Science.gov

Sample records for geoengineering symposium friday

  1. Geoengineering on exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering can be used to deliberately alter the Earth's radiation budget, by reflecting sunlight to space. SRM has been suggested as a response to Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW), to partly or fully balance radiative forcing from AGW [1]. Approximately 22% of sun-like stars have Earth-like exoplanets[2]. Advanced civilisations may exist on these, and may use geoengineering for positive or negative radiative forcing. Additionally, terraforming projects [e.g. 3], may be used to expand alien habitable territory, or for resource management or military operations on non-home planets. Potential observations of alien geoengineering and terraforming may enable detection of technologically advanced alien civilisations, and may help identify widely-used and stable geoengineering technologies. This knowledge may assist the development of safe and stable geoengineering methods for Earth. The potential risks and benefits of possible alien detection of Earth-bound geoengineering schemes must be considered before deployment of terrestrial geoengineering schemes.

  2. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion. PMID:25862639

  3. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  4. Ranking geo-engineering schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    2008-11-01

    Geo-engineering proposals for mitigating climate change continue to proliferate without being tested. It is time to select and assess the most promising ideas according to efficacy, cost, all aspects of risk and, importantly, their rate of mitigation.

  5. Geoengineering the Earth's Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Google Tech Talks

    2008-01-08

    Emergency preparedness is generally considered to be a good thing, yet there is no plan regarding what we might do should we be faced with a climate emergency. Such an emergency could take the form of a rapid shift in precipitation patterns, a collapse of the great ice sheets, the imminent triggering of strong climate system feedbacks, or perhaps the loss of valuable ecosystems. Over the past decade, we have used climate models to investigate the potential to reverse some of the effects of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by deflecting some incoming sunlight back to space. This would probably be most cost-effectively achieved with the placement of small particles in or above the stratosphere. Our model simulations indicate that such geoengineering approaches could potentially bring our climate closer to the state is was in prior to the introduction of greenhouse gases. This talk will present much of what is known about such geoengineering approaches, and raise a range of issues likely to stimulate lively discussion. Speaker: Ken Caldeira Ken Caldeira is a scientist at the Carnegie Institution Department of Global Ecology and a Professor (by courtesy) at the Stanford University Department of Environmental and Earth System Sciences. Previously, he worked for 12 years in the Energy and Environment Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Department of Energy). His research interests include the numerical simulation of Earth's climate, carbon, and biogeochemistry; ocean acidification; climate emergency response systems; evaluating approaches to supplying environmentally-friendly energy services; ocean carbon sequestration; long-term evolution of climate and geochemical cycles; and marine biogeochemical cycles. Caldeira has a B.A. in Philosophy from Rutgers College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from New York University.

  6. Geoengineering the Earth's Climate

    ScienceCinema

    Google Tech Talks

    2009-09-01

    Emergency preparedness is generally considered to be a good thing, yet there is no plan regarding what we might do should we be faced with a climate emergency. Such an emergency could take the form of a rapid shift in precipitation patterns, a collapse of the great ice sheets, the imminent triggering of strong climate system feedbacks, or perhaps the loss of valuable ecosystems. Over the past decade, we have used climate models to investigate the potential to reverse some of the effects of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by deflecting some incoming sunlight back to space. This would probably be most cost-effectively achieved with the placement of small particles in or above the stratosphere. Our model simulations indicate that such geoengineering approaches could potentially bring our climate closer to the state is was in prior to the introduction of greenhouse gases. This talk will present much of what is known about such geoengineering approaches, and raise a range of issues likely to stimulate lively discussion. Speaker: Ken Caldeira Ken Caldeira is a scientist at the Carnegie Institution Department of Global Ecology and a Professor (by courtesy) at the Stanford University Department of Environmental and Earth System Sciences. Previously, he worked for 12 years in the Energy and Environment Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Department of Energy). His research interests include the numerical simulation of Earth's climate, carbon, and biogeochemistry; ocean acidification; climate emergency response systems; evaluating approaches to supplying environmentally-friendly energy services; ocean carbon sequestration; long-term evolution of climate and geochemical cycles; and marine biogeochemical cycles. Caldeira has a B.A. in Philosophy from Rutgers College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from New York University.

  7. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  8. In Brief: Geoengineering draft statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-04-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) has prepared a draft policy statement on geoengineering the climate system, which the AMS Council is considering for approval. The statement notes, “Geoengineering will not substitute for either aggressive mitigation or proactive adaptation. It could contribute to a comprehensive risk management strategy to slow climate change and alleviate its negative impacts, but the potential for adverse and unintended consequences implies a need for adequate research, appropriate regulation, and transparent consideration.” The statement, if adopted, indicates that AMS recommends enhanced research on the scientific and technological potential for geoengineering the climate system; additional study of the historical, ethical, legal, political, and societal aspects of the geoengineering issues; and the development and analysis of policy options to promote transparency and international cooperation in exploring geoengineering options along with restrictions on reckless efforts to manipulate the climate system. AMS is accepting comments on the draft statement until 23 April. For more information, visit http://ametsoc.org/policy/draftstatements/index.html#draft.

  9. Geoengineering treatment of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, Andrew; Gardian, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Methane is a significant GHG, and substantial reservoirs are vulnerable to instability due to AGW. Excursions, from permafrost and clathrates especially, act a positive feedback to AGW. Existing concentrations of well-mixed atmospheric methane substantially exceed pre-industrial levels. Various geoengineering methods are herein proposed for containment of methane, and/or accelerated oxidation to CO2 (a gas with a lower GWP over all timescales). A basic qualitative analysis of each technique is undertaken, to direct further study. Consideration is also given to the potential capacity of each technique to treat the total likely excursions of methane expected as a result of AGW. Proposed techniques: Section 0 SRM (comparison option) Section 1 Pre-emptive treatment of methane reservoirs Soil heating (polytunnels, heat pumps); Soil aeration; Mining of clathrates; Burning of clathrates Section 2 Remediation of aquatic methane excursions Lake sealing; Mixing of aquatic strata; Bubble capture; Lake aeration; Biological oxidation in aquatic environments Section 3 Remediation of concentrated atmospheric methane Regenerative thermal oxidation; Electrical ignition; Thermal ignition; Using incendiary munitions Section 4 Remediation of diffuse atmospheric methane Thermal oxidation by concentrated solar power; Compression ignition; Chemical degradation Assessment criteria: Infrastructure/implementation cost; Energy cost; Expected efficacy; Complexity/development path; Environmental impacts; Potential for CCS

  10. Fractals for Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa López, María; Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez, Victor; Pérez, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the scaling or fractal probability distribution, and simply fractal statistics of main hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, was highlighted by Mandelbrot (1995) and confirmed by several researchers (Zhao et al., 2015). Notwithstanding, after more than twenty years, i&tacute;s still common the opinion that fractals are not useful for the petroleum engineers and especially for Geoengineering (Corbett, 2012). In spite of this negative background, we have successfully applied the fractal and multifractal techniques to our project entitled "Petroleum Reservoir as a Fractal Reactor" (2013 up to now). The distinguishable feature of Fractal Reservoir is the irregular shapes and rough pore/solid distributions (Siler, 2007), observed across a broad range of scales (from SEM to seismic). At the beginning, we have accomplished the detailed analysis of Nelson and Kibler (2003) Catalog of Porosity and Permeability, created for the core plugs of siliciclastic rocks (around ten thousand data were compared). We enriched this Catalog by more than two thousand data extracted from the last ten years publications on PoroPerm (Corbett, 2012) in carbonates deposits, as well as by our own data from one of the PEMEX, Mexico, oil fields. The strong power law scaling behavior was documented for the major part of these data from the geological deposits of contrasting genesis. Based on these results and taking into account the basic principles and models of the Physics of Fractals, introduced by Per Back and Kan Chen (1989), we have developed new software (Muuḱil Kaab), useful to process the multiscale geological and geophysical information and to integrate the static geological and petrophysical reservoiŕ models to dynamic ones. The new type of fractal numerical model with dynamical power law relations among the shapes and sizes of mes&hacute; cells was designed and calibrated in the studied area. The statistically sound power law relations were

  11. Fractals for Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa López, María; Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez, Victor; Pérez, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the scaling or fractal probability distribution, and simply fractal statistics of main hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, was highlighted by Mandelbrot (1995) and confirmed by several researchers (Zhao et al., 2015). Notwithstanding, after more than twenty years, it's still common the opinion that fractals are not useful for the petroleum engineers and especially for Geoengineering (Corbett, 2012). In spite of this negative background, we have successfully applied the fractal and multifractal techniques to our project entitled "Petroleum Reservoir as a Fractal Reactor" (2013 up to now). The distinguishable feature of Fractal Reservoir is the irregular shapes and rough pore/solid distributions (Siler, 2007), observed across a broad range of scales (from SEM to seismic). At the beginning, we have accomplished the detailed analysis of Nelson and Kibler (2003) Catalog of Porosity and Permeability, created for the core plugs of siliciclastic rocks (around ten thousand data were compared). We enriched this Catalog by more than two thousand data extracted from the last ten years publications on PoroPerm (Corbett, 2012) in carbonates deposits, as well as by our own data from one of the PEMEX, Mexico, oil fields. The strong power law scaling behavior was documented for the major part of these data from the geological deposits of contrasting genesis. Based on these results and taking into account the basic principles and models of the Physics of Fractals, introduced by Per Back and Kan Chen (1989), we have developed new software (Muukíl Kaab), useful to process the multiscale geological and geophysical information and to integrate the static geological and petrophysical reservoir models to dynamic ones. The new type of fractal numerical model with dynamical power law relations among the shapes and sizes of mesh' cells was designed and calibrated in the studied area. The statistically sound power law relations were established

  12. Lights, Camera, Action... It's "Science Friday"!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tugurian, Linda; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    "Science Friday's" motto "Making Science User-Friendly" was the authors' inspiration, as was its format for a segment on the morning broadcast at Forest View Elementary School. Patterned after National Public Radio's "Science Friday," this special feature was designed to provide an opportunity for budding scientists to communicate their…

  13. A Knack for Numbers: Paquita Friday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Eleanor Lee

    2005-01-01

    Back in middle school Dr. Paquita Friday began helping keep books at her grandmother's pharmacy during inventory. It was no chore, she recalls. It was fun. By then, of course, she already knew she had a knack for numbers. Today Friday is gaining recognition for her research in accounting stock market disclosures and winning awards for her teaching…

  14. Future Directions in Simulating Solar Geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Robock, Alan; Boucher, Olivier

    2014-08-05

    Solar geoengineering is a proposed set of technologies to temporarily alleviate some of the consequences of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) created a framework of geoengineering simulations in climate models that have been performed by modeling centers throughout the world (B. Kravitz et al., The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), Atmospheric Science Letters, 12(2), 162-167, doi:10.1002/asl.316, 2011). These experiments use state-of-the-art climate models to simulate solar geoengineering via uniform solar reduction, creation of stratospheric sulfate aerosol layers, or injecting sea spray into the marine boundary layer. GeoMIP has been quite successful in its mission of revealing robust features and key uncertainties of the modeled effects of solar geoengineering.

  15. On solar geoengineering and climate uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-09-03

    Uncertainty in the climate system response has been raised as a concern regarding solar geoengineering. Here we show that model projections of regional climate change outcomes may have greater agreement under solar geoengineering than with CO2 alone. We explore the effects of geoengineering on one source of climate system uncertainty by evaluating the inter-model spread across 12 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison project (GeoMIP). The model spread in regional temperature and precipitation changes is reduced with CO2 and a solar reduction, in comparison to the case with increased CO2 alone. That is, the intermodel spread in predictions of climate change and the model spread in the response to solar geoengineering are not additive but rather partially cancel. Furthermore, differences in efficacy explain most of the differences between models in their temperature response to an increase in CO2 that is offset by a solar reduction. These conclusions are important for clarifying geoengineering risks.

  16. Effects of sea spray geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

  17. Geoengineering: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Vallero, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Some engineers and scientists recently have suggested that it would be prudent to consider engaging in geoengineering to mitigate global warming. Geoengineering differs from other methods for mitigating global warming because it involves a deliberate effort to affect the climate at a global scale. Although geoengineering is not a new idea, it has taken on added significance as a result of difficulties with implementing other proposals to mitigate climate change. While proponents of geoengineering admit that it can have significant risks for the environment and public health, many maintain that it is worth pursuing, given the failure of other means of mitigating global warming. Some environmental groups have voiced strong opposition to all forms of geoengineering. In this article, we examine arguments for and against geoengineering and discuss some policy options. We argue that specific geoengineering proposals should not be implemented until there is good evidence concerning their safety, efficacy, and feasibility, as well as a plan for oversight. International cooperation and public input should also be sought. Other methods for mitigating global warming should be aggressively pursued while geoengineering is under consideration. The promise of an engineering solution to global warming should not be used as an excuse to abandon or cut back current, climate mitigation efforts. PMID:23502911

  18. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Doveton, John H.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-03-06

    The program, for development and methodologies, was a 3-year interdisciplinary effort to develop an interactive, integrated Internet Website named GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) that would build real-time geo-engineering reservoir models for the Internet using the latest technology in Web applications.

  19. On solar geoengineering and climate uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-09-01

    Uncertain climate system response has been raised as a concern regarding solar geoengineering. We explore the effects of geoengineering on one source of climate system uncertainty by evaluating the intermodel spread across 12 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison project. The model spread in simulations of climate change and the model spread in the response to solar geoengineering are not additive but rather partially cancel. That is, the model spread in regional temperature and precipitation changes is reduced with CO2 and a solar reduction, in comparison to the case with increased CO2 alone. Furthermore, differences between models in their efficacy (the relative global mean temperature effect of solar versus CO2 radiative forcing) explain most of the regional differences between models in their response to an increased CO2 concentration that is offset by a solar reduction. These conclusions are important for clarifying geoengineering risks regarding uncertainty.

  20. Exploring early public responses to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Corner, Adam; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa; Butler, Catherine; Poortinga, Wouter

    2012-09-13

    Proposals for geoengineering the Earth's climate are prime examples of emerging or 'upstream' technologies, because many aspects of their effectiveness, cost and risks are yet to be researched, and in many cases are highly uncertain. This paper contributes to the emerging debate about the social acceptability of geoengineering technologies by presenting preliminary evidence on public responses to geoengineering from two of the very first UK studies of public perceptions and responses. The discussion draws upon two datasets: qualitative data (from an interview study conducted in 42 households in 2009), and quantitative data (from a subsequent nationwide survey (n=1822) of British public opinion). Unsurprisingly, baseline awareness of geoengineering was extremely low in both cases. The data from the survey indicate that, when briefly explained to people, carbon dioxide removal approaches were preferred to solar radiation management, while significant positive correlations were also found between concern about climate change and support for different geoengineering approaches. We discuss some of the wider considerations that are likely to shape public perceptions of geoengineering as it enters the media and public sphere, and conclude that, aside from technical considerations, public perceptions are likely to prove a key element influencing the debate over questions of the acceptability of geoengineering proposals. PMID:22869796

  1. The risks and efficacy of solar geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, David

    2012-12-05

    Solar geoengineering may enable a significant reduction in climate risks by partially offsetting climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases, however this emerging technology entails novel risks and uncertainties along with serious challenges to global governance. I will attempt a rough summary of the physics of solar geoengineering and present recent findings regarding (a) the climate's response to radiative forcing by stratospheric aerosols, (b) methods of producing appropriate aerosol distributions, and (c) risks. In closing I will discuss the trade-off between solar geoengineering, emissions reductions and adaptation in climate policy.

  2. Global change - Geoengineering and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Geoengineering options and alternatives are proposed for mitigating the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer. Geoengineering options were discussed by the National Academy of Science Panel on the Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Several of the ideas conveyed in their published report are space-based or depend on space systems for implementation. Among the geoengineering options using space that are discussed include the use of space power systems as an alternative to fossil fuels for generating electricity, the use of lunar He-3 to aid in the development of fusion energy, and the establishment of a lunar power system for solar energy conversion and electric power beaming back to earth. Other geoengineering options are discussed. They include the space-based modulation of hurricane forces and two space-based approaches in dealing with ozone layer depletion. The engineering challenges and policy implementation issues are discussed for these geongineering options.

  3. Climatic effects of surface albedo geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

    2011-12-01

    Various surface albedo modification geoengineering schemes such as those involving desert, urban, or agricultural areas have been proposed as potential strategies for helping counteract the warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions. However, such schemes tend to be inherently limited in their potential and would create a much more heterogeneous radiative forcing than propositions for space-based "reflectors" and enhanced stratospheric aerosol concentrations. Here we present results of a series of atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (GCM) simulations to compare three surface albedo geoengineering proposals: urban, cropland, and desert albedo enhancement. We find that the cooling effect of surface albedo modification is strongly seasonal and mostly confined to the areas of application. For urban and cropland geoengineering, the global effects are minor but, because of being colocated with areas of human activity, they may provide some regional benefits. Global desert geoengineering, which is associated with significant global-scale changes in circulation and the hydrological cycle, causes a smaller reduction in global precipitation per degree of cooling than sunshade geoengineering, 1.1% K-1 and 2.0% K-1 respectively, but a far greater reduction in the precipitation over land, 3.9% K-1 compared with 1.0% K-1. Desert geoengineering also causes large regional-scale changes in precipitation with a large reduction in the intensity of the Indian and African monsoons in particular. None of the schemes studied reverse the climate changes associated with a doubling of CO2, with desert geoengineering profoundly altering the climate and with urban and cropland geoengineering providing only some regional amelioration at most.

  4. Geoengineering the climate: an overview and update.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J G

    2012-09-13

    The climate change that we are experiencing now is caused by an increase in greenhouse gases due to human activities, including burning fossil fuels, agriculture and deforestation. There is now widespread belief that a global warming of greater than 2(°)C above pre-industrial levels would be dangerous and should therefore be avoided. However, despite growing concerns over climate change and numerous international attempts to agree on reductions of global CO(2) emissions, these have continued to climb. This has led some commentators to suggest more radical 'geoengineering' alternatives to conventional mitigation by reductions in CO(2) emissions. Geoengineering is deliberate intervention in the climate system to counteract man-made global warming. There are two main classes of geoengineering: direct carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management that aims to cool the planet by reflecting more sunlight back to space. The findings of the review of geoengineering carried out by the UK Royal Society in 2009 are summarized here, including the climate effects, costs, risks and research and governance needs for various approaches. The possible role of geoengineering in a portfolio of responses to climate change is discussed, and various recent initiatives to establish good governance of research activity are reviewed. Key findings include the following.- Geoengineering is not a magic bullet and not an alternative to emissions reductions. - Cutting global greenhouse gas emissions must remain our highest priority. (i) But this is proving to be difficult, and geoengineering may be useful to support it. - Geoengineering is very likely to be technically possible. (i) However, there are major uncertainties and potential risks concerning effectiveness, costs and social and environmental impacts. - Much more research is needed, as well as public engagement and a system of regulation (for both deployment and for possible large-scale field tests). - The acceptability of

  5. Geoengineering and the Problem of Harm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunzl, M.

    2008-12-01

    Suppose geoengineering "works" and that there are no competing antagonistic interventions. Even on this rosy scenario, it is extremely unlikely that it will "work" for everyone since (as Schneider pointed out many years ago) there is no reason to think the effects of geoengineering will offset the effects of global warming locally. But as Robock et al have argued (Robock, Alan, Luke Oman, and Georgiy Stenchikov, 2008: Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and arctic SO2 injections. J. Geophys. Res., in press), things may even worse than that. Suppose in some places (e.g. India), climate change + geoengineering leaves you worse off (hotter and drier) than climate change alone. Might it nonetheless be fair to proceed on the basis of the numbers - that is if many more would benefit than those who would not? I consider under what circumstances we may "let the numbers count", and where it is wrong to do so, irrespective of the numbers. I argue that the case of geoengineering is one in which we may let the numbers count, but only under conditions that are extremely difficult to satisfy.

  6. Geoengineering as a design problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the climate impacts of solar geoengineering is essential for evaluating its benefits and risks. Most previous simulations have prescribed a particular strategy and evaluated its modeled effects. Here we turn this approach around by first choosing example climate objectives and then designing a strategy to meet those objectives in climate models. There are four essential criteria for designing a strategy: (i) an explicit specification of the objectives, (ii) defining what climate forcing agents to modify so the objectives are met, (iii) a method for managing uncertainties, and (iv) independent verification of the strategy in an evaluation model. We demonstrate this design perspective through two multi-objective examples. First, changes in Arctic temperature and the position of tropical precipitation due to CO2 increases are offset by adjusting high-latitude insolation in each hemisphere independently. Second, three different latitude-dependent patterns of insolation are modified to offset CO2-induced changes in global mean temperature, interhemispheric temperature asymmetry, and the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient. In both examples, the "design" and "evaluation" models are state-of-the-art fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.

  7. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-01-01

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges. PMID:26504210

  8. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges. PMID:26504210

  9. Climate impacts of geoengineering marine stratocumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Andy; Haywood, Jim; Boucher, Olivier

    2009-05-01

    Theoretical potential geoengineering solutions to the global warming problem have recently been proposed. Here, we present an idealized study of the climate response to deliberately seeding large-scale stratocumulus cloud decks in the North Pacific, South Pacific, and South Atlantic, thereby inducing cooling via aerosol indirect effects. Atmosphere-only, atmosphere/mixed-layer ocean, and fully coupled atmosphere/ocean versions of the Met Office Hadley Centre model are used to investigate the radiative forcing, climate efficacy, and regional response of temperature, precipitation, and net primary productivity to such geoengineering. The radiative forcing simulations indicate that, for our parameterization of aerosol indirect effects, up to 35% of the radiative forcing due to current levels of greenhouse gases could be offset by stratocumulus modification. Equilibrium simulations with the atmosphere/mixed-layer ocean model, wherein each of the three stratocumulus sheets is modified in turn, reveal that the most efficient cooling per unit radiative forcing occurs when the South Pacific stratocumulus sheet is modified. Transient coupled model simulations suggest that geoengineering all three stratocumulus areas delays the simulated global warming by about 25 years. These simulations also indicate that, while some areas experience increases in precipitation and net primary productivity, sharp decreases are simulated in South America, with particularly detrimental impacts on the Amazon rain forest. These results show that, while some areas benefit from geoengineering, there are significant areas where the response could be very detrimental with implications for the practical applicability of such a scheme.

  10. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering impacts on global agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Lawrence, P.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering has been proposed to reduce the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. If it is ever used, it would change agricultural production, and so is one of the future climate scenarios for the third phase of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison. As an example of those impacts, we use the Community Land Model (CLM-crop 4.5) to simulate how climate changes from the G4 geoengineering scenario from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project. The G4 geoengineering scenario specifies, in combination with RCP4.5 forcing, starting in 2020 daily injections of a constant amount of SO2 at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year at one point on the Equator into the lower stratosphere. Eight climate modeling groups have completed G4 simulations. We use the crop model to simulate the impacts of climate change (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on the global agriculture system for five crops - rice, maize, soybeans, cotton, and sugarcane. In general, without irrigation, compared with the reference run (RCP4.5), global production of cotton, rice and sugarcane would increase significantly due to the cooling effect. Maize and soybeans show different regional responses. In tropical regions, maize and soybean have a higher yield in G4 compared with RCP4.5, while in the temperate regions they have a lower yield under a geoengineered climate. Impacts on specific countries in terms of different crop production depend on their locations. For example, the United States and Argentina show soybean production reduction of about 15% under G4 compared to RCP4.5, while Brazil increases soybean production by about 10%.

  11. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  12. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.

    2009-04-01

    Geoengineering (or climate engineering) using stratospheric sulfur injections (Crutzen, 2006) has been called for research in case of an urgent need for stopping global warming when other mitigation efforts were exhausted. Although there are a number of concerns over this idea (e.g. Robock, 2008), it is still useful to consider geoengineering as a possible method to limit warming caused by overshoot. Overshoot is a feature accompanied by low stabilizations scenarios aiming for a stringent target (Rao et al., 2008) in which total radiative forcing temporarily exceeds the target before reaching there. Scenarios achieving a 50% emission reduction by 2050 produces overshoot. Overshoot could cause sustained warming for decades due to the inertia of the climate system. If stratospheric sulfur injections were to be used as a "last resort" to avoid overshoot, what would be the suitable start-year and injection profile of such an intervention? Wigley (2006) examined climate response to combined mitigation/geoengineering scenarios with the intent to avert overshoot. Wigley's analysis demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to avoid temperature overshoot - however it considered only simplistic sulfur injection profiles (all started in 2010), just one mitigation scenario, and did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study builds upon Wigley's premise of the combined mitigation/geoengineering approach and brings associated uncertainty into the analysis. First, this study addresses the question as to how much geoengineering intervention would be needed to avoid overshoot by considering associated uncertainty? Then, would a geoengineering intervention of such a magnitude including uncertainty be permissible in considering all the other side effects? This study begins from the supposition that geoengineering could be employed to cap warming at 2.0°C since preindustrial. A few

  13. Scientists Debate Geoengineering at European Geosciences Union Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and others have presented forecasts of a warmer world and cautioned that some forms of geoengineering might be necessary to deal with climate change in an emergency situation. A debate about geoengineering the climate, held at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly on 1 May, explored whether any geoengineering techniques should be considered; if so, which might be acceptable; and what circumstances could necessitate their use. Also discussed was whether potential unintended repercussions from geoengineering could be worse than the problem.

  14. AGU Position Statement: Geoengineering the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    Human responsibility for most of the well-documented increase in global average temperatures over the last half century is well established. Further greenhouse gas emissions, particularly of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels, will almost certainly contribute to additional widespread climate changes that can be expected to cause major negative consequences for most nations.1 Three proactive strategies could reduce the risks of climate change: 1) mitigation: reducing emissions; 2) adaptation: moderating climate impacts by increasing our capacity to cope with them; and 3) geoengineering: deliberately manipulating physical, chemical, or biological aspects of the Earth system.2 This policy statement focuses on large-scale efforts to geoengineer the climate system to counteract the consequences of increasing greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.

    I use a general circulation model of Earth's climate to simulate stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon aerosols, varying the altitude of injection, initial particle size, and whether the deposited black carbon modifies ground albedo. 1 Tg of black carbon aerosols injected into the stratosphere each year will cause significant enough surface cooling to negate anthropogenic warming if the aerosols are small (r=0.03 mum) or if the aerosols are injected into the middle stratosphere, although using small aerosols causes large regional cooling effects that would be catastrophic to agriculture. The aerosols cause significant stratospheric heating, resulting in stratospheric ozone destruction and circulation changes, most notably an increase in the Northern Hemisphere polar jet, which forms an Arctic ozone hole and forces a positive mode of the Arctic Oscillation. The hydrologic cycle is perturbed, specifically the summer monsoon system of India, Africa, and East Asia, resulting in monsoon precipitation collapse. Global primary productivity is decreased by 35.5% for the small particle case. Surface cooling causes some sea ice regrowth, but not at statistically significant levels. All of these climate impacts are exacerbated for small particle geoengineering, with high altitude geoengineering with the default particle size (r=0.08 mum) causing a reasonable amount of cooling, and large particle (r=0.15 mum) geoengineering or particle injection into the lower stratosphere causing few of these effects. The modification of ground albedo by the soot particles slightly perturbs the radiative budget but does not cause any distinguishable climate effects. The cheapest means we investigated for placing 1 Tg of black carbon aerosols into the stratosphere by diesel fuel combustion would cost 1.4 trillion initially and 541 billion annual, or 2.0% and 0.8% of GDP, respectively. The additional carbon dioxide released from combusting diesel to produce these aerosols is about 1

  16. Modeling the Climatic Consequences of Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    The last half-century has seen the development of physically comprehensive computer models of the climate system. These models are the primary tool for making predictions of climate change due to human activities, such as emitting greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Because scientific understanding of the climate system is incomplete, however, any climate model will necessarily have imperfections. The inevitable uncertainties associated with these models have sometimes been cited as reasons for not taking action to reduce such emissions. Climate models could certainly be employed to predict the results of various attempts at geoengineering, but many questions would arise. For example, in considering proposals to increase the planetary reflectivity by brightening parts of the land surface or by orbiting mirrors, can models be used to bound the results and to warm of unintended consequences? How could confidence limits be placed on such model results? How can climate changes due to proposed geoengineering be distinguished from natural variability? There are historical parallels on smaller scales, in which models have been employed to predict the results of attempts to alter the weather, such as the use of cloud seeding for precipitation enhancement, hail suppression and hurricane modification. However, there are also many lessons to be learned from the recent record of using models to simulate the effects of the great unintended geoengineering experiment involving greenhouse gases, now in progress. In this major research effort, the same types of questions have been studied at length. The best modern models have demonstrated an impressive ability to predict some aspects of climate change. A large body of evidence has already accumulated through comparing model predictions to many observed aspects of recent climate change, ranging from increases in ocean heat content to changes in atmospheric water vapor to reductions in glacier extent. The preponderance of expert

  17. The impacts of Unilateral Stratospheric Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Haywood, J. M.; Bellouin, N.; Stephenson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stratospheric geoengineering proposals have been suggested on the premise that the cooling impacts of volcanic eruptions could be deliberately mimicked to offset the impacts of increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the future by counterbalance global warming. Here, we examine both the impacts of hemispherically asymmetric volcanoes in the observational record and the impact of prolonged deliberate injection of stratospheric aerosol into either the northern or southern hemisphere stratosphere or into both hemispheres equally to assess the impacts on Sahelian rainfall and agriculture (Haywood et al., 2013). While the frequency of volcanic eruptions during the past 100 years is too sparse for definitive attribution, there is a suggestion that volcanic eruptions that preferentially load the northern hemisphere are the harbinger of Sahelian drought. Simulations are then performed with the HadGEM2 couple atmospheric-ocean model to assess the impacts of these volcanic eruptions and deliberate unilateral stratospheric geoengineering. Figure 1 shows the impacts of the geoengineering simulations which show that stratospheric injection into the northern hemisphere induces a severe and prolonged Sahelian drought with undoubted detrimental consequences for the local population. Conversely injection into the southern hemisphere causes a significant greening of the Sahel with vegetation productivity enhanced by over 100%. On the face of it, this suggests potential advocacy of injection into the southern hemisphere: we will investigate potential other side-effects from such a strategy...... Haywood, J.M., A. Jones, N. Bellouin, and D.B. Stephenson, Asymmetric forcing from stratospheric aerosols impacts Sahelian drought, Nature Climate Change, Vol 3, No 7, 660-665, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1857, 2013.

  18. Strategic incentives for climate geoengineering coalitions to exclude broad participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, Katharine L.; Moreno-Cruz, Juan B.; Caldeira, Ken

    2013-03-01

    Solar geoengineering is the deliberate reduction in the absorption of incoming solar radiation by the Earth’s climate system with the aim of reducing impacts of anthropogenic climate change. Climate model simulations project a diversity of regional outcomes that vary with the amount of solar geoengineering deployed. It is unlikely that a single small actor could implement and sustain global-scale geoengineering that harms much of the world without intervention from harmed world powers. However, a sufficiently powerful international coalition might be able to deploy solar geoengineering. Here, we show that regional differences in climate outcomes create strategic incentives to form coalitions that are as small as possible, while still powerful enough to deploy solar geoengineering. The characteristics of coalitions to geoengineer climate are modeled using a ‘global thermostat setting game’ based on climate model results. Coalition members have incentives to exclude non-members that would prevent implementation of solar geoengineering at a level that is optimal for the existing coalition. These incentives differ markedly from those that dominate international politics of greenhouse-gas emissions reduction, where the central challenge is to compel free riders to participate.

  19. The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, M.; Keller, K.; Tuana, N.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the Earth's climate and impose substantial risks for current and future generations. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for the deployment of a different approach: to geoengineer climate by injecting aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. Published economic studies typically suggest that substituting aerosol geoengineering for abatement of carbon dioxide emissions results in large net monetary benefits. However, these studies neglect the risks of aerosol geoengineering due to (i) the potential for future geoengineering failures and (ii) the negative impacts associated with the aerosol forcing. Here we use a simple integrated assessment model of climate change to analyze potential economic impacts of aerosol geoengineering strategies over a wide range of uncertain parameters such as climate sensitivity, the economic damages due to climate change, and the economic damages due to aerosol geoengineering forcing. The simplicity of the model provides the advantages of parsimony and transparency, but it also imposes severe caveats on the interpretation of the results. For example, the analysis is based on a globally aggregated model and is hence silent on the question of intragenerational distribution of costs and benefits. In addition, the analysis neglects the effects of endogenous learning about the climate system. We show that the risks associated with a future geoengineering failure and negative impacts of aerosol forcings can cause geoenginering strategies to fail an economic cost-benefit test. One key to this finding is that a geoengineering failure would lead to dramatic and abrupt climatic changes. The monetary damages due to this failure can

  20. Geoengineering and the Risk of Rapid Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. J.; Matthews, D.

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists have proposed that geoengineering could be used to artificially cool the planet as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming. However, several recent studies have shown some of the potential risks of geoengineering, including negative impacts on stratospheric ozone, the hydrologic cycle and the possibility of rapid climate change in the case of abrupt failure, or rapid decommissioning of geoengineering technology. In this study, we have emulated a geoengineering scenario in the MAGICC climate model, by counteracting the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases. We have used a hypothetical scenario of business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions, in which geoengineering is implemented at the year 2020, and is removed abruptly after 40 years. By varying the climate sensitivity of the MAGICC model, and using previously published estimates of climate sensitivity likelihoods, we are able to derive a probabilistic prediction of the rate of temperature change following the removal of geoengineering. In a simulation without geoengineering (considering only the A1B AIM emissions scenario) the maximum annual rate of temperature change (in the highest climate sensitivity simulation) was 0.5° C per decade. In the geoengineering simulations the maximum annual rate of temperature change, occurring in the year after geoengineering was stopped, varied from 0.22° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 0.5° C to nearly 8° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 10° C. The most likely maximum rate of change (corresponding to a climate sensitivity of 2.5° C) was just over 5° C per decade. There is a 99.8 percent probability that the rate of temperature change following the stoppage of geoengineering in this scenario would exceed 3° C per decade. This risk of rapid climate change associated with the use of planetary-scale geoengineering is highly relevant to discussion of climate policies aimed at avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" in the

  1. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Analysis of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Cho, Cheolhung; Krey, Volker; Patt, Anthony; Rafaj, Peter; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Wagner, Fabian

    2010-05-01

    Even if a drastic 50% CO2-equivalent emissions reduction is achieved by year 2050, the chances of exceeding a 2°C warming are still substantial due to the uncertainty in the climate system (Meinshausen et al., 2009). Moreover, a strong mitigation is accompanied by overshoot, in which the global-mean temperature temporarily exceeds the target before arriving there. We are motivated by the question as to how much geoengineering would be considered if it were to be used to avoid overshoot even combined with a strong mitigation? How serious would the side effects be expected? This study focuses on stratospheric sulfur injections among other geoengineering proposals, the idea of which has been put forward by Crutzen (2006) and reviewed by Rasch et al. (2008). There are a number of concerns over geoengineering (e.g. Robock, 2008). But the concept of geoengineering requires further research (AMS, 2009). Studying geoengineering may be instructive to revisit the importance of mainstream mitigation strategies. The motivations above led to the following two closely linked studies: 1) Mitigation and Geoengineering The first study investigates the magnitude and start year of geoengineering intervention with the intent to avoid overshoot. This study explores the sensitivity of geoengineering profile to associated uncertainties in the climate system (climate sensitivity, tropospheric aerosol forcing, and ocean diffusivity) and in mitigation scenarios (target uncertainty (450ppm CO2-eq and 400ppm CO2-eq) and baseline uncertainty (A2, B1, and B2)). This study builds on Wigley's premise that demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach (Wigley, 2006) - however it did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study uses a set of GGI low mitigation scenarios generated from the MESSAGE model (Riahi et al., 2007). The reduced-complexity climate and carbon cycle model ACC2 (Tanaka, 2008; Tanaka et al

  2. Geoengineering, news media and metaphors: Framing the controversial.

    PubMed

    Luokkanen, Matti; Huttunen, Suvi; Hildén, Mikael

    2014-11-01

    We analyze how metaphors are used in presenting and debating novel technologies that could influence the climate and thereby also future climate change policies. We show that metaphors strengthen a policy-related storyline, while metaphors are rarer in purely descriptive accounts. The choice of metaphor frames the technologies. War metaphors are used equally in arguments that are for, against and neutral with respect to the further development of geoengineering, but differences arise in the use of metaphors related to controllability, health and mechanisms. Controllability metaphors are often used in justifying further research and development of good governance practices, whereas health metaphors tend to be used against the very idea of geoengineering by portraying technological interventions in the climate as an emblematic case of an unacceptable development. These findings suggest that metaphors are early indications of restrictions in the interpretative flexibility that influences future governance of geoengineering and geoengineering research. PMID:23825283

  3. Simulated long-term climate response to idealized solar geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Long; Duan, Lei; Bala, Govindasamy; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a potential means to counteract anthropogenic climate change, yet it is unknown how such climate intervention might affect the Earth's climate on the millennial time scale. Here we use the HadCM3L model to conduct a 1000 year sunshade geoengineering simulation in which solar irradiance is uniformly reduced by 4% to approximately offset global mean warming from an abrupt quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. During the 1000 year period, modeled global climate, including temperature, hydrological cycle, and ocean circulation of the high-CO2 simulation departs substantially from that of the control preindustrial simulation, whereas the climate of the geoengineering simulation remains much closer to that of the preindustrial state with little drift. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that nonlinearities in the climate system would cause substantial drift in the climate system if solar geoengineering was to be deployed on the timescale of a millennium.

  4. Is geo-engineering just geophysics in disguise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.

    2008-10-01

    There's a bit of a buzz around the topic of geo-engineering. The UK government's Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills Committee has asked for submissions to its case study on engineering on this theme, and the Royal Society has published a special journal issue, against a background of rising public concern about climate change. Sue Bowler considers how geophysics fits into geo-engineering, now and in the future.

  5. Stratospheric changes caused by geoengineering aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckendorn, P.; Peter, T.; Weisenstein, D.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Fueglistaler, S.; Thomason, L. W.

