conclusion, the CSK tectonic line displays a special character in terms of morphology, volcanism, hydrothermal activity, seismicity and tectonic structure. It may cause important geohazards to the highly touristic Santorini island. Further seafloor investigations along this active line can provide insights into the overall geodynamic activity and aid the archipelago's hazard preparedness.

  13. Cenozoic tectono-stratigraphic evolution east of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone: geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichot, T.; Patriat, M.; Westbrook, G. K.; Nalpas, T.; Roest, W. R.; Gutscher, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Barracuda Ridge and the Tiburon Rise, two major oceanic basement ridges, lie at the western end of the diffuse North America-South America plate-boundary zone, where they enter the subduction zone beneath the Lesser Antilles island arc. Numerous Fracture Zones affect the oceanic crust in this area such as Fifteen Twenty FZ, Marathon FZ and Mercurius FZ. Uncertainties in kinematic models and GPS measurements are too high to accurately predict plate motions in the Barracuda Ridge and Tiburon Rise area. From an analysis of geophysical and geological data, including multibeam and seismic reflection profiles acquired in 2007, a detailed tectono-stratigraphic study was performed. We propose an evolutionary model for the geological history, including the timing of the uplift of the Barracuda and Tiburon ridges. Terrigenous turbidites originating from South America were delivered over the entire area, extending as far north as the Barracuda Ridge, since the early Paleogene. The Neogene turbiditic sequence is relatively thin north of the Tiburon Rise, where the Quaternary distal turbidites form a depocenter in the middle of the Tiburon basin. This basin is restricted by the uplift of the Barracuda Ridge and Tiburon Rise to the north and south, respectively, and by the flexural bulge of the subducting lithosphere to the west. Distal turbidites were also deposited in the deep trough north of Barracuda Ridge. The seafloor topography inherited from the crustal accretion at the mid-oceanic ridge, was buried by turbidites at the end of the Paleogene. The sediments were affected by short wavelength (about 3 km) syn-depositional folds and, mostly normal, faults. Later, during the Middle-Late Miocene and then during the Pleistocene, respectively, the Tiburon Rise and Barracuda Ridge were further uplifted and acquired their present elevation. Two lens-like bodies of mass transport deposits, up to 800-m thick, dated as late Early-Pleistocene, occupy an area greater than 20000 km2 from northeast to southeast of the Tiburon Rise. Although their source remains uncertain, their deposition coincides chronologically with the onset of the last major tectonic phase, accompanying the Barracuda Ridge uplift. This deformation is still active, as expressed by folds and faults affecting the seafloor. These structures are rooted in uplifted basement along the WNW-ESE trends of the fracture zones. There was a general northward migration of the zone of deformation and uplift of oceanic crust during the Neogene and Quaternary. This complex geodynamic situation is produced by transpression between the North American and South American plates and by deformation associated with their passage into the Lesser Antilles subduction zone.

  14. Red Sea Rift-Related Quseir Basalts, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrogenetic and Geodynamic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Esam; Ali, Shehata; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Mineral and whole rock chemistry of Tertiary Red Sea rift-related basalts occurred in south Quseir city, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt has been presented to investigate their petrogenetic and geodynamic evolution. The South Quseir basalts (SQB) have been classified as high-Ti tholeiitic lava (TiO2 >2 wt. %) emplaced in anorogenic tectonic setting. Their Mg# varies from 48 to 53. Pearce element ratios (PER) suggest that the SQB magmas have evolved through fractional crystallization of olivine + clinopyroxene plagioclase assemblages, however, the absence of Eu-anomaly argues against plagioclase fractionation. The clinopyroxene compositions provide evidence for polybaric fractionation of the parental mafic magma. Estimated temperatures of crystallization range from 1143 to 1323 oC for olivines, 1031 to 1207 oC for clinopyroxenes, 600 to 900 oC for feldspars, and 638 to 787 oC for Fe-Ti oxides. Oxygen fugacity (O2) values range from -15.16 to -19.5. The incompatible trace element signatures of the SQB (La/Ba = 0.08-0.10 and La/Nb = 0.89-1.04) are similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) generated from asthenospheric mantle source unaffected by subduction components. Modelling calculations indicate that the SQB primary magmas were derived from 4-5% partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source which had a potential temperature (Tp= 1334-1432 C; based on olivine liquid equilibria) corresponding to ambient temperature of MORB (i.e. passive rifting). This ambient mantle would have to rise to shallower depths (< 100 km) in the upper mantle to cross the dry mantle solidus and stimulate adiabatic partial melting. These estimates along with absence of HIMU (high ? refers to high 238U/204Pb) components (based on trace element data) show that the SQB volcanism isn't associated with thermally driven mantle plumes. Thus, the SQB magma generation is related to extensional regime through passive upwelling and adiabatic decompression melting of an asthenospheric mantle source associated with Red Sea rifting.

  15. ENVIMINE - developing environmental and geodynamical safety related to mine closure in the Barents region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, Ulpu; Kupila, Juho; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Konukhin, Vladimir; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    A project of mining environmental research in the Barents region was carried out in 2012-2014, in cooperation between Geological Survey of Finland, Mining Institute of Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, and Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. The study areas were the active chrome mine of Kemi in Northern Finland, and the closed mines of Umbozero in Murmansk region, Northwestern Russia, and Laver in Northern Sweden. Umbozero mine, producing rare earth metals, was in operation 1984-2004. Laver mine with iron sulphide ore, producing copper, was in operation 1936-1946. The objectives of the project were to develop a methodology for environmentally safe mine closure by cross border cooperation, and to produce information of the mining environment for target groups. The aim was also to find out solutions for minimizing environmental impacts and to develop multilateral relations between Finnish, Russian and Swedish organizations, responsible for environmental management. The studies were carried out by sampling and analyzing of groundwater and surface water, surficial deposits and organic sediments of streams in the mine sites and reference areas. Composition of deposits in the tailings was carried out by means of geophysical measurements (GPR, XRF). Research data of Kemi mine indicate diminished emissions, especially after open pit mining was finished in 2006. The results in Laver, Sweden, indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains in the tailings. Problems in Umbozero are seismic instability, high pH values of waters (max. 10.4), fluorine and aluminum concentrations in the mine site, due to the rock type. Concentrations were decreasing downstream, also heavy metal concentrations were low. Results of the project are the basis for updated database of environmental condition of the study areas and for assessment of environmental impacts. Database will be used for developing recommendations for providing environmental and geodynamical safety of Umbozero. The project was partly funded by the European Union.

  16. The Three-dimensional Geodynamic Model of The Pechenga Ore District (baltic Shield, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, K.; Kazansky, V.

    The drilling and investigation of the Kola superdeep borehole SG-3 for the first time provided direct data on the structure and composition of the ancient continental crust at previously inaccessible depths. They stimulated the elaboration of alternative three- dimensional models of the Pechenga ore district equally. These models consider the Pechenga structure that hosts large sulfide copper-nickel deposits as a graben-syncline, asymmetrical syncline, explosive volcanic center, and two-continent collision suture zone. The paper comprises the reappraisal of the alternative models and the charac- teristics of an integrated three-dimensional geodynamic model of the Pechenga ore district. Rock density and their anisotropy in elastic properties were used as the main parameters for the formalized description of the borehole SG-3 section and the refer- ence profile on the day surface. The first parameter reflects the rocks' lithology, the second accounts for the intensity of synmetamorphic tectonic deformations. In addi- tion, new age datings and morphology of the gravity field of the Pechenga district were considered. The computer-based technology insured reappraisal of the alterna- tive models by comparison of observed and calculated gravity profiles going through the borehole SG-3. The constraints of the proposed integrated model are based both on the investigations of the borehole SG-3 and on the additional surface studies. The model regards the Pechenga ore district as a horizontal section of a mantle-derived volcano-plutonic ore-forming system of the central type. The model defines the north- ern limb of the Pechenga structure as an imbricated fragment of a volcanic caldera and describes its southern limb as a combination of a sheeted monocline in a jux- taposition with rheomorphic granitoid domes. Development of the system was pre- ceded by rifting of the consolidated sialic crust. The model implies a co-genetic re- lationship between the Early Proterozoic basaltoid volcanism and the nickel-bearing basic-ultramafic plutonism. The basic and younger intermediate volcanic rocks filled two volcano-tectonic depressions associated with a thick zone of northwestern faults. Later on, the volcano-tectonic depressions experienced intense compression and meta- morphism that influenced the basement rocks, too. Finally, steep-dipping zones of cataclasis and retrograde metamorphism originated in an extension environment. The integrated model entails a new interpretation of localization conditions of the sulfide copper-nickel deposits and helps to understand the position of the Pechenga ore dis- 1 trict in the Pechenga-Imandra-Varzuga suture zone. This study was supported by the RFBR (projects nos. 01-05-64294, 01-05-64295). 2

  17. Self-organized geodynamics of karst limestone landscapes and coupled terra rossa/bauxite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, E.; Wang, Y.; Banerjee, A.

    2012-12-01

    Why do flat limestones overlain by terra rossa or bauxite systematically adopt so-called karst geomorphology, which consists of sets of roughly regularly spaced wormholes, or funnels, or sinkholes, or tower karst? The idea that the funnels and sinkholes are located at the intersections of preexisting sets of subvertical fractures is untenable. New field and petrographic evidence (Merino & Banerjee, J. Geology, 2008) revealed that, rather than 'residual' or 'detrital' (the only options that have been on the table for decades), the terra rossa/bauxite clays and Al- and Fe-oxyhydroxides grow authigenically at the base of the terra rossa, replacing the underlying limestone at a generally downward-moving reaction front several centimeters thick. The clay-for-limestone replacement, which preserves solid volume (because it takes place by clay-growth-driven pressure solution of calcite), releases H+ ions. These dissolve more calcite, generating considerable leached porosity in a narrow zone that travels with the replacement front. We proposed (Merino & Banerjee, J. Geology, 2008) that the moving leached-porosity maximum created at the front could trigger the reactive-infiltration instability (Chadam et al, IMA J. Appl. Math., 1986), causing the replacement-and-leaching reaction front to become regularly fingered, with the fingers jumping in scale to funnels, these to sinks, and these, when deep enough and merged together laterally, to tower karst. This new geodynamics would account both for the world-wide association of terra rossa and bauxite with karst limestones, and for the stunning, self-organized geomorphology of karst itself. We are testing these ideas through linear stability analysis of a simplified reaction-transport system of equations and through numerical solution of the full non-linear system of reaction-transport equations applicable, including aqueous speciation. Preliminary calculations (Banerjee & Merino, J. Geology, 2011) suggest that the replacement-and-leaching front is self-accelerating. The linear stability analysis may help to delineate climatic and hydrologic conditions for the development of spatial patterns of karst landscape and to predict the spacing of the patterns.

  18. Intraplate geodynamics and magmatism in the evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Kuzmin, M. I.; Ernst, R. E.

    2014-10-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was produced as a consequence of the successive closure of the Paleoasian Ocean and the accretion of structures formed within it (island arcs, oceanic islands, and backarc basins) to the Siberian continent. The belt started developing in the latest Late Neoproterozoic, and this process terminated in the latest Permian in response to the collision of the Siberian and North China continents that resulted in closure of the Paleoasian ocean (Metcalfe, 2006; Li et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2009; Xiao et al., 2010; Didenko et al., 2010). Throughout the whole evolutionary history of this Orogenic Belt, a leading role in its evolution was played by convergent processes. Along with these processes, an important contribution to the evolution of the composition and structure of the crust in the belt was made by deep geodynamic processes related to the activity of mantle plumes. Indicator complexes of the activity of mantle plumes are identified, and their major distribution patterns in CAOB structures are determined. A number of epochs and areas of intraplate magmatism are distinguished, including the Neoproterozoic one (Rodinia breakup and the origin of alkaline rock belt in the marginal part of the Siberian craton); Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian (origin of oceanic islands in the Paleoasian Ocean); Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician (origin of LIP within the region of Early Caledonian structures in CAOB); Middle Paleozoic (origin of LIP in the Altai-Sayan rift system); Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic (origin of the Tarim flood-basalt province, Central Asian rift system, and a number of related zonal magmatic areas); Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic (origin of continental volcanic areas in Central Asia). Geochemical and isotopic characteristics are determined for magmatic complexes that are indicator complexes for areas of intraplate magmatism of various age, and their major evolutionary trends are discussed. Available data indicate that mantle plumes practically did not cease to affect crustal growth and transformations in CAOB in relation to the migration of the Siberian continent throughout the whole time span when the belt was formed above a cluster of hotspots, which is compared with the African superplume.

  19. Geodynamic models of intraplate deformation: Applications to Canada's High-Arctic Eurekan Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, R.; Pysklywec, R. N.

    2012-12-01

    The Phanerozoic tectonic history of Canada's High-Arctic represents a complex history of collision, rifting and intra-plate deformation. Beginning in latest Devonian to earliest Carboniferous times, development of the Palaeozoic Franklinian Basin was terminated by the Ellesmerian Orogeny. Development of the Sverdrup Basin followed the Ellesmerian Orogeny. Subsequently, ~200 km of shortening occurred during the Eocene Eurekan Orogeny that affected parts of the Franklinian and Sverdrup Basins. A problem in distinguishing between Ellesmerian and Eurekan structures is that the Eurekan Orogeny overprinted and reactivated structures initially formed during the Ellesmerian Orogeny. Given that many of the Eurekan structures are reactivated Ellesmerian structures, it is often suggested that pre-existing mechanical weakness, such as faults and/or shear zones, and compositional boundaries likely controlled localization of Eurekan tectonism. Less invoked in the context of the Eurekan Orogeny, though arguably just as important in localizing intra-plate deformation, is strain localization resulting from spatial variations in the thermal state of the lithosphere (thermal refraction). We quantitatively investigate both processes and their importance in localizing deformation during the Eurekan Orogeny using a visco-plastic (thermally-activated power-law creep and Mohr-Coulomb rheologies) finite-element code that solves the governing equations of incompressible fluid flow. The tectonic problem is inherently related to the dynamics of the deep lithosphere where lower crust interacts with the mantle lithosphere, so the models are conducted at an upper mantle depth scale (600 km). The collisional models are evolved to the stage of a young orogen; e.g., ~15 Myr, ~200 km of shortening. The experiments demonstrate the thermal, rheologic, and kinematic conditions that control the reactivation of pre-existing structures and their importance during the Eurekan Orogeny. A free surface and prescribed erosional laws make up the top boundary of the model domain and allow topography to develop self consistently with the underlying geodynamics. We interpret the lithosphere structure and model topography in the context of constraints on the geometry of the Eurekan Orogeny, in addition to available geological/geophysical constraints on internal lithospheric structure.

  20. Geodynamic evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land: research highlights from an international geological-geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Joachim; Ehlburg, Marlina; Laeufer, Andreas; Clark, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka; Andersen, Tom; Mieth, Matthias; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole; Estrada, Solveig; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    East Antarctica formed by amalgamation of a number of cratons along distinct Ediacaran mobile belts, including the ca. 600-500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO) and the Kuunga Orogen that apparently converge in Dronning Maud Land (DML). In central DML, the major Forster Magnetic Anomaly separates rocks with Grenville-age protolith ages of ca. 1130-1000 Ma to the W, from rocks with Early Neoproterozic protolith ages, c. 1000-930 Ma, to the East. The Forster Magnetic Anomaly is therefore interpreted as a suture. New field-work during two recent international expeditions, Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica (GEA) I + II, and first geoscientic results reveal a complex tectonic architecture between Sør Rondane and central DML. East of the Forster anomaly, the magnetic anomaly pattern changes significantly and typical Maud type crust is not present any longer. GEA II targeted a range of nunataks between Sør Rondane and central DML that had never been visited previously (from Blåklettane and Bergekongen in the E to Urna and Sørsteinen in the W). These nunataks are dominated by medium- to high-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of possibly Neoproterozoic age, including abundant marble and graphite schists. Sør Rondane in eastern DML, is dominated by two distinct blocks separated by the dextral Main Shear Zone. The northwestern block appears as part of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen, where new SHRIMP zircon data from metamorphic rims provide ages of ca. 560 Ma. The southeastern block is made up of a TTG terrane, which provides 12 new zircon crystallistation ages ranging from 1000-930 Ma. The TTG terrane has predominantly oceanic affinities and the wide range of ages might indicate long-lasting accretionary tectonics. The TTG terrane shows in part limited tectonic overprint and could be the southeastern foreland of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen. Close to the contact of the two blocks, grey geisses and augen-gneisses gave zircon crystallization ages of ca. 750 Ma, ages which were previously unknown from the EAAO. The Forster anomaly therefore separates distinctly different parts of the EAAO: a) a reworked, mainly Grenville-age crust to the W (the overprinted margin of the Kalahari Craton) and b) a part of the orogen dominated by Neoproterozoic accretionary tectonics to the E. This difference is also reflected in the geochemistry of voluminous late-tectonics granitoids across the belt.

  1. Neoproterozoic/Lower Palaeozoic geodynamic evolution of Dronning Maud Land: integrating geology and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Joachim; Andreas, Läufer; Clark, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka; Elburg, Marlina; Ruppel, Antonia; Estrada, Solveig; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried; Riedel, Sven; Lucka, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    East Antarctica probably formed by amalgamation of a number of cratons along distinct Ediacaran mobile belts, including the ca. 600-500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO) that dissects Dronning Maud Land (DML). New field-work during the international expeditions Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica (GEA) I + II in the austral summers 2010/11 and 2011/12, and first geochronological results from eastern DML reveal a complex tectonic architecture across the belt. In western DML, the EAAO reworks older Mesoproterozoic crust of the Maud Belt; the westernmost boundary of the mobile belt is characterized by a major dextral transpressional shear zone. In central DML, a major magnetic anomaly, the Forster anomaly, was interpreted as a cryptic suture of the EAAO (Riedel et al. 2012). The area where the Forster anomaly crosses the DML mountains is poorly investigated so far, but appears to coincide with a major strike slip shear zone in the southern Kurze Mts. and the occurrence of major Ediacaran granulite bodies. East of the Forster anomaly, the magnetic anomaly pattern changes significantly and typical Maud type crust is not present any longer. GEA II targeted a range of nunataks between Sør Rondane and central DML that had never been visited previously (from Blåklettane and Bergekongen in the E to Urna and Sørsteinen in the W). These nunataks are dominated by medium- to high-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of possibly Neoproterozoic age, including abundant marble and graphite schists. Sør Rondane in eastern DML, is dominated by two distinct blocks separated by the dextral Main Shear Zone. The northwestern block is still part of the eastern EAAO, where new SHRIMP zircon data from metamorphic rims provide ages of ca. 560 Ma. The southeastern block is made up of a TTG terrane, which provides four new SHRIMP zircon dates between 990-980 Ma, interpreted as igneous crystallization ages (oceanic arc). The TTG terrane shows limited tectonic overprint and is likely the southeastern foreland of the EAAO. Close to the contact of the two blocks grey geisses and augen-gneisses gave zircon crystallization ages of ca. 750 Ma, ages which were previously unknown from the EAAO. The Forster anomaly therefore separates distinctly different parts of the EAAO: a) a reworked, mainly Grenville-age crust to the W (the overprinted margin of the Kalahari Craton) and b) a part of the orogen dominated by Neoproterozoic accretionary tectonics to the E. This difference is also reflected in the geochemistry of voluminous late-tectonics granitoids across the belt. Riedel, S. et al., 2012, Tectonophysics, doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2012.10.011

  2. AlpArray - an initiative to advance understanding of Alpine geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, György; AlpArray Working Group

    2013-04-01

    AlpArray is an initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 57 institutes in 16 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area from the Black Forest and the Bohemian Massif in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with a high-quality broadband seismometer backbone by combining the ca. 220 existing permanent stations with additional 300-340 instruments from mobile pools, all of them to be deployed from 2014-2015 until 2017. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage (ca. 40 km average station spacing). Furthermore, we also plan to deploy a few densely spaced targeted networks along swaths across - and in regions of - key parts of the Alpine chain on shorter time scales. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ca. 40-45 ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. We also aim to implement the best practice for synchronizing mobile pool operation procedures and data handling: common data centre and data management procedure, free access to data to participants as soon as possible through EIDA. Data will be open to the public 3 years after the experiment ends. The main scientific goal of AlpArray is to investigate the structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Alps. A primary target is the geometry and configuration of subducting slabs and their polarity switch beneath the arc. Numerous regional questions such as seismic hazard will be tackled. Targets will be imaged at several depths (e.g., from near-surface structure down to upper mantle anisotropy), scales (e.g., from local seismicity to mantle transition zone thickness variations), using different methodologies in the sub-regions of interest. An overview of these targets and the methodologies intended to be applied in connection with the seismological measurements will be presented. The geodynamic interpretation of the acquired data will be complemented by other Earth Science disciplines such as state-of-the-art numerical and analogue modelling, gravity and magneto-telluric measurements, as well as structural geology. In conclusion, we hope to turn the strong community interest into a truly interdisciplinary and collaborative project in the key region for seismotectonic activity and dynamics of Europe.

  3. Impact Origin for the Greater Ontong Java Plateau? Geophysical and Geodynamic Evidence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.; Ingle, S.

    2003-12-01

    The 120 Ma Greater Ontong Java Plateau (OJP), Earth's most voluminous large igneous province (LIP), encompasses 5.7 x 107 km3 of crust in the west Pacific Ocean. OJP defies explanation by extant plume models, and cannot be easily linked to any hotspot track. The arrival and decompression melting of a hot plume at the base of oceanic lithosphere, should have resulted in buoyancy and crustal growth capable of maintaining OJP above sea level. Yet all sampled OJP basalts erupted below sea level. Plateaus within oceanic lithosphere should subside via either thermal conduction or continuous viscous spreading, but interpreted paleoenvironments show that total OJP subsidence was much less than that of other oceanic LIPs or normal oceanic crust. A cylindrical, 300 km deep, low velocity root is centered beneath OJP's thickest crust. Its slow shear wave velocities could indicate a thermal anomaly sufficient to cause continued volcanism, but OJP shows no evidence of recent volcanism. Thus key geophysical and geodynamic results are at odds with a plume model for OJP's origin, and an extraterrestrial impact model seems much more consistent with existing data and results. A bolide 20 km in diameter, impacting young oceanic lithosphere would instantaneously remove >60 km of overlying crust and mantle, and extensive decompression melting would follow. Melt would flow into the crater, and would also exploit concentric and radial fractures beyond the crater, resulting in emplacement of the plateau and nearby ocean basin flood basalts. Anomalous mantle would fill space created by decompression melt beneath and proximal to the crater, creating a low-velocity mantle root rigidly coupled to OJP crust. In the impact scenario, OJP formed under conditions of isostatic equilibrium, and thus neither rose above sea level nor subsided as would typical oceanic lithosphere. Aptian time is marked by major global events that include onset of the Cretaceous normal magnetic polarity superchron, the Selli oceanic anoxic event, marine faunal extinctions and worldwide radiogenic isotopic excursions (Sr and Hf) in marine sediments. A major bolide impact could have caused or contributed to such phenomena.

  4. Terrane assembly and geodynamic evolution of central-western Hoggar: a synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caby, Renaud

    2003-10-01

    After a review of the rock sequences and evolution of the eastern and central terranes of Hoggar, this paper focusses on the Neoproterozoic subduction-related evolution and collision stages in the central-western part of the Tuareg shield. Rock sequences are described and compared with their counterparts identified in the western and the eastern terranes exposed in Hoggar and northern Mali. The Pharusian terrane that is described in detail, is floored in the east by the Iskel basement, a Mesoproterozoic arc-type terrane cratonized around 840 Ma and in the southeast by Late Paleoproterozoic rock sequences (1.85-1.75 Ga) similar to those from northwestern Hoggar. Unconformable Late Neoproterozoic volcanosedimentary formations that mainly encompass volcanic greywackes were deposited in troughs adjacent to subduction-related andesitic volcanic ridges during the c. 690-650 Ma period. Abundant arc-related pre-collisional calc-alkaline batholiths (650-635 Ma) intruded the volcanic and volcaniclastic units at rather shallow crustal levels prior to collisional processes. The main E-W shortening in the Pharusian arc-type crust occurred through several stages of transpression and produced overall greenschist facies regional metamorphism and upright folding, thus precluding significant crustal thickening. It was accompanied by the shallow emplacement of calc-alkaline batholiths and plutons. Ages of syn-collisional granitoids range from 620 Ma in the western terranes, to 580 Ma in the Pharusian terrane, thus indicating a severe diachronism. After infill of molassic basins unconformable above the Pan-African greenschists, renewed dextral transpression took place in longitudinal domains such as the Adrar fault. The lithology, volcanic and plutonic suites, deep greenschist facies metamorphism, structures and kinematics from the Adrar fault molassic belt previously considered as Neoproterozoic are described in detail. The younger late-kinematic plutons emplaced in the Pharusian terrane at 523 Ma [Lithos 45 (1998) 245] relate to a Cambrian tectonic pulse that post-dates molasse deposition. The new geodynamic scenario presented considers several paleosubductions. The major east-dipping subduction, corresponding to the closure of a large Pan-African oceanic domain in the west (680-620 Ma) post-dates an older west-dipping "Pharusian" subduction (690-650 Ma?) to the east of the eastern Pharusian terrane. Such a diachronism is suggested by the 690 Ma old eclogites of the western part of the LATEA terrane of central Hoggar [J. African Earth Sci. this volume (2003)] that are nearly synchronous with the building up of the Pharusian terrane, thus suggesting that the 450 ' lithospheric fault represents a reactivated cryptic suture.

  5. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacada?, A??rkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendrek and Sphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another remarkable indication of the advance of the mantle flow below Arabia is the northward propagation of within-plate alkaline basaltic volcanism which initiated ~30 Ma around the Afar region to SE Turkey in a time period of ~20 My. The northernmost portion of this alkaline basaltic province is represented by the Karacada? volcanic complex in SE Turkey which covers a footprint area of 10,000 km2 and consists of lavas ranging in age from ~11 Ma to 100 Ky. The Early Stage volcanism of Karacada? was dominated by magmas derived from a shallower metasomatized lithospheric mantle source, in contrast to the Late Stage volcanism which was sourced by a garnet-bearing, deep asthenospheric mantle with Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic composition transitional between Red Sea MORB and Afar plume (Keskin et al., 2012). After the initial contact of the Arabian and Eurasian continents at ~15 Ma, the subducted Tethyan slab steepened beneath the large EAAC, possibly resulting in widening, invasion and upwelling of the mantle wedge beneath E Anatolian accretionary complex. This possibly caused a sucking effect on the asthenosphere, creating a mantle flow from the Pontides in the north to the south (Keskin, 2003). A hot and buoyant asthenosphere emplaced beneath the thinned lithosphere, which is represented mostly by a mlange material, and resulted in the formation of a regional domal uplift. Dehydration of the sunken slab accompanied with decompression of the upwelling asthenospheric mantle generated magmas with a subduction signature which was imprinted on a relatively enriched source chemistry across E Anatolia in a period from 15 to 10 Ma. The slab broke off beneath the region, creating a slab window at around 10 Ma. This caused the enriched Afar-type asthenospheric mantle to flow to the north through the slab-window. As a result, the subduction-modified (i.e. due to slab dehydration) E Anatolian and the enriched Arabian asthenospheric mantles started to mix into each other. The eruption of the first alkaline lavas in the region at around 10 Ma (e.g. tephrites and alkali

  6. The seismic cycle on subduction thrusts: a laboratory validation and implications from large-scale geodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dinther, Ylona; Gerya, Taras; Dalguer, Luis; Mai, Martin; Corbi, Fabio; Funiciello, Francesca; Morra, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    The physics governing the seismic cycle at seismically active subduction zones remains poorly understood due to restricted direct observations in time and space. In this study, we present visco-elasto-plastic continuum numerical simulations as a new tool that may help to shed light onto the interaction of subduction mechanics and associated seismicity. First, we validate that these models, typically used in long-term geodynamic simulations, are able to reproduce seismological observables. Its ability to model cycles of large analogue earthquakes is demonstrated through a validation with innovative laboratory models (van Dinther et al., 2013). This benchmark shows cycles of fast frictional instabilities can be simulated (and matched), if velocity-weakening (and velocity-strengthening) friction are incorporated in the analogue seismogenic zone (and up- and downdip of it). The resulting model captures a wide range of physical phenomena observed in nature, including a) ruptures propagating as cracks or self-healing pulses; b) repeated slip on a single patch; and c) afterslip leading to postseismic surface displacements that complement a qualitative agreement with geodetic observations. In subsequent large-scale simulations, we include slip rate dependent friction into a thermo-mechanical model of a petrologically realistic continental margin to simulate earthquake-like events with recurrence intervals of a thousand years. These events exhibit surface displacements and earthquake source parameters comparable to nature, including the amount of slip, stress drop, and rupture width. However, rupture propagation is much slower than observed. These models reveal interesting geodynamic and seismological implications, including a) a reconciliation of low effective friction expected from geodynamic models (? < 0.1) with high strengths attained in laboratory experiments (static friction of ~0.7); b) a spontaneous downdip seismogenic limit near the Moho due to plastic strength increase and stress decrease as ductile flow becomes dominant; and c) a spontaneous deceleration of the rupture speed in the up-dip direction, though velocity-strengthening friction is needed to prevent the rupture from regularly breaking the trench.

  7. Daly Lecture: Geochemical Insights into Mantle Geodynamics and Plume Structure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    It is almost 50 years since the first documentation of mantle heterogeneity through the study of ocean island basalts (OIB) [1]. The origin, scale and source of these heterogeneities have been the subject of debate since then. One of the most common approaches in the study of mantle heterogeneities is to analyze the geochemistry of oceanic basalts brought to the surface by mantle plumes. The composition of these ocean island basalts is usually different from those extruded at mid-ocean ridges (MORB), even if some of the post-shield/rejuvenated volcanism of some islands present depleted isotopic signatures. Improved analytical precision for radiogenic isotopes, combined with statistical data treatment, allow for more detailed investigations into the geochemical variations of basalts related to hotspots and mantle plumes and for modeling of the shallow and deep plume structure. Identification of two clear geochemical trends (Loa and Kea) among Hawaiian volcanoes [2, 3] in all isotope systems [4], together with the recurrence of similar isotopic signatures at >350 kyr intervals, have implications for the dynamics and internal structure of the Hawaiian mantle plume conduit [5]. In this lecture, I will present a compilation of recent isotopic data for samples from the shield, post-shield/late shield and rejuvenated stages on Hawaiian volcanoes, focusing specifically on high-precision Pb isotopic data (MC-ICP-MS or DS, TS TIMS) and integrated with Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes. The Hawaiian mantle plume represents >80 Myr of volcanic activity in a pure oceanic setting and corresponds to a high plume flux. All isotopic systems indicate source differences for Loa- and Kea-trend volcanoes that are maintained throughout the ~1 Myr activity of each volcano and that extend back in time on all the Hawaiian Islands (to ~5 Ma). The Loa-trend source is more heterogeneous in all isotopic systems by a factor of ~1.5 than the Kea-trend source. There are also different geochemical trends with time (such as an increase of Pb isotopic ratios). Hawaiian post-shield and rejuvenated lavas have more Kea-like geochemical characteristics than the underlying shield lavas with only two exceptions. Their isotopic compositions are much less variable and extend towards more depleted values that depart from the shield mixing trends and that do not intersect MORB-type compositions. Comparable observations have been made on other oceanic islands [6] and this implies that the depleted component in mantle plumes is distinct from the MORB source, and is most likely unique to each plume. These results from Hawaii will be compared to other hotspots in different tectonic settings, such as Kerguelen, Galapagos, and Iceland, and some implications for mantle geodynamics will be discussed. [1] Gast et al. (1964) Science 145, 1181-1185. [2] Tatsumoto (1978) Earth and Planetary Science Letters 38, 63-87. [3] Abouchami et al. (2005) Nature 434, 3401-3406. [4] Weis et al. (2009) Eos Trans. AGU, 90(52), Abstract V41F-03. [5] Farnetani and Hofmann (2009, 2010) Earth and Planetary Science Letters 282, 314-322; 295, 231-240. [6] White (2010) Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 38, 133-160.

  8. International Tectonic Map of the Circumpolar Arctic and its Significance for Geodynamic Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, O. V.; Morozov, A.; Shokalsky, S.; Leonov, Y.; Grikurov, G.; Poselov, V.; Pospelov, I.; Kashubin, S.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 geological surveys of circum-arctic states initiated the international project "Atlas of Geological Maps of Circumpolar Arctic at 1:5 000000 scale". The project received active support of the UNESCO Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) and engaged a number of scientists from national academies of sciences and universities. Magnetic and gravity maps were prepared and printed by the Norwegian Geological Survey, and geological map was produced by the Geological Survey of Canada. Completion of these maps made possible compilation of a new Tectonic Map of the Arctic (TeMAr), and this work is now in progress with Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) in the lead of joint international activities. The map area (north of 60o N) includes three distinct roughly concentric zones. The outer onshore rim is composed of predominantly mature continental crust whose structure and history are illustrated on the map by the age of consolidation of craton basements and orogenic belts. The zone of offshore shelf basins is unique in dimensions with respect to other continental margins of the world. Its deep structure can in most cases be positively related to thinning and rifting of consolidated crust, sometimes to the extent of disruption of its upper layer, whereas the pre-rift evolution can be inferred from geophysical data and extrapolation of geological evidence from the mainland and island archipelagoes. The central Arctic core is occupied by abyssal deeps and intervening bathymetric highs. The Eurasia basin is commonly recognized as a typical oceanic opening separating the Barents-Kara and Lomonosov Ridge passive margins, but geodynamic evolution of Amerasia basin are subject to much controversy, despite significant intensification of earth science researchin the recent years. A growing support to the concept of predominance in the Amerasia basin of continental crust, particularly in the area concealed under High Arctic Large Igneous Province, is based on two lines of evidence: (1) seismic studies and gravity modeling of deep structure of the Earth's crust suggesting a continuity of its main layers from Central Arctic bathymetric highs to the adjoining shelves, and (2) geochrolology and isotope geochemistry of bottom rocks in the central Arctic Ocean indicating the likely occurrence here of Paleozoic supracrustal bedrock possibly resting on a Precambrian basement. In the process of compilation activities all possible effort will be made to reflect in the new international tectonic map our current understanding of present-day distribution of crust types in the Arctic. It will be illustrated by smaller-scale insets depicting, along with the crust types, additional information used for their recognition (e.g. depth to Moho, total sediment thickness, geotransects, etc. This will help to integrate geological history of Central Arctic Ocean with its continental rim and provide a sound basis for testing various paleogeodynamic models.

  9. Tracing lithosphere amalgamation through time: chemical geodynamics of sub-continental lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    The theory of plate tectonics is a relatively young concept in the Earth Sciences and describes the surface expression of planetary cooling via magmatism and reconciles mantle convection and plate movement with orogenesis, earthquakes and volcanism. Detailed observation of current tectonic plate movement has purported a relatively clear picture of the planet's geodynamics. Modern oceanic basins are the predominant sites of thermal equilibration of Earth interior resulting from decompressional, convective melting of peridotites. This magmatism generates mid-ocean ridge mafic crust and depleted upper mantle and in this model, oceanic crust becomes associated with buoyant mantle to form oceanic lithosphere. Subduction zones return this material together with sediments into the deeper mantle and presumably aid the formation of continental crust via arc magmatism. The mechanisms of continental crust amalgamation with buoyant mantle are less clear, and distinctly more difficult to trace back in time because metamorphism and metasomatism render the processes associating convecting mantle with continental crust elusive. Paramount in assessing these mechanisms is understanding the timing of crust and mantle formation so that the onset of plate tectonics and potential changes in modi operandi with respect to convection, mantle composition and melting pressure and temperature may be traced from the early Hadean to the present day. Typically the formation age of continental crust is more easily determined from felsic samples that contain accessory and relatively robust phases such as zircon and monazite that render a geochronological approach feasible. The lack of equally robust minerals and pervasive and ubiquitous metasomatism afflicting obducted orogenic peridotites and mantle xenoliths obliterates primary mineralogical and geochemical information. Hence it has proven difficult to acquire mantle depletion ages from continental lithospheric mantle, perhaps with the exception of Re-Os isotope dating of cratonic peridotites. Empiric mineralogical and geochemical data of continental and oceanic lithospheric mantle has been examined extensively and metasomatism has been studied in great detail. I will present a numerical modelling approach generating a comprehensive catalogue of variously depleted plagioclase-, spinel- and garnet-peridotite major and trace element compositions. In addition primary Pb, Sr, Nd, Hf and Os isotope data will approximate refractory mantle generated during Earth's major episodes of depletion and continental crust formation (1.2, 1.8, 2.9, 3.8 Ga). These hypothetical compositions will be compared to natural peridotites from on- and off-cratonic xenoliths, abyssal and orogenic peridotites to identify those rare samples least altered by interaction with silicate, hydrous and carbonatitic melts. Extremely depleted mantle has the potential to harbour Pb, Sr, Nd, Hf and Os isotope compositions that would be easily recognized if silicate melts were generated from this type of pristine mantle and the record of volcanic rocks will be examined to identify potential lithospheric melts.

  10. Geodynamic inversion to constrain the non-linear rheology of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, T. S.; Kaus, Boris J. P.

    2015-08-01

    One of the main methods to determine the strength of the lithosphere is by estimating it's effective elastic thickness. This method assumes that the lithosphere is a thin elastic plate that floats on the mantle and uses both topography and gravity anomalies to estimate the plate thickness. Whereas this seems to work well for oceanic plates, it has given controversial results in continental collision zones. For most of these locations, additional geophysical data sets such as receiver functions and seismic tomography exist that constrain the geometry of the lithosphere and often show that it is rather complex. Yet, lithospheric geometry by itself is insufficient to understand the dynamics of the lithosphere as this also requires knowledge of the rheology of the lithosphere. Laboratory experiments suggest that rocks deform in a viscous manner if temperatures are high and stresses low, or in a plastic/brittle manner if the yield stress is exceeded. Yet, the experimental results show significant variability between various rock types and there are large uncertainties in extrapolating laboratory values to nature, which leaves room for speculation. An independent method is thus required to better understand the rheology and dynamics of the lithosphere in collision zones. The goal of this paper is to discuss such an approach. Our method relies on performing numerical thermomechanical forward models of the present-day lithosphere with an initial geometry that is constructed from geophysical data sets. We employ experimentally determined creep-laws for the various parts of the lithosphere, but assume that the parameters of these creep-laws as well as the temperature structure of the lithosphere are uncertain. This is used as a priori information to formulate a Bayesian inverse problem that employs topography, gravity, horizontal and vertical surface velocities to invert for the unknown material parameters and temperature structure. In order to test the general methodology, we first perform a geodynamic inversion of a synthetic forward model of intraoceanic subduction with known parameters. This requires solving an inverse problem with 14-16 parameters, depending on whether temperature is assumed to be known or not. With the help of a massively parallel direct-search combined with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, solving the inverse problem becomes feasible. Results show that the rheological parameters and particularly the effective viscosity structure of the lithosphere can be reconstructed in a probabilistic sense. This also holds, with somewhat larger uncertainties, for the case where the temperature distribution is parametrized. Finally, we apply the method to a cross-section of the India-Asia collision system. In this case, the number of parameters is larger, which requires solving around 1.9 × 106 forward models. The resulting models fit the data within their respective uncertainty bounds, and show that the Indian mantle lithosphere must have a high viscosity. Results for the Tibetan plateau are less clear, and both models with a weak Asian mantle lithosphere and with a weak Asian lower crust fit the data nearly equally well.

  11. Geodynamic evolution of the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen based on geological and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentini, F.; Guarnieri, P.; Carbone, S.; di Stefano, A.

    2003-04-01

    The orogenic belt of the central Mediterranean, which extends from northern Africa to the southern Apennines across Sicily and the Calabrian Arc (Apenninic-Maghrebian Orogen), is a orocline located between a new oceanic area, the Tyrrhenian Basin and a foreland structural domain. The latter is represented by an oceanic area, the Ionian Basin, bounded by two continental blocks, the Apulia to the north and the Pelagian Block to the south. Both these blocks have the innermost sectors involved in the orogenic process, after that they were detached giving rise since late Miocene to the deepest structural layer of the orogen: the External Thrust System. The ETS consists of a regional thrust-fold system and tectonically underlies a pile of rootless nappes, that constitute a relevant portion of the orogenic domain. Two major regional structural levels can be distinguished: the Apenninian-Maghrebian Chain and the Kabilo-Calabride Chain. The AMC represents a roof thrust system composed of inner carbonate platform units (Panormide and Inner Apenninic Platforms) and of basinal sequences, ascribed to the innermost Tethyan units or to the deformed sector of an originally outermost Ionian palaeobasin. The AMC is also characterized by the general decoupling of the enormous volumes of Tertiary silicoclastics. The KKC is composed by basement nappes, originated by the delamination of the European margin. Prolongate geological observations, integrated with geophysical data, along the orogen allow to restore a palaeogeographic picture and permit to outline the geodynamic evolution. A wide Tethyan basin, in which the Sicilide and Liguride sequences deposited, can be identified; it originated since late Jurassic and was located between the European margin of the Sardinia Block and the Maghrebian Block, which has been recognized by CROP-Mare seismic lines in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea and interpreted as basement of the carbonate platform sequences of Panormide units. Between the latter and the Afro-Adriatic foreland a basinal area has been identified and ascribed to part of the original Ionian oceanic basin, in which Ionian sequences (Imerese, Sicanian, Lagonegro Units) deposited. After a previous alpine orogenesis, whose evidences occur only in northern Calabria, the convergence resulted in the final closure of the Tethys realm. The subduction of the Tethyan slab became established along with the structural organization of the units of the European margin into a sliced basement chain (Kabylo-Calabride Chain) and emplacement of an accretionary wedge constituted by the Sicilide and Liguride Units. This is evident from: the development of a back-arc basin with oceanic crust (Balearic Basin) with consequent anticlockwise rotation of the Sardo-Corsican Block, by the formation of the calc-alkaline volcanic arc of Sardinia, and by the structural organization of an Africa-vergent accretionary wedge (Sicilide/Liguride mlange complex). The end of this first phase of convergence is testified by the cessation of calc-alkaline volcanic activity, which coincides with the stop of anticlockwise rotation of the Sardo-Corsican Block at the Burdigalian-Langhian boundary. Geological data show that, during the same time interval, the orogenic areas suffered a tectonic phase which resulted in the wide superposition of units of internal origin (Sicilide and Liguride Units) upon the siliciclastic covers belonging to external sectors. Since Middle Miocene, a second phase led to the structural organization of the inner carbonate platform units (Panormide Units), detached from their basement, represented by the continental Maghrebian crust. The platforms thrust onto the Ionian basinal units (Imerese/Sicanian/M. Judica Units). The involvement of these units in the deformation front of the chain marks the beginning of subduction of the Ionian crust, and the progressive collision of the crustal back-stop of the chain against the Afro-Adriatic margins. On the African foreland, the crustal lineaments inherited from the Mesozoic palaeogeography, show an oblique direction w

  12. Variations in grain size and viscosity based on vacancy diffusion in minerals, seismic tomography, and geodynamically inferred mantle rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliovi?, Petar; Forte, Alessandro M.; Ammann, Michael W.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of grain size on mantle viscosity is comparable to that of temperature and pressure. The current 3-D distribution of grain size in the mantle is, however, unknown. To explore the possible variability of grain size, we use the following: geodynamic inferences of effective viscosity, vacancy diffusion rates in upper mantle minerals and perovskite in the lower mantle, lateral variations in temperature derived from seismic images, and different geotherms. An important outcome of this modeling is a new mapping of lateral viscosity variations throughout the mantle. The corresponding 3-D variations in grain size are characterized by 2 orders of magnitude changes. We find a correlation between grain size variability in the mantle and absolute viscosity changes with depth. Our findings suggest that the traditional assumption of Arrhenius temperature dependence for vacancy diffusion in the lower mantle is not sufficient to constrain the deformation mechanisms that determine its effective bulk viscosity.

  13. Practical analytical solutions for benchmarking of 2-D and 3-D geodynamic Stokes problems with variable viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, I. Yu.; Lobanov, I. S.; Popov, S. I.; Popov, A. I.; Gerya, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    Geodynamic modeling often involves challenging computations involving solution of Stokes and continuity equations under condition of highly variable viscosity. Based on new analytical approach we developed generalized analytical solutions for 2-D and 3-D incompressible Stokes flows with both linearly and exponentially variable viscosity. We demonstrated how these generalized solutions can be converted into 2-D and 3-D test problems suitable for benchmarking numerical codes aimed at modeling various mantle convection and lithospheric dynamics problems. Main advantage of this new generalized approach is that large variety of benchmark solutions can be generated including relatively complex cases with open model boundaries, non-vertical gravity and variable gradients of viscosity and density fields, which are not parallel to Cartesian axes. Examples of respective 2-D and 3-D MatLab codes are provided with this paper.

  14. Practical analytical solutions for benchmarking of 2-D and 3-D geodynamic Stokes problems with variable viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, I. Yu.; Lobanov, I. S.; Popov, S. I.; Popov, A. I.; Gerya, T. V.

    2014-06-01

    Geodynamic modeling is often related with challenging computations involving solution of the Stokes and continuity equations under the condition of highly variable viscosity. Based on a new analytical approach we have developed particular analytical solutions for 2-D and 3-D incompressible Stokes flows with both linearly and exponentially variable viscosity. We demonstrate how these particular solutions can be converted into 2-D and 3-D test problems suitable for benchmarking numerical codes aimed at modeling various mantle convection and lithospheric dynamics problems. The Main advantage of this new generalized approach is that a large variety of benchmark solutions can be generated, including relatively complex cases with open model boundaries, non-vertical gravity and variable gradients of the viscosity and density fields, which are not parallel to the Cartesian axes. Examples of respective 2-D and 3-D MatLab codes are provided with this paper.

  15. New data on the age and geodynamic interpretation of the Kalba-Narym granitic batholith, eastern Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, P. D.; Khromykh, S. V.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Navozov, O. V.; Travin, A. V.; Karavaeva, G. S.; Kruk, N. N.; Murzintsev, N. G.

    2015-06-01

    Geological and new geochronological data are summarized for the Kalba-Narym granitic batholith in eastern Kazakhstan, and their geodynamic interpretation is suggested. In the structure of the batholith, we consider (from late to early) the Kunush plagiogranitic complex, the Kalguta granodiorite-granitic association, and the Kalba granitic, Monastery leucogranitic, and Kainda granitic complexes. The granitic complexes of the Kalba-Narym batholith were formed between the Carboniferous-Permian and the Early-Middle Permian (˜30 Ma). New data indicate that formation of the Kalba-Narym batholith was related to the activity of the Tarim mantle plume. Heating of the lithosphere by the plume coincided with postcollision collapse of the orogenic structure and led to the crust melting and formation of the studied granitic complexes in a relatively short period.

  16. Generations of spreading basins and stages of breakdown of Wegener's Pangea in the geodynamic evolution of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipilov, E. V.