    2010-05-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. One of the most prominent geoengineering ideas to counteract global warming is the increase of Earth's albedo by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulphate aerosols. This idea is based on the observed increase of atmospheric optical thickness after volcanic eruptions. The most straightforward method, from a technical point of view, is to inject sulphur in the tropical stratosphere. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model, to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a sulphur in form of SO2 into the lower tropical stratosphere. The volcanic and geoengineering forcings differ in terms of their radiative, chemical and dynamical impact on climate, mainly because the geoengineering forcing has to be continuously applied over a long period of time, whereas volcanic eruptions are single events, leading to a non-linear relationship between annual sulphur input and stratospheric sulphur burden. The reason is the continuous supply of sulphuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, also by condensation. This shows the importance of investigating carefully the microphysics of the sulphate aerosols. The growth of the particles is sensitive to the injection region and the sulphur loading per injection time. The consequences of the formation of large particles lead to notable disadvantages. Larger particles are less efficient in cooling than small particles with the same mass. Furthermore, a large fraction of the emitted sulphur is lost rapidly by gravitational settling and subsequent tropospheric washout. Hence, larger sulphur amounts are needed to achieve a targeted cooling. Some particles are trapped in the tropopause

  6. Effects of geoengineering on crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2011-12-01

    The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as

  7. The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Tilmes, S.; Fasullo, John; Lamarque, J.-F.; Marsh, D.; Mills, Mike; Alterskjaer, Kari; Muri, Helene O.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Boucher, Olivier; Schulz, M.; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Jones, A.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John; Bou Karam, Diana; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rasch, Philip J.; Singh, Balwinder; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Yang, Shuting; Watanabe, Shingo

    2013-10-14

    Abstract: The hydrologic impact of enhancing Earth’s albedo due to solar radiation management (SRM) is investigated using simulations from 12 models contributing to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). An artificial experiment is investigated, where global mean temperature is preserved at pre-industrial conditions, while atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are quadrupled. The associated reduction of downwelling surface solar radiation in a high CO2 environment leads to a reduction of global evaporation of 10% and 4% and precipitation of 6.1% and 6.3% over land and ocean, respectively. An initial reduction of latent heat flux at the surface is largely driven by reduced evapotranspiration over land with instantly increasing CO2 concentrations in both experiments. A warming surface associated with the transient adjustment in the 4xCO2 experiment further generates an increase of global precipitation, with considerable regional changes, such as a significant precipitation reduction of 7% for the North American summer monsoon. Reduced global precipitation persists in the geoengineered experiment where temperatures are stabilized, with considerable regional rainfall deficits. Precipitation reductions that are consistent in sign across models are identified in the geoengineered experiment over monsoonal land regions of East Asia (6%), North America (7%), South America (6%) and South Africa (5%). In contrast to the 4xCO2 experiment, where the frequency of months with heavy precipitation intensity is increased by over 50%, it is reduced by up to 20% in the geoengineering scenario . The reduction in heavy precipitation is more pronounced over land than over the ocean, and accompanies a stronger reduction in evaporation over land. For northern mid-latitudes, maximum precipitation reduction over land ranges from 1 to 16% for individual models. For 45-65°N, the frequency of median to high intensity precipitation in summer is strongly reduced. These

  8. Impact of geoengineering on cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirisan, Ana; Spichtinger, Peter; Weisenstein, Debra; Lohmann, Ulrike; Wernli, Heini; Peter, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Inspite of the framework convention agreement, climate warming is still an actual and very important issue society has to deal with. This has motivated some scientist to start thinking about implementation of artificial methods that could change the climate and weather patterns in order to stop or reverse the global warming effects. Nowadays, there is a consortium of politicians, scientists and engineers interested in evaluating different geoengineering schemes as a way to mitigate global warming, discount rates, and risk aversion (Polborn S. and Tintelnot F., 2009). The geoengineering proposal attracting the most attention and having considerably lower expected deployment costs than conventional emissions abatement approaches (Nordhaus, 2007) is stratospheric aerosol injection. This method, proposed by Budyko (1977) and Crutzen (2006), relies on the fact that large amounts of sulphur aerosols injected into the lower stratosphere enhance the Earth's albedo and lead to cooling of the globe. This proposal is currently discussed in the climate community and possible side effects are investigated. However, the investigations concentrate almost exclusively on the impact on chemistry and stratospheric circulation, whereas the impact on cirrus clouds in the underlying tropopause and upper troposphere region was not taken into account up to now. In this contribution we investigated the impact of artificially produced sulphate aerosol concentrations, modeled with the AER 2D aerosol model (Weisenstein et al., 2007), on the formation and evolution of cirrus clouds in the mid-latitudes. For large injections of SO2 some sulphate aerosol particles grow to large sizes that they can sediment to lower altitudes and eventually reach the troposphere, where they can influence ice crystal formation. Investigations are carried out using a bulk microphysical box model (Spichtinger and Gierens, 2009, Spichtinger and Cziczo, 2009), concentrating on moderate constant updrafts with different

  9. A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the framework of a symposium to present an imagined discussion by historical figures about whether and how knowledge might be acquired. Discussants include Democritus, Protagoras, Heraclitus, Socrates, Jesus, Gorgias, Nietzsche, Buddha, and Kierkegaard. (Contains 40 endnotes.) (SK)

  10. The economics and ethics of aerosol geoengineering strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, Marlos; Keller, Klaus; Tuana, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the Earth's climate and impose substantial risks for current and future generations. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for a different approach: geoengineering climate by injecting aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. Published economic studies typically neglect the risks of aerosol geoengineering due to (i) a potential failure to sustain the aerosol forcing and (ii) due to potential negative impacts associated with aerosol forcings. Here we use a simple integrated assessment model of climate change to analyze potential economic impacts of aerosol geoengineering strategies over a wide range of uncertain parameters such as climate sensitivity, the economic damages due to climate change, and the economic damages due to aerosol geoengineering forcings. The simplicity of the model provides the advantages of parsimony and transparency, but it also imposes considerable caveats. For example, the analysis is based on a globally aggregated model and is hence silent on intragenerational distribution of costs and benefits. In addition, the analysis neglects the effects of future learning and is based on a simple representation of climate change impacts. We use this integrated assessment model to show three main points. First, substituting aerosol geoengineering for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions can fail the test of economic efficiency. One key to this finding is that a failure to sustain the aerosol forcing can lead to sizeable and abrupt climatic changes. The monetary damages due to such a discontinuous aerosol geoengineering can dominate the cost-benefit analysis because the monetary damages of climate change are expected to increase with

  11. Friday Letters: Connecting Students, Teachers, and Families through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Terry H.; Bizzarri, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of student success in school is the involvement of families. However, the communication between students and families regarding school is often sparse at best and caregivers can feel left out as to what is happening. Friday letters improve communication between students and families and also provide a myriad of instructional…

  12. Irish Speakers in Northern Ireland, and the Good Friday Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craith, M. Nic

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Irish language community in Northern Ireland, and questions the validity of the census results of 1991. Particular focus is on the concept of a mother tongue and its relevance for speakers of Irish in the United Kingdom. Discusses measures to improve the status of Irish as a result of the Good Friday Agreement. (Author/VWL)

  13. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could enhance the terrestrial photosynthesis rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2016-02-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to produce a stratospheric aerosol cloud to balance anthropogenic radiative forcing from the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model - the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible (300-700 nm) diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 0.07 ± 0.02 µmol C m-2 s-1, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without explicit nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This potentially beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about the implementation of geoengineering.

  14. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  15. Geoengineering: re-making climate for profit or humanitarian intervention?

    PubMed

    Buck, Holly Jean

    2012-01-01

    Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now. PMID:22662349

  16. Ethics as an Integral Component of Geoengineering Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haqq-Misra, J.; Tuana, N.; Keller, K.; Sriver, R. L.; Svoboda, T.; Tonkonojenkov, R.; Irvine, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the risks of unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions are growing. At the same time, confidence is declining that international policy agreements will succeed in considerably lowering anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Perhaps as a result, various geoengineering solutions are gaining attention and credibility as a way to manage climate change. Serious consideration is currently being given to proposals to cool the planet through solar-radiation management (SRM). Here we analyze how the unique and nontrivial risks of geoengineering strategies pose fundamental questions at the interface between science and ethics. We define key open questions to analyze SRM geoengineering proposals, which include whether SRM can be tested, how quickly learning could occur, normative decisions embedded in how different climate trajectories are valued, and justice issues regarding distribution of the harms and benefits of geoengineering. To ensure that ethical analyses are coupled with scientific analyses of this form of geoengineering, we advocate that funding agencies recognize the essential nature of this coupled research by establishing an Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) program for SRM.

  17. Biochronometry; Proceedings of the Symposium, Friday Harbor, Wash., September 4-6, 1969.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menaker, M.

    1971-01-01

    Topics discussed include circadian activity rhythms in birds and man, variation of circadian rhythms in monkeys, resetting of circadian eclosion rhythm in fruitflies, the effectiveness of mathematical models of circadian rhythms, the influence of ac electric fields on circadian rhythms in man, the relation between changes in the metabolic rate and circadian periodicity of the resistance of pocket mice to ionizing radiation, the relation between circadian organization and the photoperiodic time measurement in moths, the circadian rhythm of optic nerve potentials in the isolated eye of the sea hare, phasing of circadian temperature rhythms in the pocket mouse by specific spectral regions, the phase-shifting effect of light on circadian rhymicity in the fruifly, hormonal control of circadian rhythms in the fruitfly, metabolically controlled temperature compensation in the circadian rhythm of algae, and circadian rhythms in the chloroplasts of algae. Individual items are abstracted in this issue.

  18. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Analysis of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Cho, Cheolhung; Krey, Volker; Patt, Anthony; Rafaj, Peter; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Wagner, Fabian

    2010-05-01

    Even if a drastic 50% CO2-equivalent emissions reduction is achieved by year 2050, the chances of exceeding a 2°C warming are still substantial due to the uncertainty in the climate system (Meinshausen et al., 2009). Moreover, a strong mitigation is accompanied by overshoot, in which the global-mean temperature temporarily exceeds the target before arriving there. We are motivated by the question as to how much geoengineering would be considered if it were to be used to avoid overshoot even combined with a strong mitigation? How serious would the side effects be expected? This study focuses on stratospheric sulfur injections among other geoengineering proposals, the idea of which has been put forward by Crutzen (2006) and reviewed by Rasch et al. (2008). There are a number of concerns over geoengineering (e.g. Robock, 2008). But the concept of geoengineering requires further research (AMS, 2009). Studying geoengineering may be instructive to revisit the importance of mainstream mitigation strategies. The motivations above led to the following two closely linked studies: 1) Mitigation and Geoengineering The first study investigates the magnitude and start year of geoengineering intervention with the intent to avoid overshoot. This study explores the sensitivity of geoengineering profile to associated uncertainties in the climate system (climate sensitivity, tropospheric aerosol forcing, and ocean diffusivity) and in mitigation scenarios (target uncertainty (450ppm CO2-eq and 400ppm CO2-eq) and baseline uncertainty (A2, B1, and B2)). This study builds on Wigley's premise that demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach (Wigley, 2006) - however it did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study uses a set of GGI low mitigation scenarios generated from the MESSAGE model (Riahi et al., 2007). The reduced-complexity climate and carbon cycle model ACC2 (Tanaka, 2008; Tanaka et al

  19. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO2; they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration. PMID:22869801

  20. Regional Scale Analysis of Extremes in an SRM Geoengineering Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthyala, R.; Bala, G.

    2014-12-01

    Only a few studies in the past have investigated the statistics of extreme events under geoengineering. In this study, a global climate model is used to investigate the impact of solar radiation management on extreme precipitation events on regional scale. Solar constant was reduced by 2.25% to counteract the global mean surface temperature change caused by a doubling of CO2 (2XCO2) from its preindustrial control value. Using daily precipitation rates, extreme events are defined as those which exceed 99.9th percentile precipitation threshold. Extremes are substantially reduced in geoengineering simulation: the magnitude of change is much smaller than those that occur in a simulation with doubled CO2. Regional analysis over 22 Giorgi land regions is also performed. Doubling of CO2 leads to an increase in intensity of extreme (99.9th percentile) precipitation by 17.7% on global-mean basis with maximum increase in intensity over South Asian region by 37%. In the geoengineering simulation, there is a global-mean reduction in intensity of 3.8%, with a maximum reduction over Tropical Ocean by 8.9%. Further, we find that the doubled CO2 simulation shows an increase in the frequency of extremes (>50 mm/day) by 50-200% with a global mean increase of 80%. In contrast, in geo-engineering climate there is a decrease in frequency of extreme events by 20% globally with a larger decrease over Tropical Ocean by 30%. In both the climate states (2XCO2 and geo-engineering) change in "extremes" is always greater than change in "means" over large domains. We conclude that changes in precipitation extremes are larger in 2XCO2 scenario compared to preindustrial climate while extremes decline slightly in the geoengineered climate. We are also investigating the changes in extreme statistics for daily maximum and minimum temperature, evapotranspiration and vegetation productivity. Results will be presented at the meeting.

  1. Symposium Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Richard G.

    2016-02-01

    The Stern-Gerlach experiment and the origin of electron spin are described in historical context. SPIN 2014 occurs on the fortieth anniversary of the first International High Energy Spin Physics Symposium at Argonne in 1974. A brief history of the international spin conference series is presented.

  2. Symposium: Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Chris M.; Perelman, Les; Poe, Mya; Sommers, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four symposium papers on assessment. It includes: (1) "Closed Systems and Standardized Writing Tests" (Chris M. Anson); (2) "Information Illiteracy and Mass Market Writing Assessments" (Les Perelman); (3) "Genre, Testing, and the Constructed Realities of Student Achievement" (Mya Poe); and (4) "The Call of Research: A…

  3. Effects of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on Food Supply in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2010-12-01

    Possible food supply change is one of the most important concerns in the discussion of stratospheric geoengineering. In regions with high population density, climate changes such as precipitation reduction spurred by stratospheric sulfate injection may cause drought, reduce crop yield, and affect the food supply for hundreds of millions of people. Therefore, as part of the research into the benefits and risks of stratospheric geoengineering, it is necessary to fully investigate its effects on the regional climate system and crop yields, which is the goal of this study. In particular, we focus on China, not only because of its high risk to experience severe regional climate change after stratospheric geoengineering, but also because of its high vulnerability due to a large share of its population living on agriculture. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering on Chinese agriculture, we use the DSSAT and CLICROP agricultural simulation models. We first evaluate these models by forcing them with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compare the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (early season paddy, double crop paddy, spring wheat, winter wheat, corn, sorghum and soybean). Overall, there is a strong upward trend in both yield and fertilizer use, but interannual variations can be associated with temperature and precipitation variations. Using climate model simulations with the NASA GISS general circulation model forced by both a standard global warming scenario (A1B) and A1B combined with stratospheric geoengineering, we then apply scenarios of changes of precipitation and temperature from these runs to examine their effects on Chinese agricultural production. Compared to global warming only, the geoengineering runs produced summer precipitation reductions in northeastern China but precipitation increases in the Yangtze River region. Without changes

  4. Additional risk of end-of-the-pipe geoengineering technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Humans are engineers, even the artists who engineer the surface of the globe. Should humans endeavour to engineer the Earth to counter climate change hazards? Striving towards 'global sustainability' will require to adjust the current production and consumption patterns. Contrary to an approach of global sustainability, 'geoengineering' deploys a 'technology fix' for the same purpose. Humans are much inclined to look for technological fixes for problems because well engineered technological methods have created modern societies. Thus, it seems obvious to apply an engineering solution to climate change issues too. In particular, as air pollution causing acid rains has been reduced by cleaner combustion processes or ozone destructing chemical coolants have been replaced by other substances. Common to these approaches was to reduce inputs into global or regional systems by withholding emission, replacing substances or limiting use cases for certain substances. Thus, the selected approach was a technological fix or regulatory measure targeting the 'start of the pipe'. However applying a 'start of the pipe' approach to climate change faces the issue that mankind should reduce inputs were its hurts, namely reducing radically energy that is produced from burning fossil fuels. Capping burning of fossil fuels would be disruptive for the economic structures or the consumption pattern of the developed and developing industrialised societies. Facing that dilemma, affordable geoengineering looks tempting for some. However geoengineering technologies, which counter climate change by other means than carbon capture at combustion, are of a different nature than the technological fixes and negotiated regulatory actions, which so far have been applied to limit threats to regional and global systems. Most of the proposed technologies target other parts of the climate system but the carbon-dioxide input into the atmosphere. Therefore, many geoengineering technologies differ

  5. Solar geoengineering, atmospheric water vapor transport, and land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long

    2015-04-01

    This work, using the GeoMIP database supplemented by additional simulations, discusses how solar geoengineering, as projected by the climate models, affects temperature and the hydrological cycle, and how this in turn is related to projected changes in net primary productivity (NPP). Solar geoengineering simulations typically exhibit reduced precipitation. Solar geoengineering reduces precipitation because solar geoengineering reduces evaporation. Evaporation precedes precipitation, and, globally, evaporation equals precipitation. CO2 tends to reduce evaporation through two main mechanisms: (1) CO2 tends to stabilize the atmosphere especially over the ocean, leading to a moister atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean. This moistening of the boundary layer suppresses evaporation. (2) CO2 tends to diminish evapotranspiration, at least in most land-surface models, because higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations allow leaves to close their stomata and avoid water loss. In most high-CO2 simulations, these effects of CO2 which tend to suppress evaporation are masked by the tendency of CO2-warming effect to increase evaporation. In a geoengineering simulation, with the warming effect of CO2 largely offset by the solar geoengineering, the evaporation suppressing characteristics of CO2 are no longer masked and are clearly exhibited. Decreased precipitation in solar geoengineering simulations is a bit like ocean acidification - an effect of high CO2 concentrations that is not offset by solar geoengineering. Locally, precipitation ultimately either evaporates (much of that through the leaves of plants) or runs off through groundwater to streams and rivers. On long time scales, runoff equals precipitation minus evaporation, and thus, water runoff generated at a location is equal to the net atmospheric transport of water to that location. Runoff typically occurs where there is substantial soil moisture, at least seasonally. Locations where there is enough water to maintain

  6. YouTube Fridays: Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    YouTube Fridays is a teaching tool that devotes the first five minutes of class each Friday to a YouTube video related to the course. Students select the videos, which expand the class's educational content in courses such as thermodynamics and material and energy balances. From assessments of two pilot studies using YouTube Fridays in Chemical…

  7. Geoengineering, Climate Harm, and Business as Usual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.

    2014-12-01

    We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.

  8. Impact of geoengineered aerosols on the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tilmes, S.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Gettelman, A.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2009-06-27

    A coupled chemistry climate model, the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model was used to perform a transient climate simulation to quantify the impact of geoengineered aerosols on atmospheric processes. In contrast to previous model studies, the impact on stratospheric chemistry, including heterogeneous chemistry in the polar regions, is considered in this simulation. In the geoengineering simulation, a constant stratospheric distribution of volcanic-sized, liquid sulfate aerosols is imposed in the period 2020–2050, corresponding to an injection of 2 Tg S/a. The aerosol cools the troposphere compared to a baseline simulation. Assuming an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B emission scenario, global warming is delayed by about 40 years in the troposphere with respect to the baseline scenario. Large local changes of precipitation and temperatures may occur as a result of geoengineering. Comparison with simulations carried out with the Community Atmosphere Model indicates the importance of stratospheric processes for estimating the impact of stratospheric aerosols on the Earth’s climate. Changes in stratospheric dynamics and chemistry, especially faster heterogeneous reactions, reduce the recovery of the ozone layer in middle and high latitudes for the Southern Hemisphere. In the geoengineering case, the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole is delayed by about 30 years on the basis of this model simulation. For the Northern Hemisphere, a onefold to twofold increase of the chemical ozone depletion occurs owing to a simulated stronger polar vortex and colder temperatures compared to the baseline simulation, in agreement with observational estimates.

  9. Impacts of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on Chinese Agricultural Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2012-12-01

    Possible food supply change is one of the most important concerns in the discussion of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering. In China, the high population density and strong summer monsoon influence on agriculture make this region sensitive to climate changes, such as reductions of precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation spurred by stratospheric sulfate injection. We used results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model to predict crop yield changes from rice, maize, and winter wheat. We first evaluated the DSSAT model by forcing it with daily observed weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compared the results to observations of the yields of the three major crops in China. We then created two 50-year sets of climate anomalies using the results from eight climate models, for 1%/year increase of CO2 and for G2 (1%/year increase of CO2 balanced by insolation reduction), and compared the resulting agricultural responses. Considering that geoengineering could happen in the future, we used two geoengineering starting years, 2020 and 2060. For 2020, we increased the mean temperature by 1°C and started the CO2 concentration at 410 ppm. For 2060, we increased temperature by 2°C and started the CO2 concentration at 550 ppm. Without changing agriculture technology, we find that compared to the control run, geoengineering with the G2 scenario starting in 2020 or 2060 would both moderately increase rice and winter wheat production due to the CO2 fertilization effect, but the increasing rates are different. However, as a C4 crop, without a significant CO2 fertilization effect, maize production would decrease slightly because of regional drought. Compared to the reference run, the three crops all have less heat stress in southern China and their yields increase, but in northern China cooler

  10. Exploring efficiency of sea spray geo-engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, K.; Carslaw, K.; Fan, T.; Mann, G.; Hill, A.; Stier, P.; Zhang, K.

    2012-04-01

    Artificially increasing the albedo of marine clouds by the mechanical emission of sea spray has been proposed as a possible geoengineering technique to slow the warming attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. For the injected sea spray to cause a net cooling, the additional aerosol must result in an increase in cloud droplet number. In this study we use a physically based parameterisation of aerosol activation to quantify cloud drop number (CDN) changes over the entire parameter space of updraft speed and properties of the injected and background aerosol. We suggest criteria for when geoengineering may be an effective strategy and also identify conditions where additional aerosol will have a negligible effect or act to decrease CDN. Undesirable decreases in CDN occur when particles are injected into clouds in environments where the number concentration of background accumulation mode aerosol is > 200 cm-3. The effect is particularly strong when (i) the in-cloud updraft velocity is low (< 0.2 ms-1); and (ii) the number concentration of the additional aerosol is low (< 200 cm-3). A large increase in CDN is achieved when the converse it true. After using the box model data to identify optimum conditions, we then assess the potential of sea spray geo-engineering on a global scale. Global fields of aerosol number, natural and geo-engineered CDN (derived in an idealised framework) from three aerosol models are presented. We find that there is considerable diversity in the calculated efficiency of geo-engineering between the three models which arises from the diversity in the simulated background aerosol distribution.

  11. We Don't Need a "Geoengineering" Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2011-12-01

    Most approaches commonly labeled as 'geoengineering' can be divided into two categories: approaches that attempt to reduce the change in atmospheric composition caused by anthropogenic emissions (commonly labeled CDR, for Carbon Dioxide Removal), and approaches that attempt to reduce the change in climate caused by changes in atmospheric composition (commonly labeled SRM, for Sunlight Reflection Methods or Solar Radiation Management). CDR is relatively uncontroversial (apart from ocean fertilization), and the primary issues are typically cost, effectiveness, local environmental consequences, and verification. In contrast, SRM has provoked much controversy, because large-scale SRM deployments necessarily would affect everyone on this planet. Several proposals have been tabled for SRM-specific or geoengineering-specific research and governance structures, treating SRM or geoengineering research as a thing apart. We should instead view CDR and SRM research as part of a broader continuum of activities aimed at understanding Earth system dynamics and reducing risks associated with climate change. The scope of existing research efforts should be broadened so that CDR and SRM approaches are, at this stage in development, treated as an extension of what we are already doing. What is 'geoengineering research'? A primary need at this time is for expansion of scope of and funding for existing climate-related research efforts. For examples: Scientists studying the role of aerosols in clouds or stratospheric processes can expand the domain of concern to consider effects of intentionally introduced aerosols (and not just natural aerosols and aerosols we introduce as a byproduct of civilization's normal functioning). Scientists studying effects of land-surface change on global and regional climates can expand the domain of concern beyond inadvertent effects to consider effects of land-surface changes undertaken with the intent to affect these climates. Research programs aimed at

  12. Sulphate Geoengineering in the UT/LS: Some Relevant Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuck, A. F.; Donaldson, D. J.; Hitchman, M. H.; Richard, E. C.; Tervahattu, H.; Vaida, V.; Wilson, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    We consider the potential effects of meteorological dynamics, the physics and chemistry of aerosols and the photodissociation of sulphuric acid upon the posited maintenance of a 'parasol' of geoengineered sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere. Specific observational and experimental results include the spread of tungsten-185 from the Hardtack series of nuclear weapon tests in 1958, satellite observations of the spread of volcanic eruptions, tracer and water profiles in the tropical UT/LS, the organic coating of surfactants on aerosols, the observed distributions of aerosols and the overtone driven photodissociation of sulphuric acid in the stratosphere. A few implications for the logistics of any possible future geoengineering injection are considered briefly. The uncertainties arising from the analysis subtract significantly from the predictability of any supposed amelioration of the effects of global warming from continued increases in carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion.

  13. Impacts of Geoengineering and Nuclear War on Chinese Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, we might have to deliberately manipulate global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the DSSAT crop model. We first evaluate the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compare the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations using NASA GISS ModelE. For stratospheric geoengineering, we consider the injection of 5 Tg SO2 per year into the tropical lower stratosphere. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper troposphere by a war between India and Pakistan using only 100 Hiroshima-size atomic bombs dropped on cities. We perturbed each year of the 31-year climate record with anomalies from each year of

  14. Tackling regional climate change by leaf albedo bio-geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Ridgwell, Andy; Singarayer, Joy S; Hetherington, Alistair M; Valdes, Paul J

    2009-01-27

    The likelihood that continuing greenhouse-gas emissions will lead to an unmanageable degree of climate change has stimulated the search for planetary-scale technological solutions for reducing global warming ("geoengineering"), typically characterized by the necessity for costly new infrastructures and industries. We suggest that the existing global infrastructure associated with arable agriculture can help, given that crop plants exert an important influence over the climatic energy budget because of differences in their albedo (solar reflectivity) compared to soils and to natural vegetation. Specifically, we propose a "bio-geoengineering" approach to mitigate surface warming, in which crop varieties having specific leaf glossiness and/or canopy morphological traits are specifically chosen to maximize solar reflectivity. We quantify this by modifying the canopy albedo of vegetation in prescribed cropland areas in a global-climate model, and thereby estimate the near-term potential for bio-geoengineering to be a summertime cooling of more than 1 degrees C throughout much of central North America and midlatitude Eurasia, equivalent to seasonally offsetting approximately one-fifth of regional warming due to doubling of atmospheric CO(2). Ultimately, genetic modification of plant leaf waxes or canopy structure could achieve greater temperature reductions, although better characterization of existing intraspecies variability is needed first. PMID:19147356

  15. Microphysical simulations of sulfur burdens from stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, J. M.; Toon, O. B.; Mills, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Recent microphysical studies suggest that geoengineering by continuous stratospheric injection of SO2 gas may be limited by the growth of the aerosols. We study the efficacy of SO2, H2SO4 and aerosol injections on aerosol mass and optical depth using a three-dimensional general circulation model with sulfur chemistry and sectional aerosol microphysics (WACCM/CARMA). We find increasing injection rates of SO2 in a narrow band around the equator to have limited efficacy while broadening the injecting zone as well as injecting particles instead of SO2 gas increases the sulfate burden for a given injection rate, in agreement with previous work. We find that injecting H2SO4 gas instead of SO2 does not discernibly alter sulfate size or mass, in contrast with a previous study using a plume model with a microphysical model. However, the physics and chemistry in aircraft plumes, which are smaller than climate model grid cells, need to be more carefully considered. We also find significant perturbations to tropospheric aerosol for all injections studied, particularly in the upper troposphere and near the poles, where sulfate burden increases by up to 100 times. This enhanced burden could have implications for tropospheric radiative forcing and chemistry. These results highlight the need to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions rather than attempt to cool the planet through geoengineering, and to further study geoengineering before it can be seriously considered as a climate intervention option.

  16. Climate Curriculum Modules on Volcanic Eruptions, Geoengineering, and Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    To support a climate dynamics multidisciplinary curriculum for graduate and senior university students, I will describe on-line modules on volcanic eruptions and climate, geoengineering, and nuclear winter. Each of these topics involves aerosols in the stratosphere and the response of the climate system, but each is distinct, and each is evolving as more research becomes available. As reported for the first time in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, volcanic eruptions are a natural analog for the climate impacts of potential anthropogenic aerosol injections into the stratosphere, either sulfates from potential attempts to cool the climate to counteract global warming, or smoke that would be produced from fires in cities and industrial targets in a nuclear war. The volcanic eruptions module would stand alone, and would also serve as a prerequisite for each of the other two modules, which could be taught independently of each other. Each module includes consideration of the physical climate system as well as impacts of the resulting climate change. Geoengineering includes both solar radiation management and carbon dioxide reduction. The geoengineering and nuclear winter modules also include consideration of policy and governance issues. Each module includes a slide set for use in lecturing, links to related resources, and student exercises. The modules will be regularly updated.

  17. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Philip J.; Tilmes, S.; Turco, Richard P.; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of ‘acid rain’ that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  18. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Philip J; Tilmes, Simone; Turco, Richard P; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-11-13

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of 'acid rain' that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  19. The Many Problems with Geoengineering Using Stratospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2009-05-01

    In response to the global warming problem, there has been a recent renewed call for geoengineering ``solutions'' involving injecting particles into the stratosphere or blocking sunlight with satellites between the Sun and Earth. While volcanic eruptions have been suggested as innocuous examples of stratospheric aerosols cooling the planet, the volcano analog actually argues against geoengineering because of ozone depletion and regional hydrologic and temperature responses. In this talk, I consider the suggestion to create an artificial stratospheric aerosol layer. No systems to conduct geoengineering now exist, but a comparison of different proposed stratospheric injection schemes, airplanes, balloons, artillery, and a space elevator, shows that using airplanes would not be that expensive. We simulated the climate response to both tropical and Arctic stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol precursors using a comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We simulated the injection of SO2 and the model converts it to sulfate aerosols, transports them and removes them through dry and wet deposition, and calculates the climate response to the radiative forcing from the aerosols. We conducted simulations of future climate with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B business-as-usual scenario both with and without geoengineering, and compare the results. We found that if there were a way to continuously inject SO2 into the lower stratosphere, it would produce global cooling. Acid deposition from the sulfate would not be enough to disturb most ecosystems. Tropical SO2 injection would produce sustained cooling over most of the world, with more cooling over continents. Arctic SO2 injection would not just cool the Arctic. But both tropical and Arctic SO2 injection would disrupt the Asian and African summer monsoons, reducing precipitation to the food supply

  20. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter; Glienke, Susanne; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques, but the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the results from eight fully coupled earth system models (ESMs) are included. For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will lower temperatures, in high latitudes this will reverse gains in NPP from the lifting of temperature limitations. In low latitudes this cooling relative to the 4xCO2 simulation decreases plant respiration whilst having little effect on gross primary productivity, increasing NPP. Despite reductions in precipitation in most regions in response to SRM, runoff and NPP increase in many regions including those previously highlighted as potentially being at risk of drought under SRM. This is due to simultaneous reductions in evaporation and increases in water use efficiency by plants due to higher CO2 concentrations. The relative differences between models in the vegetation response are substantially larger than the differences in their climate responses. The largest differences between models are for those with and without a nitrogen-cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  1. Microphysical simulations of sulfur burdens from stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, J. M.; Toon, O. B.; Mills, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent microphysical studies suggest that geoengineering by continuous stratospheric injection of SO2 gas may be limited by the growth of the aerosols. We study the efficacy of SO2, H2SO4 and aerosol injections on aerosol mass and optical depth using a three-dimensional general circulation model with sulfur chemistry and sectional aerosol microphysics (WACCM/CARMA). We find increasing injection rates of SO2 in a narrow band around the equator to have limited efficacy while broadening the injecting zone as well as injecting particles instead of SO2 gas increases the sulfate burden for a given injection rate, in agreement with previous work. We find that injecting H2SO4 gas instead of SO2 does not discernibly alter sulfate size or mass, in contrast with a previous study using a plume model with a microphysical model. However, the physics and chemistry in aircraft plumes, which are smaller than climate model grid cells, need to be more carefully considered. We find equatorial injections increase aerosol optical depth in the Northern Hemisphere more than the Southern Hemisphere, potentially inducing regional climate changes. We also find significant perturbations to tropospheric aerosol for all injections studied, particularly in the upper troposphere and near the poles, where sulfate burden increases by up to 100 times. This enhanced burden could have implications for tropospheric radiative forcing and chemistry. These results highlight the need to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through means other than geoengineering, and to further study geoengineering before it can be seriously considered as a climate intervention option.

  2. Applied high resolution geophysical methods: Offshore geoengineering hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Trabant, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an examination of the purpose, methodology, equipment, and data interpretation of high-resolution geophysical methods, which are used to assess geological and manmade engineering hazards at offshore construction locations. It is a state-of-the-art review. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Maring geophysics, an overview. 3. Marine geotechnique, an overview. 4. Echo sounders. 5. Side scan sonar. 6. Subbottom profilers. 7. Seismic sources. 8. Single-channel seismic reflection systems. 9. Multifold acquisition and digital processing. 10. Marine magnetometers. 11. Marine geoengineering hazards. 12. Survey organization, navigation, and future developments. Appendix. Glossary. References. Index.

  3. Impacts of volcanic eruptions and geoengineering on Arctic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdahl, Mira

    Stratospheric aerosols can produce large radiative forcing and climate response, often amplified in the Arctic. Here I study the Arctic response to natural (volcanic eruptions) and potential anthropogenic (geoengineering) stratospheric sulfate aerosols. I use a regional climate model and global climate model output from two modeling intercomparison projects. First, I investigate the relative impacts of changes in radiation and advection on snow extent over Baffin Island with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Model results show it is possible to suddenly lower the snowline by amounts comparable to those seen during the Little Ice Age with an average temperature decrease of --3.9 +/- 1.1 K from present. Further, sea ice expansion following large volcanic eruptions would have significant affects on inland temperatures, especially in the fall. Next, I analyze Last Millennium simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project 3 to assess whether state-of-the-art global climate models produce sudden changes and persistence of cold conditions after large volcanic eruptions as inferred by geological records and previous climate modeling. North Atlantic sea ice and Baffin Island snow cover showed large-scale expansion in the simulations, but none of the models produced significant centennial-scale effects. Warm Baffin Island summer climates stunt snow expansion in some models completely, and model topography misses the critical elevations that could sustain snow on the island. This has critical consequences for ice and snow formation and persistence in regions such as the Arctic where temperatures are near freezing and small temperature changes affect the state of water. Finally, I analyze output from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project to examine whether geoengineering by injection of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere prevents the demise of minimum annual sea ice extent, or slows spring snow cover loss. Despite

  4. Sea spray geoengineering experiments in the geoengineering model intercomparison project (GeoMIP): Experimental design and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben; Forster, Piers M.; Jones, Andy; Robock, Alan; Alterskjær, Kari; Boucher, Olivier; Jenkins, Annabel K. L.; Korhonen, Hannele; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Watanabe, Shingo

    2013-10-01

    cloud brightening through sea spray injection has been proposed as a method of temporarily alleviating some of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change, as part of a set of technologies called geoengineering. We outline here a proposal for three coordinated climate modeling experiments to test aspects of sea spray geoengineering, to be conducted under the auspices of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The first, highly idealized, experiment (G1ocean-albedo) involves a uniform increase in ocean albedo to offset an instantaneous quadrupling of CO2 concentrations from preindustrial levels. Results from a single climate model show an increased land-sea temperature contrast, Arctic warming, and large shifts in annual mean precipitation patterns. The second experiment (G4cdnc) involves increasing cloud droplet number concentration in all low-level marine clouds to offset some of the radiative forcing of an RCP4.5 scenario. This experiment will test the robustness of models in simulating geographically heterogeneous radiative flux changes and their effects on climate. The third experiment (G4sea-salt) involves injection of sea spray aerosols into the marine boundary layer between 30°S and 30°N to offset 2 W m-2 of the effective radiative forcing of an RCP4.5 scenario. A single model study shows that the induced effective radiative forcing is largely confined to the latitudes in which injection occurs. In this single model simulation, the forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions is stronger than the forcing due to aerosol-cloud interactions.

  5. Sea spray geoengineering can reduce ocean net primary productivity and carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Keller, David; Korhonen, Hannele; Matthews, Damon

    2016-04-01

    Sea spray geoengineering or marine cloud brightening is one of the proposed methods to deliberately increase planetary albedo and thus counteract climate change. Previous studies have shown that it has potential to significantly alter the global energy balance and reduce impacts on temperature and precipitation. However, its effects on ecosystems have received considerably less attention. Our goal is to assess the effects of sea spray geoengineering on marine biological productivity and global carbon cycle. We use the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) to simulate the effects of prescribed aerosol forcing from previous simulations with the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ. In our baseline simulation (GEO), forcing from geoengineering was applied over three persistent stratocumulus regions off the coasts of North America, South America, and South Africa. The global mean forcing was -1 W m‑2. Other forcings and emissions were set according to the RCP4.5 scenario. The control run (CTRL) was identical to GEO except that no geoengineering was present. As a more extreme case, we simulated a scenario where forcing from geoengineering was applied over all ocean area (GEO-ALL) giving a global mean forcing of -4.9 W m‑2. Geoengineering decreased the global total ocean net primary productivity (NPP) during the first decades, but the effect was insignificant by the end of the 21st century. The decrease was caused by decreased temperature of the ocean and climate system in general, not by the decrease in available sunlight as might have been expected. This was demonstrated by two sensitivity simulations where geoengineering was affecting only either temperature or the light available to marine ecosystems. The simulation GEO-ALL behaves in a different way than GEO: ocean NPP was lower than that in CTRL for the first three decades of geoengineering as in GEO, but then NPP increased over the level in CTRL for the remaining of the simulation. In

  6. Solar geoengineering using solid aerosol in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenstein, D. K.; Keith, D. W.; Dykema, J. A.

    2015-10-01

    Solid aerosol particles have long been proposed as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering. Any solid aerosol introduced into the stratosphere would be subject to coagulation with itself, producing fractal aggregates, and with the natural sulfate aerosol, producing liquid-coated solids. Solid aerosols that are coated with sulfate and/or have formed aggregates may have very different scattering properties and chemical behavior than uncoated non-aggregated monomers do. We use a two-dimensional (2-D) chemistry-transport-aerosol model to capture the dynamics of interacting solid and liquid aerosols in the stratosphere. As an example, we apply the model to the possible use of alumina and diamond particles for solar geoengineering. For 240 nm radius alumina particles, for example, an injection rate of 4 Tg yr-1 produces a global-average shortwave radiative forcing of -1.2 W m-2 and minimal self-coagulation of alumina although almost all alumina outside the tropics is coated with sulfate. For the same radiative forcing, these solid aerosols can produce less ozone loss, less stratospheric heating, and less forward scattering than sulfate aerosols do. Our results suggest that appropriately sized alumina, diamond or similar high-index particles may have less severe technology-specific risks than sulfate aerosols do. These results, particularly the ozone response, are subject to large uncertainties due to the limited data on the rate constants of reactions on the dry surfaces.

  7. Geoengineering Vision-Application for Space Solar Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastlund, B. J.; Jenkins, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    The continued extreme use of fossil fuels to meet world energy needs is putting the Earth at risk for significant climate change. In an uncontrolled experiment, the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is apparently affecting the Earth's climate. The global climate is warming and severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes are getting worse. Alternatives to fossil fuels may reduce the addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Space Solar Power, from orbiting satellites, provides an option for clean, renewable energy that will reduce the pressure on the Earth's environmental system. Uncertainty in the cost of commercial power from space has been the principal issue inhibiting investment support by the power companies. Geoengineering is defined as the use of technology to interact with the global environment. A Solar Power Satellite represents a capability for considering geoengineering concepts. The Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite (TSPS) is a concept for interacting with thunderstorms to prevent formation of tornadoes. Before weather modification can be safely attempted, the fine structure of thunderstorms must be computer simulated and related to tornadogenesis. TSPS benefits are saving lives and reducing property. These benefits are not as sensitive to the system economics as the commercial solar power satellite and can be used to justify government investment in space solar power. The TSPS can develop and demonstrate the technology and operations critical to understanding the cost of space solar power. Consequently, there is no direct competition with fossil fuel based power supplies until SSP technology and operations have been demonstrated.

  8. Acid Deposition From Stratospheric Geoengineering With Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, B.; Robock, A.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G.

    2008-12-01

    We used a general circulation model of the Earth's climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide [Robock et al., 2008] and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions, and there are some larger local increases, specifically in Northern Canada and the Western Pacific Ocean. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, the additional surface sulfate deposition is not enough to negatively impact most ecosystems. Robock, Alan, Luke Oman, and Georgiy Stenchikov (2008), Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D16101, doi:10.1029/2008JD010050.