    2008-03-01

    Chronological succession in the formation of spreading basins is considered in the context of reconstruction of breakdown of Wegener’s Pangea and the development of the geodynamic system of the Arctic Ocean. This study made it possible to indentify three temporally and spatially isolated generations of spreading basins: Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic, and Cenozoic. The first generation is determined by the formation, evolution, and extinction of the spreading center in the Canada Basin as a tectonic element of the Amerasia Basin. The second generation is connected to the development of the Labrador-Baffin-Makarov spreading branch that ceased to function in the Eocene. The third generation pertains to the formation of the spreading system of interrelated ultraslow Mohna, Knipovich, and Gakkel mid-ocean ridges that has functioned until now in the Norwegian-Greenland and Eurasia basins. The interpretation of the available geological and geophysical data shows that after the formation of the Canada Basin, the Arctic region escaped the geodynamic influence of the Paleopacific, characterized by spreading, subduction, formation of backarc basins, collision-related processes, etc. The origination of the Makarov Basin marks the onset of the oceanic regime characteristic of the North Atlantic (intercontinental rifting, slow and ultraslow spreading, separation of continental blocks (microcontinents), extinction of spreading centers of primary basins, spreading jumps, formation of young spreading ridges and centers, etc., are typical) along with retention of northward propagation of spreading systems both from the Pacific and Atlantic sides. The aforesaid indicates that the Arctic Ocean is in fact a hybrid basin or, in other words, a composite heterogeneous ocean in respect to its architectonics. The Arctic Ocean was formed as a result of spatial juxtaposition of two geodynamic systems different in age and geodynamic style: the Paleopacific system of the Canada Basin that finished its evolution in the Late Cretaceous and the North Atlantic system of the Makarov and Eurasia basins that came to take the place of the Paleopacific system. In contrast to traditional views, it has been suggested that asymmetry of the northern Norwegian-Greenland Basin is explained by two-stage development of this Atlantic segment with formation of primary and secondary spreading centers. The secondary spreading center of the Knipovich Ridge started to evolve approximately at the Oligocene-Miocene transition. This process resulted in the breaking off of the Hovgard continental block from the Barents Sea margin. Thus, the breakdown of Wegener’s Pangea and its Laurasian fragments with the formation of young spreading basins was a staged process that developed nearly from opposite sides. Before the Late Cretaceous (the first stage), the Pangea broke down from the side of Paleopacific to form the Canada Basin, an element of the Amerasia Basin (first phase of ocean formation). Since the Late Cretaceous, destructive pulses came from the side of the North Atlantic and resulted in the separation of Greenland from North America and the development of the Labrador-Baffin-Makarov spreading system (second phase of ocean formation). The Cenozoic was marked by the development of the second spreading branch and the formation of the Norwegian-Greenland and Eurasia oceanic basins (third phase of ocean formation). Spreading centers of this branch are functioning currently but at an extremely low rate.

  17. A study on parameters for implicit penalizing-load algorithms for stabilization of free surfaces in geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres-Martinez, Miguel; Phipps Morgan, Jason; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Ruepke, Lars H.

    2014-05-01

    Earth surface in geodynamic codes has been typically modeled as a free-stress surface, which means that the total stresses applied to the surface are considered zero value. Free surface allows topography to be generated in response to the inner forces of geodynamic models. Surficial processes, such as erosion and sedimentation, reshape topography and, therefore, change the loads to be considered in the geodynamic processes. Therefore, a free surface is also needed to couple modeling of surficial processes together with mantle dynamics. Real free surface models also allow to study relaxation of topography, such as isostatic post-glacial rebound, in a geodynamic setting. However, free surfaces have typically confronted stability problems when the time step chosen to run the model is bigger than the viscous relaxation time. Time steps small enough to avoid free-surface instabilities usually result in computationally expensive models. We have developed a free-surface stabilization algorithm (FSSA) to avoid instabilities for bigger time steps (>10 Kyr), which penalizes the system with a load calculated implicitly from a portion of the difference between the topography for an initial time step, and the future topography in the next time step. The penalization load is formulated based on the velocities at the nodes for the beginning of the time step, and applied to the nodes at the beginning of the same time step. Additionally, we have coded the FSSA described in Kaus, Mhlhaus and May (2010), for comparison. Their algorithm also penalizes the system with a load which is calculated deriving the surface traction terms from the time discretization of the momentum equation. The penalizing terms in both our and Kaus' FSSAs are controlled by a factor which value ranges between 0 and 1. Several simplistic viscous tests have been run in order to find the optimal (more accurate and more stable) control factor for both algorithms. These tests showed that both methods produce very similar and accurate results (error ~<0.01), and that 2/3 is the optimal control factor for together stability and accuracy, for both FSSAs. The penalizing terms account for a vertical component and an horizontal component, which are symmetric and asymmetric in Stiffness-shape form, respectively. Consequently, the horizontal component of the penalization makes the Stiffness matrix to be asymmetric, so Cholesky factorization cannot be applied, which results into a slower solution of the system. We have developed a scheme to apply Cholesky factorization to the symmetric terms, and use Uzawa-like iterations to include the asymmetric terms in the system. This should intuitively give more stable results than FSSAs that omit the horizontal penalization terms, especially for topographies with steep slopes, where the horizontal component of the velocities is an important term for the surface displacement.

  18. Estimation of Non-Seasonal Oceanic Mass Redistribution and its Geodynamic Effects from the Topex/Poseidon Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Ray, Richard D.; Au, A. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Mass redistribution in terms of angular momentum will change the Earth's rotation under the conservation of angular momentum. It also changes the external gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law. These small geodynamic variations can be measured very accurately by modem space geodetic techniques. We report on new estimates of the oceanic tidal angular momentum and hence the tidal variations in the Earth's rotation rate and polar motion. These are deduced from the new tidal solutions GOT99 and TPXO.3, plus M2 and Mf estimates (with error bars) from TPXO.4a. Comparisons with observed diurnal/semidiurnal tidal variations are generally similar to previous model estimates. Comparisons of models and observations of Mf polar motion are confused, with neither models nor observations agreeing among themselves or with each other. Part of this is caused by differences in Mf currents; model TPXO.4 shows current-intensive Rossby modes along western boundaries of major basins, which are indeed expected on theoretical grounds. Unfortunately, there are no reliable in situ observations of Mf currents useful for comparing models. On non-tidal oceanic mass redistribution we compute the principal components of the multi-year T/P sea surface height (SSH) field using EOF (empirical orthogonal functions) taking into consideration of the latitude-dependent area weighting. Emphasis is placed upon non-seasonal and interannual oscillations on regional scales, including ENSO and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Steric corrections to the observed SSH due to sea surface temperature changes (which has no geodynamic effects) is now under study using POCM ocean model output.

  19. Paleogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: Paleotopographic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Guillocheau, Franois; Robin, Ccile; Rohais, Sbastien; Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The geodynamic processes that control the opening of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean (between the Walvis Ridge and the Ascension FZ) are debated. In this paper, we discuss the timing of the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift by drawing eight paleogeographic and geodynamic maps from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollen) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains, with a two phases evolution of the pre-drift ("rifting") times: a rift phase characterized by tilted blocks and growth strata, followed by a sag basin. The southern domain includes the Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from the Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the south, to the Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the north. Extension started in the northern domain during the Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to the Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain (emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp). Extension started in this southern domain during the Early Barremian. The rift phase is shorter in the south (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the north (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to base Aptian). The sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age. From the Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower organic-rich one with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until the Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until the Early Barremian, north of Walvis Ridge.

  20. About the Relation Between Geodynamics of the Sedimentary Basin and the Properties of Crude Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, R.; Plotnikova, I.

    2012-04-01

    Earlier, we wrote and reported about the modern geodynamic activity of the territory of South-Tatar arch, where the Romashkino oil field. We identified a periodic change in flow rates of oil and oil density at Romashkino and other oil fields of the South Tatar arch. Now we have studied the composition of oils and bitumoids from uneven (in terms of age) deposites of the sedimentary cover and basement rocks in the zones of possible hydrocarbon seepage in the central squares of Romashkinskoye field. The results of the comparative studies allowed us to come to the conclusion that the formation of oil-bearing deposits of Romashkinskoye field owes to the income and mixing of hydrocarbons (HC) fluids from different sources. The analysis of geological and production data (GPD) that was held during the many years of exploitation of the development wells of Romashkinskoye field by TatNIPIneft under the direction of I.F. Glumov suggests contemporary inflow of hydrocarbons in the industrial oil reservoir of the Pashi horizon of Romashkinskoye field and the existence of localized areas of inflow of new portions of HC. A number of criteria was worked out in the analysis of the GPD; that allowed us to identify among the total number of wells those, in which the process of hydrocarbon seepage was recorded with the greatest probability. Such wells were called anomalous. One of the directions of this research was to study the geochemical characteristics of oil from anomalous wells and to determine the degree of similarity and difference between this oil and the oil from both normal wells (in which the signs of deep seepage is not recorded), and bituminoid from the crystalline basement and sedimentary cover. If the hypothesis of a recurrent (also in modern times) influx of deep hydrocarbon is correct, then the oil from the anomalous wells should have specific features in comparison with the wells located outside the areas of the expected inflow. The results of geochemical studies of oil and organic matter in sedimentary cover rocks that were carried out within the last decade gave us new and unexpected conclusions. First, on the basis of pyrolysis it was found that the top agent of domanikits of the upper Devonian (which were traditionally considered to be a source rock for most crudes of the Volga-Ural region) is characterized by a low degree of catagenetic maturity. These rocks were not submerged to the depth of more than 2.5 km and were not included in the main area of oil and gas formation in most parts of its distribution within the Republic of Tatarstan, which corresponds to the main territory of North- and South-Tatar arch with surrounding areas of deflections and depressions. Comprehensive study of oil from the anomalous wells showed that these oils have certain characteristics different from normal oil wells, therefore, the hypothesis of a modern inflow of hydrocarbons is consistent and specific studies of this process should be continued. The estimated (by biomarker parameters) lack of genetic relationship between oil from producing under-domanik horizons (Pashi, Timansky, Ardatovsky and Vorobyevsky) and the top agent in domanikits indicates the need for searching of the sources of oil generation and confirms the viability of the hypothesis of deep origin of HC and their inflow into the sedimentary cover through the crystalline base. The oil from the anomalous wells should be subject to special investigations in the monitoring mode designed to examine the isotopic systematics of Sr and Nd, isotope characteristics of helium, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen in the dissolved gases. The design of these studies needs to be linked, in the first place, with the seismic events continuing on the territory of Tatarstan, as the relationship between the change of the carbon isotopic composition and the seismic events has previously been established. Also in the condition of a recurrent inflow of new portions of the deep HC, it would be logical to assume the changes in the isotopic composition of elements of the dissolved gas.

  1. Joint seismic and geodynamic evidence for a long-lived, stable mantle upwelling under the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Glisovic, P.; Rowley, D. B.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Global seismic tomography has consistently imaged large-scale structures in the lower mantle under the Pacific Ocean and under Africa that are characterised by strongly reduced seismic shear velocities. These so-called "low shear-velocity provinces" (LVSP) have been variously interpreted as hot, stagnant thermochemical "piles" that are compositionally dense, or as deeply rooted expressions of positively buoyant, active upwellings. To distinguish which of these two end-member models is relevant to the actual dynamics in the deep mantle requires robust constraints on the density structure of these LVSP. Recent global tomography models reveal what appear to be three distinct 'lobes' of the Pacific LVSP: one located in the Western-Pacific mantle under the Caroline Islands, another in the South-Central-Pacific mantle under French Polynesia, and another below the East Pacific Rise (EPR), centred under Easter Island. To understand the dynamics and time-dependent evolution of these structures we employ recent tomography models derived from the joint inversion of global seismic and geodynamic data sets, which also include constraints from mineral physics (Simmons et al., GJI 2009, JGR 2010). A critically important feature of these joint tomography models is the inclusion of a laterally variable scaling between density and seismic shear velocity, thereby accounting for the spatially localized effect of compositional heterogeneity in the lower mantle. These lower-mantle compositional contributions to density are directly constrained by long-wavelength gravity anomaly data and the excess ellipticity of the CMB. We show that it is not possible to properly account for this compositional heterogeneity using a constant, or simple depth-dependent density-velocity scaling. We have carried out very-long-time mantle convection simulations employing as a starting condition the joint seismic-geodynamic inferences of mantle density structure (Glisovic et al., GJI 2012). We demonstrate with both time-reversed and forward integration of the thermal convective evolution of the LVSP under the Pacific, that the principal plume-like upwellings are directly under the EPR and under the Caroline Islands. The deep-mantle anomaly at the centre of the LVSP, under French Polynesia, yields almost no upwelling, owing to the joint seismic-geodynamic inference of significant compositional heterogeneity that opposes its thermal buoyancy. We find that the EPR 'superplume' is particularly long-lived and stable, over time spans in excess of a hundred million years (Glisovic et al., GJI 2012). Time-reversed simulations over the past 65 Ma also show a stable upwelling under the EPR (Glisovic & Forte, EPSL submitted 2013). This remarkable stability provides a direct explanation for the recent inference of strong lateral fixity of the EPR spreading centre from geological reconstructions of plate kinematics over the past 83 Ma (Rowley et al., AGU 2011, Nature submitted 2012).

  2. Geodynamics of the Carpathian-Pannonian region: Insights from low temperature thermochronology of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreucci, Benedetta; Zattin, Massimiliano; Castelluccio, Ada; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Jankowski, Leszek

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the geodynamic evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region has been the subject of a heated scientific debate. This orogenic system formed between the Late Jurassic and the Neogene by the collision of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform, and assumed its present-day configuration mainly during the Miocene, when the extensional Pannonian Basin formed in a retro wedge position, while compression was still active along the Carpathian front. The most common and widely accepted interpretation for the Miocene evolution of this region is based on a classical back-arc extension model and subsequent astenospheric upwelling and slab break-off. Nonetheless several authors proposed other possible driving mechanisms for the formation of the Pannonian Basin, such as lithosphere delamination or lithospheric gravitational instability. Thermochronometry provides important constrains to the depths of burial and to the timing and rates of exhumation. Each geodynamic scenario proposed for the Carpathian-Pannonian region implies a different spatial distribution of burial and a different timing of exhumation. In this work we use a compilation of several low-temperature thermochronometric datasets, referred to the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians, to evaluate their compatibility with the different geodynamic models proposed so far. In order to achieve this goal we examine the spatial distribution of burial depths and of ages and rates of exhumation and we put them in relation with (i) the spatial trend of the relief, (ii) heat flow, (iii) crustal and lithospheric thickness, and (iv) structural setting. We propose a subdivision of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians in three different tectonic domains, based on geophysical and structural parameters. Each single area is characterized also by different burial-exhumation history and requires a specific explanation in terms of driving processes. In particular, we infer that exhumation occurred by erosion of the wedge during thrusting in the western area, by erosion and tectonic denudation driven by post-thrusting extension in the central sector, and by erosion of the uplifting wedge after the end of thrusting in the eastern sector. Based on the non-homogeneous burial depths inferred for the western and central sectors, we suggest the lack of a subducting slab and subsequent break-off in these areas. Furthermore, the distribution of exhumation ages along the chain is not compatible with a clockwise (E to SE ward) progressive slab break-off, the youngest ages being located in the central area, at the Polish-Ukraine boundary. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Miocene extension of the Carpathian-Pannonian region was triggered by gravitational instability and subsequent lithosphere downwelling, below the Carpathians mountain belt, and astenosphere upwelling below the Pannonian Basin. This process is compatible with the burial-exhumation distribution observed along the study region. Furthermore, it is able to explain both the coupled crustal extension and lithospheric thickening observed in the central sector (Poland-Ukraine boundary) and the progressive transition between the extending and subsiding Pannonian Basin and the uplifting Carpathians in the eastern area.

  3. What can zircon ages from the Jack Hills detrital zircon suite really tell us about Hadean geodynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    As the only direct sample of the Hadean Earth, detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been the subject of intense investigation over the almost three decades since their discovery. A wide variety of geochemical and isotopic analyses of these grains, as well as their mineral inclusions, have been used variously to support two fundamentally different models for Hadean geodynamics: (i) Some form of (not necessarily modern-style) plate recycling generating felsic (continental-type?) crust at the boundaries [1, 2], or conversely (ii) the persistence of a long-lived, stagnant basaltic lid within which magmatism occurred as a result of internal temperature perturbations and/or impacts [3, 4], a model also generally consistent with a wide range of observations from post-Hadean geochemical reservoirs. Despite the considerable time and resources expended, the majority of these studies uncritically accept the individual U-Pb zircon ages, even though their veracity is key to many of the interpretations [5, 6]. We report here the results of an in-depth evaluation of all published (and new) U-Pb ages from the Jack Hills zircon suite in order to define age populations that can be used with a high degree of confidence in geodynamic interpretations. A notable problem in the interpretation of U-Pb data from ancient zircon grains (including those as young as the Neoarchean) is that disturbance of the systematics even several 100 Ma after crystallization causes data to spread along the concordia curve without becoming discernably discordant within the relatively large error bounds associated with U/Pb ages from in situ dating methods (e.g. SIMS). While 207Pb/206Pb ages are typically more precise, individually they provide no means to detect Pb-loss-induced younging. However, if two or preferably more analyses have been made in the same zircon growth zone, a reasonable evaluation of the possibility of Pb-loss can be made. In the available Jack Hills zircon dataset, only 111 grains have been analysed at least twice and of these, only 48 give a consistent internal age, while only 14 have been analysed more than twice and can strictly be considered to yield true ages. Two resulting age peaks at 4.18 - 4.08 Ga and 4.05 - 3.98 Ga potentially represent major magmatic events in the Hadean. In order to explain ages >4.18 Ga, a magmatic event as old as the oldest reliable Jack Hills zircon age of 4.374 Ga is also required. The significance of this limited number of magmatic events for Hadean global geodynamic models will be discussed. References: [1] Harrison, T.M. et al. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 69 (10), A390-A390 (2005), [2] Peck, et al. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 65 (22), 4215-4229 (2001), [3] Kemp, A.I.S. et al. EPSL, 296 (1-2), 45-56 (2010), [4] Kamber, B.S., et al., Contrib Mineral Petr 145 (1), 25-46 (2003), [5] Cavosie, A.J., et al., Precambrian Res 135 (4), 251-279 (2004). [6] Holden P, et al., Int. J. Masspectrometry, 286, 53-63 (2009)

  4. Digital files for northeast Asia geodynamics, mineral deposit location, and metallogenic belt maps, stratigraphic columns, descriptions of map units, and descriptions of metallogenic belts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Diggles, Michael F.; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Obolensky, Alexander A.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Yan, Hongquan

    2004-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. It contains all of the data that are on the disc but extra files have been removed: index files, software installers, and Windows autolaunch files. This publication contains a a series of files for Northeast Asia geodynamics, mineral deposit location, and metallogenic belt maps descriptions of map units and metallogenic belts, and stratigraphic columns. This region includes Eastern Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, Northeast China, South Korea, and Japan. The files include: (1) a geodynamics map at a scale of 1:5,000,000; (2) page-size stratigraphic columns for major terranes; (3) a generalized geodynamics map at a scale of 1:15,000,000; (4) a mineral deposit location map at a scale of 1:7,500,000; (5) metallogenic belt maps at a scale of 1:15,000,000; (6) detailed descriptions of geologic units with references; (7) detailed descriptions of metallogenic belts with references; and (8) summary mineral deposit and metallogenic belt tables. The purpose of this publication is to provide high-quality, digital graphic files for maps and figures, and Word files for explanations, descriptions, and references to customers and users.

  5. Numerical investigation of the geodynamic mechanism for the late Jurassic deformation of the Ordos block and surrounding orogenic belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yujun; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-12-01

    Orogenic belts have developed along the edges of the stable Ordos block, in northern China. Three main geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the formation of these orogenic belts. They have included the collision between the North China and South China blocks, subduction of the Pacific plate, and stresses transmitted over long distances from the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean. However, these explanations are still controversial and not universally accepted, leaving the mechanisms that formed the orogenic belts poorly understood. To address these fundamental questions, we developed a 3D numerical model using the finite element method to explore the geodynamic mechanism for the late Jurassic deformation of the Ordos block and its surrounding orogenic belts. We investigated the effect of different dynamic regimes on the late Jurassic deformation of this region. Our primary results suggest that strong and stable Ordos block remains undeformed despite its location at the center of a region of deformation. East-west trending fold-and-thrust belts would have developed along the north and south edges of the Ordos block during the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean or the collision between the North China and South China blocks. North-south trending fold-and-thrust belts would have developed along the east and west edges of the Ordos block due to subduction of the Pacific plate. However, the paleo-stress field in the late Jurassic indicates that the orientations of the maximum compressive principle stress were nearly perpendicular to the edge of the Ordos block and the compressive deformation around it was coeval. It is difficult to explain the distribution of belts of deformation with a single stress regime. Our numerical model reveals that multi-direction convergence pattern with time during the transformation of these three regimes can be used to interpret the formation and deformation styles of ringed mountains around the Ordos block during the late Jurassic. This proposed mechanism results in many insights into the Mesozoic tectonic deformation and mountain building of this region.

  6. Origin and geodynamic significance of the early Mesozoic Weiya LP and HT granulites from the Chinese Eastern Tianshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Juan; He, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Ze-Ming; Klemd, Reiner; Xiang, Hua; Tian, Zuo-Lin; Zong, Ke-Qing

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese Tianshan in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is characterized by a variety of high-grade metamorphic rocks, which provide critical constraints for understanding the geodynamic evolution of the CAOB. In this paper, we present detailed petrological and zircon U-Pb geochronological studies of the Weiya low-pressure and high-temperature (LP-HT) granulites of the Chinese Eastern Tianshan. These granulites were previously considered to be a product of a regional metamorphic orogenic event. Due to different bulk-rock chemistries the Weiya granulites, which occur as lenses within the contact metamorphic aureole of the Weiya granitic ring complex, have a variety of felsic-pelitic and mafic granulites with different textural equilibrium mineral assemblages including garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-bearing granulites, cordierite-sillimanite-bearing granulites, cordierite-orthopyroxene-bearing granulites, and orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-bearing granulites. Average P-T thermobarometric calculations and conventional geothermobarometry indicates that the Weiya granulites underwent early prograde metamorphism under conditions of 600-650 °C at 3.2-4.2 kbar and peak metamorphism of 750-840 °C at 2.9-6.3 kbar, indicating a rather high geothermal gradient of ca. 60 °C/km. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating revealed metamorphic ages between 244 ± 1 to 237 ± 3 Ma, which are in accordance with the crystallization age of the Weiya granitic ring complex. We suggest that the formation of the Weiya granulites was related to contemporaneous granitic magmatism instead of a regional metamorphic orogenic event. In addition, a Late Devonian metamorphic age of ca. 380 Ma was recorded in zircon mantle domains from two pelitic samples which is consistent with the metamorphic age of the Xingxingxia metamorphic complex in the Chinese Eastern Tianshan. This suggests that the mantle domains of the zircon grains of the Weiya granulites probably formed during the Late Devonian regional metamorphism and were overprinted by the Early Triassic contact metamorphism. Therefore, Early Triassic geodynamic models for the southwestern part of the CAOB, which are based on a previously suggested regional metamorphic orogenic event of the Weiya granulites, need to be viewed with caution.

  7. New evidence of delamination in the Western Alboran Sea. Geodynamic evolution of the Alboran domain and its margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoulali, Youssef; Djellit, Hamou; Hahou, Youssef; Jabour, Nacer; Merrouch, Redouane

    2014-07-01

    The presence of continuous upper crustal blocks between the Iberian Betics and Moroccan Rif in the western and middle Alboran Sea, detected with tomography, can add new information about the lithosphere structure and geodynamic evolution in this region. A large volume of seismic data (P and S wave arrival times) has been collected for the period between 1 December 1988 and 31 December 2008 by 57 stations located in northern Morocco (National Institute of Geophysics, CNRST, Rabat), southern Portugal (Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisbon) and Spain (Instituto Geografico National, Madrid) and used to investigate the lithosphere in the western Alboran Sea region. We use a linearized inversion procedure comprising two steps: (1) finding the minimal 1-D model and simultaneous relocation of hypocenters and (2) determination of local velocity structure using linearized inversion. The model parameterization in this method assumes a continuous velocity field. The resolution tests indicate that the calculated images give near true structure imaged at 5 km depth for the Tanger peninsula, the Alhoceima region and southern Spain. At 15, 30 and 45 km depth we observe a near true structure imaged in northern Morocco, and southern Spain. At 60 and 100 km, southern Spain and the SW region of the Alboran Sea give a near true structure. The resulting tomographic image shows the presence of two upper crustal bodies (velocity 6.5 km/s) at 5-10 km depth between the Betics, Rif, western and central Alboran Sea. Low velocities at the base of these two bodies favor the presence of melt. This new evidence proves that the Tethysian ocean upper crust was not totally collapsed or broken down during the late Oligocene-early Miocene. These two blocks of upper crust were initially one block. The geodynamic process in the eastern of the Mediterranean is driven by slab rollback. The delamination process of the lithospheric mantle terminates with the proposed slab rollback in the western part of the Mediterranean. This can be explained by the removal of the major part of the lithosphere beneath the area, except in the SW part of the Alboran Sea where a small part of the lithospheric mantle is still attached and is extends and dips to SE beneath the Rif, slowly peeled back to the west. A second detached lithospheric mantle is located and extends to eastern part of the Rif and dips to the SE. The removal of lithosphere mantle from the base of the crust was replaced and heated by extrusion of asthenospheric material coming from depth to replace the part of crust detached. A combination of isostatic surface/topographic uplift and erosion induced a rapid exhumation and cooling of deep crustal rocks.

  8. Comparison of a parallel installation of laser and quartz tube strainmeters at the Geodynamic Observatory Moxa in Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobe, Martin; Jahr, Thomas; Kukowski, Nina; Methe, Pascal; Goepel, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution continuous deformation measurements provide an important data base for studies on deformation of the solid Earth (e.g. due to tides or hydrologically-induced deformation) that has strain amplitudes from ?m to nm. Time series can be obtained by different strainmeters that measure relative changes in length between two fixed points on the Earth's surface with a resolution up to 10-10 m. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio strainmeters are installed in galleries or caves with a thick mountain overburden. The Geodynamic Observatory Moxa operates beside seismological and gravimetrical sensor systems an extensive strainmeter array. It consists of a borehole extensometer, two quartz tubes at right angles and one diagonally-installed laser strainmeter. In 2011, two new laser strainmeters were added in cooperation with the company SIOS/Ilmenau. They are installed parallel to the quartz tubes and fixed to the bedrock by the same pylon. This kind of parallel installation is unique in the world and allows the direct comparison of measurements of horizontal length changes with different types of strainmeters for the first time. For the comparison of the data we used mainly the tidal analysis of three-years long time series, as well as the signal from a research borehole on the observatory's perimeter. The first results show a decrease of the long lasting device-specific drift by a factor of 2.3 - 2.5 10 of the laser strainmeters (LS) with respect to the quartz systems (QS). Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio of the LS is significantly higher than for the QS, as can be seen, for example, in the tidal amplitude factors (AF). In the north-south direction we determined AF 1.0 (LS) and AF 0.6 (QS) that yields LS- QS 1.66. In the east-west direction we found AF 0.67 (LS), AF 0.16 (QS), and therefore -LS QS 4.3. The tidal parameters are used to evaluate the new laser strainmeter system. Furthermore the determination of LS- QS provides a method to calibrate the quartz tubes for the first time. The comparison of other deformation signals in the time series reveals that LS- QS changes with the considered signal period. A transfer function is required to calibrate QS using LS. The new laser strainmeter array is a significant step towards the measurement of subsurface deformation at the Geodynamic Observatory Moxa. Furthermore it is presently being used to develop a transportable laser strainmeter system for areal applications, for example, across fault zones.

  9. Geodynamic significance of Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous volcanic sequences of Vizcaino Peninsula and Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, C.; Girard, D.; Maury, R.

    1983-09-01

    The Mesozoic prebatholitic terranes of central Baja California include distinct volcanic sequences associated with sediments, ranging in age from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous. These volcanic-sedimentary sequences are parts of a large nappe lying on top of blueschist-bearing melanges. The magmatic parentages of basic lavas from the allochthonous units have been determined from major- and trace-element analyses of total rocks and microprobe data from their calcic clinopyroxene phenocrysts. The results show two major types of basic volcanism, linked to extensional processes (nonorogenic tholeiites) and to compressional processes (orogenic tholeiites), respectively. This study documents a complex Mesozoic geodynamic evolution for this area before nappe emplacement during the Albian. On the basis of these data, the Late Triassic to Albian geologic history of this area is interpreted in terms of two successive episodes of marginal oceanic basin development, followed, respectively, by subduction and collision processes. Note: A sample locality map and cross sections and tables of geochemical data on Mesozoic rocks of Puerto Escondido, San Andrs-Cedros, and Morro Hermoso, and of microprobe analyses of calcic clinopyroxene phenocrysts, Puerto Escondido and San Andrs-Cedros are available by requesting Supplementary Data 83-16 from Documents Secretary, Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301.

  10. Geodynamic models of terrane accretion: Testing the fate of island arcs, oceanic plateaus, and continental fragments in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetreault, J. L.; Buiter, S. J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Crustal growth at convergent margins can occur by the accretion of future allochthonous terranes (FATs), such as island arcs, oceanic plateaus, submarine ridges, and continental fragments. Using geodynamic numerical experiments, we demonstrate how crustal properties of FATs impact the amount of FAT crust that is accreted or subducted, the type of accretionary process, and the style of deformation on the overriding plate. Our results show that (1) accretion of crustal units occurs when there is a weak detachment layer within the FAT, (2) the depth of detachment controls the amount of crust accreted onto the overriding plate, and (3) lithospheric buoyancy does not prevent FAT subduction during constant convergence. Island arcs, oceanic plateaus, and continental fragments will completely subduct, despite having buoyant lithospheric densities, if they have rheologically strong crusts. Weak basal layers, representing pre-existing weaknesses or detachment layers, will either lead to underplating of faulted blocks of FAT crust to the overriding plate or collision and suturing of an unbroken FAT crust. Our experiments show that the weak, ultramafic layer found at the base of island arcs and oceanic plateaus plays a significant role in terrane accretion. The different types of accretionary processes also affect deformation and uplift patterns in the overriding plate, trench migration and jumping, and the dip of the plate interface. The resulting accreted terranes produced from our numerical experiments resemble observed accreted terranes, such as the Wrangellia Terrane and Klamath Mountain terranes in the North American Cordilleran Belt.

  11. Methodical questions and accuracy problems of GPS observations by the example of the geodynamic proving ground in Bishkek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzikov, S. I.

    2014-11-01

    The key questions concerning the modern methodical tasks and accuracy of GPS measurements of crustal motion spanning are discussed for a full cycle of the survey from the organization of the field operations to the interpretation of the final results. The presented data rely on the 20-year experience of the geophysicists of the Research Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Bishkek (RS RAS) in GPS monitoring at the Geodynamic Proving Ground in Bishkek (GPGB) and in a large part of Central Asia. The comparative characteristics of the constellations of visible GPS and GLONASS satellites are analyzed from the standpoint of their practical application for precise scientific observations of crustal motions. The studies of the contemporary movements of the Earth's crust by the methods of satellite geodesy generally comprise three stages: (1) organization of the measurement networks and acquisition of the data; (2) data processing; and (3) interpretation of the results. Each stage is associated with its own block of the tasks and problems, and neither is guaranteed against uncertainties and errors which may affect the results, conclusions, and reconstructions.

  12. Newly developed paleomagnetic map of the Easternmost Mediterranean joined with tectono-structural analysis unmask geodynamic history of this region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive magnetic-paleomagnetic analysis of physical-geological models developed for the Easternmost Mediterranean (northern part of the Sinai plate) accompanied by gravity and seismic data examination enabled the detection of a zone of inverse magnetization of submeridional strike with a total volume exceeding 120,000 km3. Such a large zone must correspond to the prolonged period of inverse polarity in the Earth's magnetic field history. We suggest that this inversely magnetized thick block of the Earth's crust corresponds to the known Kiama hyperzone. A paleomagnetic map constructed on the basis of abovementioned geophysical data analysis combined with detailed examination of structural, radiometric, petrological, facial, paleogeographical and some other data indicates that to the west of the Kiama zone is situated the Jalal zone, and to the east - Illawarra, Omolon and Gissar zones. Discovery of the Kiama paleomagnetic zone combined with tectonogeodynamical analysis and paleobiographical data examination indicates that the Earth's oceanic crust blocks may have been shifted by transform faults from the eastern part of the Tethys Ocean to their modern position in the Easternmost Mediterranean. Analysis of potential geophysical fields and seismological maps integrated with tectonostructural examination show the isolation of the northern part of Sinai plate from other terranes. For the first time formation-paleogeographical maps of Triassic and Jurassic for the Easternmost Mediterranean have been compiled and their tectono-geodynamical explanation has been given. The obtained data create a basis for reconsidering tectonic zonation, paleogeodynamical reconstructions and searching for economic deposits in this region.

  13. Advances in three-dimensional, finite-element based marker-in-cell methods applied to geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of a mixed finite element formulation to discretise Stokes equations, coupled with a particle based Lagrangian representation of the material lithology, is a common numerical technique employed within the Earth sciences to study geodynamic processes. The extension of this methodology to study high-resolution, three-dimensional problems, even in 2012, still represents a number of significant computational challenges. Of paramount concern are the high computational memory requirements, and the development of efficient and robust linear and non-linear solvers, which are performant on massively parallel supercomputers. In this presentation, I describe a flexible methodology, which aims to rectify both of these issues. The key to the approach is to 1) always pose the discrete problem in defect-correction form and 2) utilise a mixture of assembled and matrix-free operations to evaluate the non-linear residual, and the operators required to define the multilevel preconditioner for the Jacobian. The performance characteristics of the hybrid matrix-free, partially assembled multilevel preconditioning strategy is demonstrated by considering several variable viscosity Stokes problems employing the mixed element types Q2-P1 and Q1-Q1 (Bochev stabilisation). The robustness of the preconditioner with respect to the viscosity contrast and the topology of the viscosity field, together with the parallel scalability will be discussed.

  14. The Sinemurian carbonate mud-mounds from central High Atlas (Morocco): stratigraphy, geometry, sedimentology and geodynamic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafiki, Driss; Canrot, Joseph; Souhel, Abdellatif; el Hariri, Khadija; Eddine, Kamal Taj

    2004-06-01

    The Moroccan Central High Atlasic mud-mounds correspond to carbonate sponge-algal buildups developed in open marine conditions towards the Lower-Upper Sinemurian boundary. The structures gradually increase in size through time, from the small-sized lenses included in the Idikel coarse-bedded Lower Sinemurian grainstones to the high domes observed in the succeeding Aberdouz and Ouchbis Upper Sinemurian thin-bedded mudstones. The biological communities (mainly algae, sponges, thrombolites, stromatolites, annelids, bryozoans, brachiopods, pelecypods, gastropods, echinoderms, corals and scarce foraminifera) comprise common, well conserved remains in the rising core frameworks and small reworked bioclasts in the surrounding sedimentary depressions. These buildups are closely linked to tectonic processes as they grew on the normal synsedimentary faults which affected the central Atlasic area during the Lower Liassic period, leading to the breakup of the Early Sinemurian carbonate platform and the resultant initiation of the Upper Sinemurian subsiding basin. Silting conditions under hernipelagic sedimentation led to their death. Similar palaeogeographic changes and geodynamic evolution have been described recently from different structures in North Africa, Western Europe and North America.

  15. Seismic-geodynamic constraints on three-dimensional structure, vertical flow, and heat transfer in the mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forte, A.M.; Woodward, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Joint inversions of seismic and geodynamic data are carried out in which we simultaneously constrain global-scale seismic heterogeneity in the mantle as well as the amplitude of vertical mantle flow across the 670 km seismic discontinuity. These inversions reveal the existence of a family of three-dimensional (3-D) mantle models that satisfy the data while at the same time yielding predictions of layered mantle flow. The new 3-D mantle models we obtain demonstrate that the buoyancy forces due to the undulations of the 670 km phase-change boundary strongly inhibit the vertical flow between the upper and lower mantle. The strong stabilizing effect of the 670 km topography also has an important impact on the predicted dynamic topography of the Earth's solid surface and on the surface gravity anomalies. The new 3-D models that predict strongly or partially layered mantle flow provide essentially identical fits to the global seismic data as previous models that have, until now, predicted only whole-mantle flow. The convective vertical transport of heat across the mantle predicted on the basis of the new 3-D models shows that the heat flow is a minimum at 1000 km depth. This suggests the presence at this depth of a globally defined horizon across which the pattern of lateral heterogeneity changes rapidly. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Estimates of geodynamic state and structure of the local crust on the base of microseismic noise analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loktev, D.; Spivak, A.

    2013-05-01

    A method for obtaining estimates of geodynamic state of the local crust and rock masses on the base of microseismic noise analysis is discussed. Microseismic noise is considered as a superposition of background microvibrations and a discrete component in the form of weak microseismic pulses generated by relaxational processes in the medium [1]. Currently active tectonic faults can be identified as zones with clustered sources of microseismic pulses and more intense amplitude variations of background microvibrations in tidal waves and baric variations in the atmosphere [2,3]. The presence of underground nonheterogeneities (i.e. contrasts in mechanic properties) and their scales are obtained from analysis of spectral characteristics of microseismic noise [4]. In the epicentral zone of an underground inhomogeneity we evidence characteristic quasi-chromatic pulses, stronger spectral density of local noise at high frequencies (more than 10 Hz) as well as maximum of spatial distribution of horizontal to vertical component spectral noise ratio (Nakamura parameter). The size of structural elements (blocks) of the Earth's crust is estimated by peak frequencies of momochromatic components of the spectrum on the base of the elaborated analytical model [1]. Parameters of weak pulses generated by relaxation (such as max velocity of oscillations, dominating (observed) period, etc.) yield estimates of differential movements of structural blocks in the medium as well as max stresses in the latter [5,6]. Examples are given to illustrate application of the proposed method to locating and mapping fault zones and underground nonheterogeneities in the Earth's crust, as well as to estimating scales of active structural blocks and their mobility potential when assessing places for nuclear atomic plants and underground nuclear waste storages. The method has also been successfully used for ranging hillsides of South Alps in terms of their liability to landslides. [1]. A.A. Spivak, S.B. Kishkina. The use of microseismic background for the identification of active geotectonic structure and determination of geodynamic characteristics// Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2004. Vol. 40. No. 7. Pp. 573-586. [2]. V.V. Adushkin, A.A. Spivak. Near-surface geophysics: complex investigations of the lithosphere-atmosphere interactions// Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2012. Vol. 48. No. 3. Pp. 181-198. [3]. A.A. Spivak. The specific features of geophysical fields in the fault zones// Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2010. Vol. 46. No. 4. Pp. 327-338. [4] A.A. Spivak, B.G. Lukishov. Seismoresonance methods of disclosure of the contrast zones in the Earth's crust// Physical fields and dynamics of interactive geospheres. Moscow, GEOS, 2007. Pp. 226-276. (In Russian). [5]. A.A. Spivak. Relaxation processes and mechanical conditions in the local areas of the Earth' crust// Doklady Earth Science. 1998. Vol. 363. No. 8. Pp. 1172-1175. [6]. A.A. Spivak. Structure of the stress state in tectonic faults zones// Doklady Earth Science. 1999. Vol. 364. No. 4. Pp. 544-548.

  17. Understanding the geodynamic setting of São Miguel, Azores: A peculiar bit of mantle in the Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M.; Houlie, N.; Khan, A.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Azores Plateau and Archipelago in the Central Atlantic Ocean has traditionally been considered as the surface expression of a deep mantle plume or hotspot that has interacted with a mid-ocean ridge. It is geodynamically associated with the triple junction between the North American, African and Eurasian plates. (Yang et al., 2006) used finite frequency seismic tomography to demonstrate the presence of a zone of low P-wave velocities (peak magnitude -1.5%) in the uppermost 200km of the mantle beneath the plateau. The tomographic model is consistent with SW deflection of a mantle plume by regional upper mantle shear flow driven by absolute plate motions. The volcanic island of Sao Miguel is located within the Terceira Rift, believed to represent the boundary between the African and Eurasian plates; magmatic activity has been characterised by abundant basaltic eruptions in the past 30,000 years. The basalts are distinctive within the spectrum of global ocean island basalts for their wide range in isotopic composition, particularly in 87Sr/86Sr. Their Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions show systematic variations from west to east across the island which can be interpreted in terms of melting of a two-component mantle source. The low melting point (enriched) component in the source has been attributed to recycled ancient (~3 Ga) oceanic crust(Elliott et al., 2007). Using the thermo-barometry approach of (Lee et al., 2009) we demonstrate that the pressure and temperature of magma generation below Sao Miguel increase from west (2 GPa, 1425 °C) to east (3.8 GPa, 1575 °C), consistent with partial melting along a mantle geotherm with a potential temperature of ~ 1500 °C. This is consistent with the magnitude of the thermal anomaly beneath the Azores Plateau (ΔT ~ 150-200 °C) inferred on the basis of the seismic tomography study. The site of primary magma generation extends from the base of the local lithosphere (~ 50 km) to ~ 125 km depth. To understand the geodynamic setting of the Sao Miguel magmatism we combine GPS data and mantle convection models with our interpretation of the geochemistry of the basalts. We demonstrate strong south-westerly and downward flow in the asthenospheric mantle above the Transition Zone (410 km seismic discontinuity), consistent with a zone of upper mantle shearing below the base of the lithosphere. The maximum flow velocity is broadly consistent with the depth of magma generation. The advection of the mantle with respect to the oceanic plate "moves" an isotopically distinct mantle source component beneath the active volcanoes of Sao Miguel and carries its previous melting residues to the south-west. We discuss the nature of this mantle source and its contribution to the mantle velocity anomalies determined by seismic tomography. This study opens-up new perspectives for seismic tomography and potentially new connections between the fields of geophysics and geochemistry in oceanic domains.

  18. Simple Lu-Hf isotope patterns resulting from complex Archean geodynamics: example of the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin

    2015-04-01

    The combined use of U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from Hadean and Archean zircons is widely used to constrain the mechanisms of continental crust formation and evolution in the early Earth. Such data generally define ?Hf-time arrays, interpreted as reflecting the closed-system, protracted reworking of single crustal reservoirs episodically extracted from depleted mantle (DM) sources. Many models about early Earth evolution and continental growth rely on this interpretation and its consequences (i.e. determination of Hf model ages and crustal residence times). However, this straightforward interpretation is difficult to reconcile with the complex evolution of Archean terranes, involving progressive crustal maturation and a range of crustal and mantle sources to granitoid magmas. Here we present a database of U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes measured in situ by LA-(MC-)ICPMS in zircons from >30 samples, representative of the temporal and spatial record of a single segment of Archean crust, the Pietersburg block (Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa). Coupling of age-Hf data with petrological and geochemical constraints shows that >1 Ga-long crustal evolution in the PB is characterized by (i) crustal nucleation in an intra-oceanic setting between 3.4 and 3.1 Ga; (ii) rapid formation of large volumes of juvenile TTG crust in an accretionary orogen at the northern edge of the proto-Kaapvaal craton between 3.1 and 2.9 Ga; (iii) intracrustal reworking and subduction of TTG-derived sediments along an Andean-type continental margin between 2.9 and 2.75 Ga; (iv) continental collision with the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt at 2.75-2.69 Ga, resulting in magmatism derived from local crust and metasomatized mantle; (v) a discrete anorogenic event at ~2.05 Ga with the emplacement of SCLM-derived alkaline magmas. Despite the diversity of magmas and geodynamic settings depicted by this evolution, all samples emplaced between 3.0 and 2.0 Ga plot along a single, robust array of decreasing ?Hf with time, demonstrating that such arrays do not provide relevant information about Hadean-Archean geodynamics, unless independent constraints are considered. The Hf-time array of the PB is moreover characterized by a notably low 176Lu/177Hf of ~0.003, typical of the ~2.95 Ga-old TTGs that represent the largest volume of juvenile crust in the area. Yet, the petrogenesis of granitoid magmas plotting along the array involve other source components and crust-mantle interactions. This paradox may be solved considering that the bulk crust-mantle system behaved as a closed-system reservoir for Lu/Hf once large volumes of TTG crust and complementary SCLM were formed, enhancing the stability of the lithosphere. Regardless the mechanisms involved in its reworking, the incompatible element budget of this lithosphere is then dominated by the most voluminous, "enriched" crustal component (~2.95 Ga TTGs in that case). Models of early Earth evolution may therefore be reconsidered according to this alternative interpretation of Lu-Hf isotope arrays.

  19. Testing geodynamic models of plume-ridge interaction against surface wave anisotropy observed along the Reykjanes Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, A.; Ito, G.; Dunn, R.

    2012-12-01

    We use 3D geodynamic models of plume-ridge interaction to understand the origin of the anomalous seismic structure in the shallowest 150 km of the upper mantle below the Reykjanes Ridge as sensed by Rayleigh and Love waves [Gaherty, 2001; Gaherty & Dunn, 2007; Delorey et al., 2007]. The anomalies include unusually low shear-wave velocities centered on the ridge and low-amplitude, positive (Vsh > Vsv) radial anisotropy beneath the Reykjanes Ridge separating two zones of negative (Vsv > Vsh) anisotropy 100-200 km wide on both sides of the ridge. There is relatively good consensus that the Icelandic plume is influencing the region; however, the mantle flow pattern that controls the observed anisotropic structure remains inconclusive. Geodynamic models were used to compute mantle flow and lattice preferred orientation (LPO), from which we predicted surface wave phase velocities. Then we inverted the synthetic data to recover the along-axis average, 2-D cross-section of shear velocity structure across the Reykjanes Ridge as was done by Delorey et al. [2007]. This as well as the other previous seismic studies was based on surface waves propagating nearly parallel to the Reykjanes Ridge; therefore this azimuthal effect was incorporated in our calculations. The first case tests a previously proposed hypothesis in which the buoyancy of interstitial melt produces vigorous upwelling beneath the ridge axis and downwelling limbs on the sides of the ridge axis where vertically aligned LPO leads to the observed negative anisotropy. Model results show that although the hypothesized downwellings indeed produce negative anisotropy on the sides of the ridge axis, the upwelling beneath the ridge produces strong negative anisotropy that is not observed beneath the Reykjanes Ridge. The second set of models simulate a hot mantle plume beneath the ridge axis and low viscosities in the shallowest 150 km of the upper mantle, resulting in strong mantle flow along the ridge axis. This group of models includes end-member simulations of a plume being channeled along the ridge axis and a plume expanding radially away from the plume stem; they also include more realistic simulations that incorporate both types of flow. The results show that along-axis alignment of LPO leads to a deep and narrow zone of negative anisotropy beneath the ridge, which is inconsistent with the observations. In addition, no negative anisotropy is predicted to form to the sides of the ridge. The third set of models, simulate primarily plate-driven corner flow (little or no along-axis flow) in the shallowest 150 km of the upper mantle. This behavior is caused by the presence of high viscosities where the mantle has been dehydrated by partial melting. The formed corner flow induces subvertically aligned LPO that in turn produce two lobes of negative anisotropy on either side of the ridge that crudely resemble those imaged by Delorey et al. [2007]. However the lobes are too close to the ridge axis to explain the observations. Overall, this study shows that previously proposed concepts of plume-ridge interaction so far fail to explain the observed radial anisotropy beneath the Reykjanes Ridge. Laboratory experiments, however, have shown that different olivine fabrics and shape preferred orientation can occur in the mantle and these effects are being investigated.