  9. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2016-04-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  10. Overview of the Integrated Assessment of Geoengineering Proposals (IAGP), UK research project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, P.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Assessment of Geoengineering Proposals (IAGP, www.iagp.ac.uk ) is a multidisciplinary research project involving seven UK institutions. This four year research project (completing in Feb 2015) has bought together a broad range of expertise, from climate modelling to philosophy and engineering to public perceptions to conduct an objective, policy-relevant assessment of geoengineering. This paper will present an overview of our major research findings, concentrating on aspects related to solar radiation management. Findings of our five inter-linked programmes will be presented:1. Framework development - developing a methodology for comparing across different technologies. 2. Engaging with publics and stakeholders - illustrating how public and stakeholder views have informed the development of the framework and the way we assess geoengineering. 3. Using climate modelling to evaluate geoengineering technologies - experiments for several different SRM techniques are compared within the HadGEM2 climate model. These include aerosol injection into the stratosphere as well as ocean and land albedo changes. 4. Earth climate controllability - examining how techniques from control engineering can be applied to geoengineering and the implications for decision and policy-making. 5. Critical reflection on the development of our research agenda and views. These five strands of research will be bought together to illustrate responsible innovation of geoengineering research.

  11. A risk-based framework for assessing the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Angus J; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J; Highwood, Eleanor J

    2014-01-01

    Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection has been proposed as a policy response to warming from human emissions of greenhouse gases, but it may produce unequal regional impacts. We present a simple, intuitive risk-based framework for classifying these impacts according to whether geoengineering increases or decreases the risk of substantial climate change, with further classification by the level of existing risk from climate change from increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. This framework is applied to two climate model simulations of geoengineering counterbalancing the surface warming produced by a quadrupling of carbon dioxide concentrations, with one using a layer of sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere, and the other a reduction in total solar irradiance. The solar dimming model simulation shows less regional inequality of impacts compared with the aerosol geoengineering simulation. In the solar dimming simulation, 10% of the Earth's surface area, containing 10% of its population and 11% of its gross domestic product, experiences greater risk of substantial precipitation changes under geoengineering than under enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations. In the aerosol geoengineering simulation the increased risk of substantial precipitation change is experienced by 42% of Earth's surface area, containing 36% of its population and 60% of its gross domestic product. PMID:24533155

  12. Deliberating stratospheric aerosols for climate geoengineering and the SPICE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Parkhill, Karen; Corner, Adam; Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-05-01

    Increasing concerns about the narrowing window for averting dangerous climate change have prompted calls for research into geoengineering, alongside dialogue with the public regarding this as a possible response. We report results of the first public engagement study to explore the ethics and acceptability of stratospheric aerosol technology and a proposed field trial (the Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (SPICE) 'pipe and balloon' test bed) of components for an aerosol deployment mechanism. Although almost all of our participants were willing to allow the field trial to proceed, very few were comfortable with using stratospheric aerosols. This Perspective also discusses how these findings were used in a responsible innovation process for the SPICE project initiated by the UK's research councils.

  13. Impacts of sea spray geoengineering on ocean biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Keller, David P.; Korhonen, Hannele; Matthews, H. Damon

    2016-07-01

    We used an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to study the effects of Solar Radiation Management (SRM) by sea spray geoengineering on ocean biogeochemistry. SRM slightly decreased global ocean net primary productivity (NPP) relative to the control run. The lower temperatures in the SRM run decreased NPP directly but also indirectly increased NPP in some regions due to changes in nutrient availability resulting from changes in ocean stratification and circulation. Reduced light availability had a minor effect on global total NPP but a major regional effect near the nutrient-rich upwelling region off the coast of Peru, where light availability is the main limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in our model. Unused nutrients from regions with decreased NPP also fueled NPP elsewhere. In the context of RCP4.5 simulation used here, SRM decreased ocean carbon uptake due to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, seawater chemistry, NPP, temperature, and ocean circulation.

  14. A Fully Coupled GCM Study of a "Geoengineered World"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, D. J.; Ridgwell, A.; Valdes, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    Several schemes have been proposed with the explicit aim of modifying the future climate of the planet as a mitigation strategy in a response to anthropogenic global warming. A selection of these, including the placing of mirrors at the Lagrange point between the Earth and the Sun, and the injection of aerosols into the stratosphere, have at their heart the goal of effectively reducing the incoming solar radiation near the top of the atmosphere, to "balance" increased surface warming due to increased greenhouse gas concentrations. However, it is likely that an exact balance of the radiative forcing would be very difficult to obtain, due to differing spatial characteristics of the solar forcing applied (greatest at the equator and least at the poles) and that of long wave absorption (more equal over all latitudes), as well as differing temporal characteristics of the radiative forcings. In this study, we model the different climate expected in a "Geoengineered World", compared to the "Preindustrial World", if both have the same global annual mean surface temperature. We use the UK Met Office GCM, HadCM3L, and carry out 5 simulations: Pre-industrial, Doubled CO2, Quadrupled CO2, and 2 simulations in which the increased CO2 is balanced in the global annual mean by a reduction in incoming solar radiation. The "strength" of mirror/aerosol required is calculated using an iterative procedure, until balance is obtained. Our results indicate significant differences between the Geoengineered World and the Preindustrial World, despite near identical global annual mean surface temperatures. In particular, we obtain relatively large differences in surface temperature over mid-latitude continental regions, in particular North America, and significant changes in upwelling on the West African tropical coast. The drying of the American Mid-West, and impacts on Africa fisheries, are likely to have significant consequences for global and local food production.

  15. Dyson Dots & Geoengineering: The Killer App Ad Astra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, R. G.; Hughes, Eric; Roy, Kenneth I.; Fields, David E.

    No study of coping with climate change is complete without considering geoengineering. A "Dyson Dot" is one or more large (area ~700 K km2, >200 megatonne) lightsail(s) in a radiation-levitated non-Keplerian orbit(s) just sunward of the Sun-Earth Lagrange-1 point. The purpose of this syncretic concept is twofold: (I) As a parasol, it would reduce insolation on Earth by at least one-quarter of a percent (-3.4 W m-2), same as what caused 1.5°C drop during the "Little Ice Age" (~1550-1850) and same as the IPCC Third Report's mid-range value for global warming by 2050. The parasol transforms the "solar constant" to a controlled solar variable. (II) Hosting a ~50K km2 photovoltaic power station on its sunny side and relaying beamed power via maser to rectennas on a circumpolar Dymaxion grid, the system could displace over 300 EJ/a (~100 trillion kWh/yr) of fossil-fired power (total global demand for electricity forecast by 2050), while providing USD trillions in revenue from cheap clean energy sales (@1-3¢/kWh) to amortize the scheme. Total system efficiency compares favorably to automobiles; total system power density is comparable to nuclear power. This approach -- self-funding, "pay-as-you-go", minimally intrusive, scalable, complementary with a portfolio of other measures and above all reversible is not precluded by international treaty. Indeed geoengineering may be the best "killer app" to bootstrap orbital industry and humanity ad astra, because the terawattscale product is comparable to the power required for interstellar travel. If Tellurian spacefaring civilization bootstraps its exponential growth with multi-terawatt maser beams from such lightsails, there might eventually be enough of them to have a detectable effect on Sol's apparent luminosity at certain wavelengths, as seen from far away, similar to the eponymous Dyson Sphere, hence the moniker.

  16. Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Peter; Hartmann, Jens; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2010-11-23

    Geoengineering is a proposed action to manipulate Earth's climate in order to counteract global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique, carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification, because it influences the global climate via the carbon cycle. If important details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO(2) sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. In our calculations for the Amazon and Congo river catchments, a maximum annual dissolution of 1.8 and 0.4 Pg of olivine seems possible, corresponding to the sequestration of 0.5 and 0.1 Pg of C per year, but these upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2. Open water dissolution of fine-grained olivine and an enhancement of the biological pump by the rising riverine input of silicic acid might increase our estimate of the carbon sequestration, but additional research is needed here. We finally calculate with a carbon cycle model the consequences of sequestration rates of 1-5 Pg of C per year for the 21st century by this technique. PMID:21059941

  17. Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Peter; Hartmann, Jens; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2010-01-01

    Geoengineering is a proposed action to manipulate Earth’s climate in order to counteract global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique, carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification, because it influences the global climate via the carbon cycle. If important details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO2 sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. In our calculations for the Amazon and Congo river catchments, a maximum annual dissolution of 1.8 and 0.4 Pg of olivine seems possible, corresponding to the sequestration of 0.5 and 0.1 Pg of C per year, but these upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2. Open water dissolution of fine-grained olivine and an enhancement of the biological pump by the rising riverine input of silicic acid might increase our estimate of the carbon sequestration, but additional research is needed here. We finally calculate with a carbon cycle model the consequences of sequestration rates of 1–5 Pg of C per year for the 21st century by this technique. PMID:21059941

  18. Space Symposium/76

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A symposium dealing with career opportunities in the aerospace program for minorities was conducted and evaluated. The symposium was attended by students from eleven predominantly minority colleges and universities in and around Washington, D. C. and the eastern region, and from high schools in five jurisdictions of the Washington metropolitan area. Speakers included representatives of Howard University, NASA, and private industry. On display during the symposium was a NASA exhibit of moon rocks, space shuttles, a lunar module, command module, pacemaker, LANDSAT, and other items of interest.

  19. A Combined Energy and Geoengineering Optimization Model (CEAGOM) for Climate Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anasis, John George

    One of the greatest challenges that will face humanity in the 21 st century is the issue of climate change brought about by emissions of greenhouse gases. Energy use is one of the primary sources of greenhouse gas emissions. However, it is also one of the most important contributors to improved human welfare over the past two centuries and will continue to be so for years to come. This quandary has led a number of researchers to suggest that geoengineering may be required in order to allow for continued use of fossil fuels while at the same time mitigating the effects of the associated greenhouse gas emissions on the global climate. The goal of this research was to develop a model that would allow decision-makers and policy analysts to assess the optimal mix of energy and geoengineering resources needed to meet global or regional energy demand at the lowest cost while accounting for appropriate emissions, greenhouse gas concentration, or temperature rise constraints. The resulting software model is called the Combined Energy and Geoengineering Optimization Model (CEAGOM). CEAGOM was then used to analyze the recently announced U.S.-China emissions agreement and to assess what the optimal global energy resource mix might be over the course of the 21 st century, including the associated potential need for geoengineering. These analyses yielded optimal mixes of energy and geoengineering resources that could be used to inform regional and global energy and climate management strategies.

  20. Stratospheric changes caused by geoengineering applications: potential repercussions and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenzelmann, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Peter, T.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Fueglistaler, S.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions tend to warm the global climate, calling for significant rapid emission reductions. As potential support measures various ideas for geoengineering are currently being discussed. The assessment of the possible manifold and as yet substantially unexplored repercussions of implementing geoengineering ideas to ameliorate climate change poses enormous challenges not least in the realm of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Sulphur aerosols cool the Earth's surface by reflecting short wave radiation. By increasing the amount of sulphur aerosols in the stratosphere, for example by sulphur dioxide injections, part of the anthropogenic climate warming might be compensated due to enhanced albedo. However, we are only at the beginning of understanding possible side effects. One such effect that such aerosol might have is the warming of the tropical tropopause and consequently the increase of the amount of stratospheric water vapour. Using the 2D AER Aerosol Model we calculated the aerosol distributions for yearly injections of 1, 2, 5 and 10 Mt sulphur into the lower tropical stratosphere. The results serve as input for the 3D chemistry-climate model SOCOL, which allows calculating the aerosol effect on stratospheric temperatures and chemistry. In the injection region the continuously formed sulphuric acid condensates rapidly on sulphate aerosol, which eventually grow to such extent that they sediment down to the tropical tropopause region. The growth of the aerosol particles depends on non-linear processes: the more sulphur is emitted the faster the particles grow. As a consequence for the scenario with continuous sulphur injection of totally 10 Mt per year, only 6 Mt sulphur are in the stratosphere if equilibrium is reached. According to our model calculations this amount of sulphate aerosols leads to a net surface forcing of -3.4 W/m2, which is less then expected radiative forcing by doubling of carbon dioxide concentration. Hence

  1. Optimizing stratospheric sulfur geoengineering by seasonally changing sulfur injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection has been shown to have potential in counteracting global warming if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast enough and if climate warming will continue. Injecting large amounts of sulfate particles to the stratosphere would increase the reflectivity of the atmosphere and less sunlight would reach the surface. However, the effectivity (per injected sulphur mass unit) of this kind of geoengineering would decrease when amount of injected sulfur is increased. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes which have larger gravitational settling velocity and which do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and from where sulfur is spread equally to both hemispheres. However, the solar intensity will change locally during the year and sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when the solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection could be expected to be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. Here we study effects of the different SRM injection scenarios by using two versions of the MPI climate models. First, aerosol spatial and temporal distributions as well as the resulting radiative properties from the SRM are defined by using the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA. After that, the global and regional climate effects from different injection scenarios are predicted by using the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We carried out simulations, where 8 Tg of sulfur is injected as SO2 to the stratosphere at height of 20-22 km in an area ranging over a 20 degree wide latitude band. Results show that changing the sulfur injection area seasonally would lead to similar global mean shortwave

  2. Sensitivity of Methane Lifetime and Transport to Sulfate Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquila, V.; Pitari, G.; Tilmes, S.; Cionni, I.; de Luca, N.; Di Genova, G.; Iachetti, D.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate geoengineering, made by sustained injection of SO2 in the tropical lower stratosphere, may impact the abundance of tropospheric methane through several photochemical mechanisms affecting the tropospheric OH abundance and hence the methane lifetime. Changes of the stratospheric Brewer-Dobson circulation also play a role in the upper tropospheric CH4 transport. Three mechanisms lead to lower OH concentrations and a longer CH4 lifetime: (a) solar radiation scattering increases the planetary albedo and cools the surface, with a tropospheric water vapor decrease as a response to this cooling. (b) The tropospheric UV budget is upset by the additional aerosol scattering and stratospheric ozone changes: the net effect is meridionally not uniform, with a net decrease in the tropics, thus producing less tropospheric O(1D). (c) The extra-tropical downwelling motion from the lower stratosphere tends to increase the sulfate aerosol surface area density available for heterogeneous chemical reactions in the mid-upper troposphere, thus reducing the amount of NOx and tropospheric O3 production. On the other hand, the tropical lower stratosphere is warmed by solar and planetary radiation absorption by the aerosols. The heating rates perturbation are strongly latitude dependent, producing a significant change of the pole-to-equator temperature gradient and mean zonal wind distribution, with a net increase of tropical upwelling. A stronger meridional component of the Brewer-Dobson circulation increases the extra-tropical stratosphere to troposphere transport of CH4 poorer air, resulting in less CH4 transported in the UTLS. The net effect on tropospheric OH may be positive or negative depending on the net result of different superimposed species perturbations in the UTLS, i.e. CH4 (negative), NOy and O3 (positive). Three climate-chemistry coupled models are used here to explore the above radiative, chemical and dynamical mechanisms affecting the methane lifetime (ULAQ

  3. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  4. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  5. ACS Symposium Support

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth D. Jordan

    2010-02-20

    The funds from this DOE grant were used to help cover the travel costs of five students and postdoctoral fellows who attended a symposium on 'Hydration: From Clusters to Aqueous Solutions' held at the Fall 2007 American Chemical Society Meeting in Boston, MA, August 19-23. The Symposium was sponsored by the Physical Chemistry Division, ACS. The technical program for the meeting is available at http://phys-acs.org/fall2007.html.

  6. Arctic climate response to geoengineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, K. E.; Battisti, D. S.; Bitz, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent warming and record summer sea-ice area minimums have spurred expressions of concern for arctic ecosystems, permafrost, and polar bear populations, among other things. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections to deliberately cancel the anthropogenic temperature rise has been put forth as a possible solution to restoring Arctic (and global) climate to modern conditions. However, climate is particularly sensitive in the northern high latitudes, responding easily to radiative forcing changes. To that end, we explore the extent to which tropical injections of stratospheric sulfate aerosol can accomplish regional cancellation in the Arctic. We use the Community Climate System Model version 3 global climate model to execute simulations with combinations of doubled CO2 and imposed stratospheric sulfate burdens to investigate the effects on high latitude climate. We further explore the sensitivity of the polar climate to ocean dynamics by running a suite of simulations with and without ocean dynamics, transiently and to equilibrium respectively. We find that, although annual, global mean temperature cancellation is accomplished, there is over-cooling on land in Arctic summer, but residual warming in Arctic winter, which is largely due to atmospheric circulation changes. Furthermore, the spatial extent of these features and their concurrent impacts on sea-ice properties are modified by the inclusion of ocean dynamical feedbacks.

  7. Geo-Engineering Climate Change with Sulfate Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasch, P. J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    We explore the impact of injecting a precursor of sulfate aerosols into the middle atmosphere where they would act to increase the planetary albedo and thus counter some of the effects of greenhouse gase forcing. We use an atmospheric general circulation model (CAM, the Community Atmosphere Model) coupled to a slab ocean model for this study. Only physical effects are examined, that is we ignore the biogeochemical and chemical implications of changes to greenhouse gases and aerosols, and do not explore the important ethical, legal, and moral issues that are associated with deliberate geo-engineering efforts. The simulations suggest that the sulfate aerosol produced from the SO2 source in the stratosphere is sufficient to counterbalance most of the warming associated with the greenhouse gas forcing. Surface temperatures return to within a few tenths of a degree(K) of present day levels. Sea ice and precipitation distributions are also much closer to their present day values. The polar region surface temperatures remain 1-3 degrees warm in the winter hemisphere than present day values. This study is very preliminary. Only a subset of the relevant effects have been explored. The effect of such an injection of aerosols on middle atmospheric chemistry, and the effect on cirrus clouds are obvious missing components that merit scrutiny. There are probably others that should be considered. The injection of such aerosols cannot help in ameliorating the effects of CO2 changes on ocean PH, or other effects on the biogeochemistry of the earth system.

  8. The Impact of Geoengineering Aerosols on Stratospheric Temperature and Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckendorn, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Peter, T.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. As a potential interim measure to avoid extreme temperature increase, it has been suggested that Earth's albedo be increased by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model, to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a into the lower tropical stratosphere. In contrast to the case for all previous work, the particles are predicted to grow to larger sizes than are observed after volcanic eruptions. The reason is the continuous supply of sulfuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, by condensation. Owing to their large size, these particles have a reduced albedo. Furthermore, their sedimentation results in a non-linear relationship between stratospheric aerosol burden and annual injection, leading to a reduction of the targeted cooling. More importantly, the sedimenting particles heat the tropical cold point tropopause and, hence, the stratospheric entry mixing ratio of H2O increases. Therefore, geoengineering by means of sulfate aerosols is predicted to accelerate the hydroxyl catalyzed ozone destruction cycles and cause a significant depletion of the ozone layer even though future halogen concentrations will be significantly reduced.

  9. The Impact of Geoengineering Aerosols on Stratospheric Temperature and Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckendorn, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Thomason, L. W.; Peter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. As a potential interim measure to avoid extreme temperature increase, it has been suggested that Earth's albedo be increased by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model. to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a into the lower tropical stratosphere. In contrast to the case for all previous work, the particles are predicted to grow to larger sizes than are observed after volcanic eruptions. The reason is the continuous supply of sulfuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, by condensation. Owing to their large size, these particles have a reduced albedo. Furthermore, their sedimentation results in a non-linear relationship between stratospheric aerosol burden and annual injection, leading to a reduction of the targeted cooling. More importantly, the sedimenting particles heat the tropical cold point tropopause and, hence, the stratospheric entry mixing ratio of H2O increases. Therefore, geoengineering by means of sulfate aerosols is predicted to accelerate the hydroxyl catalyzed ozone destruction cycles and cause a significant depletion of the ozone layer even though future halogen concentrations will he significantly reduced.

  10. A New Approach to Geoengineering: Manna From Heaven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Geo-engineering, although controversial, has become an emerging factor in coping with climate change. Although most are terrestrial-based technologies, I focus on a space-based approach implemented through a solar shield system. I present several new elements that essentially render the high-cost criticism moot. Of special relevance are two seemingly unrelated technologies - the Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) to the Moon in 2018 that shall implement a technology demonstration of simple material resource extraction from lunar regolith, and the emergence of multi-material 3D printing technology that promises unprecedented robotic manufacturing capabilities. My research group has begun theoretical and experimentation work in developing the concept of a 3D printed electric motor system from lunar-type resources. The electric motor underlies every universal mechanical machine. Together with 3D printed electronics, I submit that this would enable self-replicating machines to be realised. A detailed exposition on how this may be achieved will be outlined. Such self-replicating machines could construct the spacecraft required to implement a solar shield and solar power satellites in large numbers from lunar resources with the same underlying technologies at extremely low cost.

  11. Microbially mediated carbon mineralization: Geoengineering a carbon-neutral mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a potentially valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization, affording the mining industry an opportunity to completely offset their carbon emissions. Passive carbon mineralization has previously been documented at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond mine and Mount Keith nickel mine, yet the majority of tailings remain unreacted. Examples of microbe-carbonate interactions at each mine suggest that biological pathways could be harnessed to promote carbon mineralization. In suitable environmental conditions, microbes can mediate geochemical processes to accelerate mineral dissolution, increase the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), and induce carbonate precipitation, all of which may accelerate carbon mineralization. Tailings mineralogy and the availability of a CO2 point source are key considerations in designing tailings storage facilities (TSF) for optimizing carbon mineralization. We evaluate the efficacy of acceleration strategies including bioleaching, biologically induced carbonate precipitation, and heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics, as well as abiotic strategies including enhancing passive carbonation through modifying tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources (Fig. 1). With the aim of developing carbon-neutral mines, implementation of carbon mineralization strategies into TSF design will be driven by economic incentives and public pressure for environmental sustainability in the mining industry. Figure 1. Schematic illustrating geoengineered scenarios for carbon mineralization of ultramafic mine tailings. Scenarios A and B are based on non-point and point sources of CO2, respectively.

  12. YouTube Fridays: Student Led Development of Engineering Estimate Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.; Vestal, Charles R.; Herring, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    YouTube Fridays devotes a small fraction of class time to student-selected videos related to the course topic, e.g., thermodynamics. The students then write and solve a homework-like problem based on the events in the video. Three recent pilots involving over 300 students have developed a database of videos and questions that reinforce important…

  13. Education in Northern Ireland since the Good Friday Agreement: Kabuki Theatre Meets "Danse Macabre"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    2016-01-01

    The Good Friday Agreement (1998) between the UK and Irish governments, and most of the political parties in Northern Ireland, heralded a significant step forward in securing peace and stability for this troubled region of the British Isles. From the new-found stability, the previous fits and starts of education reform were replaced by a…

  14. Friday Forum and the AICPA Core Competency Framework: Honing Students' Personal Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Grace F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shares one learning technique for honing undergraduate students' personal competencies. The senior accounting capstone course at a small Midwestern private liberal college includes a weekly seminar series, called the Friday Forum, where students and practitioners meet to discuss a current professional accounting article. Since Spring…

  15. Impacts on Chinese Agriculture of Geoengineering and Smoke from Fires Ignited by Nuclear War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, society might consider deliberately manipulating global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. We first evaluated the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for 24 provinces in China, and compared the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations. For geoengineering, we consider the G2 scenario of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), which prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% per year increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2). We used results from ten climate models participating in G2. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper

  16. Geoengineering, climate change scepticism and the ‘moral hazard’ argument: an experimental study of UK public perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Corner, Adam; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Many commentators have expressed concerns that researching and/or developing geoengineering technologies may undermine support for existing climate policies—the so-called moral hazard argument. This argument plays a central role in policy debates about geoengineering. However, there has not yet been a systematic investigation of how members of the public view the moral hazard argument, or whether it impacts on people's beliefs about geoengineering and climate change. In this paper, we describe an online experiment with a representative sample of the UK public, in which participants read one of two arguments (either endorsing or rejecting the idea that geoengineering poses a moral hazard). The argument endorsing the idea of geoengineering as a moral hazard was perceived as more convincing overall. However, people with more sceptical views and those who endorsed ‘self-enhancing’ values were more likely to agree that the prospect of geoengineering would reduce their motivation to make changes in their own behaviour in response to climate change. The findings suggest that geoengineering is likely to pose a moral hazard for some people more than others, and the implications for engaging the public are discussed. PMID:25404680

  17. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  18. GEO-ENGINEERING MODELING THROUGH INTERNET INFORMATICS (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    W. Lynn Watney; John H. Doveton

    2004-05-13

    GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) is a public-domain web application focused on analysis and modeling of petroleum reservoirs and plays (http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Gemini/index.html). GEMINI creates a virtual project by ''on-the-fly'' assembly and analysis of on-line data either from the Kansas Geological Survey or uploaded from the user. GEMINI's suite of geological and engineering web applications for reservoir analysis include: (1) petrofacies-based core and log modeling using an interactive relational rock catalog and log analysis modules; (2) a well profile module; (3) interactive cross sections to display ''marked'' wireline logs; (4) deterministic gridding and mapping of petrophysical data; (5) calculation and mapping of layer volumetrics; (6) material balance calculations; (7) PVT calculator; (8) DST analyst, (9) automated hydrocarbon association navigator (KHAN) for database mining, and (10) tutorial and help functions. The Kansas Hydrocarbon Association Navigator (KHAN) utilizes petrophysical databases to estimate hydrocarbon pay or other constituent at a play- or field-scale. Databases analyzed and displayed include digital logs, core analysis and photos, DST, and production data. GEMINI accommodates distant collaborations using secure password protection and authorized access. Assembled data, analyses, charts, and maps can readily be moved to other applications. GEMINI's target audience includes small independents and consultants seeking to find, quantitatively characterize, and develop subtle and bypassed pays by leveraging the growing base of digital data resources. Participating companies involved in the testing and evaluation of GEMINI included Anadarko, BP, Conoco-Phillips, Lario, Mull, Murfin, and Pioneer Resources.

  19. Impact of geoengineering schemes on the global hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Bala, G; Duffy, P B; Taylor, K E

    2008-06-01

    The rapidly rising CO(2) level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization by "geoengineering" schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing solar radiation incident on Earth's surface. In this article we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle. By using equilibrium climate simulations, we show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in global mean precipitation. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO(2) forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrological sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% K(-1) for solar forcing, but only 1.5% K(-1) for CO(2) forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. For the same surface temperature change, insolation changes result in relatively larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in the sum of latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence, the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment by changes in insolation than by changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once. PMID:18505844

  20. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

    2007-12-07

    The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  1. A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, S.; Mills, M. J.; Niemeier, U.; Schmidt, H.; Robock, A.; Kravitz, B.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; English, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annual tropical emission of 8 Tg SO2 yr-1. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of 2 years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the impact of geoengineering and its abrupt termination after 50 years in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input data set is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.

  2. Crop failure rates in a geoengineered climate: impact of climate change and marine cloud brightening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, B.; Challinor, A.; Nicklin, K.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of geoengineering on crops has to date been studied by examining mean yields. We present the first work focusing on the rate of crop failures under a geoengineered climate. We investigate the impact of a future climate and a potential geoengineering scheme on the number of crop failures in two regions, Northeastern China and West Africa. Climate change associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide increases the number of crop failures in Northeastern China while reducing the number of crop failures in West Africa. In both regions marine cloud brightening is likely to reduce the number crop failures, although it is more effective at reducing mild crop failure than severe crop failure. We find that water stress, rather than heat stress, is the main cause of crop failure in current, future and geoengineered climates. This demonstrates the importance of irrigation and breeding for tolerance to water stress as adaptation methods in all futures. Analysis of global rainfall under marine cloud brightening has the potential to significantly reduce the impact of climate change on global wheat and groundnut production.

  3. A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tilmes, S.; Mills, Mike; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Lamarque, J. F.; Pitari, G.; English, J. M.

    2015-01-15

    A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annualmore » tropical emission of 8 Tg SO₂ yr⁻¹. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of 2 years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the impact of geoengineering and its abrupt termination after 50 years in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input data set is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.« less

  4. A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models

    SciTech Connect

    Tilmes, S.; Mills, Mike; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Lamarque, J. F.; Pitari, G.; English, J. M.

    2015-01-15

    A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annual tropical emission of 8 Tg SO₂ yr⁻¹. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of 2 years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the impact of geoengineering and its abrupt termination after 50 years in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input data set is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.

  5. Impact Of Geo-engineered Aerosols On Stratospheric Chemistry And Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, S.; Garcia, R. R.; Kinnison, D. E.; Gettelman, A.; Rasch, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    Geo-engineering schemes have been proposed to alleviate the consequences of global warming; one proposed scheme is to inject sulfur into the stratosphere so as to mimic the effects of large volcanic eruptions. Past volcanic eruptions have shown that strongly enhanced sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere result in a higher planetary albedo, leading to surface cooling. However, the increase of sulfate aerosol surface area enhances heterogeneous reactions in the stratosphere that lead to ozone loss. The potential for high Arctic ozone depletion in the context of geo-engineering is known. On the other hand, halogen compounds are now decreasing in the atmosphere as a result of the enforcement of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments, and this is expected to bring about the recovery of the ozone layer and to lessen the potential impact of aerosols. In this study we present results of calculations made with NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), focusing on the impact of Geo-engineering on stratospheric chemistry and dynamics. Aside from changes in heterogeneous reactions, changes in stratospheric dynamics have a significant impact on ozone. On average, changes of both chemistry and dynamics result in a slowdown of the recovery of ozone for mid- and high latitudes. An increase of ozone depletion as a result of geo-engineering was found in both polar regions for the period between 2040-2050.

  6. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, J.

    1999-06-01

    The beginning of the VLT era was marked by two major events: the VLT Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March 1999, preceded by the VLT Opening Symposium on 1-4 March. ESO is indebted to Professor J.A. Music Tomicic, Rector of the Universidad Católica del Norte, for hosting this symposium. Another major event occurred on the night of 4 March: First light was achieved ahead of schedule at Kueyen, the second 8.2-m VLT unit telescope.

  7. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  8. Screening Level Analysis of Several Geo-engineering Techniques Intended to Mitigate Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, W. B.

    2007-12-01

    Within the past few years, a number of papers have appeared in the literature that describe alternative geo- engineering techniques that could be used to supplement more mainstream options to mitigate global warming. An example of a mainstream option is carbon capture and storage, and an example of a geo-engineering approach is an orbiting satellite that provides a sun-shade to earth. These supplemental geo-engineering techniques, which are controversial for reasons such as they appear to allow emissions of carbon to continue unabated, are really intended to bridge the time gap between where we are today and where we need to be in terms of the implementation of mainstream mitigation schemes. Allowing that geo-engineering techniques are controversial, and could cause more harm than good, there are still reasons to examine them. As an example, would it be possible to "uncommitt" from projected sea level rise that already threatens low-lying countries by reducing incoming solar radiation? For this poster, then, several alternative geo-engineering techniques (which can broadly be classified as space-based and earth-based) will be examined. A screening level global equilibrium radiation model will be used to examine the global temperature response to various alternatives, implemented at scales proposed by their developers. The equilibrium model will provide an estimate of global temperature change once the perturbed energy fluxes have returned to a balanced state. Thus the time frame of radiation adjustment will not be evaluated. Further, since we know that greenhouse gas emissions will likely continue to increase for decades into the future, the efficacy of any geo-engineering scheme could diminish over time unless appropriate modifications to the operation of those schemes are made. This aspect of time evolution of geo-engineering will also be discussed. Finally, since there does not appear to be a "silver bullet" solution to climate change, either from mainstream

  9. The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered, high CO2 world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Stone, Emma J.; Ridgwell, Andy

    2009-10-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as one means of helping avoid the occurrence of dangerous climate change and undesirable state transitions ('tipping points') in the Earth system. The irreversible melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet is a case in point—a state transition that could occur as a result of CO2-driven elevated global temperatures, and one leading to potentially catastrophic sea-level rise. SRM schemes such as the creation of a 'sunshade' or injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere could reduce incoming solar radiation, and in theory balance, in a global mean, the greenhouse warming resulting from elevated concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere. Previous work has highlighted that a geoengineered world would have: warming towards the poles, cooling in the tropics, and a reduction in the global hydrological cycle, which may have important implications for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using a fully coupled global climate model in conjunction with an ice sheet model, we assess the consequences for the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet of the reorganization of climate patterns by the combination of high CO2 and geoengineering. We find that Greenland surface temperature and precipitation anomalies, compared to the pre-industrial situation, decrease almost linearly with increasing levels of SRM geoengineering, but that these combine to create a highly non-linear response of the ice sheet. The substantial melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet predicted for four times pre-industrial CO2 levels is prevented in our model with only a partial application of SRM, and hence without having to fully restore the global average temperature back to pre-industrial levels. This suggests that the degree of SRM geoengineering required to mitigate the worst impacts of greenhouse warming, such as sea-level rise, need not be as extensive as generally assumed.

  10. Direct and indirect effects of sea spray geoengineering and the role of injected particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Bergman, Tommi; Arola, Antti; Korhonen, Hannele

    2012-01-01

    Climate-aerosol model ECHAM5.5-HAM2 was used to investigate how geoengineering with artificial sea salt emissions would affect marine clouds and the Earth's radiative balance. Prognostic cloud droplet number concentration and interaction of aerosol particles with clouds and radiation were calculated explicitly, thus making this the first time that aerosol direct effects of sea spray geoengineering are considered. When a wind speed dependent baseline geoengineering flux was applied over all oceans (total annual emissions 443.9 Tg), we predicted a radiative flux perturbation (RFP) of -5.1 W m-2, which is enough to counteract warming from doubled CO2 concentration. When the baseline flux was limited to three persistent stratocumulus regions (3.3% of Earth's surface, total annual emissions 20.6 Tg), the RFP was -0.8 Wm-2 resulting mainly from a 74-80% increase in cloud droplet number concentration and a 2.5-4.4 percentage point increase in cloud cover. Multiplying the baseline mass flux by 5 or reducing the injected particle size from 250 to 100 nm had comparable effects on the geoengineering efficiency with RFPs -2.2 and -2.1 Wm-2, respectively. Within regions characterized with persistent stratocumulus decks, practically all of the radiative effect originated from aerosol indirect effects. However, when all oceanic regions were seeded, the direct effect with the baseline flux was globally about 29% of the total radiative effect. Together with previous studies, our results indicate that there are still large uncertainties associated with the sea spray geoengineering efficiency due to variations in e.g., background aerosol concentration, updraft velocity, cloud altitude and onset of precipitation.

  11. SPICE Work Package 3: Modelling the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Simon

    2015-04-01

    This talk presents the results of the SPICE Work Package 3. There is an obvious need for methods to verify the accuracy of geoengineering given no observations of a geoengineering programme. Accordingly, model ability in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions is discussed using analysis of CMIP5 data and different configurations of the HadGEM2 model. With the HadGEM2-L60 model shown to be substantially better in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions, simulations of GeoMIP's G4 scenario are performed. Simulated impacts of geoengineering are described, and asymmetries between the immediate onset and immediate cessation ('termination') of geoengineering are analysed. Whilst a rapid large increase in stratospheric sulphate aerosols (such as from volcanic eruptions) can cause substantial damage, most volcanic eruptions in general are not catastrophic. One may therefore suspect that an 'equal but opposite' change in radiative forcing from termination may therefore not be catastrophic, if the climatic response is simulated to be symmetric. HadGEM2 simulations reveal a substantially more rapid change in variables such as near-surface temperature and precipitation following termination than the onset, indicating that termination may be substantially more damaging and even catastrophic. Some suggestions for hemispherically asymmetric geoengineering have been proposed as a way to reduce Northern Hemisphere sea ice, for example, with lesser impacts on the rest of the climate. However, HadGEM2 simulations are performed and observations analysed following volcanic eruptions. Both indicate substantial averse consequences from hemispherically asymmetric loading of stratospheric loading on precipitation in the Sahelian region - a vulnerable region where drought has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths and created millions of refugees in the past.

  12. Alteration and fluid flow around a sulfide-carbonate-quartz vein, Lucky Friday mine, Northern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Gitlin, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    Wall rocks at the Lucky Friday mine, Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho, contain a >500m wide zone about a steeply dipping Pb-Zn-Ag vein. This zone has experienced local conditions distinct from the regional metamorphism of the quartzite + argillite host rock. Within the district, the host rock (Precambrian Revett Formation) has undergone low grade metamorphism and contains varying proportions of quartz, phengitic muscovite, detrital alkali feldspar, magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, rutile, zircon, tourmaline, +/- calcite, +/- ankeritic dolomite. In contrast, the Lucky Friday wall rocks lack feldspar and Fe-bearing oxides, and contain Fe-poor muscovite and up to 40% carbonate: siderite, ankerite, and/or calcite. A comparison of district-wide Revett rocks with Lucky Friday wall rocks suggests that the wall rocks have undergone localized dephengitization with concomitant Fe-enrichment in the carbonates and Fe-depletion of the oxides. Pertinent metamorphic reactions consume CO/sub 2/ and liberate H/sub 2/O. Fluid inclusions from the vein and wall rock stringers have homogenization temperatures from approx. =200/sup 0/ to <375/sup 0/C, but they define no temperature gradient. With few exceptions, compositions of the carbonates are identical throughout the altered wall rock. These observations suggest that the carbonate subzone contacts are not isograds but isofluxes: the loci of equivalent fluid/reactant mineral ratio. The disposition of isofluxes around a dominant fluid channelway, i.e. the vein, affords an opportunity to interpret fluid flow pathways during low temperatures metamorphism.

  13. Research Symposium I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The proceedings of this symposium consist of abstracts of talks presented by interns at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The interns assisted researchers at GRC in projects which primarily address the following topics: aircraft engines and propulsion, spacecraft propulsion, fuel cells, thin film photovoltaic cells, aerospace materials, computational fluid dynamics, aircraft icing, management, and computerized simulation.

  14. Tools in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on tools in human resource development (HRD). "Game Theory Methodology in HRD" (Thomas J. Chermack, Richard A. Swanson) explores the utility of game theory in helping the HRD profession address the complexity of integrating multiple theories for disciplinary understanding and fulfilling its…

  15. Recruitment and Training. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on recruitment and training. "College Choice: The State of Marketing and Effective Student Recruitment Strategies" (Fredrick Muyia Nafukho, Michael F. Burnett) reports on a study of the recruitment strategies used by Louisiana State University's admissions office and College of Agriculture that…

  16. European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    13me Symposium qui se déroule du 27 au 31 juillet pour la première fois au Cern. Brian Pattison ouvre la cérémonie et donne la parole à Dr.Ugland (qui représente le DG C.Rubbia excusé) et d'autres intervenants

  17. Standards and Certification. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and strategic issues…

  18. Globalism and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on globalization and human resource development (HRD). "Challenges and Strategies of Developing Human Resources in the Surge of Globalization: A Case of the People's Republic of China" (De Zhang, Baiyin Yang, Yichi Zhang) analyzes the challenges and strategies of HRD in China and discusses the…

  19. Online Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on online learning that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "An Instructional Strategy Framework for Online Learning Environments" (Scott D. Johnson, Steven R. Aragon) discusses the pitfalls of modeling online courses after traditional instruction instead…

  20. Fifth Cooley's anemia symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, A.; Anderson, W.F.; Zaino, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the topics presented at the symposium on the subject of 'Thalassemia'. Sickle cell anemia is also briefly discussed. The aspects discussed are chromosomal defects of anemias particularly globin synthesis, and the role of messenger RNA and other chromosomes.

  1. ASSA Symposium 2012 Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-10-01

    of papers presented at the ASSA Symposium held in Cape Town 12-14 October 2012. Videos are available on You tube. See http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8odLrzpzMkHS-cSEfPFIr3YLPAq4d5MU for a playlist.

  2. Issues of Gender. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on issues of gender in human resource development (HRD). "The Impact of Awareness and Action on the Implementation of a Women's Network" (Laura L. Bierema) reports on research to examine how gender consciousness emerges through the formation of in-company networks to promote corporate women's status. It…

  3. Technical Entrepreneurship: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Arnold C., Ed.; Komives, John L., Ed.

    Contained in this document are papers presented at the Symposium on Technical Entrepreneurship at Purdue University by researchers who were then or had previously been engaged in research in the area. Because formal research in this area was in its infancy, there was a particular need to afford investigators in the field opportunities to compare…

  4. Issues of HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on issues of human resource development (HRD). "The Complex Roots of Human Resource Development" (Monica Lee) discusses the roots of HRD within the framework of the following views of management: (1) classic (the view that managers must be able to create appropriate rules and procedures for…

  5. Competencies in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on competencies in human resource development (HRD). "The Development of a Competency Model and Assessment Instrument for Public Sector Leadership and Management Development" (Sharon S. Naquin, Elwood F. Holton III) reports on a streamlined methodology and process used to develop a competency model for…

  6. Quality of Life Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. New Mexico Environmental Inst.

    Comments, speeches, and questions delivered at the Quality of Life Symposium are compiled in these proceedings. As an exploratory session, the conference objectives were to (1) become better informed about New Mexico--its resource base, the economy, social and cultural base, and the environment; and (2) to evaluate and discuss the role of New…

  7. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  8. Team Based Work. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on team-based work in human resource development (HRD). "Toward Transformational Learning in Organizations: Effects of Model-II Governing Variables on Perceived Learning in Teams" (Blair K. Carruth) summarizes a study that indicated that, regardless of which Model-II variable (valid information,…

  9. A multi-model assessment of the impact of sea spray geoengineering on cloud droplet number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, K. J.; Carslaw, K. S.; Fan, T.; Mann, G. W.; Hill, A.; Stier, P.; Zhang, K.; Tost, H.

    2012-12-01

    Artificially increasing the albedo of marine boundary layer clouds by the mechanical emission of sea spray aerosol has been proposed as a geoengineering technique to slow the warming caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A previous global model study (Korhonen et al., 2010) found that only modest increases (< 20%) and sometimes even decreases in cloud drop number (CDN) concentrations would result from emission scenarios calculated using a windspeed dependent geoengineering flux parameterisation. Here we extend that work to examine the conditions under which decreases in CDN can occur, and use three independent global models to quantify maximum achievable CDN changes. We find that decreases in CDN can occur when at least three of the following conditions are met: the injected particle number is < 100 cm-3, the injected diameter is > 250-300 nm, the background aerosol loading is large (≥ 150 cm-3) and the in-cloud updraught velocity is low (< 0.2 m s-1). With lower background loadings and/or increased updraught velocity, significant increases in CDN can be achieved. None of the global models predict a decrease in CDN as a result of geoengineering, although there is considerable diversity in the calculated efficiency of geoengineering, which arises from the diversity in the simulated marine aerosol distributions. All three models show a small dependence of geoengineering efficiency on the injected particle size and the geometric standard deviation of the injected mode. However, the achievability of significant cloud drop enhancements is strongly dependent on the cloud updraught speed. With an updraught speed of 0.1 m s-1 a global mean CDN of 375 cm-3 (previously estimated to cancel the forcing caused by CO2 doubling) is achievable in only about 50% of grid boxes which have > 50% cloud cover, irrespective of the amount of aerosol injected. But at stronger updraft speeds (0.2 m s-1), higher values of CDN are achievable due to the elevated in-cloud supersaturations

  10. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  11. Second International Lygus Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Goodell, P. B.; Ellsworth, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The Second International Lygus Symposium brought together 52 entomologists from six nations and 11 states representing universities, public agencies, and private entities to discuss the latest research on Lygus species and their relatives. Symposium topics included Lygus biology, behavior and ecology, IPM, insecticides and resistance, and biological control. Papers and posters dealt with Lygus as a pest of several crops, including cotton, strawberries, seed alfalfa, canola, dry beans, cucumbers, cereals, peaches, and new crops guayule and lesquerella. Intercrop movement of Lygus2008200820082008 species was another important topic of many presentations. In the capstone session, participants identified needs and priorities for ongoing Lygus research and education (available at http://ag.arizona.edu/apmc/Arid_SWPMC_RAMP.html). The conference was sponsored in part by FMC Corporation, the University of Arizona Arizona Pest Management Center, the University of California Statewide IPM Program, and a grant to Ellsworth et al. (CRIS# 0207436) from the USDA-CSREES, Risk Avoidance and Mitigation Program (RAMP).

  12. 1979 DOE statistical symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D.A.; Truett T.

    1980-09-01

    The 1979 DOE Statistical Symposium was the fifth in the series of annual symposia designed to bring together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in helping to solve the nation's energy problems. The program included presentations of technical papers centered around exploration and disposal of nuclear fuel, general energy-related topics, and health-related issues, and workshops on model evaluation, risk analysis, analysis of large data sets, and resource estimation.

  13. Space 2000 Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Space 2000 Symposium is to present the creativity and achievements of key figures of the 20th century. It offers a retrospective discussion on space exploration. It considers the future of the enterprise, and the legacy that will be left for future generations. The symposium includes panel discussions, smaller session meetings with some panelists, exhibits, and displays. The first session entitled "From Science Fiction to Science Facts" commences after a brief overview of the symposium. The panel discussions include talks on space exploration over many decades, and the missions of the millennium to search for life on Mars. The second session, "Risks and Rewards of Human Space Exploration," focuses on the training and health risks that astronauts face on their exploratory mission to space. Session three, "Messages and Messengers Informing and Inspire Space Exploration and the Public," focuses on the use of TV medium by educators and actors to inform and inspire a wide variety of audiences with adventures of space exploration. Session four, "The Legacy of Carl Sagan," discusses the influences made by Sagan to scientific research and the general public. In session five, "Space Exploration for a new Generation," two student speakers and the NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin address the group. Session six, "Destiny or Delusion? -- Humankind's Place in the Cosmos," ends the symposium with issues of space exploration and some thought provoking questions. Some of these issues and questions are: what will be the societal implications if we discover the origin of the universe, stars, or life; what will be the impact if scientists find clear evidence of life outside the domains of the Earth; should there be limits to what humans can or should learn; and what visionary steps should space-faring people take now for future generations.

  14. Eighth particulate control symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The Eighth Symposium on the Transfer and Utilization of Particulate Control Technology was held in San Diego, California, March 20 through 23, 1990. The symposium proceedings contain 80 papers presented by representatives of utility companies, equipment and process suppliers, university representatives, research and development companies, EPA and other federal and state agency representatives, and EPRI staff members. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters were the major topics discussed during the symposium. Papers from this conference are organized by session in two volumes. This Volume (2) contains papers presented in the sessions on: low ratio baghouse O M experience, pulse-jet baghouse experience, particulate control for AFBCs, particulate control for dry SO2 control processes, baghouse design and performance, fundamental baghouse studies, high temperature filtration, and control of emissions from RDF incinerators. Both fabric filters and ESPs are discussed in the AFBC and dry SO2 control papers. The high temperature filtration papers deal with ceramic barrier and granular bed filters. The rest of the papers in Volume 2 are concerned with fabric filters on pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  15. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, a great discovery emerged at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. A plethora of new precision data had already by then been collected by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC, providing further extensive support for the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics. But what now appeared was the first evidence for what was not only the last unverified prediction of the Standard Model, but also perhaps the most decisive one: the prediction made already in 1964 of a unique scalar boson required by the theory of François Englert and Peter Higgs on how fundamental particles acquire mass. At that moment in 2012, it seemed particularly appropriate to start planning a gathering of world experts in particle physics to take stock of the situation and try to answer the challenging question: what next? By May 2013, when the LHC Nobel Symposium was held at the Krusenberg Mansion outside Uppsala in Sweden, the first signs of a great discovery had already turned into fully convincing experimental evidence for the existence of a scalar boson of mass about 125 GeV, having properties compatible with the 50-year-old prediction. And in October 2013, the evidence was deemed so convincing that the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to Englert and Higgs for their pioneering work. At the same time the search at the LHC for other particles, beyond those predicted by the Standard Model, with heavier masses up to—and in some cases beyond—1 TeV, had provided no positive result. The triumph of the Standard Model seems resounding, in particular because the mass of the discovered scalar boson is such that, when identified with the Higgs boson, the Standard Model is able to provide predictions at energies as high as the Planck mass, although at the price of accepting that the vacuum would be metastable. However, even if there were some feelings of triumph, the ambience at the LHC Nobel Symposium was more one of

  16. ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF GEOENGINEERING: A Review for Developing a Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Mace, Georgina; Jackson, Robert B.; Shepherd, John; Liss, Peter; Leinen, Margaret; Schimel, David; Vaughan, Naomi E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Boyd, Philip W.; Norby, Richard J.; Caldeira, Ken; Merikanto, Joonas; Artaxo, Paulo; Melillo, Jerry; Morgan, M. Granger

    2012-06-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change. Climate change in some regions is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of geoengineering activities have been proposed: carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and solar radiation management (SRM, or sunlight reflection methods), whereby a small percentage of sunlight is reflected back into space to offset warming from greenhouse gases. In this review, we evaluate some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, including the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to Earth. Specifically, we find evidence that, if implemented successfully, some CDR methods and continue use of some SRM methods) could alleviate some of the deleterious ecosystem impacts associated with climate changes that might occur in the foreseeable future.

  17. Impact of geo-engineering on the ion composition of the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beig, Gufran

    2008-05-01

    A remedy called ``geo-engineering solution'' has been recently proposed by some scientists to handle the global warming problem through injection of sulfates high aloft into the stratosphere. However, this idea may have some other side impacts. We have investigated the perturbation caused by geo-engineering solution on the stratospheric charged species using a coupled neutral-ion photochemical model. Model calculations indicate additional production of sulfuric acid immediately after the injection which further leads to increased abundance of heavy negative ion family by several orders of magnitude over the ambient. After 2 months, most of the H2SO4 vapor condensed to H2SO4 aerosols and the density of charged aerosol increases several folds and the effect spread further in the tropics. The perturbation in ionic species spread globally after about 1 year but became weaker in magnitude. The ion perturbation has implications on the electrical properties of the atmospheric medium.

  18. A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, S.; Mills, M. J.; Niemeier, U.; Schmidt, H.; Robock, A.; Kravitz, B.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; English, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmospheric composition, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annual tropical emission of 8 Tg SO2 year-1. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of two years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the significance of the impact of geoengineering and the abrupt termination after 50 years on climate and composition of the atmosphere in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input dataset is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.

  19. A Consideration of the Health and Environmental Risks/Effects of Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, B. L.; Felgenhauer, T. N.; Miller, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The views expressed in this abstract are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A number of geoengineering strategies have been proposed and, to date, a few are being seriously investigated as possible approaches to reducing the degree of climate change. Whether under the broad rubrics of solar radiation management (SRM) or carbon dioxide removal (CDR), these projects would involve major, intentional intervention in the world's climate. Even if successful in off-setting the global radiative imbalance induced by human activities, it is not at all clear how well humans and the ecosystems upon which they depend will weather the climate system perturbations induced by the implementation of a large-scale geoengineering program. It is reasonable to expect that such perturbations could exacerbate the existing health and environmental consequences of anthropogenic climate change at large and small scales, or create entirely new ones. An accounting of the derivative physical and biological effects of consequence to human health and ecosystems welfare that may result from the use of geoengineering is a necessary part of any policy-relevant analysis. However, the scientific understanding required to quantitatively assess these potential impacts is absent in most cases, and still nascent in others. Furthermore, current discussions and existing literature lack the fully integrated "systems" approach required for adequately assessing the short- and long-term impacts of geoengineering strategies on ecosystems and human populations. We present an overview of critical science questions, including broad questions concerning the potential response of the complex earth system to further human interference and those concerning potential impacts to local environmental metrics such as air and water quality and ecosystem viability.

  20. Microphysical and radiative changes in cirrus clouds by geoengineering the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirisan, A.; Spichtinger, P.; Luo, B. P.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wernli, H.; Lohmann, U.; Peter, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the absence of tangible progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the implementation of solar radiation management has been suggested as measure to stop global warming. Here we investigate the impacts on northern midlatitude cirrus from continuous SO2emissions of 2-10 Mt/a in the tropical stratosphere. Transport of geoengineering aerosols into the troposphere was calculated along trajectories based on ERA Interim reanalyses using ozone concentrations to quantify the degree of mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air termed "troposphericity". Modeled size distributions of the geoengineered H2SO4-H2O droplets have been fed into a cirrus box model with spectral microphysics. The geoengineering is predicted to cause changes in ice number density by up to 50%, depending on troposphericity and cooling rate. We estimate the resulting cloud radiative effects from a radiation transfer model. Complex interplay between the few large stratospheric and many small tropospheric H2SO4-H2O droplets gives rise to partly counteracting radiative effects: local increases in cloud radiative forcing up to +2 W/m2for low troposphericities and slow cooling rates, and decreases up to -7.5 W/m2for high troposphericities and fast cooling rates. The resulting mean impact on the northern midlatitudes by changes in cirrus is predicted to be low, namely <1% of the intended radiative forcing by the stratospheric aerosols. This suggests that stratospheric sulphate geoengineering is unlikely to have large microphysical effects on the mean cirrus radiative forcing. However, this study disregards feedbacks, such as temperature and humidity changes in the upper troposphere, which must be examined separately.

  1. Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2008-08-01

    Anthropogenic stratospheric aerosol production, so as to reduce solar insolation and cool Earth, has been suggested as an emergency response to geoengineer the planet in response to global warming. While volcanic eruptions have been suggested as innocuous examples of stratospheric aerosols cooling the planet, the volcano analog actually argues against geoengineering because of ozone depletion and regional hydrologic and temperature responses. To further investigate the climate response, here we simulate the climate response to both tropical and Arctic stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol precursors using a comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We inject SO2 and the model converts it to sulfate aerosols, transports the aerosols and removes them through dry and wet deposition, and calculates the climate response to the radiative forcing from the aerosols. We conduct simulations of future climate with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B business-as-usual scenario both with and without geoengineering and compare the results. We find that if there were a way to continuously inject SO2 into the lower stratosphere, it would produce global cooling. Tropical SO2 injection would produce sustained cooling over most of the world, with more cooling over continents. Arctic SO2 injection would not just cool the Arctic. Both tropical and Arctic SO2 injection would disrupt the Asian and African summer monsoons, reducing precipitation to the food supply for billions of people. These regional climate anomalies are but one of many reasons that argue against the implementation of this kind of geoengineering.

  2. Efficacy of geoengineering to limit 21st century sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J. C.; Jevrejeva, S.; Grinsted, A.

    2010-01-01

    Geoengineering has been proposed as a feasible way of mitigating anthropogenic climate change, especially increasing global temperatures in the 21st century. The two main geoengineering options are limiting incoming solar radiation, or modifying the carbon cycle. Here we examine the impact of five geoengineering approaches on sea level; SO2 aerosol injection into the stratosphere, mirrors in space, afforestation, biochar, and bioenergy with carbon sequestration. Sea level responds mainly at centennial time scales to temperature change, and has been largely driven by anthropogenic forcing since 1850. Making use a model of sea-level rise as a function of time-varying climate forcing factors (solar radiation, volcanism, and greenhouse gas emissions) we find that sea-level rise by 2100 will likely be 30 cm higher than 2000 levels despite all but the most aggressive geoengineering under all except the most stringent greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The least risky and most desirable way of limiting sea-level rise is bioenergy with carbon sequestration. However aerosol injection or a space mirror system reducing insolation at an accelerating rate of 1 W m-2 per decade from now to 2100 could limit or reduce sea levels. Aerosol injection delivering a constant 4 W m-2 reduction in radiative forcing (similar to a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 18 months) could delay sea-level rise by 40–80 years. Aerosol injection appears to fail cost-benefit analysis unless it can be maintained continuously, and damage caused by the climate response to the aerosols is less than about 0.6% Global World Product. PMID:20798055

  3. A simple, physically-based method for evaluating the economic costs of geo-engineering schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2009-04-01

    The consumption of primary energy (e.g coal, oil, uranium) by the global economy is done in expectation of a return on investment. For geo-engineering schemes, however, the relationship between the primary energy consumption required and the economic return is, at first glance, quite different. The energy costs of a given scheme represent a removal of economically productive available energy to do work in the normal global economy. What are the economic implications of the energy consumption associated with geo-engineering techniques? I will present a simple thermodynamic argument that, in general, real (inflation-adjusted) economic value has a fixed relationship to the rate of global primary energy consumption. This hypothesis will be shown to be supported by 36 years of available energy statistics and a two millennia period of statistics for global economic production. What is found from this analysis is that the value in any given inflation-adjusted 1990 dollar is sustained by a constant 9.7 +/- 0.3 milliwatts of global primary energy consumption. Thus, insofar as geo-engineering is concerned, any scheme that requires some nominal fraction of continuous global primary energy output necessitates a corresponding inflationary loss of real global economic value. For example, if 1% of global energy output is required, at today's consumption rates of 15 TW this corresponds to an inflationary loss of 15 trillion 1990 dollars of real value. The loss will be less, however, if the geo-engineering scheme also enables a demonstrable enhancement to global economic production capacity through climate modification.

  4. News and Views: Missing the boat; Wanted: geophysics for teachers; Government seeks geo-engineering information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    The Institute of Physics is seeking short summaries of geophysics topics to support school teachers, in a move aimed at boosting the teaching and awareness of geophysics in schools. The UK government Department of Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills is seeking information on geo-engineering as a case study within its major enquiry into engineering. The field described by the DUISS is broad and covers areas in which geophysicists may be working and in a position to supply useful information.

  5. Geoengineering of stratocumulus decks to counterbalance global warming: Pros, Cons, Side-Effects and time-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, J.; Jones, A.; Boucher, O.; Jones, C. D.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning are the primary cause of global warming and the projected rate of temperature change is very likely to increase in the future. Many geoengineering solutions have recently been suggested to reduce global warming. Here we use a state-of-the-science general circulation model of the climate to investigate the climatic impact of geoengineering via modifying stratocumulus decks. The model's climate is more than twice as sensitive to modification of the South Pacific stratocumulus area compared with the North Pacific or South Atlantic stratocumulus area. If all stratocumulus decks were geoengineered, the model suggests possibly significant precipitation reductions over South America, North America and over Europe and Asia. Thus the use of geographically inhomogeneous radiative forcing mechanisms to counterbalance global warming induces distinct geographic responses in temperature and precipitation that may be very detrimental to some areas of the Earth. Additionally, we find that the cessation of geoengineering of these regions leads to rapid (10-20 years) recovery of the climate system to a non-geoengineered state. We have used a simple climate model to investigate more generally how delays in reducing CO2 emissions affect stabilisation scenarios leading to overshooting of a target concentration pathway. We show that if geoengineering alone is used to compensate for the delay in reducing CO2 emissions, such an option needs to be sustained for centuries even though the period of overshooting emissions may only last for a few decades. If geoengineering is used for a shorter period, it has to be associated with emission reductions significantly larger than those required to stabilise CO2 without overshooting the target. In the presence of a strong climate-carbon cycle feedback the required emission reductions are even more drastic.

  6. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  7. Climate Model Response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Caldeira, Ken; Boucher, Olivier; Robock, Alan; Rasch, Philip J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Bou Karam, Diana; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Jones, A.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Lunt, Daniel; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Schulz, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-09

    Solar geoengineering—deliberate reduction in the amount of solar radiation retained by the Earth—has been proposed as a means of counteracting some of the climatic effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We present results from Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12 climate models have simulated the climate response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2 from preindustrial concentrations brought into radiative balance via a globally uniform reduction in insolation. Models show this reduction largely offsets global mean surface temperature increases due to quadrupled CO2 concentrations and prevents 97% of the Arctic sea ice loss that would otherwise occur under high CO2 levels but, compared to the preindustrial climate, leaves the tropics cooler (-0.3 K) and the poles warmer (+0.8 K). Annual mean precipitation minus evaporation anomalies for G1 are less than 0.2mmday-1 in magnitude over 92% of the globe, but some tropical regions receive less precipitation, in part due to increased moist static stability and suppression of convection. Global average net primary productivity increases by 120% in G1 over simulated preindustrial levels, primarily from CO2 fertilization, but also in part due to reduced plant heat stress compared to a high CO2 world with no geoengineering. All models show that uniform solar geoengineering in G1 cannot simultaneously return regional and global temperature and hydrologic cycle intensity to preindustrial levels.

  8. Geo-Engineering Gone Awry - A New Partial Solution to Fermis Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.; Cathcart, Richard B.

    Another partial solution of Fermi's famous paradox is proposed, based on our increased understanding of geophysics, geo-engineering, and climatology. It has been claimed in the recent astrobiological literature (for instance, in the recent controversial “rare Earth” theory of Ward and Brownlee), that geological activity of a terrestrial planet is an important precondition for the emergence of complex metazoan life forms. Technological civilizations arising on such planets will be, at some point of their histories or another, tempted to embark upon massive geo-engineering projects. If, for some reasons only very recently understood, large-scale geo-engineering is in fact much more dangerous than previously thought, the scenario in which at least some of the extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way self-destruct in this manner gains plausibility. In addition, we speculate on possible reasons, both physical and culturological, which could make such a threat even more pertinent on an average Galactic terrestrial planet than on Earth.

  9. A cooperative clinical study of methadyl acetate. II. Friday-only regimen.

    PubMed

    Ling, W; Klett, J C; Gillis, R D

    1980-08-01

    We conducted an open clinical trial of the feasibility of maintaining heroin addicts by administering methadone hydrochloride on Monday through Thursday, methadyl acetate on Friday, and no drug at all on Saturday or Sunday. Sixty-five patients from four participating clinics were randomly assigned to this schedule and another 71 to a daily methadone comparison group. The patient sample consisted of heroin addicts previously stabilized on a maintenance regimen of methadone. The starting dose of methadyl acetate was identical to the previously established dose of methadone but was flexible within limites thereafter. A greater number of patients in the methadyl acetate group failed to complete the full 40 weeks of the study, particularly because they claimed the medication was not holding. Although this particular use of methadyl acetate on Friday to provide a drug-free weekend does not appear to be widely applicable clinically, the fact that at least some patients in the methadyl acetate group tolerated the schedule with little or no illicit drug use or obvious discomfort suggests that the strategy is viable and should not be discarded. PMID:7406654

  10. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  11. 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of the 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Ames Research Center hosted the conference, which was held at the Four Points Sheraton, Sunnyvale, California, on May 9-11, 2001. The symposium was sponsored by the Mechanisms Education Association. Technology areas covered included bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; and other mechanisms for spacecraft and large space structures.

  12. 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Litty, Edward C. (Compiler); Sevilla, Donald R. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  13. RICIS Symposium 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Integrated Environments for Large, Complex Systems is the theme for the RICIS symposium of 1988. Distinguished professionals from industry, government, and academia have been invited to participate and present their views and experiences regarding research, education, and future directions related to this topic. Within RICIS, more than half of the research being conducted is in the area of Computer Systems and Software Engineering. The focus of this research is on the software development life-cycle for large, complex, distributed systems. Within the education and training component of RICIS, the primary emphasis has been to provide education and training for software professionals.

  14. IAU Symposium 317 Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Raffaele G.

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of the halo yields fundamental information on the formation and evolution of galaxies: this was quite exhaustively discussed at this very important symposium. I present a brief personal summary of the meeting, outlining those points that I found more exciting and suggestive. I also remarked a few areas that were possibly not enough expanded. I found this research field extremely interesting and I think there are great expectations for new developments in the next few years, thanks to the new large spectroscopic surveys and the ESA GAIA satellite.

  15. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  16. Women's technical and professional symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K; Mack, L

    1999-10-01

    This is the fourth LLNL-sponsored Women's Technical and Professional Symposium. This year's theme: ''Excellence through the Millennium,'' focuses on the cutting edge work being done at LLNL and the many contributions of women to our science and technology mission. We hope this Symposium gives each person attending a better idea of the broad scope of the Laboratory's mission and their place within the organization. It is easy to lose sight of the fact that we all work in support of science and technology despite the diversity of our experience. This Symposium provides an opportunity to reflect on our past and to begin to plan our future.

  17. Simulation of how a geo-engineering intervention to restore arctic sea ice might work in practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. S.; Crook, J. A.; Forster, P.; Jarvis, A.; Leedal, D.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Vaughan, N.

    2013-12-01

    The declining trend in annual minimum Arctic sea ice coverage and years of more pronounced drops like 2007 and 2012 raise the prospect of an Arctic Ocean largely free of sea ice in late summer and the potential for a climate crisis or emergency. In a novel computer simulation, we treated one realisation of a climate model (HadGEM2) as the real world and tried to restore its Arctic sea ice by the rapid deployment of geo-engineering with emission of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere. The objective was to restore the annual minimum Arctic sea ice coverage to levels seen in the late twentieth century using as little geo-engineering as possible. We took intervention decisions as one might do in the real world: by committee, using a limited set of uncertain 'observations' from our simulated world and using models and control theory to plan the best intervention strategy for the coming year - so learning as we went and being thrown off course by future volcanoes and technological breakdowns. Uncertainties in real world observations were simulated by applying noise to emerging results from the climate model. Volcanic forcing of twenty-first century climate was included with the timing and magnitude of the simulated eruptions unknown by the 'geo-engineers' until after the year of the eruption. Monitoring of Arctic sea ice with the option to intervene with SO2 emissions started from 2018 and continued to 2075. Simulated SO2 emissions were made in January-May each year at a latitude of 79o N and an altitude within the range of contemporary tanker aircraft. The magnitude of emissions was chosen annually using a model predictive control process calibrated using results from CMIP5 models (excluding HadGEM2), using the simplified climate model MAGICC and assimilation of emerging annual results from the HadGEM2 'real world'. We found that doubts in the minds of the 'geo-engineers' of the effectiveness and the side effects of their past intervention, and the veracity of the models

  18. Editorial - A critical perspective on geo-engineering for eutrophication management in lakes.

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Mackay, Eleanor; Reitzel, Kasper; Spears, Bryan M

    2016-06-15

    Eutrophication is the primary worldwide water quality issue. Reducing excessive external nutrient loading is the most straightforward action in mitigating eutrophication, but lakes, ponds and reservoirs often show little, if any, signs of recovery in the years following external load reduction. This is due to internal cycling of phosphorus (P). Geo-engineering, which we can here define as activities intervening with biogeochemical cycles to control eutrophication in inland waters, represents a promising approach, under appropriate conditions, to reduce P release from bed sediments and cyanobacteria accumulation in surface waters, thereby speeding up recovery. In this overview, we draw on evidence from this special issue Geoengineering in Lakes, and on supporting literature to provide a critical perspective on the approach. We demonstrate that many of the strong P sorbents in the literature will not be applicable in the field because of costs and other constraints. Aluminium and lanthanum modified compounds are among the most effective compounds for targeting P. Flocculants and ballast compounds can be used to sink cyanobacteria, in the short term. We emphasize that the first step in managing eutrophication is a system analysis that will reveal the main water and P flows and the biological structure of the waterbody. These site specific traits can be significant confounding factors dictating successful eutrophication management. Geo-engineering techniques, considered collectively, as part of a tool kit, may ensure successful management of eutrophication through a range of target effects. In addition, novel developments in modified zeolites offer simultaneous P and nitrogen control. To facilitate research and reduce the delay from concept to market a multi-national centre of excellence is required. PMID:27039034

  19. A comparison of temperature and precipitation responses to different Earth radiation management geoengineering schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, J. A.; Jackson, L. S.; Osprey, S. M.; Forster, P. M.

    2015-09-01

    Earth radiation management has been suggested as a way to rapidly counteract global warming in the face of a lack of mitigation efforts, buying time and avoiding potentially catastrophic warming. We compare six different radiation management schemes that use surface, troposphere, and stratosphere interventions in a single climate model in which we projected future climate from 2020 to 2099 based on RCP4.5. We analyze the surface air temperature responses to determine how effective the schemes are at returning temperature to its 1986-2005 climatology and analyze precipitation responses to compare side effects. We find crop albedo enhancement is largely ineffective at returning temperature to its 1986-2005 climatology. Desert albedo enhancement causes excessive cooling in the deserts and severe shifts in tropical precipitation. Ocean albedo enhancement, sea-spray geoengineering, cirrus cloud thinning, and stratospheric SO2 injection have the potential to cool more uniformly, but cirrus cloud thinning may not be able to cool by much more than 1 K globally. We find that of the schemes potentially able to return surface air temperature to 1986-2005 climatology under future greenhouse gas warming, none has significantly less severe precipitation side effects than other schemes. Despite different forcing patterns, ocean albedo enhancement, sea-spray geoengineering, cirrus cloud thinning, and stratospheric SO2 injection all result in large scale tropical precipitation responses caused by Hadley cell changes and land precipitation changes largely driven by thermodynamic changes. Widespread regional scale changes in precipitation over land are significantly different from the 1986-2005 climatology and would likely necessitate significant adaptation despite geoengineering.

  20. Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, A.; Kokkola, H.; Partanen, A.-I.; Niemeier, U.; Timmreck, C.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hakkarainen, H.; Korhonen, H.

    2015-08-01

    Both explosive volcanic eruptions, which emit sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, and stratospheric geoengineering via sulfur injections can potentially cool the climate by increasing the amount of scattering particles in the atmosphere. Here we employ a global aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to study the radiative and climate impacts of an erupting volcano during solar radiation management (SRM). According to our simulations, the radiative impacts of an eruption and SRM are not additive: in the simulated case of concurrent eruption and SRM, the peak increase in global forcing is about 40 % lower compared to a corresponding eruption into a clean background atmosphere. In addition, the recovery of the stratospheric sulfate burden and forcing was significantly faster in the concurrent case since the sulfate particles grew larger and thus sedimented faster from the stratosphere. In our simulation where we assumed that SRM would be stopped immediately after a volcano eruption, stopping SRM decreased the overall stratospheric aerosol load. For the same reasons, a volcanic eruption during SRM lead to only about 1/3 of the peak global ensemble-mean cooling compared to an eruption under unperturbed atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, the global cooling signal was seen only for 12 months after the eruption in the former scenario compared to over 40 months in the latter. In terms of the global precipitation rate, we obtain a 36 % smaller decrease in the first year after the eruption and again a clearly faster recovery in the concurrent eruption and SRM scenario. We also found that an explosive eruption could lead to significantly different regional climate responses depending on whether it takes place during geoengineering or into an unperturbed background atmosphere. Our results imply that observations from previous large eruptions, such as Mt Pinatubo in 1991, are not directly applicable when estimating the potential consequences of a volcanic eruption

  1. Research symposium proceedings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    THE research symposium was organized to present the cutting edge research for PET by individuals from leading institutions throughout the world. The Institute for Clinical PET (ICP) has focused its annual meeting on the clinical applications of PET.

  2. A multi-model assessment of the efficacy of sea spray geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, K. J.; Carslaw, K. S.; Fan, T.; Mann, G. W.; Hill, A.; Stier, P.; Zhang, K.; Tost, H.

    2012-03-01

    Artificially increasing the albedo of marine clouds by the mechanical emission of sea spray aerosol has been proposed as a geoengineering technique to slow the warming caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A previous global model study found that only modest increases and sometimes even decreases in cloud drop number (CDN) concentrations would result from plausible emission scenarios. Here we extend that work to examine the conditions under which decreases in CDN can occur, and use three independent global models to quantify maximum achievable CDN changes. We find that decreases in CDN can occur when at least three of the following conditions are met: the injected particle number is <100 cm-3, the injected diameter is >250-300 nm, the background aerosol loading is large (≥150 cm-3) and the in-cloud updraught velocity is low (<0.2 ms-1). With lower background loadings and/or increased updraught velocity, significant increases in CDN can be achieved. None of the global models predict a decrease in CDN as a result of geoengineering, although there is considerable diversity in the calculated efficiency of geoengineering, which arises from the diversity in the simulated background aerosol distributions. All three models show a small dependence of geoengineering efficiency on the injected particle size and the geometric standard deviation of the injected mode. However, the achievability of significant cloud drop enhancements is strongly dependent on the cloud updraught speed. With an updraught speed of 0.1 ms-1 a global mean CDN of 375 cm-3 (previously estimated to cancel the forcing caused by CO2 doubling) is achievable in only about 50 % of cloudy grid boxes irrespective of the amount of aerosol injected. But at 0.2 ms-1 a CDN of 375-3 becomes achievable everywhere. Updraught speeds of less than 0.2 ms-1 are common in low-level clouds. Thus, a cloud drop concentration of 375 cm-3 cannot be attained uniformly, regardless of the number of injected particles.

  3. Global and Regional Climate Responses Solar Radiation Management: Results from a climateprediction.net Geoengineering Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, Katharine; Allen, Myles; Ingram, William; Keith, David; Granger Morgan, M.

    2010-05-01

    To date modeling studies suggest that, while significant hydrological anomalies could result from the artificial addition of reflecting aerosols in the stratosphere for the purpose of solar radiation management (SRM), even at the regional level such a geoengineered world would bear a much closer resemblance to a low CO2 world, than to an unmodified high CO2 world. These previous modeling studies have generally compared one or two SRM forcing scenarios to various business-as-usual controls. However, such approaches cannot provide much information about regional sensitivities to the levels of SRM that might realistically result. Should engaging in SRM every be seriously contemplated, such regional analysis of a range of realistic scenarios will be an essential input to any process of geopolitical decision-making. Here we present the results from a large-ensemble experiment that used the HadCM3L GCM, implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 135 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. Scenarios were tested using ten-member subensembles which made small perturbations to initial conditions. All simulations use identical standard settings of model physics parameters and are initiated from historically-forced runs from 1920-2005. A total of 7,331 simulations of the years 2000-2080 were performed for this experiment using computing resources donated by the general public. Our analysis of regional temperature and precipitation anomalies, normalized to account for variability, shows that SRM compensations for anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing do generally return regional climates closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios. However, we find that the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. As the amount of SRM increases to compensate

  4. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive

  5. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  6. Risk Communication and Public Education in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada on the 10th Anniversary of the "Black Friday" Tornado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Boehm, R. Denise; Cook, M. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    In July 1997, on the 10th anniversary of the great "Black Friday" Tornado, city officials of Edmonton, the print and broadcast media, agencies dealing in emergency management, and the national weather organisation recounted stories of the 1987, F5 tornado that struck Edmonton on a holiday weekend. The information campaign also presented…

  7. 76 FR 22899 - Federal Health IT Strategic Plan: 2011-2015 Open Comment Period Extended Until Friday, May 6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Federal Health IT Strategic Plan: 2011-2015 Open Comment Period Extended Until Friday...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Health IT Strategic Plan: 2011-2015 (``the Plan'') ] was posted on the ONC... considered, you must submit your comment via the Federal Health IT Buzz Blog:...

  8. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, a great discovery emerged at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. A plethora of new precision data had already by then been collected by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC, providing further extensive support for the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics. But what now appeared was the first evidence for what was not only the last unverified prediction of the Standard Model, but also perhaps the most decisive one: the prediction made already in 1964 of a unique scalar boson required by the theory of François Englert and Peter Higgs on how fundamental particles acquire mass. At that moment in 2012, it seemed particularly appropriate to start planning a gathering of world experts in particle physics to take stock of the situation and try to answer the challenging question: what next? By May 2013, when the LHC Nobel Symposium was held at the Krusenberg Mansion outside Uppsala in Sweden, the first signs of a great discovery had already turned into fully convincing experimental evidence for the existence of a scalar boson of mass about 125 GeV, having properties compatible with the 50-year-old prediction. And in October 2013, the evidence was deemed so convincing that the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to Englert and Higgs for their pioneering work. At the same time the search at the LHC for other particles, beyond those predicted by the Standard Model, with heavier masses up to—and in some cases beyond—1 TeV, had provided no positive result. The triumph of the Standard Model seems resounding, in particular because the mass of the discovered scalar boson is such that, when identified with the Higgs boson, the Standard Model is able to provide predictions at energies as high as the Planck mass, although at the price of accepting that the vacuum would be metastable. However, even if there were some feelings of triumph, the ambience at the LHC Nobel Symposium was more one of

  9. Impacts of light shading and nutrient enrichment geo-engineering approaches on the productivity of a stratified, oligotrophic ocean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hardman-Mountford, Nick J; Polimene, Luca; Hirata, Takafumi; Brewin, Robert J W; Aiken, Jim

    2013-12-01

    Geo-engineering proposals to mitigate global warming have focused either on methods of carbon dioxide removal, particularly nutrient fertilization of plant growth, or on cooling the Earth's surface by reducing incoming solar radiation (shading). Marine phytoplankton contribute half the Earth's biological carbon fixation and carbon export in the ocean is modulated by the actions of microbes and grazing communities in recycling nutrients. Both nutrients and light are essential for photosynthesis, so understanding the relative influence of both these geo-engineering approaches on ocean ecosystem production and processes is critical to the evaluation of their effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between light and nutrient availability on productivity in a stratified, oligotrophic subtropical ocean ecosystem using a one-dimensional water column model coupled to a multi-plankton ecosystem model, with the goal of elucidating potential impacts of these geo-engineering approaches on ecosystem production. We find that solar shading approaches can redistribute productivity in the water column but do not change total production. Macronutrient enrichment is able to enhance the export of carbon, although heterotrophic recycling reduces the efficiency of carbon export substantially over time. Our results highlight the requirement for a fuller consideration of marine ecosystem interactions and feedbacks, beyond simply the stimulation of surface blooms, in the evaluation of putative geo-engineering approaches. PMID:24132201

  10. Impacts of light shading and nutrient enrichment geo-engineering approaches on the productivity of a stratified, oligotrophic ocean ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hardman-Mountford, Nick J.; Polimene, Luca; Hirata, Takafumi; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Aiken, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Geo-engineering proposals to mitigate global warming have focused either on methods of carbon dioxide removal, particularly nutrient fertilization of plant growth, or on cooling the Earth's surface by reducing incoming solar radiation (shading). Marine phytoplankton contribute half the Earth's biological carbon fixation and carbon export in the ocean is modulated by the actions of microbes and grazing communities in recycling nutrients. Both nutrients and light are essential for photosynthesis, so understanding the relative influence of both these geo-engineering approaches on ocean ecosystem production and processes is critical to the evaluation of their effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between light and nutrient availability on productivity in a stratified, oligotrophic subtropical ocean ecosystem using a one-dimensional water column model coupled to a multi-plankton ecosystem model, with the goal of elucidating potential impacts of these geo-engineering approaches on ecosystem production. We find that solar shading approaches can redistribute productivity in the water column but do not change total production. Macronutrient enrichment is able to enhance the export of carbon, although heterotrophic recycling reduces the efficiency of carbon export substantially over time. Our results highlight the requirement for a fuller consideration of marine ecosystem interactions and feedbacks, beyond simply the stimulation of surface blooms, in the evaluation of putative geo-engineering approaches. PMID:24132201

  11. Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anthony C.; Haywood, James M.; Jones, Andy

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the potential climatic effects of geoengineering by sulfate, black carbon and titania injection against a baseline RCP8.5 scenario. We use the HadGEM2-CCS model to simulate scenarios in which the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations is offset by sufficient aerosol injection throughout the 2020-2100 period. We find that the global-mean temperature is effectively maintained at historical levels for the entirety of the period for all three aerosol-injection scenarios, though there is a wide range of side-effects which are discussed in detail. The most prominent conclusion is that although the BC injection rate necessary to produce an equivalent global mean temperature response is much lower, the severity of stratospheric temperature changes (> +70 °C) and precipitation impacts effectively exclude BC from being a viable option for geoengineering. Additionally, while it has been suggested that titania would be an effective particle because of its high scattering efficiency, it also efficiently absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation producing a significant stratospheric warming (> +20 °C). As injection rates and climatic impacts for titania are close to those for sulfate, there appears to be little benefit in terms of climatic influence of using titania when compared to the injection of sulfur dioxide, which has the added benefit of being well-modeled through extensive research that has been carried out on naturally occurring explosive volcanic eruptions.