  20. New insights on the deep geodynamic processes within Vrancea active seismic zone as inferred from non-tidal gravity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, L.

    2012-04-01

    Vrancea experiment Located in the bending zone of East Carpathians, just at the junction of three major lithospheric compartments, the so-called Vrancea zone exhibits unusual intermediate-depth seismicity within full intra-continental environment. The dominant idea is that the upper mantle seismicity is due to a slab relict hanging below the Vrancea crust. However, several aspects, among which the issues of its connection with the crust, are under debate. The presence of the intermediate-depth earthquakes with vertical-extension mechanism advocate for an active attachment of the oceanic lithosphere relict sinking into the upper mantle, but some seismic tomography images seem to point out a completely detached high velocity body. However, the low resolution makes the results questionable. A gravity experiment has been conducted in order to infer the lithosphere dynamics within the Vrancea seismic region from the space-time change of the gravity field in the area. Systematic high accuracy gravity observations have been performed within a dedicated gravity network consisting of 13 epoch-stations regularly spread over the study area and a geo-traverse crossing the epicentre zone. Instruments and methodology Using a Scintrex CG-5 relative meter, absolute gravity values have been transferred on each pillar from the both second order Romanian national gravity reference network and the Central Europe UNIGRACE network. Gravity values on the base stations located along the geo-traverse have been referred to one of the end base-stations, located outside the active geodynamic area in a stable environment. All gravity observations were corrected for tide and drift. Due to the short distance between the stations, corrections for atmospheric pressure change have not been considered. Main results As the second order Romanian national gravity network provides absolute gravity for the 1980's epoch, and the UNIGRACE network offers absolute gravity for 2000's epoch, pairs of absolute gravity values separated by a 20 years time-span have been obtained and compared on each pillar of the gravity network. Overall, a gravity decrease has been revealed in the area. The lowest gravity low has been recorded just within the epicentre area, along with a slight subsidence of topography. This unusual coupling of altitude decrease and gravity lowering looks clearly connected to deep geodynamic processes. 2D and 3D computer models simulating the gravity change have revealed a mass deficit (starting at approx 10 km depth) located in the epicentre area of the intermediate-depth earthquakes. It has been interpreted in terms of volume increase caused by an assumed lithosphere stretching created by the eclogitization of the lower crust penetrating the upper mantle. Sets of gravity values obtained along the geo-traverse from successive yearly campaigns have confirmed the previous assumption revealing the crust stretching as an on-going process. Based on the gravity results and their interpretation along with other kind of observations (e.g. high resolution tomography provided by joint inversion of the seismic and gravity data), some concluding remarks and speculations on the genesis of the intermediate-depth seismicity are finally presented. Acknowledgement. The research has been supported through the grant POS CCE O 2.1.2. ID 593 (contract 182/2010).

  1. Quartz tube extensometer for observation of Earth tides and local tectonic deformations at the Sopronbanfalva Geodynamic Observatory, Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Mentes, Gy.

    2010-07-15

    In May 1990, a quartz tube extensometer was installed in the Sopronbanfalva Geodynamic Observatory of the Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute (GGRI) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences for recording Earth tides and recent tectonic movements. The paper describes the construction of the extensometer and a portable calibrator used for the in situ calibration of the instrument. The extensometer is very sensitive. Its scale factor is 2.093{+-}0.032 nm/mV according to the highly precise calibration method developed at the GGRI. Since the stability of extensometers is strongly influenced by the geological structure and properties of the rocks in the vicinity of the recording site, the observatory instrument system was tested by coherence analysis between theoretical (as the input signal) and measured tidal data series (as the output signal). In the semidiurnal tidal frequency band the coherence is better than 0.95, while in the diurnal band it is about 0.8. Probably this is due to the fact that the noise is higher in the diurnal band (0.4-0.5 nstr) than in the semidiurnal band (0.19-0.22 nstr). Coherence analysis between theoretical and measured data corrected for barometric changes yielded a small improvement of coherence in both frequency bands, while using temperature data correction, no observable improvement was obtained. Results of the tidal analysis also show that the observatory instrument system is suitable for recording very small tectonic movements. The 18 years of continuous data series measured by the extensometer prove the high quality of the extensometer. On the basis of investigations, it was pointed out that further efforts should be done to improve the barometric correction method and that correction for ocean load, as well as considering topographic and cavity effects are necessary to increase the accuracy of determining tidal parameters.

  2. Petrogenesis and Geodynamic Significance of Late Precambrian-Early Paleozoic Metagranites in Istranca (Strandja) Zone, NW Pontides, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz Sahin, Sabah; Aysal, Nam?k; Gungor, Y?ld?r?m; Peytcheva, Irena; Neubauer, Franz

    2014-05-01

    The existence of Cadomian arc magmatism in Istranca Zone within the Western part of the Pontides was determined according to new zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analysis of the atalca and ?hsaniye metagranites. Magmatic evolution of the Late Precambrian-Early Paleozoic metagranites in Istrandja Zone related to the Cadomian orogeny along the northern Gondwana margin. The Istranca zone is composed of metamorphic basement intruded by large granitic bodies and overlain by a Paleozoic-Mesozoic meta-sedimentary cover. The metamorphic rocks of the Istranca zone extend from Bulgaria, Istranca Mountains to NW Turkey and reach the area near Istanbul (atalca region). The atalca and ?hsaniye metagranites have a subalkaline, high-K calc-alkaline and peraluminous character. Trace element geochemistry displays decreasing normalized concentrations from large-ion lithophile (LIL) elements to high field strength (HFSE) elements and from light (LREE) to heavy rare earth elements (HREE). A negative Eu anomaly is both types of metagranites. On tectonic discrimination diagrams, the samples from both metagranites plot in the subduction-related fields. The SHRIMP-II U-Pb zircon ages of the atalca metagranite range from 534.5 4.7 Ma to 546.0 3.9 Ma and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating yields 535.5 3.6 Ma age for the ?hsaniye metagranite. The new ages together with the geochemical constraints allow a new geodynamic interpretation for the Istranca zone and we compare these metagranites with other Upper Ediacaran to Lower Cambrian granitoids of Turkey and Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. We deduce an origin of these elements from the northern Gondwana-Land margin.

  3. Moving-mass gravimeter calibration in the Mátyáshegy Gravity and Geodynamical Observatory (Budapest)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Márta; Koppán, Andras; Kovács, Péter; Merényi, László

    2014-05-01

    A gravimeter calibration facility exists in the Mátyáshegy Gravity and Geodynamical Observatory of Geological and Geophysical Institute in Hungary. During the calibration a cylindrical ring of 3200 kg mass is vertically moving around the equipment, generating gravity variations. The effect of the moving mass can be precisely calculated from the known mass and geometrical parameters. The main target of the calibration device was to reach a relative accuracy of 0.1-0.2% for the calibration of Earth-tide registering gravimeters. The maximum theoretical gravity variation produced by the vertical movement of the mass is ab. 110 microGal, so it provides excellent possibility for the fine calibration of gravimeters in the tidal range. The instrument was out of order for many years and in 2012 and 2013 it was renovated and automatized. The calibration process is aided by intelligent controller electronics. A new PLC-based system has been developed to allow easy control of the movement of the calibrating mass and to measure the mass position. It enables also programmed steps of movements (waiting positions and waiting times) for refined gravity changes. All parameters (position of the mass, CPI data, X/Y leveling positions) are recorded with 1/sec. sampling rate. The system can be controlled remotely through the internet. As it is well known that variations of the magnetic field can influence the measurements of metal-spring gravimeters, authors carried out magnetic experiments on the pillar of the calibration device as well, in order to analyze the magnetic effect of the moving stainless steel-mass. During the movements of the mass, the observed magnetic field has been changed significantly. According to the magnetic measurements, a correction for the magnetic effect was applied on the measured gravimetric data series. In this presentation authors show the facility in details and the numerical results of tests carried out by applying LCR G gravimeters.

  4. Anomalous crustal and lithospheric mantle structure of southern part of the Vindhyan Basin and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, O. P.; Srivastava, R. P.; Vedanti, N.; Dutta, S.; Dimri, V. P.

    2014-09-01

    Tectonically active Vindhyan intracratonic basin situated in central India, forms one of the largest Proterozoic sedimentary basins of the world. Possibility of hydrocarbon occurrences in thick sediments of the southern part of this basin, has led to surge in geological and geophysical investigations by various agencies. An attempt to synthesize such multiparametric data in an integrated manner, has provided a new understanding to the prevailing crustal configuration, thermal regime and nature of its geodynamic evolution. Apparently, this region has been subjected to sustained uplift, erosion and magmatism followed by crustal extension, rifting and subsidence due to episodic thermal interaction of the crust with the hot underlying mantle. Almost 5-6 km thick sedimentation took place in the deep faulted Jabera Basin, either directly over the Bijawar/Mahakoshal group of mafic rocks or high velocity-high density exhumed middle part of the crust. Detailed gravity observations indicate further extension of the basin probably beyond NSL rift in the south. A high heat flow of about 78 mW/m2 has also been estimated for this basin, which is characterized by extremely high Moho temperatures (exceeding 1000 °C) and mantle heat flow (56 mW/m2) besides a very thin lithospheric lid of only about 50 km. Many areas of this terrain are thickly underplated by infused magmas and from some segments, granitic-gneissic upper crust has either been completely eroded or now only a thin veneer of such rocks exists due to sustained exhumation of deep seated rocks. A 5-8 km thick retrogressed metasomatized zone, with significantly reduced velocities, has also been identified around mid to lower crustal transition.

  5. Geodynamic modeling of the capture and release of a plume conduit by a migrating mid-ocean ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    plates over the relatively stationary, long-lived conduits of mantle plumes. However, paleomagnetic data from the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain suggests that the Hawaiian hotspot moved rapidly (~40 mm/yr) between 81 - 47 Ma [Tarduno et al., 2003]. Recently, Tarduno et al. [2009] suggested that this period of rapid motion might be the surface expression of a plume conduit returning to a largely vertical orientation after having been captured and tilted as the result of being "run over" by migrating mid-ocean ridge. I report on a series of analog geodynamic experiments designed to characterize the evolution of a plume conduit as a mid-ocean ridge migrates over. Experiments were conducted in a clear acrylic tank (100 cm x 70 cm x 50 cm) filled with commercial grade high-fructose corn syrup. Plate-driven flow is modeled by dragging two sheets of Mylar film (driven by independent DC motors) in opposite directions over the surface of the fluid. Ridge migration is achieved by moving the point at which the mylar sheets diverge using a separate motor drive. Buoyant plume flow is generated using a small electrical heater placed at the bottom of the tank. Plate velocities and ridge migration rate are controlled and plume temperature monitored using LabView software. Experiments are recorded using digital video which is then analyzed using digital image analysis software to track the position and shape of the plume conduit throughout the course of the experiment. The intersection of the plume conduit with the surface of the fluid is taken as an analog for the locus of hotspot volcanism and tracked as a function of time to obtain a hotspot migration rate. Results show that the plume conduit experiences significant tilting immediately following the passage of the migrating ridge.

  6. Time-dependent convection models of mantle thermal structure constrained by seismic tomography and geodynamics: implications for mantle plume dynamics and CMB heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glišović, P.; Forte, A. M.; Moucha, R.

    2012-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in modern geodynamics is the development of thermal convection models that are consistent with the present-day flow dynamics in the Earth's mantle, in accord with seismic tomographic images of 3-D Earth structure, and that are also capable of providing a time-dependent evolution of the mantle thermal structure that is as 'realistic' (Earth-like) as possible. A successful realization of this objective would provide a realistic model of 3-D mantle convection that has optimal consistency with a wide suite of seismic, geodynamic and mineral physical constraints on mantle structure and thermodynamic properties. To address this challenge, we have constructed a time-dependent, compressible convection model in 3-D spherical geometry that is consistent with tomography-based instantaneous flow dynamics, using an updated and revised pseudo-spectral numerical method. The novel feature of our numerical solutions is that the equations of conservation of mass and momentum are solved only once in terms of spectral Green's functions. We initially focus on the theory and numerical methods employed to solve the equation of thermal energy conservation using the Green's function solutions for the equation of motion, with special attention placed on the numerical accuracy and stability of the convection solutions. A particular concern is the verification of the global energy balance in the dissipative, compressible-mantle formulation we adopt. Such validation is essential because we then present geodynamically constrained convection solutions over billion-year timescales, starting from present-day seismically constrained thermal images of the mantle. The use of geodynamically constrained spectral Green's functions facilitates the modelling of the dynamic impact on the mantle evolution of: (1) depth-dependent thermal conductivity profiles, (2) extreme variations of viscosity over depth and (3) different surface boundary conditions, in this case mobile surface plates and a rigid surface. The thermal interpretation of seismic tomography models does not provide a radial profile of the horizontally averaged temperature (i.e. the geotherm) in the mantle. One important goal of this study is to obtain a steady-state geotherm with boundary layers which satisfies energy balance of the system and provides the starting point for more realistic numerical simulations of the Earth's evolution. We obtain surface heat flux in the range of Earth-like values : 37 TW for a rigid surface and 44 TW for a surface with tectonic plates coupled to the mantle flow. Also, our convection simulations deliver CMB heat flux that is on the high end of previously estimated values, namely 13 TW and 20 TW, for rigid and plate-like surface boundary conditions, respectively. We finally employ these two end-member surface boundary conditions to explore the very-long-time scale evolution of convection over billion-year time windows. These billion-year-scale simulations will allow us to determine the extent to which a 'memory' of the starting tomography-based thermal structure is preserved and hence to explore the longevity of the structures in the present-day mantle. The two surface boundary conditions, along with the geodynamically inferred radial viscosity profiles, yield steady-state convective flows that are dominated by long wavelengths throughout the lower mantle. The rigid-surface condition yields a spectrum of mantle heterogeneity dominated by spherical harmonic degree 3 and 4, and the plate-like surface condition yields a pattern dominated by degree 1. Our exploration of the time-dependence of the spatial heterogeneity shows that, for both types of surface boundary condition, deep-mantle hot upwellings resolved in the present-day tomography model are durable and stable features. These deeply rooted mantle plumes show remarkable longevity over very long geological time spans, mainly owing to the geodynamically inferred high viscosity in the lower mantle.

  7. A simulation to study the feasibility of improving the temporal resolution of LAGEOS geodynamic solutions by using a sequential process noise filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Brian Davis

    1995-01-01

    A key drawback to estimating geodetic and geodynamic parameters over time based on satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations is the inability to accurately model all the forces acting on the satellite. Errors associated with the observations and the measurement model can detract from the estimates as well. These 'model errors' corrupt the solutions obtained from the satellite orbit determination process. Dynamical models for satellite motion utilize known geophysical parameters to mathematically detail the forces acting on the satellite. However, these parameters, while estimated as constants, vary over time. These temporal variations must be accounted for in some fashion to maintain meaningful solutions. The primary goal of this study is to analyze the feasibility of using a sequential process noise filter for estimating geodynamic parameters over time from the Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) SLR data. This evaluation is achieved by first simulating a sequence of realistic LAGEOS laser ranging observations. These observations are generated using models with known temporal variations in several geodynamic parameters (along track drag and the J(sub 2), J(sub 3), J(sub 4), and J(sub 5) geopotential coefficients). A standard (non-stochastic) filter and a stochastic process noise filter are then utilized to estimate the model parameters from the simulated observations. The standard non-stochastic filter estimates these parameters as constants over consecutive fixed time intervals. Thus, the resulting solutions contain constant estimates of parameters that vary in time which limits the temporal resolution and accuracy of the solution. The stochastic process noise filter estimates these parameters as correlated process noise variables. As a result, the stochastic process noise filter has the potential to estimate the temporal variations more accurately since the constraint of estimating the parameters as constants is eliminated. A comparison of the temporal resolution of solutions obtained from standard sequential filtering methods and process noise sequential filtering methods shows that the accuracy is significantly improved using process noise. The results show that the positional accuracy of the orbit is improved as well. The temporal resolution of the resulting solutions are detailed, and conclusions drawn about the results. Benefits and drawbacks of using process noise filtering in this type of scenario are also identified.

  8. The Multi-factor Predictive Seis &Gis Model of Ecological, Genetical, Population Health Risk and Bio-geodynamic Processes In Geopathogenic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Y.

    I. Goal and Scope. Human birth rate decrease, death-rate growth and increase of mu- tagenic deviations risk take place in geopathogenic and anthropogenic hazard zones. Such zones create unfavourable conditions for reproductive process of future genera- tions. These negative trends should be considered as a protective answer of the com- plex biosocial system to the appearance of natural and anthropogenic risk factors that are unfavourable for human health. The major goals of scientific evaluation and de- crease of risk of appearance of hazardous processes on the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, along with creation of the multi-factor predictive Spirit-Energy-Information Space "SEIS" & GIS Model of ecological, genetical and population health risk in connection with dangerous bio-geodynamic processes, were: multi-factor modeling and correla- tion of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and those of human health; determination of indicators that show the risk of destruction structures appearance on different levels of organization and functioning of the city ecosystem (geophys- ical and geochemical fields, soil, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere); analysis of regularities of natural, anthropogenic, and biological rhythms' interactions. II. Meth- ods. The long spatio-temporal researches (Y. Bondarenko, 1996, 2000) have proved that the ecological, genetic and epidemiological processes are in connection with de- velopment of dangerous bio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes. Mathemat- ical processing of space photos, lithogeochemical and geophysical maps with use of JEIS o and ERDAS o computer systems was executed at the first stage of forma- tion of multi-layer geoinformation model "Dnipropetrovsk ARC View GIS o. The multi-factor nonlinear correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray variations, geophysical, geodynamic, geochemical, atmospheric, technological, biological, socio- economical processes and oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary popula- tion sickness cases in Dnipropetrovsk City (1.2 million persons) are described by the multi-factor predictive SEIS & GIS model of geopathogenic zones that determines the human health risk and hazards. Results and Conclusions. We have created the SEIS system and multi-factor predictive SEIS model for the analysis of phase-metric spatio- 1 temporal nonlinear correlation and variations of rhythms of human health, ecological, genetic, epidemiological risks, demographic, socio-economic, bio-geophysical, bio- geodynamic processes in geopathogenic hazard zones. Cosmophotomaps "CPM" of vegetation index, anthropogenic-landscape and landscape-geophysical human health risk of Dnipropetrovsk City present synthesis-based elements of multi-layer GIS, which include multispectral images SPOT o, maps of different geophysical, geochem- ical, anthropogenic and citogenic risk factors, maps of integral oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary population sickness cases for administrative districts. Results of multi-layer spatio-temporal correlation of geophysical field parameters and variations of population sickness rate rhythms have enabled us to state grounds and to develop medico-biological and bio-geodynamic classification of geopathogenic zones. Bio-geodynamic model has served to define contours of anthropogenic-landscape and landscape-geophysical human health risk in Dnipropetrovsk City. Biorhythmic vari- ations give foundation for understanding physiological mechanisms of organism`s adaptation to extreme helio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic environmental condi- tions, which are dictated by changes in Multi-factor Correlation Stress Field "MCSF" with deformation of 5D SEIS. Interaction between organism and environment results in continuous superpositioning of external (exogenic) Nuclear-Molecular-Cristallic "NMC" MCSF rhythms on internal (endogenic) Nuclear-Molecular-Cellular "NMCl" MCSF rhythms. Their resonance wave (energy-information) integration and disinte- gration are responsible for structural and functional state of different physiological systems. Herewith, complex restructurization of defense functions blocks the adapta- tion process and may turn to be the primary reason for phase shifting, process and biorhythms hindering, appearance of different deseases. Interaction of biorhythms with natural and anthropogenic rhythms specify the peculiar features of environ- mental adaptation of living species. Such interaction results in correlation of sea- sonal rhythms in variations of thermo-baro-geodynamic "TBG" parameters of am- bient air with toxic concentration and human health risk in Dnipropetrovsk City. Bio-geodynamic analysis of medical and demographic situations has provided for search of spatio-temporal correlation between rhythms of general and primary pop- ulation sickness cases and oncologic case rate frequency, other medico-demographic rhythms, natural processes (helio-geophysical, thermodynamic, geodynamic) and an- thropogenic processes (industrial and houschold waste disposal, toxic emissions and their concentration in ambient air). The year of 1986, the year of minimum helio- geophysical activity "2G1dG1" and maximum anthropogenic processes associated with changes in sickness and death rates of the population of Earth were synchronized. With account of quantum character of SEIS rhythms, 5 reference levels of desyn- chronized helio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes affecting population sick- ness rate have been specified within bio-geodynamic models. The first reference level 2 of SEIS desynchronization includes rhythms with period of 22,5 years: ... 1958,2; 1980,7; 2003,2; .... The second reference level of SEIS desynchronization includes rhythms with period of 11,25 years: ... 1980,7; 1992; 2003,2;.... The third reference level covers 5,625-years periodic rhythms2:... 1980,7; 1986,3; 1992; 1997,6; 2003,2; .... The fourth quantum reference level includes rhythms 3 with period of 2,8125 years: ... 1980,7; 1983,5; 1986,3; 1989,1; 1992; 1994,8; 1997,6; 2000,4; 2003,2; .... Rhythms with 1,40625-years period fall is fifth reference level of SEIS desynchro- nization: ...1980,7; 1982,1; 1983,5; 1984,9; 1986,3; 1987,7; 1989,1; 1990,5; 1992; 1993,3; 1994,8; 1996,2; 1997,6; 1999; 2000,4; 2001,8; 2003,2;.... Analysis of alternat- ing medical and demographic situation in Ukraine (1981-1992)and in Dnipropetrovsk (1988-1995)has allowed to back up theoretical model of various-level rhythm quan- tum, with non-linear regularities due to phase-metric spatio-temporal deformation be- ing specified. Application of new technologies of Risk Analysis, Sinthesis and SEIS Modeling at the choice of a burial place for dangerous radioactive wastes in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear disaster (Shestopalov V., Bondarenko Y...., 1998) has shown their very high efficiency in comparison with GIS Analysis. IV.Recommendations and Outlook. In order to draw a conclusion regarding bio-geodynamic modeling of spatio-temporal structure of areas where common childhood sickness rate exists, it is necessary to mention that the only thing that can favour to exact predicting of where and when important catastrophes and epidemies will take place is correct and complex bio-geodynamic modeling. Imperfection of present GIS is the result of the lack of interactive facilities for multi-factor modeling of nonlinear natural and an- thropogenic processes. Equations' coefficients calculated for some areas are often irrelevant when applied to others. In this connection there arises a number of prob- lems concerning practical application and reliability of GIS-models that are used to carry out efficient ecological monitoring. References Bondarenko Y., 1997, Drawing up Cosmophotomaps and Multi-factor Forecasting of Hazard of Development of Dan- gerous Geodynamic Processes in Dnipropetrovsk,The Technically-Natural Problems of failures and catastrophes in connection with development of dangerous geological processes, Kiev, Ukraine, 1997. Bondarenko Y., 1997, The Methodology of a State the Value of Quality of the Ground and the House Level them Ecology-Genetic-Toxic of the human health risk based on multi-layer cartographical model", Experience of application GIS - Technologies for creating Cadastral Systems, Yalta, Ukraine, 1997, p. 39-40. Shestopalov V., Bondarenko Y., Zayonts I., Rudenko Y. , Bohuslavsky A., 1998, Complexation of Structural-Geodynamical and Hydrogeological Methods of Studying Areas to Reveal Geological Structural Perspectives for Deep Isolation of Radioactive Wastes, Field Testing and Associated Modeling of Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Geologic Disposal Sites, Berkeley, USA, 1998, p.81-82. 3

  9. Geodynamic evolution of the Salinas de Añana diapir in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankovic, Allen; Eguiluz, Luis; Martínez-Torres, Luis M.

    2016-02-01

    The Salinas de Añana diapir is located in the Basque-Cantabrian basin part of the great evaporite basin, along with the Gulf of Mexico and the Central European basin, when the fragmentation of Pangea started. The evolution of these basins can only be achieved by understanding the control of salt in the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of these basins. Sedimentation began with clastic Buntsandstein sediments and minor Muschelkalk limestones. Subsequent Keuper evaporites are the bottom of sedimentary cover constituted by Jurassic limestones and marls, a clastic Lower Cretaceous and an alternant limestone and marl Upper Cretaceous, whose deposition has been conditioned by salt tectonics. The emplacement of salt extends from the Aptian until now, favored by the duplication of the salt thickness associated with the thrust of Sierra Cantabria, so it is an excellent example to study changes in the regime of intrusion along the time. The geodynamic evolution of the Salinas de Añana diapir was determined through the interpretation of 45 reprocessed seismic lines, along with information from three wells. Migration of the salt in this diapir, conditioned by N120E and N30E pre-Alpine basement lineations, was determined using time isopach maps of the various rock layers. Vertical evolution of the diapir was determined through the reconstruction of a north-south section at various geologic times by flattening the respective seismic horizons. A minimum of salt flow into the diapir coincides with a minimum rate of sedimentation during the Turonian. Similarly, maximum flows of salt into the diapir occurred during the Coniacian and Lower Santonian and again from the end of the Lower Miocene to the present, coinciding with maximum rates of sedimentation during these times. In the Tertiary, probably during the Oligocene, the diapir was displaced to the south by the Sierra Cantabria thrust, maintaining the contact between the evaporites of diapir and the same evaporites of the lower block. Since the Oligocene, the salts of the lower block migrated towards and into the diapir, deforming the trace of the overthrust.

  10. Geodynamics of flat-slab subduction, sedimentary basin development, and hydrocarbon systems along the southern Alaska convergent plate margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzel, Emily S.

    Combining field-based geologic studies and numerical modeling provides a robust tool for evaluating the geodynamics of convergent margins. Southern Alaska is arguably the most tectonically active part of the convergent margin of western North America. This conceptual approach has been used to interpret the modern basin dynamics, as well as key stages in the Cenozoic development of this region, including spreading-ridge and flat-slab subduction. New macrofossil, palynological, and lithostratigraphic data for the Bear Lake Formation in the Bristol Bay retroarc basin allow us to construct the first chronostratigraphic framework for this formation, and indicate deposition during Middle and Late Miocene time in a regional transgressive estuarine depositional system. In the Cook Inlet forearc basin, new detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, rare earth element geochemistry, and clast compositional data from middle Eocene-Pliocene strata demonstrate the importance of sediment sources located in the retroarc region and along strike within the basin. The Yakutat microplate has recently been reinterpreted to represent buoyant crust that is presently subducting at a shallow angle beneath southern Alaska. Integration of stratigraphic, geochronologic, and thermochronologic data indicate that in the flat-slab region, exhumation initiated ca. 43 Ma and migrated inboard, magmatism ceased at ca. 32 Ma, and deposition in sedimentary basins ended by ca. 23 Ma. Sedimentary basins positioned along the western and northern perimeter of the flat-slab region record enhanced subsidence and sediment delivery from the flat-slab region beginning in late Oligocene and middle Miocene time respectively. The discrete contributions of unique driving forces for lithospheric deformation in western Canada and Alaska have not been quantified in detail, so their relative role in influencing deformation has remained unresolved. Using finite element models, we calculate a continuous strain rate and velocity field that provides evidence that a wide zone of diffuse deformation defines the present-day boundaries between the North America, Pacific, and Bering plates in Alaska and western Canada. In southern Alaska, boundary forces related to flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate are the dominant driver for lithospheric deformation, whereas in central and northern Alaska and inboard parts of western Canada, buoyancy forces and basal tractions may be the dominant contributors.

  11. Geodynamic models of plumes from the margins of large thermo-chemical piles in the Earth's lowermost mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, B. M.; Gassmoeller, R.; Mulyukova, E.

    2012-12-01

    We present geodynamic models featuring mantle plumes that are almost exclusively created at the margins of large thermo-chemical piles in the lowermost mantle. The models are based on global plate reconstructions since 300 Ma. Sinking subducted slabs not only push a heavy chemical layer ahead, such that dome-shaped structures form, but also push the thermal boundary layer (TBL) toward the chemical domes. At the steep edges it is forced upwards and begins to rise — in the lower part of the mantle as sheets, which then split into individual plumes higher in the mantle. The models explain why Large Igneous Provinces - commonly assumed to be caused by plumes forming in the TBL above the core-mantle boundary (CMB) - and kimberlites during the last few hundred Myr erupted mostly above the margins of the African and Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) of the lowermost mantle, which are probably chemically distinct from and heavier than the overlying mantle. Computations are done with two different codes, one based on spherical harmonic expansion, and CITCOM-S. The latter is combined with a self-consistent thermodynamic material model for basalt, harzburgite, and peridotite, which is used to derive a temperature- and presssure dependent database for parameters like density, thermal expansivity and specific heat. In terms of number and distribution of plumes, results are similar in both cases, but in the latter model, plume conduits are narrower, due to consideration of realistic lateral - in addition to radial - viscosity variations. For the latter case, we quantitatively compare the computed plume locations with actual hotspots and find that the good agreement is very unlikely (probability < 0.1 %) to result by chance. We also compare with results obtained without a chemical layer in the lowermost mantle. In addition to the 3-D models with earthlike geometry, we also show results obtained with a 2-D finite element code. These results allow us to assess how much the computed long-term stability of the piles is affected by numerical diffusion. We have also conducted a systematic investigation, which configurations of piles and plumes can exhibit long-term stability, and under what conditions (in particular, amount and location of subduction, thermal expansivity vs. depth) thermo-chemical piles can remain stable, if subduction occurs above or near them. Our models support that mantle plumes are more intimately linked to plate tectonics than commonly believed. Not only can plumes cause continental break-up, but conversely subducted plates may trigger plumes at the margins of LLSVPs near the CMB.

  12. The Early-Cambrian Boho volcano of the El Graara massif, Morocco: Petrology, geodynamic setting and coeval sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvaro, J. J.; Ezzouhairi, H.; Vennin, E.; Ribeiro, M. L.; Clausen, S.; Charif, A.; Ayad, N. Ait; Moreira, M. E.

    2006-03-01

    A major volcanic episode is recorded across the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian transition in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas. Several volcanic cones are still preserved in the El Graara massif, laterally correlatable with volcanic flows dated as Early Cambrian (U/Pb date of 534 ± 10 Ma). Volcanic ashes and flows are interbedded with the uppermost part of the Adoudou dolostones, whereas the best-preserved volcano (the Boho Jbel) is onlapped by the overlying Lie-de-vin strata. Available petro-geochemical data from the Boho volcano suggest an alkaline magmatism probably derived from low-grade melting of a garnet-lherzolite mantle source, followed by fractional crystallization. The silica-undersaturated basaltic liquid evolved to form oversaturated rocks: the fractionation of a ferromagnesian phase with high-Ca and low-Al contents is suggested as the main process to cut across the critical plane of silica undersaturation in this geochemical series. Although the Boho geochemical patterns are similar to those of some rift emplacements, more data from other coeval magmatic eruptions are necessary to constrain their geodynamic setting. Erosion of the Boho volcano favoured formation of a slope-apron composed of four sedimentary facies belts: chaotic megabreccia (related to downslope mass movements of rigid blocks), amalgamated breccia sheets (emplaced by viscous debris flows), a heterogeneous terrigenous belt (representing offshore substrates interrupted by channels intersected by cross-bedded shoals), and variegated shales and stromatolitic dolostones (typical of the Lie-de-vin Formation). Sharp changes in sedimentation rate were associated with modifications in paleorelief sloping and transport mechanisms from subaerial (?) rock fall at the foot of the cone escarpment to sheet-like debris flow on the slopes, and the replacement by sedimentation under wave and storm influence. The presence of an active carbonate productivity, recorded in the primary porosities of the Boho slope-apron, is suggested by widespread development of a robust, coelobiontic, microbial carbonate factory resilient to poisoning by terrigenous influx. Diagenesis in these deposits includes marine, meteoric and deep-burial cementation of calcite, dolomite, iron oxides, quartz, feldspar, and celestine, the latter indicating precipitation from hypersaline pore fluids.

  13. Unraveling the tectonic history of northwest Africa: Insights from shear-wave splitting, receiver functions, and geodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. S.; Becker, T. W.; Allam, A. A.; Alpert, L. A.; Di Leo, J. F.; Wookey, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The complex tectonic history and orogenesis in the westernmost Mediterranean are primarily due to Cenozoic convergence of Africa with Eurasia. The Gibraltar system, which includes the Rif Mountains of Morocco and the Betics in Spain, forms a tight arc around the Alboran Basin. Further to the south the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, an example of an intracontinental fold and thrust belt, display only modest tectonic shortening, yet have unusually high topography. To the south of the Atlas, the anti-Atlas is the oldest mountain range in the region, has the lowest relief, and extends toward the northern extent of the West African Craton. To help unravel the regional tectonics, we use new broadband seismic data from 105 stations across the Gibraltar arc into southern Morocco. We use shear wave splitting analysis for a deep (617 km) local S event and over 230 SKS events to infer azimuthal seismic anisotropy and we image the lithospheric structure with receiver functions. One of the most striking discoveries from these methods is evidence for localized, near vertical-offset deformation of both crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere interfaces at the flanks of the High Atlas. These offsets coincide with the locations of Jurassic-aged normal faults that were reactivated during the Cenozoic. This suggests that these lithospheric-scale discontinuities were involved in the formation of the Atlas and are still active. Shear wave splitting results show that the inferred stretching axes are aligned with the highest topography in the Atlas, suggesting asthenospheric shearing in mantle flow guided by lithospheric topography. Geodynamic modeling shows that the inferred seismic anisotropy may be produced by the interaction of mantle flow with the subducted slab beneath the Alboran, the West African Craton, and the thinned lithosphere beneath the Atlas. Isostatic modeling based on these lithospheric structure estimates indicates that lithospheric thinning alone does not explain the anomalous Atlas topography. Instead, an upwelling component induced by a mantle anomaly is also required to support the Atlas, suggesting that the timing of uplift is contemporaneous with recent volcanism in the Middle Atlas.

  14. Nature and distribution of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia and regional geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    We present a new classification of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along two regional wide-angle seismic transects, one running NW-SE from the Horseshoe to the Seine abyssal plains, and the other running N-S from S Portugal to the Seine Abyssal Plain, combined with previously available information. The seismic velocity and density structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain and the internal Gulf of Cadiz indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous oceanic crust, similar to that described in ultra-slow spreading centers, whereas in the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains, the basement structure resembles that of exhumed mantle sections identified in the Northern Atlantic margin. The integration of all this new information allows defining the presence of three oceanic domains offshore SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental break-up (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, mainly made of rocks exhumed from the mantle with little synchronous magmatism, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening. Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain. The formation and evolution of these three domains during the Mesozoic is key to understand the sequence of events that occurred during the first stages of opening of the Northern Atlantic.

  15. Deformation of the Western Caribbean: Insights from Block and Geodynamic Models of Geodetic, Seismic and Geologic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Kobayashi, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cocos - Caribbean convergence along the Middle America Trench, including subduction of the Cocos Ridge and seamount domain, and Nazca - Caribbean oblique convergence along the South Panama Deformed Belt have resulted in complex plate boundary zone deformation since Miocene - Pliocene time. Plate boundary evolution and upper plate deformation in the western Caribbean is well studied and indicates, 1) Quaternary migration of the volcanic arc toward the back-arc northwest of the Cocos Ridge; 2) Pleistocene to present northwestward motion of the Central American Fore Arc (CAFA); 3) Quaternary to present deformation within the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt; 4) Miocene-Pliocene cessation of volcanism and uplift of the Cordillera de Talamanca inboard the ridge; 5) Quaternary to present shortening across the fore-arc Fila Costeña fold and thrust belt and back-arc North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB); 6) Quaternary to present outer fore-arc uplift above the seamount domain (Nicoya Peninsula), and above (Osa Peninsula) and flanking (Burica Peninsula) the ridge; and 7) Quaternary to present faulting along the Sona-Azuero and Canal Discontinuity fault systems. We investigate the dynamic effects of Cocos and Nazca convergence along the entire Central American margin, and the implications on western Caribbean plate boundary evolution with a new GPS derived three-dimensional (horizontal and vertical) velocity field and kinematic block and geodynamic models. Specifically, we test the hypotheses that the Cocos Ridge is the main driver for upper plate deformation and that there is an independent Panama block. Our model results provide new Euler vectors for the CAFA and Panama block, rates of relative plate and block motions in the region, and constraints on interseismic coupling along the Middle America Trench and other major block bounding fault systems. These results are compared to existing geophysical and geologic data for the region and add insights into the rates of deformation across the regions listed above. We demonstrate that Cocos Ridge collision drives northwest-directed motion of the CAFA and the northeast-directed motion of the Panama region. The Panama region is driven into the Caribbean across the NPDB and into the Choco and North Andes blocks of northwestern South America, which are also converging with the Panama region, pushing it toward the west-northwest. Motion of the Panama region can be fit by an Euler vector suggesting that it is a rigid block, however, this is not in agreement with Quaternary faulting across the isthmus.

  16. The fluids' geochemistry along the "Sperchios Basin - Northern Evoikos Gulf" Graben, a geodynamically complex area of Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Brusca, Lorenzo; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    The study area is a 130 km long fast spreading graben in Central Greece. Its complex geodynamical setting includes both the presence at depth of a subduction slab responsible for the recent (Quaternary) volcanic activity in the area and the western termination of a tectonic lineament of regional importance (the North-Anatolian fault). Its high geothermal gradient is evidenced by the presence of many thermal springs with temperatures from 19 to 82 C, issuing along the normal faults bordering the graben. In the period 2004-2012 about 50 gas and water samples have been collected and their chemical and isotopic analysis revealed a wide range of compositions. Going from west to east the gas composition changes from CH4- to CO2-dominated passing through mixed N2-CH4 and N2-CO2 compositions, while at the same time the He isotopic composition goes from typical crustal values (0.05 R/Ra) up to 0.87 R/Ra (corrected for air contamination), showing in the easternmost sites a small but significant mantle input. Isotopic composition of CH4-C indicates a thermogenic origin for the CH4-rich samples and hydrothermal origin for the remaining samples. Positive ?15N values indicate a contribution of crustal derived nitrogen for the N2-rich samples. The ?13C values of most the CO2-enriched samples show a mixed origin (mantle and marine carbonates). Also the chemical composition of the waters shows differences along the graben and two main groups can be separated. The first, represented by dilute waters (E.C. < 600 ?S/cm), is found in the westernmost sites characterised by the presence of CH4-rich and mixed N2-CH4 gases. The remaining waters display higher salinities (E.C. from 12 to 56 mS/cm) due to the mixing with a modified marine component. Only the water composition of easternmost sites in the Giggenbach's cation triangular graph plots in the field of the partially equilibrated waters giving estimated temperatures at depth of 150-160C.

  17. The utilization of Malaysian Active GPS System data for geodynamic applications: a case study in East and West Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Rabieahtul; Azahari Razak, Khamarrul

    2010-05-01

    Geodynamic studies of Malaysia have been ventured upon in the South-East Asia region since the first GeodySEA project in 1996. Both East and West Malaysia lies on the Eurasian Plate, and assumed to have no linear distortion between any two joined points relative to one another. However, Malaysia lies at the southern tip of the plate encroached by two frequently ruptured boundaries, the Indian-Australian plate and the Philippines plate, and it is also within the buffer of the Ring of fire. Hence, this paper is essential to determine the relative movement of Malaysia, and with the possibilities to identify the presences of slip-fault formation which might be of threat to the stable platform that we have taken for granted. Availability of uninterrupted GPS observations over the Malaysian Active GPS System known as MASS stations situated across the country established by the Department of Survey and Mapping (DSMM) evidently help provides the data for this study. There are currently eighteen MASS stations mounted with Trimble 4000 dual frequency antenna and data recorded at fine second interval made accessible in hourly files. Satellite data collected continuously over a long period of time are processed by Bernese GPS processing software. Fifteen International GNSS Service (IGS) stations were selected within similar period of observations were gathered, processed, later act as tie points to the MASS stations. Apparently with this Malaysia will form a network to the globe. In this research the author will output the relative MASS stations coordinates and velocity estimates in International terrestrial reference frame (ITRF) 2000 since GPS data used are before the derivation of ITRF2005. At present the measures of quality for GPS derived coordinates given by commercial software packages tend to be unrealistic because unmodelled errors remain unaccounted for. The commercial software packages are either over-optimistic or conversely, therefore, have low fidelity. Thus, Bernese GPS processing software was used here due to its capability to provide high precision result for long baselines observables and able to parameterize the atmosphere, earth rotation, earth and ocean tide from the terrestrial observations. The output of this study showed that the velocity of the relative movement of Malaysia have a magnitude of 3cm per year for the year 2000 till 2002 and towards the South-Eastern direction. For future research, data should be processed with the latest version of Bernese GPS processing software 5.0 which allows for a fully combined processing of data from both GPS and GLONASS receivers with standard ambiguity resolution strategies taking reference to ITRF2005.

  18. Constraints on the Thermochemical Structure of the Earth's Deep Mantle Using Seismic, Geodynamic and Mineral Physics Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Forte, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    The integration of seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to constrain the large scale composition and dynamics of the Earth's mantle is a widely stated goal of global geophysics; however, the appropriate methodology for this integration is a matter of debate. In recent work [Forte and Mitrovica, Phil. Trans., 2002] we outlined, atleast for a simple compositional model of the mantle, an approach for combining joint (shear and bulk sound) seismic models, seismic velocity derivatives obtained from results in mineral physics, and convection related observations (plate motions, gravity anomalies and the excess ellipticity of the CMB). Our inversions yielded a mantle viscosity profile characterized by two viscosity maxima within the lower mantle. The deepest of the two, at 2000 km depth, suppresses all but the longest horizontal wavelengths of the present-day flow in the bottom 1000 km of the lower mantle, thereby providing a simple interpretation for the `red' spectrum of seismically-inferred heterogeneity in this region. The integration also suggested that while chemical anomalies in the lower-most mantle are required to explain seismic observations, these anomalies are unable to inhibit the dominant thermal buoyancy of the deep-mantle mega-plumes below the Pacific and Africa. In this talk we describe the results of a large set of new inversions that: (1) extend the viscosity inferences to include a suite of data related to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA; these data include site-specific post-glacial decay times from Fennoscandia and Hudson Bay, and a relaxation spectrum which provides the decay time versus wavelength of Fennoscandian deformation); and (2) map out, using Monte-Carlo simulations, plausible variations in thermochemical structure (summarized by the so-called buoyancy ratio) associated with uncertainties in the seismic models, mineral physics data and mantle viscosity (including the presence of the lateral variations). The GIA data provide an important, independent constraint on absolute viscosity and significantly improve the resolution of the resulting viscosity inferences, particularly in the transition zone and top half of the lower mantle. However, the viscosity peak at 2000 km depth remains a robust feature of these new inversions, reinforcing our earlier conclusion that this structure plays a pre-eminent role in deep mantle flow dynamics. Furthermore, the Monte-Carlo simulations indicate a positive correlation between density and shear wave velocity in the deep mantle and thus a dominance of thermal buoyancy within that region.

  19. Variability in forearc deformation during subduction: Insight from geodynamic models and application to the Calabria subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihao; Schellart, Wouter; Duarte, Joao

    2015-04-01

    In nature subducting slabs and overriding plate segments bordering subduction zones are generally embedded within larger plates. Such large plates can impose far-field boundary conditions that impact the style of subduction and overriding plate deformation. Here we present 3D dynamic analogue models of subduction, in which the far-field boundary conditions at the trailing edges of the subducting plate (SP) and overriding plate (OP) are varied. Four configurations are presented: Free (both plates free), SP-Fixed, OP-Fixed and SP-OP-Fixed. We investigate their impact on the kinematics and dynamics of subduction, with a special focus on overriding plate deformation. Our models indicate that in natural (narrow) subduction zones, assuming a homogeneous overriding plate, the formation of backarc basins (e.g., Tyrrhenian Sea, Aegean Sea, Scotia Sea) is generally expected to occur at a comparable location (300-500 km from the trench), irrespective of the boundary condition. Furthermore, our models indicate that the style of forearc deformation (shortening or extension) is determined by the mobility of the overriding plate through controlling the force normal to the subduction zone interface (trench suction). Our geodynamic model that uses the SP-OP-Fixed set-up is comparable to the Calabria subduction zone with respect to subduction kinematics, slab geometry, trench curvature and accretionary wedge configuration. Furthermore, it provides explanation for the natural observations of both backarc extension in the Tyrrhenian Sea and forearc extension in the Calabria region, which have been active since the Miocene. We explain the observations as a consequence of subduction of the narrow Calabrian slab and the immobility of the subducting African plate and overriding Eurasian plate. This setting forced subduction to be accommodated almost entirely by slab rollback (not trenchward overriding plate motion), while trench retreat was accommodated almost entirely by backarc and forearc extension (not trenchward overriding plate motion), similarly to our SP-OP-Fixed model. This tectonic setting induced strong trench suction, which caused the forearc extension in Calabria.

  20. Geodynamic Implications of Himu Mantle In The Source of Tertiary Volcanics From The Veneto Region (south Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macera, P.; Gasperini, D.; Blichert-Toft; Bosch, D.; del Moro, A.; Dini, G.; Martin, S.; Piromallo, C.

    DuringTertiary times extensive mafic volcanism took place in the South-Eastern Alps, along a half-graben structure bounded by the Schio-Vicenza main fault. This mag- matism gave rise to four main volcanic centers: Lessini, Berici, Euganei, and Maros- tica. The dominating rock types are alkali basalts, basanites and transitional basalts, with hawaiites, trachybasalts, tephrites, basaltic andesites, and differentiated rocks be- ing less common. Major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data for the most primitive lavas from each volcanic center show the typical features of HIMU hotspot volcanism, variably diluted by a depleted asthenospheric mantle component (87Sr/86Sr48Ma = 0.70314-0.70321; eNd48Ma = +6.4 to +6.5; eHf48Ma = +6.4 to +8.1, 206Pb/204Pb48Ma = 18.786-19.574). Since the HIMU component is consid- ered to be of deep mantle origin, its presence in a tectonic environment dominated by subduction (the Alpine subduction of the European plate below the Adria plate) has significant geodynamic implications. Slab detachment and ensuing rise of deep man- tle material into the lithospheric gap is proposed to be a viable mechanism of hotspot magmatism in a subduction zone setting. Interaction between deep-seated plume ma- terial and shallow depleted asthenospheric mantle may account for the geochemical features of the Veneto volcanics, as well as those of the so-called enriched astheno- spheric reservoir (EAR) component. Ascending counterflow of deep mantle material through the lithospheric gap to the top of the subducting slab further may induce heat- ing of the overriding plate and trigger it to partially melt. Upwelling of the resulting mafic magmas and their subsequent underplating at the mantle-lower crust bound- ary would favor partial melting of the lower crust, thereby giving rise to the bimodal mafic-felsic magmatism that characterizes the whole Periadriatic province. According to this model, the HIMU-like magmatism of the Alpine foreland is therefore closely related to the calc-alkaline magmatism of the Periadriatic Lineament, and caused by the same mechanism of Tertiary Alpine convergence tectonics.

  1. Investigation of temperature and barometric pressure variation effects on radon concentration in the Sopronbánfalva Geodynamic Observatory, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Mentes, Gyula; Eper-Pápai, Ildikó

    2015-11-01

    Radon concentration variation has been monitored since 2009 in the artificial gallery of the Sopronbánfalva Geodynamic Observatory, Hungary. In the observatory, the radon concentration is extremely high, 100-600 kBq m(-3) in summer and some kBq m(-3) in winter. The relationships between radon concentration, temperature and barometric pressure were separately investigated in the summer and winter months by Fast Fourier Transform, Principal Component Analysis, Multivariable Regression and Partial Least Square analyses in different frequency bands. It was revealed that the long-period radon concentration variation is mainly governed by the temperature (20 kBq m(-1) °C(-1)) both in summer and winter. The regression coefficients between long-period radon concentration and barometric pressure are -1.5 kBq m(-3) hPa(-1) in the summer and 5 kBq m(-3) hPa(-1) in the winter months. In the 0.072-0.48 cpd (cycles per day) frequency band the effect of the temperature is about -1 kBq m(-3) °C(-1) and that of the barometric pressure is -5 kBq m(-3) hPa(-1) in summer and -0.5 kBq m(-3) hPa(-1) in winter. In the high frequency range (>0.48 cpd) all regression coefficients are one order of magnitude smaller than in the range of 0.072-0.48 cpd. Fast Fourier Transform of the radon concentration, temperature and barometric pressure time series revealed S1, K1, P1, S2, K2, M2 tidal constituents in the data and weak O1 components in the radon concentration and barometric pressure series. A detailed tidal analysis, however, showed that the radon tidal components are not directly driven by the gravitational force but rather by solar radiation and barometric tide. Principal Component Analysis of the raw data was performed to investigate the yearly, summer and winter variability of the radon concentration, temperature and barometric pressure. In the summer and winter periods the variability does not change. The higher variability of the radon concentration compared to the variability of the temperature and the barometric pressure shows that besides the temperature and barometric pressure variations other agents, e.g. natural ventilation of the observatory, wind, etc. also play an important role in the radon concentration variation. PMID:26207821

  2. New evidence of effusive and explosive volcanism in the Lower Carboniferous formations of the Moroccan Central Hercynian Massif: Geochemical data and geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntarmouchant, A.; Smaili, H.; Bento dos Santos, T.; Dahire, M.; Sabri, K.; Ribeiro, M. L.; Driouch, Y.; Santos, R.; Calvo, R.

    2016-03-01

    The Azrou-Khénifra basin, located in the SE sector of the Moroccan Central Hercynian Massif of the Western Meseta of Morocco comprises volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks where two magmatic sequences can be distinguished: i) the Dhar Lahmar Sequence, composed of Upper Visean basaltic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits; and ii) the Kef Al Asri Sequence, composed of Visean - Serpukhovian intermediate to acid rocks. A continuous spatial and temporal evolution between the two volcano-sedimentary sequences was observed during the detailed geological work performed in the studied area. Petrography and geochemical studies additionally suggest a continuous compositional evolution from the more basic magmatic rocks to the intermediate/acid rocks, which implies a cogenetic magmatic differentiation controlled by crystal fractionation (with minor crustal assimilation) of a calc-alkaline trend magmatic suite. The inferred magmatic evolution is consistent with a geodynamic environment of an orogenic zone within an active continental margin setting. This partly explosive Visean - Serpukhovian volcanism, identified for the first time in the Western Meseta of Morocco, displays very similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics to its Eastern Meseta analogues, which implies that the emplacement of these magmatic rocks must have occurred in similar collisional geodynamic settings for both major geological domains, further constraining the evolution of this major crustal segment within the Carboniferous events that shaped the Hercynian Orogeny.

  3. Geographic information systems (GIS) spatial data compilation of geodynamic, tectonic, metallogenic, mineral deposit, and geophysical maps and associated descriptive data for northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naumova, Vera V., (compiler); Patuk, Mikhail I.; Kapitanchuk, Marina Yu.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Miller, Robert J.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. It contains all of the data that are on the disc but extra files have been removed: index files, software installers, and Windows autolaunch files. The purpose of this publication is to provide a high-quality spatial data compilation (Geographical Information System or GIS) of geodynamic, mineral deposit, and metallogenic belt maps, and descriptive data for Northeast Asia for customers and users. This area consists of Eastern Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan. The GIS compilation contains integrated spatial data for: (1) a geodynamics map at a scale of 1:5,000,000; (2) a mineral deposit location map; (3) metallogenic belt maps; (4) detailed descriptions of geologic units, including tectonostratigraphic terranes, cratons, major melange zones, and overlap assemblages, with references; (5) detailed descriptions of metallogenic belts with references; (6) detailed mineral deposit descriptions with references; and (7) page-size stratigraphic columns for major terranes.

  4. Reconstitution of the local tectonic and geodynamic history to study the fluid transfers in a carbo-gaseous aquifer (Quezac-Southern Massif Central France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, V.; Lonardi, V.; Deffontaines, B.; Macquar, J.-C.

    2009-04-01

    A multidisciplinary approach taking into account remote sensing, geological, and hydrogeological analyses was developed to reveal the water percolations history through time in the Quezac aquifer (Southern Massif Central - France). Detailed field measurements of the various tectonic joints, water and gas transfers were done in the study site. Microtectonic measurements confirmed the local tectonic history and the structural map was completed by a morphostructural approach, using detailed photointerpretation of both Digital Elevation Model and aerial photographs. The past fluid transfers were discussed from mineralization, the sediment deposits and the deduced tectonic history. To resume, the present fluid transfers observed in the field were related to four main tectonic joints groups, noticed by the tectonic and morphostructural approach. The history of tectonic constraints, geodynamical context and fluid transfers was finally reconstituted. It shows the major role of the N-S tectonic joints for water flows, followed by E-W ones, due to their longest karstification history. The NW-SE and NE-SW orientations, more recently karstified, appeared to have less influence on water transfers. The weak gas production at the surface of N-S faults is probably due to its dispersion linked to their intense karstification. This innovative multidisciplinary approach leads to propose a model for the present water and gas preferential flow paths, taking precisely the local tectonic and geodynamic context into account.

  5. Markers for geodynamic stability of the Variscan basement: case study for the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcerisa, David; Franke, Christine; Gómez-Gras, David; Thiry, Médard

    2010-05-01

    The Montseny-Guilleries High is a Miocene horst composed of Variscan basement rocks, situated in the northeastern part of the Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Iberia). The Montseny-Guilleries High has an asymmetric profile with an abrupt faulted scarp at the southeastern margin and a smooth surface dipping to the Northwest; here Paleocene sediments of the Ebro basin margin are to some extend in onlap. The stratigraphic arrangement of the Mesozoic units in the Catalan Coastal Ranges indicate that the Montseny-Guilleries area was a relief during the Mesozoic, remaining exposed probably from the Permian to the Cretaceous [Anadón et al., 1979; Gómez-Gras, 1993]. The high subsequently has been faulted due to a rifting phase that took place during the Miocene [Anadón et al., 1979]. The geodynamic history (burial-exhumation processes and denudation rate) of the Montseny-Guilleries High can be deciphered from cooling markers, such as for example apatite fission tracks [Juez-Larré & Andriessen, 2006]. However, the cooling history of an area depends on many factors (i.e. denudation rate, variations of the geothermal gradient) that complicate interpretations [Juez-Larré & Ter Voorde, 2009]. Another solution is to search for datable paleoweathering records in order to obtain benchmarks for ancient surfaces of continental exposure. This is the case for the Permian-Triassic paleosurface, at which an extensive albitization-hematisation alteration occurred at shallow depth [Thiry et al., 2009]. Several paleoalterations have been identified in the Montsent-Guilleries High [Gómez-Gras & Ferrer, 1999]. These alterations are coupled to the smooth surface or peneplain of the northwestern margin of the high and form a paleoprofile with less altered rocks on the lower parts of the relief and more altered rocks located at the higher parts of the relief (i.e. on the peneplain). From base to top, the profile starts with week albitization-hematisation of the facies developed mainly in the fractures; the degree of albitization-hematisation progressively increases towards the top affecting the whole rock, which acquires a characteristic pink color. Finally, the top of the profile is formed by strongly altered to hematite and kaolinite rich reddish facies. These uppermost parts of the alteration profile are formed by a relatively soft rock and are therefore usually not preserved, but the intermediate albitized parts are more resistant to surface alteration than unaltered facies and protect the peneplain from weathering and erosion. The albitization-hematisation alterations observed in the Montseny-Guilleries peneplain are very similar to the Permian-Triassic paleoalteration profiles observed in other parts of Europe, affecting the Variscan basement [Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009]. Dating these profiles using paleomagnetic methods will help us to identify the location of the Permian-Triassic surface in the area and deduce its geodynamic history during the Mesozoic and Tertiary periods. Anadón, P., Colombo, F., Esteban, M., Marzo, M., Robles, S., Santanach, P., Solé-Sugrañes, L., 1979, Evolución tectonostratigráfica de los Catalánides, Acta Geol. Hisp., 14: 242-270. Gómez-Gras, D., 1993, El Permotrias de la Cordillera Costero Catalana: facies y petrologia sedimentaria (Parte I), Bol. Geol. Min., 104 (2): 115-161. Gómez-Gras, D., Ferrer, C., 1999, Caracterización petrológica de perfiles de meteorización antiguos desarrollados en granitos tardihercínicos de la Cordillera Costero Catalana, Rev. Soc. Geol. Esp., 12(2): 281-299. Juez-Larre, J., Andriessen, P.A.M., 2006, Tectonothermal evolution of the northeastern margin of Iberia since the break-up of Pangea to present, revealed by low-temperature fission-track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology: A case history of the Catalan Coastal Ranges, Earth Planet. Sci. Let., 243 (1-2): 159-180. Juez-Larré, J., Ter Voorde, M., 2009, Thermal impact of the break-up of Pangea on the Iberian Peninsula, assessed by thermochronological dating and numerical modeling, Tectonophysics, v. 474, no. 1-2, p. 200-213. Parcerisa, D., Thiry, M., Schmitt, J.M., 2009, Albitisation related to the Triassic unconformity in igneous rocks of the Morvan Massif (France), Int. Jour. Earth Sci., DOI 10.1007/s00531-008-0405-1 Ricordel, C., Parcerisa, D., Thiry, M., Moreau, M.G., Gomez-Gras, D., 2007, Triassic magnetic overprints related to albitization in granites from the Morvan massif (France), Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 251:268-282. Thiry, M., Parcerisa, D., Ricordel-Prognon, C., Schmitt, J.M., 2009, Sodium storage in deep paleoweathering profiles beneath the Paleozoic-Triassic unconformity, EGU General Assembly 2009, Vienna, Austria.

  6. Fundamental studies in geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in modeling instantaneous plate kinematics is reviewed, with emphasis on recently developed models of present day plate motions derived by the systematic inversion of globally distributed data sets. Rivera plate motions, the Caribbean South American boundary, Indian plate deformation, Pacific-North America, seismicity and subduction processes, and the study of slow earthquakes and free oscillations are discussed.

  7. Sulphur geodynamic cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kagoshima, Takanori; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Fischer, Tobias P.; Hattori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes to the surface environments is important to elucidate the geochemical cycle of sulphur and the evolution of ocean chemistry. This paper presents S/3He ratios of vesicles in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt glass together with the ratios of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids to calculate the sulphur flux of 100 Gmol/y at MOR. The S/3He ratios of high-temperature volcanic gases show sulphur flux of 720 Gmol/y at arc volcanoes (ARC) with a contribution from the mantle of 2.9%, which is calculated as 21 Gmol/y. The C/S flux ratio of 12 from the mantle at MOR and ARC is comparable to the C/S ratio in the surface inventory, which suggests that these elements in the surface environments originated from the upper mantle. PMID:25660256

  8. Yellowstone Hotspot Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. B.; Farrell, J.; Massin, F.; Chang, W.; Puskas, C. M.; Steinberger, B. M.; Husen, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Yellowstone hotspot results from the interaction of a mantle plume with the overriding N. America plate producing a ~300-m high topographic swell centered on the Late Quaternary Yellowstone volcanic field. The Yellowstone area is dominated by earthquake swarms including a deadly M7.3 earthquake, extraordinary high heat flow up to ~40,000 mWm-2, and unprecedented episodes of crustal deformation. Seismic tomography and gravity data reveal a crustal magma reservoir, 6 to 15 km deep beneath the Yellowstone caldera but extending laterally ~20 km NE of the caldera and is ~30% larger than previously hypothesized. Kinematically, deformation of Yellowstone is dominated by regional crustal extension at up to ~0.4 cm/yr but with superimposed decadal-scale uplift and subsidence episodes, averaging ~2 cm/yr from 1923. From 2004 to 2009 Yellowstone experienced an accelerated uplift episode of up to 7 cm/yr whose source is modeled as magmatic recharge of a sill at the top of the crustal magma reservoir at 8-10-km depth. New mantle tomography suggest that Yellowstone volcanism is fed by an upper-mantle plume-shaped low velocity body that is composed of melt "blobs", extending from 80 km to 650 km in depth, tilting 60 NW, but then reversing tilt to ~60 SE to a depth of ~1500 km. Moreover, images of upper mantle conductivity from inversion of MT data reveal a high conductivity annulus around the north side of the plume in the upper mantle to resolved depths of ~300 km. On a larger scale, upper mantle flow beneath the western U.S. is characterized by eastward flow beneath Yellowstone at 5 cm/yr that deflects the plume to the west, and is underlain by a deeper zone of westerly return flow in the lower mantle reversing the deflection of the plume body to the SE. Dynamic modeling of the Yellowstone plume including a +15 m geoid anomaly reveals low excess plume temperatures, up to 150K, consistent with a weak buoyancy flux of ~0.25 Mg/s. Integrated kinematic modeling of GPS, Quaternary fault slip, and seismic data suggest that the gravitational potential of the Yellowstone swell creates a regional extension affecting much of the western U.S. Overall, the Yellowstone hotspot swell is the vertex of tensional stress axes rotation from E-W in the Basin-Range to NE-SW at the Yellowstone Plateau as well as the cause of edge faulting, nucleating the nearby Teton and Centennial faults. We extrapolate the original location of the Yellowstone mantle-source southwestward 800 km to an initial position at 17 million years ago beneath eastern Oregon and Washington suggesting a common origin for the YSRP and Columbia Plateau volcanism. We propose that the original plume head ascended vertically behind the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, but was entrained ~12 Ma ago in a faster mantle flow beneath the continental lithosphere and tilted into its present configuration.

  9. Rotational waves in geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerus, Artyom; Vikulin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The rotation model of a geoblock with intrinsic momentum was constructed by A.V. Vikulin and A.G. Ivanchin [9, 10] to describe seismicity within the Pacific Ocean margin. It is based on the idea of a rotational motion of geoblocks as the parts of the rotating body of the Earth that generates rotary deformation waves. The law of the block motion was derived in the form of the sine-Gordon equation (SG) [5, 9]; the dimensionless form of the equation is: δ2θ δ2θ δξ2 - δη2 = sinθ, (1) where θ = β/2, ξ = k0z and η = v0k0t are dimensionless coordinates, z - length of the chain of masses (blocks), t - time, β - turn angle, ν0 - representative velocity of the process, k0 - wave number. Another case analyzed was a chain of nonuniformly rotating blocks, with deviation of force moments from equilibrium positions μ, considering friction forces α along boundaries, which better matched a real-life seismic process. As a result, the authors obtained the law of motion for a block in a chain in the form of the modified SG equation [8]: δ2θ δ2θ δθ- δξ2 - δ η2 = sin θ+ α δη + μδ(ξ)sin θ (2)

  10. Sulphur geodynamic cycle.

    PubMed

    Kagoshima, Takanori; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Fischer, Tobias P; Hattori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes to the surface environments is important to elucidate the geochemical cycle of sulphur and the evolution of ocean chemistry. This paper presents S/(3)He ratios of vesicles in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt glass together with the ratios of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids to calculate the sulphur flux of 100 Gmol/y at MOR. The S/(3)He ratios of high-temperature volcanic gases show sulphur flux of 720 Gmol/y at arc volcanoes (ARC) with a contribution from the mantle of 2.9%, which is calculated as 21 Gmol/y. The C/S flux ratio of 12 from the mantle at MOR and ARC is comparable to the C/S ratio in the surface inventory, which suggests that these elements in the surface environments originated from the upper mantle. PMID:25660256

  11. Sulphur geodynamic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagoshima, Takanori; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Fischer, Tobias P.; Hattori, Keiko

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes to the surface environments is important to elucidate the geochemical cycle of sulphur and the evolution of ocean chemistry. This paper presents S/3He ratios of vesicles in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt glass together with the ratios of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids to calculate the sulphur flux of 100 Gmol/y at MOR. The S/3He ratios of high-temperature volcanic gases show sulphur flux of 720 Gmol/y at arc volcanoes (ARC) with a contribution from the mantle of 2.9%, which is calculated as 21 Gmol/y. The C/S flux ratio of 12 from the mantle at MOR and ARC is comparable to the C/S ratio in the surface inventory, which suggests that these elements in the surface environments originated from the upper mantle.

  12. Integration of permanent and periodic GPS/GNSS measurements for local and regional geodynamic research in the area of the Polish-Czech Network SUDETEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Bernard; Kaplon, Jan; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Badura, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Since 1997 all current local geodynamic studies in the area of the Polish and Czech parts of the Sudeten and the Sudetic Foreland have been associated with annual periodic GPS campaigns, epoch measurements. The most epochs consisted of more than twelve observation hours and some of them kept on two or three 24-hour observations. Experience collected by international research teams carrying out geodynamic researches with the GPS technique in seismically active areas (USA, Japan) proved that more information can give permanent measurements. However, the Sudeten area, regarded as an area of the weak tectonic activity, can be hardly covered with the dense network of GNSS stations from economic reasons. Hence rational using of existing permanent GPS stations located in studied area and in its vicinity detects the coordinate changes that cannot be appointed from periodic campaign data and that, on the other hand, have rather regional than local character. Creating the spatial models of irregularities of the continuous signals should improve results of the epoch measurements. From this viewpoint, in this project authors used measurement data of chosen permanent GPS stations located in the area: the EPN stations, ASG-EUPOS stations, GEONAS stations and all epoch observations. These data were gained as part of research projects carried out within 1997-2009 period, as well as during new supplementing campaigns realized in the frame of the project N526278940 in the 2011 and 2012 years. Reprocessing of all the permanent and epoch data performed by the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software (V5.2) was performed using EPN guidelines for the processing, reference frame realization and the usage of physical models (atmosphere, Earth rotation, etc.). Standardized results of processing the aggregated GPS network, including permanent stations and all local networks on the area of research, serve for conducting new geodynamic interpretation. Further parameters that estimate the linear model of position changes of test point coordinates based on results of the permanent and epoch observations had been performed. Then, applying linear site velocities, the surface deformation model for the Sudeten area was compiled. Results of this research constitute the base both for recognizing tectonic impacts to the area and for potential hazard assessments. This research had been granted by the Polish National Science Centre, project No. N526 278940, and accomplished in cooperation of specialists from the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague and the Polish State Geological Institute, Lower Silesia Branch in Wroclaw.

  13. A linear Hf isotope-age array despite different granitoid sources and complex Archean geodynamics: Example from the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin

    2015-11-01

    Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from zircon populations are widely used to constrain Hadean-Archean crustal evolution. Linear Hf isotope-age arrays are interpreted to reflect the protracted, internal reworking of crust derived from the (depleted) mantle during a short-lived magmatic event, and related 176Lu/177Hf ratios are used to constrain the composition of the reworked crustal reservoir. Results of this study, however, indicate that Hf isotope-age arrays can also result from complex geodynamic processes and crust-mantle interactions, as shown by U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons from well characterized granitoids of the Pietersburg Block (PB), northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa). Apart from scarce remnants of Paleoarchean crust, most granitoids of the PB with ages between 2.94 and 2.05 Ga (n = 32) define a straight Hf isotope-age array with low 176Lu/177Hf of 0.0022, although they show a wide compositional range, were derived from various sources and emplaced successively in different geodynamic settings. The crustal evolution occurred in five stages: (I) predominately mafic crust formation in an intra-oceanic environment (3.4-3.0 Ga); (II) voluminous TTG crust formation in an early accretionary orogen (3.0-2.92 Ga); (III) internal TTG crust reworking and subduction of TTG-derived sediments in an Andean-type setting (2.89-2.75 Ga); (IV) (post-)collisional high-K magmatism from both mantle and crustal sources (2.71-2.67 Ga); and (V) alkaline magmatism in an intra-cratonic environment (2.05-2.03 Ga). The inferred array results from voluminous TTG crust formation during stage II, and involvement of this crust during all subsequent stages by two different processes: (i) internal crust reworking through both partial melting and assimilation at 2.89-2.75 Ga, leading to the formation of biotite granites coeval with minor TTGs, and (ii) subduction of TTG-derived sediments underneath the PB, causing enrichment of the mantle that subsequently became source for high-K granitoids and mafic rocks at 2.68 and 2.05 Ga. Some scatter along the array might have resulted either from significant assimilation of ancient crust, intracrustal Lu/Hf fractionation or melting of heterogeneous mantle sources. Those results show that without any information about the nature and composition of zircon-hosting granitoids, Hf isotope-age data are of limited use to constrain Hadean-Archean magmatogenesis and geodynamics.

  14. Development of fluid-particle coupled simulation method in the Stokes flow regime: toward 3-D geodynamic simulation including granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, M.; Nishiura, D.; Nakagawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    A fluid-particle two-phase flow has been widely studied in geodynamics, because particle-saturated fluid layer is important for understanding the dynamics of solidifying and melting process in the magma chamber or magma ocean. In order to deal with such particle-fluid systems as the geodynamical modeling in 3-D geometry, we develop a new coupled simulation code of Finite Difference method (FDM) for fluid flow and Discrete Element method (DEM) for solid particles. Although this type of numerical method has been well developed in the engineering field to investigate the fluidized bed especially for the high Reynolds number in short time scales, the method for the low Reynolds number over long time scales has not yet been fully addressed. In the geodynamic modeling with highly viscous fluid, the fluid motion can be treated as the Stokes flow. We employ empirically derived a coupling term between fluid flow and particle motion providing good fit with experimental data of the creeping flow. When this coupling force is directly introduced to the normal DEM equation of particles, we have to numerically solve dumped oscillation with a small time step dt ~1/η for high fluid viscosity η. Thus the normal DEM does not seem to be suitable solution method for our target problems. We therefore propose to drop off the inertial term from the governing equation of DEM based on the Stokes flow approximation and solve the force balance equation as same as that for the fluid. With this approach, we can employ the large dt~η for the problems with highly viscos fluid. Since our original solution algorithms for both of FDM and DEM are designed for the massively vector parallel architectures with two characteristic numerical techniques, we can solve large size of problems in 3-D geometry. 1. The geometric multi grid method of our robust Stokes flow solver is implemented with agglomeration technique to enhance the parallel efficiency in coarse grid operations. 2. Our DEM utilizes the parallel algorithms for a summation of contact force and search of particle pairs using particle labels sorted by the cell number to improve computational efficiency of the code. In the presentation, we introduce details of our coupled model treatment of the granular medium and demonstrate the validation test with an analogue experiment.

  15. A Geodynamic Template for Super-Continent Dispersal Based on CAMP Geochemical and Isotopic Signatures From the Culpepper Basin of Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, B. B.; Sinha, A.; Shervais, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    We present new geochemical data for the Mesozoic age Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) LIP associated with the dispersal of the super-continent, Pangea. Data for the CAMP from the Culpepper Basin of Virginia, as well as previously published data for Mesozoic to recent North Atlantic MORB and OIB define an ordered sequence of geodynamic events for the rifting of Pangea and formation and evolution of the Atlantic ocean basin. CAMP data have Nb/La (0.36-0.62) and Th/Ta (4.61-9.14), similar to island arc lavas. The isotope signatures for the CAMP show island arc-SCLM and/or lower crust affinities. As rifting progressed and the ocean basin opened up (160-120 Ma to present), Central Atlantic MORB geochemical signatures require plume pollution of their asthenosphere source. Numerous plumes, dating back to the early opening of the ocean basin, occur along the western African continental margin in the Central Atlantic. We model this source evolution to reflect 200 Ma melting of the SCLM (CAMP event) associated with a thermal anomaly related to edge effect convection and thinned lithosphere produced during the breakup of the previous super-continent Rodinia (ca. late Proterozoic), followed (<200Ma) by continued upwelling of asthenosphere and buoyant mantle plumes rooted along the peripheries of the African superswell. We use the geochemistry of the Mesozoic to recent basalts as time markers to suggest that the sources of the basalts are linked to three recognizable stages of extension. Stage I basalt generation is associated with incipient supercontinent extension with its geochemical/isotopic signature dominated by sub-continental lithosphere mantle (SCLM). Stage II basalts mark transition to an incipient oceanic rift where ocean island basalt (plume) and/or mid-ocean ridge basalt sources are diluted by SCLM. Stage III basalts are related to a mature mid-ocean ridge system where the source is dominated by the depleted asthenosphere MORB source, variably polluted by SCLM and OIB conponents. Application of this geodynamic template has the potential to constrain the geodynamic enviroment of ancient LIPS.

  16. Crustal structure and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: insights from deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, D.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2014-12-01

    A 300 km deep seismic reflection profile across the middle and lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt (YRMB) and its adjacent areas established the architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include the deep complicated geometry of the Tan-Lu fault and Zhangbaling uplift, appears as a subvertical thrust fault with its deep portion dip toward the southeast, and along which the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out; complex upper crust deformation structure beneath Chuquan depression, within which there are both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, i.e., the upper crust reflection thrust upward, and the lower crust reflection thrust downward and offsetting the Moho discontinuity, which reflects the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust, and is interpreted as an intracontinental subduction. Further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline. The entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the YRMB is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. Overall, the seismic data show evidence for an intracontinental orogeny and imposes constraints on the deep geodynamic model applied to study region. Our interpretation of seismic profile supports the view that the Yanshanian orogeny, due to the northwest subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate during the Middle-Late Jurassic, is the major event that shaped the tectonic framework of the region. A geodynamic model is proposed for the formation of the world-class metallogenic belt, this model includes several key deep processes, e.g., the subduction of intracontinental sublithosphere, the thickening and delamination of crustal roots, the melting of delaminated lower crust and underplating of the melts to the crust-mantle boundary and subsequent MASH processes.

  17. Pre-collisional geodynamic context of the southern margin of the Pan-African fold belt in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkoumbou, C.; Barbey, P.; Yonta-Ngoun, C.; Paquette, J. L.; Villiras, F.

    2014-11-01

    We reassess the geodynamic context close to the Congo craton during the pre-collisional period of the Pan-African orogeny from whole-rock major and trace element compositions and isotopic data obtained in the westward extension of the Yaounde series (Boumnyebel area, Cameroon). The series consists of metasediments (micaschists, minor calc-silicate rocks and marbles) and meta-igneous rocks (hornblende gneisses, amphibolites, metagabbros, pyroxenites and talcschists) recrystallized under high-pressure conditions. Chemically, the micaschists correspond to shales and greywackes similar to the Yaounde high-grade gneisses. 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (0.7084-0.7134), moderately negative ?Nd(620 Ma) values (-5.75 to -7.81), Nd model ages (1.66 < TDM < 1.74 Ga) and radiometric ages point to the conclusion that the Yaounde basin was filled with siliciclastic sediments derived from both reworked older continental crust (Palaeoproterozoic to Archaean in age) and Neoproterozoic juvenile volcanogenic material. This occurred in the same time span (625-1100 Ma) as the deposition of the Lower Dja, Yokadouma, Nola and Mintom series (Tonian-Cryogenian). Dolomitic marble associated with mafic/ultramafic rocks and characterized by high Cr (854-1371 ppm) and Ni (517-875 ppm) contents, are considered to result from chemical precipitation in relation with submarine magmatic activity. Talcschists (orthopyroxenitic to harzburgitic in composition) show primitive-mantle-normalized multi-element patterns with significant negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and slopes similar to that of average metasomatically altered lithospheric mantle. These rocks could be mantle slices involved in the collision tectonics. Amphibolites show the compositions of island-arc basalts with systematic negative Nb-Ta anomalies, 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios mostly <0.7047 and positive ?Nd(620 Ma) values (+1.41 to +6.58). They are considered to be the expression of incipient oceanisation to the north of the Congo craton during the early Neoproterozoic. Hornblende gneisses show andesitic compositions, with high 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (0.7105 and 0.7125) and low ?Nd(620) values (-14.0 and -20.7) suggesting that their genesis involved juvenile and recycled older crustal materials. Syn-metamorphic metagabbro (Mamb) and metadiorite (Yaounde) intrusions show negative Nb-Ta negative anomalies but enrichment in light rare-earth and large-ion lithophile elements, suggesting a metasomatized mantle source. Overall, meta-igneous rocks seem to be representative of distinct magmatic events that accompanied the evolution of the Yaounde sedimentary basin, from opening and oceanisation to convergence and closure in relation with the collisional process. These data suggest that the Yaounde basin should not be considered as a back-arc basin, but more likely represents the expression of extensional processes to the north of the Congo craton, which led to rifting, fragmentation and limited oceanisation. In this view, the Adamawa-Yade block may represent a micro-continent detached from the Congo craton during the early Neoproterozoic.

  18. Unraveling the geodynamic evolution and tectonic history of the Guatemala Suture Zone: a world-class natural laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, K. E.; Brocard, G. Y.; Harlow, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Guatemala Suture Zone (GSZ) is the fault-bound region in central Guatemala that contains the present North American-Caribbean plate boundary. It is bounded by the Maya Block to the north and by the Chortís Block to the south. This major composite geotectonic unit contains a variety of ophiolites, serpentinite mélanges, and metavolcano-sedimentary sequences along with high-grade schist, gneisses, low-grade metasediments and metagranites thrusted north and south of the active Motagua fault system (MFS). This modern plate boundary has accommodated at least ~1100 km of left-lateral strike-slip motion over the Cenozoic and brings into contact the geological provinces described above. Classically, the GSZ has been interpreted as the result of a single progressive collision of a Chortís Block-related island arc with the passive margin of the Maya Block. This model was based on geochemical signatures of basaltic rocks in oceanic crust sequences both north and south of the MFS. However, results from our research challenge this single collision hypothesis. Oceanic and continental high-pressure-low-temperature (HP-LT) rocks astride the MFS have recorded multiple tectonic events revealed by their multiple metamorphic ages (Sm-Nd, U-Pb and Ar-Ar) and distinct PT paths. These tectonic events differ in age north and south of the MFS. Moreover, the continental and oceanic sequences across the MFS are geochemically and stratigraphically distinct, suggesting different tectonic origins. The southern margin of the Maya Block and the northern section of the GSZ can be clearly interpreted as a Cretaceous-Paleocene flexural passive margin tectonically overridden by ultramafic rocks and a Cretaceous island arc sequence. In contrast, the southern section of the GSZ is composed of a Carboniferous-Jurassic active margin tectonically imbricated with ultramafic rocks and a circum-Pacific Jurassic MORB and IAT metavolcano-sedimentary sequence. Thus, based on these results, we identify at least three major tectonic events within the GSZ: (i) A Jurassic-Early Cretaceous accretion and/or collision along a circum-Pacific active margin and the subsequent exhumation of oceanic HP-LT rocks now found on the southern section of the GSZ (ii) A Late Cretaceous closure of a back-arc basin that led to island arc-passive margin collision, which triggered exhumation of oceanic and continental HP-LT rocks and succeeding obduction onto the southern margin of the Maya Block (iii) A major Cenozoic left-lateral displacement along the then active margin that restructured the original tectonic arrangement into the present complex scenario. This new tectonic scenario hypothesis integrates all relevant geodynamic constraints reported on the GSZ and satisfactorily explains the occurrence of (i) an older circum-Pacific suture zone probably originated in southern Mexico in contact with (ii) a younger suture zone perhaps related to the closure of the proto Caribbean basin.

  19. Magmatic dyke swarms of the south shetland islands volcanic arc, west-antarctica - tracers of geodynamic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, St.; Miller, H.

    2003-04-01

    Magmatic dykes are essential components of volcanic arcs, following joint systems and fracture zones. This work aims to reconstruct the deformational and intrusive history of the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula by combining structural information with the geochemistry, isotopy and age of the dykes. On the South Shetland Islands volcanic activity began about 130 Ma ago. From Mid to Late Eocene (49-34 Ma) the northern Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America underwent extensional tectonics, which led to sea-floor spreading in the Drake Passage 28 Ma ago. Subsequent slab-rollback caused arc-extension and the opening of the Bransfield Rift as a backarc-basin between 4 and 1.3 Ma ago. Very slow subduction (1mm/a) at the South Shetland trench continues until the present day. Several changes of subduction direction caused crucial variations regarding the tectonic regime in the overlying South Shetland block, being the reason for the shifting strike of the dykes. Several dyke systems were mapped in areas of up to 100000m2, with the outcrop situation being good enough to observe plenty of relative age relationships. ICP-MS geochemical analysis on 132 dykes shows, as expected, that the majority of them correspond to a typical subduction-related calcalcalic suite, ranging from basalts to rhyolites. Nevertheless, some dykes show shoshonitic characteristics and are maybe related to an early stage extensional crustal regime. This is supported by the relative ages observed in the field, indicating, that these dykes belong to the oldest ones outcropping in the investigated area. In one case, the geochemical behaviour of the dyke corresponds clearly to adacitic conditions, being a hint on partially molten subducted oceanic crust. In several areas (e.g. Potter Peninsula, King George Island, and Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island) a strong correlation between chemism and strike of the dykes - and therefore the tectonic regime at the time of intrusion - is observed. Ce/Pb, Zr/Hf and also some Ba/HFSE ratios have been used as a powerful means to distinguish the different intrusive events. Thus, combining the relative ages observed in the field with the geochemical information, on Hurd Peninsula (Livingston Island) 6 different intrusive events are traceable. In contrast to the subduction-related, mostly calcalcalic dykes outcropping on the rest of the South Shetland Islands, the quaternary dykes of Penguin Island are composed of Ol-bearing basalt of slightly more alcalic chemism. They are not related to the island arc part of subduction in that area but to the recent opening of the Bransfield Strait as a backarc-basin. The results prove the good suitability of magmatic dyke systems for tracing the change of the tectonic regime over time and space. Present work includes extensive isotope geochemical analysis (Sr, Nd, Pb) to get a hint on the magma sources and their possible changes as a result of changing geodynamic parameters.

  20. Major types and time-space distribution of Mesozoic ore deposits in South China and their geodynamic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingwen, Mao; Yanbo, Cheng; Maohong, Chen; Pirajno, Franco

    2013-03-01

    The ore deposits of the Mesozoic age in South China can be divided into three groups, each with different metal associations and spatial distributions and each related to major magmatic events. The first event occurred in the Late Triassic (230-210 Ma), the second in the Mid-Late Jurassic (170-150 Ma), and the third in the Early-Mid Cretaceous (120-80 Ma). The Late Triassic magmatic event and associated mineralization is characterized by peraluminous granite-related W-Sn-Nb-Ta mineral deposits. The Triassic ore deposits are considerably disturbed or overprinted by the later Jurassic and Cretaceous tectono-thermal episodes. The Mid-Late Jurassic magmatic and mineralization events consist of 170-160 Ma porphyry-skarn Cu and Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits associated with I-type granites and 160-150 Ma metaluminous granite-related polymetallic W-Sn deposits. The Late Jurassic metaluminous granite-related W-Sn deposits occur in a NE-trending cluster in the interior of South China, such as in the Nanling area. In the Early-Mid Cretaceous, from about 120 to 80 Ma, but peaking at 100-90 Ma, subvolcanic-related Fe deposits developed and I-type calc-alkaline granitic intrusions formed porphyry Cu-Mo and porphyry-epithermal Cu-Au-Ag mineral systems, whereas S-type peraluminous and/or metaluminous granitic intrusions formed polymetallic Sn deposits. These Cretaceous mineral deposits cluster in distinct areas and are controlled by pull-apart basins along the South China continental margin. Based on mineral assemblage, age, and space-time distribution of these mineral systems, integrated with regional geological data and field observations, we suggest that the three magmatic-mineralization episodes are the result of distinct geodynamic regimes. The Triassic peraluminous granites and associated W-Sn-Nb-Ta mineralization formed during post-collisional processes involving the South China Block, the North China Craton, and the Indo-China Block, mostly along the Dabie-Sulu and Songma sutures. Jurassic events were initially related to the shallow oblique subduction of the Izanagi plate beneath the Eurasian continent at about 175 Ma, but I-type granitoids with porphyry Cu and vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposits only began to form as a result of the breakup of the subducted plate at 170-160 Ma, along the NNE-trending Qinzhou-Hangzhou belt (also referred to as Qin-Hang or Shi-Hang belt), which is the Neoproterozoic suture that amalgamates the Yangtze Craton and Cathaysia Block. A large subduction slab window is assumed to have formed in the Nanling and adjacent areas in the interior of South China, triggering the uprise of asthenospheric mantle into the upper crust and leading to the emplacement of metaluminous granitic magma and associated polymetallic W-Sn mineralization. A relatively tectonically quiet period followed between 150 and 135 Ma in South China. From 135 Ma onward, the angle of convergence of the Izanagi plate changed from oblique to parallel to the coastline, resulting in continental extensional tectonics and reactivation of regional-scale NE-trending faults, such as the Tan-Lu fault. This widespread extension also promoted the development of NE-trending pull-apart basins and metamorphic core complexes, accompanied by volcanism and the formation of epithermal Cu-Au deposits, granite-related polymetallic Sn-(W) deposits and hydrothermal U deposits between 120 and 80 Ma (with a peak activity at 100-90 Ma).

  1. Geodynamic modeling of eclogite-bearing mantle plumes: Ascent dynamics, plume-plate-interaction and surface manifestations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannberg, Juliane; Sobolev, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    According to widely accepted models, plumes ascend from the deep mantle and cause massive melting when they reach the base of the lithosphere. Classical geodynamic models consider plumes as purely thermal and thus predict a flattening of the plume head to a disk-like structure and thin plume tails. However, geochemical data indicate that plumes have a different composition than the average mantle material and it has been suggested a long time ago that subducted oceanic crust could be recycled by mantle plumes. In addition, seismic imaging reveals thicker plume tails as well as a more complex plume structure in the upper mantle, including broad low-velocity anomalies up to 400 km depth and elongated low-velocity fingers fed by plumes. While recent numerical models have considered a different chemistry to explain complex plume shapes or zoning within plumes, they either are restricted to only a part of the plume evolution or use simplified material models. However, due to the high density of recycled oceanic crust, thermo-chemical plumes are expected to have much smaller buoyancy than thermal plumes. Therefore it is especially important to incorporate realistic material properties, as they can influence the plume dynamics crucially and determine if a plume reaches the lithosphere or remains in deeper parts of the mantle. We perform numerical experiments in a 3D spherical shell geometry to study the dynamics of the plume ascent, the interaction between plume- and plate-driven flow and the dynamics of melting in a plume head. For that purpose, we use the finite-element code ASPECT, which allows for complex temperature-, pressure-, and composition-dependent material properties. Moreover, our models incorporate phase transitions (including melting) with the accompanying rheological and density changes, Clapeyron slopes and latent heat effects for the peridotite and eclogite phase, mantle compressibility and a highly temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity. We study under which conditions thermo-chemical plumes ascend through the whole mantle and what structures they form in the upper mantle. Modeling shows that plumes with a buoyancy higher than some critical value directly advance to the base of the lithosphere, while plumes with slightly lower buoyancy pond in a depth of 300-400 km and form pools or a second layer of hot material. These structures become asymmetric and finger-like channels begin to form when the plume gets entrained by a quickly moving overlying plate. Our models also suggest that thermo-chemical plumes ascend in the mantle much slower compared to thermal plumes and have thicker plume tails. The conversion of plume excess temperatures to anomalies in seismic velocity shows that thermo-chemical low-buoyancy plumes can explain a variety of features observed by seismic tomography much better than purely thermal plumes.

  2. Geodynamics of magmatic Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide deposits: new insights from the Re-Os isotope system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, D.D.; Foster, J.G.; Frick, L.R.; Ripley, E.M.; Zientek, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we reassess crustal contamination and sulfide ore-forming processes in some of the largest magmatic ore deposits, using published Re-Os isotope data and a modeling methodology that incorporates the R factor, defined as the effective mass of silicate magma with which a given mass of sulfide magma has equilibrated, in an Re-Os isotope mixing equation. We show that there is less disparity between conclusions based on Re-Os isotope data compared to other isotopic systems if the R factor is considered, Komatiite-associated Ni sulfide ore systems typically have high Os concentrations, low Re/Os ratios, and near-chondritic initial Os isotope compositions. For magmatic sulfide ores that are interpreted to have experienced relatively low R factors (2,000). Sulfide saturation in these ore systems may, therefore, have been achieved via changes in intensive parameters of the komatiite lavas (cooling or decompression) or changes in compositional parameters transparent to the Re-Os isotope system (e.g., fo2/fs2/fH2O)- Basalt-gabbro-associated Cu-Ni sulfide ore systems at Duluth, Sudbury, and Stillwater are quite distinct from those at Kambalda by having comparatively low Os concentrations, high Re/Os ratios, and high initial Os isotope compositions, These chemical and isotopic characteristics are indicative of significant interactions between their parental basaltic magmas and old crust because there are no known mantle reservoirs with such extreme geocheinical characteristics. Our modeling suggests that for Cu-Ni sulfide ores at Duluth, Sudbury, and Stillwater to maintain the observed high initial Os isotope compositions inherited from a crustal contaminant, R factors for these systems must have been low (< 10,000), consistent with their low metal concentrations. Thus, we interpret this style of base metal sulfide mineralization to be derived from crustally contaminated but less dynamic magmatic systems that did not permit extensive equilibration of sulfide magma with silicate magma, For basalt-gabbro-associated Cu-Ni-PGE-rich sulfide ore systems that have Re-Os geochemical characteristics more similar to those associated with komatiites, R factors must have been high (??? 10,000 for Noril'sk-Talnakh and the J-M reef, Stillwater Complex). In these very dynamic magmatic ore systems, crustal contamination processes are more difficult to assess using Re-Os isotopes as the effects of contamination are masked by the R factor process in which sulfide magma equilibrates with extensive amounts of asthenospheric mantle-derived magma. Sulfide protore for these systems may, then, have been very radiogenic and of crustal origin prior to R factor processes that occurred during transport in feeder conduits and in upper crustal magma chambers. This study, therefore, highlights the need for caution when interpreting the Re-Os isotope geochemistry of sulfide ores from dynamic magmatic systems. The results of our reinvestigation of these giant ore deposits suggest that geodynamic processes associated with large magmatic systems, including major lithospheric pathways to the surface, changes in flow regime, coupled magma flow-through and magma mixing (providing enhanced R factors), may be critical to our understanding of the emplacement, localization, and quality of magmatic sulfide deposits. Thus, the timing and exact mechanism of sulfide saturation may be subordinate to dynamic magmatic processes in the localization of economic concentrations of magmatic sulfides.

  3. Bowen Lecture: Physical and Chemical Properties of Melts Under Deep Earth Conditions and Their Importance in Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, E.

    2007-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of melts at high pressure are the essential factors controlling geodynamics. One of the major subjects on the melt properties is the partitioning behavior, i.e., element partitioning among silicate melts, metallic melts, and minerals, which played crucial roles in fractionation in the magma ocean and core formation stages, and determined the chemical compositions of the mantle and core. Our recent studies on element partitioning between metallic liquid and lower mantle minerals revealed that the terrestrial magma ocean was extended to the deep lower mantle [1, 2]. The density crossover between magma and crystals in the deep mantle is also an interesting phenomenon which played an essential role in solidification of the primordial magma ocean and the deep seated magma generation processes [3,4] since magmas are extremely compressible associated with their structural change compared to crystals. The density crossover between peridotite magmas and equilibrium olivine was observed at around 9.5 GPa in Martian mantle [5] and at 13 GPa [6] in the Earth's mantle. Thus, neutral buoyancy of olivine occurs in the primordial magma ocean in the early planets and effective separation of olivine could not occur in the magma oceans producing an olivine enriched upper mantle in the magma ocean stage. The deep mantle melt is also important in the present Earth both at the bottoms of the upper and lower mantles. Seismological studies revealed that there is a low velocity and low Q zone at the base of the upper mantle suggesting existence of a partial molten region at this depth [7,8]. Existence of the ultra-low velocity zone at the base of the lower mantle has also been established seismologically [9]. We determined the density of hydrous magma and carbonated magma by the sink-float method using diamond as a density marker, and determined the partial molar volumes of H2O and CO2 in magmas up to 20 GPa [10,11]. The result implies that a density crossover exists between the mantle and hydrous or carbonated magmas containing H2O or CO2 up to about 2-5 wt percent. The volatile rich magmas could be gravitationally stable at the base of the upper mantle, and can explain the low seismic velocity and low Q regions observed at this depth (e.g., [7]). The base of the lower mantle is also a possible region of accumulation of dense magmas. The origin of the ultra-low velocity zone has been interpreted as existence of dense magmas [4, 8]. We showed closure of the liquid immiscibility gaps in the FeO- Fe and FeO-FeS-Fe systems at high pressure [12]. Thus we may expect dissolution of metallic Fe component into magmas at the core-mantle boundary, producing dense magmas at the base of the lower mantle. References: [1] Kawazoe T and Ohtani E, Phys. Chem. Minerals, DOI 10.1007/s00269-006-0071-4. [2] Sakai T et al. GRL, 33, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026868. [3] Stolper EM et al., JGR, 86, 6261, 1982. [4] Ohtani E, PEPI, 33, 12-25, 1983. [5] Ohtani E et al., Proc. of Jpn Acad, 96, ser. B, 23-28, 1993. [6] Suzuki A and E. Ohtani E, Phys. Chem. Minerals., 30: 449-456 , 2003. [7] Song TR et al. Nature, 427, 530-533, 2004. [8] Bercovici G and Karato S, Nature, 425, 39-44, 2003. [9] Garnero EJ, Science, 304, 834, 2004. [10] Sakamaki T et al., Nature, Vol.439, 192-194,2006. [11] Ghosh S et al., GRL., in review 2007. [12] Tsuno Q et al., PEPI, 160, 75-85, 2006.