  12. Sensitivity of Stratospheric Geoengineering with Black Carbon to Aerosol Size and Altitude of Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Shindell, Drew T.; Miller, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon (BC) aerosols using a general circulation model with fixed sea surface temperatures show that the climate effects strongly depend on aerosol size and altitude of injection. 1 Tg BC/a injected into the lower stratosphere would cause little surface cooling for large radii but a large amount of surface cooling for small radii and stratospheric warming of over 60 C. With the exception of small particles, increasing the altitude of injection increases surface cooling and stratospheric warming. Stratospheric warming causes global ozone loss by up to 50% in the small radius case. The Antarctic shows less ozone loss due to reduction of polar stratospheric clouds, but strong circumpolar winds would enhance the Arctic ozone hole. Using diesel fuel to produce the aerosols is likely prohibitively expensive and infeasible. Although studying an absorbing aerosol is a useful counterpart to previous studies involving sulfate aerosols, black carbon geoengineering likely carries too many risks to make it a viable option for deployment.

  13. Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. C.; Haywood, J. M.; Jones, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we examine the potential climatic effects of geoengineering by sulfate, black carbon and titania injection against a baseline RCP8.5 scenario. We use the HadGEM2-CCS model to simulate scenarios in which the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations is offset by sufficient aerosol injection throughout the 2020-2100 period. We find that the global-mean temperature is effectively maintained at historical levels for the entirety of the period for all 3 aerosol-injection scenarios, though there are a wide range of side-effects which are discussed in detail. The most prominent conclusion is that although the BC injection rate necessary to produce an equivalent global mean temperature-response is much lower, the severity of stratospheric temperature changes (> +70 °C) and precipitation impacts effectively exclude BC from being a viable option for geoengineering. Additionally, while it has been suggested that titania would be an effective particle because of its high scattering efficiency, it also efficiently absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation producing a significant stratospheric warming (> +20 °C). As injection rates for titania are close to those for sulfate, there appears little benefit of using titania when compared to injection of sulfur dioxide, which has the added benefit of being well modelled through extensive research that has been carried out on naturally occurring explosive volcanic eruptions.

  14. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6). Simulation Design and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Robock, Alan; Tilmes, S.; Boucher, Olivier; English, J.; Irvine, Peter; Jones, Andrew; Lawrence, M. G.; Maccracken, Michael C.; Muri, Helene O.; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Phipps, Steven; Sillmann, Jana; Storelvmo, Trude; Wang, Hailong; Watanabe, Shingo

    2015-10-27

    We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). This set of experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6), builds on the previous GeoMIP project simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more longwave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1) GeoMIP experiments. This is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.

  15. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): simulation design and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, B.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Boucher, O.; English, J. M.; Irvine, P. J.; Jones, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; MacCracken, M.; Muri, H.; Moore, J. C.; Niemeier, U.; Phipps, S. J.; Sillmann, J.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, H.; Watanabe, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). This set of experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6), builds on the previous GeoMIP simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more longwave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1) GeoMIP experiments. This is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.

  16. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): simulation design and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, B.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Boucher, O.; English, J. M.; Irvine, P. J.; Jones, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; MacCracken, M.; Muri, H.; Moore, J. C.; Niemeier, U.; Phipps, S. J.; Sillmann, J.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, H.; Watanabe, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). This set of experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6), builds on the previous GeoMIP project simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more longwave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1) GeoMIP experiments. This is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.

  17. Geoengineering techniques to mitigate climate change: from futuristic to down-to-earth approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, W. B.

    2006-12-01

    At the present time, strategies to mitigate anthropogenically induced climate change focus on methods intended to decrease emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere in order to prevent atmospheric concentrations of GHGs from reaching dangerous levels. Examples of climate change mitigation strategies include: use higher percentages of low-carbon fuels (such as nuclear); rely more on renewable energy (such as wind); capture and sequester carbon from large stationary sources such as power plants; and increase energy efficiency. Within the past several years, more and more scientists are questioning whether these techniques can be implemented on a global scale quickly enough to avoid dangerous anthropogenic climate change impacts. Further, some signatories to the Kyoto Protocol have already indicated they will not be able to meet their reductions of emissions by the agreed upon date of 2012, and in fact expect to increase their emissions. An important question becomes: Are there other mitigation techniques that could be used in a supplemental manner to help control anthropogenically-induced climate change should those techniques mentioned above fall short? In fact there are a variety of techniques that are commonly called geo-engineering methods (or earth-engineering methods) that could be considered. A number of these techniques were introduced more than a decade ago in an American Academy of Science report published in 1991. However, they but have not received serious attention until recently as scientists have become more concerned about limitations of mitigation strategies presently on the table. In this poster, we will summarize the geo-engineering techniques that have been proposed, both those originally introduced by the National Academy of Science and numerous others that have been developed since then, particularly over the past year or two. We discuss two of these approaches in detail: one is a space-based approach and the other is an earth

  18. Niobium - Proceedings of the international symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on niobium. Topics considered at the symposium included niobium mining, ore processing, uses, fabrication, microstructure, mechanical properties, physical properties, corrosion, physical radiation effects, and marketing.

  19. The 1986 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The 1986 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium will provide a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that will be flown in the future.

  20. Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Harris L.; Beeman, Joseph J.; Barlow, Joel W.; Bourell, David L.; Crawford, Richard H.

    1993-09-01

    This Proceedings of the Fourth Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, held at The University of Texas in Austin on August 9-11, 1993, reaffirms the dynamic nature of the research area. The interest shown by researchers over the wide range of disciplines and subdisciplines that make up solid freeform fabrication (SFF) highlight this technical symposium. The speakers addressed problems in computer software, in machine design, materials synthesis and processing, and SFF in integrated manufacturing. The exponential growth in the research, application, and development of SFF approaches was readily apparent from the attendees from industrial users, SFF machine manufacturers, universities, and government. This symposium is the first where real progress toward structurally sound samples and parts was demonstrated as SFF moves from 'feelie' to 'nonstructural' to 'structural' real parts over a range of materials. This advancement in the state-of-the-art of SFF will continue to drive the exponential growth of the area. The excitement amongst the symposium participants will continue to serve as the catalyst for the continued growth and the availability of solid freeform fabrication. The symposium organizers look forward to its being a continued source of technical exchange among the growing body of researchers involved in SFF.

  1. Symposium Promotes Technological Literacy through STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havice, Bill; Marshall, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a symposium which promotes technological literacy through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The three-day symposium titled, "The Anderson, Oconee, Pickens Symposium on Teaching and Learning STEM Standards for the 21st Century," was held August 4-6, 2008 at the Tri-County Technical College (TCTC)…

  2. The Schoolwide Symposium: A Model for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottingham, Walt

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the first schoolwide symposium at Hendersonville High School (North Carolina) in which, for one week, students and faculty were immersed in the culture and history of the Vietnam War era. Explains that because this first symposium was so successful in gaining student enthusiasm, the school organized three more symposiums. (CMK)

  3. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. LHC Symposium 2003: Summary Talk

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Appel

    2003-08-12

    This summary talk reviews the LHC 2003 Symposium, focusing on expectations as we prepare to leap over the current energy frontier into new territory. We may learn from what happened in the two most recent examples of leaping into new energy territory. Quite different scenarios appeared in those two cases. In addition, they review the status of the machine and experiments as reported at the Symposium. Finally, I suggest an attitude which may be most appropriate as they look forward to the opportunities anticipated for the first data from the LHC.

  5. Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    1999-06-24

    The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.

  6. Frank N. Bash Symposium 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The University of Texas at Austin Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory will be hosting the sixth biennial Frank N. Bash Symposium on the topic of New Horizons in Astronomy, October 18-20, 2015, on The University of Texas at Austin campus. This meeting will bring together young researchers at the cutting edge of astronomy and astrophysics, to promote the exchange of research ideas and visions for the future of astronomy. The symposium will focus on invited review talks, and will include discussions and contributed poster papers from postdocs and students.

  7. Impact of geoengineering with olivine dissolution on the carbon cycle and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, P.; Abrams, J.; Völker, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Hartmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique: the carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification. If details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO2 sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. These upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2 in examples for the rivers Amazon and Congo (Köhler et al., 2010). The secondary effects of the input of silicic acid connected with this approach leads in an ecosystem model (ReCOM2.0 in MITgcm) to species shifts aways from the calcifying species towards diatoms, thus altering the biological carbon pumps. Open ocean dissolution of olivine would sequestrate about 1 Pg CO2 per Pg olivine from which about 8% are caused by changes in the biological pumps (increase export of organic matter, decreased export of CaCO3). The chemical impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine (the increased alkalinity input) is therefore less efficient than dissolution on land, but leads due to different chemical impacts to a higher surface ocean pH enhancement to counteract ocean acidification. We finally investigate open ocean dissolution rates of up to 10 Pg olivine per year corresponding to geoengineering rates which might be of interest in the light of expected future emission (e.g. A2 scenario with emissions rising to 30 PgC/yr in 2100 AD). Those rates would still sequestrate only less than 20% of the emission until 2100, but would require that the nowadays available

  8. Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, A.; Kokkola, H.; Partanen, A.-I.; Niemeier, U.; Timmreck, C.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hakkarainen, H.; Korhonen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Both explosive volcanic eruptions, which emit sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, and stratospheric geoengineering via sulfur injections can potentially cool the climate by increasing the amount of scattering particles in the atmosphere. Here we employ a global aerosol-climate model and an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate changes occurring after an erupting volcano during solar radiation management (SRM). According to our simulations the radiative impacts of the eruption and SRM are not additive and the radiative effects and climate changes occurring after the eruption depend strongly on whether SRM is continued or suspended after the eruption. In the former case, the peak burden of the additional stratospheric sulfate as well as changes in global mean precipitation are fairly similar regardless of whether the eruption takes place in a SRM or non-SRM world. However, the maximum increase in the global mean radiative forcing caused by the eruption is approximately 21 % lower compared to a case when the eruption occurs in an unperturbed atmosphere. In addition, the recovery of the stratospheric sulfur burden and radiative forcing is significantly faster after the eruption, because the eruption during the SRM leads to a smaller number and larger sulfate particles compared to the eruption in a non-SRM world. On the other hand, if SRM is suspended immediately after the eruption, the peak increase in global forcing caused by the eruption is about 32 % lower compared to a corresponding eruption into a clean background atmosphere. In this simulation, only about one-third of the global ensemble-mean cooling occurs after the eruption, compared to that occurring after an eruption under unperturbed atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, the global cooling signal is seen only for the 12 months after the eruption in the former scenario compared to over 40 months in the latter. In terms of global precipitation rate, we obtain a 36 % smaller decrease in the

  9. The Third International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology: Symposium proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers from the symposium are presented that are relevant to the generation, detection, and use of the terahertz spectral region for space astronomy and remote sensing of the Earth's upper atmosphere. The program included thirteen sessions covering a wide variety of topics including solid-state oscillators, power-combining techniques, mixers, harmonic multipliers, antennas and antenna arrays, submillimeter receivers, and measurement techniques.

  10. Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Cole, Jason; Curry, Charles L.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. To study rice and maize production changes in China, we used results from 10 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. G2 prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% a-1 increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2) for 50 years. We first evaluated the DSSAT model using 30 years (1978-2007) of daily observed weather records and agriculture practices for 25 major agriculture provinces in China and compared the results to observations of yield. We then created three sets of climate forcing for 42 locations in China for DSSAT from each climate model experiment: (1) 1pctCO2, (2) G2, and (3) G2 with constant CO2 concentration (409 ppm) and compared the resulting agricultural responses. In the DSSAT simulations: (1) Without changing management practices, the combined effect of simulated climate changes due to geoengineering and CO2 fertilization during the last 15 years of solar reduction would change rice production in China by -3.0 ± 4.0 megaton (Mt) (2.4 ± 4.0%) as compared with 1pctCO2 and increase Chinese maize production by 18.1 ± 6.0 Mt (13.9 ± 5.9%). (2) The termination of geoengineering shows negligible impacts on rice production but a 19.6 Mt (11.9%) reduction of maize production as compared to the last 15 years of geoengineering. (3) The CO2 fertilization effect compensates for the deleterious impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation due to geoengineering on rice production, increasing rice production by 8.6 Mt. The elevated CO2 concentration enhances maize production in G2, contributing 7.7 Mt (42.4%) to the total increase. Using the DSSAT crop model, virtually all of the climate models agree on the sign of the responses, even though

  11. The Hydrological Sensitivity to Global Warming and Solar Geoengineering Derived from Thermodynamic Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Kleidon, Alex; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Renner, Maik

    2015-01-16

    We derive analytic expressions of the transient response of the hydrological cycle to surface warming from an extremely simple energy balance model in which turbulent heat fluxes are constrained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power. For a given magnitude of steady-state temperature change, this approach predicts the transient response as well as the steady-state change in surface energy partitioning and the hydrologic cycle. We show that the transient behavior of the simple model as well as the steady state hydrological sensitivities to greenhouse warming and solar geoengineering are comparable to results from simulations using highly complex models. Many of the global-scale hydrological cycle changes can be understood from a surface energy balance perspective, and our thermodynamically-constrained approach provides a physically robust way of estimating global hydrological changes in response to altered radiative forcing.

  12. Geo-engineering Evaluation with Prime Consideration to Liquefaction Potential for Eskisehir City (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyuncu, N. Pínar; Ulusay, Resat

    In Turkey, cities are growing in importance and urban areas are expanding rapidly. Eskisehir is one of the highly urbanized and industrialized cities of Turkey. In this study, the city is selected for geo-engineering assessments to be considered in future urban planning due to its ground and seismotectonic conditions. Seismic hazard analyses indicated that magnitude of a probable earthquake and PGA associated with the closest fault may be about 6.4 and 300 gal, respectively. Liquefaction assessments suggest that shallow-seated sand layers, particularly near to the meanders of a river flowing through the city have moderate-to-high liquefaction susceptibility. In addition, GIS-aided engineering geological map of the city center are constructed and some recommendations are presented.

  13. Modifications of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation by a Geoengineering Perturbation of the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, V.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of geoengineering via stratospheric sulfate aerosol on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Chemistry Climate Model. We performed four 30-year simulations with a continuous injection of sulfur dioxide on the equator at 0 degree longitude. The four simulations differ by the amount of sulfur dioxide injected (5Tg per year and 2.5 Tg per year) and the altitude of the injection (16km-25km and 22km-25km). We find that such an injection dramatically alters the quasi-biennial oscillation, prolonging the phase of easterly shear with respect to the control simulation. In the case of maximum perturbation, i.e. highest stratospheric aerosol burden, the lower tropical stratosphere is locked into a permanent westerly QBO phase. This locked QBO westerly phase is caused by the increased aerosol heating and associated warming in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  14. Ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term Solar Radiation Management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks such as ozone changes under this scenario. Including the composition changes, we find large reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, with implications for vitamin D production, and increases in surface ozone concentrations, both of which could be important for human health. We highlight that both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone changes should be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  15. Assessing the controllability of Arctic sea ice extent by sulfate aerosol geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. S.; Crook, J. A.; Jarvis, A.; Leedal, D.; Ridgwell, A.; Vaughan, N.; Forster, P. M.

    2015-02-01

    In an assessment of how Arctic sea ice cover could be remediated in a warming world, we simulated the injection of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere making annual adjustments to injection rates. We treated one climate model realization as a surrogate "real world" with imperfect "observations" and no rerunning or reference to control simulations. SO2 injection rates were proposed using a novel model predictive control regime which incorporated a second simpler climate model to forecast "optimal" decision pathways. Commencing the simulation in 2018, Arctic sea ice cover was remediated by 2043 and maintained until solar geoengineering was terminated. We found quantifying climate side effects problematic because internal climate variability hampered detection of regional climate changes beyond the Arctic. Nevertheless, through decision maker learning and the accumulation of at least 10 years time series data exploited through an annual review cycle, uncertainties in observations and forcings were successfully managed.

  16. Effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geo-engineering on cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebbeler, Miriam; Lohmann, Ulrike; Feichter, Johann

    2012-12-01

    Cooling the Earth through the injection of sulphate into the stratosphere is one of the most discussed geo-engineering (GE) schemes. Stratospheric aerosols can sediment into the troposphere, modify the aerosol composition and thus might impact cirrus clouds. We use a global climate model with a physically based parametrization for cirrus clouds in order to investigate possible microphysical and dynamical effects. We find that enhanced stratospheric aerosol loadings as proposed by several GE approaches will likely lead to a reduced ice crystal nucleation rate and thus optically thinner cirrus clouds. These optically thinner cirrus clouds exert a strong negative cloud forcing in the long-wave which contributes by 60% to the overall net GE forcing. This shows that indirect effects of stratospheric aerosols on cirrus clouds may be important and need to be considered in order to estimate the maximum cooling derived from stratospheric GE.

  17. Learning on the Job. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains two papers from a symposium on learning on the job. "Professional Crisis Workers: Impact of Repeated Exposure to Human Pain and Destructiveness" (Lynn Atkinson-Tovar) examines the following topics: (1) the secondary and vicarious traumatic stress disorder that affects many professional crisis workers who are repeatedly…

  18. Symposium on Dental Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W., Ed.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This document presents papers, critiques, and comments from a symposium which assessed the current status of preventive dental behavior. The field was divided into the following three major areas: (a) mass media programs, (b) school health programs, and (c) effect of the private practitioner. Each author was asked to review the literature, provide…

  19. Learning and Job Satisfaction. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on learning and job satisfaction. "The Relationship Between Workplace Learning and Job Satisfaction in United States Small to Mid-Sized Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden) reports findings that revealed sufficient evidence to conclude that learning is pervasive in the small to mid-sized businesses studied;…

  20. Learning at the Top. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on learning at the top that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Learning at the Top: An Investigation of Nonprofit CEOs' (Chief Executive Officers') Learning Experiences" (John J. Sherlock) reports on a study that used Mezirow's theory of adult learning as…

  1. SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION

    SciTech Connect

    JOHN C WALKER

    2011-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play key roles in many aspects of plant biology, including control of cell division, pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, pattern formation, hormonal responses, and abiotic and biotic responses to environmental signals. A Symposium on Plant Protein Phosphorylation was hosted on the Columbia campus of the University of Missouri from May 26-28, 2010. The symposium provided an interdisciplinary venue at which scholars studying protein modification, as it relates to a broad range of biological questions and using a variety of plant species, presented their research. It also provided a forum where current international challenges in studies related to protein phosphorylation could be examined. The symposium also stimulated research collaborations through interactions and networking among those in the research community and engaged students and early career investigators in studying issues in plant biology from an interdisciplinary perspective. The proposed symposium, which drew 165 researchers from 13 countries and 21 States, facilitated a rapid dissemination of acquired knowledge and technical expertise regarding protein phosphorylation in plants to a broad range of plant biologists worldwide.

  2. Symposium: What Is College English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lynn Z.; White, Edward M.; Enoch, Jessica; Hawk, Byron

    2013-01-01

    This symposium explores the role(s) College English has (or has not) had in the scholarly work of four scholars. Lynn Bloom explores the many ways College English influenced her work and the work of others throughout their scholarly lives. Edward M. White examines four articles he has published in College English and draws connections between…

  3. Black Women in Film Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Describes a symposium sponsored in April of last year by the Afro-American and American Studies Departments at Boston University on "Black Image in Films, Stereotyping and Self-Perception"; participants included Susan Batson, Cynthia Belgrave, Ruby Dee, Beah Richards, and Cicely Tyson. (Author/JM)

  4. Technological Change and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on technological change and human resource development. "New Technologies, Cognitive Demands, and the Implications for Learning Theory" (Richard J. Torraco) identifies four specific characteristics of the tasks involved in using new technologies (contingent versus deterministic tasks, distancing…

  5. Eleventh European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-08-01

    The biannual Symposium includes all aspects of cosmic ray research. The scientific program was organized under three main headings: cosmic rays in the heliosphere, cosmic rays in the interstellar and extragalactic space, and properties of high-energy interactions as studied by cosmic rays. Selected short communications out of 114 contributed papers were indexed separately for the INIS database.

  6. Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were those of…

  7. 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daelemans, Gerard (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Space Experiment Module (SEM), and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  8. Foreign Language "Think Tank" Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kathleen H.

    At the Foreign Language"Think Tank" Symposium of April 1975, the following major problems of community college foreign language teachers were identified: (1) low enrollment; (2) attrition; (3) low achievers; (4) articulation with universities; and (5) lack of interest. Suggested solutions included: (Problem 1) advertisement, a foreign language…

  9. Copyright Law Symposium. No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, New York, NY.

    This book presents the five national prizewinning papers in the twenty-third copyright law symposium conducted by the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). Titles of the papers are "The USSR Joins the Universal Copyright Convention" (first prize), "Copyright Misuse: Thirty Years Waiting for the Other Shoe" (second prize),…

  10. Cross-Cultural HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The first of three papers from this symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD), "Determinants of Supply of Technical Training Opportunities for Human Capital Development in Kenya" (Moses Waithanji Ngware, Fredrick Muyia Nafukho) reports findings from interviews of technical training institute department heads in Kenya who…

  11. Women and Career Development. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Three papers comprise this symposium on women and career development. "Enhancing the Career Success of Women Faculty: Mentoring as a Human Resource Development (HRD) Initiative in Higher Education" (Sharon K. Gibson) explores mentoring of women faculty, focusing on the key dimensions of roles and functions, outcomes, gender, and formal and…

  12. Different Ways of Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on different ways of learning. "How Engineers Learn in the Face of Organizational Change" (Robert Reardon) reports on a qualitative study during which nine engineers described how they learned to perform their altered roles after a major reorganization. The study findings supported current…

  13. A Multi-Model Examination of Climate Extremes in an Idealized Geoengineering Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, C.; Sillmann, J.; Bronaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature and precipitation extremes in an idealized climate engineering experiment are examined as part of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). In GeoMIP experiment G1, an instantaneous quadrupling of CO2 from its preindustrial control value is offset by a reduction in solar irradiance. Significant changes in the probability density functions of anomalies of monthly surface temperature T and precipitation P were found between G1 and control simulations, featuring an extension of the high-T tail over land, of the low-T tail over ocean, and a shift of P to drier conditions. Using daily model output, we analyzed the frequency of extreme events, such as the coldest night (TNn), warmest day (TXx), and maximum 5-day precipitation amount, and duration indicators such as cold and warm spells and consecutive dry days. The strong heating of the northern high latitudes simulated under CO2 quadrupling is much alleviated under G1, but a significant warming remains, particularly for TNn compared to TXx. Rapid responses tied to land-atmosphere surface energy balance and biogeochemical processes lead to regional increases in absorbed solar radiation at the surface, preferentially increasing monthly mean and maximum daily temperatures over Northern Hemisphere land in summer. Conversely, a cooling of the tropical oceans is reflected in both TNn and TXx, causing a marked increase in cold spell duration. Globally, G1 is more effective in reducing changes in temperature extremes compared to precipitation extremes. Compared to changes in mean values under G1, precipitation extremes are reduced more effectively than means; however, the opposite is true of temperature extremes. The results of our study underline that despite the by-design global efficacy of geoengineering, significant regional disparities in climate change persist, particularly with respect to climate extremes

  14. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt

    2012-09-13

    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats

  15. Antarctic Pumpdown---a New Geoengineering Concept for Capturing and Storing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beget, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Growing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are increasing global temperatures. This is projected to impact human society in negative ways. Multiple geoengineering approaches have been suggested that might counteract problems created by greenhouse warming, but geoengineering itself can be problematic as some proposed methods would pose environmental risks to the oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere. I propose a new approach that would remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in the cryosphere. Carbon dioxide would be captured by seeding the atmosphere over a designated small region of central Antarctica with monoethanolamine (MEA), a well known compound commonly used for CO2 capture in submarines and industrial processes. Monoethanolamine captures and retains carbon dioxide until it encounters water. Because MEA crystals are stable when dry, they would fall from the atmosphere just in the local area where the seeding is done, and they would be naturally buried by snowfalls and preserved in the upper parts of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where thawing does not occur. The carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere by this process could reside safely in this geologic reservoir for thousands of years, based on known flow characteristic of the ice sheet. Also, carbon dioxide stored in this way could be recovered in the future by drilling into the ice sheet to the frozen storage zone. The CO2 Antarctic Pumpdown (CAP) concept could potentially be used to stabilize or reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and then to store the carbon dioxide safely and inexpensively in a stable geologic reservoir

  16. ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF GEOENGINEERING: A Review for Developing a Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Lynn M; Jackson, Robert B; Norby, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of activities have been proposed: solar radiation management (SRM), or sunlight reflection methods, which involves reflecting a small percentage of solar light back into space to offset the warming due to greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This report evaluates some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, which include the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth. Therefore, the question considered in this review is whether CDR and SRM methods would exacerbate or alleviate the deleterious impacts on ecosystems associated with climate changes that might occur in the foreseeable future.Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of activities have been proposed: solar radiation management (SRM), or sunlight reflection methods, which involves reflecting a small percentage of solar light back into space to offset the warming due to greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This report evaluates some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, which include the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth. Therefore, the question considered in this review is whether CDR and SRM methods would exacerbate or alleviate the deleterious impacts on ecosystems associated with climate

  17. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the GeoMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glienke, Susanne; Irvine, Peter J.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2015-10-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a mean to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) has simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques. Thus far, the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly analyzed. Here the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment from eight fully coupled Earth system models (ESMs) is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations (abrupt4 × CO2). For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will reduce temperatures relative to abrupt4 × CO2, in high latitudes this will offset increases in NPP. In low latitudes, this cooling relative to the abrupt4 × CO2 simulation decreases plant respiration while having little effect on gross primary productivity, thus increasing NPP. In Central America and the Mediterranean, generally dry regions which are expected to experience increased water stress with global warming, NPP is highest in the G1 experiment for all models due to the easing of water limitations from increased water use efficiency at high-CO2 concentrations and the reduced evaporative demand in a geoengineered climate. The largest differences in the vegetation response are between models with and without a nitrogen cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  18. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists ‘open up’ appraisal of geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth’s climate system, known collectively as ‘geoengineering’, have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely ‘close down’ upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first ‘upstream’ appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately ‘open up’ to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic–deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens’ and the specialists’ deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  19. Identifying the changes of geo-engineering properties of dunites due to weathering utilizing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ündül, Ömer; Tuğrul, Atiye; Özyalın, Şenol; Halil Zarif, İ.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering phenomena have an important role in many construction facilities with varying depths and grades. Due to the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of weathering profiles of some rocks, uncertainities exist in determining the geo-engineering properties. Geo-electrical studies have been utilized to overcome such uncertainities for various subsurface conditions including the determination of boundaries between weathered and unweathered parts of different rock types. In this study, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) results were correlated with conventional methods in determining the effects of weathering on the geo-engineering properties of dunites. During the research, weathering grades were determined by field studies including discontinuity spacings, aperture and properties of fill materials. The detailed petrographical studies, determination of petrophysical properties (e.g. water absorption and effective porosity) and mechanical properties (e.g. unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) constitute the laboratory studies. ERT studies were carried out in a row of sixty electrodes with electrode spacings of 0.5 m utilizing a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. According to the comparison of the inversion model sections with the weathering profiles obtained by field and laboratory studies it is concluded that the use of ERT with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration supplies comparable data for wider subsurface areas from the view of weathering and its effect on geo-engineering properties of dunites. In addition, ERT techniques are very useful where conventional techniques are inadequate in determining the full weathering profile.

  20. Impact of Very Short-lived Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance and UV radiation in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Chance, K.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of BrO from very short-lived (VSL) source species on stratospheric ozone is investigated for a hypothetical geo-engineered atmosphere in 2040, assuming the injection of sulfuric acid aerosols. An estimated amount of stratospheric halogens from VSL sources based on satellite observations, model results and previous studies, result in lower column ozone for nearly all seasons and nearly all latitudes, and up to 4% in summer mid- and high latitudes. Considering an upper limit of VSL sources, the annual increase in surface erythemal UV radiation (UV_ERY) due to the decrease in ozone as a result of geo-engineering is 12% and 6% in southern and northern high latitudes, respectively. The increase of UV_ERY due to a reduction of ozone for low and mid latitudes is balanced by the reduction of UV_ERY due to aerosol scattering, if VSL halogen sources are not considered. However, VSL halogens results in additional ozone depletion and in an increase of UV_ERY of up to 5% in spring and fall in mid- and high latitudes as a result of geo-engineering. This study demonstrates that VSL halogens should be considered in models that assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the ozone layer.

  1. Report on the 2009 ESO Fellows Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Eric; West, Michael; Leibundgut, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    The fourth ESO Fellows Symposium took place in Garching from 8-10 June 2009. This year's symposium brought together 28 ESO Fellows from Chile and Germany to meet their colleagues from across the ocean, discuss their research and provide feedback on ESO's Fellowship programme. This year's symposium also included training workshops to enhance the practical skills of ESO Fellows in today's competitive job market.

  2. 38th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 38th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 38th AMs, hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center in Williamsburg, Virginia, was held May 17-19, 2006. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals, tribology, actuators, aircraft mechanisms, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  3. 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is reporting problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 37th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 37th AMS, hosted by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Galveston, Texas, was held May 19, 20 and 21, 2004. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, tribology, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station and Mars Rover mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  4. 39th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 39th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the United States and abroad. The 39th AMS was held in Huntsville, Alabama, May 7-9, 2008. During these 3 days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals and positioning mechanisms, tribology, actuators, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and sensors. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  5. Ninth international symposium on radiopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this Symposium is to provide a forum for those international scientists involved in applying the principles of pharmacology and radiation biology to the development of agents for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The program will highlight state-of-the-art progress in the development of those agents used in conjunction with some form of radiation such as radiopharmaceuticals, radiopaques, photo- and radiosensitizing drugs, and neutron capture agents. An underlying pharmacokinetic parameter associated with all these agents is the need for site-specific delivery to an organ or tumor. Therefore, a major goal of the symposium will be to address those pharmacologic principles for targeting molecules to specific tissue sites. Accordingly, session themes will include receptor-mediated processes, membrane transporters, antibody interactions, metabolic trapping, and oligonucleotide-antisense mechanisms.

  6. XXth Hadron Collider Physics Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In 2009, the Hadron Collider Physics Symposium took place in Evian (France), on the shore of the Geneva Lake, from 16-20 November. It was jointly organised by CERN and the French HEP community (CNRS-IN2P3 and CEA-IRFU). This year's symposium come at an important time for both the Tevatron and LHC communities. It stimulated the completion of analyses for a significant Tevatron data sample, and it allowed an in-depth review of the readiness of the LHC and its detectors just before first collisions. The programme includes sessions on top-quark and electro-weak physics, QCD, B physics, new phenomena, electro-weak symmetry breaking, heavy ions, and the status and commissioning of the LHC machine and its experiments. Conference website : http://hcp2009.in2p3.fr/

  7. The 1975 Ride Quality Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation is presented of papers reported at the 1975 Ride Quality Symposium held in Williamsburg, Virginia, August 11-12, 1975. The symposium, jointly sponsored by NASA and the United States Department of Transportation, was held to provide a forum for determining the current state of the art relative to the technology base of ride quality information applicable to current and proposed transportation systems. Emphasis focused on passenger reactions to ride environment and on implications of these reactions to the design and operation of air, land, and water transportation systems acceptable to the traveling public. Papers are grouped in the following five categories: needs and uses for ride quality technology, vehicle environments and dynamics, investigative approaches and testing procedures, experimental ride quality studies, and ride quality modeling and criteria.

  8. Phased arrays 1985 symposium: Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyskal, H. P.

    1985-08-01

    The Phased Arrays '85 Symposium, sponsored by the Rome Air Development Center, the MITRE Corporation, and the University of Massachusetts, was held at the MITRE Corporation 15 to 18 October and reviewed the state-of-the-art of phased array antenna systems and of the technology for next generation systems. This report contains the full papers which were presented with clearance for unlimited distribution.

  9. Simulation of how a geo-engineering intervention to restore arctic sea ice might work in practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Piers; Jackson, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The declining trend in annual minimum Arctic sea ice coverage and years of more pronounced drops like 2007 and 2012 raise the prospect of an Arctic Ocean largely free of sea ice in late summer and the potential for a climate crisis or emergency. In a novel computer simulation, we treated one realisation of a climate model (HadGEM2) as the real world and tried to restore its Arctic sea ice by the rapid deployment of geo-engineering with emission of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere. The objective was to restore the annual minimum Arctic sea ice coverage to levels seen in the late twentieth century using as little geo-engineering as possible. We took intervention decisions as one might do in the real world: by committee, using a limited set of uncertain "observations" from our simulated world and using models and control theory to plan the best intervention strategy for the coming year - so learning as we went and being thrown off course by future volcanoes and technological breakdowns. Uncertainties in real world observations were simulated by applying noise to emerging results from the climate model. Volcanic radiative forcing of twenty-first century climate was included with the timing and magnitude of the simulated eruptions unknown by the "geo-engineers" until after the year of the eruption. Monitoring of Arctic sea ice with the option to intervene with SO2 emissions started from 2018 and continued to 2075. Simulated SO2 emissions were made in January-May each year at a latitude of 79o N and an altitude within the range of contemporary tanker aircraft. The magnitude of emissions was chosen annually using a model predictive control process calibrated using results from CMIP5 models (excluding HadGEM2), using the simplified climate model MAGICC and assimilation of emerging annual results from the HadGEM2 "real world". We found that doubts in the minds of the "geo-engineers" of the radiative effect of their interventions, the side effects of their past interventions

  10. FIRST BH COCHRANE SYMPOSIUM HELD

    PubMed Central

    Mahmic-Kaknjo, Mersiha; Novo, Ahmed; Krleza-Jeric, Karmela

    2016-01-01

    The first BH Cochrane Symposium was held on 12 October 2015 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH), organized by the Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Healthcare in Federation of BH (AKAZ) and Medical Faculty University of Sarajevo. A group of ten national and international experts presented the Cochrane organization and systematic reviews, as well as the IMPACT Observatory, development of guidelines in BH, and the role of AKAZ. Examples of the development and use of Cochrane reviews in evidence informed decision making in health as well as research integrity were presented and discussed. Major BH decision makers and interested professionals from all over BH participated in a symposium and its lively discussion, especially from the perspective of Cochrane and its activities in BH, and the collaboration with the Croatian Cochrane. It can be expected that this symposium will inspire further growth of participation and use of Cochrane in BH and increase the awareness of various aspects of evidence informed medicine and research integrity. PMID:27047274

  11. New Results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Kravitz, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) was designed to determine robust climate system model responses to Solar Radiation Management (SRM). While mitigation (reducing greenhouse gases emissions) is the most effective way of reducing future climate change, SRM (the deliberate modification of incoming solar radiation) has been proposed as a means of temporarily alleviating some of the effects of global warming. For society to make informed decisions as to whether SRM should ever be implemented, information is needed on the benefits, risks, and side effects, and GeoMIP seeks to aid in that endeavor. GeoMIP has organized four standardized climate model simulations involving reduction of insolation or increased amounts of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to counteract increasing greenhouse gases. Thirteen comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation models have participated in the project so far. GeoMIP is a 'CMIP Coordinated Experiment' as part of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and has been endorsed by SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate). GeoMIP has held three international workshops and has produced a number of recent journal articles. GeoMIP has found that if increasing greenhouse gases could be counteracted with insolation reduction, the global average temperature could be kept constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform. The tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without SRM. If SRM were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5-10 times the rates from gradual global warming. SRM combined with CO2 fertilization would have small impacts on rice production in China, but would increase maize production

  12. The 30th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek; Mahbub, Selim; Matevosyan, Hrayr; Thomas, Anthony; Williams, Anthony; Young, Ross; Zanotti, James

    Lattice 2012, the 30th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory was held in Cairns, Australia from Sunday the 24th of June to Friday the 29th June 2012. It was held at the Cairns Convention Centre, providing world-class facilities in a beautiful location. Fine weather and easy access to world heritage attractions including the Great Barrier Reef and the Wet Tropics Rainforests made for an extraordinary experience. The conference was organised by the Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM) in the School of Chemistry & Physics at the University of Adelaide. More than 285 participants from around the world attended the symposium. The scientific program contained 22 plenary talks and 248 parallel contributions including posters. Most of these are recorded in this proceedings. For 30 years, the Lattice meeting has provided researchers from around the world with an annual forum at which to disseminate and discuss ideas, developments and opportunities in the study of relativistic quantum fields regulated on a spacetime lattice. It fosters the exchange of ideas, networking, and builds relationships between researchers that are essential in facilitating rapid progress and the creation of new knowledge. The program included plenary talks, parallel talks and poster presentations on Algorithms and machines, Applications beyond QCD, Chiral symmetry, Hadron spectroscopy and interactions, Hadron structure, Nonzero temperature and density, Standard model parameters and renormalization, Theoretical developments, Vacuum structure and confinement and Weak decays and matrix elements. The International Advisory Committee provided excellent guidance in planning the scientific program of the conference and we thank the Committee for their important contributions. Thanks also to our presenters for the time and effort they put into preparing their talks and their proceedings. Many thanks to our Conference Secretariat, Sharon Johnson, Silvana Santucci

  13. Climate Response to a Geo-Engineered Brightening of Subtropical Boundary Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, S. A.; Ming, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Enhancing the albedo of low-level marine clouds by injecting them with sea salt aerosols has been proposed as a means of mitigating rising temperatures due to anthropogenic climate change. Using a coupled mixed layer ocean-atmospheric general circulation model, we study the climate response to such a geo-engineering scheme, in which three marine subtropical regions containing persistent stratocumulus decks are seeded. It is found that a five fold increase in the sea-salt aerosol concentration below 800 hPa in these three regions, located in the North Pacific (NP), South Pacific (SP), and South Atlantic (SA), results in an average radiative flux perturbation of -8.6 W m-2 within the seeded regions and a global mean of -0.7 W m-2. Despite the highly localized nature of the seeding, resulting cooling is spread not only to other parts of the Tropics but also to the mid- and high latitudes, indicating that significant changes in large-scale circulation take place. The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.53K. Temperature reductions over most of the equatorial Pacific appear to excite enhanced La Niña conditions, with the precipitation response strongly resembling La Niña patterns. The global mean change in precipitation is a 2.2% decrease, in accordance with thermodynamic constraints associated with the global mean temperature decrease. Additionally, local cooling near the equator due to seeding results in a reduction of poleward atmospheric energy transport. Model runs in which only one of NP, SP, or SA is seeded indicate a certain degree of non-linearity in the climate response to cloud seeding, with SP being significantly more potent at reducing temperature than NP or SA; this result is robust to at least one other prior GCM study (Jones et al 2009) of marine deck enhancement geo-engineering. Analysis of the linear sum of the NP, SP, and SA runs indicates a mostly linear response in all latitudes except for the Northern high latitudes, where the linear sum and

  14. Space Transportation Propulsion Technology Symposium. Volume 2: Symposium proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transportation Propulsion Symposium was held to provide a forum for communication within the propulsion technology developer and user communities. Emphasis was placed on propulsion requirements and initiatives to support current, next generation, and future space transportation systems, with the primary objectives of discerning whether proposed designs truly meet future transportation needs and identifying possible technology gaps, overlaps, and other programmatic deficiencies. Key space transportation propulsion issues were addressed through four panels with government, industry, and academia membership. The panels focused on systems engineering and integration; development, manufacturing and certification; operational efficiency; and program development and cultural issues.