  4. Triassic granitoids in the eastern Songpan Ganzi Fold Belt, SW China: Magmatic response to geodynamics of the deep lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chao; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yongjiu; Wilde, Simon; Long, Xiaoping; Yan, Danping

    2010-02-01

    The Songpan Ganzi Fold Belt (SGFB), SW China, was developed from a passive continental margin into an orogenic belt with the consumption of the Paleo-Tethys. During the evolution of the SGFB, numerous Late Triassic granitic plutons formed and exhibited a progressive development from adakite/I-type granite, high Ba-Sr granite, A-type granite and monzonite. Representative Late Triassic plutons were studied to unravel the bewildering evolution of the eastern SGFB. The Menggu Pluton (224 3 Ma) consists of granites with high alkali (K 2O+Na 2O = 7.85-10.4 wt.%) and adakitic characteristics (Sr/Y = 19-38). The ?Nd T values (- 2.77 to - 5.03), initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.7050-0.7063) and low Nb/Ta ratios (8-10) are indicative of an origin by partial melting of amphibolitic lower crust. Rocks from the Niuxingou Pluton (215 3 Ma) are richer in K than Na (K 2O/Na 2O = 1.1-1.5) and contain high Sr (1006-1662 ppm) and Ba (1277-2009 ppm), typical of shoshonite and high Ba-Sr granite. They have less enriched ?Nd T values (+ 0.08 to - 2.04) and less radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr i ratios (0.7047-0.7048), and formed from a mixed melt derived from upwelling asthenosphere and the overlying metasomatised lithospheric mantle. The Taiyanghe Pluton (205 3 Ma) consists of monzonites, with high Al 2O 3 (> 20 wt.%), but low MgO (0.94-1.39 wt.%). The rocks are richer in Na than K (K 2O/Na 2O < 0.7), contain high large ion lithophile element (LILE) (681-834 ppm Sr and 2142-9453 ppm Ba) and display strongly fractionated REE patterns ((La/Yb) N = 35-63). These features, together with their enriched Nd-Sr isotopic compositions (?Nd T = - 4.78 to - 6.50; 87Sr/ 86Sr i = 0.7074-0.7090), suggest that the monzonite probably formed from low degrees of partial melting of metasomatised lithospheric mantle. Although a continuous compressional regime during the Mid- and Late Triassic has been invoked for the SGFB, the generation of crustally derived adakitic and shoshonitic plutons reflect thickening in response to an arc-continental collision accompanied by fracturing of the lithosphere and an extensional regime in the deep lithosphere in the Late Triassic. The 205 Ma Taiyanghe Pluton was emplaced simultaneously with a rapid uplift of the lithosphere, when surface deposits changed from deep-water turbidite to tidal flat sediments. It was therefore generated during decompression, probably related to the rapid removal of the overthickened lithospheric mantle. The Triassic magmatism in the eastern SGFB is therefore important for probing geodynamic processes in the deep lithosphere.

  5. Archaean associations of volcanics, granulites and eclogites of the Belomorian province, Fennoscandian Shield and its geodynamic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabunov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    An assembly of igneous (TTG-granitoids and S-type leucogranites and calc-alkaline-, tholeiite-, kometiite-, boninite- and adakite-series metavolcanics) and metamorphic (eclogite-, moderate-pressure (MP) granulite- and MP amphibolite-facies rocks) complexes, strikingly complete for Archaean structures, is preserved in the Belomorian province of the Fennoscandian Shield. At least four Meso-Neoarchaean different-aged (2.88-2.82; 2.81-2.78; ca. 2.75 and 2.735-2.72 Ga) calc-alkaline and adakitic subduction-type volcanics were identified as part of greenstone belts in the Belomorian province (Slabunov, 2008). 2.88-2.82 and ca. 2.78 Ga fore-arc type graywacke units were identified in this province too (Bibikova et al., 2001; Mil'kevich et al., 2007). Ca.2.7 Ga volcanics were generated in extension structures which arose upon the collapse of an orogen. The occurrence of basalt-komatiite complexes, formed in most greenstone belts in oceanic plateau settings under the influence of mantle plumes, shows the abundance of these rocks in subducting oceanic slabs. Multiple (2.82-2.79; 2.78-2.76; 2.73-2.72; 2.69-2.64 Ga) granulite-facies moderate-pressure metamorphic events were identified in the Belomorian province (Volodichev, 1990; Slabunov et al., 2006). The earliest (2.82-2.79 Ga) event is presumably associated with accretionary processes upon the formation of an old continental crust block. Two other events (2.78-2.76; 2.73-2.72 Ga) are understood as metamorphic processes in suprasubduction setting. Late locally active metamorphism is attributed to the emplacement of mafic intrusions upon orogen collapse. Three groups of crustal eclogites with different age were identified in the Belomorian province: Mesoarchaean (2.88-2.86 and 2.82-2.80 Ga) eclogites formed from MORB and oceanic plateau type basalts and oceanic high-Mg rocks (Mints et al., 2011; Shchipansky at al., 2012); Neoarchaean (2.72 Ga) eclogites formed from MORB and oceanic plateau type basalts. The formation of eclogites is attributed to processes in a subducting slab. Correlation of the above complexes has revealed four alternating subduction systems: 2.88-2.82 Ga which comprises both suprasubduction (island-arc volcanics, graywackes) complexes and those from a subduction slab (eclogites), 2.81-2.78 Ga - island-arc volcanics, graywackes, granulites and eclogites; 2.75 Ga - island-arc volcanics only; 2.73-2.72 Ga - island-arc volcanics, granulites and eclogites. The duration of functioning of Meso-Neoarchaean subduction systems varies from 60 (or probably 30) to 15 Ma, which is consistent with the results of the numerical modelling (van Hunen, 2001) of subduction at mantle temperatures 125-150 degrees higher than the present temperature. This is a contribution to RFBR Project 11-05-00168 a References: Bibikova, E.V., Glebovitskii, V.A., Claesson, S. et al., 2001. Geochemistry International, 39(1) Mil'kevich, R.I., Myskova, T.A., Glebovitsky, V.A. et al. 2007. Geochemistry International, 45 Mints, M.V., Belousova, E.A., Konilov, A.N. et al., 2011. Geology, 38 Shchipansky, A.A., Khodorevskaya, L.I., Konilov, A.N., Slabunov, A.I., 2012. Russian Geology and Geophysics 53 Slabunov, A.I., Lobach-Zhuchenko, S.B., Bibikova, E.V. et al., 2006. European Lithosphere Dynamics, Memoir 32 Slabunov, A.I., 2008. Geology and geodynamics of Archean mobile belts (example from the Belomorian province of the Fennoscandian Shield van Hunen, J., 2001. Shallow and buoyant lithospheric subduction: couses and implications from thrmo-chemical numerical modelling. Theses PhD Volodichev, O.I., 1990. The Belomorian complex of Karelia: geology and petrology

  6. Geomorphology and geodynamics of the Cook-Austral island-seamount chain in the South Pacific Ocean: Implications for hotspots and plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, W.R.

    1998-12-01

    Among Pacific hotspot tracks, the Cook-Austral island-seamount chain is distinctly anomalous in geodynamic behavior, exhibiting repetitive episodes of volcanism at multiple sites, uplift of selected islands long after initial immersion by subsidence, and multiple alignments of volcanic edifices. Cook-Austral islands include a variety of disparate geomorphic types: volcanic islands without reefs, with fringing reefs, and with barrier reefs enclosing shallow lagoons, low-lying atolls; and makatea islands composted of volcanic cores surrounded by annular limestone tablelands. The distribution of subsided and uplifted islands along the Cook-Austral chain reflects multiple hotspot activity, probably related to multiple mantle diapirs of local character rather than to deep-seated plumes. Rapid Pacific plate motion can generate elongate hotspot tracks from transient hotspot activity unrelated to columnar advective plumes.

  7. A geodynamic model of the evolution of the Arctic basin and adjacent territories in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic and the outer limit of the Russian Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Kononov, M. V.; Dobretsov, N. L.; Vernikovsky, V. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Shipilov, E. V.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Arctic Region in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic is considered with allowance for the Paleozoic stage of evolution of the ancient Arctida continent. A new geodynamic model of the evolution of the Arctic is based on the idea of the development of upper mantle convection beneath the continent caused by subduction of the Pacific lithosphere under the Eurasian and North American lithospheric plates. The structure of the Amerasia and Eurasia basins of the Arctic is shown to have formed progressively due to destruction of the ancient Arctida continent, a retained fragment of which comprises the structural units of the central segment of the Arctic Ocean, including the Lomonosov Ridge, the Alpha-Mendeleev Rise, and the Podvodnikov and Makarov basins. The proposed model is considered to be a scientific substantiation of the updated Russian territorial claim to the UN Commission on the determination of the Limits of the Continental Shelf in the Arctic Region.

  8. Characteristics of mantle sources in Jurassic to Quaternary magmatic history of the territory of Armenia, as a guide to diverse geodynamic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghosyan, Igor; Meliksetian, Khachatur; van Bergen, Manfred; Mason, Paul; Jrbashyan, Ruben; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Ghukasyan, Yura; Melkonyan, Rafael; Karapetyan, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Complex geological mosaic of the territory of Armenia is presented by units consisting by fragments of continental blocks of Gondwanaland origin, Mesozoic Tethian island arc and Mesozoic ophiolitic complexes. Extensive magmatic activity traced from Early Jurassic to Holocene developed in diverse geological settings, such as Jurassic Tethyian MORB lavas, Upper Cretaceous and Eocene rift-related magmas and post-collisional Pliocene-Quaternary volcanic series. Despite the remarkable existence of subduction, obduction and collisional orogenic processes, accompanied by extensional and compressional tectonics, little is known about the relation between geodynamics and magma generation conditions, as mantles sources types and primary melts characteristics during the evolution of the region. Current study is intended to get new information that help to fill the gaps between the geodynamical puzzle and conditions of the mantle sources melting within the selected key areas of the territory of Armenia and Lesser Caucasus in general. In this contribution we focus on discussion of results of detailed geochemical and petrological studies of representative, highest-MgO samples of Jurassic picrites within Vedi ophiolites, picrite dyke of Alaverdi cutting Mesozoic Tethian island arc complexes, Upper Cretaceous rift-related sub-alkaline/alkaline basaltic series of Idjevan and Gochas, Late Eocene alkaline basaltic dyke of Jajur cutting Eocene volcanic and sedimentary complexes and Pliocene - Quaternary post-collisional volcanism, presented by 1) rifting-related flood basalts (dolerites); 2) HKCA basaltic series of Aragats stratovolcano and Gegham monogenetic volcanic upland and 3) high-alkaline, silica-undersaturated basaltic series of Syunik and Kapan. Geochemical signatures of most studied samples are characterised by enrichments in LILE and LREE, but depleted in HFSE, reflecting to OIB/MORB-type mantle source that may have been modified by subduction-related processes. Exceptions are the Jurasic Vedi and Alaverdi picrites reflecting the typical Tethyan MORB-type mantle, as well the Late Cretaceous Gochas, Martuni and Idjevan and Late Eocene Djajur showing absence of pronounced subduction-related modification of OIB-type mantle sources. Detail mineralogical study of early liquidus assemblages demonstrates that most studied samples consist high-Fo (>88) olivine that are considered to have crystallized from primary mantle-derived melts. Exceptions are low-Fo olivines characterized for Quaternary Aragats, Gegham and partially volcanoes of Syunik upland, those probably crystallized from crust contaminated AFC melts and/or melt resulting from the mixture of primary and crust-melted (adakite-type) melts. Spinel inclusions trapped in high-Fo olivine contain variable amounts of Ti, Al, and Cr, pointing to involvement of heterogeneous (MORB-type, OIB-type and subduction-type) mantle sources, that well agree with differ mantle-lithosphere domains and geodynamic controls during magma generations within the region from Jurassic to Quaternary time. Geochemical signature of melts, those could be maximally close to the primary or parental magmas, we obtained from LA-ICP-MS analyses of melt inclusions trapped in high-Fo olivines from all studied samples. Wide heterogeneity of melts within the individual and between differ magmatic systems, as well the link with geodynamical control and mantle sources melting scenarios will be discussed.

  9. On information-provided monitoring of geodynamic processes in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin in the conditions of highly intensive sub-soil usage

    SciTech Connect

    Oparin, V.N.; Potapov, V.P.; Tanaino, A.S.

    2006-09-15

    It is shown that formation of underground hollows of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin (Kuzbass), induced by opencut and underground mining has reached an intensity of 1.3-1.5 million m{sup 3}/day. In the conditions of high concentration of mines and open-cuts in small areas, a regional monitoring network is required in view of a generated geomechanical space, hazardous in geodynamic manifestations. A developed information support of this network is presented, including information models of a geological environment and database obtained from instrumental observations on geomechanical processes. The equations of connection between structural and strength characteristics of rocks, their metamorphization grade and occurrence depth are given for five geological-tectonic zones of the Kuzbass as a way of prediction of their properties.

  10. Geodynamic settings of the formation of amphibolites of the Kichera zone of the Baikal-Muya foldbelt: Results of geochemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. A.; Rytsk, E. Yu.; Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Kovach, V. P.; Tolmacheva, E. V.

    2015-02-01

    It was established that amphibolites of the Kichera zone of the Baikal-Muya belt (BMB) belong, at least, to two age groups: (I) Early Neoproterozoic large metamafic xenoliths entrapped by granitic rocks of 750 Ma and (II) Late Neoproterozoic (650-620 Ma) amphibolites, which compose individual tectonic sheets and lenses. The rocks of these groups are distinct in chemical composition: the low-Ti amphibolites of the first group with increased Al2O3 contents are similar to modern IABs, whereas the highly-Ti amphibolites of the second group correspond to MORBs and OIBs. The geochemical data showed that the igneous protoliths of amphibolites of the Kichera zone were formed during different stages of the BMB evolution distinct in geodynamic settings.

  11. The Early Miocene "Bisciaro volcaniclastic event" (northern Apennines, Italy): a key study for the geodynamic evolution of the central-western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrera, Francesco; Martín-Martín, Manuel; Raffaelli, Giuliana; Tramontana, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The Early Miocene Bisciaro Fm., a marly limestone succession cropping out widely in the Umbria-Romagna-Marche Apennines, is characterized by a high amount of volcaniclastic content, characterizing this unit as a peculiar event of the Adria Plate margin. Because of this volcaniclastic event, also recognizable in different sectors of the central-western Mediterranean chains, this formation is proposed as a "marker" for the geodynamic evolution of the area. In the Bisciaro Fm., the volcaniclastic supply starts with the "Raffaello" bed (Earliest Aquitanian) that marks the base of the formation and ends in the lower portion of the Schlier Fm. (Late Burdigalian-Langhian p.p.). Forty-one studied successions allowed the recognition of three main petrofacies: (1) Pyroclastic Deposits (volcanic materials more than 90 %) including the sub-petrofacies 1A, Vitroclastic/crystallo- vitroclastic tuffs; 1B, Bentonitic deposits; and 1C, Ocraceous and blackish layers; (2) Resedimented Syn-Eruptive Volcanogenic Deposits (volcanic material 30-90 %) including the sub-petrofacies 2A, High- density volcanogenic turbidites; 2B, Low- density volcanogenic turbidites; 2C, Crystal- rich volcanogenic deposits; and 2D, Glauconitic- rich volcaniclastites; (3) Mixing of Volcaniclastic Sediments with Marine Deposits (volcanic material 5-30 %, mixed with marine sediments: marls, calcareous marls, and marly limestones). Coeval volcaniclastic deposits recognizable in different tectonic units of the Apennines, Maghrebian, and Betic Chains show petrofacies and chemical-geochemical features related to a similar calc-alkaline magmatism. The characterization of this event led to the hypothesis of a co-genetic relationship between volcanic activity centres (primary volcanic systems) and depositional basins (depositional processes) in the Early Miocene palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic evolution of the central-western Mediterranean region. The results support the proposal of a geodynamic model of this area that considers previously proposed interpretations.

  12. Tectonic setting of the Late Triassic volcaniclastic series of the Luang Prabang Basin, Laos, and geodynamic implications from the Triassic to Jurassic in SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Hallot, Erwan; Poujol, Marc; Nalpas, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The Luang Prabang Basin, located on the eastern margin of the Indochina block, is mainly composed of volcaniclastic continental deposits. The interpretation of U-Pb zircon geochronological dates shows that volcanism is contemporaneous with the sedimentation during the Late Triassic (c.a. 225 to 215 Ma; Blanchard et al., 2013, J. Asian Earth Sci., 70-71; 8-26). At the same time, volcanism is also known along the Eastern margin of the Indochina block (present day Thailand). There are currently two main contrasting interpretations concerning the tectonic setting related to these volcanic events: are they arc-related (e.g. Barr et al., 2006, J. Geol. Soc. London, 163; 1037-1046) or post collisional (e.g. Srichan et al., 2009, Island Arc, 18; 32-51)? We have performed geochemical analysis on both sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Luang Prabang Basin in order to evaluate the relationships between the volcanic events and to propose a geodynamic interpretation. The geochemical characteristics of the Luang Prabang Late Triassic volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks are compatible with a volcanic arc setting. The confrontation of these results with the stratigraphic evolution of the eastern margin of the Indochina block leads to reconsider the Late Triassic to Jurassic geodynamic evolution of this area. Arc-related volcanism seems to occur during nearly the whole Triassic, implying a subduction of the Paleotethys beneath the Indochina block. As the stratigraphic record of north-eastern Thailand and western Myanmar shows an important stratigraphic gap spanning from the Early to the Middle Jurassic, the collision between the Indochina and the Sibumasu blocks likely occurred at that period.

  13. The tectonometamorphic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania): Geodynamic constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Fgenschuh, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    New structural, thermobarometric and geochronological data allow integrating kinematics, timing and intensity of tectonic phases into a geodynamic model of the Apuseni Mountain, which provides new constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens. Strong differences in terms of deformation directions between Early and Late Cretaceous events provide new constraints on the regional geodynamic evolution during the Cretaceous. Geochronological and structural data evidence a Late Jurassic emplacement of the South Apuseni Ophiolites on top of the Biharia Nappe System (Dacia Mega-Unit), situated in an external position at the European margin. Following the emplacement of the ophiolites, three compressive deformation phases affected the Apuseni Mountains during Alpine orogeny: a) NE-directed in-sequence nappe stacking and regional metamorphic overprinting under amphibolite-facies conditions during the Early Cretaceous ("Austrian Phase"), b) NW-directed thrusting and folding, associated with greenschist-facies overprinting, during the early Late Cretaceous ("Turonian Phase") and c) E-W internal folding together with brittle thrusting during the latest Cretaceous ("Laramian Phase"). Major tectonic unroofing and exhumation at the transition from Early to Late Cretaceous times is documented through new Sm-Nd Grt, Ar-Ar Ms and Rb-Sr Bt ages from the study area and resulted in a complex thermal structure with strong lateral and vertical thermal gradients. Nappe stacking and medium-grade metamorphic overprinting during the Early Cretaceous exhibits striking parallels between the evolution of the Tisza-Dacia Mega-Units and the Austroalpine Nappes (ALCAPA Mega-Unit) and evidences a close connection. However, Late Cretaceous tectonic events in the study area exhibit strong similarities with the Dinarides. Thus, the Apuseni Mountains represent the "missing link" between the Early Cretaceous Meliata subduction (associated with obduction of ophiolites) and the Neotethys subduction during Late Cretaceous times.

  14. The Temporal Spectrum of the Black Sea Level Fluctuations and its Possible Connection with the Dynamics of the Position Change of RT-22 of the Crao as AN Element of the European Geodynamic VLBI Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, M. I.; Volvach, A. E.; Sukharev, A. L.; Donskikh, A. I.; Adobovskiy, V. V.; Kuklina, N. Y.; Shabalina, O. A.; Gubar, G. A.; Pokidaylo, S. L.

    Using the international geodynamic VLBI program during 1994-2010 years the coordinates of the station "Simeiz" are determined. The results of measuring of RT-22 Simeiz coordinates with the monthly averages of the data long-term measurements of the Black Sea level stations, located in Odessa, Ochakov, Sevastopol, Yalta and Katsively are estimated. All items of sea level measuring have a different water flow, which gives the opportunity to explore global geodynamic processes and their dependence on solar activity cycle. The spectrum of sea level variations in different points indicates the presence the periods of one to 11 and 22 years. Using wavelet analysis the periods for each level station separately are estimated.

  15. Relating geodynamic setting to periods of crustal growth and reworking as illustrated by the Phanerozoic granitoids of the Eastern Cordillera of South Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, M.; Schaltegger, U.; Spikings, R.; Ulianov, A.; Gerdes, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2012-04-01

    The granitoids that form the backbone of the Eastern Cordillera of Peru between 12 and 14S, are the ideal material for a case study to relate geodynamic setting to crustal growth over the period of a Wilson cycle. Extension related plutons were emplaced in the back-arc region of the Western Gondwana margin during the Ordovician, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic and Early Jurassic. With the onset of the Andean cycle in the Middle Jurassic the South American margin was under compression, the plutonic record of this period is in the study area restricted to the Eocene and Miocene. The Ordovician to Triassic back-arc related plutons share many geochemical characteristics that point to dominant crustal reworking as the main process during their formation. These are 1) their mainly felsic and peraluminous nature; 2) the similarity of whole rock REE and trace element compositions compared to those of average continental crust; 3) the presence of negative Nb-Ta anomalies only in the more evolved samples which indicates that these excursions have been obtained by crustal melting rather than from a slab fluid and 4) the presence of significant amounts of xenocrystic cores in zircon. According to the literature the last major episode of juvenile crust formation was during the Grenvillian age Sunsas event (1.2 - 0.9 Ga) related to the collision of Laurentia and south-western Amazonia during the assembly of Rodinia. Hf-isotopes on zircons from the Ordovician, Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic plutons confirm their origin as mainly crustal melts generated by reworking of Sunsas-age crust. Under these geodynamic conditions it is mainly the crust that melts due to an elevated geothermal gradient as the result of crustal thinning. However, data from Jurassic nepheline bearing syenite and Eocene hornblende diorite and monzonite have epsilon Hfi values well above those of Sunsas crust, indicating an important mantle component in the melts. The Jurassic geodynamic setting is interpreted as extreme back-arc extension at the verge of spreading, peralkaline, SiO2-undersaturated syenites formed by small degrees of partial melting of the shallowest asthenospheric mantle but constitute only a volumetrically subordinate magmatic pulse, hence it did not contribute significantly to crustal growth. On the other hand, the Eocene Andahuaylas-Yauri batholith also has an important mantle component in its melt and at the same time is volumetrically the largest magmatic episode in the study area. Therefore we conclude that most Phanerozoic crustal growth took place during this compressional regime related to flat slab subduction. In other words, Eocene melting of the mantle assisted by slab derived fluids was much more efficient than Jurassic decompression melting of a relatively dry mantle during back-arc extension.

  16. Testing geodynamic models for surface uplift of the central Andean plateau through volcanic glass paleoaltimetry and basin analysis in southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, K. E., II; Saylor, J. E.; Villarreal, D. P.; Horton, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Differentiating between geodynamic models describing the formation mechanism(s) of the central Andean plateau (CAP) requires information concerning the timing and location of basin formation, crustal deformation, and surface uplift. All models involve the removal of lithospheric mantle, and typically fall into one of two end-members: 1) slow, continuous uplift (km over 10s of Myr) involving protracted removal of mantle lithosphere through ablative subduction or thermal weakening that is predicted to be coincident with crustal shortening, or 2) punctuated uplift (km over Myr) driven by rapid wholesale or piecemeal foundering of a dense lithospheric root, likely post-dating major crustal shortening. However, these models are not mutually exclusive, nor must any one geodynamic mechanism describe the entire history of the formation of the CAP, an area spanning ~1800 km N-S by up to 500 km E-W, comprised of multiple physiographic regions of differing compositional and geophysical characteristics resulting from protracted orogenesis. We present new stratigraphic, stable isotopic, and geochronologic data for temporally overlapping yet spatially separate Cenozoic intermontane basins in the northern CAP to evaluate the contribution of these end-member scenarios to the formation of the CAP. Data span multiple physiographic regions of the CAP, including basins near Puquio (Western Cordillera), the Huacochullo basin (western Altiplano margin), and the Macusani and Crucero basins of the Cordillera de Carabaya (Eastern Cordillera). The magnitude of paleoelevation changes is reconstructed from δD values of volcanic glass, while timing is constrained by zircon U-Pb geochronology. Initial results indicate early, rapid, high-magnitude surface uplift from initially low elevations in the Western Cordillera but a later, lower-magnitude pulse of uplift from initially moderate elevations in the Eastern Cordillera. This diachronous uplift history, together with published reports of crustal deformation, suggests contrasting uplift mechanisms potentially explained by early Miocene foundering of a dense lithospheric root in the Western Cordillera, and a combination of continued Cenozoic crustal shortening and late Miocene lithospheric removal in the Eastern Cordillera.

  17. A late Tortonian paleotectonic restoration of the Gibraltar Arc System (GAS) based on the restoration of block rotations. Consequences on the GAS geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Comas, Menchu; Balanyá, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The Gibraltar Arc System (GAS) closes the Alpine-Mediterranean orogenic system to the west and includes the Betic-Rif orogenic belt, the Alboran and Argelian-Balearic basins and the accretionary prism present in the Cadiz Gulf. Previous investigations on this orogenic system, both onshore and offshore have permit to establish the first order milestones of its Miocene to Recent geodynamic evolution. In most of the models of the geodynamic evolution of the GAS, the external boundary of the Betic-Rif orogenic wedge, initially N-S directed, sweeps from east to west the Gibraltar Arc area, acquiring his arcuate geometry during this westward movement. Nevertheless, most of these models are generally at scale equivalent to 1:10.000.000 or even smaller, and frequently based on 2D schematic cross-sections from which a model for the whole arc is deduced. This fact under evaluates not only the mass movements oblique to the selected cross-section plane, but also the diachronism of the deformation, in turn expected in a so closed arc. In this communication, we want to zoom on the Gibraltar Arc area, to draw a detailed Late Tortonian paleotectonic restoration and to highlight the consequence of this reconstruction on the final evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean. Our approach is based on: 1) the identification and characterization of structural domains of the Gibraltar Arc orogenic system and the transfer fault zones that separate them, 2) an accurate dating of the superposed events of deformations for each one of these domains, 3) the restoration of vertical axis-rotations of some of these structural domains (evidenced by paleomagnetic data previously published), and 4) the quantification of Miocene shortening in the External zones. This exercise makes us to put all together the results of twenty years of research of our teams on this natural case-study, mainly with field and marine geology techniques, and to test it through the revision of an extensive bibliography. It will be shown that the proposed reconstruction permit to simplify most the kinematics models proposed at the moment. Although some key points are still problematic, this paleotectonic restoration may solve more problems than arise them. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by grants RNM-3713, RNM-215, CGL2008-03474 E/BTE, CTM2009-07715/MAR and CGL2009-11384.

  18. Geodynamic and Geochemical Modeling of Mantle Processes along the Southwest Indian Ridge at 35-40E: A Hotspot-Mid-Ocean Ridge Interaction Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, M. O.; Okino, K.; Montesi, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle convection can be regarded as the superposition of two convective models: aplate mode and a plume mode. Geodynamic modeling of these regimes has grantedinsight into surface features, and tells us about the mantle processes in a system largelydevoid of observables. Our study of the 35-40E segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge(SWIR) seeks to link geochemical and geological observations with the underlying mantleprocesses.Both plate and plume modes interact and combine at the SWIR 35-40E segment. Themid-ocean ridge itself is a manifestation of the plate tectonics mode of mantle convection.The slow opening rate and obliquity of this segment should lead to low volcanic activityalong this segment. However, this segment is the point along the SWIR closest to theMarion hotspot, a manifestation of the plume mode of mantle convection. When interactingwith the mid-ocean ridges, hotspots like the Azores, Iceland, Galpagos, and Rodriguezproduce distinctive patterns, such as propagating rifts, triple junctions, and enriched MORBsignatures. The Marion hotspot does not have a similar effect on the SWIR even thoughit is associated with a bathymetric high and residual mantle Bouguer anomaly low. Anotable feature along the ridge is a V-shaped bathymetric anomaly around one of the non-transform discontinuities (NTD).As for the SWIR 10-16E area (Montsi et al., 2011) geodynamics modeling predictsmagma focusing to highly segmented non-transform oblique segments (NTOS) along theridge. However, geophysical observations show a thinning crust at these regions. Modelingwithout the segmentation along the oblique segments shows much better agreement withthe observations. So either the NTOS are a crustal structure that does not influence mantleupwelling, melt extraction parameters vary along the ridge, or the density of the crust isanomalous in NTOS due to a different fractionation history.We will incorporate whole rock chemistry (including trace element, & REEs) constraintsto the evaluation of our hypotheses by modeling melt evolution and crystallization underdifferent conditions and comparing model predictions with collected samples.

  19. The Arkot Da? Mlange in Ara area, central Turkey: Evidence of its origin within the geodynamic evolution of the Intra-Pontide suture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gncoglu, M. Cemal; Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca; Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Catanzariti, Rita; Tekin, U. Kagan; Sayit, Kaan

    2014-05-01

    In northern Turkey, the Intra-Pontide suture zone is represented by an east-west trending belt of deformed and/or metamorphic units located at the boundary between the Istanbul-Zonguldak terrane to the north and the Sakarya terrane to the south. These units can be regarded as issued from the Intra-Pontide domain, whose geodynamic history is still a matter of debate. Along the Akpinar-Ara-Bayramoren geotraverse, located in central Turkey, an ophiolite-bearing mlange known as the Arkot Da? Mlange, is well-exposed along the Intra-Pontide suture zone. The Arkot Da? Mlange plays a key role in the interpretation of the geodynamic history of the Intra-Pontide domain and can be described as a Late Santonian chaotic sedimentary deposit consisting of an up to 1000-m-thick succession of slide-blocks of different sizes and lithologies enclosed in a sedimentary matrix consisting of shales, coarse-grained arenites, pebbly mudstones and pebbly sandstones. The slide-blocks, from a few meters to hectometers in size, are represented by metamorphic rocks (mainly micaschists and gneisses), by ophiolites (peridotites, gabbros, IAT and BABB basalts and cherts) and by sedimentary rocks (cherts, neritic and pelagic limestone, marly limestone and ophiolite-bearing turbidites). The youngest age among the slide-blocks has been provided by the ophiolite-bearing turbidites where a late Coniacian nannofossil assemblage has been found. The cherts have provided a wide range of ages from the Middle Triassic to Late Cretaceous, whereas the fossils found in the limestone indicate Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ages. The matrix of the Arkot Da? Mlange, even if unaffected by metamorphism, shows deformations represented by multiple meters-thick cataclastic shear zones at the boundaries of the mlange slices or inside of them. According to its features, the source area of the Arkot Da? Mlange was most likely a continental and oceanic thrust sheet emplaced in the Late Cretaceous onto a continental margin. The data collected from the different slide-blocks suggest that the Intra-Pontide domain was characterised by an oceanic basin opened at the latest in the Early Jurassic. The opening of the Intra-Pontide oceanic basin was followed by the development of a subduction zone with a subsequent opening of suprasubduction oceanic basin in the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The convergence in this suprasubduction oceanic basin started at the Early/Late Cretaceous boundary by an obduction process, whereas its final closure can be regarded as Late Paleocene in age.

  20. Cobalt and precious metals in sulphides of peridotite xenoliths and inferences concerning their distribution according to geodynamic environment: A case study from the Scottish lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Hannah S. R.; McDonald, Iain; Faithfull, John W.; Upton, Brian G. J.; Loocke, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abundances of precious metals and cobalt in the lithospheric mantle are typically obtained by bulk geochemical analyses of mantle xenoliths. These elements are strongly chalcophile and the mineralogy, texture and trace element composition of sulphide phases in such samples must be considered. In this study we assess the mineralogy, textures and trace element compositions of sulphides in spinel lherzolites from four Scottish lithospheric terranes, which provide an ideal testing ground to examine the variability of sulphides and their precious metal endowments according to terrane age and geodynamic environment. Specifically we test differences in sulphide composition from Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic cratonic sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in northern terranes vs. Palaeozoic lithospheric mantle in southern terranes, as divided by the Great Glen Fault (GGF). Cobalt is consistently elevated in sulphides from Palaeozoic terranes (south of the GGF) with Co concentrations > 2.9 wt.% and Co/Ni ratios > 0.048 (chondrite). In contrast, sulphides from Archaean cratonic terranes (north of the GGF) have low abundances of Co (< 3600 ppm) and low Co/Ni ratios (< 0.030). The causes for Co enrichment remain unclear, but we highlight that globally significant Co mineralisation is associated with ophiolites (e.g., Bou Azzer, Morocco and Outokumpu, Finland) or in oceanic peridotite-floored settings at slow-spreading ridges. Thus we suggest an oceanic affinity for the Co enrichment in the southern terranes of Scotland, likely directly related to the subduction of Co-enriched oceanic crust during the Caledonian Orogeny. Further, we identify a distinction between Pt/Pd ratio across the GGF, such that sulphides in the cratonic SCLM have Pt/Pd ≥ chondrite whilst Palaeozoic sulphides have Pt/Pd < chondrite. We observe that Pt-rich sulphides with discrete Pt-minerals (e.g., PtS) are associated with carbonate and phosphates in two xenolith suites north of the GGF. This three-way immiscibility (carbonate-sulphide-phosphate) indicates carbonatitic metasomatism is responsible for Pt-enrichment in this (marginal) cratonic setting. These Co and Pt-enrichments may fundamentally reflect the geodynamic setting of cratonic vs. non-cratonic lithospheric terranes and offer potential tools to facilitate geochemical mapping of the lithospheric mantle.

  1. What can hafnium isotope ratios arrays tell us about orogenic processes? An insight into geodynamic processes operating in the Alpine/Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, B.; Murphy, J.; Collins, W. J.; Hand, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances in laser-ablation sampling techniques have resulted in an increase in the number of combined U-Pb-Hf zircon isotope studies used to investigate crustal evolution on a local, regional and global scale. Hafnium isotope arrays over large time scales (>500 myr) have been interpreted to track evolving plate tectonic configurations, and the geological outputs associated with changing plate boundaries. We use the Alpine-Mediterranean region as an example of how hafnium isotope arrays record the geodynamic processes associated with the complex geological evolution of a region. The geology of Alpine-Mediterranean region preserves a complex, semi-continuous tectonic history that extends from the Neoproterozoic to the present day. Major components of the Variscan and Alpine orogens are microcontinental ribbons derived from the northern Gondwanan margin, which were transferred to the Eurasian plate during the opening and closing of the Rheic and Paleo-Tethys Oceans. Convergence of the Eurasian and African plates commenced in the Mid-Late Cretaceous, following the destruction of the Alpine-Tethys Ocean during the terminal breakup of Pangea. In general, convergence occurred slowly and is characterised by northward accretion of Gondwanan fragments, interspersed with subduction of African lithosphere and intermittent roll-back events. A consequence of this geodynamic scenario was periods of granite-dominated magmatism in an arc-backarc setting. New Hf isotope data from the peri-Gondwanan terranes (Iberia, Meguma and Avalonia) and a compilation of existing Phanerozoic data from the Alpine-Mediterranean region, indicate ~500 myr (Cambrian-Recent) of reworking of peri-Gondwanan crust. The eHf array follows a typical crustal evolution pattern (Lu/Hf=0.015) and is considered to reflect reworking of juvenile peri-Gondwanan (Neoproterozoic) crust variably mixed with an older (~1.8-2.0 Ga) source component, probably Eburnian crust from the West Africa Craton. The Phanerozoic Hf isotopic data from Variscan and Alpine Europe suggest that slow translation of continental fragments from one continent to another produces a characteristic, long-term crustal reworking eHf array, which strongly contrasts with the Hf array defined by Phanerozoic circum-Pacific orogens.

  2. A new numerical method to calculate inhomogeneous and time-dependent large deformation of two-dimensional geodynamic flows with application to diapirism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, L.; Schmeling, H.

    2013-08-01

    A key to understand many geodynamic processes is studying the associated large deformation fields. Finite deformation can be measured in the field by using geological strain markers giving the logarithmic strain f = log 10(R), where R is the ellipticity of the strain ellipse. It has been challenging to accurately quantify finite deformation of geodynamic models for inhomogeneous and time-dependent large deformation cases. We present a new formulation invoking a 2-D marker-in-cell approach. Mathematically, one can describe finite deformation by a coordinate transformation to a Lagrangian reference frame. For a known velocity field the deformation gradient tensor, F, can be calculated by integrating the differential equation DtFij = LikFkj, where L is the velocity gradient tensor and Dt the Lagrangian derivative. The tensor F contains all information about the minor and major semi-half axes and orientation of the strain ellipse and the rotation. To integrate the equation centrally in time and space along a particle's path, we use the numerical 2-D finite difference code FDCON in combination with a marker-in-cell approach. For a sufficiently high marker density we can accurately calculate F for any 2-D inhomogeneous and time-dependent creeping flow at any point for a deformation f up to 4. Comparison between the analytical and numerical solution for the finite deformation within a Poiseuille-Couette flow shows an error of less than 2 per cent for a deformation up to f = 1.7. Moreover, we determine the finite deformation and strain partitioning within Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTIs) of different viscosity and layer thickness ratios. These models provide a finite strain complement to the RTI benchmark of van Keken et al. Large finite deformation of up to f = 4 accumulates in RTIs within the stem and near the compositional boundaries. Distinction between different stages of diapirism shows a strong correlation between a maximum occurring deformation of f = 1, 3 and 4, and the early, intermediate and late stages of diapirism, respectively. Furthermore, we find that the overall strain of a RTI is concentrated in the less viscous regions. Thus, spatial distributions and magnitudes of finite deformation may be used to identify stages and viscosity ratios of natural cases.

  3. Geological setting and geochemical signatures of the mafic rocks from the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone: implications for the geodynamic reconstruction of the Mesozoic Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayit, Kaan; Marroni, Michele; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal; Pandolfi, Luca; Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Frassi, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    A number of suture zones exist in Turkey, which is believed to represent the closure of Paleo and NeoTethyan oceanic basins. Regarding the development of the latter oceanic entity, namely Neotethys, the geodynamic evolution of the Intra-Pontide branch, the northernmost one of a number of oceanic basins remains enigmatic. The Intra-Pontide Suture Zone in Northwest Turkey includes several tectonic units most of which are characterized by the occurrence of mafic rocks with distinct geochemical signatures. In this paper, the mafic rocks collected from four of these units (the Domuz Dağ Unit, the Saka Unit, the Daday Unit and the Arkot Dağ Mèlange) have been studied in detail along two selected transects. The Domuz Dağ Unit is characterized by amphibolites, micaschists and marbles, which have been overprinted by low-grade metamorphism.The Saka Unit is in turn represented by an assemblage of slices of amphibolites, marbles and micaschists metamorphosed under upper amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions in the Late Jurassic time. In these units, the amphibolites and their retrograded counterparts display E-MORB-, OIB- BABB- and IAT-type signatures. The Daday Unit is characterized by metasedimentary and metamafic rocks metamorphosed under blueschist to sub-greenschist facies conditions. The metamafic rocks comprise actinolite-bearing schists and Na-amphibole-bearing varieties possibly derived from basaltic and gabbroic protoliths. They have a wide range of chemical compositions, displaying N-MORB-, E-MORB-, OIB- BABB- and IAT-type signatures. The Arkot Dağ Mèlange consists of a Late Santonian assemblage of slide-blocks mainly represented by basaltic lithologies showing affinities ranging from N-MORB- and IAT- to BABB-type magmas. The geochemical signature of the studied mafic rocks indicates that the tectonic units documented along the two studied transects of the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone have been derived from a supra-subduction zone. This hypothesis corroborates the available data collected from the Aylı Dağ Ophiolite Unit cropping out in the westernmost studied transect. This finding can provide new insights for the reconstruction of the geodynamic history of the Intra-Pontide domain.

  4. Geological setting and geochemical signatures of the mafic rocks from the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone: implications for the geodynamic reconstruction of the Mesozoic Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayit, Kaan; Marroni, Michele; Gncoglu, M. Cemal; Pandolfi, Luca; Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Frassi, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    A number of suture zones exist in Turkey, which is believed to represent the closure of Paleo and NeoTethyan oceanic basins. Regarding the development of the latter oceanic entity, namely Neotethys, the geodynamic evolution of the Intra-Pontide branch, the northernmost one of a number of oceanic basins remains enigmatic. The Intra-Pontide Suture Zone in Northwest Turkey includes several tectonic units most of which are characterized by the occurrence of mafic rocks with distinct geochemical signatures. In this paper, the mafic rocks collected from four of these units (the Domuz Da? Unit, the Saka Unit, the Daday Unit and the Arkot Da? Mlange) have been studied in detail along two selected transects. The Domuz Da? Unit is characterized by amphibolites, micaschists and marbles, which have been overprinted by low-grade metamorphism.The Saka Unit is in turn represented by an assemblage of slices of amphibolites, marbles and micaschists metamorphosed under upper amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions in the Late Jurassic time. In these units, the amphibolites and their retrograded counterparts display E-MORB-, OIB- BABB- and IAT-type signatures. The Daday Unit is characterized by metasedimentary and metamafic rocks metamorphosed under blueschist to sub-greenschist facies conditions. The metamafic rocks comprise actinolite-bearing schists and Na-amphibole-bearing varieties possibly derived from basaltic and gabbroic protoliths. They have a wide range of chemical compositions, displaying N-MORB-, E-MORB-, OIB- BABB- and IAT-type signatures. The Arkot Da? Mlange consists of a Late Santonian assemblage of slide-blocks mainly represented by basaltic lithologies showing affinities ranging from N-MORB- and IAT- to BABB-type magmas. The geochemical signature of the studied mafic rocks indicates that the tectonic units documented along the two studied transects of the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone have been derived from a supra-subduction zone. This hypothesis corroborates the available data collected from the Ayl? Da? Ophiolite Unit cropping out in the westernmost studied transect. This finding can provide new insights for the reconstruction of the geodynamic history of the Intra-Pontide domain.

  5. The model of the Uzon-Geizernaya volcano-tectonic depression and Kikhpinych volcano, Kamchatka, from the joint analysis of microseismic sounding data and local geodynamic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugaenko, Yu. A.; Saltykov, V. A.; Gorbatikov, A. V.; Stepanova, M. Yu.

    2015-05-01

    The model of the magmatic system beneath the Uzon-Geizernaya volcano-tectonic depression and adjacent Kikhpinych volcano in Kamchatka is constructed to a depth of 30 km based on the microseismic sounding data. For doing this, measurements of the natural microseismic field by the Guralp CMG-6TD portable broadband seismometer were carried out at 60 points along three profiles with a total length of about 28 km. The revealed structural heterogeneities were interpreted in the common context with the previous geological, geological-morphological, and petrological results. The area of a shallow crystallized magmatic reservoir is identified and spatially localized below the depression. The zones of the presumed concentration of the basaltic melts probably responsible for the local geodynamic activation of the region during the past 15 years are revealed as the peripheral magmatic chamber of the Kikhpinych volcano at a depth of 5-12 km and a deeper (15-20 km) magma storage. The geometry of the identified deep structures is consistent with the local microseismicity and the model of the contemporary magmatic intrusion into the upper crustal layers, which is based on the data of satellite interferometry.

  6. The Surface of Venus and Implications for its Geological and Geodynamical Evolution: The View Before Venus Express and Outstanding Questions for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the Venera 15/16 and the Magellan missions to Venus, a wide range of ideas existed concerning the nature of the surface of Venus, the geological processes currently operating there, their link to interior processes, the implied geological and geodynamical history of the planet, and how all this compared with the nature and history of other terrestrial planetary bodies. The history of exploration of the surface of Venus represents the acquisition of data with increasing spatial and areal coverage, culminating in the near-global high-resolution image, altimetry, physical property and gravity data obtained by the Magellan mission. Among the most fundamental findings of the global Magellan image data are: 1) that volcanism and tectonism represent the most abundant geological processes operating on the observed surface, 2) that the styles and abundance of volcanism and tectonism combine attributes of both the Earth (e.g., very heavily tectonically deformed regions such as tessera) and the smaller terrestrial planetary bodies (e.g., vast volcanic plains deformed by wrinkle ridges), 3) that the distribution and nature of impact craters precludes active plate tectonics despite many Earth-like tectonic features (e.g., folded mountain belts), 4) that some features (e.g., coronae) are somewhat unique to Venus and may provide important information on mantle convection and lithospheric evolution processes, 5) that the number of impact craters is very small, indicating that the surface geological record is very young, less than 20% of the history of the planet itself, 6) that 80% of the geological record of Venus is no longer obviously preserved in the surface morphology, but may be preserved in the surface rocks, 7) that the distribution and state of preservation of existing impact craters may be consistent with a range of catastrophic resurfacing models, and 8) that the geological record and sequence of events can be correlated with geophysical data to assess crustal thickness variations and mantle convection patterns. The relationships of major elements of global topography and the sequence of events in the observed geological history (as recorded by major geologic units and structures) suggest that much of the current long-wavelength topography of Venus (tessera highlands and lowlands with regional plains) may have formed prior to emplacement of regional plains and been preserved since that time. These observations may favor evolutionary geodynamic models that are characterized by changes in geological style and rates, and may involve non-linear heat loss mechanisms that could have profound influence on the atmosphere. Although the observed surface of Venus dates from relatively recent planetary history, comparative planetology permits inferences to be made about the major stages in the earlier history of Venus. The evolution of the understanding of the surface from early speculations to present observations and interpretations provides an important context for: 1) establishing the relationships of the surface of Venus to the nature of the atmosphere and its evolution as assessed by Venus Express, 2) the comparison of the geological features and history of Venus relative to the Moon, Mars, Mercury and the Earth, and 3) defining the major outstanding problems and questions to be addressed by future experiments and missions to Venus.

  7. Geodynamic controls on the contamination of Cenozoic arc magmas in the southern Central Andes: Insights from the O and Hf isotopic composition of zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Rosemary E.; Kirstein, Linda A.; Kasemann, Simone A.; Dhuime, Bruno; Elliott, Tim; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Alonso, Ricardo; Hinton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Subduction zones, such as the Andean convergent margin of South America, are sites of active continental growth and crustal recycling. The composition of arc magmas, and therefore new continental crust, reflects variable contributions from mantle, crustal and subducted reservoirs. Temporal (Ma) and spatial (km) variations in these contributions to southern Central Andean arc magmas are investigated in relation to the changing plate geometry and geodynamic setting of the southern Central Andes (28-32° S) during the Cenozoic. The in-situ analysis of O and Hf isotopes in zircon, from both intrusive (granitoids) and extrusive (basaltic andesites to rhyolites) Late Cretaceous - Late Miocene arc magmatic rocks, combined with high resolution U-Pb dating, demonstrates distinct across-arc variations. Mantle-like δ18O(zircon) values (+5.4‰ to +5.7‰ (±0.4 (2σ))) and juvenile initial εHf(zircon) values (+8.3 (±0.8 (2σ)) to +10.0 (±0.9 (2σ))), combined with a lack of zircon inheritance suggests that the Late Cretaceous (∼73 Ma) to Eocene (∼39 Ma) granitoids emplaced in the Principal Cordillera of Chile formed from mantle-derived melts with very limited interaction with continental crustal material, therefore representing a sustained period of upper crustal growth. Late Eocene (∼36 Ma) to Early Miocene (∼17 Ma) volcanic arc rocks present in the Frontal Cordillera have 'mantle-like' δ18O(zircon) values (+4.8‰ (±0.2 (2σ) to +5.8‰ (±0.5 (2σ))), but less radiogenic initial εHf(zircon) values (+1.0 (±1.1 (2σ)) to +4.0 (±0.6 (2σ))) providing evidence for mixing of mantle-derived melts with the Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic basement (up to ∼20%). The assimilation of both Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic Andean crust and a Grenville-aged basement is required to produce the higher than 'mantle-like' δ18O(zircon) values (+5.5‰ (±0.6 (2σ) to +7.2‰ (±0.4 (2σ))) and unradiogenic, initial εHf(zircon) values (-3.9 (±1.0 (2σ)) to +1.6 (±4.4 (2σ))), obtained for the Late Oligocene (∼23 Ma) to Late Miocene (∼9 Ma) magmatic rocks located in the Argentinean Precordillera, and the Late Miocene (∼6 Ma) volcanic rocks present in the Frontal Cordillera. The observed isotopic variability demonstrates that the assimilation of pre-existing continental crust, which varies in both age and composition over the Andean Cordillera, plays a dominant role in modifying the isotopic composition of Late Eocene to Late Miocene mantle-derived magmas, implying significant crustal recycling. The interaction of arc magmas with distinct basement terranes is controlled by the migration of the magmatic arc due to the changing geodynamic setting, as well as by the tectonic shortening and thickening of the Central Andean crust over the latter part of the Cenozoic.

  8. Seismic and gravity constraints on the nature of the basement in the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary: New insights for the geodynamic evolution of the SW Iberian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio

    2014-01-01

    We present a new classification of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along a new transect running from the Horseshoe to the Seine abyssal plains, which is combined with previously available geophysical models from the region. The basement velocity structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous, thin oceanic crust with local high-velocity anomalies possibly representing zones related to the presence of ultramafic rocks. The integration of this model with previous ones reveals the presence of three oceanic domains offshore SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental breakup (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, made of exhumed mantle rocks, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening. Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain.

  9. Crustal structure and geodynamics of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: Insights from deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Liu, Zhendong; Zhang, Yongqian; Dong, Shuwen; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-12-01

    A 300 km long seismic reflection profile was acquired across the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLY) metallogenic belt and its adjacent areas. The objective of the survey was to establish the deep architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include (1) Tan-Lu fault appears as a subvertical thrust fault or transpression fault with its deep portion dipping toward the southeast; (2) the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out along this fault; (3) complex upper crustal deformation structures beneath the Chuquan depression include both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; (4) the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, which represents the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust associated with intra-continental subduction; (5) further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline; (6) the entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River metallogenic belt is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. The Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. The seismic reflection data suggest that lithosphere delamination and asthenosphere upwelling that may result from the Mesozoic intra-continental orogenesis is responsible for the formation of large scale magmatism and mineralization in the MLY metallogenic belt.

  10. Isotope geochemistry of recent magmatism in the Aegean arc: Sr, Nd, Hf, and O isotopic ratios in the lavas of Milos and Santorini-geodynamic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briqueu, L.; Javoy, M.; Lancelot, J.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this comparative study of variations in the isotopic compositions (Sr, Nd, O and Hf) of the calc-alkaline magmas of the largest two volcanoes, Milos and Santorini, of the Aegean arc (eastern Mediterranean) we demonstrate the complexity of the processes governing the evolution of the magmas on the scale both of the arc and of each volcano. On Santorini, the crustal contamination processes have been limited, effecting the magma gradually during its differentiation. The most differentiated lavas (rhyodacite and pumice) are also the most contaminated. On Milos, by contrast, these processes are very extensive. They are expressed in the 143Nd/144Nd vs. 87Sr/86Sr diagram as a continuous mixing curve between a mantle and a crustal end member pole defined by schists and metavolcanic rocks outcropping on these volcanoes. In contrast with Santorini, the least differentiated lavas on Milos are the most contaminated. These isotopic singularities can be correlated with the geodynamic evolution of the Aegean subduction zone, consisting of alternating tectonic phases of distension and compression. The genesis of rhyolitic magmas can be linked to the two phases of distension, and the contamination of the calc-alkaline mantle-derived magmas with the intermediate compressive phase. The isotopic characteristics of uncontaminated calc-alkaline primitive magmas of Milos and Santorini are directly comparable to those of magmas generated in subduction zones for which a contribution of subducted sediments to partial melts from the mantle is suggested, such as in the Aleutian, Sunda, and lesser Antilles island arcs. However, in spite of the importance of the sediment pile in the eastern Mediterranen oceanic crust (6-10 km), the contribution of the subducted terrigenous materials remains of limited amplitude. ?? 1986.

  11. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopes of the granitoids of Baolidao and Halatu plutons in Sonidzuoqi area, Inner Mongolia: Implications for petrogenesis and geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuansheng; Li, Wenbo; Xu, Cheng; Zhong, Richen; Zhu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The Baolidao and Halatu plutons are located in the Northern Orogenic Belt (NOB) in Sonidzuoqi area of Inner Mongolia, which has an important significance for the tectonic evolution of Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt (XMOB). The two plutons have been intensively studied but the conclusions are still controversial. Combined with the previous study, this paper gives new geological data about the two correlative plutons for gaining a better understanding of their petrogenesis and the geodynamic setting. The Baolidao granitoids contain two different series, calc-alkaline series mainly formed in the Ordovician and high K calc-alkaline series mainly formed in the Carboniferous. The Halatu granites are formed in the Triassic and belong to high-K calc-alkaline series. This study got the zircon U-Pb ages of 316-322 Ma for the Baolidao granitoids and 233 ± 2 Ma for the Halatu syenogranites, respectively. In the tectonic discrimination diagrams, they mainly fall into the area of post-orogenic granites (POG). Hf isotopic analyses for the Baolidao granitoids (Sample BLD-1 and 3) shows εHf (t) = 3.0-14.0, with two-stage Hf model age (TDM2) of 436-1138 Ma. The Halatu syenogranite (Sample HLT-1) also shows a depleted εHf (t) = 3.8-8.2, with TDM2 of 741-1024 Ma, suggesting the major involvement of juvenile crustal components. The various εHf values of the Carboniferous Baolidao and Triassic Halatu granitoids indicates a hybrid magma source of juvenile material with old crustal component, and the εHf (t) values decrease from the Carboniferous to Triassic, suggesting the increasing proportion of old continental material during this period. Combined with the regional geology, the Carboniferous Baolidao granitoids are possibly not arc rocks, but originated from the post-collisional setting. The Triassic Halatu granites were formed in the subsequently extensional environment.

  12. GOCE observations and geophysical constraints to better understand the lithosphere and geodynamical processes under the Paran-Etendeka region: preliminary results of PERLA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the considerable progress made by the modern geodetic satellite mission GOCE, one of the challenges of the European Space Agency (ESA) is to improve knowledge of physical properties and geodynamic processes of the lithosphere and the Earth deep interior, and their relationship to Earth-surface changes. In this context we propose a study that aims to understand the two pieces of lithosphere underlying the Paran-Etendeka conjugate margins (Brazil, and Angola-Namibia). It is essential to collect the geological and geophysical information about the thickness and the density of sedimentary layers, crustal thickness and mantle inhomogeneities. Our methodology integrates the geophysical database with the GOCE data, product of the innovative gravity satellite mission, that was concluded November 2013. Crustal thickness was obtained from all available seismological datasets. The density-depth relation of the shallow layers is modeled by geophysical data collected from literature and from the on-shore and off-shore drilling programs. Several compaction laws are used to estimate the density of each layer. This information is necessary to reduce the observations considering the gravity effect of all intracrustal known layers, to resolve the deep crustal structures (e.g. Moho and intracrustal bodies). A positive gravity anomaly is expected due to the magmatic activity of the Paran-Etendeka province. The smaller-scale and shallow gravity anomaly should be due to the occurrence of the volcanic activity close to the alkaline-carbonatite complexes, while the large-scale anomaly is expected from the underplating of a wide denser body at the depth of the crustal mantle boundary. In the present work some preliminary results of the inversion of the residual gravity anomaly in terms of densities in the middle and shallow lithosphere under the Paran-Etendeka region will be presented and interpreted.

  13. A regional-scale discontinuity in western Sicily revealed by a multidisciplinary approach: A new piece for understanding the geodynamic puzzle of the southern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Pietro; Favara, Rocco; Luzio, Dario; Renda, Pietro; Cacciatore, Maria Simona; Calò, Marco; Napoli, Giuseppe; Parisi, Laura; Todaro, Simona; Zarcone, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The results of an integrated stratigraphic, structural, geophysical, and geochemical study reveal the presence of a crustal discontinuity in western Sicily that, at present, runs roughly N-S along a band from San Vito Lo Capo to Sciacca. The boundary between the two zones of this discontinuity is nearly orthogonal to the main thrust propagation of the Sicilian thrust-and-fold belt. The different Permian to Tertiary sedimentary evolution recorded by the two zones appears related to this discontinuity, with thick carbonate platforms in the western sector facing deepwater successions in the eastern one. The presence of Upper Triassic reefs, huge megabreccia bodies, and widespread submarine volcanisms along the transition zone suggests the presence of a long-lasting weakness zone. This zone has been reactivated episodically as transpressional and/or transtensional faults in relation to the different geodynamic stress acting in central Mediterranean area in different epochs. We speculate that this transition zone has represented a segment of the passive margin of the Ionian Tethys. During the Maghrebian convergence a different style of deformation has affected the two sectors floored by different sedimentary multilayers. The orthogonal-to-oblique differential convergence between the two sectors has resulted in right-lateral transpressional motions, leading to oblique thrusting of deepwater-derived thrusts onto platform-derived thrusts associated with clockwise rotations. The oblique convergence is still ongoing as demonstrated by the seismicity of the area, by the geothermal field with high mantle-derived helium fluxes and by the GPS measurements collected by different authors.

  14. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen

    2014-05-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and financial support by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 40930418

  15. Godynamique et volution thermique de la matire organique: exemple du bassin de Qasbat-Tadla, Maroc centralBasin geodynamics and thermal evolution of organic material: example from the Qasbat-Tadla Basin, central Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er-Raoui, H.; Bouabdelli, M.; Blayouni, H.; Chellai, H.

    2001-05-01

    Seismic data analysis of the Qasbat-Tadla Basin allows the deciphering of the main tectonic and sedimentary events that characterised the Hercynian orogen and its role in the basin's structural development. The global tectono-sedimentary framework involves structural evolution of an orogenic foreland basin and was the source of rising geotherms in an epizonal metamorphic environment. The complementary effects of these parameters has led to different source rock maturity levels, ranging from oil producing to graphite domains. Different maturity levels result from three distinct structural domains within the basin, each of which exhibit characteristic geodynamic features (tectonic contraints, rate of subsidence, etc.).

  16. Irregular effects of tilting of foundation and probable connection with plate tectonic motions Results of many years standing measurements of long water-tubes and horizontal pendulums tiltmeters in Geodynamic Laboratory of SRC in Ksiaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczorowski, Marek

    Since 1975 until 2003 in the Geodynamic Laboratory in Ksiaz there were continuously performed clinometric observations with help of quartz horizontal pendulums only. In 2003 new tiltmeters were installed in galleries of the laboratory in Ksiaz. Tiltmeters consist of two several dozen meters length tubes partially filled with water. Principle of work of instruments bases on the law of hydrostatic equilibrium. The interferometer system for continuous measurements and registrations of ultra small variations of water level was applied. This system enables permanent measurements of water level variations with nanometer accuracy corresponding to 0.005 [mas] of plumb line variation. Water-tube tiltmeters (WT) possess several advantages such as: high and stable resolution of measurements, stable sensitivity of measurements, stable and well determined azimuth of measurements, lack of instrumental drift, make possible investigation of long period or systematic effects of tilting of foundation. Possibility of elimination instrumental drift from WT measurements allowed us to investigate long-standing, non-tidal clinometric signals. Since 2003 until 2007 we observed five epochs of extremely strong clinometric signals. The largest signals happened without seasonal correlations in different months. Magnitudes of strong signals exceeded hundred of [mas] and time of durations amount dozen or so days. First information of existence of the large clinometric effects comes from long lasting measurements carried on with help of the quartz horizontal pendulums. Almost every year of measurements we observed one or two epochs of unstable work of pendulums associated with rapid variations of azimuths of equilibrium of pendulums until their contact with limiters. Similarities of strong clinometric signals registered by two different classes of tiltmeters as well as their correlation confirm thesis that large signals are geodynamic, not instrumental origin. We are able to exclude phenomena such as air pressure loading effects, seasonal variations of mean temperature, non-tidal loading effects of ocean origin, variations of level of ground water, and other seasonal effects as reasons of large clinometric signals. Azimuths of resultant tilts of these signals are close to direction of plate tectonic motions observed by GPS and laser permanent stations in surrounding of Geodynamic Laboratory. Probability that large clinometric signals are produced by recent plate tectonic motions is increasing by special geometry of orogen in which laboratory was situated as well as its contact with Sudetic marginal fold. Keywords: Geodynamic, Earth tides, plumb line variations, non-tidal effects, tiltmeters, plate tectonic.

  17. Overriding plate deformation and variability of fore-arc deformation during subduction: Insight from geodynamic models and application to the Calabria subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihao; Schellart, Wouter P.; Duarte, Joo. C.

    2015-10-01

    In nature, subducting slabs and overriding plate segments bordering subduction zones are generally embedded within larger plates. Such large plates can impose far-field boundary conditions that influence the style of subduction and overriding plate deformation. Here we present dynamic laboratory models of progressive subduction in three-dimensional space, in which the far-field boundary conditions at the trailing edges of the subducting plate (SP) and overriding plate (OP) are varied. Four configurations are presented: Free (both plates free), SP-Fixed, OP-Fixed, and SP-OP-Fixed. We investigate their impact on the kinematics and dynamics of subduction, particularly focusing on overriding plate deformation. The results indicate that the variation in far-field boundary conditions has an influence on the slab geometry, subduction partitioning, and trench migration partitioning. Our models also indicate that in natural (narrow) subduction zones, assuming a homogeneous overriding plate, the formation of back-arc basins (e.g., Tyrrhenian Sea, Aegean Sea, and Scotia Sea) is generally expected to occur at a comparable location (250-700 km from the trench), irrespective of the boundary condition. In addition, our models indicate that the style of fore-arc deformation (shortening or extension) is influenced by the mobility of the overriding plate through controlling the force normal to the subduction zone interface (trench suction). Our geodynamic model that uses the SP-OP-Fixed setup is comparable to the Calabria subduction zone with respect to subduction kinematics, slab geometry, trench curvature, and accretionary configuration. Furthermore, the model can explain back-arc and fore-arc extension at the Calabria subduction zone since the latest middle Miocene as a consequence of subduction of the narrow Calabrian slab and the immobility of the subducting African plate and overriding Eurasian plate. This setting induced strong trench suction, driving fore-arc extension, and forced subduction to be accommodated almost entirely by slab rollback (not trenchward subducting plate motion), while trench retreat was accommodated almost entirely by back-arc and fore-arc extension (not trenchward overriding plate motion), comparable to our SP-OP-Fixed model.

  18. Configuration of geological domains and geodynamic evolution of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia revisited based on seismic velocity and density models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael; Ranero, César

    2015-04-01

    We present a new classification of geological (basement) domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary offshore SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along two regional wide-angle seismic transects, one running NW-SE from the Tagus to the Seine abyssal plains, and the other running N-S from S Portugal to the Seine Abyssal Plain, combined with previously available information. The seismic velocity and density structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain and the internal Gulf of Cadiz indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous oceanic crust, similar to that described in ultra-slow spreading centers, whereas in the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains, the basement structure resembles that of exhumed mantle sections identified in the Northern Atlantic margin. The integration of all this new information allows defining the presence of three oceanic domains off SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE segment of the Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental break-up (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, mainly made of rocks exhumed from the mantle with little synchronous magmatism, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening (Early Cretaceous). Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain, which coincides with the seismicity cluster nucleated in the middle of the plain that shows moment tensor solutions of reverse faulting at depths of 40-60 km. The formation and evolution of these three domains during the Mesozoic is key to understand the sequence of events that occurred during the first stages of opening of the Northern Atlantic and its connection and interplay with the Western Mediterranean basin.

  19. Integrated studies of the recent evolution of Deception Island in the geodynamic setting of the Bransfield Basin opening (Antarctica): GEOMAGDEC Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestro, Adolfo; Gil-Imaz, Andrés.; Gil-Peña, Inmaculada; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Rey, Jorge; Soto, Ruth; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Llave, Estefanía.; Bohoyo, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Galán, Luis; Casas, David; Lunar, Rosario; Ercilla, Gemma; Somoza, Luis

    2010-05-01

    Deception Island shows the most recent active volcanism, evidence of several eruptions since the late 18th century, and well-known eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 at the western end of the volcanic ridge of the Bransfield Trough, between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The recent tectonic activity of the Bransfield Trough is not well defined, and it presents a controversial origin. It is currently explained by two different models: (1) Opening of the basin may be related to passive subduction of the former Phoenix Plate and subsequent rollback of the South Shetland Trench; or (2) an oblique extension along the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin generated by the sinistral movement between the Antarctic and Scotia plates. This extension develops the Bransfield Trough and spread away the South Shetland tectonic block. The GEOMAGDEC project involves a multidisciplinary and integrated research of the Deception Island based on geophysical and geological methods. The purpose of this project, funded by the Spanish research agency, is the understanding of the main processes that govern the evolution of the Deception Island into the development of Bransfield Basin during recent times. Main aims are: (1) Study of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of volcanic deposits of emerged area of Deception Island to determine the relationship between magmatism (intrusive and extrusive) with the recent tectonic activity. This task allows the reconstruction of igneous flow directions of the different volcanic units established in the island, dikes emplacement modelling in active tectonic regime, and the integration of the results obtained in a kinematic and dynamic emplacement model of the different volcanic units of the Deception Island into recent geodynamic setting of Bransfield Basin opening. (2) Lito- and crono-stratigraphy analysis of the quaternary sedimentary units that filled Port Foster (inner bay of Deception Island) on the basis of the ultra-high seismic profiles and gravity cores data acquired during oceanographic campaigns carried out using the RV. BIO/HESPERIDES. (3) Recovery of the Hydrothermal Precipitation Cells (HPCs) emplaced in Port Foster during 2001 austral summer and the mineralogical and geochemical analysis of the precipitate deposits located in the inner walls of the HPCs. The analysis of these samples will provide important information about the recent volcanic activity.

  20. New insights in the geodynamics of the Lipari-Vulcano area (Aeolian Archipelago, southern Italy) from geological, geodetic and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, G.; Bruno, V.; Cultrera, F.; Mattia, M.; Monaco, C.; Scarf, L.

    2014-12-01

    Geological, geodetic and seismological data have been analyzed in order to frame the Lipari-Vulcano complex (Aeolian archipelago, southern Italy) into the geodynamic context of the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea. It is located at the northern end of a major NNW-SSE trending right-lateral strike-slip fault system named "Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni" which has been interpreted as a lithospheric discontinuity extending from the Aeolian Islands to the Ionian coast of Sicily and separating two different tectonic domains: a contractional one to the west and an extensional one to the north-east. Structural field data consist of structural measurements performed on well-exposed fault planes and fractures. The mesostructures are mostly represented by NW-SE striking normal faults with a dextral-oblique component of motion. Minor structures are represented by N-S oriented joints and tension gashes widespread over the whole analyzed area and particularly along fumarolized sectors. The analyzed seismological dataset (from 1994 to 2013) is based on earthquakes with magnitude ranging between 1.0 and 4.8. The hypocenter distribution depicts two major alignments corresponding to the NNW-SSE trending Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni fault system and to the WNW-ESE oriented Sisifo-Alicudi fault system. GPS data analysis displays ?3.0 mm/yr of active shortening between the two islands, with a maximum shortening rate of about 1.0 10-13 s-1, between La Fossa Caldera and south of Vulcanello. This region is bounded to the north by an area where the maximum values of shear strain rates, of about 0.7 10-13 s-1 are observed. This major change occurs in the area south of Vulcanello that is also characterized by a transition in the way of the vertical axis rotation. Moreover, both the islands show a clear subsidence process, as suggested by negative vertical velocities of all GPS stations which exhibit a decrease from about -15 to -7 mm/yr from north to south. New data suggest that the current kinematics of the Lipari-Vulcano complex can be framed in the tectonic context of the eastward migrating Sisifo-Alicudi fault system. This is dominated by transpressive tectonics in which contractional and minor extensional structures can coexist with strike-slip motion.

  1. Geodynamic models for the Neoproterozoic Yenisey Ridge orogenic belt (western Siberian Craton continental margin) and evolution of granitoid and alkaline magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernikovsky, Valery; Vernikovskaya, Antonina

    2010-05-01

    We assume that the genesis of the Yenisey Ridge accretional orogen is a result of three events: a) syn-collisional events (probably outside the Siberian craton), which resulted in the forming of the S- and I-type 880-860 Ma Teya granites in the Central Angara terrane; b) the collision between the Central Angara terrane and the Siberian craton and the forming of the syn- and post-collisional S- and A- type 760-720 Ma Ayakhta and Glushikha granites; c) the forming of island arcs and ophiolites along the margin of the Siberian craton, their accretion and obduction onto the continent in the interval of 700-630 Ma. The last event is of special interest because at the same time in the Tatarka-Ishimba suture zone of the Yenisey Ridge, which is subparallel to the continental margin, the forming of intrusive and volcanic rocks of various composition and heightened alkalinity was taking place, including alkaline syenites as well as carbonatites and A-type granites, whose magmatic sources vary from mantle to mantle-crustal and crustal. These rocks form small plutons of round or oval shape, dikes, bedded bodies, tracing this tectonic zone along its entire length. Some of the A-type granites may be considered as hybrid rocks as suggested by mineralogical-petrographical features: inclusions of rocks of basic composition and magma-mingling structures. These granites are slightly peraluminous rocks. In contrast to the 760-720 Ma A-type granites, they have higher REE and Nb and Ta contents. They formed synchronously with the rocks of the island arc complex and their accretion and obduction onto the continental margin of Siberia in the interval of 700-630 Ma. It is quite probable that their forming in the back-arc suprasubduction zone was taking place at the same time that the oceanic plate was subducting below the continent from the western margin of the Siberian craton and reached the asthenospheric layer. The obtained data and the developed models uncover the geodynamic evolution of the forming of accretional orogens in the western margin of the Siberian craton in the Neoproterozoic.

  2. Geochemistry and geodynamics of a Late Cretaceous bimodal volcanic association from the southern part of the Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Northern Croatia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pamic, J.; Belak, M.; Bullen, T.D.; Lanphere, M.A.; McKee, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present petrological and geochemical information on a bimodal basaltrhyolite suite associated with A-type granites of Late Cretaceous age from the South Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Croatia). Basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites, associated in some places with ignimbrites, occur in volcanic bodies that are interlayered with pyroclastic and fossiliferous Upper Cretaceus sedimentary rocks. The petrology and geochemistry of the basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites are constrained by microprobe analyses, major and trace element analyses including REE, and radiogenic and stable isotope data. Basalts that are mostly transformed into metabasalts (mainly spilites), are alkalic to subalkalic and their geochemical signatures, particularly trace element and REE patterns, are similar to recent back-arc basalts. Alkali-feldspar rhyolites have similar geochemical features to the associated cogenetic A-type granites, as shown by their large variation of Na2O and K2O (total 8-9%), very low MgO and CaO, and very high Zr contents ranging between 710 and 149ppm. Geochemical data indicate an amphibole lherzolite source within a metasomatized upper mantle wedge, with the influence of upper mantle diapir with MORB signatures and continental crust contamination. Sr incorporated in the primary basalt melt had an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7039 indicating an upper mantle origin, whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratio for the alkalifeldspar rhyolites and associated A-type granites is 0.7073 indicating an apparent continental crust origin. However, some other geochemical data favour the idea that they might have mainly originated by fractionation of primary mafic melt coupled with contamination of continental crust. Only one rhyolite sample appears to be the product of melting of continental crust. Geological and geodynamic data indicate that the basalt-rhyolite association was probably related to Alpine subduction processes in the Dinaridic Tethys which can be correlated with recent back-arc basins. The difference in geological and isotope ages between the bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism with A-type granite plutonism (72 Ma) and the final synkinematic S-type granite plutonism (48 Ma) can be taken as a lifetime of the presumed BARB system of the Dinaridic Tethys. Remnants of this presumed subduction zone can be traced for 300 km along the surrounding northernmost Dinarides.

  3. Potential geodynamic relationships between the development of peripheral orogens along the northern margin of Gondwana and the amalgamation of West Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. Brendan; Pisarevsky, Sergei; Nance, R. Damian

    2013-10-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian evolution of peri-Gondwanan terranes (e.g. Avalonia, Carolinia, Cadomia) along the northern (Amazonia, West Africa) margin of Gondwana provides insights into the amalgamation of West Gondwana. The main phase of tectonothermal activity occurred between ca. 640-540 Ma and produced voluminous arc-related igneous and sedimentary successions related to subduction beneath the northern Gondwana margin. Subduction was not terminated by continental collision so that these terranes continued to face an open ocean into the Cambrian. Prior to the main phase of tectonothermal activity, Sm-Nd isotopic studies suggest that the basement of Avalonia, Carolinia and part of Cadomia was juvenile lithosphere generated between 0.8 and 1.1 Ga within the peri-Rodinian (Mirovoi) ocean. Vestiges of primitive 760-670 Ma arcs developed upon this lithosphere are preserved. Juvenile lithosphere generated between 0.8 and 1.1 Ga also underlies arcs formed in the Brazilide Ocean between the converging Congo/So Francisco and West Africa/Amazonia cratons (e.g. the Tocantins province of Brazil). Together, these juvenile arc assemblages with similar isotopic characteristics may reflect subduction in the Mirovoi and Brazilide oceans as a compensation for the ongoing breakup of Rodinia and the generation of the Paleopacific. Unlike the peri-Gondwanan terranes, however, arc magmatism in the Brazilide Ocean was terminated by continent-continent collisions and the resulting orogens became located within the interior of an amalgamated West Gondwana. Accretion of juvenile peri-Gondwanan terranes to the northern Gondwanan margin occurred in a piecemeal fashion between 650 and 600 Ma, after which subduction stepped outboard to produce the relatively mature and voluminous main arc phase along the periphery of West Gondwana. This accretionary event may be a far-field response to the breakup of Rodinia. The geodynamic relationship between the closure of the Brazilide Ocean, the collision between the Congo/So Francisco and Amazonia/West Africa cratons, and the tectonic evolution of the peri-Gondwanan terranes may be broadly analogous to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic closure of the Tethys Ocean, the collision between India and Asia beginning at ca. 50 Ma, and the tectonic evolution of the western Pacific Ocean.

  4. Divergence between Antarctic and South American marine invertebrates: What molecular biology tells us about Scotia Arc geodynamics and the intensification of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Elie; González-Wevar, Claudio; Díaz, Angie; Gérard, Karin; Hüne, Mathias

    2014-12-01

    Continental drift processes such as major gateway openings have been historically advocated to explain the distribution of marine benthic taxa in the Southern Ocean (SO). The separation between Antarctic Peninsula and the southern tip of South America together with the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) represent the final step for the complete isolation of the Antarctic region. However, there is still controversy concerning the timing and mode of this process, and especially about the role of the Scotia Arc geodynamics in the development of a fully deep and intensified ACC circulation. Based on mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) sequences obtained from different taxa, we performed molecular comparisons between Antarctic and South American relatives to provide independent time estimations of Antarctica's isolation. We include in the analyses congeneric Antarctic and Patagonian near-shore marine benthic invertebrates including indirect developers (Nacella, Yoldia, Sterechinus, and Parbolasia) and brooders (Xymenopsis and Trophonella). Considering the levels of genetic differentiation between relatives from both regions and assuming the molecular clock hypothesis, we estimated the onset of their respective divergence. On one hand, similar levels of genetic distance in broadcast-spawners (7%-8.3%) support the hypothesis that the development of an effective barrier between Antarctica and South America occurred almost simultaneously for these groups. Divergence time estimations based on specific substitution rates indicate that the separation occurred near the Mio-Pliocene transition, long after the physical separation of both continents. Genetic distance and divergence time estimation in direct developers indicate an older separation time, close to the mid-Miocene. Even when the analyzed groups included both broadcast-spawners and brooder organisms, the divergence between Antarctic and South America lineages rather than being related to processes of continental drift, seems to be associated more to major changes in the Southern Ocean such as the evolution of the Scotia Arc and the deepening of the Drake Passage. Accordingly, these results support a genetic continuity between Antarctica and South America, probably along the Scotia Ridge, until the middle Miocene and a late ACC intensification at the Mio-Pliocene boundary.

  5. Dating intrusion and cooling of Cenozoic granitoids in the Dinarides of Southern Serbia and discussion of the geodynamic setting of Paleocene-Miocene magmatism in the Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senecio, Schefer; Cvetkovi?, Vladica; Fgenschuh, Bernhard; Kounov, Alexandre; Ovtcharova, Maria; Schaltegger, Urs; Schmid, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of high precision single grain U-Pb dating and Hf isotope analyses of thermally annealed and chemically abraded zircons from the Kopaonik, Drenje, eljin, Golija and Polumir intrusions in the inner Dinarides of southern Serbia. In addition, new zircon and apatite fission-track data together with local structural observations, allow for constraining the subsequent exhumation history of these intrusions. Two age groups were determined for the granitoid intrusions: (i) Oligocene intrusive bodies (Kopaonik, Drenje, eljin) ranging in age from 31.7 to 30.6 Ma and (ii) Miocene Golija and Polumir intrusions which emplaced at 20.58-20.17 and 18.06-17.74 Ma, respectively. The apatite fission-track modelling combined with zircon central ages show rapid cooling from above 300 to ca. 80 C between 16 and 10 Ma for granitoids of both age groups, followed by rather slow cooling to surface temperatures for the last 10 Ma. Fast Middle Miocene cooling between 16 and 10 Ma is caused by extensional exhumation of the plutons that are located in the footwall of core-complexes. This documents that Miocene magmatism and core-complex formation leading to formation of the Pannonian basin also affected a part of the mountainous areas of the internal Dinarides. The discussion of an extensive set of age data from the literature and the geodynamic setting of the Balkan Peninsula reveals that there is no direct connection of the Dinaridic Late Eocene to earliest Miocene magmatic belt with contemporaneous Periadriatic intrusions in the Alps and along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone as proposed in the literature. We insist on the fact that the subduction polarity in the Alps, including that within the Western Carpathians north of the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, is opposite to that of the Dinarides during the given time span. Instead, we propose that Late Eocene to Oligocene magmatism, which affects the Adria-derived lower plate units of the internal Dinarides, may be caused by delamination of the Adriatic mantle from the overlying crust, associated with intra-plate convergence that propagates outward into the external Dinarides during this time interval. Miocene magmatism, on the other hand, is associated with core-complex formation at the southern rim of the Pannonian basin probably associated with the W-directed subduction of the European lithosphere beneath the Carpathians, possibly interfering with ongoing Dinaridic-Hellenic back-arc extension.

  6. Anatomy of an ancient subduction interface at 40 km depth: Insights from P-T-t-d data, and geodynamic implications (Dent Blanche, Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiboust, Samuel; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno; Chopin, Christian

    2014-05-01

    An exhumed metamorphic suture zone over 40 km long is exposed in the Dent Blanche Region of the Western Alps belt, along the Swiss-Italian border. In this region, the metasediment-bearing ophiolitic remnants of the Liguro-Piemontese ocean (Tsat complex) are overthrusted by a continental, km-sized complex (Dent Blanche Tectonic System: DBTS) of Austro-Alpine affinity. The DBTS represents a strongly deformed composite terrane with independent tectonic slices of continental and oceanic origin. In order to better understand the nature and the geodynamic meaning of the shear zone at the base of the DBTS (Dent Blanche Thrust, DBT) we re-evaluated the pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-d) history of these two units using modern thermobarometric tools, Rb/Sr deformation ages and field relationships. Our results show that the Tsat complex is formed by a stack of km-thick calcschists-bearing tectonic slices, having experienced variable maximum burial temperatures of between 360C and 490C at depths of ca. 25-40 km, between 41 Ma and 37 Ma. The Arolla gneissic mylonites constituting the base of the DBTS experienced a continuous record of protracted high-pressure (12-14 kbar), top-to-NW D1 deformation at 450-500C between 43 and 55 Ma. Some of these primary, peak metamorphic fabrics have been sheared (top-to-SE D2) and backfolded during exhumation and collisional overprint (20 km depth, 35-40 Ma) leading to the regional greenschist facies retrogression particularly prominent within Tsat metasediments. The final juxtaposition of the DBTS with the Tsat complex occurred between 350 and 500C during this later, exhumation-related D2 event. Although some exhumation-related deformation partially reworked D1 primary features, we emphasize that the DBT can be viewed as a remnant of the Alpine early Eocene blueschist-facies subduction interface region. The DBT therefore constitutes the deeper equivalent of some shallower portions of the Alpine subduction interface exposed 200 km eastwards in eastern Switzerland (e.g. Bachmann et al., 2009). Our results shed light on deep (25-45 km) subduction zone structures and dynamics and are therefore of major interest for geophysical studies imaging the plate interface region in active subduction zones.

  7. Geophysical and petrological modelling of the structure and composition of the crust and upper mantle in complex geodynamic settings: The Tyrrhenian Sea and surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panza, G. F.; Peccerillo, A.; Aoudia, A.; Farina, B.

    2007-01-01

    Information on the physical and chemical properties of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system (LAS) can be obtained by geophysical investigation and by studies of petrology-geochemistry of magmatic rocks and entrained xenoliths. Integration of petrological and geophysical studies is particularly useful in geodynamically complex areas characterised by abundant and compositionally variable young magmatism, such as in the Tyrrhenian Sea and surroundings. A thin crust, less than 10 km, overlying a soft mantle (where partial melting can reach about 10%) is observed for Magnaghi, Vavilov and Marsili, which belong to the Central Tyrrhenian Sea backarc volcanism where subalkaline rocks dominate. Similar characteristics are seen for the uppermost crust of Ischia. A crust about 20 km thick is observed for the majority of the continental volcanoes, including Amiata-Vulsini, Roccamonfina, Phlegraean Fields-Vesuvius, Vulture, Stromboli, Vulcano-Lipari, Etna and Ustica. A thicker crust is present at Albani - about 25 km - and at Cimino-Vico-Sabatini about 30 km. The structure of the upper mantle, in contrast, shows striking differences among various volcanic provinces. Volcanoes of the Roman region (Vulsini-Sabatini-Alban Hills) sit over an upper mantle characterised by Vs mostly ranging from about 4.2 to 4.4 km/s. At the Alban Hills, however, slightly lower Vs values of about 4.1 km/s are detected between 60 and 120 km of depth. This parallels the similar and rather homogeneous compositional features of the Roman volcanoes, whereas the lower Vs values detected at the Alban Hills may reflect the occurrence of small amounts of melts within the mantle, in agreement with the younger age of this volcano. The axial zone of the Apennines, where ultrapotassic kamafugitic volcanoes are present, has a mantle structure with high-velocity lid ( Vs 4.5 km/s) occurring at the base of a 40-km-thick crust. Beneath the Campanian volcanoes of Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields, the mantle structure shows a rigid body dipping westward, a feature that continues southward, up to the eastern Aeolian arc. In contrast, at Ischia the upper mantle contains a shallow low-velocity layer ( Vs = 3.5-4.0 km/s) just beneath a thin but complex crust. The western Aeolian arc and Ustica sit over an upper mantle with Vs 4.2-4.4 km/s, although a rigid layer ( Vs = 4.55 km/s) from about 80 to 150 km occurs beneath the western Aeolian arc. In Sardinia, no significant differences in the LAS structure are detected from north to south. The petrological-geochemical signatures of Italian volcanoes show strong variations that allow us to distinguish several magmatic provinces. These often coincide with mantle sectors identified by Vs tomography. For instance, the Roman volcanoes show remarkable similar petrological and geochemical characteristics, mirroring similar structure of the LAS. The structure and geochemical-isotopic composition of the upper mantle change significantly when we move to the Stromboli-Campanian volcanoes. The geochemical signatures of Ischia and Procida volcanoes are similar to other Campanian centres, but Sr-Pb isotopic ratios are lower marking a transition to the backarc mantle of the Central Tyrrhenian Sea. The structural variations from Stromboli to the central (Vulcano and Lipari) and western Aeolian arc are accompanied by strong variations of geochemical signatures, such as a decrease of Sr-isotope ratios and an increase of Nd-, Pb-isotope and LILE/HFSE ratios. The dominance of mafic subalkaline magmatism in the Tyrrhenian Sea basin denotes large degrees of partial melting, well in agreement with the soft characteristics of the uppermost mantle in this area. In contrast, striking isotopic differences of Plio-Quaternary volcanic rocks from southern to northern Sardinia does not find a match in the LAS geophysical characteristics. The combination of petrological and geophysical constraints allows us to propose a 3D schematic geodynamic model of the Tyrrhenian basin and bordering volcanic areas, including the subduction of the Ionian-Adria lithosphe

  8. Geodynamics: Go with the flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Claire A.

    2015-12-01

    Plate tectonics is the surface expression of mantle convection. Seismic observations at the Cascadia subduction zone show that coupling between tectonic plate motion and mantle flow may depend on the size of the plate.

  9. Magnetic Probing of Core Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand geomagnetic theory and observation, we can use spatial magnetic spectra for the main field and secular variation to test core dynmcal hypotheses against seismology. The hypotheses lead to theoretical spectra which are fitted to observational spectra. Each fit yields an estimate of the radius of Earth's core and uncertainty. If this agrees with the seismologic value, then the hypothes pass the test. A new way to obtain theoretical spectra extends the hydromagnetic scale analysis of Benton to scale-variant field and flow. For narrow scale flow and a dynamically weak field by the top of Earth's core, this yields a generalized Stevenson-McLeod spectrum for the core-source field, and a secular variation spectrum modulated by a cubic polynomial in spherical harmonic degree n. The former passes the tests. The latter passes many tests, but does not describe rapid dipole decline and quadrupole rebound; some tests suggest it is a bit hard, or rich in narrow scale change. In a core geodynamo, motion of the fluid conductor does work against the Lorentz force. This converts kinetic into magnetic energy which, in turn, is lost to heat via Ohmic dissipation. In the analysis at lentgh-scale l/k, if one presumes kinetic energy is converted in either eddy- overturning or magnetic free-decay time-scales, then Kolmogorov or other spectra in conflict with observational spectra can result. Instead, the rate work is done roughly balances the dissipation rate, which is consistent with small scale flow. The conversion time-scale depends on dynamical constraints. These are summarized by the magneto-geostrophic vertical vorticity balance by the top of the core, which includes anisotropic effects of rotation, the magnetic field, and the core- mantle boundary. The resulting theoretical spectra for the core-source field and its SV are far more compatible with observation. The conversion time-scale of order l20 years is pseudo-scale-invarient. Magnetic spectra of other planets may differ; however, if a transition to non-conductmg fluid hydrogen in Jupiter acts as barrier to vertical flow, as well as current, then the shape of the jovi-magnetic spectrum could be remarkably Earth-like.

  10. Magnetic Probing of Core Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand geomagnetic theory and observation, we can use spatial magnetic spectra for the main field and secular variation to test core dynamical hypotheses against seismology. The hypotheses lead to theoretical spectra which are fitted to observational spectra. Each fit yields an estimate of the radius of Earth's core and uncertainty. If this agrees with the seismologic value, then the hypothesis passes the test. A new way to obtain theoretical spectra extends the hydromagnetic scale analysis of Benton to scale-variant field and flow. For narrow scale flow and a dynamically weak field by the top of Earth's core, this yields a generalized Stevenson-McLeod spectrum for the core-source field, and a secular variation spectrum modulated by a cubic polynomial in spherical harmonic degree n. The former passes the tests. The latter passes many tests, but does not describe rapid dipole decline and quadrupole rebound; some tests suggest it is a bit hard, or rich in narrow scale range. In a core geodynamo, motion of the fluid conductor does work against the Lorentz force. This converts kinetic into magnetic energy which, in turn, is lost to heat via Ohmic dissipation. In the analysis at length-scale 1/k, if one presumes kinetic energy is converted in either eddy-overturning or magnetic free-decay time-scales, then Kolmogorov or other spectra in conflict with observational spectra can result. Instead, the rate work is done roughly balances the dissipation rate, which is consistent with small-scale flow. The conversion time-scale depends on dynamical constraints. These are summarized by the magnetogeostrophic vertical vorticity balance by the top of the core, which includes anisotropic effects of rotation, the magnetic field, and the core-mantle boundary. The resulting theoretical spectra for the core-source field and its SV are far more compatible with observation. The conversion time-scale of order 120 years is pseudo-scale-invariant. Magnetic spectra of other planets may differ; however, if a transition to non-conducting fluid hydrogen in Jupiter acts as a barrier to vertical flow, as well as current, then the shape of the jovi-magnetic spectrum could be remarkably Earth-like.

  11. Magnectic Probing of Core Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte

    2004-01-01

    To better understand geomagnetic theory and observation, we can use spatial magnetic spectra for the main field and secular variation to test core dynamical hypotheses against seismology. The hypotheses lead to theoretical spectra which are fitted to observational spectra. Each fit yields an estimate of the radius of Earth s core and uncertainty. If this agrees with the seismologic value, then the hypotheses pass the test. A new way to obtain theoretical spectra extends the hydromagnetic scale analysis of Benton to scale-variant field and flow. For narrow scale flow and a dynamically weak field by the top of Earth s core, this yields a JGR-PI, and a secular variation spectrum modulated by a cubic polynomial in spherical harmonic degree n. The former passes the tests. The latter passes many tests, but does not describe rapid dipole decline and quadrupole rebound; some tests suggest it is a bit hard, or rich in narrow scale change.In a core geodynamo, motion of the fluid conductor does work against the Lorentz force. This converts kinetic into magnetic energy which, in turn, is lost to heat via Ohmic dissipation. In the analysis at length- scale l/k, if one presumes kinetic energy is converted in either eddy- overturning or magnetic free-decay time-scales, then Kolmogorov or other spectra in conflict with observational spectra can result. Instead, the rate work is done roughly balances the dissipation rate, which is consistent with small scale flow. The conversion time-scale depends on dynamical constraints. These are summarized by the magneto- geostrophic vertical vorticity balance by the top of the core, which includes anisotropic effects of rotation, the magnetic field, and the core-mantle boundary. The resulting theoretical spectra for the core- source field and its SV are far more compatible with observation. The conversion time-scale of order 120 years is pseudo-scale-invariant. Magnetic spectra of other planets may differ; however, if a transition to non-conducting fluid hydrogen in Jupiter acts as barrier to vertical flow, as well as current, then the shape of the jovi-magnetic spectrum could be remarkably Earth-like.

  12. New insights on the Gibraltar Arc geodynamics from SKS splitting: first contribution from the IberArray broad-band seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Cus, Jordi; Gallart, Josep; Villaseor, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The Rif-Betic region, comprising the Gibraltar Arc and the extensional Alboran basin and including the diffuse limit between the Eurasia and African plates, is complex and there is still not a commonly accepted hypothesis about the mechanism responsible for its formation, as models including lithospheric delamination, convective removal or subduction have been proposed. In this context, the knowledge about the presence and properties of upper mantle anisotropy from SKS splitting measurements can provide valuable information to constrain the different geodynamical models. The installation of new permanent and semi-permanent broadband stations in the region has allowed obtaining a first insight into the anisotropic properties (Buontempo et al, 2008) and evidenced the presence of geographical variations in the anisotropic parameters, even if the lack of data in the Northern part of Morocco did not allow to obtain a detailed image. We present here the first analysis of the data provided by the IberArray broad-band seismic network that will allow a significant improvement the coverage of this area. The IberArray broad-band seismic network was deployed over this region for about 18 months, beginning in summer/fall 2007 in the framework of the large-scale Topo-Iberia project. This portable array, formed by up to 55 new generation dataloggers equipped with broad-band seismometers, has covered the southern part of Iberia (35 stations) and northern Morocco (20 stations) in an approximately regular grid, with a nominal spacing of 60 km. Data from more than 35 permanent broadband stations maintained by different institutions operating in the region has also been integrated into the IberArray database. Events with epicentral distances between 85 and 120 degrees and magnitude greater than 6.0 are systematically extracted from the continuous dataset and SKS and SKKS phases are inspected for anisotropy using the SplitLab software. Processing of the whole dataset is still ongoing, but the available results, including those for the entire year 2008, significantly improve the spatial resolution of SKS measurements in this region. The inferred fast velocity directions (FVD) clearly show a spectacular rotation along the Gibraltar arc, following the curvature of the Rif-Betic chain, from roughly N65E beneath the Betics to close to N65W beneath the Rif chain. Stations located in the South and South-east edges of the array, show a distinct pattern, with FVD oriented NE-SW to E-W. The results for some sites suggest the presence of complex anisotropy features, probably including two anisotropic layers. The obtained FVD results are compatible with rollback / subduction models, while convective-removal and delamination models seem unlikely to be compatible with our results. The FVD variations along the Gibraltar arc could be explained by fossil anisotropy acquired during the Eocene Western Mediterranean subduction, while the change in FVD observed to the South and South-East of the Rif-Betic chain can be related to the imprint of a flow episode around the Alboran high velocity slab during its Miocene fragmentation from the Algerian slab.