  15. The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a continuation of the Get Away Special Symposium convened from 1984 through 1988, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  16. The 1988 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium was held to provide a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that have been flown on shuttle missions and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future. Experiment design and payload integration issues are also examined.

  17. The 21st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    During the symposium technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and automated mechanisms synthesis. A summary of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium panel discussions is included as an appendix. However, panel discussions on robotics for space and large space structures which were held are not presented herein.

  18. The 1987 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelme, Neal (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The 1987 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's symposium provides a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium was on payloads that were flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future.

  19. The Second Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Summaries of the papers presented at the Second Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium are presented. The purpose of the symposium was to present an overwiew of recent developments in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars and to present future international plans.

  20. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2015-08-01

    The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1) Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2) Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1) the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test) and identical variances (F-test); and (2) the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction. PMID:26270671

  1. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2015-01-01

    The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1) Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2) Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1) the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test) and identical variances (F-test); and (2) the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction. PMID:26270671

  2. Stratospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, Peer Johannes; Abraham, Nathan Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term solar radiation management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks for this experiment. While the SRM scheme considered here could offset greenhouse gas induced global mean surface warming, it leads to important changes in atmospheric composition. We find large stratospheric ozone increases that induce significant reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, which would have implications for vitamin D production. In addition, the higher stratospheric ozone levels lead to decreased ozone photolysis in the troposphere. In combination with lower atmospheric specific humidity under SRM, this results in overall surface ozone concentration increases in the idealized G1 experiment. Both UV-B and surface ozone changes are important for human health. We therefore highlight that both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone changes must be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  3. Geomechanical Evaluation of Derinkuyu Antique Underground City and its Implications in Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydan, Ömer; Ulusay, Reşat

    2013-07-01

    Derinkuyu Underground City, located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey, is an important structure not only for its antique and archaeological characteristics, but also as a structure in terms of the long-term stability of underground rock structures excavated by mankind. The authors carried out some observational, experimental and theoretical rock mechanics studies in the region from 1996 in the context of a research project supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan for the assessment of the long-term behaviour of Derinkuyu Underground City, and these studies are still continuing. In addition to the monitoring of the environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture and air pressure, they also installed acoustic emission (AE) and electrical potential (EP) measurement systems to monitor the behaviour and response of the surrounding rock at the fifth and seventh floors of the underground city. In this article, the geology, seismicity and state of stress of the Cappadocia Region, climatic conditions in the underground city and its vicinity, short- and long-term behaviours of the surrounding rock, its index and mechanical properties, and effects of water content and freezing-thawing processes were investigated. The stability of Derinkuyu Underground City was also evaluated using theoretical and numerical methods, and the results were presented. Furthermore, its implications in modern geoengineering are also discussed.

  4. Simulation of the climate effects of a geoengineered stratospheric sulfate cloud with the NASA GEOSCCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, L.; Aquila, V.; Colarco, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Suggested solar radiation management (SRM) methods to mitigate global warming include the injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) in the stratosphere. We present the results from SRM simulation ensemble performed with the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We focus on the response of the stratosphere to a stratospheric SO2 injection. In particular, we investigate the changes of the stratospheric dynamics and composition, and the impact of an increased aerosol layer on ozone recovery. As prescribed for experiment G4 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), we inject 5 Tg/year of SO2 from 2020 to 2070. The location of the injection is the equator at 0° longitude between 16 km and 25 km altitude. After 2070, we interrupt the SO2 injection and simulate the readjustment until 2090. The emissions scenario is RCP4.5, which predicts a radiative forcing of about 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. This is considered a "medium-low" scenario in terms of radiative forcing. GEOSCCM does not include an interactive ocean model, therefore we use the sea surface temperatures forecasted by the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) for RCP4.5.

  5. The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Andrew; Haywood, J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Schmidt, Hauke; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-11

    We have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden termination of geoengineering after 50 years of offsetting a 1% per annum increase in CO2 concentra- tions as simulated by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. The models agree on a rapid rate of global-mean warming following termination, accompanied by increases in global-mean precipitation rate and in plant net primary productivity, and decreases in sea-ice cover. While there is a considerable degree of consensus for the geographical distribution of warming, there is much less of an agreement regarding the patterns of change in the other quantities.

  6. Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include industry development needs and the Office of Commercial Programs strategy, the three-phase program to develop commercial space, Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), key provisions of the Joint Endeavor agreement, current commercial flight experiment requirements, the CCDS expendable launch vehicle program, the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) program, commercial launch dates, payload sponsors, the commercial roles of the Space Station Freedom, and a listing of the Office of Commercial Programs Space Station Freedom payloads.

  7. Spring, 1980, DECUS symposium review

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.J.; Duffy, J.M.; McDonald, W.M.; Oppenheimer, J.L.; Brandt, J.J.; Grant, C.W.; O'Brien, D.W.; VanLehn, A.L.

    1980-10-24

    The Digital Equipment Computer Users Society (DECUS) holds biannual symposia where its membership and the host company can exchange ideas, problems, and solutions. This report by the newly formed DECUS Local User Group at LLL collects information gathered at the Spring '80 symposium in Chicago on April 22-25. Information is presented for the following special interest groups (SIGs): RSX/IAS SIG, VAX/VSM SIG, PASCAL (languages) SIG, networks SIG, TECO SIG, LSI-11 SIG, RT-11 SIG, site manager SIG, and database SIG. (RWR)

  8. Regional Climate Responses To Planetary-Scale Geoengineering Activities, as Modeled Using climateprediction.net/HadCM3L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, K.

    2009-12-01

    Concerns that climate mitigation is occurring too slowly, or that there may be a rapid "climate surprise," have lead to renewed dialogue within the scientific community about cooling the planet through geoengineering, specifically stratospheric albedo modification (SAM). There is little consensus about regional hydrological effects of such activities despite a recent spate of climate modeling studies looking at its potential impacts. Here we present the results from one large-ensemble experiment that used Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 with reduced resolution over the ocean (HadCM3L), implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 54 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. We present normalized regional temperature anomalies versus normalized regional precipitation and subsurface runoff anomalies (for example, see Figure 1) and the results of regression analyses to quantify the relationships between level of stratospheric optical property modification (i.e., geoengineering) and regional hydrology. Results show that while such shortwave compensations for longwave anthropogenic forcings does generally return regional climates to closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios, the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. Regions, such as Eastern China and India, migrate away from their baseline climate states in different ways, illustrating the impossibility of simultaneous stabilization of regional climates. The linearity of the effect of incrementally increasing stratospheric optical depth also varies regionally. Figure 1: Normalized regional temperature and precipitation anomalies (<2020s>-<1990s> and <2070s>-<1990s>) in units of baseline standard deviations for each region). Each grayscale point in-series near the origin

  9. The runaway greenhouse: implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Colin; Watson, Andrew J

    2012-09-13

    The ultimate climate emergency is a 'runaway greenhouse': a hot and water-vapour-rich atmosphere limits the emission of thermal radiation to space, causing runaway warming. Warming ceases only after the surface reaches approximately 1400 K and emits radiation in the near-infrared, where water is not a good greenhouse gas. This would evaporate the entire ocean and exterminate all planetary life. Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse in the past, and we expect that the Earth will in around 2 billion years as solar luminosity increases. But could we bring on such a catastrophe prematurely, by our current climate-altering activities? Here, we review what is known about the runaway greenhouse to answer this question, describing the various limits on outgoing radiation and how climate will evolve between these. The good news is that almost all lines of evidence lead us to believe that is unlikely to be possible, even in principle, to trigger full a runaway greenhouse by addition of non-condensible greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. However, our understanding of the dynamics, thermodynamics, radiative transfer and cloud physics of hot and steamy atmospheres is weak. We cannot therefore completely rule out the possibility that human actions might cause a transition, if not to full runaway, then at least to a much warmer climate state than the present one. High climate sensitivity might provide a warning. If we, or more likely our remote descendants, are threatened with a runaway greenhouse, then geoengineering to reflect sunlight might be life's only hope. Injecting reflective aerosols into the stratosphere would be too short-lived, and even sunshades in space might require excessive maintenance. In the distant future, modifying Earth's orbit might provide a sustainable solution. The runaway greenhouse also remains relevant in planetary sciences and astrobiology: as extrasolar planets smaller and nearer to their stars are detected, some will be in

  10. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes. PMID:26309047

  11. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth’s natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth’s radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth’s climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes. PMID:26309047

  12. Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in

  13. Quantifying the temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on global-mean precipitation in a multi-model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Angus J.; Griffiths, Hannah G.

    2016-03-01

    The reduction in global-mean precipitation when stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is used to counterbalance global warming from increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations has been mainly attributed to the temperature-independent effect of CO2 on atmospheric radiative cooling. We demonstrate here that stratospheric sulphate aerosol itself also acts to reduce global-mean precipitation independent of its effects on temperature. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoenginering on global-mean precipitation is calculated by removing temperature-dependent effects from climate model simulations of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). When sulphate aerosol is injected into the stratosphere at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year the aerosol reduces global-mean precipitation by approximately 0.2 %, though multiple ensemble members are required to separate this effect from internal variability. For comparison, the precipitation reduction from the temperature-independent effect of increasing CO2 concentrations under the RCP4.5 scenario of the future is approximately 0.5 %. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric sulphate aerosol arises from the aerosol’s effect on tropospheric radiative cooling. Radiative transfer calculations show this is mainly due to increasing downward emission of infrared radiation by the aerosol, but there is also a contribution from the stratospheric warming the aerosol causes. Our results suggest climate model simulations of solar dimming can capture the main features of the global-mean precipitation response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

  14. Modelling effects of geoengineering options in response to climate change and global warming: implications for coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, M J C

    2009-12-01

    Climate change will have serious effects on the planet and on its ecosystems. Currently, mitigation efforts are proving ineffectual in reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coral reefs are the most sensitive ecosystems on the planet to climate change, and here we review modelling a number of geoengineering options, and their potential influence on coral reefs. There are two categories of geoengineering, shortwave solar radiation management and longwave carbon dioxide removal. The first set of techniques only reduce some, but not all, effects of climate change, while possibly creating other problems. They also do not affect CO2 levels and therefore fail to address the wider effects of rising CO2, including ocean acidification, important for coral reefs. Solar radiation is important to coral growth and survival, and solar radiation management is not in general appropriate for this ecosystem. Longwave carbon dioxide removal techniques address the root cause of climate change, rising CO2 concentrations, they have relatively low uncertainties and risks. They are worthy of further research and potential implementation, particularly carbon capture and storage, biochar, and afforestation methods, alongside increased mitigation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. PMID:19850527

  15. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F.; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2013-03-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ˜30%.

  16. Impact of very short-lived halogens on stratospheric ozone abundance and UV radiation in a geo-engineered atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Salawitch, R.; Canty, T.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Chance, K.

    2012-08-01

    The impact of very short-lived (VSL) halogenated source species on the ozone layer and surface erythemal ultraviolet radiation (UVERY) is investigated in the context of geo-engineering of climate by stratospheric sulfur injection. For a projected 2040 model atmosphere, consideration of VSL halogens at their upper limit results in lower ozone columns and higher UVERY due to geo-engineering for nearly all seasons and latitudes, with UVERY rising by 12% and 6% in southern and northern high latitudes, respectively. When VSL halogen sources are neglected, future UVERY increases due to declines in ozone column are nearly balanced by reductions of UVERY due to scattering by the higher stratospheric aerosol burden in mid-latitudes. Consideration of VSL sources at their upper limit tips the balance, resulting in annual average increases in UVERY of up to 5% in mid and high latitudes. Therefore, VSL halogens should be considered in models that assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the ozone layer.

  17. Impact of very short-lived halogens on stratospheric ozone abundance and UV radiation in a geo-engineered atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Salawitch, R.; Canty, T.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Chance, K.

    2012-11-01

    The impact of very short-lived (VSL) halogenated source species on the ozone layer and surface erythemal ultraviolet radiation (UVERY) is investigated in the context of geo-engineering of climate by stratospheric sulfur injection. For a projected 2040 model atmosphere, consideration of VSL halogens at their upper limit results in lower ozone columns and higher UVERY due to geo-engineering for nearly all seasons and latitudes, with UVERY rising by 12% and 6% in southern and northern high latitudes, respectively. When VSL halogen sources are neglected, future UVERY increases due to declines in ozone column are nearly balanced by reductions of UVERY due to scattering by the higher stratospheric aerosol burden in mid-latitudes. Consideration of VSL sources at their upper limit tips the balance, resulting in annual average increases in UVERY of up to 5% in mid and high latitudes. Therefore, VSL halogens should be considered in models that assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the ozone layer.

  18. 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for organizing the AMS. Now in its 34th year, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 34th AMS, hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, was held May 10, 11 and 12, 2000. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the vendor fair gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  19. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  20. NASA Space Sciences Symposium-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the symposium was to motivate American Indians and other minority youths and women to select science and engineering as viable career choices, thereby making them available to the technical work force. Other objectives were: (1) to determine how aerospace technology careers and aerospace activities can be made more relevant to minorities and women; (2) to provide an opportunity for key NASA officials to interact with teachers and counselors of the participating schools; (3) to stimulate a greater interest among American Indian organizations and students in NASA's research and development programs; (4) to help NASA's efforts in the recruiting of minorities and women into its work force; and (5) to provide opportunities for minority aerospace scientists and engineers to interact with the minority community, particularly with youths at the junior high school and high school levels.

  1. "Why We Don't Go to School on Fridays": On Youth Participation through Photo Voice in Rural KwaZulu-Natal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Claudia; Stuart, Jean; Moletsane, Relebohile; Nkwanyana, Callistus Bheka

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we draw on the example of the Friday Absenteeism Project, a photo voice project with sixth grade learners in a rural KwaZulu-Natal school, to interrogate the nature of participatory process and cultural production. In so doing, we explore a number of critical issues related to youth participation, including ethics, citizenship and…

  2. A Bundle of Silences: Examining the Racial Representation of Black Founding Fathers of the United States through Glenn Beck's "Founders' Fridays"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett J.; Womac, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the discourse on Black Founding Fathers through Glenn Beck's television show, "Founders' Fridays". According to Beck, this 2010 summer television special was an opportunity to present Black American history in a more nuanced and truthful way. The theoretical framework, silencing the past, is used to…

  3. Symposium. Defunis: The Road Not Taken

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Monrad G.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Presents a symposium on the case of reverse racial discrimination debated in Defunis v. Odegaard. Articles include: Racial Preference and Higher Education: The Larger Context; Affirmative Action and Equal Protection; and Constitutional Limitations on Admissions Procedures and Standards. (PG)

  4. Symposium on Recent Results in Infrared Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at a symposium titled Recent Results in Infrared Astrophysics are set forth. The abstracts emphasize photometric, spectroscopic, polarization, and theoretical results on a broad range of current topics in infrared astrophysics.

  5. Proceedings: EPRI power plant valves symposium 3

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.O. )

    1991-06-01

    The third in a series of on-going activities entitled EPRI Power Plant Valves Symposiums'' was conducted in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 21--23, 1990. The activity was co-sponsored by the Nuclear Power Division and the Generation and Storage Division of EPRI and was hosted by the Duke Power Company, which is headquartered in Charlotte. Approximately 320 attendees, consisting of representatives from the utility industry, valve manufacturers and service organizations, and government and other organizations participated in the symposium. The list of attendees represents an increase of approximately 80% over the attendance of the previous symposium. A total of 40 technical papers were presented in the following major categories of valve technology: control valves; motor operated valves; applications and testing; materials performance; maintenance; check valves. The National Association of Valve Rebuilders (NAVR) provided new and significant support and industry perspective to this symposium.

  6. High consequence operations safety symposium 2: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Isbell, D.

    1998-07-01

    From July 29 to 31, 1997, the Surety Assessment Center at Sandia National Laboratories hosted the second international symposium on High Consequence Operations Safety, HCOSSII. The two and one-half day symposium allowed participants to share strategies, methodologies, and experiences in high consequence engineering and system design. The symposium addressed organizational influences on high consequence safety, assessment and analysis processes, lessons-learned from high consequence events, human factors in safety, and software safety. A special session at the end of the symposium featured a presentation by Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics and Sandia National Laboratories personnel on their joint efforts to establish the International Surety Center for Energy Intensive and High Consequence Systems and Infrastructures.

  7. Proceedings of the drilling technology symposium 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, P.D.; Kastor, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium on drilling technology. Topics covered include: Improvement in rock bit performance; Coring the horizontal hole; Drill pipe failures; and Slim drill horizontal workover system.

  8. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The third Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) was held 12-16 Jul. 1993, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. More than 800 presentations were made, and those abstracts are included in this publication.

  9. THE NATIONAL RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rural Clean Water Program (RCWP) was initiated as an experimental effort to address agricultural nonpoint source pollution problems in rural watersheds across the country. his document contains the technical papers presented at the National RCWP Symposium. hese papers documen...

  10. LOUISIANA EXOTIC INVASIVE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM MX964256

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Louisiana Exotic Invasive Species Symposium will provide a multi-state collaboration among agency representatives, scientists, and the affected public to address the problem of exotic invasive species and to improve coastal environmental conditions in Louisiana.

  11. Symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, E.M.; Gee, G.W.; Nelson, R.W.

    1982-09-01

    This document records the proceedings of a symposium on flow and transport processes in partially saturated groundwater systems, conducted at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on March 22-24, 1982. The symposium was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art of flow and transport modeling for use in licensing low-level nuclear waste repositories in partially saturated zones. The first day of the symposium centered around research in flow through partially saturated systems. Papers were presented with the opportunity for questions following each presentation. In addition, after all the talks, a formal panel discussion was held during which written questions were addressed to the panel of the days speakers. The second day of the Symposium was devoted to solute and contaminant transport in partially saturated media in an identical format. Individual papers are abstracted.

  12. Bolden Speaks at the URC Virtual Symposium

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden delivered a welcome address via video to support the NASA University Research Centers inaugural Virtual Poster Session and Symposium event November 8, 2012. A dive...

  13. The 24th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  14. World Population Day special symposium.

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    This article describes Japan's celebration of World Population Day, and provides excerpts from speeches at the symposium held on July 8, 1998. The symposium, in Tokyo, was attended by about 300 people. The Chairman of JOICFP gave the opening address. The executive director of UNFPA congratulated Japan for its efforts in the field of population awareness and noted Japan's self-sufficiency despite its importation of 40% of its food and most of its raw materials. A keynote address was delivered by the president of CPE and the former UN Secretary General, who stressed income inequities in the 66% of developing countries within the 185 UN member states. The UN has been promoting sustainable development, but is facing the issue of limited arable land and population growth. The Tutsi and Hutus are fighting due to population based issues. The emphasis should be on women's reproductive rights and protection of women's human rights. 1998 is the 50th year of human rights; progress has been made. The UNFPA Goodwill Ambassador spoke about the disparity between the rich and poor in the Philippines. A small donation reaps incredible progress. Manila has high levels of adolescent childbearing. Men appear to be unaware of the disadvantages of childbearing too early. Rural areas are dominated by strict Roman Catholic beliefs. Manila has commercial sex workers who provide services to Japanese men. The 1998 Kato Award was given to women who raised awareness about coercion in the sex trade and female genital mutilation. The economic situation in Japan creates even greater need to promote family planning and reproductive health. PMID:12321788

  15. International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingle, Craig S.

    1990-01-01

    Cryospheric Sciences Program "International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow" (PI, C. Lingle) provided partial support for publication of Annals of Glaciology 36 by the International Glaciological Society. Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed journal. Annals 36, which was published in 2003, contains 39 peer-reviewed and edited papers from the International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow, which was held in Yakutat, Alaska, 10-14 June 2002.

  16. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greatorex, Scott (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes 34 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 14-16, 1996. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  17. The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

    1992-10-01

    The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a continuation of the Get Away Special Symposium convened from 1984 through 1988, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  18. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Kathy R. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This conference publication includes 41 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 16-18, 1995. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  19. The Fifth NASA Symposium on VLSI Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The fifth annual NASA Symposium on VLSI Design had 13 sessions including Radiation Effects, Architectures, Mixed Signal, Design Techniques, Fault Testing, Synthesis, Signal Processing, and other Featured Presentations. The symposium provides insights into developments in VLSI and digital systems which can be used to increase data systems performance. The presentations share insights into next generation advances that will serve as a basis for future VLSI design.

  20. Abstracts of the 24th international isotope society (UK group) symposium: synthesis and applications of labelled compounds 2015.

    PubMed

    Aigbirhio, F I; Allwein, S; Anwar, A; Atzrodt, J; Audisio, D; Badman, G; Bakale, R; Berthon, F; Bragg, R; Brindle, K M; Bushby, N; Campos, S; Cant, A A; Chan, M Y T; Colbon, P; Cornelissen, B; Czarny, B; Derdau, V; Dive, V; Dunscombe, M; Eggleston, I; Ellis-Sawyer, K; Elmore, C S; Engstrom, P; Ericsson, C; Fairlamb, I J S; Georgin, D; Godfrey, S P; He, L; Hickey, M J; Huscroft, I T; Kerr, W J; Lashford, A; Lenz, E; Lewinton, S; L'Hermite, M M; Lindelöf, Å; Little, G; Lockley, W J S; Loreau, O; Maddocks, S; Marguerit, M; Mirabello, V; Mudd, R J; Nilsson, G N; Owens, P K; Pascu, S I; Patriarche, G; Pimlott, S L; Pinault, M; Plastow, G; Racys, D T; Reif, J; Rossi, J; Ruan, J; Sarpaki, S; Sephton, S M; Simonsson, R; Speed, D J; Sumal, K; Sutherland, A; Taran, F; Thuleau, A; Wang, Y; Waring, M; Watters, W H; Wu, J; Xiao, J

    2016-04-01

    The 24th annual symposium of the International Isotope Society's United Kingdom Group took place at the Møller Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge, UK on Friday 6th November 2015. The meeting was attended by 77 delegates from academia and industry, the life sciences, chemical, radiochemical and scientific instrument suppliers. Delegates were welcomed by Dr Ken Lawrie (GlaxoSmithKline, UK, chair of the IIS UK group). The subsequent scientific programme consisted of oral presentations, short 'flash' presentations in association with particular posters and poster presentations. The scientific areas covered included isotopic synthesis, regulatory issues, applications of labelled compounds in imaging, isotopic separation and novel chemistry with potential implications for isotopic synthesis. Both short-lived and long-lived isotopes were represented, as were stable isotopes. The symposium was divided into a morning session chaired by Dr Rebekka Hueting (University of Oxford, UK) and afternoon sessions chaired by Dr Sofia Pascu (University of Bath, UK) and by Dr Alan Dowling (Syngenta, UK). The UK meeting concluded with remarks from Dr Ken Lawrie (GlaxoSmithKline, UK). PMID:26991121

  1. Proceedings of the TOUGH Symposium 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George J.; Doughty, Christine; Finsterle, Stefan; Sonnenthal, Eric

    2009-10-01

    Welcome to the TOUGH Symposium 2009. Within this volume are the Symposium Program for eighty-nine papers to be presented in both oral and poster formats. The full papers are available as pdfs linked from the Symposium Program posted on the TOUGH Symposium 2009 website http://esd.lbl.gov/newsandevents/events/toughsymposium09/program.html Additional updated information including any changes to the Program will also be available at the website. The papers cover a wide range of application areas and reflect the continuing trend toward increased sophistication of the TOUGH codes. A CD containing the proceedings papers will be published immediately following the Symposium and sent to all participants. As in the prior Symposium, selected papers will be invited for submission to a number of journals for inclusion in Special Issues focused on applications and developments of the TOUGH codes. These journals include, Transport in Porous Media, Geothermics, Energy Conversion and Management, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, and the Vadose Zone Journal.

  2. Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium: latest scientific and clinical discoveries.

    PubMed

    Bratslavsky, Gennady; Woodford, Mark R; Daneshvar, Michael; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-03-29

    The Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium concluded in September 2015, in Syracuse, NY, USA. The program highlighted recent findings in a variety of areas, including drug development, therapeutics and surgical management of patients with BHD and multi-focal renal tumors, as well as multidisciplinary approaches for patients with localized, locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26933819

  3. Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium: latest scientific and clinical discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Bratslavsky, Gennady; Woodford, Mark R.; Daneshvar, Michael; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium concluded in September 2015, in Syracuse, NY, USA. The program highlighted recent findings in a variety of areas, including drug development, therapeutics and surgical management of patients with BHD and multi-focal renal tumors, as well as multidisciplinary approaches for patients with localized, locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26933819

  4. "On the Possibilities of Climate Control" in 1962: Harry Wexler on Geoengineering and Ozone Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    In 1962, in the early days of GCMs and satellites, Harry Wexler, Chief of the Scientific Services Division of the U.S. Weather Bureau and one of the most influential meteorologists of the 20th century, turned his attention to techniques that could raise or lower the overall temperature of the planet or rearrange its thermal structure. He also investigated possible inadvertent and purposeful damage to the ozone layer involving catalytic reactions of chorine and bromine. This work pre-dated the Nobel Prize-winning work on ozone depletion of P. Crutzen, M. Molina, and S. Rowland by about a decade. Wexler revealed his concerns about geoengineering and ozone destruction in a series of lectures "On the Possibilities of Climate Control" presented to technical audiences in Boston, Hartford, and Los Angeles in 1962. Using newly available results from GCMs and satellite heat budget experiments, Wexler pointed out that strategic manipulations of the Earth's shortwave and longwave radiation budgets could result in rather large-scale effects on general circulation patterns in short or longer periods, even approaching that of climatic change. These techniques, included increasing world temperature by several degrees by detonating up to ten H-bombs in the Arctic Ocean; decreasing world temperature by launching powder into an equatorial orbit to shade the Earth and make it look somewhat like Saturn and its rings; warming the lower atmosphere and cooling the stratosphere by artificial injections of water vapor or other substances; and notably, destroying all stratospheric ozone above the Arctic circle or near the equator using a relatively small amount of a catalytic agent such as chlorine or bromine. Wexler was preparing a new lecture in the summer of 1962 on "The Climate of Earth and Its Modifications," and might, under normal circumstances, have prepared his ideas for publication, as he had done earlier. However, he was cut down in his prime by a sudden heart attack on August 11

  5. Changes in population evacuation potential for tsunami hazards in Seward, Alaska, since the 1964 Good Friday earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.; Peters, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunami hazards typically focuses on current land-cover conditions and population distributions. To examine how post-disaster redevelopment may influence the evacuation potential of at-risk populations to future threats, we modeled pedestrian travel times to safety in Seward, Alaska, based on conditions before the 1964 Good Friday earthquake and tsunami disaster and on modern conditions. Anisotropic, path distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety during the 1964 event and in modern Seward, and results are merged with various population data, including the location and number of residents, employees, public venues, and dependent care facilities. Results suggest that modeled travel time estimates conform well to the fatality patterns of the 1964 event and that evacuation travel times have increased in modern Seward due to the relocation and expansion of port and harbor facilities after the disaster. The majority of individuals threatened by tsunamis today in Seward are employee, customer, and tourist populations, rather than residents in their homes. Modern evacuation travel times to safety for the majority of the region are less than wave arrival times for future tectonic tsunamis but greater than arrival times for landslide-related tsunamis. Evacuation travel times will likely be higher in the winter time, when the presence of snow may constrain evacuations to roads.

  6. Stratospheric Ozone Response in Experiments G3 and G4 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitari, Giovanni; Aquila, Valentina; Kravitz, Ben; Watanabe, Shingo; Tilmes, Simone; Mancini, Eva; DeLuca, Natalia; DiGenova, Glauco

    2013-01-01

    Geoengineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosols has been proposed as a means of temporarily cooling the planet, alleviating some of the side effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, one of the known side effects of stratospheric injections of sulfate aerosols is a decrease in stratospheric ozone. Here we show results from two general circulation models and two coupled chemistry climate models that have simulated stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering as part of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). Changes in photolysis rates and upwelling of ozone-poor air in the tropics reduce stratospheric ozone, suppression of the NOx cycle increases stratospheric ozone, and an increase in available surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry modulates reductions in ozone. On average, the models show a factor 20-40 increase of the sulfate aerosol surface area density (SAD) at 50 hPa in the tropics with respect to unperturbed background conditions and a factor 3-10 increase at mid-high latitudes. The net effect for a tropical injection rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year is a decrease in globally averaged ozone by 1.1-2.1 DU in the years 2040-2050 for three models which include heterogeneous chemistry on the sulfate aerosol surfaces. GISS-E2-R, a fully coupled general circulation model, performed simulations with no heterogeneous chemistry and a smaller aerosol size; it showed a decrease in ozone by 9.7 DU. After the year 2050, suppression of the NOx cycle becomes more important than destruction of ozone by ClOx, causing an increase in total stratospheric ozone. Contribution of ozone changes in this experiment to radiative forcing is 0.23 W m-2 in GISS-E2-R and less than 0.1 W m-2 in the other three models. Polar ozone depletion, due to enhanced formation of both sulfate aerosol SAD and polar stratospheric clouds, results in an average 5 percent increase in calculated surface UV-B.

  7. Proceedings: 1987 Symposium on Chemistry in High-Temperature Water

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes each symposium session and includes complete papers or abstracts. Attracting an international audience, the symposium created the opportunity for presentations and discussions on the latest laboratory and field developments.

  8. Space Geoengineering: James A. Van Allen's Role in Detecting and Disrupting the Magnetosphere, 1958-1962 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    James A. Van Allen’s celebrated discovery of Earth’s radiation belts in 1958 using Explorer 1 and 3 satellites was immediately followed by his agreement to monitor tests of nuclear weapons in space aimed at disrupting the magnetosphere. This is “space geoengineering” on a planetary scale. “Space is radioactive,” noted Van Allen’s colleague Eric Ray, and the military wanted to make it even more radioactive by nuclear detonations that, in time of war might disrupt enemy radio communications from half a world away and damage or destroy enemy intercontinental ballistic missiles. This study of Van Allen’s participation in Project Argus (1958) and Project Starfish (1962) is based on new posthumous accessions to the Van Allen Papers. At the time radio astronomers protested that, “No government has the right to change the environment in any significant way without prior international study and agreement.” Van Allen later regretted his participation in experiments that disrupted the natural magnetosphere. In a larger policy framework, the history of these space interventions and the protests they generated serve as a cautionary tale for today’s geoengineers who are proposing heavy-handed manipulation of the planetary environment as a response to future climate warming. Anyone claiming that geoengineering has not yet been attempted should be reminded of the planetary-scale engineering of these nukes in space. N. Christofilos describing the intended effect of the Argus nuclear explosions on the magnetosphere, which would direct a stream of radioactive particles along magnetic lines of force half a world away.

  9. Impact of Very Short-live Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Kinnison, Doug; Garcia, Rolando; Salawitch, Ross; Lee-Taylor, Julia

    2010-05-01

    In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these VSL bromocarbons have natural sources (e.g., oceanic emissions) and their abundance will therefore not decrease in the future due to international protocols. They are eventually oxidized via reactions with OH and photolysis to form inorganic bromine product gases and get transported into the stratosphere. Observations suggest that VSL bromocarbons add an additional 4-10 pptv volume mixing ratios to the total stratospheric inorganic bromine abundance. Since inorganic bromine is ~60 times more efficient (relative to inorganic chlorine) at catalytic destroying ozone, this additional inorganic bromine loading could significantly affect stratospheric ozone. This is especially true in the Arctic, where the coupled BrO/ClO catalytic ozone loss cycle is as important as the ClO dimer ozone loss cycle. The chemical activation of chlorine is highly dependent on the amount of sulfate aerosol and VSL bromine provides a reaction partner for activated chlorine, resulting in a significant increase of ozone depletion in a geo-engineered aerosol environment in high latitudes. An additional impact of short-lived bromocarbons on the ozone abundance is expected and was not considered in earlier studies.

  10. A Haptics Symposium Retrospective: 20 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, J. Edward; Adelstein, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The very first "Haptics Symposium" actually went by the name "Issues in the Development of Kinesthetic Displays of Teleoperation and Virtual environments." The word "Haptic" didn't make it into the name until the next year. Not only was the most important word absent but so were RFPs, journals and commercial markets. And yet, as we prepare for the 2012 symposium, haptics is a thriving and amazingly diverse field of endeavor. In this talk we'll reflect on the origins of this field and on its evolution over the past twenty years, as well as the evolution of the Haptics Symposium itself. We hope to share with you some of the excitement we've felt along the way, and that we continue to feel as we look toward the future of our field.

  11. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  12. International Falk Foundation 164th Falk Symposium.

    PubMed

    Miheller, Pal

    2008-08-01

    The 164th Falk Symposium was organized in Budapest, Hungary for May 2-3, 2008. The symposium was entitled 'Intestinal Disorders', which reflected the wide range of topics discussed in plenary sessions. The scientific poster session and the live endoscopic demonstration enriched the program of the symposium. Lectures and posters were presented at the Budapest Congress and World Trade Centre, while endoscopic examinations were performed in the Endoscopic Unit of the scientific organizer, the 2nd Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Faculty of Medicine. The international organizing committee (President: Zsolt Tulassay, Budapest, Hungary; Members: Petr Dite, Brno, Czech Republic; Guenter J Kreis, Graz, Austria; Jurgen Schölmerich, Regensburg, Germany; and Hans-Joachim Schulz, Berlin, Germany) invited 43 experts from 16 different countries. PMID:19072399

  13. Symposium on New Materials for Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marder, Seth R.

    1991-01-01

    The New Materials for Nonlinear Optics Symposium was held at the American Chemical Society National Meeting, in Boston on April 22 to 26, 1990. The meeting was a success. Throughout the week the average attendance was over 150 people/session. Several speakers had attendance over 300. The ACS organized a press conference about the meeting, held on Wednesday April 25, 1990 at 2 pm. At the time, the organizers devoted considerable time to educating the press about the importance of NLO research and the potential impact the NLO devices will have on the average person. The American Chemical Society is publishing an ACS Symposium Series monograph edited by the symposium organizers, to provide a permanent record of the proceeding of this meeting.

  14. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    This proceeding is a compilation of peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013) held from September 23-27, 2013, at Islamabad, Pakistan. In my capacity as ISAM-2013 Secretary, I feel honoured that the symposium has ended on a positive note. The ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. ISAM and other similar forums serve to fulfill this need. The five day deliberations of ISAM 2013, consisted of 19 technical sessions and 2 poster sessions. In all, 277 papers were presented, inclusive of 80 contributory, invited and oral presentations. The symposium also hosted panel discussions led by renowned scientists and eminent researchers from foreign as well as local institutes. The ultimate aim of this proceeding is to record in writing the new findings in the field of advanced materials. I hope that the technical data available in this publication proves valuable to young scientists and researchers working in this area of science. At the same time, I wish to acknowledge Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing UK, for accepting the research papers from ISAM-2013 for publication in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The proceeding will be available on the IOP website as an online open access document. I am profoundly thankful to the Symposium Chairman for his steadfast support and valuable guidance without which ISAM 2013 could not have been the mega event that it turned out to be. My gratitude to all our distinguished participants, session chairs/co-chairs, and reviewers for their active role in the symposium. I appreciate the entire organizing committee for the zest and ardor with which each committee fulfilled its obligations to ISAM. Last yet not the least, my thankfulness goes to all our sponsors for wilfully financing the event. Dr. Sara Qaisar Symposium Secretary Further

  15. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  16. Sensitivity of radiative forcing and surface temperature to sulfate injection area in stratospheric geoengineering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2014-05-01

    Geoengineering by injecting sulfur to the stratosphere has been shown to have a potential to counteract global warming. In the future, such a method may be considered as an option in slowing down global warming, if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast and effectively enough. In the stratosphere sulfate particles reflect solar radiation back to space and thus cool the climate. Cooling effect would last 1-2 years because of the stability of the stratosphere combined with lack of effective removal processes. Usually sulfur is assumed to be injected as SO2 which oxidizes and forms sulfate particles after injections. However, if the amount of injected sulfur is increased, its effect can be saturated and the increase in the stratospheric sulfate burden and global radiative forcing becomes smaller. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes, which have a shorter lifetime in the atmosphere and do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and where sulfur is spread more or less equally to both hemispheres. Because of this, sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection would be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. In this study we use global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA to investigate radiative forcing from the different injection areas and to study if a more effective injection strategy would be varying the injection area seasonally. The model describes aerosol size distribution by 10 size sections and calculates the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation, coagulation and hydration. Thus the formation from gaseous SO2 to sulfate particles, particle growth and also how sulfate is distributed in the atmosphere

  17. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This conference publication includes 28 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 10 to 11, 1988. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium features technical papers on a wide range of issue related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  18. Fifth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P.

    2000-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Fifth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Radisson Hotel Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, on December 1-3, 1999. The symposium included 18 sessions in which a total of 53 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of bearings, controls, modeling, electromagnetic launch, magnetic suspension in wind tunnels, applications flywheel energy storage, rotating machinery, vibration isolation, and maglev. A list of attendees is included in the document.

  19. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  20. Third International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Third International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Holiday Inn Capital Plaza in Tallahassee, Florida on 13-15 Dec. 1995. The symposium included 19 sessions in which a total of 55 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of bearings, superconductivity, vibration isolation, maglev, controls, space applications, general applications, bearing/actuator design, modeling, precision applications, electromagnetic launch and hypersonic maglev, applications of superconductivity, and sensors.

  1. Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at The Nagaragawa Convention Center in Gifu, Japan, on October 30 - November 1, 1997. The symposium included 13 sessions in which a total of 35 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of maglev, controls, high critical temperature (T(sub c)) superconductivity, bearings, magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS), levitation, modeling, and applications. A list of attendees is included in the document.

  2. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Kathy R. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This conference publication includes 41 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 17-19, 1994. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  3. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication includes 40 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 5-7, 1992. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  4. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This conference publication includes 32 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 22-25, 1990. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium features technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  5. The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Frann (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  6. Fifth International Symposium on Liquid Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, R. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the fiollowing: Theme: Life-life Combustion Devices Technology. Technical Sessions: International Perspectives. System Level Effects. Component Level Processes. Material Considerations. Design Environments -- Predictions. Injector Design Technology. Design Environments -- Measurements. Panel Discussion: Views on future research and development needs and Symposium observations. Aquarium Welcome and Southern Belle Riverboat Recognition Banquet evening events.

  7. Symposium: A Beginning in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Peter; Fry, Paul H.; Carnochan, W. B.; Culler, Jonathan; Lerer, Seth; Marshall, Donald G.; Johnson, Barbara; Steiner, Wendy; Haack, Susan; Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2002-01-01

    2001 marked Yale's 300th birthday. It seemed an opportunity for reflection on the evolution of the institution, and particularly on the vicissitudes of the humanities over those three centuries. This article presents essays which represent a selection from the symposium, "Beginning With the Humanities," held at the Whitney Humanities Center on…

  8. Center for Space Construction Third Annual Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs from presentations given at the symposium are presented. The topics covered include the following: orbital assembly, large space structures, space stations, expert systems, lunar regolith and structure mechanics, lunar shelter construction from lunar resources, telerobotic rovers, lunar construction equipment, lunar based equipment, and lunar construction.