  13. Mantle sources and magma genesis in the Albanide-Hellenide ophiolites: Implications for the Triassic-Jurassic geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Tethyan branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccani, Emilio; Beccaluva, Luigi; Photiades, Adonis; Zeda, Ottavia

    2010-05-01

    The Albanide-Hellenide ophiolites and related ophiolitic mlanges include eight different types of volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. They are: 1) Triassic alkaline rocks generated in within-plate settings (WPB); 2) Triassic high-Ti mid-ocean ridge basalts showing enriched compositions (E-MORB); 3) Triassic-Jurassic high-Ti mid-ocean ridge basalts showing normal compositions (N-MORB); 4) Jurassic basalts with geochemical features intermediate between MORB and island arc tholeiites; hereafter defined as medium-Ti basalts (MTB); 5) Jurassic low-Ti, island arc tholeiitic (IAT) rocks; 6) Jurassic very low-Ti (boninitic) rocks; 7) Jurassic backarc basin basalts and basaltic andesites (BABB); 8) Triassic and Jurassic calc-alkaline (CAB). It can be assumed that these different rock-types have formed from distinct mantle sources that are associated in turn to distinct tectonic settings within an oceanic environment (and surrounding areas), and that they record the fundamental stages of ocean basin development: continental break-up, sea-floor spreading, subduction initiation, and supra-subduction zone (SSZ) lithospheric accretion. The main aim of this work is therefore to identify the possible petrogenetic mechanisms (associated to mantle evolution) for the distinct lava groups and their related tectonic settings of formation, in order to propose a reconstruction of the geodynamic evolution of the Mesozoic Tethys in the Dinaride sector. The results of this study are mainly based on REE modelling of mantle sources, primary melt generation, and mantle residua and can be synthesised as follows: 1) From the Late Paleozoic - Early Triassic, extensional tectonics affecting the Gondwana trigged the rifting of the continental lithosphere. The associated magmatic activity included: (a) the formation of calc-alkaline rocks from a sub-continental mantle modified by geochemical components inherited from Hercynian subduction below Gondwana; (b) the eruption of alkaline basalts deriving from an OIB-type mantle source associated, in turn, with plume-type components. 2) During Mid-Late Triassic, the uprising of primitive asthenosphere led to the generation of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. This stage is associated with the formation of: (a) N-MORB magmatism derived from ~10-20% partial melting of primitive asthenosphere; (b) the persistence of alkaline WPBs; (c) generation of E-MORBs due to ~12% partial melting of primitive asthenosphere influenced by the OIB-type component. Residual MORB mantle is represented by depleted lherzolites. 3) During the Early Jurassic, the oceanic spreading involved only primitive asthenospheric mantle sources and their partial melt derivatives (N-MORBs). 4) From the Early-Mid Jurassic, the tectonic regime was dominated by intra-oceanic convergence associated with the development of MTB and IAT magmatisms, which derived respectively from ~10% and 10-20% partial melting of the MORB residual mantle with variable addition of subduction components. Afterwards, the progressive slab roll-back led to mantle diapirism toward the forearc and incipient arc spreading associated either with 10-20% partial melting of previously depleted mantle sources (harzburgites) or with ~30% partial melting of the MORB residual mantle (depleted lherzolites), both enriched in LREE by subduction-derived fluids. These partial-melting events produced the boninitic magmas in both forearc and inner arc and left depleted extremely depleted harzburgites and dunites as the residual mantle. 5) During the Late Jurassic, a magmatic arc developed onto the Eurasia continental realm, leading to the formation of CAB rocks by ~15-20% partial melting of depleted peridotite mantle significantly enriched in Th and LREE by subduction-derived fluids. Soon after, extension in the backarc region (most likely favoured by strike-slip tectonics) led to the uprising of primitive asthenosphere, which was enriched in Th and LREE by the nearby subduction. 10-20% partial melting of this source produced the BABBs, which crop out (with CAB intercalations) in the Guevgueli Com

  14. Geodynamic implications of Collo-Bougaroun Miocene magmatic complex (Eastern Algerian margin): a review of U-Pb, K-Ar chronology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatiha, Abbassene; Aziouz, Ouabadi; Gilles, Chazot; Herv, Bellon; Ren, Maury; Olivier, Bruguier

    2014-05-01

    The ''Petite-Kabylie' comprises all eastern Algerian coastal magmatic chain outcropping from Jijel to the west, up to the plain of Annaba, to the east. At the western part of this area, the Kabylie of Collo stretches between 6 and 7 E and 36 30 'and 37 06' N towards Skikda. The Bougaroun magmatic complex form a large elliptical batholith oriented ENE-WSW over 20 km that intrudes serpentinized peridotites and kinzigites of the Bougaroun basement to the east. This granitic pluton gives time constraints as it induces deformation and contact metamorphism of the Oligo-Miocene Kabyle sedimentary cover which are well observed at ''Collo-Oued Zhour' basin in the south. The Collo-Bougaroun volcano-plutonic complex, of ca. 300 km2, comprises (1) granular rocks, mainly cordierite bearing peraluminous granites (Bougaroun pluton to the north, the BeniToufout to the south and the Filfila to the east), (2) gabbros that occur at the northern and southern parts of Cap Bougaroun pluton where they are associated with ultramafic (3) microgranular rocks, mainly microgranites, that outcrop at the eastern part of the Bougaroun pluton, in Collo basin and El Milia, microdiorites in Bouserdoum and some doleritic or microgabbroic metric veins at Cap Bougaroun and (4) of lava in the Kef Cheraa rhyolitic complex. Rocks from Collo-Bougaroun sites belong either to low-K, medium-K or high-K calc-alkaline series. The geochemistry of basic rocks (gabbros and dolerites) places strong constraints on their origin. Their LREE-depleted patterns, enrichment in LILE and slight depletion in HFSE are discussed in the very particular geodynamic context of the northern Algerian margin. Indeed, such depleted magmas could hardly have been emplaced over the African basement without experiencing any contamination imprint. Whole rock K/Ar ages were performed on 150-300 ?m grains from a set of representative magmatic rocks from Collo-Bougaroun region. The mafic rocks ages show a probable rejuvenation from (21.25 6.01 (large error linked to the K2O wt% of 0.04) to 16.45 0.52 Ma). This feature is attributed to a late K-gain during hydrothermal processes. This interpretation is supported by the occurrence of low temperature minerals (Adularia) in microgabbros and fine grained gabbros (microprobe analyses). The granite ages scatter between 20.85 0.51 and 17.88 0.5 Ma. The latter is consistent with 206U-238Pb age of 16.960.09 Ma obtained from 28 laser ablation spots analyses performed on zircon grains. Microgranites usually outcropping in Langhian ''post-nappes' basins, yield ages ranging from 14.17 0.35 to 13.59 0.33 Ma.

  15. Quaternary, catastrophic rock avalanches in the Central Apennines (Italy): Relationships with inherited tectonic features, gravity-driven deformations and the geodynamic frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi Fasani, G.; Di Luzio, E.; Esposito, C.; Evans, S. G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.

    2014-04-01

    Five cases of Quaternary rock avalanches detached from carbonate mountain ridges in the Central Apennines are presented. Due to the large amount of rock masses involved, the width of accumulation and detachment areas and the damming in the host environment, the analysed rock avalanches can be considered as catastrophic rock slope failures, sporadic events in a mountain region characterized by low elevation but where mountain ridges can have a relative elevation of up to 1 km above the lowermost valley floors. The geological setting of tectonic structures that originated during the Apennine orogenesis influenced rock avalanche characteristics, determining the location and shape of detachment areas, the kind of rock mass involved, and the failure mechanisms. Two main types have been identified: i) forelimb rock-slide avalanches (FRSA) such as the Lettopalena and Mt. Arezzo rock avalanche which involved Cenozoic, heterogeneous sequences of carbonate ramp deposits detached from box-shaped source areas according to a rock sliding mechanism; and ii) backlimb slide-wedge rock avalanches (BSWRA) such as the Campo di Giove, Scanno and Celano rock avalanches that detached from sub-circular source areas carved on fault-bounded ridges and involving Meso-Cenozoic carbonate rocks with a combined sliding and rock wedge failure mechanism. The Campo di Giove, Lettopalena and Scanno rock avalanches originated from mountain ridges bounded by inactive fault zones and undergoing deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) at the mountain scale. These three rock slope failures are considered as isolated events of long-lasting deformative processes featuring creep deformation. Gravity-driven deformations firstly generated as a response to stacking processes and synchronous normal faulting during the Neogene-Early Pleistocene Apennine tectonics. In particular, the Caramanico Fault System (CFS) and the Genzana Fault (GF), bordering the carbonate ridges from which the Campo di Giove and Scanno rock avalanches originated respectively, are here considered as backlimb collapse structures accommodating the passive uplift and deformation of positive tectonic structures. Gravity-driven deformations persisted during the post-Early Pleistocene dome-like uplift of the whole Apennine region. The regional uplift created the first-order (200 km) topographic wave-length of the belt, i.e. a periodic loading which has been balanced by the deflection of the Apennine crust and lithosphere. On the contrary, shorter topographic wave-lengths inherited from former thrusting and synchronous normal faulting determined local isostatic imbalances bearing a large potential for the mature development of DSGSDs on mountain ridges, favoured also by lateral unloading due to linear erosion and increase of topographic stress. Thus, a cause-effect relationship is hypothesized between the geodynamic evolution of the belt and mountain-sized gravity-driven deformations including large rock slope failures.

  16. New insights into the origin of the subduction component in Late Oligocene magmatism in the Ronda peridotite (southern Spain): geodynamic implications for the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas-Reus, Mara Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Kroly; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Several tectonic scenarios have been proposed for the Tertiary evolution of the Betic-Rif chain in the westernmost Mediterranean. Recent studies on late, mantle-derived Cr-rich websterite dykes in the Ronda peridotite have revealed recycling the involvement of sources of continental detrital sediments in the waning magmatic stage of the Ronda peridotite (Marchesi et al., 2012). This new data are consistent with a subduction-related setting for the late evolution of the Alboran lithospheric mantle before its final intracrustal emplacement in the early Miocene (Garrido et al., 2011). Detailed structural studies of Ronda plagioclase peridotites show that large-scale, ductile folding of peridotites-associated to the development of LT-LP plagioclase peridotite tectonites and ultramylonites-occurred during a contractional event before intracrustal emplacement of peridotites (Hidas et al., 2013). These authors have proposed that this event was related to inversion of a back-arc basin, followed by failed subduction initiation that ended into the intracrustal emplacement of peridotite into the Alboran wedge. This new structural data leads us to hypothesize that the crustal component observed in late, Cr-rich websterite might come from fluids produced by dehydration of underthrusted crustal units in the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Here we present new trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data in whole rocks from Flysch sediments from the Betic cordillera and the underlying crustal units of the Ronda massif, which may account for the timing and geochemical signature of the Ronda Cr-rich pyroxenites dykes. These units correspond to the Flysch trough composed of turbiditic deposits, formed in the region between Iberia and Africa during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, and the underlying crustal unit of the Ronda peridotite known as the Blanca unit. These new data are used to constrain the potential role of different crustal sources in the generation of the Late Oligocene subduction-related magmatism in the Ronda peridotite, and its implications for geodynamic models of the western Mediterranean in the Cenozoic. REFERENCES Garrido, C. J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J. A. Padrn-Navarta, and Marchesi C. . (2011) Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean, Geology, 39(10), 927-930. Hidas, K., Booth-Rea, G, Garrido, C. J., Martnez-Martnez, J. M., Padrn-Navarta, J. A., Konc, Z., Giaconia, F., Frets, E., and Marchesi, C. (2013) . Backarc basin inversion and subcontinental mantle emplacement in the crust: kilometre-scale folding and shearing at the base of the proto-Alborn lithospheric mantle (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain): Journal of the Geological Society, London. Marchesi, C., Garrido, C. J., Bosch, D., Bodinier, J.-L., Hidas, K., Padrn-Navarta, J. A., and Gervilla, F. (2012) A Late Oligocene Suprasubduction Setting in the Westernmost Mediterranean Revealed by Intrusive Pyroxenite Dikes in the Ronda Peridotite (Southern Spain): The Journal of Geology, 120 (2), 237-247.

  17. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Mashhad granitoids: An insight into the geodynamic history of the Paleo-Tethys in northeast of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnejad, H.; Lalonde, A. E.; Obeid, M.; Hassanzadeh, J.

    2013-06-01

    Mashhad granitoids in northeast Iran are part of the so-called Silk Road arc that extended for 8300 km along the entire southern margin of Eurasia from North China to Europe and formed as the result of a north-dipping subduction of the Paleo-Tethys. The exact timing of the final coalescence of the Iran and Turan plates in the Silk Road arc is poorly constrained and thus the study of the Mashhad granitoids provides valuable information on the geodynamic history of the Paleo-Tethys. Three distinct granitoid suites are developed in space and time (ca. 217-200 Ma) during evolution of the Paleo-Tethys in the Mashhad area. They are: 1) the quartz diorite-tonalite-granodiorite, 2) the granodiorite, and 3) the monzogranite. Quartz diorite-tonalite-granodiorite stock from Dehnow-Vakilabad (217 4-215 4 Ma) intruded the pre-Late Triassic metamorphosed rocks. Large granodiorite and monzogranite intrusions, comprising the Mashhad batholith, were emplaced at 212 5.2 Ma and 199.8 3.7 Ma, respectively. The high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.708042-0.708368), low initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512044-0.51078) and low ?Nd(t) values (- 5.5 to - 6.1) of quartz diorite-tonalite-granodiorite stock along with its metaluminous to mildly peraluminous character (Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O) Mol. = 0.94-1.15) is consistent with geochemical features of I-type granitoid magma. This magma was derived from a mafic mantle source that was enriched by subducted slab materials. The granodiorite suite has low contents of Y (? 18 ppm) and heavy REE (HREE) (Yb < 1.53 ppm) and high contents of Sr (> 594 ppm) and high ratio of Sr/Y (> 35) that resemble geochemical characteristics of adakite intrusions. The metaluminous to mildly peraluminous nature of granodiorite from Mashhad batholiths as well as its initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.705469-0.706356), initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512204-0.512225) and ?Nd(t) values (- 2.7 to - 3.2) are typical of adakitic magmas generated by partial melting of a subducted slab. These magmas were then hybridized in the mantle wedge with peridotite melt. The quartz diorite-tonalite-granodiorite stock and granodiorite batholith could be considered as arc-related granitoid intrusions, which were emplaced during the northward subduction of Paleo-Tethys Ocean crust beneath the Turan micro-continent. The monzogranite is strongly peraluminous (Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O) Mol. = 1.07-1.17), alkali-rich with normative corundum ranging between 1.19% and 2.37%, has high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.707457-0.709710) and low initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512042-0.512111) and ?Nd(t) values (- 5.3 to - 6.6) that substantiate with geochemical attributes of S-type granites formed by dehydration-melting of heterogeneous metasedimentary assemblages in thickened lower continental crust. The monzogranite was emplaced as a consequence of high-temperature metamorphism during the final integration of Turan and Iran plates. The ages found in the Mashhad granites show that the subduction of Paleo-Tethys under the Turan plate that led to the generation of arc-related Mashhad granites in late-Triassic, finally ceased due to the collision of Iran and Turan micro-plates in early Jurassic.

  18. Structural and geodynamic study in central Tunisia using field and geophysical data: new structural interpretation of the N-S axis and associated Atlassic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahri, Ferid; Tanfous, Dorra; Gabtni, Hakim; Boukadi, Noureddine

    2015-10-01

    A structural and geodynamic evolution of central Tunisia is constructed from field studies and geophysical data within the Tunisian Atlassic domain. Bouguer gravity and horizontal gradient magnitude (HGM) maps indicate that computed anomalies are related to subsurface structures and are in accordance with the general structural trends of central Tunisia. Near Cherichira fault, the strike is ENE-WSW, whereas it is N-S along the N-S axis, a major discontinuity between the Pelagian shelf to the east and Central Atlas Mountains to the west. E-W-oriented HGM profiles on the north side of the Cherichira fault show moderate HGM variations, which correspond to the NE-SW fault system of the Ousselet-Bou Dabbous. This trend is also expressed by the second-order vertical derivative map of this area. However, on the south side of the fault, a dominant peak is indicated rather than the anomalies characteristic of the north side of the fault. This anomaly is associated with the N-S axis discontinuity. Seismic reflection data are also used to elucidate the structural configuration and style north and south of the Cherichira fault. The seismic lines demonstrate that faulting and associate halokinesis in Ousselet-Bou Dabbous area are not comparable to the paleogeographic fault system of the N-S axis southward. To the south of Cherichira fault, the seismic lines show massive Triassic evaporates piercing along the major paleogeographic faults associated with thickness variations of Mesozoic and Cenozoic stratigraphic units and a reverse slip of western structural elements. It seems that the N-S axis corresponds to a steeply dipping major zone of weakness in the Tunisian Atlassic Mountains and indicates evidence of several stages of activity, including the rise of Triassic evaporates rise up which outcrop at several localities such as Rheouis and Mezzouna. The loading and upward rise of Triassic evaporites along this weak zone are a key factor in the thinning of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover along this paleogeographic discontinuity. These new data indicate the northeast extrapolation of fold and grabens of the Central Atlas of Tunisia to the northeast of Kairouan, whereas the northern extent of the N-S axis is limited to south of the Cherichira fault. The Cherichira fault is NE-SW oriented and parallels the Ballouta-Zaghouan fault system, which reflects the regional strike of the Tellian orogeny and the associated nappes to the north. The geometry and kinematics of these Tellian features are linked to the tectonic evolution of the northern African margin, including Mesozoic extension separating the African and European plates to the inversion of these structures since the Late Cretaceous. The N-S axis is correlated in its direction and tectonic framework to the strike-slip fault system of the African craton, which is present to the south in the Algerian Saharan domain of Hoggar.

  19. Petrogenesis and U-Pb zircon chronology of felsic tuffs interbedded with turbidites (Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, NE Turkey): Implications for Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region and accumulation rates of turbidite sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyuboglu, Yener

    2015-01-01

    The Meso-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, which is one of the key areas of the Alpine-Himalayan system, is still controversial due to lack of systematic geological, geophysical, geochemical and chronological data. The prevailing interpretation is that this belt represents the southern margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic and its geodynamic evolution is related to northward subduction of oceanic lithosphere. This paper reports the first detailed geological, geochemical and chronological data from felsic tuffs interbedded with late Cretaceous turbidites in the Southern Zone of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt. Individual tuff layers are thin, mostly < 2 m in thickness, implying that these are dominantly air-fall tuffs. Petrographic data indicate that the felsic tuffs, which exhibit various degrees of alteration, can be classified as crystal-rich and crystal-poor tuffs. The crystal-poor tuffs consist mainly of 45-65% devitrified glass shards and 10-20% broken quartz crystals, whereas the crystal-rich tuffs consist of > 50% crystals. The zircon U-Pb data show three statistically distinct ages at 84, 81 and 77 Ma, with uncertainties of about 1 Ma, suggesting that tuff-forming late Cretaceous magmatism started about 84 Ma ago and was episodically active over a minimum of 7 Ma. The age data also indicate that the average accumulation rate of the turbiditic sequence that hosts the felsic tuffs remained constant between 36 and 40 cm/10 ky. Their enrichment in LIL and LRE elements relative to HFS and HRE elements, and also strongly negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, are consistent with those of magmas generated by subduction-related processes. The tuffs have relatively low initial ratios of 143Nd/144Nd (0.512296-0.512484; ?Nd: - 2.1 and - 7.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.704896-0.706159). Their initial Pb isotopic compositions range from 18.604 to 18.646 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.644 to 15.654 for 207Pb/206Pb and from 38.712 to 38.763 for 208Pb/204Pb. The distribution of Sr-Nd isotopic compositions in the late Cretaceous igneous rocks from different locations of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt is consistent with two-component mixing between depleted mantle and crust. However, the Pb isotopic data are not compatible with two-component mixing and require at least a third component. Considering all of the new data and also previous data such as southward migration and increasing potassium content of the late Cretaceous arc volcanism, the northward migration of Cenozoic igneous activity, northward drift of the belt since the late Cretaceous and the existence of south-dipping reverse fault systems in the whole region, the Meso-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt can be best explained by southward subduction of Tethys oceanic lithosphere, rather than northward subduction.

  20. Le Carbonifre du Maroc central : les formations de Migoumess, de Tirhela et d'Idmarrach. Lithologie, biostratigraphie et consquences godynamiquesThe Carboniferous formations of Migoumess, Tirhela and Idmarrach (central Morocco): lithology, biostratigraphy and geodynamic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhli, Mostafa; Vachard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    New biostratigraphical data based on foraminifers, algae and pseudo-algae indicate that the limestone pebbles of the channelized polygenic conglomerates of the Migoumess formation contain Late Visean (V3b ?-V3c) assemblages. That confirms the Westphalian age attributed to this formation by Hollard [Zdt. Geol. Ges. 129 (1978) 495-512]. The Tournaisian age assigned to it by palynology [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, srie II 310 (1990) 1573-1576] cannot be retained. The Tirhela formation, Late Visean and Serpukhovian (E1) in age, is coeval with the Akerchi formation [Berkhli, thse d'tat, 1999; Berkhli et al., J. Afr. Earth Sci. (accept)]. The Idmarrach formation, mapped as a thrust sheet [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, srie II 310 (1990) 1573-1576], is dated as Serpukhovian (E1) and its thrusting is consequently post-Serpukhovian. Palaeogeographic and geodynamic consequences are listed. To cite this article: M. Berkhli, D. Vachard, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 67-72

  1. K-Ar chronology and geochemistry of the Miocene magmatism of Collo-Bougaroun and Edough-Cap de Fer areas (NE Algeria). Temporal constraints on geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Algerian margin between 6 and 8E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbassene, F.; Bellon, H.; Chazot, G.; Ouabadi, A.

    2013-12-01

    The ''Petite Kabylie'' corresponds to the eastern Algerian coastal magmatic chain outcropping from Jijel to the west, up to the plain of Annaba to the east. In this area, the Collo-Bougaroun volcano-plutonic complex, of ca. 300 km2, comprises (1) granular rocks, mainly cordierite bearing peraluminous granites, (2) gabbros that occur at the northern and southern parts of Cap Bougaroun pluton where they are associated with ultramafic rocks and form the layered complex of Yadene?; (3) microgranular rocks, mainly microgranites, that outcrop at the eastern part of the Bougaroun pluton, in Collo basin and El Milia, microdiorites in Bouserdoum and some doleritic or microgabbroic metric veins at Cap Bougaroun and (4) of rhyolitic lava in Kef Cheraa. The Bougaroun complex form a huge elliptical batholite along a major axis of 20km oriented ENE- WSW that intrudes serpentinized peridotites and kinzigites of the Bougaroun basement to the east. This granitic pluton gives time constraints as it induces deformation and contact metamorphism of the Oligo-Miocene Kabyle sediments of Collo-Oued Zhour basin in the south. These sediments reach the Upper Burdigalien which suggests that the lower limit of emplacement of this granite is coeval at least with this age. The majority of these magmatic rocks show subalkaline affinity with strong enrichment (0.13 to 4.13 %) in K2O during fractionation to calc-alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline affinity for the most differentiated rocks. The felsic rocks (granites, microgranites and rhyolites) are marked by a significant crustal contamination (?Nd = -10, I Sr = 0.720, ?18O = +12 [1], [2]) during their petrogenesis. However, the presence of basic rocks (gabbros and dolerites) that are depleted in K2O (0.13 to 0.44%) provides information on mantle composition and origin of magmas. The geochemical data on these rocks are discussed in the very particular geodynamic context of the northern Algerian margin.Twenty-four 40K-40Ar analyses were performed on whole rock and separated grain minerals (biotite, quartz and feldspar) from some granites. Grains were chosen in 150-300 ?m separates. The obtained results from mineral separates from the granites and gabbros scatter between 21 and 16 Ma. These results appear older compared to field observations that fixe the age of pluton intrusion around 16-17 Ma. Several assumptions are made on the possible origin of the possible excess argon, particularly during crustal contamination of magmas and differentiation processes. Syn-late or post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration is also considered. The Chetabi-Cap Fer area shows mafic (gabbro, basalt), intermediate (diorite) and felsic rocks (microgranite and rhyolite) that were emplaced either as lava-flows, sills, dykes or laccoliths intruding Miocene sediments. 14 samples were dated by K/Ar whole rock method and in some cases biotite and quartz & feldspar separates. The results show three groups: between 16 and 15Ma, about 14Ma and about 13Ma. We consider that three distinct magmatic events are responsible for their emplacement.These results agree well with the overall geodynamic context of Algerian margin which was structured during three tangential tectonic events, dated respectively 17 Ma, 15 Ma and 9 Ma.

  2. Petrology, 40Ar/39Ar age, Sr-Nd isotope systematics, and geodynamic significance of an ultrapotassic (lamproitic) dyke with affinities to kamafugite from the easternmost margin of the Bastar Craton, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Atiullah; Burgess, R.; Nanda, Purnendu; Choudhary, A. K.; Sahoo, Samarendra; Lehmann, B.; Chahong, Ngazipmi

    2015-09-01

    We report the mineralogy, bulk-rock geochemistry, 40Ar/39Ar (whole-rock) age and radiogenic (Sr and Nd) isotope composition of an ultrapotassic dyke from Sakri (Nuapada lamproite field) located at the tectonic contact between the easternmost margin of the Bastar craton and Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, India. The Sakri dyke has a mineralogy which strongly resembles a lamproite sensu stricto (viz.,Ti-rich phlogopite, Na-poor diopside, Fe-rich sanidine, ulvospinel trend and Sr-rich apatite). However, its bulk-rock major element geochemical characteristics (viz., extreme silica-undersaturated nature) resemble sensu lato kamafugite from Toro Ankole, Uganda, East African Rift, and Alto Paranaiba Province, Brazil. The Sakri dyke also displays certain compositional peculiarities (viz., high degree of evolution of mica composition from phlogopite to biotite, elevated titanium and aluminum in clinopyroxene and significantly lower bulk Mg#) when compared to the ultrapotassic rocks from various Indian cratons. 40Ar/39Ar dating gave a plateau age of 1045 ± 9 Ma which is broadly similar to that of other Mesoproterozoic (i) lamproites from the Bastar and Bundelkhand cratons, and (ii) kimberlites from the Eastern Dharwar craton. Initial bulk-rock Sr (0.705865-0.709024) and Nd (0.511063-0.511154) isotopic ratios reveal involvement of an `enriched' source region with long-term incompatible element enrichment and a depleted mantle (TDM) Nd model age of 2.56 Ga straddling the Archaean-Proterozoic chronostratigraphic boundary. The bulk-rock incompatible trace element ratios (Ta/Yb, Th/Yb, Rb/Ba and Ce/Y) of the Sakri ultrapotassic dyke negate any significant influence of crustal contamination. Small-degree melting (1 to 1.5 %) of a mixed garnet-facies and spinel-facies phlogopite lherzolite can account for its observed REE concentrations. Whereas the emplacement of the Sakri ultrapotassic dyke is related to the amalgamation of the supercontinent of Rodinia, its overlapping geochemical characteristics of lamproite and kamafugite (also displayed by two other lamproites of the Nuapada field at Amlidadar and Parkom) are linked to the emplacement in a unique geological setting at the craton-mobile belt contact and hence of geodynamic significance.

  3. Sr-Nd constraints and trace-elements geochemistry of selected Paleo and Mesoproterozoic mafic dikes and related intrusions from the South American Platform: Insights into their mantle sources and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, V. A. V.; Teixeira, W.; Mazzucchelli, M.; Corra da Costa, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of selected mafic intrusions from cratonic areas of the South American Platform shows considerable differences among their mantle sources and geodynamic features, particularly regarding the dikes from the SW Amazonian and So Francisco Cratons. The tholeiites from the SW Amazonian Craton, which belong to the Serra da Providncia Intrusive Suite (1.55 Ga), the Nova Lacerda swarm (1.44 Ga), the Colorado Complex (1.35 Ga), and the Nova Brasilndia Group (1.10 Ga), originated from a mantle source composed mainly of a N-MORB end-member, with a variable addition of slab fluids (up to 30%, according to the adopted model) from oceanic lithosphere due to episodic subductions during the Mesoproterozoic. Mafic intrusions from Nova Lacerda swarm and Colorado Complex are related to arc settings formed during the 1.47-1.35 Ga closure of the oceanic domain separating the Amazonian Craton and the Paragu Terrane, whereas the tholeiites from the Serra da Providncia Intrusive Suite and the Nova Brasilndia Group are considered intracratonic. The dike swarms of the So Francisco Craton are associated with intra-plate events. The inferred composition of the mantle source of the Lavras swarm (1.9 Ga) has a predominant E-MORB signature, and a modest contribution of up to 10% of an OIB component. The mantle composition underwent considerable changes during the Proterozoic, as indicated by the sources of the younger dikes, represented by the Diamantina (0.93 Ga) and the Salvador-Olivena swarms (0.92 Ga), to which considerable amount of slab derived fluids, probably from recycled crustal material, and OIB component were added. Changes in mantle composition and dikes intrusions could be related to the initial disruption of the Rodinia Supercontinent. The Florida (1.79 Ga) and Tandil (2.0 Ga) dikes are associated with extensional events of the Rio de La Plata Craton. In spite of the similarities between the tectonic framework of these swarms and that of Lavras (1.9 Ga), the composition of the Paleoproterozoic mantle of both cratons is very different. The parent mantle of the Florida dikes is more enriched and more heterogeneous than the others, probably due to the recycling of old crusts and OIB metasomatism. Isotopic data from the Tandil dikes also suggest an enriched original source, which could be a characteristic feature of the mantle of the Rio de La Plata Craton in Paleoproterozoic times. The Crixs-Gois (2.49 Ga) swarm originated from a very heterogeneous mantle source, probably contaminated by OIB metasomatic fluids and crustal addition, suggesting that crustal recycling has occurred since Archean times.

  4. New geochronological ages (U-Pb/Lu-Hf) from high-pressure rocks of the Escambray terrane and Santa Clara serpentinite mlange, central Cuba. Regional correlations and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Garca-Casco, A.; Krner, A.; Herwartz, D.; Ibis Despaigne, A.; Wilde, S.

    2012-04-01

    Petrological and geochronological data of high pressure (HP) rocks from Cuba and Dominican Republic indicate continuous subduction in the northern edge of the Caribbean since ca. 120 Ma. However, expected correlation of the associated subduction zone towards the west in Guatemala is uncertain, for similar HP rocks in this region have metamorphic ages as old as 150 Ma. In this contribution we present new geochemical and U-Pb/Lu-Hf ages of HP rocks from the Escambray terrane and the central Cuba serpentinite mlange that allow geodynamic correlations between the Greater Antilles and Guatemala during the early and late Cretaceous. The Escambray composite terrane constitutes a metamorphic accretionary complex containing oceanic and platform-derived metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks that were tectonically assembled in the Caribbean subduction environment during the latest Cretaceous. The complex crops out as two domes, named Trinidad to the west and Sancti Spiritus to the east, forming a tectonic window below the arc-related Mabujina amphibolite complex and the allochthonous Cretaceous volcanic arc terrane. The latter overrides the central Cuba mlange, which contains low-pressure ophiolitic blocks and HP blocks of eclogite, garnet amphibolite and blueschist facies rocks within a serpentinitic matrix. This serpentinite mlange and similar melange bodies within the Escambray complex have been interpreted as fragments of the Caribbean subduction channel. The studied HP samples are of basaltic composition, poor in K2O (<0.34 wt %) and Rb (< 3.05 ppm), relatively rich in Ta (0.07-0.77 ppm) and Hf (0.74-4.17 ppm), and rich in Nb (0.68- 13.53 ppm). Most samples show a REE chondrite-normalised patterns characterized by a subtle LREE depletion, except a few samples which are characterized by slight enrichment in LREE. Based on their distinctive trace-element contents, most of the basaltic protholiths of the samples are identified as E- to N-MORB signature. Some samples of the Escambray complex show, however, enrichment in alkali and LIL elements, suggesting a) a passive continental margin origin of the protoliths or b) contamination of (altered) MOR-derived rocks by fluids in the subduction environment. A single zircon U-Pb age of 131.11.3 Ma for a block of garnet amphibolite from a sliver of oceanic serpentinite mlange from the Gavilanes unit (Trinidad Dome, Escambray terrane) is interpreted as reflecting the time of basaltic protolith crystallization or the time of HP metamorphism. The last interpretation, though still uncertain, is supported by a new garnet Lu-Hf age of 126,04 0.54 Ma for a block of eclogite from the central Cuba serpentinite mlange. SHRIMP analyses of single-grain zircons from two eclogite samples from the Gavilanes unit on the Cipiabo River (Sancti Spiritus dome, Escambray terrane) show a broad spectrum of ages between 172 Ma and 2.4 Ga. We interpret the occurrence of Middle Jurassic to Paleoproterozoic zircons in these eclogites as inherited, suggesting crustal contamination of the basaltic protoliths. A new garnet Lu-Hf age of 70,3 1.1 Ma for an eclogite on the Higuanojo River (Sancti Spiritus dome) agrees with most geochronological data from the Escambray terrane obtained so far. These data, combined with previously published age data of HP and low pressure (MOR- and arc-related) rocks, indicate continuous subduction in the Cuban branch of the northern leading edge of the Caribbean plate since ca. 130 Ma until, at least, 70 Ma and corroborate the interpretation that the onset of terrane(Caribeana)-trench collision took place during the latest Cretaceous, in agreement with geodynamic models for the region. The data also allow correlating paleosubduction zones of the Antilles and Guatemala in the same period, for ages of high pressure rocks from the Motagua valley serpentinite mlanges, the Chuacs complex, and the basement of the Maya block range 150-70 Ma.

  5. South China Sea: New geodynamic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Yeh, Yi-Ching; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lee, Chao-Shing; Lin, Jing-Yi; Wu, Jonny

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic modeling shows that the youngest magnetic anomaly in the South China Sea (SCS) is either younger than C5c (15.5 Ma, Briais et al., JGR, 1995) or C6A1 (20.5 Ma, Barckhausen et al., MPG, 2014). Close to the rift axis of the East basin, Ar-Ar age dating of oceanic crustal rocks collected during IODP Leg 349 gives ages of 15 and 15.2 +/- 0.2 Ma (Koppers, Fall AGU meeting, 2014), which seems to favor the 15.5 Ma age given by Briais et al. modeling. However, basaltic samples were recovered in a sill and further below in another sill or inside the true oceanic crust. As post-spreading magmatic activity (~8-13 Ma) largely masks the spreading fabric, in particular near the previously identified E-W portion of the extinct ridge axis of the East Basin, the location of the central magnetic anomaly and spreading rates are incorrect. The compilation of the extremely dense set of magnetic data and published swath bathymetric data shows that if post-spreading volcanics hide the seafloor spreading magnetic fabric mostly along and near the extinct spreading axis, the whole SCS is characterized by rift directions following three directions: N055in the youngest portion of the SCS, N065 and N085 in the oldest portions of the SCS. We conclude that the extinct ridge axis is N055 trending instead of E-W. We are also able to propose a preliminary kinematic sketch of the evolution of the SCS in 6 steps, which will be used to carefully establish the SCS magnetic pattern and forward magnetic modeling of the SCS. From this preliminary kinematic sketch, we have established a new fracture zone pattern, which highlights conjugate segments of SCS continental margins. We have also used the unfolded and restored Manila slab to highlight a roughly N-S dVp discontinuity located inside the slab, suggesting the existence of a roughly N-S limit, which defines a new segment of conjugate margins. In addition, the extinct spreading center, which ends close to the Manila trench, jumps to the north and then continues within the Manila slab following a slow dVp trend, which might correspond to the location of the extinct spreading axis.

  6. Magmatism and Geodynamics of Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet; Oyan, Vural; Sharkov, Evgenii V.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Gen, ?. Can; nal, Esin; Aysal, Nam?k; Duru, Olgun; Kavak, Orhan

    2013-04-01

    Eastern Turkey has been an active collision zone for the last 15 My between the Arabian Plate and Eurasian continent. The collision initiated after the closure of the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean by northward subduction beneath E Anatolia at ~15 Ma. The collision-related volcanism started immediately after the closure of the ocean (again at around 15 Ma) in the north of the present day Lake Van with the eruption of mostly intermediate to acid lavas displaying distinct subduction characteristics. Both continental collision and the magmatism are still active, because the Arabian plate still converges to Anatolia with a velocity of ~2.5 cm/y. The overriding Anatolian block experienced a major uplift event around 10 Ma. The region once resided below the sea level merged as a widespread plateau ~2 km above the sea level as part of a regional dome structure with ~1000 km diameter, extending from Central Anatolia in the West to Azerbaijan in the East. The first alkaline lavas derived from a relatively more enriched source erupted to the surface in the N of Lake Van coeval with the initiation of the uplift at around 10 Ma. The underthrusting Arabian platform, on the other hand, was deformed as a result of both crustal-scale east-west folds adjacent to the major thrust zone and extensional deformations perpendicular to the suture zone. Alkaline within-plate lavas with no subduction component erupted through these extension zones. This intraplate volcanism focused on the Karacada? volcanic complex that covers an area of ~10,000 km2. Early Stage volcanism of Karacada? was dominated by magmas derived from a shallower metasomatized (litospheric) mantle source, while magmas of the later stages were derived from deeper (asthenospheric) sources. The Karacada? volcanic area of SE Anatolia was sourced by a garnet bearing, deep asthenospheric mantle which is similar to that of Afar in terms of its Pb isotopic ratios. This brings into question whether the mantle material from the Afar plume reached beneath Eastern Anatolian by a mantle convection cell. We argue that both the uplift and the widespread volcanism across the region share a common reason: a major "slab-steepening and breakoff event beneath the large Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex". We argue that the older intermediate calc-alkaline volcanic products displaying a distinct subduction signature were possibly derived from the mantle wedge that opened out due to the steepening of the slab after the continental collision. Being unsupported by the subduction, the slab started to be steepened beneath the region, possibly resulting in widening, invasion and upwelling of the mantle wedge beneath E Anatolian accretionary complex. This possibly created a sucking effect on the asthenosphere, creating a mantle flow from the Pontides in the north to the south. The inferred asthenospheric flow perhaps pulled a portion of the asthenosphere that once had resided beneath the Pontide arc. Therefore, the subduction component was inherited from the previous Pontide arc magmatism. The widespread decompressional melting generated voluminous magmas with the aforementioned inherited subduction signature in a period from 15 to 10 Ma. The slab broke off beneath the region, creating a slab window at around 10 Ma. This caused the enriched asthenospheric mantle with no subduction component beneath the Arabian continent to flow to the north through a slab-window. As a result, the subduction-modified E Anatolian and the enriched Arabian asthenospheric mantles started to mix into each other. We interpret the eruption of the first alkaline lavas in the region at around 10 Ma (e.g. tephrites and alkaline basalts in the N of Lake Van) as the indication of the formation of the slab-window beneath the region due to tearing of the slab. The volcanism in the collision zone continued till the historical times. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Ararat, Nemrut, Tendrek and Sphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) around the Mediterranean

  7. The geodynamics of the Levant margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Avraham, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The Levant continental margin, offshore Israel, Lebanon and Syria, is usually defined as a passive margin that was formed through rifting processes. During the formation two major continental fragments are assumed to separate from the northern edge of the Afro-Arabian plate to form the Levant basin: the Tauride and Eratosthenes blocks. Today an oceanic crust and, in places, a very thin continental crust are present between the Levant margin and Eratosthenes seamount. The margin can be divided into two distinct provinces that are separated by the Carmel Structure, which extends from seawards to the northwest across the continental shelf and slope. The preservation of segmentation, both in the shallow and in the deep structure, insinuates that the two segments were formed through different continental breakup processes, which continue to dictate the style of sediment accumulation. The nature and development of the continental margin offshore Israel were the subject of numerous studies, which suggest that the southern Levant segment (south of the Carmel Structure) was formed through continental rifting processes. In contrast, the northern segment, from the Carmel structure northwards and offshore southern Lebanon, was hardly studied before. Recent studies however indicate that the northern segment shows a strong similarity to classical transform margins in the world. In view of the new classification of the northern Levant margin a modified scenario is suggested for: (a) the initial stages in which the Levant margin was formed; and (b) the present day structural differences between the two segments of the margin. At present, the northern Levant continental margin is being reactivated by transpressional faulting of the marine continuation of the Carmel fault which bends northward at the base of the continental slope due to the rheological discontinuity in this region. This fault system coincides with the sharp continental-oceanic crustal transition, and acts as an isolator between the Levant basin and its land counterpart. To the north, this feature may initiate the formation of a new triple junction, with the Latakia ridge (part of the eastern Cyprian arc) and the East Anatolian fault.

  8. Precise leveling, space geodesy and geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, R.

    1981-01-01

    The implications of currently available leveling data on understanding the crustal dynamics of the continental United States are investigated. Neotectonic deformation, near surface movements, systematic errors in releveling measurements, and the implications of this information for earthquake prediction are described. Vertical crustal movements in the vicinity of the 1931 Valentine, Texas, earthquake which may represent coseismic deformation are investigated. The detection of vertical fault displacements by precise leveling in western Kentucky is reported. An empirical basis for defining releveling anomalies and its implications for crustal deformation in southern California is presented. Releveling measurements in the eastern United States and their meaning in the context of possible crustal deformation, including uplift of the Appalachian Mountains, eastward tilting of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and apparent movements associated with a number of structural features along the east coast, are reported.

  9. Basic research for the geodynamics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Ivan I.

    1988-07-01

    Additional results are presented concerning a study that considers improvements over present Earth Rotation Parameter (ERP) determination methods by directly combining observations from various space geodetic systems in one adjustment. Earlier results are extended, showing that in addition to slight improvements in accuracy, substantial (a factor of three or more) improvements in precision and significant reductions in correlations between various parameters can be obtained (by combining Lunar Laser Ranging - LLR, Satellite Laser Ranging - SLR to Lageos, and Very Long Baseline Interferometry - VLBI data in one adjustment) as compared to results from individual systems. Smaller improvements are also seen over the weighted means of the individual system results. Although data transmission would not be significantly reduced, negligible additional computer time would be required if (standardized) normal equations were available from individual solutions. Suggestions for future work and implications for the New Earth Rotation Service (IERS) are also presented.

  10. On the geodynamic setting of kimberlite genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, P.; Houseman, G.

    1984-01-01

    The emplacement of kimberlites in the North American and African continents since the early Palaeozoic appears to have occurred during periods of relatively slow motion of these continents. The distribution of kimberlites in time may reflect the global pattern of convection, which forces individual plates to move faster or slower at different times. Two-dimensional numerical experiments on a convecting layer with a moving upper boundary show two different regimes: in the first, when the upper boundary velocity is high, heat is transferred by the large-scale circulation and in the second, when the upper boundary velocity is lower, heat is predominantly transferred by thermal plumes rising from the lower boundary layer. For a reasonable mantle solidus, this second regime can give rise to partial melting beneath the moving plate, far from the plate boundaries. The transition between these modes takes place over a small range of plate velocities; for a Rayleigh number of 1,000,000 it occurs around 20 mm/yr. It is suggested that the generation of kimberlite magmas may result from thermal plumes incident on the base of a slowly moving plate.

  11. Arctic region: new model of geodynamic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishin, Anatoly; Kazmin, Yuriy; Malyshev, Nikolay; Morozov, Andrey; Petrov, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Basement of the Arctic shelf areas is characterizes with a complex structure. Age of the defined domains is early Pre-Cambrian, Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (Timanian and Baykalian), early-middle Paleozoic (Caledonian) and late Paleozoic (Uralian, Taimyrian and Ellesmerian). Mesozoic deformations affected Novaya Zemlya, Southern Taimyr and southern parts of the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea, and the Chukchi Sea regions. There are several Paleozoic rift-postrift basins. The North Kara Basin and the Timan-Pechora Basin was formed during the early Ordovician time as subduction-related back-arc rift systems. The East-Barents Basin has the same origin but the age of its formation is late Devonian. Carboniferous rifting took place in the Norwegian part of the Barents Sea, the Chukchi Sea (Hanna Trough Basin) and the Sverdrup Basin. There are also rift-postrift basins of the Mesozoic age. Late Permian to Early Triassic rifting took place in the South Kara Basin; it was connected with both collapse of the Uralian Orogen and activity of the Siberian mantle plume. Aptian to Albian rifting was affected with really big area in the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea right after the De-Long plume-related magmatic event. Paleogene (mainly Eocene) rifting was also widely spread in these areas. The Arctic Ocean consists of three main domains: the Canada Basin, Alpha-Mendeleev-Podvodnikov-Makarov domain, and the Eurasia Basin. The Canada Basin is a typical oceanic one. There are many uncertainties in the definition of spreading age, but in accordance with the prevalent point of view, it should be early Cretaceous, Neocomian. Alpha-Mendeleev-Podvodnikov-Makarov domain is an enigmatic region. We propose the following scenario for the formation of this domain: Aptian to Cenomanian plume-related large-scale intraplate basalt magmatism was followed by Albian to late Cretaceous rifting. Few axes of rifting were nearly orthogonal to the pre-existing one in the Canada Basin. The Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a rifted continental terrane covered by pre-rift basalts. The Eurasian Basin is a small oceanic one. Defined age of spreading is 56-0 Ma. The basin is characterized by a very slow spreading rate. Eocene to recent sediments covers the system of prominent linear ranges and valleys of former mid-oceanic ridge. The Lomonosov Ridge is a well known continental terrane dissected by Neogene-Quaternary faults. New data shows that the area of the Lomonosov and the Alpha-Mendeleev ridges was affected by strong Neogene to recent extension or transtension tectonics with the formation of numerous normal faults and related topographic highs and valleys. Recent bathymetry of these ridges is a result of this Neogene to recent tectonics. Our report is based on a new set of seismic lines in the Russian part of the Arctic region.

  12. South Aegean Geodynamic And Tsunami Monitoring Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradissis, Demitris; Drakatos, George; Marinou, Aggeliki; Anastasiou, Demitris; Alatza, Stauroula; Zacharis, Vangelis; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Melis, Nicolaos; Kalogeras, Ioannis; Chouliaras, Gerasimos; Evangelidis, Christos; Makropoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean Sea is one of the most tectonically and seismically active areas in the world, thus constituting a Natural Laboratory. For the first time, a permanent multiparametric platform of networks that combine different (both terrestrial and space oriented) techniques, is established, in order to monitor the tectonic and volcanic activity in the area and produce an on-line database available both to the scientific community and the public. This platform includes continuous GNSS networks, tide-gauge sensors, accelerometers and seismographs. All the available existing infrastructure has been upgraded, enlarged and modernized resulting in a collaborative operation. New instrumentation has been installed in carefully selected sites. All the available data are analysed using state of the art processing software. Raw data and products will be available through a project dedicated portal. The multiparametric data and results gathered will be integrated and combined with the existing archive owned by the participating institutes to produce a thoroughgoing view of the underlying geophysical processes. The island of Santorini will serve as a focused study case for the project, due to the special tectono-volcanic interest and because of the already existing dense multiparametric network. Our goal is to provide permanent infrastructure and knowledge both to enlighten ambiguous scientific hypothesis and serve as a focal point for further scientific research.