  9. Board of Regents Symposium on Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    As discussed in several addresses at a New York State Board of Regents symposium, the task of continuing education in New York State includes adult basic education, job training, and other forms of involvement by educators and other segments of society in efforts to enable individuals, communities, and organizations to function effectively in a…

  10. Emotional Intelligence, Identity Salience, and Metaphors. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on emotional intelligence, identity salience, and metaphors in human resource development (HRD). "Applying Client and Consultant Generated Metaphors in HRD: Lessons from Psychotherapy" (Darren Short) reviews some techniques that psychotherapists have devised for using their own metaphors and the…

  11. Theory Building. Symposium 21. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on theory building consists of three presentations. "A Multilevel Theory of Organizational Performance: Seeing the Forest and the Trees" (Susan Reynolds Fisher) presents the process used to develop this theory and analyzes emergent insights. It discusses how the theory succeeds in mapping relationships across aspects and levels of…

  12. Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

  13. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  14. Women on Campus: 1970; A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Center for Continuing Education for Women.

    The symposium: Women on Campus, 1970, held at Michigan University on October 14, 1970, centered on 3 major topics: "Toward a New Psychology of Women"; "The Case of the Woman Graduate Student"; and "The University and Women." The papers that were presented concerning the first topic included: "Internal Barriers to Achievement in Women--An…

  15. The Psychology of Adolescents: Symposium IV A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Chiam Heng; Park, Joon Hee

    These two symposium papers provide: (1) a profile of rural adolescents in Malaysia, by Chiam Heng Keng; and (2) report the findings of a study of the psychology and life of Korean children and adolescents, by Joon Hee Park. In the former report, 521 boys and 550 girls completed a checklist consisting of 195 problems and indicated problems which…

  16. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  17. Organizational Change. Symposium 19. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on organizational change consists of three presentations. "Institutionalizing Organizational Change Through Cascade Training: Implications for Human Resource Development (HRD) Research" (Ronald L. Jacobs, Darlene Russ-Eft, Suhail Zidan) proposes the institutionalization of change should be addressed as a major part of the change…

  18. The 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L. (Compiler); Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings of the 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Topics covered include: robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  19. Symposium on John Dewey's "Art as Experience."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Joe R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a symposium about John Dewey's philosophy of art. John Fisher, Richard Shusterman, and Joe R. Burnett state their views on Dewey's contributions to art theory and aesthetics citing Dewey's work, "Art As Experience." The consensus was that although Dewey's opinions are dated, his pragmatist's views offer the opportunity for further study…

  20. The 1985 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. R. (Editor); Mosier, F. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium provided a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus is on payloads that have been flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the near future.

  1. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax system…

  2. Proceedings: Electric Power for Compression Symposium III

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    In its third year, the symposium brought together more than one hundred and fifty attendees representing gas transmission companies, electric utilities, and service firms to meet at the Omni Houston Hotel in Houston September 12, 1996, and to discuss the value of partnerships targeted on developing electric power to drive gas compressors on gas pipelines and storage facilities.

  3. Symposium: Aesthetic Education in Japan Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Ako; Masuda, Kingo; Kaneda, Takuya; Hino, Yoko; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Fukumoto, Kinichi; Nagamori, Motoki; Yamada, Kazumi; Motomura, Kenta; Ishizaki, Kazhiro; Okada, Masashi; Kaneko, Yoshimasa; Naoe, Toshio; Fujie, Mitsuru; Iwano, Masako

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide readers with a general understanding of Japanese art and aesthetics education and its interaction with other cultures. The essays cover a variety of topics, including historical, cross-cultural, theoretical, and practical perspectives. Following an introduction by Ako Okazaki, the following papers are…

  4. Organization Development. Symposium 16. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on organization development (OD) consists of three presentations. "A Study of Gender Management Preferences as Related to Predicted Organizational Management Paradigms for the Twenty-First Century" (Cathy Bolton McCullough) reports a study that found that access to diverse management preferences and the manner in which the…

  5. The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Hitchhiker, and Complex Autonomous Payloads (CAP) programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  6. Symposium on Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Steven D.; Rice, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In this Symposium focused on MOOCs, this journal carries forward a tradition of attending to the technologies associated with composing and the teaching of composing. In the May 1983 issue of "College Composition and Communication," for example, most of the articles focus on composing and include a mix of inquiries, from Jack Selzer's on the…

  7. The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  8. Educational Computing Social Foundations: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson; And Others

    An abstract introduces this collection of three papers and two abstracts of papers from a symposium at which experts presented their viewpoints about the social, political, and economic issues surrounding the use of computers in schools. Each of the following five investigations provides an important perspective on such issues: (1) "Educational…

  9. Values: Relations and Implications. Symposium V C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wit, Jan; Keats, D. M.

    Reported at a symposium generally concerned with values and adolescents are discussions of (1) socialization issues and the impact of values on adolescents, and (2) dimensions of Asian youths' confrontation with the problem of modernization. In the first study (by Jan de Witt), the conceptual shift in socialization research to a focus on…

  10. Conflict Management and Decision Making. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium on conflict management and decision making is comprised of three papers. "Two Approaches to Conflict Management in Teams: A Case Study" (Mychal Coleman, Gary N. McLean) describes a study that provided conflict management training to two employee teams using the traditional lecture method and cooperative learning (CL). (Initially,…

  11. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  12. Training Retail Managers--A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, F. G., Ed.

    This symposium focuses on training programs for managers of department stores, multiple shops, supermarkets and self-service stores, and small independent shops. The authors of each of the four sections in the publication have had experience in training managers in the retail trade. For conceptual and managerial aspects of the manager's job,…

  13. University Programs. Symposium 20. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on university programs consists of three presentations. "Institutional and Curricular Characteristics of Leading Graduate Human Resource Development (HRD) Programs in the United States" (K. Peter Kuchinke) reports a study on institutional arrangements, student enrollments, and core curriculum content and found a large degree of…

  14. Symposium on Practical Knowledge and Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This symposium presents eight articles discussing Fenstermacher's chapter, "Philosophy of Research on Teaching: Three Aspects" in ""Handbook of Research on Teaching" (1986). Topics dealt with are the concept of teaching, the connection between the study and the improvement of teaching, and the conduct of teacher education. (MT)

  15. Life Affirming Work and Social Justice. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on life-affirming work and social justice that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Doing Good or Doing Well? A Counter-story of Continuing Professional Education (CPE)" (Laurel Jeris, Linda Armacost) reports on an exploratory study in which a critical…

  16. Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined emerging…

  17. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  18. Competencies: Fuzzy Concepts to Context. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium titled "Competence: Fuzzy Concepts to Context.""Sales Superstars: Defining Competencies Needed for Sales Performance" (Darlene Russ-Eft, Edward Del Gaizo, Jeannie Moulton, Ruth Pangilinan) discusses a study in which an analysis of 1,688 critical incidents revealed 16 competencies that define the…

  19. Work Ethic and Values in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on work ethic and values in human resource development (HRD). "Value Priorities of HRD Scholars and Practitioners" (Reid Bates, Hsin Chih Chen, Tim Hatcher) presents the results of a study that identified and analyzed six HRD values reflecting two value facets (locus of HRD influence and HRD…

  20. PROCEEDINGS OF "THE LEAD REMEDIATION EFFECTIVENESS SYMPOSIUM"

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Symposium on Lead Remediation Effectiveness, sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, USA from 22-25 May, 2000. International participants from various levels of government, educational institutions, industry, and community represen...

  1. The 22nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the symposium, which was held at the NASA Langley Research Center, on May 4 to 6, 1988, are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for space station docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  2. Intergas `95: International unconventional gas symposium. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The International Unconventional Gas Symposium was held on May 14--20, 1995 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where 52 reports were presented. These reports are grouped in this proceedings under: geology and resources; mine degasification and safety; international developments; reservoir characterization/coal science; and environmental/legal and regulatory. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Self Directed Learning and Self Management. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on self-directed learning and self-management. "Validating a More-Dimensional Conception of Self-Directed Learning" (Gerald A. Straka, Cornelia Schaefer) discusses the development and validation of a conception of self-directed learning as a dynamic interplay between behavior, information,…

  4. Approaches to Research in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on approaches to research in human resource development (HRD). "HRD, Feminism, and Adult Education: A Foundation for Collaborative Approaches to Research and Practice" (Yvonne M. Johnson) identifies common interests among HRD professionals, feminists, and practitioners in the field of adult…

  5. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  6. Proceedings of Plenary Session: The LACIE Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A technology assessment of the LACIE data processing and information systems was discussed during the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment Symposium. Crop inventories of wheat yield in the United States as well as several other nations (such as the U.S.S.R., Canada, etc.) were discussed, along with the methodology involved in acquiring this data.

  7. Culinary Arts Hospitality Symposium Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgie, Karen; Wang, Yeimei

    This guide was developed as part of a project to standardize California's statewide culinary arts curriculum based on industry guidelines and standards. It details a process that California community colleges can use to plan a hospitality symposium that will accomplish the following objectives: provide students with a forum to demonstrate their…

  8. Expanding Perspectives on HRD Research. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanding perspectives in human resource development (HRD) research. "The Concept of Culture in International and Comparative HRD Research: Methodological Problems and Possible Solutions" (Alexander Ardichvili, K. Peter Kuchinke) discusses the following topics: (1) alternative approaches to…

  9. Leadership Development. Symposium 13. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on leadership development consists of three presentations. "Organizational Performance: The Future Focus of Leadership Development Programs" (Doris B. Collins) reports research that analyzed 54 leadership studies from 1984-2000 and confirmed that organizations have begun to take a more systemic approach to leadership development.…

  10. The 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, Ron (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at ARC, Moffett Field, California, on 12-14 May 1993, are reported. Technological areas covered include the following: actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  11. Ethics Scenarios: A Critical Theory Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jane; And Others

    This symposium chaired by John C. Belland addressed the ethical position of educational communications and technology in society. Presenters created ethics scenarios and applied critical theory to provide insight. Intended to stimulate questions, the approach was philosophical, literary, and sociopolitical, and reflected Derrida, Foucault, and…

  12. The Second International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Second International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation was held in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, from August 11-14, 2013, under the auspices of the International Society for Horticultural Science. The town of Fort Collins is home to the USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservati...

  13. HRD Effectiveness and Transfer of Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) effectiveness and transfer of learning. "Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand" (Siriporn Yamnill, Gary N. McLean) discusses how the Learning Transfer System Inventory was validated in Thailand by administering it to 1,029 employers and analyzing…

  14. Mental Health and Adjustment: Symposium IV B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Jayne G.; And Others

    This symposium contains reports on two studies on the following topics: (1) ways of helping children manage stress, by Jayne G. Garside, (2) psychological stress and coping in adolescent victims of sexual abuse in Singapore, by Colleen Ward, and (3) an abstract of a study on estrangement, by Jaya Nagaraja. The article on stress management…

  15. Symposium on electroslag component casting: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Hobday, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Surface Coal Gasification, has established a Materials Program to develop and apply appropriate materials to coal gasification plant components. The overall goals of the Surface Gasification Materials Program (SGMP) are to improve operational reliability and system durability and to reduce fabrication and operating costs of coal gasification plant components. The SGMP Electroslag Component Casting Project is directed to the development of electroslag casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is to develop a sufficient data base to permit ESC to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. This symposium was planned to discuss not only the SGMP Electroslag Component Casting Project but the activities and experiences of other organizations as well. The symposium addressed descriptions of electroslag processes; a worldwide perspective on the status of ESC technology; and details of production, mechanical properties, economics, and use of ESC for coal gasification components. Ten papers were presented, and a panel discussion was held to provide participants an opportunity to express their opinions and to offer recommendations on the content of the DOE program. This document constitutes the proceedings of that symposium. The papers included here are minimally edited transcripts of the presentations made at the symposium. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  16. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  17. Emotional and Personality Development: Symposium III C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrani, Naeem; And Others

    This symposium reports an investigation of correlates of self-disclosure among Indian college students, by Sarla Jawa, and provides abstracts of both a Pakistani perspective on personality and moral development, by Naeem Durrani, and a study of Indian students' attitudes toward sex, by Premala S. Kale. Findings of the study of correlates of…

  18. HRD: Past, Present and Future. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on the past, present, and future of human resource development (HRD). "Revisiting the New Deal: A Longitudinal Case Study" (Judy Pate, Graeme Martin, Jim McGoldrick) draws upon data from a longitudinal case study of the links between job security and HRD to examine the new psychological contract…

  19. Cost Analysis, Evaluation and Feedback. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on cost analysis, evaluation, and feedback in human resource development. "Training Evaluation with 360-Degree Feedback" (Froukje A. Jellema) reports on a quasi-experimental study that examined the effectiveness of 360-degree feedback in evaluating the training received by nurses in a Dutch…

  20. International Symposium on Karst Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, William

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) and the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) joined the Hacettepe University of Ankara, Turkey, in sponsoring the International Symposium on Karst Water Resources. The other sponsors of the symposium were the Karst Water Resources Research Center Project of Hacettepe University and the United Nations Development Program through the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, in addition to the following government organizations of Turkey: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, State Hydraulic, Works (DSI), General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EIE) and Geological Engineering Department of the Engineering Faculty and Karst Hydrogeology Research Group (KRG) at the Hacettepe University Earth Sciences Application and Research Center. Cooperating organizations included the Turkish National Committee of the International Hydrological Program, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the International Water Resources Association (IWRA). The symposium was divided into two parts: a paper presentation session held at the new Turkish National Library in Ankara during July 7-12, 1985, and a field trip from Ankara through Konya and Antalya to Izmir during July 13-18. The symposium chairman was Gultekin Gunay of the Hydrogeological Engineering Department of Ankara's Hacettepe University, and the cochairman was A. Ivan Johnson, a water resources consultant from Denver, Colo., and editor of WaterWatch. Scientists from 27 countries were represented among the 200 or so participants in attendance.

  1. Organizational Learning, Change and Socialization. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on organizational learning, change, and socialization. "A Study of the Organizational Learning Profile (OLP)" (Rae Dorai, Adela J. McMurray) reports findings that show the OLP (Pace et al. 1998) is a reliable instrument for measuring organizational learning and its content validity is high. "The Ability…

  2. (Attendance at the XIV Nuclear Physics Symposium)

    SciTech Connect

    Halbert, M.L.

    1991-01-16

    This report includes background material on the long-standing series of annual symposia presented by the Mexican nuclear physics community, summarizes the highlights of the fourteenth symposium in the series, and records items learned by the traveler in subsequent visits to two research laboratories in Mexico.

  3. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  4. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  5. Improvements in mining induced microseismic source locations at the Lucky Friday mine using an automated whole-waveform analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Douglas A.; Sprenke, Kenneth F.

    1992-09-01

    For years, severe rockburst problems at the Lucky Friday mine in northern Idaho have been a persistent safety hazard and an impediment to production. An MP250 based microseismic monitoring system, which uses simple voltage threshold picking of first arrivals, has been used in this mine since 1973 to provide source locations and energy estimates of seismic events. Recently, interest has been expressed in developing a whole waveform microseismic monitoring system for the mine to provide more accurate source locations and information about source characteristics. For this study, we have developed a prototype whole-waveform microseismic monitoring system based on a 80386 computer equipped with a 50 kHz analog-digital convertor board. The software developed includes a data collection program, a data analysis program, and an event detection program. Whole-waveform data collected and analyzed using this system during a three-day test have been employed to investigate sources of error in the hypocenter location process and to develop an automatic phase picker appropriate for microseismic events. Comparison of hypocenter estimates produced by the MP250 system to those produced by the whole-waveform system shows that significant timing errors are common in the MP250 system and that these errors caused a large part of the scatter evident in the daily activity plots produced at the mine. Simulations and analysis of blast data show that analytical control over the solutions is strongly influenced by the array geometry. Within the geophone array, large errors in the velocity model or moderate timing errors may result in small changes in the solution, but outside the array, the solution is very sensitive to small changes in the data. Our whole-waveform detection program picks event onset times and determines event durations by analysis of a segmented envelope function (SEF) derived from the microseismic signal. The detection program has been tested by comparing its arrival time

  6. PREFACE: Third International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumori, Atsuo

    2009-09-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The Third Symposium (ISAT-3) was held on 5-6 March 2009 at the Tokyo International Exchange Center, Tokyo, Japan jointed with the Third Polyscale Technology Workshop (PTW-3). The ISAT-3 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion of the latest progress in atomic technologies, which was successively held after ISAT-1 at Tsukuba and ISAT-2 at Awaji in 2007. The symposium was attended by 136 participants. There were 12 invited and 4 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 101. From all the contributions, 32 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The 'Atomic Technology Project' and the 'Polyscale Technology Project' were started in 2006 as the joint project of three institutions; (1) Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing atomic and polyscale technologies. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of these projects is to contribute to the development of atomic and polyscale science and technologies. In this symposium, four research fields were focused on: Biomedical Applications, Fabrication for Advanced Materials and Devices, Magnetic Applications, and Quantum and Molecular Engineering for Advanced Technologies. Atsuo Yasumori Conference Chair Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan.

  7. Introduction to the Paper Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, D. K.

    1996-05-01

    Most students of physical chemistry, as well as their teachers, regard equilibrium chemical thermodynamics as an impressive, useful, and stable subject that was "finished" long ago. As part of their education, students in physical chemistry have been taught the importance and the usefulness of the Gibbs function (formerly called the Gibbs free energy function). The antiquity of the subject and the presumed mastery of its basics by physical chemistry teachers are taken for granted as given parts of the educational and scientific scene in chemical education. It comes as a surprise to occasionally discover that even those who teach this venerable subject sometimes disagree, not merely in matters of style or organization of the subject, or in matters of mathematical elegance, but in matters of real substance. The following four papers are examples of this. My role here is simply to introduce this set of papers and to provide some orientation regarding their contents. The authors have been in private communication with each other for a period of over four years about the use and the proper definition of the Gibbs function. The lengthy period of correspondence has not resulted in any significant agreement. The Editor of this Journal was unable to settle the resulting controversy by normal review procedures. In an attempt to break the deadlock he asked me, as an impartial outsider to the situation, for assistance in deciding an appropriate literary form in which the authors could present their own points of view as well as comments on the views of the other authors. The original hope was that agreement could eventually be reached on disputed points by the give and take of the interchange of further correspondence, and that the outcome would be published in the form of a "paper symposium" on the subject, with me as the "chairman" of the symposium. It must be said at the outset that the prolonged correspondence has not produced much agreement among the authors. This is

  8. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    The Chilean Physics Symposium is the main gathering of Physics in Chile, and its organization is one of the central activities of the Chilean Physical Society (Sociedad Chilena de Física, SOCHIFI). The Symposium assembles the largest number of Chilean and foreign physicists resident in the country. Recent advances in the various research areas in Physics are presented, by researchers from Universities and national research centres. At the same time this is an occasion for the participation of Physics students from both the pre- and post-graduate programs. The Symposium has gathered continuously every two years, since 1978. The organization of the XV symposium was in charge of the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, and it took place on 15-17 November 2006, at La Reina Nuclear Studies Centre, in the city of Santiago, Chile. During this symposium the relation of research in Physics with education and with the productive sector in the country was also analysed. During the Symposium, 121 abstracts were submitted, from 255 authors. All authors were invited to submit articles for publication in the Symposium Proceedings. The articles received were reviewed by the Symposium Scientific Committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focussed on the demand for a consistent piece of research, and a clear statement of results. Most of the articles received report the work of research groups where advanced students and young investigators are prominent. Thanks to their enthusiasm, 52 articles are presented in this issue. We would like to express our appreciation to their authors. Finally, my personal apology is in order regarding my delay in publishing these proceedings. A sequence of personal and professional highly demanding circumstances have been in the way. I would like to thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series for providing very fast publication of the proceedings, having published them online less than 4 weeks after my

  9. CONFERENCE NOTE: Sixth Symposium on Temperature Scheduled for March 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The call for papers for the 6th Symposium on Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry has been issued. The Symposium is scheduled to take place in Washington, DC, USA during the week of March 14 18, 1982. Like its predecessors held in the years 1919, 1939, 1954, 1961, and 1971, the 6th Symposium will stress advances in the measurement of thermodynamic values of temperature, in temperature reference points, in temperature sensors and instruments for the control of temperature, and in the development and use of temperature scales. For the first time, an exhibit of thermometry will be a part of the Symposium. Manuscripts to be submitted for inclusion in the Symposium should be sent to the 6th Temperature Symposium Program Chairman, National Bureau of Standards, by September 15, 1981. Those papers accepted for the Symposium will be due in camera-ready form by February 15, 1982. Original papers on all of the topics listed above, as well as reviews of the past decade's progress in thermometry and temperature control, are solicited by the Symposium organizers. The Symposium arrangements and registration are in the care of the Instrument Society of America (represented on the Symposium General Committee by Mr C T Glazer, 67 Alexander Drive, PO Box 12277, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27709, USA). Questions regarding the instrument exhibits should also be addressed to the ISA. The technical program for the Symposium is the responsibility of a committee headed by Dr J F Schooley, Room B-128 Physics Building, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, 20234, USA. The Symposium proceedings will be published by the American Institute of Physics.

  10. First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The LDE facility was designed to better understand the environments of space and the effects of prolonged exposure in these environments on future spacecraft. The symposium abstracts presented here are organized according to the symposium agenda into five sessions. The first session provides an overview of the LDEF, the experiments, the mission, and the natural and induced environments the spacecraft and experiments encountered during the mission. The second session presents results to date from studies to better define the environments of near-Earth space. The third session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft materials. The fourth session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft systems. And the fifth session addresses other subjects such as results of the LDEF life science and crystal growth experiments.

  11. Preface: The Ninth International Flatfish Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume of the Journal of Sea Research, and in a second issue to be published subsequently, represent research findings that were presented in whole or in part at the Ninth International Flatfish Symposium (IFS), convened in Cle Elum, Washington, USA, in November of 2014. This conference represented the most recent in a series that was begun nearly three decades ago (see Berghahn, this issue), and established to bring together the world's leading flatfish scientists, as well as students and researchers just beginning to embark upon flatfish research, to share emerging results, exchange ideas, and foster greater international collaboration and understanding of this taxon. For each symposium, an overarching theme is chosen and papers are presented within a series of Topic Sessions that both encompass the general theme while allowing unfettered presentation of research that may lie outside of that primary focus.

  12. Special issue "International CAWSES-II Symposium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takuji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-02-01

    This special issue gathered papers from the International CAWSES-II Symposium (November 18-22, 2013 at Nagoya University, Japan). Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System II (CAWSES-II) is an international scientific program sponsored by Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) that continued from 2009 to 2013. The program was established with the aim of significantly enhancing our understanding of the space environment and its impacts on life and society. The International CAWSES-II Symposium was successful with 388 presentations; and from that, 38 papers were published in this special issue. In this preface, we briefly discuss the contents of the special issue as well as the CAWSES-II review papers published in Progress in Earth and Planetary Science (PEPS) in 2014-2015.

  13. Future high energy colliders symposium. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z. |

    1996-12-31

    A `Future High Energy Colliders` Symposium was held October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) in Santa Barbara. This was one of the 3 symposia hosted by the ITP and supported by its sponsor, the National Science Foundation, as part of a 5 month program on `New Ideas for Particle Accelerators`. The long term program and symposia were organized and coordinated by Dr. Zohreh Parsa of Brookhaven National Laboratory/ITP. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the future direction of high energy physics by bringing together leaders from the theoretical, experimental and accelerator physics communities. Their talks provided personal perspectives on the physics objectives and the technology demands of future high energy colliders. Collectively, they formed a vision for where the field should be heading and how it might best reach its objectives.

  14. John B. Little Center Annual Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Demple, Bruce F.

    2007-11-02

    The Annual Symposium of the John B. Little Center for Radiation Sciences and Environmental Health at the Harvard School of Public Health seeks to educate radiobiologists and biomedical scientists in related areas on the leading research related to the effects of ionizing radiation and related environmental agents in biological systems. This effort seeks to further the training of individuals in this field, and to foment productive interactions and collaborations among scientists at Harvard and with other institutions. The Symposium attracts world-class scientists as speakers, and a broad cross-section of attendees from academic, government, and industrial research centers, as well as editorial staff from leading scientific publications. In order to maintain this quality, funding to support the travel and local expenses of invited speakers is sought, along with funds to allow use of appropriate conference facilities.

  15. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

  16. Tenth international symposium on environmental biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary task of this Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry was to examine our current understanding of GLOBAL CHANGE AND THE BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF RADIATIVE TRACE GASES. The symposium was divided into 12 non-overlapping sessions: Paleoatmospheres and paleoclimates; Global distributions and atmospheric reactions; Poster presentations on the topics of sessions 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7; Terrestrial systems and land use change - 1; Terrestrial and land use change - 11; Fluxes and cycling in aquatic systems; Metals, organics, and depositional environments; Poster presentations on the topics of sessions 6, 9, 10 and 12; Biological Mechanisms of formation and destruction - 1; Biological mechanisms of formation and destruction - 11; High latitude systems; and Global sources, sinks, and feedbacks.

  17. PREFACE: XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.; Bijker, R.

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo The XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 3-6 2012. Conceived in 1978 as a small meeting, over the years and thanks to the efforts of various organizing committees, the symposium has become a well known international conference on nuclear physics. To the best of our knowledge, the Mexican Symposium on Nuclear Physics represents the conference series with longest tradition in Latin America and one of the longest-running annual nuclear physics conferences in the world. The Symposium brings together leading scientists from all around the world, working in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. Its main goal is to provide a relaxed environment where the exchange of ideas, discussion of new results and consolidation of scientific collaboration are encouraged. To celebrate the 35th edition of the symposium 53 colleagues attended from diverse countries including: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia and USA. We were happy to have the active participation of Eli F Aguilera, Eduardo Andrade, Octavio Castaños, Alfonso Mondragón, Stuart Pittel and Andrés Sandoval who also participated in the first edition of the Symposium back in 1978. We were joined by old friends of Cocoyoc (Stuart Pittel, Osvaldo Civitarese, Piet Van Isacker, Jerry Draayer and Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri) as well as several first time visitors that we hope will come back to this scientific meeting in the forthcoming years. The scientific program consisted of 33 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee, which nicely covered the topics of the Symposium giving a balanced perspective between the experimental and the theoretical work that is currently underway in each line of research. Fifteen posters complemented the scientific sessions giving the opportunity

  18. Proceedings: Ninth international ash use symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the 1991 International Coal Ash Use Symposium, the ninth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash technology. These symposia support the mission of the American Ash Association (established originally as the National Ash Association after the first symposium) to promote coal ash technology transfer and commercial utilization. The three-volume publication contains 80 papers, presented at seventeen sessions during the January 1991 event. Volume 1 contains papers related to concrete and related products like cellular concrete, and aggregates. Volume 2 covers the growing market in waste stabilization/solidification and aquatic uses. This volume (Volume 2) brings together papers on a variety of high-volume uses, and R D projects. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  19. 22nd Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott Bloom

    2005-04-01

    The XXII Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics, jointly organized by the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC), the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, and the Physics Department of Stanford University, was held on December 13-17, 2004. Following the tradition of past Texas Symposia the presentations emphasized recent developments in Cosmology, High Energy Astrophysics and the frontiers between these and Gravitation and Particle Physics. This Symposium was attended by more than 500 colleagues from a spectrum of disciplines mentioned above. There were 9 Plenary Sessions, 3 Parallel Sessions and 2 Poster Sessions held during the five-day program, with 76 oral and 240 poster presentations. These are now documented on CD and in the eConf proceedings archive. Funding of $15,000 received from the DOE under award DE-FG02-05ER41362 was used for expenses related to facility, local transportation and administrative expenses.

  20. Dynamics of the coupled human-climate system resulting from closed-loop control of solar geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Keith, David W.; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response. Feedback might also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. However, in addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a box-diffusion dynamic model of the climate system to understand how changing the properties of the feedback control affect the emergent dynamics of this coupled human-climate system, and evaluate these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain). This is a challenge for policy as a delayed response is needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification of natural variability, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to changes in the observed state of the climate system.

  1. Geoengineering and seismological aspects of the Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Brandenberg, S.J.; CoIlins, B.D.; Dickenson, S.; Ashford, S.; Kawamata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Koumoto, H.; Abrahamson, N.; Cluff, L.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2009-01-01

    The M6.6 Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 occurred off the west coast of Japan with a focal depth of 10 km, immediately west of Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in southern Niigata Prefecture. Peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.68 g were measured in Kashiwazaki City, as well as at the reactor floor level of the world's largest nuclear reactor, located on the coast at Kariwa Village. Liquefaction of historic and modern river deposits, aeolian dune sand, and manmade fill was widespread in the coastal region nearest the epicenter and caused ground deformations that damaged bridges, embankments, roadways, buildings, ports, railways and utilities. Landslides along the coast of southern Niigata Prefecture and in mountainous regions inland of Kashiwazaki were also widespread affecting transportation infrastructure. Liquefaction and a landslide also damaged the nuclear power plant sites. This paper, along with a companion digital map database available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gOv/infobank/n/nii07jp/html/n-ii-07-jp.sites.kmz, describes the seismological and geo-engineering aspects of the event. ?? 2009, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  2. Dynamics of the Coupled Human-climate System Resulting from Closed-loop Control of Solar Geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Keith, David; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-08

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM, in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response; this would also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. This feedback creates an emergent coupled human-climate system, with entirely new dynamics. In addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a simple box-diffusion dynamic model to understand how changing feedback-control parameters and time delay affect the behavior of this coupled natural-human system, and verify these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain), but a delayed response needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to uncertain changes.

  3. PREFACE: XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof

    2011-10-01

    In the present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the 'XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics', which was held from 4-7 January 2011 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings consist of 19 contributions that were presented as invited talks at the meeting. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. From the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium has been organized every year without interruption, which makes the present Symposium the 34th in a row. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks and 17 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure (Draayer, Pittel, Van Isacker, Fraser, Lerma, Cejnar, Hirsch, Stránský and Rath) and nuclear reactions (Aguilera, Gómez-Camacho, Scheid, Navrátil and Yennello) to radioactive beams (Padilla-Rodal and Galindo-Uribarri), nuclear astrophysics (Aprahamian, Civitarese and Escher), hadronic physics (Bijker, Valcarce and Hess), fundamental symmetries (Liu, Barrón-Palos and Baessler) and LHC physics (Menchaca-Rocha and Paic). The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. Libertad Barr

  4. Assessing a Science Graduate School Recruitment Symposium

    PubMed Central

    González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A.; Fernández-Repollet, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts. PMID:26770074

  5. International symposium on oilfield chemistry: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 66 papers presented at the symposium related to the following topics in oil field chemistry: waste treatment of produced waters; methods for enhanced recovery of petroleum (mainly surfactants, polymers, and carbon dioxide injection); cement hydration and additives; drilling fluid stability; paraffin deposition in wells and pipelines; scale control and corrosion inhibitors; displacement fluid wettability and environmental transport; fracturing fluids; formation damage; asphaltene removal; and plugging agents. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. Proceedings of the DMS medical ethics symposium.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, D J

    2011-12-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium on medical ethics held at the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine in October 2010. The nature of current operations continually generates challenging ethical problems, many of which are unique to the military environment. This article is intended to generate a debate on these difficult issues and readers are encouraged to contribute to this debate by emailing the Editor. PMID:22319989

  7. PREFACE: The International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Yasuharu

    2008-03-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The Second Symposium (ISAT-2) was held on 1-2 October 2007 at the Awaji Yumebutai Conference Center, Awaji City, Japan presided by the `Atomic Technology Project'. The ISAT-2 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion of the latest progress in atomic technologies. The symposium was attended by 106 delegates. There were 9 invited and 5 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 73. From all the contributions, 24 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The `Atomic Technology Project' was started in 2006 as a joint project of three institutions; (1) Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing nano-technologies and were developing atomic scale operation and diagnostics, functional materials, micro processing and devices. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of the project is to contribute to the development of atomic-scale science and technologies such as functional molecules, biomaterials, and quantum functions of atomic-scale structures. Yasuharu Shirai Conference Chair Center for Atomic Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Conference photograph

  8. PREFACE: Fourth International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigefumi

    2010-04-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The 4th Symposium (ISAT-4) was held on November 18-19, 2009 at the Seaside Hotel MAIKO VILLA KOBE, Kobe City, Japan presided by the "Atomic Technology Project". The ISAT-4 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion on the latest progress in the atomic technologies. The symposium was attended by 107 delegates. There were 10 invited and 6 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 69. From all the contributions, 22 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The "Atomic Technology Project" was started in 2006 as a joint project of three institutions; (1) the Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) the Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) the Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing nano-technologies and was developing atomic scale operation and diagnostics, functional materials, micro processing and device. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of the project is to contribute to the development of atomic-scale science and technologies such as functional molecules, biomaterials, and quantum functions of atomic-scale structures. Shigefumi Okada Conference Chair Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Conference photograph Kobe photograph

  9. The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, F.; Mosier, F.L.

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been submitted for contributions to this report.

  10. The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

    1993-10-01

    The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Hitchhiker, and Complex Autonomous Payloads (CAP) programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  11. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  12. Climate Symposium 2014: Findings and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Asrar, Ghassem; Bony, Sandrine; Boucher, Olivier; Busalacchi, Antonio; Cazenave, Anny; Dowell, Mark; Flato, Greg; Hegerl, Gabi; Kallen, Erland; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Ratier, Alain; Saunders, Roger; Slingo, Julia; Sohn, Byung -Ju; Schmetz, Johannes; Stevens, Bjorn; Zhang, Peiqun; Zwiers, Francis

    2015-10-05

    Here, the Climate Symposium 2014, organized by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), with support from the European Commission (EC), European Space Agency (ESA), and other agencies, took place in Darmstadt, Germany, from 13 to 17 October 2014. Around 500 participants from 49 countries attended the event and represented over 200 organizations. Another 500 individuals participated remotely via “live streaming.”

  13. Proceedings of the Third Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains summaries of the papers presented at the Third Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, in Pasadena, California, on 18-21 Jan. 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to present an overview of recent developments in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars and to present future international plans. This symposium is the third in a series of 'Spaceborne Imaging Radar' symposia held at JPL. The first symposium was held in Jan. 1983 and the second in 1986.

  14. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology was held February 14-16, 2001 in San Diego, California, USA. This symposium was jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The symposium featured sixty nine presentations covering a wide variety of technical topics relevant to Terahertz Technology. The presentations can be divided into five broad technology areas: Hot Electron Bolometers, superconductor insulator superconductor (SIS) technology, local oscillator (LO) technology, Antennas and Measurements, and Direct Detectors. The symposium provides scientists, engineers, and researchers working in the terahertz technology and science fields to engineers their work and exchange ideas with colleagues.

  15. Proceedings of the 20th symposium on fracture mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, R.P. ); Gangloff, R.P. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceeding of the ASTM symposium on fracture mechanics. Topics covered include: Analytical fracture mechanics, Environmentally assisted cracking, and Microstructure and micromechanical modeling.

  16. PREFACE: XXXVII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijker, R.; Lerma, S.; Lizcano, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Symposium on Nuclear Physics is an international meeting organized every year since 1978 by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the Mexican Physical Society. The 37th edition was held at the Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc in the state of Morelos, Mexico, from 6-9 January, 2014. The symposium is intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in different areas of nuclear physics (nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, neutrino physics, hadron physics and nuclear reactions among others). Both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists gathered in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. The symposium was organized in plenary sessions with invited talks and a poster session. In this edition the program consisted of 26 invited talks and 19 posters, whose subjects reflected the active areas and interests of the mexican nuclear physics community. The organization encouraged the participation of young scientist as speakers in the plenary sessions. Seven of the 26 invited talks were given by postdoctoral and doctoral students working in different institutions from Mexico, USA and Europe. The proceedings collect a total of 16 manuscripts from the invited speakers.

  17. International research symposium on Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fete, Timothy J; Fete, Mary

    2016-03-01

    The International Research Symposium on Goltz Syndrome was held at Texas Children's Hospital on July 22 and 23, 2013. This unique research, educational, and family-oriented symposium was sponsored by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasias, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital. Goltz syndrome, or Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), is a highly variable X-linked dominant disorder with abnormalities in tissues derived from the ectoderm and mesoderm. Classic clinical features include patchy hypoplastic skin, split hand/foot deformities, and ocular manifestations. FDH is caused by PORCN gene mutations. PORCN is involved in the secretion and signaling of Wnt proteins, which play a role in embryonic tissue development. The purpose of the International Research Symposium on Goltz Syndrome was to review the progress that has been made in recent years in research related to this rare disorder and to explore potential future research directions and treatments. This issue of American Journal of Medical Genetics contains the research findings from the evaluations from multiple subspecialties. There is a recommendation for a new diagnostic guideline to aid clinicians in identifying individuals with Focal Dermal Hypoplasia. A tissue repository has been instituted at Texas Children's Hospital, to aid future researchers in this area. PMID:26834080

  18. What scientists can learn from Plato's Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Conferences and scientific meetings are as old as science itself. The ancient Greeks where (in)famous for organizing so-called symposiums. During a symposium (from Greek, drinking together), attendees followed a program that contained both social and scientific aspects, focused around a certain topic. Whilst drinking and eating, all participants were expected to share their vision on the topic of interest by giving an oral presentation. The goal of these meetings was to arrive at a new common understanding and to come closer to the truth. Plato et al. knew very well how to organize an effective scientific conference, which should make use overthink the way we are organizing present-day conferences. Scientific meetings aim to connect researchers, share research and unravel the truth. The question is now: how do we get this done effectively? Plato knew that discussing science with strangers is difficult and he believed that talking about heavy matter could be done best when combined with social events. What if we try to go back to the times of Plato and model our conferences after the ancient symposiums? We might drop laying on couches and covering ourselves in ivy and flowers. However, a mix of social and scientific events will contribute to achieving the ultimate goal of why scientists go to conferences: to connect, to share and to unravel the truth.

  19. Land Subsidence International Symposium held in Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Third International Symposium on Land Subsidence was held March 18-25, 1984, in Venice, Italy. Sponsors were the Ground-Water Commission of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Italian National Research Council (CNR), the Italian Regions of Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, the Italian Municipalities of Venice, Ravenna, and Modena, the Venice Province, and the European Research Office. Cosponsors included the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE), and the Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID).Organized within the framework of UNESCO's International Hydrological Program, the symposium brought together over 200 international interdisciplinary specialists in the problems of land subsidence due to fluid and mineral withdrawal. Because man's continuing heavy development of groundwater, gas, oil, and minerals is changing the natural regime and thus causing more and more subsiding areas in the world, there had been sufficient new land subsidence occurrence, problems, research, and remedial measures since the 1976 Second International Symposium held in Anaheim, California, to develop a most interesting program of nearly 100 papers from about 30 countries. The program consisted of papers covering case histories of fluid and mineral withdrawal, engineering theory and analysis, karst “sink-hole”-type subsidence, subsidence due to dewatering of organic deposits or due to application of water (hydrocompaction), instrumentation, legal, socioeconomic, and environmental effects of land subsidence, and remedial works.

  20. PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Lars; Botner, Olga; Carlson, Per; Hulth, Per Olof; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics was held at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden during August 19 24, 2004. Invited to the symposium were around 40 globally leading researchers in the field of neutrino physics, both experimental and theoretical. In addition to these participants, some 30 local researchers and graduate students participated in the symposium. The dominant theme of the lectures was neutrino oscillations, which after several years were recently verified by results from the Super-Kamiokande detector in Kamioka, Japan and the SNO detector in Sudbury, Canada. Discussion focused especially on effects of neutrino oscillations derived from the presence of matter and the fact that three different neutrinos exist. Since neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have mass, this is the first experimental observation that fundamentally deviates from the standard model of particle physics. This is a challenge to both theoretical and experimental physics. The various oscillation parameters will be determined with increased precision in new, specially designed experiments. Theoretical physics is working intensively to insert the knowledge that neutrinos have mass into the theoretical models that describe particle physics. It will probably turn out that the discovery of neutrino oscillations signifies a breakthrough in the description of the very smallest constituents of matter. The lectures provided a very good description of the intensive situation in the field right now. The topics discussed also included mass models for neutrinos, neutrinos in extra dimensions as well as the `seesaw mechanism', which provides a good description of why neutrino masses are so small. Also discussed, besides neutrino oscillations, was the new field of neutrino astronomy. Among the questions that neutrino astronomy hopes to answer are what the dark matter in the Universe consists of and where cosmic radiation at extremely high energies comes from. For this purpose, large neutrino

  1. Ozone Depletion Caused by Rocket Engine Emissions: A Fundamental Limit on the Scale and Viability of Space-Based Geoengineering Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. N.; Toohey, D.

    2008-12-01

    Emissions from solid and liquid propellant rocket engines reduce global stratospheric ozone levels. Currently ~ one kiloton of payloads are launched into earth orbit annually by the global space industry. Stratospheric ozone depletion from present day launches is a small fraction of the ~ 4% globally averaged ozone loss caused by halogen gases. Thus rocket engine emissions are currently considered a minor, if poorly understood, contributor to ozone depletion. Proposed space-based geoengineering projects designed to mitigate climate change would require order of magnitude increases in the amount of material launched into earth orbit. The increased launches would result in comparable increases in the global ozone depletion caused by rocket emissions. We estimate global ozone loss caused by three space-based geoengineering proposals to mitigate climate change: (1) mirrors, (2) sunshade, and (3) space-based solar power (SSP). The SSP concept does not directly engineer climate, but is touted as a mitigation strategy in that SSP would reduce CO2 emissions. We show that launching the mirrors or sunshade would cause global ozone loss between 2% and 20%. Ozone loss associated with an economically viable SSP system would be at least 0.4% and possibly as large as 3%. It is not clear which, if any, of these levels of ozone loss would be acceptable under the Montreal Protocol. The large uncertainties are mainly caused by a lack of data or validated models regarding liquid propellant rocket engine emissions. Our results offer four main conclusions. (1) The viability of space-based geoengineering schemes could well be undermined by the relatively large ozone depletion that would be caused by the required rocket launches. (2) Analysis of space- based geoengineering schemes should include the difficult tradeoff between the gain of long-term (~ decades) climate control and the loss of short-term (~ years) deep ozone loss. (3) The trade can be properly evaluated only if our

  2. Laser induced damage in optical materials: 8th ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1977-05-01

    The Eighth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, from 13 to 15 July 1976. The Symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the Office of Naval Research. About 160 scientists attended the Symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Brazil. The Symposium was divided into five half-day sessions concerning Bulk Material Properties and Thermal Behavior, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Film Properties, Thin Film Damage, and Scaling Laws and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the Symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to new materials for use at 10.6 microm in mirror substrates, windo s, and coatings. New techniques in film deposition and advances in diamond-turning of optics were described. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength were discussed. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons of the Symposium. The Ninth Annual Symposium is scheduled for 4-6 October 1977 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado. PMID:20168679

  3. Persuasive Writing and the Student-Run Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, James C.

    2007-01-01

    High school teacher James C. Mayer explains how a student-run symposium can promote "risk-taking and participation" and help students practice effective persuasion skills before demonstrating them in writing. The symposium places students in roles that encourage responsibility and ownership for discussion and learning, shifting the classroom…

  4. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John

    2008-01-01

    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  5. Proceedings of the seventh SPE symposium on formation damage control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on well bore damage. Topics considered at the symposium included perforations, acidizing sandstone formations, sand consolidation, sidewall core analysis, gravel packing, permeability damage due to fines migration, bacterial formation damage, asphaltene precipitation, HCl theories, buffered HF acid systems, brines, drilling fluids, corrosion inhibitors, and gravel pack repair with wireline devices.

  6. STATIONARY COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL: A SUMMARY OF THE 1991 SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1991 Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOX Control was held March 25-28,1991 in Washington, DC. The sixth meeting in a biennial series, the Symposium was cosponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Approxima...

  7. Proceedings of the materials processing symposium. Volume 38

    SciTech Connect

    Metzbower, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on materials working using lasers. Topics considered at the symposium included preionization techniques, beam profiles of carbon dioxide lasers, beam focusing, laser welding, porosity decrease in laser welds of stainless steel, underwater welding, laser surface treatments, and laser hardening of carbon steels.

  8. The fescue toxicosis symposium: introduction to the proceedings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue Toxicosis was a symposium presented at the 2008 joint meetings of the Amercian Forage and Grssland Council and the Society for Range Management in Louisville, Kentucky. The purpose of the symposium was to: 1) provide updated information on toxic and non-toxic endophyte interactions with her...

  9. CPTAC Scientific Symposium Highlights - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The first CPTAC Public Scientific Symposium was recently held on November 13, 2013 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD. The symposium brought together a record number of registrants, 450 scientists, who shared and discussed novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data.

  10. 78 FR 20664 - 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science...) Regulatory Science Symposium. The symposium is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for medical countermeasure development, highlight work on regulatory science as it applies to the...

  11. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  12. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1992 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the 1992 Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Research Symposium held in Washington, DC, August 18-20, 1992. The symposium provided a forum for exchange of technical information on global change emissions and potential mitigation technologies. The primary ...

  13. 78 FR 10180 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference AGENCY... public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose of the conference is to help the broader community align and share experiences to advance computational science....

  14. Finding the Motivation: The Evolution of a Faculty Scholarship Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Meghan J.; Reisboard, Dana; Staulters, Mimi; Li, Xiaobao; Gozza-Cohen, Mary; McHenry, Nadine; Schaming, Susan; Gilio, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of a faculty scholarship symposium within the school of education at a regional comprehensive university. The article outlines the initial structure and goals of the symposium as well as the development of the model over time. The influence of leadership, culture, and individual goals and backgrounds are…

  15. Symposium on the Definition of Death: Summary Statement.

    PubMed

    Moschella, Melissa; Condic, Maureen L

    2016-06-01

    This statement summarizes the conclusions of the Symposium on the Definition of Death, held at The Catholic University of America in June 2014. After providing the background and context for contemporary debates about brain death and describing the aims of the symposium, the statement notes points of unanimous and broad agreement among the participants, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:27102243

  16. The Humanities in the Schools: A Contemporary Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harold, Ed.

    A symposium at the University of Kentucky in 1965 brought together 15 educators and six writers concerned with cultural values in an attempt to develop ideas for improving arts and humanities instruction in the public secondary schools. The papers presented in the symposium comprise this publication. In an introductory essay, Harold Taylor surveys…

  17. 76 FR 17137 - Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium AGENCY... announcing the following meeting: Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium. The topic to be discussed is ``Prescription Drug Use in Pregnancy.'' Date and Time: The meeting will be held on May 17,...

  18. SYMPOSIUM ON PROTECTING THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT: RESEARCH AND REGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The symposium focuses on the essential role of research and regulatory agencies in protecting marine ecosystems. The purpose of the symposium is to commemorate dedication of a new toxicological test facility at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Lab...

  19. Work Motivation. Symposium 33. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 33, Work Motivation, of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "An Attitudinal Examination of the Role of HRD in Voluntary Turnover in Public Service Organizations" (Kenneth R. Bartlett, William R. McKinney) compares public service managers who voluntarily left…

  20. Advances in Distance Learning. Symposium 38. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 38, Advances in Distance Learning, of the Academy of Human Resource Development 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Teaching Strategies in a Synchronous Learning Environment for Adult Students" (Luis A. C. Lima, Kathryn S. Hoff) reports the responses of intact cohort groups enrolled in spring semester 1999…

  1. SYMPOSIUM OVERVIEW: SYMPOSIUM ON APPLICATION OF PHARMACOKINETICS IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A symposium entitled "Application of Pharmacokinetics in Developmental Toxicity Risk Assessments" was held at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) in Miami Beach, Florida. t was sponsored by the Reproductive and Developmental Specialty Section of SOT to addr...

  2. Organizational Change. Symposium 11. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on organizational change. The first paper, "Kaizen Blitz: Rapid Learning to Facilitate Immediate Organizational Improvements" (Robert B. Gudgel, Fred C. Feitler), describes rapid and dramatic improvement in the organizational performance of a manufacturing firm after use of a series of kaizen…

  3. Workforce Diversity. Symposium 14. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 14, Workforce Diversity, of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Cross-Organizational vs. Localized Participation: A Case Study on Workplace Diversity Dialogues Implementation" (Martin B. Kormanik, Daniel A. Krieger, Timothy E. Tilghman) compares dialogue from…

  4. Management Development. Symposium 15. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 15, Management Development, of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Conceptualizing Global Leadership from Multiple Perspectives: An Analysis of Behavioral Ratings" (Allan H. Church) examines the underlying nature of global leadership behavior using…

  5. Identity, Influence, and Politics. Symposium 7. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers on gender identity; power and influence styles in program planning; and white male backlash from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Identification of Power and Influence Styles in Program Planning Practice" (Baiyin Yang), explores the relationship between HRD practitioners using…

  6. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1988 SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY. VOLUME 2. SYMPOSIUM POSTER PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings document the 1988 symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, jointly sponsored by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) and Office of Radiation Programs (ORP), in Denver, CO, October 17-21, 1988. The objective of the sympo...

  7. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1988 SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY--VOLUME 1. SYMPOSIUM ORAL PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings document the 1988 symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, jointly sponsored by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) and Office of Radiation Programs (ORP), in Denver, CO, October 17-21, 1988. The objective of the sympo...

  8. Ethics and Integrity. Symposium 27. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers on ethics and integrity from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Factors Influencing Ethical Resolution Efficacy: A Model for HRD Practitioners" (Kimberly S. McDonald), proposes a model of ethical resolution efficacy for HRD practitioners. The model suggests that factors related to…

  9. Assessing University Programs. Symposium 9. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on evaluating university human resource development (HRD) programs. The first paper, "Where Have All the Young Ones Gone? An Analysis of the Graduates of an Human Resource Development Program" (Douglas H. Smith, Jo D. Gallagher), reports the results of a survey of graduates between 1998 and 1999.…

  10. Designing Effective HRD Programs. Symposium 23. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on designing effective human resource development (HRD) programs that was conducted as part of a conference on HRD. "Leveraging System Factors for Increased Training Effectiveness" (David Ripley) is a conceptual paper that critiques current training design models and the lack of attention to…

  11. HRD and Employee Outcomes. Symposium 42. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) and employee outcomes that was conducted as part of a HRD conference. "The Impact of Participating in Human Resource Development Activities on Individuals' Job Level and Income" (Tim de Jong, Bob Witziers, Martin Mulder) presents the results of a linear…

  12. Motivation for Learning and Performance. Symposium 3. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on motivation for learning and performance that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "A Holistic Approach towards Motivation To Learn" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes) reports on a study that identified the following key variables within and outside the learning…

  13. Workplace Issues. Symposium 5. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on workplace issues that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Maximizing Opportunities for the Aging Workforce through Workplace Design" (Virginia W. Kupritz), reports on the second phase of study of the office design features needed to provide older…

  14. Feedback Systems. Symposium 28. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on feedback systems held at a conference on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "The Role of Feedback in Management Development Training" (K. Peter Kuchinke), reports on a survey-based study that investigated the role of feedback in nine management development training settings in a…

  15. The 2011 Medical Molecular Hydrogen Symposium: An inaugural symposium of the journal Medical Gas Research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes a brief description/history of the Hydrogen Research Meetings as well as key presentations/oral abstracts delivered in the most recent symposium. Additionally, we introduced 38 diseases and physiological states for which hydrogen exhibits beneficial effects. PMID:22146082

  16. Assessing the Learning Organization. Symposium 10. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on assessing the learning organization. The first paper, "Relationship between Learning Organization Strategies and Performance Driver Outcomes" (Elwood F. Holton III, Sandra M. Kaiser), reports on a study of a new learning organization assessment instrument that was administered to 440 employees…

  17. Emotion and Behavior in the Workplace. Symposium 20. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on emotion and behavior in the workplace that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Emotion Work, and Perceptions of Affective Culture in a Military Nonprofit Organization" (Jamie L. Callahan, David R. Schwandt) reports on a study of the emotion work…

  18. New Perspectives in Evaluation. Symposium 6. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on new perspectives in education that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "A Systems Model for Evaluating Learning and Performance" (Hallie Preskill, Darlene Russ-Eft) describes a model for HRD developers to use in evaluating learning and performance that…

  19. Self-Directed and Incidental Learning. Symposium 26. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers on self-directed and incidental learning from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Self-Directed Learning for Supervisory Development" (Judy O'Neil, Maria Lamattina), reports on a study that looks at what research says needs to be in place to engage workers in self-directed learning…

  20. Organizations in Transition. Symposium 41. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on organizations in transition that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Human Resource Development in an Industry in Transition: The Case of the Russian Banking Sector" (Alexander Ardichvili, Alexander Gasparishvili) reports on a study documenting issues…

  1. Change and the Consultant. Symposium 43. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on change and the consultant that was conducted during a conference on human resource development (HRD). "A Theory of Consultancy" (Daniel R. Boroto, Douglas A. Zahn, Darren C. Short) presents an emerging theory of consultancy that is based on an analysis of thousands of videotaped consultations…

  2. Organizational Culture and Climate. Symposium 24. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on organizational culture and climate that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "A Comparative Profile of Workgroup Climate in Different Organizational Settings" (Allan H. Church) reports on a comparative analysis of climate data on more than 5,000 groups…

  3. Developing Employee Competence. Symposium 25. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on developing employee competence. The first paper, "Coaching in Organizations: Self-Assessment of Competence" (Gary N. McLean, Min-Hsun [Christine] Kuo), reports on development and pilot-testing of an instrument to identify the developmental needs of managers and peers to function more…

  4. Organizational Structure and Strategy. Symposium 30. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains four papers on organizational structure and strategy from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Exploring Alignment: A Comparative Case Study of Alignment in Two Organizations" (Steven W. Semler), reports on a case study that compared the results of an alignment measurement instrument with an…

  5. Using Technology for Learning. Symposium 1. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on using technology for learning that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Openness to Technology in Virtual Teams: Implications for International Human Resource Development" (Mary R. Watson, Leigh Anne Liu) reports on a study that examined the attitudes of…

  6. Core Directions in HRD. Symposium 32. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 32, Core Directions in HRD (Human Resource Development), of the Academy of HRD 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Exploring the Convergence of Political and Managerial Cultures in the Dominican Republic: Implications for Management Development and Training" (Max U. Montesino) reports a survey of five work…

  7. Individual Learning Issues. Symposium 44. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on individual learning issues that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Communication in the Workplace: Using Myers-Briggs To Build Communication Effectiveness" (Patrice M. Scanlon, Judy K. Schmitz, Tracey Murray, Lisa M. Hooper) reports on a study of…

  8. Measurements of Unexpected Ozone Loss in a Nighttime Space Shuttle Exhaust Plume: Implications for Geo-Engineering Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avallone, L. M.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Toohey, D. W.; Ross, M. N.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of ozone, carbon dioxide and particulate water were made in the nighttime exhaust plume of the Space Shuttle (STS-116) on 9 December 2006 as part of the PUMA/WAVE campaign (Plume Ultrafast Measurements Acquisition/WB-57F Ascent Video Experiment). The launch took place from Kennedy Space Center at 8:47 pm (local time) on a moonless night and the WB-57F aircraft penetrated the shuttle plume approximately 25 minutes after launch in the lowermost stratosphere. Ozone loss is not predicted to occur in a nighttime Space Shuttle plume since it has long been assumed that the main ozone loss mechanism associated with rocket emissions requires solar photolysis to drive several chlorine-based catalytic cycles. However, the nighttime in situ observations show an unexpected loss of ozone of approximately 250 ppb in the evolving exhaust plume, inconsistent with model predictions. We will present the observations of the shuttle exhaust plume composition and the results of photochemical models of the Space Shuttle plume. We will show that models constrained by known rocket emission kinetics, including afterburning, and reasonable plume dispersion rates, based on the CO2 observations, cannot explain the observed ozone loss. We will propose potential explanations for the lack of agreement between models and the observations, and will discuss the implications of these explanations for our understanding of the composition of rocket emissions. We will describe the potential consequences of the observed ozone loss for long-term damage to the stratospheric ozone layer should geo-engineering projects based on rocket launches be employed.

  9. An intensified hydrological cycle in the simulation of geoengineering by cirrus cloud thinning using ice crystal fall speed changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. S.; Crook, J. A.; Forster, P. M.

    2016-06-01

    Proposals to geoengineer Earth's climate by cirrus cloud thinning (CCT) potentially offer advantages over solar radiation management schemes: amplified cooling of the Arctic and smaller perturbations to global mean precipitation in particular. Using an idealized climate model implementation of CCT in which ice particle fall speeds were increased 2×, 4×, and 8× we examine the relationships between effective radiative forcing (ERF) at the top of atmosphere, near-surface temperature, and the response of the hydrological cycle. ERF was nonlinear with fall speed change and driven by the trade-off between opposing positive shortwave and negative longwave radiative forcings. ERF was -2.0 Wm-2 for both 4× and 8× fall speeds. Global mean temperature decreased linearly with ERF, while Arctic temperature reductions were amplified compared with the global mean change. The change in global mean precipitation involved a rapid adjustment (~ 1%/Wm2), which was linear with the change in the net atmospheric energy balance, and a feedback response (~2%/°C). Global mean precipitation and evaporation increased strongly in the first year of CCT. Intensification of the hydrological cycle was promoted by intensification of the vertical overturning circulation of the atmosphere, changes in boundary layer climate favorable for evaporation, and increased energy available at the surface for evaporation (from increased net shortwave radiation and reduced subsurface storage of heat). Such intensification of the hydrological cycle is a significant side effect to the cooling of climate by CCT. Any accompanying negative cirrus cloud feedback response would implicitly increase the costs and complexity of CCT deployment.

  10. Annual symposium on Frontiers in Science

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, N.; Fulton, K.R.

    1998-12-31

    This final report summarizes activities conducted for the National Academy of Sciences' Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Science with support from the US Department of Energy for the period July 1, 1993 through May 31, 1998. During the report period, five Frontiers of Science symposia were held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. For each Symposium, an organizing committee appointed by the NAS President selected and planned the eight sessions for the Symposium and identified general participants for invitation by the NAS President. These Symposia accomplished their goal of bringing together outstanding younger (age 45 or less) scientists to hear presentations in disciplines outside their own and to discuss exciting advances and opportunities in their fields in a format that encourages, and allows adequate time for, informal one-on-one discussions among participants. Of the 458 younger scientists who participated, over a quarter (124) were women. Participant lists for all symposia (1993--1997) are attached. The scientific participants were leaders in basic research from academic, industrial, and federal laboratories in such disciplines as astronomy, astrophysics, atmospheric science, biochemistry, cell biology, chemistry, computer science, earth sciences, engineering, genetics, material sciences, mathematics, microbiology, neuroscience, physics, and physiology. For each symposia, the 24 speakers and discussants on the program were urged to focus their presentations on current cutting-edge research in their field for a scientifically sophisticated but non-specialist audience, and to provide a sense of the experimental data--what is actually measured and seen in the various fields. They were also asked to address questions such as: What are the major research problems and unique tools in their field? What are the current limitations on advances as well as the frontiers? Speakers were asked to provide a 2500- to

  11. First Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Proceedings of the Symposium on Aviation Psychology (Columbus, Ohio, April 21 and 22, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, R. S.

    This volume contains five complete manuscripts and two abstracts presented, and three papers submitted but not presented, at this symposium on aviation psychology. The objective of the symposium was to critically examine the impact of high technology on the role, responsibility, authority, and performance of human operators in modern aircraft and…

  12. Proceedings of the Lunar Materials Technology Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The meeting was organized around a possible lunar outpost scenario, featuring industrial technologies, systems, and components applicable to the extraction, processing, and fabrication of local materials. Acknowledged space resources experts as well as investigators from outside the field whose knowledge could be applied to space development activities were brought together. Presentations came from a variety of specialists in fields such as minerals processing, environmental control, and communications. The sessions of the symposium were divided into the following areas: resource characterization, energy management, materials processing, environment control, and automation and communications.

  13. PREFACE: 10th International LISA Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciani, Giacomo; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-05-01

    The LISA Symposia have become a mainstay of the gravitational wave community. Held every two years, they are the prime opportunity for our community to discuss the exciting science, technology, mission designs, and progress of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. The 8th LISA symposium, held at Stanford University in the summer of 2010 was the largest symposium so far and was dominated by progress and hopes that the LISA mission will soon excel following the expected launch of the LISA pathfinder (LPF), no later than 2012, and the expected prioritization by the Decadal survey which was released 6 weeks later. The following years were challenging. Although the Decadal survey ranked LISA very high, NASA's budget issues, mostly due to the cost increase of the James Webb Space Telescope, and continued delays in LPF put too much stress on the LISA project and it officially ended in 2011. The LISA International Science Team (LIST), the core group of LISA scientists and technologists, was dissolved and the community in the U.S. was struggling to maintain cohesion. In the wake of these events, ESA started a new selection process for their next three large missions, L1, L2, and L3, and the European LISA team developed the New Gravitational wave Observatory (NGO), an evolved LISA concept, as an ESA only L1 candidate. A few weeks before the 9th LISA Symposium, held in Paris in May 2012, ESA announced its decision to select JUICE, a planetary mission to Jupiter and its moons, as its next large science mission (L1). Despite having the highest ranked science case, NGO was not selected due to further delays in LPF and the general feeling outside the GW community that the technology is perhaps too challenging to be pulled off in time for the L1 launch in 2022. Many U.S. members of the LISA community cancelled their travel plans and the mood at that symposium ranged from resignation to defiance. Hope for a somewhat timely launch of a LISA-like mission rested upon L2, the next

  14. 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, on May 7-9, 1986, is documented herein. During the 3 days, 23 technical papers were presented by experts from the United States and Western Europe. A panel discussion by an International group of experts on future directions In mechanisms was also presented; this discussion, however, is not documented herein. The technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, thermal/mechanical/hydraulic actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and computerized mechanisms synthesis.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Symposium on Aeropropulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Recognizing the considerable advances that have been made in computational fluid dynamics, the Internal Fluid Mechanics Division of NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored this symposium with the objective of providing a forum for exchanging information regarding recent developments in numerical methods, physical and chemical modeling, and applications. This conference publication is a compilation of 4 invited and 34 contributed papers presented in six sessions: algorithms one and two, turbomachinery, turbulence, components application, and combustors. Topics include numerical methods, grid generation, chemically reacting flows, turbulence modeling, inlets, nozzles, and unsteady flows.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics symposium on aeropropulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Recognizing the considerable advances that have been made in computational fluid dynamics, the Internal Fluid Mechanics Division of NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored this symposium with the objective of providing a forum for exchanging information regarding recent developments in numerical methods, physical and chemical modeling, and applications. This conference publication is a compilation of 4 invited and 34 contributed papers presented in six sessions: algorithms one and two, turbomachinery, turbulence, components application, and combustors. Topics include numerical methods, grid generation, chemically reacting flows, turbulence modeling, inlets, nozzles, and unsteady flows.

  17. Proceedings: Tenth international ash use symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the 1993 International Coal Ash Use Symposium, the tenth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash technology. these symposia support the mission of the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) to promote coal ash use in a variety of markets through technology transfer and commercialization. the 82 papers were submitted to ACAA by authors from sixteen countries. this volume 1 contains reports on the following: waste stabilization, aggregate, agriculture, structural fill, mine reclamation, aquatic uses, and environmental concerns. individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. Proceedings: Ninth international ash use symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the 1991 International Coal Ash Use Symposium, the ninth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash technology. The three-volume publication contains 80 papers, presented at seventeen sessions during the January 1991 event. Volume 1 contains papers related to concrete and related products like cellular concrete, and aggregates. This volume before (Volume 2) covers the growing market in waste stabilization/solidification and aquatic uses. Volume 3 brings together papers on a variety of high-volume uses, and R D projects. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases.

  19. XXIVth International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Lattice 2006, the XXIV International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory, was held from July 23-28, 2006 at the Starr Pass Hotel near Tucson, Arizona, USA, hosted by the University of Arizona Physics Department. The scientific program contained 25 plenary session talks and 193 parallel session contributions (talks and posters). Topics in lattice QCD included: hadron spectroscopy; hadronic interactions and structure; algorithms, machines, and networks; chiral symmetry; QCD confinement and topology; quark masses, gauge couplings, and renormalization; electroweak decays and mixing; high temperature and density; and theoretical developments. Topics beyond QCD included large Nc, Higgs, SUSY, gravity, and strings.

  20. Scientific Respiratory Symposium, Paris June 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dalglish, Gavin; Priestley, Graham

    2011-01-01

    At a 2010 Respiratory Symposium in Paris, chaired by Professors Bousquet and Roche of the University of Paris, recent trends in research, therapy and treatment guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were reviewed and discussed by a faculty of expert European and US respiratory physicians. This article reviews five key clinical presentations with particular emphasis given to the importance of small airways in the pathology and treatment of asthma and COPD. Further analysis of the economics of treatment in Europe and the US shows a wide variance in direct and indirect costs. PMID:21792320

  1. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  2. Proceedings: Tenth international ash use symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the 1993 International Coal Ash Use Symposium, the tenth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash technology. These symposia support the mission of the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) to promote coal ash use in a variety of markets through technology transfer and commercialization. The two-volume publication contains 82 papers arranged in fourteen sections which include: waste solidification and stabilization; aggregate; agriculture; structural fill; mine reclamation; aquatic uses; environmental considerations; concrete and flowable fill; base stabilization; clean coal by-products; international and regional perspectives; research and development; fillers in plastic and aluminum; and manufactured products--marketable gypsum, masonry blocks, cast in-situ and precast houses, bricks, mineral wool fibers and ready-mixed concrete. The 82 papers were submitted to ACAA by authors from sixteen countries including. The symposium, with 45 percent of the papers from locations outside the USA, represents a truly international interest in the development of uses for coal ash. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  3. Laser-induced damage in optical materials: sixteenth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Guenther, A H; Milam, D; Newnam, B E

    1987-03-01

    The Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, CO, 15-17 Oct. 1984. The Symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Approximately 180 scientists attended the Symposium, including representatives from England, France, The Netherlands, Scotland, and West Germany. The Symposium was divided into sessions concerning Materials and Measurements, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Films, and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the Symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high-power apparatus. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6,microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin-film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. Harold E. Bennett of the U.S. Naval Weapons Center, Arthur H. Guenther of the U.S. Air Force Weapons Laboratory, David Milam of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos National Laboratory were cochairmen of the Symposium. PMID:20454228

  4. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  5. International Symposium on Technology Management: Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming

    2007-12-01

    This symposium provides a forum for scientists and researchers from academia and industry to exchange knowledge, ideas and results in computational aspects of social and management science. This symposium will cover theory and practice of computational methods, models and empirical analysis for decision making and forecasting in economics, finance, management, transportation, and related aspects of information and system engineering. Welcome to this interdisciplinary symposium in International Conference of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering (ICCMSE 2007). Look forward to seeing you in Corfu, Greece!

  6. The Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) Science Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E. (Editor); Hunter, Stanley D. (Editor); Sreekumar, Parameswaran (Editor); Stecker, Floyd W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The principle purpose of this symposium is to provide the EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope) scientists with an opportunity to study and improve their understanding of high energy gamma ray astronomy. The Symposium began with the galactic diffusion radiation both because of its importance in studying galactic cosmic rays, galactic structure, and dynamic balance, and because an understanding of its characteristics is important in the study of galactic sources. The galactic objects to be reviewed included pulsars, bursts, solar flares, and other galactic sources of several types. The symposium papers then proceeded outward from the Milky Way to normal galaxies, active galaxies, and the extragalactic diffuse radiation.

  7. CPTAC Scientific Symposium - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    On behalf of the National Cancer Institute and the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, you are invited to the First Annual CPTAC Scientific Symposium on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. The purpose of this symposium, which consists of plenary and poster sessions, is for investigators from CPTAC community and beyond to share and discuss novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data. All scientists who use, or wish to use CPTAC data are welcome to participate at this free event. The symposium will be held at the Natcher Conference Facility on the main campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

  8. International biosecurity symposium : securing high consequence pathogens and toxins : symposium summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation Policy sponsored an international biosecurity symposium at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The event, entitled 'Securing High Consequence Pathogens and Toxins', took place from February 1 to February 6, 2004 and was hosted by Dr. Reynolds M. Salerno, Principal Member of the Technical Staff and Program Manager of the Biosecurity program at Sandia. Over 60 bioscience and policy experts from 14 countries gathered to discuss biosecurity, a strategy aimed at preventing the theft and sabotage of dangerous pathogens and toxins from bioscience facilities. Presentations delivered during the symposium were interspersed with targeted discussions that elucidated, among other things, the need for subsequent regional workshops on biosecurity, and a desire for additional work toward developing international biosecurity guidelines.

  9. CP-1 70th Anniversary Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    Len Koch; Harold Agnew

    2013-06-05

    Dr. Harold Agnew, retired director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one of 49 people present on December 2, 1942 when the world?s first man-made controlled nuclear chain reaction was achieved with the CP-1 reactor, and Dr. Len Koch, one of Argonne?s earliest staff members and a designer of EBR-I, the first liquid metal-cooled fast reactor, spoke about their early work during ?The Dawn of the Nuclear Age?, a Director?s Special Symposium held as one of the events to commemorate the 70th anniversary year of CP-1 achieving criticality. The symposium was moderated by Dr. Charles Till, a retired Argonne associate laboratory director who led Argonne?s nuclear engineering programs throughout the 1980?s and ?90?s. Dr. Agnew painted a vivid picture of the challenges and rewards of working in Enrico Fermi?s group under strict security conditions and the complete faith all in the group had in Fermi?s analyses. He stated that no one ever doubted that CP-1 would achieve criticality, and when the moment came, those present acknowledged the accomplishment with little more than a subdued toast of chianti from a bottle provided by reactor physicist Eugene Wigner. This experimental work on nuclear reactors was continued in the Chicago area and led first by Fermi and then Walter Zinn, another member of Fermi?s CP-1 group, resulting in the formal establishment of Argonne National Laboratory on July 1, 1946. Dr. Koch described how much he enjoyed working at Argonne through the 1950?s and ?60?s and contributing to many of the research ?firsts? that Argonne achieved in the nuclear energy field and led to the foundation of the commercial nuclear power generation industry. His reminiscences about all that was achieved with EBR-I and how that work then led into Argonne?s design, building, and operation of EBR-II as a full demonstration of a fast reactor power plant brought Argonne?s nuclear energy legacy to life for everyone in the auditorium. These engaging presentations prompted a

  10. CP-1 70th Anniversary Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Len Koch; Harold Agnew

    2012-07-11

    Dr. Harold Agnew, retired director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one of 49 people present on December 2, 1942 when the world’s first man-made controlled nuclear chain reaction was achieved with the CP-1 reactor, and Dr. Len Koch, one of Argonne’s earliest staff members and a designer of EBR-I, the first liquid metal-cooled fast reactor, spoke about their early work during “The Dawn of the Nuclear Age”, a Director’s Special Symposium held as one of the events to commemorate the 70th anniversary year of CP-1 achieving criticality. The symposium was moderated by Dr. Charles Till, a retired Argonne associate laboratory director who led Argonne’s nuclear engineering programs throughout the 1980’s and ‘90’s. Dr. Agnew painted a vivid picture of the challenges and rewards of working in Enrico Fermi’s group under strict security conditions and the complete faith all in the group had in Fermi’s analyses. He stated that no one ever doubted that CP-1 would achieve criticality, and when the moment came, those present acknowledged the accomplishment with little more than a subdued toast of chianti from a bottle provided by reactor physicist Eugene Wigner. This experimental work on nuclear reactors was continued in the Chicago area and led first by Fermi and then Walter Zinn, another member of Fermi’s CP-1 group, resulting in the formal establishment of Argonne National Laboratory on July 1, 1946. Dr. Koch described how much he enjoyed working at Argonne through the 1950’s and ‘60’s and contributing to many of the research “firsts” that Argonne achieved in the nuclear energy field and led to the foundation of the commercial nuclear power generation industry. His reminiscences about all that was achieved with EBR-I and how that work then led into Argonne’s design, building, and operation of EBR-II as a full demonstration of a fast reactor power plant brought Argonne’s nuclear energy legacy to life for everyone in the auditorium. These

  11. Silting up and development of anoxic conditions enhanced by high abundance of the geoengineer species Ophiothrix fragilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, A.; Méar, Y.; Poizot, E.; Dauvin, J. C.; Beryouni, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the English Channel, the brittle-star Ophiothrix fragilis is a common epifaunal species typically found on pebbles in habitats with strong tidal currents. This species forms dense aggregations on the seafloor, supporting populations that can reach up to 7500 ind m-2 in the eastern part of the Baie de Seine, offshore from Antifer harbour. Here, O. fragilis occurs in an area with unexpected amounts of fine-grained sediment. Some of these mud deposits are made up of unusually compact black muds, an indication of the development of anoxic conditions in surficial sediments. To highlight a potential link between silting up and dense O. fragilis populations, and identify the interactions between environmental conditions and the population dynamics of this species, we analyse the data from three surveys corresponding to exceptional situations: (1) just after a Seine flood; (2) just after a storm and (3) after a period of ten months without any flood or storm. Four parameters are taken into account: number of brittle stars per 0.25 m2, Fine Fraction percentage, Total Organic Carbon and Total Sulphur. The main environmental forcings appear to be Seine river inflow, regional circulation dependent on tidal currents and the occurrence of storms. O. fragilis is able to geoengineer its environment in various ways and at different rates. Silting up is enhanced by increasing abundance of O. fragilis and takes place at a very fast rate. As a result, floods and storms reflecting instantaneous events give rise to a steady-state situation established between the abundance of this species and the fine fraction percentage. Anoxic conditions are dependent on the degradation of organic matter and require more time to be established. After many months in the absence of any disturbing events, anoxic conditions are developed in non-compacted muddy sediments (stability situation) and represent the normal surficial situation when the sediment becomes compacted (compact black muds). The

  12. Links Between the Oxidation of Glyoxal and Sulfur Dioxide, the Production of Brown Carbon, and Geoengineering Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haan, D. O.; Sueme, W. R.; Rynaski, A.; Torkelson, A.; Czer, E. T.

    2012-12-01

    A correlation between oxalic acid and sulfate in atmospheric aerosol was reported by J. Z. Yu et al. in 2005. It was suggested that this correlation could be explained by the dominance of in-cloud oxidation pathways forming both species from their major precursors, SO2 and glyoxal. The chemistry of these two precursors is linked via the rapid, reversible formation of an adduct molecule reported by Olson and Hoffmann in 1988. We show that at pH > 4, the oxidation of solutions containing both sulfite ions and glyoxal generates a series of redox-active quinones that absorb visible light. Using LCMS in negative ion mode, we quantify the formation of the colored compounds tetrahydroquinone, rhodizonic acid, and croconic acid (CrA) in glyoxal + bisulfite aqueous reaction mixtures as a function of pH. Of these three compounds, CrA would be expected to have the longest lifetime in the atmosphere. Ultimately, the same oxidation products are formed as when SO2 and glyoxal are oxidized separately (e.g. sulfate, oxalate, malonic acid). There are no other reported colored compounds in the oxidation series after CrA. However, comparisons between LCMS and UV-Vis absorbance measurements indicate that even after the three known colored compounds have oxidized, glyoxal / bisulfite reaction samples remain yellow for many days. This suggests the production of additional, unknown compounds that absorb visible light. These experiments show that the linked oxidation of glyoxal and SO2 in clouds and aqueous aerosol is capable of producing brown carbon. This process has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of proposed geoengineering schemes where SO2 would be intentionally added to the atmosphere in order to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo through sulfate aerosol formation. The presence of glyoxal in the atmosphere (produced from the oxidation of biogenic gases) could partially cancel the desired cooling effect due to the unintended production of brown carbon

  13. FAA/NASA En Route Noise Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft community noise annoyance is traditionally a concern only in localities near airports. The proposed introduction of large commercial airplanes with advanced turboprop propulsion systems with supersonic propellers has given rise to concerns of noise annoyance in areas previously considered not to be impacted by aircraft noise. A symposium was held to assess the current knowledge of factors important to the impact of en route noise and to aid in the formulation of FAA and NASA programs in the area. Papers were invited on human response to aircraft noise in areas with low ambient noise levels, aircraft noise heard indoors and outdoors, aircraft noise in recreational areas, detection of propeller and jet aircraft noise, and methodological issues relevant to the design of future studies.

  14. PREFACE: XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof; Fossion, Ruben; Lizcano, David

    2010-04-01

    The attached PDF gives a full listing of contributors and organisation members. In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the "XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics", that was held from January 5-8, 2010 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings contain the plenary talks that were presented during the conference. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters, were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. After the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium was organized every year without interruption which makes the present one the 33rd in a row. This year's meeting was dedicated to the memory of Marcos Moshinsky, who passed away on April 1, 2009. Dr. Moshinsky was the most distinguished pioneer and promoter of nuclear physics in Mexico and Latin America and holds the record of 31 (out of 32) participations at the Symposium. In the inaugural session, Alejandro Frank (ICN-UNAM), Peter Hess (ICN-UNAM) and Jorge Flores (IF-UNAM) spoke in his honor and recalled the virtues that characterized him as a teacher, scientist, founder of schools and academic institutions, colleague and friend. His generosity, excellence and honesty were emphasized as the personal qualities that characterized both his personal and academic life. moshinksky_photo "Marcos Moshinsky (1921-2009)" The scientific program consisted of 26 invited talks and 20 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear

  15. INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM IN ARCTIC EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Symposium on the Ecological Effects of Arctic Airborne Contaminants was structured to bring together researchers from throughout the world, particularly from the eight arctic countries, to share their ideas on the known and potential ecological effects of airbor...

  16. Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Purvish M.; Raja, T.; Mula-Hussain, L.; Baral, R. P.; Ingle, P.; Narayanan, P.; Tsikai, N.; Baki, M. O.; Satyapal, N.; Adusei, K. O.; Popoola, A.; Musibi, A.; Nyaim, E.; Tsomo, U.; Opio, C.; Jamshed, A.; Reddy, P.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

  17. Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Purvish M; Raja, T; Mula-Hussain, L; Baral, R P; Ingle, P; Narayanan, P; Tsikai, N; Baki, M O; Satyapal, N; Adusei, K O; Popoola, A; Musibi, A; Nyaim, E; Tsomo, U; Opio, C; Jamshed, A; Reddy, P

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

  18. Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    The agenda book for the Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium contains abstracts of the 16 presentations as well as information on the program, bios of the speakers, contact information for all attendees, and background on the activity.

  19. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy (SAS-83): abstracts and program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Abstracts of papers given at the symposium are presented. Session topics include: Rydbergs, optical radiators, and planetary atoms; highly ionized atoms; ultraviolet radiation; theory, ion traps, and laser cooling; beam foil; and astronomy. (GHT)

  20. The 1992 4th NASA SERC Symposium on VLSI Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.

    1992-01-01

    Papers from the fourth annual NASA Symposium on VLSI Design, co-sponsored by the IEEE, are presented. Each year this symposium is organized by the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at the University of Idaho and is held in conjunction with a quarterly meeting of the NASA Data System Technology Working Group (DSTWG). One task of the DSTWG is to develop new electronic technologies that will meet next generation electronic data system needs. The symposium provides insights into developments in VLSI and digital systems which can be used to increase data systems performance. The NASA SERC is proud to offer, at its fourth symposium on VLSI design, presentations by an outstanding set of individuals from national laboratories, the electronics industry, and universities. These speakers share insights into next generation advances that will serve as a basis for future VLSI design.