  13. Geodynamics of the Shanxi Rift system, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiwei; Ma, Xingyuan

    1992-07-01

    The Pliocene-Quaternary Shanxi Rift system of northern China transsects the domal axis of the Shanxi Highlands and is defined by an S-shaped string of asymmetric basins, extending from Huailai-Yanqing in the north via Taiyuan to Yuncheng in the south. This rift system has a length of about 1200 km and a width of 20-80 km; it is characterized by strong earthquakes. Its central, NNE-trending, transtensional segment forms the main element of the Shanxi Rift system. Basin subsidence commenced during the early Pliocene along NNE oriented master-faults characterized by large strike-slip rates (5.68-7 mm/yr); crustal extension amounts to some 1.4 km; basins are separated by push-up blocks; destructive earthquakes ( M = 7-8) are unevenly distributed. The ENE trending northern and southern branches of the Shanxi Rift system are characterized by orthogonal crustal extension along ENE striking normal faults, amounting to about 8 km; these areas are characterized by a basin-and-range type structural style and weak seismic activity. The Shanxi Rift system developed on a some 40 km thick, thermally cool Precambrian crustal segment that was overprinted during Mesozoic diastrophic events. There is only minor rift-related volcanic activity. The Moho is pulled up by a few kilometers only under the axial rift zone; sub-Moho compressional velocities are in the 8.0-8.1 km/s range. The Shanxi Rift system evolved in response to the build-up of regional stress fields related to the collision of India and Eurasia; its localization involved reactivation of pre-existing fracture systems.

  14. Basic research for the geodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Ivan I.

    1988-01-01

    Additional results are presented concerning a study that considers improvements over present Earth Rotation Parameter (ERP) determination methods by directly combining observations from various space geodetic systems in one adjustment. Earlier results are extended, showing that in addition to slight improvements in accuracy, substantial (a factor of three or more) improvements in precision and significant reductions in correlations between various parameters can be obtained (by combining Lunar Laser Ranging - LLR, Satellite Laser Ranging - SLR to Lageos, and Very Long Baseline Interferometry - VLBI data in one adjustment) as compared to results from individual systems. Smaller improvements are also seen over the weighted means of the individual system results. Although data transmission would not be significantly reduced, negligible additional computer time would be required if (standardized) normal equations were available from individual solutions. Suggestions for future work and implications for the New Earth Rotation Service (IERS) are also presented.

  15. A climate model with cryodynamics and geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Le Treut, H.

    1981-01-01

    A simplified, zero-dimensional model of the climatic system is presented which attempts to incorporate mechanisms important on the time scale of glaciation cycles: 10,000 to 100,000 years. The ocean-atmosphere radiation balance, continental ice sheet plastic flow, and upper mantle viscous flow are taken into account, with stress on the interaction between the ice sheets and the upper mantle. The model exhibits free, self-sustained oscillations of an amplitude and period comparable to those found in the paleoclimatic record of glaciations, offering mild support for the idea that unforced oscillations can actually exist in the real climatic system itself. The careful study of the interplay between internal mechanisms and external forcing is held to represent an interesting challenge to the theory of ice ages.

  16. Putting the Dynamics in Chemical Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M.; Katz, R. F.; Kelemen, P. B.; Fang, Y.; Collier, M.; Holtzman, B.

    2007-12-01

    An outstanding goal for both geochemists and geophysicists is to understand how to use the wide range of proxy geochemical (and geophysical) data to make useful inferences about the current and past dynamics of the planet. To relate data to dynamics, however, requires models that include the fundamental processes that affect chemical variability: i.e. source heterogeneity, chemical fractionation (melting/reactions), chemical transport and mixing. In particular, most models of chemical evolution do not include explicit fluid or magma transport and questions remain as to how much observed chemical variability can be attributed to magma dynamics. We discuss recent developments and models that suggest that at least some of the observed variability arises from transport processes. Driven by field observations, experiments and computational models, there is an emerging picture of partially molten regions as highly localized, channelized plumbing systems. Computations suggest that melt localization can arise from both chemical/physical and purely mechanical instabilities and can provide non-trivial mixing pathways through the mantle. Questions remain as to how the different instabilities interact and which may be dominant in the mantle. Regardless, a highly localized melt transport system can lead to significant trace element (and U-series) variability and fractionation even for a homogeneous source. Recent work extends these results to consider the interaction of a channelized melt system with a heterogeneous source and suggests that small scale spatial variations in partitioning can lead to significant scatter in the ratios of highly incompatible elements (Fang, Spiegelman & Kelemen). Current work is extending these approaches to try to understand the variability of major elements and reaction in open systems (Collier, Kelemen & Spiegelman) Looking forward, the integration of magma dynamics and small-scale localization into global mantle dynamics presents a major scientific and computational challenge. A key addition to magma dynamics models will be the consistent coupling of fluid/solid mechanics with thermodynamics to resolve both melting and crystallization of magmas (e.g. see Katz U06, this meeting). These models will also require advanced methods for the efficient solution of highly multi-scale problems. The CIG Magma dynamics project is actively pursuing these computational objectives with the long-term goal of developing true dynamic geochemistry models whose output can be directly compared to observations.

  17. Geodynamics of Cenozoic deformation in central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tectonic stresses in central Asia based on an interpretation of satellite gravity data for mantle convection and supplemented with published fault plane solutions of earthquakes. Northwest-southeast to north-south compressional stresses exist in the Tien Shan region where reverse faulting dominates. The maximum compressive stress is oriented approximately northeast-southwest in the regions of Altai and southern Mongolia. Farther north, compressive stress gives way to tensional stress which causes normal faulting in the Baikal rift system. It is also shown that all of the tectonic stresses in the Tibetan plateau and Himalayan frontal thrust are related to the convection-generated stress patterns inferred from satellite gravity data. These results suggest that the complex crustal deformation in central Asia can be convincingly described by the deformation of the lithosphere on top of the up- and down-welling asthenospheric material beneath it. This observational fact may not only upset the simple view of the fluid crustal model of the Tibetan plateau, but also provide some useful constraints for the future development of deformation theory of continental crust.

  18. Geodynamics of Sundaland since the Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.; Gurnis, M.

    2014-12-01

    Sundaland is the continental core of southeast Asia bounded by subduction zones since early Mesozoic. Many Sundaland basins, extensional in origin, have formed since Late Eocene. These rift basins experienced extensive inversion since early Miocene. The basins and the adjacent continental crust subsided with a regional sea level rise during a period of basin inversion and falling global sea level, suggesting control beyond eustasy and lithospheric deformation. The mechanism of this large-scale synchronous inversion and subsidence is not well understood. We use four dimensional dynamic models that explicitly assimilate the plate tectonic history and additional geological and geophysical data to investigate the underlying causes for the enigmatic evolution of Cenozoic Sundaland basins. The assimilation method honors both empirical data at the surface (including the seafloor age, plate motion velocity, subduction history) and mantle dynamics at depth and predicts mantle structure, surface topography and intraplate stress. These later expressions are compared against independent observations. With continuously closing plates, we embed deforming plates into the conventional rigid plate models in GPlates, thus enabling us to model continental deformation and mantle dynamics jointly. Models are initiated in the early Eocene with the temperature field derived from the backward integration of the present temperature field synthesized from seismic models. The velocity-temperature perturbation scaling ratio and depth and temperature dependent viscosity are derived by fitting the geoid. Our models are consistent with a slab avalanche occurring beneath Sundaland in the early Miocene. The slab avalanche induced large scale subsidence and compression across the southern Sundaland region, which correspond to the synchronous marine inundation and basin inversion since early to middle Miocene regionally. The model results suggest that the evolution of Sundaland basins is dominated by both surface lithospheric deformation and deep mantle dynamics.

  19. Basic research for the geodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Laser systems deployed in satellite tracking were upgraded to accuracy levels where biases from systematic unmodelled effects constitute the basic factor that prohibits extraction of the full amount of information contained in the observations. Taking into consideration that the quality of the instrument advances at a faster pace compared to the understanding and modeling of the physical processes involved, one can foresee that in the near future when all lasers are replaced with third generation ones the limiting factor for the estimated accuracies will be the aforementioned biases. Therefore, for the reduction of the observations, methods should be deployed in such a way that the effect of the biases will be kept well below the noise level. Such a method was proposed and studied. This method consists of using the observed part of the satellite pass and converting the laser ranges into range differences in hopes that they will be less affected by biases in the orbital models, the reference system, and the observations themselves.

  20. Geodynamic control on melt production in the central Azores : new insights from major and trace elements, Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf isotopic data and K/Ar ages on the islands of Terceira, Sao Jorge and Faial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildenbrand, A.; Weis, D. A.; Madureira, P.; Marques, F. O.

    2012-12-01

    A combined geochronological and geochemical study has been carried out on the volcanic islands of Terceira, São Jorge, and Faial (central Azores) to examine the relationships between mantle dynamics, melt production and regional deformation close to the triple junction between the American, the Eurasian and the Nubian lithospheric plates. The lavas analyzed span the last 1.3 Myr, and have been erupted during two main periods prior to 800 ka and after 750 ka, respectively. They range in composition from alkaline basalts/basanites to trachytes, and overall exhibit a strong enrichment in highly incompatible elements. The whole range of isotopic compositions here reported (87Sr/86Sr: 0.703508-0.703913; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.512882-0.513010; 206Pb/204Pb: 19.0840- 20.0932; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.5388-15.6409; 208Pb/204Pb: 38.7416-39.3921; 176Hf/177Hf: 0.282956-0.283111) suggests the involvement of three components: (1) a weakly radiogenic component reflecting the source of regional MORBs, (2) a main HIMU-type component represented in the three islands, and (3) an additional component in Faial recent lavas, which appears similar to the EM type end-member previously recognized on other Azores eruptive complexes. The geographical distribution of the enriched components and the synchronous construction of various islands at the regional scale rules out a single narrow active plume. They suggest in turn the presence of dispersed residual enriched mantle blobs, interpreted as remnants from a large heterogeneous plume probably responsible for edification of the Azores plateau several Myr ago. The lavas erupted in São Jorge and Faial prior to 800 ka have similar and homogeneous isotopic ratios, which partly overlap the compositional field of MORBs from the adjacent portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Their genesis can be explained by the regional development of N150 transtensive tectonic structures, which promoted significant decompression melting of the upper mantle, with correlative dilute expression of the enriched components. In contrast, the youngest lavas (< 750 ka) erupted along the N110 main structural direction on the three islands are significantly enriched in LILE and LREE, and generally have variable but more radiogenic isotopic compositions. Such characteristics suggest low-degree partial melting and greater incorporation of fertile residual mantle anomalies during passive tectonic reactivation of pre-existing transform faults promoted by recent ridge-push at the MAR. We propose that sub-aerial volcanism over the last 1.3 Myr in the central Azores recorded a sudden change in the conditions of melt generation which most probably reveals a major reconfiguration of regional deformation accompanying the recent geodynamic reorganization of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary.

  1. NASA geodynamics program investigations summaries: A supplement to the NASA geodynamics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of a time series of global atmospheric motion and mass fields through April 1984 to compare with changes in length of day and polar motion was investigated. Earth rotation was studied and the following topics are discussed: (1) computation of atmospheric angular momentum through April 1984; (2) comparisons of psi sub values with variations in length of day obtained by several groups utilizing B.I.H., lunar laser ranging, VLBI, or Lageos measurements; (3) computation of atmospheric excitation of polar motion using daily fields of atmospheric winds and pressures for a short test period. Daily calculations may be extended over a longer period to examine the forcing of the annual and Chandler wobbles, in addition to higher frequency nutations.

  2. Investigation some algorithms for solving problems of local geodynamics with using base GlonassGps stations. (Russian Title: Исследование некоторых алгоритмов решения задач локальной геодинамики с использованием базовых Глонасс/Gps станций)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, E. V.; Bordovitsyna, T. V.; Chernitsov, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper mathematical modeling results of some algorithms for solving problems of local geodynamics by using base GLONASSGPS stations are presented. The statistical algorithm for trend discovering in coordinates of the point and ways of reduction of influencing random errors on results of coordinate determination with using third differences of measured distances are discussed.

  3. Lower Mantle melting model and it's geodynamical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, I.; Tackley, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Model of solid-liquid equilibrium laws and substances properties in lower mantle conditions is important to understand the early stages of evolution of terrestrial planets, such as core formation and magma ocean crystallization. This model is also necessary to prove theories on some modern seismic features of the Earth (e.g. ultra-low velocity zones) and petrological observations (e.g. lower mantle mineral assemblage inclusions in diamonds). Numerous experimental and numerical studies of the lower mantle phases provide sufficient amount of data to build up a thermodynamic model, which can be used in geophysical fluid dynamics research. Experimental studies are the direct source of soliduses values, but other thermodynamic parameters stay unclear. Molecular Dynamics modeling provides data on thermodynamic properties of solids and liquids (density, heat capacity, latent heat of melting etc.). But absence of minor components (iron, alkali etc.) and some numerical issues (e.g. [Belonoshko, 2001]) make it to overestimate melting temperatures significantly (up to 20-30%). Our approach is to develop a model based on MD data by [de Koker et al., 2013] with evaluation of all important parameters according to classical thermodynamic equations. But melting temperatures (especially at eutectic points) are corrected along Clausius-Clapeyron slopes to agree with modern experimental data ([Andrault et al., 2011], [Andrault et al., 2014], [Fiquet et al., 2010], [Hirose et al., 1999], [Mosenfelder et al., 2007], [Nomura et al., 2014],[Ozawa et al., 2011], [Zerr et al., 1998]). Notable effect on melt and solid densities has iron partitioning, so KD value reported by [Andrault et al., 2012] was used. Proposed model was implemented into StagYY software (e.g. [Tackley, 2008]). It is a finite-volume discretization code for advection of solid and liquid in a planetary scale. CMB temperature was set to be 4000-4400 K. Calculations predict appearing and disappearing batches containing up to 5-7% of melt. Amount of FeO in liquid is up to 18%, so melts are 2 % denser than solid counterpart, resulting in total density increase up to 1 %. This data fits properties proposed for Ultra-Low Velocity Zones (melt fraction between 5 and 30 % [Garnero et al., 1998], and density increase of at least 1% [Beuchert & Schmeling, 2013]).

  4. Wilson study cycles: Research relative to ocean geodynamic cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, W. S. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of conversion of Atlantic (rifted) margins to convergent plate boundaries; oceanic plateaus at subduction zones; continental collision and tectonic escape; southern Africa rifts; and global hot spot distribution on long term development of the continental lithosphere were studied.

  5. Anisotropic measurements in South Korea and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Tae-Seob

    2010-05-01

    Seismic anisotropy beneath the southern Korean Peninsula was investigated. The most striking feature of the observed splitting patterns is the preference of the fast directions (NW-SE) that are nearly parallel to the direction of the absolute plate motion in the region. However, the splitting patterns over the region show significant variation in splitting parameters indicating a complex anisotropic structure. Variations of the splitting directions and dissimilarity in the source domains of basaltic volcanisms suggest that the asthenospheric mantle flow since at least the late Cenozoic cannot explain the seismic anisotropy beneath the region. Comparison to shear-wave splitting measurements from eastern China revealed that the NW-SE fast direction of splitting measurements in the the southern Korean Peninsula is close to that in the North China Block while the NE-SW fast direction might be related to that in the South China Block. The shallow mantle lithosphere beneath the southern Korean Peninsula retains the fossil anisotropy amalgamated prior to the late Paleozoic before the collision between the North China Block and South China Block, and the anisotropic structure was not completely realigned by the major orogenic events during the late Paleozoic to Mesozoic eras.

  6. The significance of Antarctica for studies of global geodynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, R.

    2007-01-01

    Antarctica has geometric significance for global plate kinematic studies, because it links seafloor spreading systems of the African hemisphere (Indian and Atlantic Oceans) with those of the Pacific. Inferences of plate motions back to 44 Ma, around the onset of rapid spreading south of Australia and formation of a new boundary through New Zealand, are consistent with Antarctic rifting and formation of the Adare Basin during 44-26 Ma (i.e., no additional plate motions are required in the South Pacific). The time period 52-44 Ma represents a profound global and South Pacific tectonic change, and significant details remain unresolved. For 74 Ma a significant nonclosure of the South Pacific plate-motion circuit is identified if Antarctic motion is not included. Alternate inferences of motion through Antarctica during the interval 74-44 Ma imply significantly different subduction volumes and directions around the Pacific, and imply different relative motions between hotspots

  7. The Coming Role of GPU in Computational Geodynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, D. A.; Knepley, M. G.; Erlebacher, G.; Wright, G. B.

    2009-12-01

    With the proliferation of GPU ( graphics accelerator board) the computing landscape has changed enormously in the last 3 years. The new additional capabilities of the GPU , such as larger shared memories and load-store operations , allow it to be considered as a viable stand-alone computational and visualization engine. Today the massive threading and computing capability of GPU can deliver at least an order of magnitude performance over the multi-core CPU architecture. The cost of a GPU system is also considerably cheaper than a CPU cluster by more than an order of magnitude.The introduction of CUDA and ancillary software aids, such as Jackets, have allowed the rapid translation of many venerable codes into software usable on GPU. We will discuss our experience acquired over the past year in attacking five different computational problems in the geosciences, using the GPU. They include (1.) 3-D seismic wave propagation with the spectral-element method (2.)2-D shallow water equation as applied to tsunami wave propagation, using finite-differences (3.) 3-D mantle convection with constant viscosity using a 4th order compact finite-difference operator (4.) non-linear heat-diffusion equation in 2-D using a collocation method based on radial basis functions over an elliptical area . Grid points are divided so as to lie on a centroidal Voronoi mesh . Derivatives are calculated at each grid point using a point-dependent stencil computed from the nearest neighbors .(5.) Stokes flow with variable viscosity by means of a pre-conditioner calculated on the GPU based on the vortex method using Greens functions, along with the radial basis functions and the fast multi-pole method. The Krylov method is used on the CPU for the final iterative step .We will discuss the relative speed-ups of the GPU over the CPU in each of these cases. We will point out the need to go to more computationally intensive mode with multiple GPUs, which calls for key CPUs to control the message passing between the different computational domains by means of MPI. In our CPU-GPU system a separate GPU, the Nvidia GTX 295 , is also devoted for visualizing the ongoing computed results. According to some circles, the future roadmap of GPU seems to be at least one and a half order of magnitude brighter than the CPU in the next 6 years.

  8. The Role of Carbon in Extrasolar Planetary Geodynamics and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterborn, Cayman T.; Kabbes, Jason E.; Pigott, Jeffrey S.; Reaman, Daniel M.; Panero, Wendy R.

    2014-10-01

    The proportions of oxygen, carbon, and major rock-forming elements (e.g., Mg, Fe, Si) determine a planet's dominant mineralogy. Variation in a planet's mineralogy subsequently affects planetary mantle dynamics as well as any deep water or carbon cycle. Through thermodynamic models and high pressure diamond anvil cell experiments, we demonstrate that the oxidation potential of C is above that of Fe at all pressures and temperatures, indicative of 0.1-2 Earth-mass planets. This means that for a planet with (Mg+2Si+Fe+2C)/O > 1, excess C in the mantle will be in the form of diamond. We find that an increase in C, and thus diamond, concentration slows convection relative to a silicate-dominated planet, due to diamond's ~3 order of magnitude increase in both viscosity and thermal conductivity. We assert then that in the C-(Mg+2Si+Fe)-O system, there is a compositional range in which a planet can be habitable. Planets outside of this range will be dynamically sluggish or stagnant, thus having limited carbon or water cycles leading to surface conditions inhospitable to life as we know it.

  9. The early geodynamic evolution of Mars-type planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siqi; O'Neill, Craig

    2016-02-01

    It is not clear whether Mars once possessed active tectonics, yet the question is critical for understanding the thermal evolution of Mars, and the origin and longevity of its early dynamo. To address these issues, we have coupled mantle flow simulations, together with parameterized core evolution models, to simulate the early evolution of Mars-like planets, and constrain the influence of early mobile-lid tectonics on core evolution. We have explored a wide parameter suite, encapsulating a range of uncertainties in initial conditions, rheological parameters, and surface strength. We present successful models that experience early mobile-lid behaviour, with a later transition into a stagnant-lid mode, which reproduce core dynamo histories similar to the magnetic history of early Mars.

  10. The role of the lower continental crust in chemical geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Gao, S.

    2007-12-01

    Recycling of continental crust into the mantle is generally conceptualized in terms of subduction of terrigenous sedimentary rocks produced by weathering and erosion of the upper continental crust. However, another form of crustal recycling is increasingly recognized as adding chemical diversity to the convecting mantle: recycling of lower continental crust. Lower crustal recycling can occur by several processes, including density foundering and subduction erosion. Given the compositional diversity of the continental lower crust, the chemical signature of such recycled material can be highly variable. For example, the radiogenic isotopic signature will depend on the age of the lower crust and its tectono-magmatic history. Newly formed, high density crystal cumulates foundered from colliding arcs may have Nd, Hf, Sr and Pb isotopic signatures similar to mantle-derived arc melts. But if these packages of recycled lower crust remain intact in the convecting mantle, they may evolve to radiogenic Nd and Hf (due to igneous cumulate or restitic garnet), radiogenic Os (due to high Re/Os) and unradiogenic Pb isotope compositions. In contrast, recycling of ancient lower crust should be characterized by evolved Nd, Hf and Os isotopic compositions, but may have variable Sr (depending on whether and when Rb was depleted) and Pb isotopic compositions (depending on the timing of the last orogenic event that homogenized Pb isotopes). Examples of intraplate magmas that derive from foundered ancient lower continental crust are found in eastern China, where thinning and destabilization of the Archean craton occurred coincident with a magmatic flare-up in the Mesozoic. Some of these Mesozoic magmas contain evidence for lower crustal foundering. For example, high Mg# andesites derive from melts of foundered lower crustal eclogite that interacted with mantle peridotite, whereas some high Mg basalts and alkaline picrites derive from a mantle source that was hybridized by silicic melts derived from foundered lower crustal eclogite. This, and other examples of lower crustal recycling point to an additional source of mantle heterogeneity derived from the continental crust.

  11. Relative motion of the geodynamic twin-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lala, P.; Klokocnik, J.

    1986-07-01

    The use of twin passive-laser-reflector satellites to improve the longer-wavelength accuracy of earth-gravity-field models, proposed by Klokocnik (1985), is examined theoretically. The effects of different gravitational and nongravitational forces on the twin satellites (created by separation from a single passive satellite after 1 yr or more in stable orbit) are analyzed, and numerical results are presented in graphs. It is shown that the twins can be kept within 20 km if the separation velocity is small (0.03-0.3 m/s) and perpendicular to the orbital plane.

  12. Geodynamics of the Earth according to the altimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchytel, Igor; Jaroshenko, Victor; Mituchenko, Vadim; Kapochkin, Borys; Kucherenko, Nataliya

    2010-05-01

    We performed a comprehensive analysis of observations of the Black Sea level variations by different methods. The first method is a coastal monitoring by sea-level tide gauges which measures sea level changes relative to a moving reference frame - the state geodetic network. The second one is the satellite altimetry which results are performed in the fixed global reference frame. At the first stage we studied the mean monthly data smoothed over three points for the period 1993-2009. We found that during years 1994-1995, 1999-2001, and 2006, changes of the sea level registered by two different methods were almost identical. Hence both methods have high accuracy. Difference between results of the two methods is an indicator of errors. Changes in the shape of the geoid result in the satellite data errors. Systematic errors of this method have period of 10.3 months. Errors in the coastal sea level measurements are associated with vertical movements of the gauge instruments. Systematic errors of this method has 14.6 months period which coincides with the Chandler one. We performed cross-spectral analysis of the errors caused by global changes of the geoid shape and regional geodeformations in the Black Sea region. We found that results of the sea level measurements by two different methods are the same during short periods of phase overlapping of these incoherent cyclic errors. At the second stage we studied the sea level changes averaged over 24 hours for the period May - July 2009. We concluded that the Earth' geomagnetic field variations during 10-15 May generated changes of the geoid. Main ruptures of the high-pressure gas pipe-lines which occurred at 9, 10, 16, 28 May could be related to corresponding geodeformations. We found that rapid changes of the distance from the satellite to the sea surface during May 2009 were preceded by geodeformations. During July 2009 we registered maximal geodeformations caused by increase of the amplitude of the solid Earth tides. In July, the sea level rose up to 12 cm during 20 days. In this period measurement errors associated with vertical movements of the tide gauges reached 21 cm. Their period is 7 days. Recorded ruptures of the gas pipeline networks during July occurred almost every 7 days also. The phase shift between periodic component of the vertical movements and ruptures of the gas pipelines was 180 degrees.

  13. Phanerozoic growth of Asia: Geodynamic processes and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pubellier, Manuel; Meresse, Florian

    2013-08-01

    Accretion processes often obscured in mountain belts can be documented with great detail in SE Asia where these have taken place during the Tertiary. The resulting configuration showing accreted continental strips and tectonised wedges is illustrated by the Tethysides jammed between the northern Laurasian cratons (Baltica and Siberia) and Gondwanian cratons (Africa, Arabia, India and Australia). Eurasia increased progressively in size due to the amalgamation of crustal and sedimentary belts. At places where the processes are documented in the recent times, they can be included within a "collision factory" which displays the opening of basins by rifting and sea floor spreading within the upper plate, until they undergo a process of shortening, both stages being subduction-controlled. In SE Asia the early stages are illustrated in the eastern Sunda arc where the subduction of the Sunda Trench is blocked in Sumba and Timor region, and flipped into the Flores Trough in less than 2 My. The incipient shortening is at present taking place in the Pliocene Damar basins. Another stage, where half of the upper plate basin has disappeared, is documented in the Celebes Sea. The examples of deformation being transferred further inland exist in the northern Celebes Sea and the Makassar Basin. The next important stage is the complete consumption of the marginal basin where both margins collide and the accretionary wedge is thrust over the margin, as illustrated in NW Borneo and Palawan. Each of these stages is responsible for a single short-lived tectonic event, the succession of several events composes an orogen which may last for over 10 My. These events predate the arrival of the conjugate margin of the large ocean, which marks the beginning of continental subduction as observed in the Himalaya-Tibet region. These examples show that the closure is generally diachronous through time as illustrated in the Philippines. We observe that the ophiolite obducted in such context is generally of back-arc origin (upper plate) rather than the relict of the vanishing large ocean which is rarely preserved. In the Philippines, once the crust is accreted the subduction zone progressively moved southward until its present position. We propose that the lithospheric mantle of the accreted block is delaminated and rolls back in a continuous manner, whereas the crust is deformed and accreted.

  14. The application of space technology to geodynamics - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischetti, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    The application of various space technologies to the study of the earth is discussed. The main problems that this technology can study are crustal movement and deformation, and earth structure and rotational dynamics. Laser and VLBI systems are used as fixed observatories and as mobile stations which can move between locations separated by 200 to 500 km. Requirements for more frequency and more densely spaced measurements can be met by the use of geodetic receivers which process signals from the Global Positioning System, and an airborne laser which ranges simultaneously to an array of passive cube corner retroreflectors. A Gravity Field Satellite is expected to survey the earth's field to a resolution of 1000 km and accuracies of one milligal. Data from the Magnetic Field Satellite are being used to develop models of the main field for the 1980 Epoch and maps of crustal anomalies.

  15. Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Magali; Marty, Bernard; Burgess, Ray; Turner, Grenville; Philippot, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the growth rate of the continental crust through time is a fundamental issue in Earth sciences. The isotopic signatures of noble gases in the silicate Earth (mantle, crust) and in the atmosphere afford exceptional insight into the evolution through time of these geochemical reservoirs. However, no data for the compositions of these reservoirs exists for the distant past, and temporal exchange rates between Earth's interior and its surface are severely under-constrained owing to a lack of samples preserving the original signature of the atmosphere at the time of their formation. Here, we report the analysis of argon in Archaean (3.5-billion-year-old) hydrothermal quartz. Noble gases are hosted in primary fluid inclusions containing a mixture of Archaean freshwater and hydrothermal fluid. Our analysis reveals Archaean atmospheric argon with a (40)Ar/(36)Ar value of 143 ± 24, lower than the present-day value of 298.6 (for which (40)Ar has been produced by the radioactive decay of the potassium isotope (40)K, with a half-life of 1.25 billion years; (36)Ar is primordial in origin). This ratio is consistent with an early development of the felsic crust, which might have had an important role in climate variability during the first half of Earth's history. PMID:23739427

  16. The role of carbon in extrasolar planetary geodynamics and habitability

    SciTech Connect

    Unterborn, Cayman T.; Kabbes, Jason E.; Pigott, Jeffrey S.; Panero, Wendy R.; Reaman, Daniel M.

    2014-10-01

    The proportions of oxygen, carbon, and major rock-forming elements (e.g., Mg, Fe, Si) determine a planet's dominant mineralogy. Variation in a planet's mineralogy subsequently affects planetary mantle dynamics as well as any deep water or carbon cycle. Through thermodynamic models and high pressure diamond anvil cell experiments, we demonstrate that the oxidation potential of C is above that of Fe at all pressures and temperatures, indicative of 0.1-2 Earth-mass planets. This means that for a planet with (Mg+2Si+Fe+2C)/O > 1, excess C in the mantle will be in the form of diamond. We find that an increase in C, and thus diamond, concentration slows convection relative to a silicate-dominated planet, due to diamond's ∼3 order of magnitude increase in both viscosity and thermal conductivity. We assert then that in the C-(Mg+2Si+Fe)-O system, there is a compositional range in which a planet can be habitable. Planets outside of this range will be dynamically sluggish or stagnant, thus having limited carbon or water cycles leading to surface conditions inhospitable to life as we know it.

  17. Ancient geodynamics and global-scale hydrology on Mars.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R J; Zuber, M T; Solomon, S C; Golombek, M P; Jakosky, B M; Banerdt, W B; Smith, D E; Williams, R M; Hynek, B M; Aharonson, O; Hauck, S A

    2001-03-30

    Loading of the lithosphere of Mars by the Tharsis rise explains much of the global shape and long-wavelength gravity field of the planet, including a ring of negative gravity anomalies and a topographic trough around Tharsis, as well as gravity anomaly and topographic highs centered in Arabia Terra and extending northward toward Utopia. The Tharsis-induced trough and antipodal high were largely in place by the end of the Noachian Epoch and exerted control on the location and orientation of valley networks. The release of carbon dioxide and water accompanying the emplacement of approximately 3 x 10(8) cubic kilometers of Tharsis magmas may have sustained a warmer climate than at present, enabling the formation of ancient valley networks and fluvial landscape denudation in and adjacent to the large-scale trough. PMID:11283367

  18. Geodynamic modelling of low-buoyancy thermo-chemical plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannberg, Juliane; Sobolev, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Earth's biggest magmatic events that form Large Igneous Provinces are believed to originate from massive melting when hot mantle plumes rising from the lowermost mantle reach the base of the lithosphere. Classical models of thermal mantle plumes predict a flattening of the plume head to a disk-like structure, a kilometer-scale surface uplift just before the initiation of LIPs and thin plume tails. However, there are seismic observations and paleo-topography data that are difficult to explain with this classical approach. Here, using numerical models, we show that the issue can be resolved if major mantle plumes are thermo-chemical rather than purely thermal. It has been suggested a long time ago that subducted oceanic crust could be recycled by mantle plumes; and based on geochemical data, they may contain up to 15-20% of this recycled material in the form of dense eclogite, which drastically decreases their buoyancy and makes it depth-dependent. We perform numerical experiments in a 3D spherical shell geometry to investigate the dynamics of the plume ascent, the interaction between plume- and plate-driven flow and the dynamics of melting in a plume head. For this purpose, we use the finite-element code ASPECT, which allows for complex temperature-, pressure- and composition-dependent material properties. Moreover, our models incorporate phase transitions (including melting) with the accompanying rheological and density changes, Clapeyron slopes and latent heat effects for both peridotite and eclogite, mantle compressibility and a strong temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity. We demonstrate that despite their low buoyancy, such plumes can rise through the whole mantle causing only negligible surface uplift. Conditions for this ascent are high plume volume and moderate lower mantle subadiabaticity. While high plume buoyancy results in plumes directly advancing to the base of the lithosphere, plumes with slightly lower buoyancy pond in a depth of 300-400 km and form pools or a second layer of hot material. These structures are caused by phase transitions occurring in different depths in peridotite and eclogite; and they become asymmetric and finger-like channels begin to form when the plume gets entrained by a quickly moving overlying plate. We also show that the bulky tails of large and hot low-buoyancy plumes are stable for several tens of millions of years and that their shapes fit seismic tomography data much better than the narrow tails of thermal plumes.

  19. Mars north polar deposits: stratigraphy, age, and geodynamical response.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Roger J; Zuber, Maria T; Smrekar, Suzanne E; Mellon, Michael T; Head, James W; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Putzig, Nathaniel E; Milkovich, Sarah M; Campbell, Bruce A; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Safaeinili, Ali; Seu, Roberto; Biccari, Daniela; Carter, Lynn M; Picardi, Giovanni; Orosei, Roberto; Mohit, P Surdas; Heggy, Essam; Zurek, Richard W; Egan, Anthony F; Giacomoni, Emanuele; Russo, Federica; Cutigni, Marco; Pettinelli, Elena; Holt, John W; Leuschen, Carl J; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2008-05-30

    The Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has imaged the internal stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits of Mars. Radar reflections within the deposits reveal a laterally continuous deposition of layers, which typically consist of four packets of finely spaced reflectors separated by homogeneous interpacket regions of nearly pure ice. The packet/interpacket structure can be explained by approximately million-year periodicities in Mars' obliquity or orbital eccentricity. The observed approximately 100-meter maximum deflection of the underlying substrate in response to the ice load implies that the present-day thickness of an equilibrium elastic lithosphere is greater than 300 kilometers. Alternatively, the response to the load may be in a transient state controlled by mantle viscosity. Both scenarios probably require that Mars has a subchondritic abundance of heat-producing elements. PMID:18483402

  20. Neotethyan closure history of western Anatolia: a geodynamic discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourteau, Amaury; Oberhnsli, Roland; Candan, Osman; Barrier, Eric; Vrielynck, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    This paper addresses the lithosphere-scale subduction-collision history of the eastern termination of the Aegean retreating subduction system, i.e. western Anatolia. Although there is some general consensus on the protracted subduction evolution of the Aegean since the early Cenozoic at least, correlation with western Anatolia has been widely debated for more than several decades. In western Anatolia, three main tectonic configurations have been envisaged in the past years to reconstruct slab dynamics during the closure of the Neotethyan oceanic realm since the Late Cretaceous. Some authors have suggested an Aegean-type scenario, with the continuous subduction of a single lithospheric slab, punctuated by episodic slab roll-back and trench retreat, whereas others assumed a discontinuous subduction history marked by intermittent slab break-off during either the Campanian (ca. 75 Ma) or the Early Eocene (ca. 55-50 Ma). The third view implies three partly contemporaneous subduction zones. Our review of these models points to key debated aspects that can be re-evaluated in the light of multidisciplinary constraints from the literature. Our discussion leads us to address the timing of subduction initiation, the existence of hypothetical ocean basins, the number of intervening subduction zones between the Taurides and the Pontides, the palaeogeographic origin of tectonic units and the possibility for slab break-off during either the Campanian or the Early Eocene. Thence, we put forward a favoured tectonic scenario featuring two successive phases of subduction of a single lithospheric slab and episodic accretion of two continental domains separated by a continental trough, representing the eastern end of the Cycladic Ocean of the Aegean. The lack of univocal evidence for slab break-off in western Anatolia and southward-younging HP/LT metamorphism in continental tectonic units (from ~85, 70 to 50 Ma) in the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene period suggests continuous subduction since ~110 Ma, marked by roll-back episodes in the Palaeocene and the Oligo-Miocene, and slab tearing below western Anatolia during the Miocene.

  1. Mars north polar deposits: stratigraphy, age, and geodynamical response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Zuber, M.T.; Smrekar, S.E.; Mellon, M.T.; Head, J.W.; Tanaka, K.L.; Putzig, N.E.; Milkovich, S.M.; Campbell, B.A.; Plaut, J.J.; Safaeinili, A.; Seu, R.; Biccari, D.; Carter, L.M.; Picardi, G.; Orosei, R.; Surdas, Mohit P.; Heggy, E.; Zurek, R.W.; Egan, A.F.; Giacomoni, E.; Russo, F.; Cutigni, M.; Pettinelli, E.; Holt, J.W.; Leuschen, C.J.; Marinangeli, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has imaged the internal stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits of Mars. Radar reflections within the deposits reveal a laterally continuous deposition of layers, which typically consist of four packets of finely spaced reflectors separated by homogeneous interpacket regions of nearly pure ice. The packet/interpacket structure can be explained by approximately million-year periodicities in Mars' obliquity or orbital eccentricity. The observed ???100-meter maximum deflection of the underlying substrate in response to the ice load implies that the present-day thickness of an equilibrium elastic lithosphere is greater than 300 kilometers. Alternatively, the response to the load may be in a transient state controlled by mantle viscosity. Both scenarios probably require that Mars has a subchondritic abundance of heat-producing elements.

  2. A proposed test area for the spaceborne geodynamic ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Precise geodetic measurements are proposed in which an orbiting laser obtains intersite distance between retroreflectors 25 to 100 km apart on the ground. The recommended area is a rectangle 200 by 400 km in southern California and adjacent Nevada, trending northeast. It includes the entire width of the San Andreas fault zone, the Garlock fault, the thrust faults of the Transverse Ranges, and the active strike-slip faults of the Mojave Desert.

  3. Heat flow in the Valencia trough: Geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, J. P.; Mauffret, A.; Steckler, M.; Brunet, M. F.; Maillard, A.; Rehault, J. P.; Alonso, B.; Desegaulx, P.; Murillas, J.; Ouillon, G.

    1992-03-01

    As part of the Valsis project, 110 heat-flow determinations were obtained in the axial, deep part of the Valencia trough during the Valsis 1 cruise of the R/V Le Suroit in 1988. The data gathered data provide a fairly comprehensive view of the regional heat-flow pattern. Regional heat flow increases from a value of 66 4 mW/ m2 to the north of Menorca to 88 4 mW/ m2 in the southern part of the rift between Valencia and Ibiza. A simple rifting model, assuming uniform stretching of the lithosphere during a single rifting event from 28 to 22 Ma ago, satisfactorily describes the observed heat flow and depth to sea floor in the northern part of the trough. In contrast, the southern Valencia trough has high heat flow and shallow sea floor that are difficult to reconcile with predictions of a uniform lithospheric stretching model even allowing for an initial elevation, a thin, hot lithosphere or a multi-episode history of rifting. Non-homogeneous lithospheric stretching models, assuming for example large-scale dike intrusion or a greater extension of the mantle than in the crust, provide potential explanations of the high heat flow and shallow sea floor in the southern Valencia trough. Yet, these models remain poorly constrained.

  4. Plume capture by a migrating ridge: Analog geodynamic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J. S.; Hall, P.

    2010-12-01

    Paleomagnetic data from the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain (HESC) suggests that the Hawaiian hotspot moved rapidly (~40 mm/yr) between 81 - 47 Ma but has remained relatively stationary since that time. This implies that the iconic bend in the HESC may in fact reflect the transition from a period of rapid hotspot motion to a stationary state, rather than a change in motion of the Pacific plate. Tarduno et al. (2009) have suggested that this period of rapid hotspot motion might be the surface expression of a plume conduit returning to a largely vertical orientation after having been captured and tilted by a migrating mid-ocean ridge. We report on a series of analog fluid dynamic experiments designed to characterize the interaction between a migrating spreading center and a thermally buoyant mantle plume. Experiments were conducted in a clear acrylic tank (100 cm x 70 cm x 50 cm) filled with commercial grade high-fructose corn syrup. Plate-driven flow is modeled by dragging two sheets of Mylar film (driven by independent DC motors) in opposite directions over the surface of the fluid. Ridge migration is achieved by moving the point at which the mylar sheets diverge using a separate motor drive. Buoyant plume flow is modeled using corn syrup introduced into the bottom of the tank from an external, heated, pressurized reservoir. Small (~2 mm diameter), neutrally buoyant Delrin spheres are mixed into reservoir of plume material to aid in visualization. Plate velocities and ridge migration rate are controlled and plume temperature monitored using LabView software. Experiments are recorded using digital video which is then analyzed using digital image analysis software to track the position and shape of the plume conduit throughout the course of the experiment. The intersection of the plume conduit with the surface of the fluid is taken as an analog for the locus of hotspot volcanism and tracked as a function of time to obtain a hotspot migration rate. Experiments are scaled to the Earth's mantle through a combination of a Peclet number and a plume buoyancy number. A range of spreading rates, ridge migration rates, and plume excess temperatures representative of the Earth are considered.

  5. Prelaunch optical characterization of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minott, Peter O.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Varghese, Thomas; Seldon, Michael

    1993-09-01

    The optical range correction (the distance between the apparent retroreflective skin of the satellite and the center of mass) of the LAGEOS 2 was determined using computer analysis of theoretical and experimentally measured far field diffraction patterns, and with short pulse lasers using both streak camera-based range receivers and more conventional PMT-based range receivers. The three measurement techniques yielded range correction values from 248 to 253 millimeters dependent on laser wavelength, pulsewidth, and polarization, location of the receiver in the far field diffraction pattern and detection technique (peak, half maximum, centroid, or constant fraction). The Lidar cross section of LAGEOS 2 was measured at 4 to 10 million square meters, comparable to the LAGEOS 1.

  6. Anisotropic regime across northeastern Tibet and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhuo; Li, Qiusheng; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Hongshuang; Shen, Xuzhang; Liu, Xuzhou; Gong, Chen

    2016-03-01

    A dense linear array of 38 broadband seismograph stations was deployed to traverse the northeastern margin of Tibetan plateau (NE Tibet). Shear wave splitting measurements show significant lateral variations of seismic anisotropy across NE Tibet. Combined with previous tomography studies, the SKS travel-time analysis along the array supports the inference that a cold/rigid Asian lithosphere resides beneath the Qilian and Alxa blocks while a hot/soft Tibetan lithosphere resides beneath the Songpan-Ganzi (SPGZ) and Kunlun-West Qinling (KL-WQL) blocks. The observed variations of anisotropy along the array indicate the important role the major faults have been playing in the process of lithospheric deformation in NE Tibet. The West Qinling fault (WQLF) is reckoned as the boundary between the Tibetan lithosphere and the Asian lithosphere in the study area. The Kunlun fault to West Qinling fault (KLF-to-WQLF) zone may constitute a boundary accommodating the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere, with the rigid Asian lithosphere in the north barrier to the northeastward tectonic flow of central-eastern Tibet. A significant character of two-layer anisotropy was identified in the Qilian orogen, which was inferred to be associated with the low velocity layer (LVL) acting as a thrust decollement in the mid-to-lower crust. A thorough analysis involving crustal anisotropy and the regional XKS splitting results in NE Tibet, in association with the crustal LVL feature, indicates that decoupling deformation may dominate the lithosphere beneath the Qilian orogen while coherent deformation may dominate the lithosphere beneath the WQL and SPGZ blocks. Anisotropy beneath the Qilian orogen seems consistent with recent deformation under the boundary forces related to possible lithosphere underthrusting from its northern margin. Our shear wave splitting analysis, combined with published results, reflects a regional anisotropic regime that emphasizes the dominance of eastward extrusion of lithospheric blocks on the present-day deformation in NE Tibet.

  7. Geodynamic inversion to constrain the nonlinear rheology of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Tobias; Kaus, Boris

    2015-04-01

    A common method to determine the strength of the lithosphere is through estimating its effective elastic thickness from the coherence between gravity and topography. This method assumes a priori that the lithosphere is a thin elastic plate floating on a viscous mantle. Whereas this seems to work well with oceanic plates, it has given controversial results in continental collision zones. Usually, continental collisions zones are well-studied areas for which additional geophysical datasets such as receiver functions and seismic tomography exist that constrain the geometry of the lithosphere and often show that it is rather complex. Yet, lithospheric geometry by itself is insufficient to understand the dynamics of the lithosphere, as this also requires knowledge of the rheology of the lithosphere. Experimental results show significant variability between various rock types and there are large uncertainties in extrapolating laboratory values to nature, which leaves room for speculation. An independent approach is thus required to better understand the rheology and dynamics of the lithosphere in collision zones. Our method combines numerical thermo-mechanical forward models of the present-day lithosphere with a massively parallel Bayesian inversion approach. The geometry of the forward models is part of the a priori knowledge and is constructed from seismological data. We jointly invert topography, gravity, horizontal and vertical surface velocities to constrain the unknown rheological material parameters of the forward models in a probabilistic sense. The model rheology is described with experimentally determined viscous creep laws and other parameters describing the plastic behaviour. As viscosity is temperature dependent, the temperature structure of the forward models is parameterised as well. We apply the method to cross-sections of the India-Asia collision system. In this case, we deal with 17 to 20 model parameters, which requires solving up to 2 106 forward models. The resulting models fit the data within their respective uncertainty bounds, and show that the Indian mantle lithosphere must have a high viscosity. Results for the Tibetan plateau are less clear, and both models with a weak Asian mantle lithosphere and with a weak Asian lower crust fit the data nearly equally well.

  8. Crystalline Basement of Junggar Basin and Its Geodynamic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the structure and properties of the crystalline basement of the Junggar basin is a key issue in interpreting regional tectonics in northwest China. We conducted a wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction survey along a ~600km long transect through the Junggar basin from Emin to Qitai. Combining detailed gravity and geomagnetic survey (1:200000 scale) in the Junggar basin and adjacent regions, we preformed joint inversion of seismic, gravity, and aeromagnetic data and inverted for the P-wave velocity structure, the density and magnetic intensity of materials in the crust and the uppermost mantle along this profile. In the context of Global Geosciences Transect, we proposed a comprehensive interpretation by integrating seismic, geological, stratigraphic, geochemical, and geochronological data. Along the profile, the total crustal thickness for the Junggar basin ranges from 46 km to 56 km. The upper crust of the Junggar basin consists of two layers: the 1-12km thick sedimentary cover overlying a 12-20km thick crystalline basement. A spindly-shaped middle crust is comparatively thin, with thicknesses ranging from 4 km to 15 km. The lower crust is characterized by a uniform thickness of ~15 km despite having clear lateral velocity variations. Velocity contours in the uppermost mantle of the Junggar basin are convex geometrically, indicating the velocity is higher at the center of the basin than at either side. Several N-S trending faults were imaged, which cut through the crust and are associated with low seismic reflectivity, low Q values, and no obvious dislocation and are considered to be 'extensional' faults. High seismic velocities, high densities and high magnetic intensities indicate that upper mantle masses of basic to ultra-basic rocks have been added to the crystalline basement in several sections along these faults. The basement of the Junggar basin is composed of the Junggar block and the Variscian Kelameili continental margin accretion zone. The lithology of the Junggar basement is complicated especially towards its center. It is composed of mafic, ultra-mafic, and acidic rocks, such as basalt, granite, and sandstone. The basement of the Junggar basin is divided into two distinct terranes: the Manasi terrain in the south and Wulungu terrain in the north. The Dishuiquan-Halatelashan suture zone separates these two terranes. The southern Manasi terrain shows strong geomagnetism likely to be associated with deep faults which may provide potential channels for deep magnetic materials to migrate and intrude into the crust. The basement of the Junggar basin is composed of two layers. To the north of the Dishuiquan-Halatelashan suture zone, the upper layer is the Kelameili continental margin accretion zone, or the folded basement composed of Devonian and Lower Carboniferous rocks. The lower layer may be the original crystal basement from the early Paleozoic age. To the south of the suture zone the upper layer is the same and the lower layer may be the original crystalline basement from the Middle-Later Proterozoic.